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1

Predicting Mean Monthly Lake Water Level Using Support Vector Machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment on predicting mean monthly lake water level up to 12 month ahead using a recently evolved neural network topology namely support vector machine (SVM) is presented. The support vector machine is firmly based on the theory of statistical learning, which implements a structural risk minimization principle that minimizes the mean square error and an upper bound on the expected risk, as opposed to empirical risk minimization that minimizes the error on the training data only. This has made the support vector training algorithm robust compared to conventional neural network models. The modeling experiment is conducted using historical records of Lake Erie mean monthly water level of 1918 to 2001. The performance of the SVM model is compared with a widely used neural network model called multilayer perceptron (MLP) and with a conventional multiplicative seasonal autoregressive model (SAR) based on correlation coefficients and root mean squared errors performance criteria. Since the ultimate goal concerns the improvement of long-term forecast accuracy, overall, the prediction results show that the proposed method is effective for improving prediction accuracy compared to the MLP and SAR models up to 12 month lead time.

Khan, M.; Coulibaly, P.

2004-05-01

2

Artificial Neural Network Model Application on Long Term Water Level Predictions of South Florida Coastal Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing the number and quality of water level data is very important to the hurricane and surge research. Long-term water level data of local stations in estuaries and inland waterway can be used to validate the performance of traditional storm surge models in complex coastal environments. However, field data collections are expensive and often limited by available research budget. Only

Sudong Xu; Wenrui Huang

2010-01-01

3

Predicting Atrazine Levels in Water Utility Intake Water for MCL Compliance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To protect human health, atrazine concentrations in drinking water must not exceed its maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 3 ug/L. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) mandates that municipal water providers sample quarterly to determine MCL compliance. Atrazine levels were mon...

4

Predicted impacts of future water level decline on monitoring wells using a ground-water model of the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

A ground-water flow model was used to predict water level decline in selected wells in the operating areas (100, 200, 300, and 400 Areas) and the 600 Area. To predict future water levels, the unconfined aquifer system was stimulated with the two-dimensional version of a ground-water model of the Hanford Site, which is based on the Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) Code in conjunction with the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software package. The model was developed using the assumption that artificial recharge to the unconfined aquifer system from Site operations was much greater than any natural recharge from precipitation or from the basalt aquifers below. However, artificial recharge is presently decreasing and projected to decrease even more in the future. Wells currently used for monitoring at the Hanford Site are beginning to go dry or are difficult to sample, and as the water table declines over the next 5 to 10 years, a larger number of wells is expected to be impacted. The water levels predicted by the ground-water model were compared with monitoring well completion intervals to determine which wells will become dry in the future. Predictions of wells that will go dry within the next 5 years have less uncertainty than predictions for wells that will become dry within 5 to 10 years. Each prediction is an estimate based on assumed future Hanford Site operating conditions and model assumptions.

Wurstner, S.K.; Freshley, M.D.

1994-12-01

5

Combination of Tank Model and Reservoir Routing for predicting water level at Wonogiri Dam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water level predicting model is one of model to support the reservoir operation. This paper, discusses the results of research on the use of tank model combined with reservoir routing to predict the water level of Wonogiri Dam. Tank model was constructed consisting of 2 tank model structured the series, parallel, and parallel-series and 3 models composed tank series and parallel. The objective of this modeling is to obtain the values of tank model parameters are calibrated with measurement data to predict the reservoir water level. Water level measurement at Wonogiri Dam is only done in spillway location and no water level measurement in the cross-section of the rivers before entering the reservoir. Therefore, combining equations of tanks model and reservoir routing is needed so that the hydrograph outflow generated by the tank model become an input of the routing reservoir and will produce an output of the reservoir water level. The data used in this modeling is the daily rainfall data, climatology, elevation-storage curve, daily average water level in reservoir and daily average discharge outflow from reservoir. Genetic Algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of the model to generate predictions of water level close to the measurement during the calibration process. The results of the model are evaluated by calculating the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Coefficient of Efficiency (COE) between the predictions and observations. Calibration results obtained that the best model is the model of the architecture comprises a series of 3 tanks and the parameters k1 = 8,340, k2 = 1.006, k3 = 0.158, k4 = 2.275, k5 = 3.887, k6 = 0.063, d1 = 176.387, d2 = 81.445, d3 = 21.973, s1 = 46.631, s2 = 7.095 , s3 = 5.708, which generate RMSE = 1.260 m and COE = 0.669. While the verification, is obtained the RMSE = 0.878 m and COE = 0.599. The parameter of k4 is the most sensitive parameter that will affect to the performance of the model. Keywords: tank model, reservoir routing, water level predicting, Wonogiri Dam

Lasminto, Umboro; Yudhistira, Yuddi

2010-05-01

6

Prediction of water seepage into a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

Predicting the amount of water that may seep into waste emplacement drifts is important for assessing the performance of the proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The repository would be located in thick, partially saturated fractured tuff that will be heated to above-boiling temperatures as a result of heat generation from the decay of nuclear waste. Since infiltrating water will be subject to vigorous boiling for a significant time period, the superheated rock zone (i.e., rock temperature above the boiling point of water) can form an effective vaporization barrier that reduces the possibility of water arrival at emplacement drifts. In this paper, we analyze the behavior of episodic preferential flow events that penetrate the hot fractured rock, evaluate the impact of such flow behavior on the effectiveness of the vaporization barrier, and discuss the implications for the performance assessment of the repository. A semi-analytical solution is utilized to determine the complex flow processes in the hot rock environment. The solution is applied at several discrete times after emplacement, covering the time period of strongly elevated temperatures at Yucca Mountain.

Birkholzer, Jens; Mukhophadhyay, Sumit; Tsang, Yvonne

2003-07-07

7

Interpretation of changes in water level accompanying fault creep and implications for earthquake prediction.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantitative calculations for the effect of a fault creep event on observations of changes in water level in wells provide an approach to the tectonic interpretation of these phenomena. For the pore pressure field associated with an idealized creep event having an exponential displacement versus time curve, an analytic expression has been obtained in terms of exponential-integral functions. The pore pressure versus time curves for observation points near the fault are pulselike; a sharp pressure increase (or decrease, depending on the direction of propagation) is followed by more gradual decay to the normal level after the creep event. The time function of the water level change may be obtained by applying the filter - derived by A.G.Johnson and others to determine the influence of atmospheric pressure on water level - to the analytic pore pressure versus time curves. The resulting water level curves show a fairly rapid increase (or decrease) and then a very gradual return to normal. The results of this analytic model do not reproduce the steplike changes in water level observed by Johnson and others. If the procedure used to obtain the water level from the pore pressure is correct, these results suggest that steplike changes in water level are not produced by smoothly propagating creep events but by creep events that propagate discontinuously, by changes in the bulk properties of the region around the well, or by some other mechanism.-Author

Wesson, R.L.

1981-01-01

8

Construction and use of special drawdown scales for use in prediction of water-level changes throughout heavily pumped areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Problem and Proposed Method of Solution Frequently the Theis nonequilibrium formula is use din the quantitative analyses that are part of many-ground-water investigations. The computations associated therewith may become quite involved and tedious, especially when dealing with predictions of the decline of water levels throughout large areas in which there are many discharging wells. The process of predicting future water-level declines can be greatly simplified and shortened by preparing a special draw-down scale for given conditions. Through use of such a scale much of the computation can be reduced to scaling the values sought from a map, on which the pumped wells have been spotted. The net drawdown effect, which is the sum of the water-level declines caused by the many individual pumped wells, can be determined readily for any desired point in the area. If the net drawdown effect is desired, a summation of the effects of all the pumped wells can be repeated for each point. By determining the water-level change at a number of points, for a given period of time, a contour map of predicted water-level changes for the multiple-well system can be drawn.

Conover, C.S.; Reeder, H.O.

1957-01-01

9

How historical information can improve extreme coastal water levels probability prediction: application to the Xynthia event at La Rochelle (France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The knowledge of extreme coastal water levels is useful for coastal flooding studies or the design of coastal defences. While deriving such extremes with standard analyses using tide gauge measurements, one often needs to deal with limited effective duration of observation which can result in large statistical uncertainties. This is even truer when one faces the issue of outliers, those particularly extreme values distant from the others which increase the uncertainty on the results. In this study, we investigate how historical information, even partial, of past events reported in archives can reduce statistical uncertainties and relativize such outlying observations. A Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method is developed to tackle this issue. We apply this method to the site of La Rochelle (France), where the storm Xynthia in 2010 generated a water level considered so far as an outlier. Based on 30 years of tide gauge measurements and 8 historical events, the analysis shows that: (1) integrating historical information in the analysis greatly reduces statistical uncertainties on return levels (2) Xynthia's water level no longer appears as an outlier, (3) we could have reasonably predicted the annual exceedance probability of that level beforehand (predictive probability for 2010 based on data till end of 2009 of the same order of magnitude as the standard estimative probability using data till end of 2010). Such results illustrate the usefulness of historical information in extreme value analyses of coastal water levels, as well as the relevance of the proposed method to integrate heterogeneous data in such analyses.

Bulteau, T.; Idier, D.; Lambert, J.; Garcin, M.

2014-11-01

10

Digital-model analysis to predict water levels in a well field near Columbus, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Columbus, Indiana, obtains its water supply from six municipally owned wells southwest of the city. The wells are screened in an outwash sand and gravel aquifer that was deposited by glacial melt water in a preglacial bedrock valley. The well field is midway between the East Fork White River and the western edge of the valley. A digital model was used to determine the effects of two pumping plans on the outwash sand and gravel aquifer. In pumping plan 1, a continuous pumping rate of 1,400 gallons per minute (gpm) for 10 years in each of the city 's six existing wells was simulated with the model. Model results of plan 1 indicate that the water levels in the area of the well field would be lowered more than 20 ft and that drawdowns in the wells would approach 35 ft after 10 years ' pumping. Pumping plan 2 had two stages of pumping. In the first, a continuous pumping rate of 1,400 gpm for 5 years in each of the city 's six existing wells was simulated with the model; the second stage of pumping plan 2 differed from stage 1 only in that five planned wells were added to the six existing wells. Model results of plan 2 indicate that water levels in the area of the well field would be lowered as much as 40 feet. Drawdown at two of the well sites would approach 60 ft, leaving less than 15 ft of the initial 70 ft of saturated thickness at the two wells after 10 years ' pumping. (Woodard-USGS)

Planert, Michael

1976-01-01

11

Alternative configurations of quantile regression for estimating predictive uncertainty in water level forecasts for the upper Severn River: a comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study comprises an intercomparison of different configurations of a statistical post-processor that is used to estimate predictive hydrological uncertainty. It builds on earlier work by Weerts, Winsemius and Verkade (2011; hereafter referred to as WWV2011), who used the quantile regression technique to estimate predictive hydrological uncertainty using a deterministic water level forecast as a predictor. The various configurations are designed to address two issues with the WWV2011 implementation: (i) quantile crossing, which causes non-strictly rising cumulative predictive distributions, and (ii) the use of linear quantile models to describe joint distributions that may not be strictly linear. Thus, four configurations were built: (i) a ''classical" quantile regression, (ii) a configuration that implements a non-crossing quantile technique, (iii) a configuration where quantile models are built in normal space after application of the normal quantile transformation (NQT) (similar to the implementation used by WWV2011), and (iv) a configuration that builds quantile model separately on separate domains of the predictor. Using each configuration, four reforecasting series of water levels at 14 stations in the upper Severn River were established. The quality of these four series was intercompared using a set of graphical and numerical verification metrics. Intercomparison showed that reliability and sharpness vary across configurations, but in none of the configurations do these two forecast quality aspects improve simultaneously. Further analysis shows that skills in terms of the Brier skill score, mean continuous ranked probability skill score and relative operating characteristic score is very similar across the four configurations.

López López, P.; Verkade, J. S.; Weerts, A. H.; Solomatine, D. P.

2014-09-01

12

Predicting Ground Water Flow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students learn how to draw ground water contours and understand how ground water flow may be predicted. As they complete this activity students will be able to draw a ground water contour map, have a basic understanding of how to predict the direction of ground water flow and understand the interrelated nature of ground water and surface water flow. They will also learn the difference between a gaining stream and a losing stream and why it is important to know the difference.

13

Improved sea level anomaly prediction through combination of data relationship analysis and genetic programming in Singapore Regional Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With recent advances in measurement and information technology, there is an abundance of data available for analysis and modelling of hydrodynamic systems. Spatial and temporal data coverage, better quality and reliability of data modelling and data driven techniques have resulted in more favourable acceptance by the hydrodynamic community. The data mining tools and techniques are being applied in variety of hydro-informatics applications ranging from data mining for pattern discovery to data driven models and numerical model error correction. The present study explores the feasibility of applying mutual information theory by evaluating the amount of information contained in observed and prediction errors of non-tidal barotropic numerical modelling (i.e. assuming that the hydrodynamic model, available at this point, is best representation of the physics in the domain of interest) by relating them to variables that reflect the state at which the predictions are made such as input data, state variables and model output. In addition, the present study explores the possibility of employing ‘genetic programming' (GP) as an offline data driven modelling tool to capture the sea level anomaly (SLA) dynamics and then using them for updating the numerical model prediction in real time applications. These results suggest that combination of data relationship analysis and GP models helps to improve the forecasting ability by providing information of significant predicative parameters. It is found that GP based SLA prediction error forecast model can provide significant improvement when applied as data assimilation schemes for updating the SLA prediction obtained from primary hydrodynamic models.

Kurniawan, Alamsyah; Ooi, Seng Keat; Babovic, Vladan

2014-11-01

14

Predicted water-level and water-quality effects of artificial recharge in the Upper Coachella Valley, California, using a finite-element digital model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1936 to 1974, water levels declined more than 100 feet in the Palm Springs area and 60 feet in the Palm Desert area of the upper Coachella Valley, Calif. Water from the Colorado River Aqueduct is presently being recharged to the basin. The dissolved-solids concentration of native ground water in the recharge area is about 210 mg/liter and that of recharge water ranges from 600 to 750 mg/liter. A finite-element model indicates that without recharge the 1974 water levels in the Palm Springs area will decline 200 feet by the year 2000 because of pumpage. If the aquifer is recharged at a rate from about 7 ,500 acre-feet per year in 1973 increasing to 61,200 acre-feet per year in 1990 and thereafter, the water level in the Palm Springs area will decline about 20 feet below the 1974 level by 1991 and recover to the 1974 level by 2000. The solute-transport finite-element model of the recharge area indicates that the artificial recharge plume (bounded by the 300-mg/liter line) will move about 1.1 miles downgradient of the recharge ponds by 1981 and about 4.5 miles from the ponds by 2000. (Woodard-USGS)

Swain, Lindsay A.

1978-01-01

15

Probability prediction of the Caspian sea level with consideration of the development of water-consuming industries in its basin  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the consequences for the Caspian Sea of the future economic and industrial development of the area and proposes a strategy for forecasting its continued existence from hydrological and meteorological standpoints as well as on the basis of projected water consumption by the industries moving into the area. Further strategies are put forth for resource management and conservation which are responsive to variations in the level of the sea and in the inflow from surrounding rivers and watersheds. Government policy toward development and utilization of the Caspian Sea over the past few years is also discussed.

Berezner, A.S.

1987-11-01

16

How predictable are water resources?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peter Mason, technical director of international dams and hydropower at MWH, explains how some water resources might be more predictable than generally supposed. Some years ago the writer examined the levels of Lake Victoria in east Africa as part of a major refurbishment project. This revealed a clear cyclic behavior in lake level and hence in discharges from the lake down the Nile system and up into Egypt. A recent study by the writer demonstrated that 20-year mean flows in the Kafue River in Zambia corresponded well to reconstructed rainfall records based on regional tree ring records. The Rio Parana has a catchment area of 3,100,000km 2 and a mean stream flow of 21,300m 3/sec. In the wider context an improved understanding of apparent periodicities in the natural record would seem to offer at least one planning scenario to be considered in terms of investment and even for the long term planning of aid and famine relief.

Mason, P.

2010-10-01

17

A neighborhood statistics model for predicting stream pathogen indicator levels.  

PubMed

Because elevated levels of water-borne Escherichia coli in streams are a leading cause of water quality impairments in the U.S., water-quality managers need tools for predicting aqueous E. coli levels. Presently, E. coli levels may be predicted using complex mechanistic models that have a high degree of unchecked uncertainty or simpler statistical models. To assess spatio-temporal patterns of instream E. coli levels, herein we measured E. coli, a pathogen indicator, at 16 sites (at four different times) within the Squaw Creek watershed, Iowa, and subsequently, the Markov Random Field model was exploited to develop a neighborhood statistics model for predicting instream E. coli levels. Two observed covariates, local water temperature (degrees Celsius) and mean cross-sectional depth (meters), were used as inputs to the model. Predictions of E. coli levels in the water column were compared with independent observational data collected from 16 in-stream locations. The results revealed that spatio-temporal averages of predicted and observed E. coli levels were extremely close. Approximately 66 % of individual predicted E. coli concentrations were within a factor of 2 of the observed values. In only one event, the difference between prediction and observation was beyond one order of magnitude. The mean of all predicted values at 16 locations was approximately 1 % higher than the mean of the observed values. The approach presented here will be useful while assessing instream contaminations such as pathogen/pathogen indicator levels at the watershed scale. PMID:25694031

Pandey, Pramod K; Pasternack, Gregory B; Majumder, Mahbubul; Soupir, Michelle L; Kaiser, Mark S

2015-03-01

18

Prediction of the air-water partition coefficient for perfluoro-2-methyl-3-pentanone using high-level Gaussian-4 composite theoretical methods.  

PubMed

The air-water partition coefficient (Kaw) of perfluoro-2-methyl-3-pentanone (PFMP) was estimated using the G4MP2/G4 levels of theory and the SMD solvation model. A suite of 31 fluorinated compounds was employed to calibrate the theoretical method. Excellent agreement between experimental and directly calculated Kaw values was obtained for the calibration compounds. The PCM solvation model was found to yield unsatisfactory Kaw estimates for fluorinated compounds at both levels of theory. The HENRYWIN Kaw estimation program also exhibited poor Kaw prediction performance on the training set. Based on the resulting regression equation for the calibration compounds, the G4MP2-SMD method constrained the estimated Kaw of PFMP to the range 5-8 × 10(-6) M atm(-1). The magnitude of this Kaw range indicates almost all PFMP released into the atmosphere or near the land-atmosphere interface will reside in the gas phase, with only minor quantities dissolved in the aqueous phase as the parent compound and/or its hydrate/hydrate conjugate base. Following discharge into aqueous systems not at equilibrium with the atmosphere, significant quantities of PFMP will be present as the dissolved parent compound and/or its hydrate/hydrate conjugate base. PMID:24967555

Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

2014-09-19

19

NOS Tides and Water Levels Discovery Kit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Ocean Service (NOS) scientists collect, study, predict and disseminate information about tides and water levels. Tutorial introduces the causes and variations of tides and currents, their impacts on human activities, navigation and organisms. Lesson plans include data for classroom activities, as well as resource links and teacher guides. A NSTA SciLinks selected site.

20

Groundwater Level Prediction using M5 Model Trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is an important resource, readily available and having high economic value and social benefit. Recently, it had been considered a dependable source of uncontaminated water. During the past two decades, increased rate of extraction and other greedy human actions have resulted in the groundwater crisis, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Under prevailing circumstances, the availability of predicted groundwater levels increase the importance of this valuable resource, as an aid in the planning of groundwater resources. For this purpose, data-driven prediction models are widely used in the present day world. M5 model tree (MT) is a popular soft computing method emerging as a promising method for numeric prediction, producing understandable models. The present study discusses the groundwater level predictions using MT employing only the historical groundwater levels from a groundwater monitoring well. The results showed that MT can be successively used for forecasting groundwater levels.

Nalarajan, Nitha Ayinippully; Mohandas, C.

2015-01-01

21

Computer program to predict aircraft noise levels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting the noise contributions from various aircraft noise sources were programmed to predict aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground tests. The noise sources include fan inlet and exhaust, jet, flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine, and airframe. Noise propagation corrections are available for atmospheric attenuation, ground reflections, extra ground attenuation, and shielding. Outputs can include spectra, overall sound pressure level, perceived noise level, tone-weighted perceived noise level, and effective perceived noise level at locations specified by the user. Footprint contour coordinates and approximate footprint areas can also be calculated. Inputs and outputs can be in either System International or U.S. customary units. The subroutines for each noise source and propagation correction are described. A complete listing is given.

Clark, B. J.

1981-01-01

22

Satellite Water Impurity Marker (SWIM) for predicting seasonal cholera outbreaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prediction of outbreaks of cholera, a deadly water related disease, remains elusive. Since coastal brackish water provides a natural ecological niche for cholera bacteria and because a powerful evidence of new biotypes is emerging, it is highly unlikely that cholera will be fully eradicated. Therefore, it is necessary to develop cholera prediction model with several months' of lead time. Satellite based estimates of chlorophyll, a surrogate for phytoplankton abundance, has been associated with proliferation of cholera bacteria. However, survival of cholera bacteria in a variety of coastal ecological environment put constraints on predictive abilities of chlorophyll algorithm since it only measures greenness in coastal waters. Here, we propose a new remote sensing reflectance based statistical index: Satellite Water Impurity Marker, or SWIM. This statistical index estimates impurity levels in the coastal waters and is based on the variability observed in the difference between the blue (412nm) and green (555nm) wavelengths in coastal waters. The developed index is bounded between clear and impure water and shows the ability to predict cholera outbreaks in the Bengal Delta with a predicted r2 of 78% with two months lead time. We anticipate that a predictive system based on SWIM will provide essential lead time allowing effective intervention and mitigation strategies to be developed for other cholera endemic regions of the world.

Jutla, A. S.; Akanda, A. S.; Islam, S.

2011-12-01

23

Parathyroid hormone levels predict posttotal thyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that parathyroid hormone (PTH) determination would be the most effective strategy to identify posttotal thyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism (PTTHP) compared with other clinical and laboratory parameters. We retrospectively reviewed our recent experience with total thyroidectomy. We recorded demographics, malignancy, thyroid weight, parathyroid autotransplantation, hospital stay, use of postoperative calcium and hormonally active vitamin D3 (calcitriol), and postoperative serum calcium and PTH levels. Patients were divided into two groups depending on whether supplemental calcitriol was required to maintain eucalcemia and therefore reflecting the diagnosis of PTTHP. From October 2010 to June 2013, a total of 202 total thyroidectomies were performed. Twenty-four patients (12%) developed PTTHP and required calcitriol replacement. Logistic regression analysis revealed that only postoperative calcium levels (P = 0.02) and PTH levels (P < 0.0001) statistically significantly predicted PTTHP. Twenty-two of 29 patients with PTH 13 pg/mL or less had PTTHP. Only two of 173 patients with a PTH level greater than 13 pg/mL were diagnosed with PTTHP. We recommend using PTH levels after total thyroidectomy to determine which patients will have hypoparathyroidism requiring calcitriol therapy. An early determination of PTTHP allows for prompt management that can shorten hospital stay and improve outcomes. PMID:25105405

Rivere, Amy E; Brooks, Ashton J; Hayek, Genevieve A; Wang, Heng; Corsetti, Ralph L; Fuhrman, George M

2014-08-01

24

Blind prediction of interfacial water positions in CAPRI.  

PubMed

We report the first assessment of blind predictions of water positions at protein-protein interfaces, performed as part of the critical assessment of predicted interactions (CAPRI) community-wide experiment. Groups submitting docking predictions for the complex of the DNase domain of colicin E2 and Im2 immunity protein (CAPRI Target 47), were invited to predict the positions of interfacial water molecules using the method of their choice. The predictions-20 groups submitted a total of 195 models-were assessed by measuring the recall fraction of water-mediated protein contacts. Of the 176 high- or medium-quality docking models-a very good docking performance per se-only 44% had a recall fraction above 0.3, and a mere 6% above 0.5. The actual water positions were in general predicted to an accuracy level no better than 1.5 Å, and even in good models about half of the contacts represented false positives. This notwithstanding, three hotspot interface water positions were quite well predicted, and so was one of the water positions that is believed to stabilize the loop that confers specificity in these complexes. Overall the best interface water predictions was achieved by groups that also produced high-quality docking models, indicating that accurate modelling of the protein portion is a determinant factor. The use of established molecular mechanics force fields, coupled to sampling and optimization procedures also seemed to confer an advantage. Insights gained from this analysis should help improve the prediction of protein-water interactions and their role in stabilizing protein complexes. PMID:24155158

Lensink, Marc F; Moal, Iain H; Bates, Paul A; Kastritis, Panagiotis L; Melquiond, Adrien S J; Karaca, Ezgi; Schmitz, Christophe; van Dijk, Marc; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Eisenstein, Miriam; Jiménez-García, Brian; Grosdidier, Solène; Solernou, Albert; Pérez-Cano, Laura; Pallara, Chiara; Fernández-Recio, Juan; Xu, Jianqing; Muthu, Pravin; Praneeth Kilambi, Krishna; Gray, Jeffrey J; Grudinin, Sergei; Derevyanko, Georgy; Mitchell, Julie C; Wieting, John; Kanamori, Eiji; Tsuchiya, Yuko; Murakami, Yoichi; Sarmiento, Joy; Standley, Daron M; Shirota, Matsuyuki; Kinoshita, Kengo; Nakamura, Haruki; Chavent, Matthieu; Ritchie, David W; Park, Hahnbeom; Ko, Junsu; Lee, Hasup; Seok, Chaok; Shen, Yang; Kozakov, Dima; Vajda, Sandor; Kundrotas, Petras J; Vakser, Ilya A; Pierce, Brian G; Hwang, Howook; Vreven, Thom; Weng, Zhiping; Buch, Idit; Farkash, Efrat; Wolfson, Haim J; Zacharias, Martin; Qin, Sanbo; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Huang, Shen-You; Zou, Xiaoqin; Wojdyla, Justyna A; Kleanthous, Colin; Wodak, Shoshana J

2014-04-01

25

Predicting Trihalomethanes (THMs) in the New York City Water Supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chlorine, a commonly used disinfectant in most water supply systems, can combine with organic carbon to form disinfectant byproducts including carcinogenic trihalomethanes (THMs). We used water quality data from 24 monitoring sites within the New York City (NYC) water supply distribution system, measured between January 2009 and April 2012, to develop site-specific empirical models for predicting total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels. Terms in the model included various combinations of the following water quality parameters: total organic carbon, pH, specific conductivity, and water temperature. Reasonable estimates of TTHM levels were achieved with overall R2 of about 0.87 and predicted values within 5 ?g/L of measured values. The relative importance of factors affecting TTHM formation was estimated by ranking the model regression coefficients. Site-specific models showed improved model performance statistics compared to a single model for the entire system most likely because the single model did not consider locational differences in the water treatment process. Although never out of compliance in 2011, the TTHM levels in the water supply increased following tropical storms Irene and Lee with 45% of the samples exceeding the 80 ?g/L Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) in October and November. This increase was explained by changes in water quality parameters, particularly by the increase in total organic carbon concentration and pH during this period.

Mukundan, R.; Van Dreason, R.

2013-12-01

26

Predicting Internal Roughness in Water Mains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equations presented provide a quick method for predicting C-factors (internal roughness) in unlined metal pipes. The equations are based on the hypothesis that roughness height in such pipes grows approximately linearly over time and are verified with field data from numerous water distribution systems. Las ecuaciones que se presentan brindan un método fácil de emplear, pero preciso, para predecir

Wayne W. Sharp; Thomas M. Walski

1988-01-01

27

Water Levels on the Great Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource explains that water levels are part of the ebb and flow of nature and the difference between the amount of water coming into a lake and the amount going out is the determining factor in whether the water level will rise, fall or remain stable. Students will learn that there are three types of water level fluctuations: short-term changes due to winds or changes in barometric pressure, seasonal changes depending on evaporation and precipitations, and long-term changes due to successive years of weather aberrations. Textual information is accompanied by graphs that illustrate these changes. The site also includes information about methods of measuring water levels and the economic impact of the changing levels.

28

Prediction uncertainty in basin-scale predictions of water quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upward trends in dissolved solids are occurring in some wells, ranging in depth from 100 to 1,250 feet, in the basin-fill aquifer in Salt Lake Valley, Utah. Possible sources and constituents of dissolved solids include mineral dissolution in native and recently recharged water (calcium, sulfate, and bicarbonate), surface water concentrated by evaporation (sodium and chloride), and application of road de-icing chemicals (sodium and chloride). A groundwater simulation model is being used to understand the trends. Model parameters are optimized using nonlinear regression to match tritium concentrations in samples from public-supply wells. Tritium is considered here to be conservative and non-sorbing, whereas dissolved solid chemistry is probably more complex. The migration of atmospheric tritium through the area where dissolved solids trends are observed provides some information on groundwater velocity in the area of interest. The effect of model cell size on accuracy of tritium concentration predictions is tested. In this case, a coarse model grid may be sufficient to understand the causes of the trends. The simulation strategy is to use an existing calibrated groundwater flow model with parameters (hydraulic conductivity, storativity, and boundary fluxes) regularized at previously calibrated values. An advective transport simulation of tritium, observed at 135 well locations (many of which were sampled multiple times), was calibrated by optimizing porosity parameter values regularized using pilot points. Two models are tested-a single porosity domain and a dual porosity domain with mass transfer. Sensitivity of the model parameters is affected by the model structure (large grid cells), model conceptualization (porosity domains), and data quality (locations and times of samples). Prediction uncertainty is assessed using a Monte Carlo simulation, and a comparison of the results for the two models indicates that parameter estimates are affected by real and numerical dispersion, particularly in the dual-domain porosity simulations, where the additional parameters can mimic the effect of dispersion. The multiple ways of simulating (or ignoring) dispersion affects parameter estimates, parameter uncertainty, and prediction uncertainty. Although prediction uncertainty can be high, a simplified interpretation of the model helps explain the trends in dissolved solids.

Starn, J. J.; Green, C. T.

2011-12-01

29

Two-level adaptive training branch prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-performance microarchitectures use, among other structures, deep pipelines to help speed up exe- cution. The importance of a good branch predictor to the effectiveness of a deep pipeline in the presence of condi- tional branches is well-known. In fact, the literature contains proposals for a number of branch prediction schemes. Some are static in that they use opcode information and

Tse-Yu Yeh; Yale N. Patt

1991-01-01

30

Predicting Demonstrations' Violence Level Using Qualitative Reasoning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe a method for modeling social behavior of large groups, and apply it to the problem of predicting potential violence during demonstrations. We use qualitative reasoning techniques which to our knowledge have never been applied to modeling crowd behaviors, nor in particular to demonstrations. Such modeling may not only contribute to the police decision making process, but can also provide a great opportunity to test existing theories in social science. We incrementally present and compare three qualitative models, based on social science theories. The results show that while two of these models fail to predict the outcomes of real-world events reported and analyzed in the literature, one model is successful. We believe that this demonstrates the efficacy of qualitative reasoning in the development and testing of social sciences theories.

Fridman, Natalie; Zilberstein, Tomer; Kaminka, Gal A.

31

Hydro static water level systems at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

Several Hydrostatic Water Leveling systems (HLS) are in use at Fermilab. Three systems are used to monitor quadrupoles in the Tevatron and two systems are used to monitor ground motion for potential sites for the International Linear Collider (ILC). All systems use capacitive sensors to determine the water level of water in a pool. These pools are connected with tubing so that relative vertical shifts between sensors can be determined. There are low beta quadrupoles at the B0 and D0 interaction regions of Tevatron accelerator. These quadrupoles use BINP designed and built sensors and have a resolution of 1 micron. All regular lattice superconducting quadrupoles (a total of 204) in the Tevatron use a Fermilab designed system and have a resolution of 6 microns. Data on quadrupole motion due to quenches, changes in temperature will be presented. In addition data for ground motion for ILC studies caused by natural and cultural factors will be presented.

Volk, J.T.; Guerra, J.A.; Hansen, S.U.; Kiper, T.E.; Jostlein, H.; Shiltsev, V.; Chupyra, A.; Kondaurov, M.; Singatulin, S.

2006-09-01

32

Global Levels of Histone Modifications Predict Prognosis in Different Cancers  

PubMed Central

Cancer cells exhibit alterations in histone modification patterns at individual genes and globally at the level of single nuclei in individual cells. We demonstrated previously that lower global/cellular levels of histone H3 lysine 4 dimethylation (H3K4me2) and H3K18 acetylation (ac) predict a higher risk of prostate cancer recurrence. Here we show that the cellular levels of both H3K4me2 and H3K18ac also predict clinical outcome in both lung and kidney cancer patients, with lower levels predicting significantly poorer survival probabilities in both cancer groups. We also show that lower cellular levels of H3K9me2, a modification associated with both gene activity and repression, is also prognostic of poorer outcome for individuals with either prostate or kidney cancers. The predictive power of these histone modifications was independent of tissue-specific clinicopathological variables, the proliferation marker Ki-67, or a p53 tumor suppressor mutation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that the lower cellular levels of histone modifications in more aggressive cancer cell lines correlated with lower levels of modifications at DNA repetitive elements but not with gene promoters across the genome. Our results suggest that lower global levels of histone modifications are predictive of a more aggressive cancer phenotype, revealing a surprising commonality in prognostic epigenetic patterns of adenocarcinomas of different tissue origins. PMID:19349354

Seligson, David B.; Horvath, Steve; McBrian, Matthew A.; Mah, Vei; Yu, Hong; Tze, Sheila; Wang, Qun; Chia, David; Goodglick, Lee; Kurdistani, Siavash K.

2009-01-01

33

Development and evaluation of a water level proportional water sampler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed and adapted a new type of sampler for time-integrated, water level proportional water quality sampling (e.g. nutrients, contaminants and stable isotopes). Our samplers are designed for sampling small to mid-size streams based on the law of Hagen-Poiseuille, where a capillary (or a valve) limits the sampling aliquot by reducing the air flux out of a submersed plastic (HDPE) sampling container. They are good alternatives to battery-operated automated water samplers when working in remote areas, or at streams that are characterized by pronounced daily discharge variations such as glacier streams. We evaluated our samplers against standard automated water samplers (ISCO 2900 and ISCO 6712) during the snowmelt in the Black Forest and the Alps and tested them in remote glacial catchments in Iceland, Switzerland and Kyrgyzstan. The results clearly showed that our samplers are an adequate tool for time-integrated, water level proportional water sampling at remote test sites, as they do not need batteries, are relatively inexpensive, lightweight, and compact. They are well suited for headwater streams - especially when sampling for stable isotopes - as the sampled water is perfectly protected against evaporation. Moreover, our samplers have a reduced risk of icing in cold environments, as they are installed submersed in water, whereas automated samplers (typically installed outside the stream) may get clogged due to icing of hoses. Based on this study, we find these samplers to be an adequate replacement for automated samplers when time-integrated sampling or solute load estimates are the main monitoring tasks.

Schneider, P.; Lange, A.; Doppler, T.

2013-12-01

34

Monitoring Lake and Reservoir Level: Satellite Observations, Modeling and Prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite measurements of lake and reservoir water levels complement in situ observations by providing stage information for un-gauged basins and by filling data gaps in gauge records. However, different satellite radar altimeter-derived continental water level products may differ significantly owing to choice of satellites and data processing methods. To explore the impacts of these differences, a direct comparison between three different altimeter-based surface water level estimates (USDA/NASA GRLM, LEGOS and ESA-DMU) will be presented and products validated with lake level gauge time series for lakes and reservoirs of a variety of sizes and conditions. The availability of satellite-based rainfall (i.e., TRMM and GPCP) and satellite-based lake/reservoir levels offers exciting opportunities to estimate and monitor the hydrologic properties of the lake systems. Here, a simple water balance model is utilized to relate net freshwater flux on a catchment basin to lake/reservoir level. Focused on tropical lakes and reservoirs it allows a comparison of the flux to altimetric lake level estimates. The combined use of model, satellite-based rainfall, evaporation information and reanalysis products, can be used to output water-level hindcasts and seasonal future forecasts. Such a tool is fundamental for understanding present-day and future variations in lake/reservoir levels and enabling a better understand of climatic variations on inter-annual to inter-decadal time-scales. New model-derived water level estimates of lakes and reservoirs, on regional to global scales, would assist communities with interests in climate studies focusing on extreme events, such as floods and droughts, and be important for water resources management.

Ricko, M.; Birkett, C. M.; Adler, R. F.; Carton, J.

2013-12-01

35

Predicting students’ homework environment management at the secondary school level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined empirical models of variables posited to predict students’ homework environment management at the secondary school level. The participants were 866 8th graders from 61 classes and 745 11th graders from 46 classes. Most of the variance in homework environment management occurred at the student level, with classmates’ shared homework interest as the only significant predictor at

Jianzhong Xu

2012-01-01

36

Predicting students’ homework environment management at the secondary school level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined empirical models of variables posited to predict students’ homework environment management at the secondary school level. The participants were 866 8th graders from 61 classes and 745 11th graders from 46 classes. Most of the variance in homework environment management occurred at the student level, with classmates’ shared homework interest as the only significant predictor at

Jianzhong Xu

2011-01-01

37

AUTOMATED WATER LEVEL MEASUREMENTS IN SMALL-DIAMETER AQUIFER TUBES  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium, strontium-90, and uranium discharges into the Columbia River along approximately 16 km (10 mi) of the shoreline. Various treatment systems have and will continue to be implemented to eliminate the impact of Hanford Site contamination to the river. To optimize the various remediation strategies, it is important to understand interactions between groundwater and the surface water of the Columbia River. An automated system to record water levels in aquifer sampling tubes installed in the hyporheic zone was designed and tested to (1) gain a more complete understanding of groundwater/river water interactions based on gaining and losing conditions ofthe Columbia River, (2) record and interpret data for consistent and defensible groundwater/surface water conceptual models that may be used to better predict subsurface contaminant fate and transport, and (3) evaluate the hydrodynamic influence of extraction wells in an expanded pump-and-treat system to optimize the treatment system. A system to measure water levels in small-diameter aquifer tubes was designed and tested in the laboratory and field. The system was configured to allow manual measurements to periodically calibrate the instrument and to permit aquifer tube sampling without removing the transducer tube. Manual measurements were collected with an e-tape designed and fabricated especially for this test. Results indicate that the transducer system accurately records groundwater levels in aquifer tubes. These data are being used to refine the conceptual and numeric models to better understand interactions in the hyporheic zone of the Columbia River and the adjacent river water and groundwater, and changes in hydrochemistry relative to groundwater flux as river water recharges the aquifer and then drains back out in response to changes in the river level.

PETERSEN SW; EDRINGTON RS; MAHOOD RO; VANMIDDLESWORTH PE

2011-01-14

38

Great Lakes Water Level Statistics Primary Investigator: Cynthia Sellinger  

E-print Network

Great Lakes Water Level Statistics Primary Investigator: Cynthia Sellinger Overview Extreme Great Lakes water levels (both high and low) periodically cause major social, economic, and ecosystem disruption throughout the Great Lakes system. Reliable lake level frequency distributions are a critical

39

Alternative implementations of two-level adaptive branch prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the issue rate and depth of pipelining of high performance Superscalar processors increase, the importance of an excellent branch predictor becomes more vital to delivering the potential performance of a wide-issue, deep pipelined microarchitecture. We propose a new dynamic branch predictor (Two-Level Adaptive Branch Prediction) that achieves substantially higher accuracy than any other scheme reported in the literature. The

Tse-Yu Yeh; Yale N. Patt

1992-01-01

40

Water Resources Data, Virginia, Water Year 2002, Volume 2. Ground-Water Level and Ground-Water Quality Records  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is Volume 2 in our 2002 series and includes records of water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. It contains records for water levels at 267 observation wells and water quality at 62 wells. Locations of these wells are shown on figures 4, 5, 6, and 7. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Virginia.

White, Roger K.; Powell, Eugene D.; Guyer, Joel R.

2003-01-01

41

On-line hydraulic state prediction for water distribution systems  

E-print Network

This paper describes and demonstrates a method for on?line hydraulic state prediction in urban water networks. The proposed method uses a Predictor?Corrector (PC) approach in which a statistical data?driven algorithm is ...

Whittle, Andrew

42

Connecting past and present climate variability to the water levels of Lakes Michigan and Huron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water levels of Lakes Michigan and Huron have been monitored since 1865, and numerous attempts have since been made to connect their variations to potentially predictable large-scale climate modes. In the present study, the levels are analyzed after outflow-related damping effects were removed, increasing the transparency of the lake level fluctuations and potential climate connections. This filtering exposes a

Janel L. Hanrahan; Sergey V. Kravtsov; Paul J. Roebber

2010-01-01

43

A Simple, Inexpensive Water-Leveling Device for Ultramicrotomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a device for maintaining the proper water level in knife boats during ultramicrotomy. Water levels in troughs are adjusted rapidly and precisely during the cutting process. Illustrations are included. (Author/MA)

Brooks, Austin E.

1978-01-01

44

Water Habitat Study: Prediction Makes It More Meaningful.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests a teaching strategy for water habitat studies to help students make a meaningful connection between physiochemical data (dissolved oxygen content, pH, and water temperature) and biological specimens they collect. Involves constructing a poster and using it to make predictions. Provides sample poster. (DC)

Glasgow, Dennis R.

1982-01-01

45

Capacitance Level Gauge for Pressurizers of Pressurized Water Reactor Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pressure of a pressurized water nuclear power plant is maintained by heating water to saturation temperature in a vessel partially filled with water. The water level in this vessel, the pressurizer, must be monitored for safe plant operation. This paper describes the application of a well-known principle of liquid level measurement to this problem. The unusual operating conditions made

William Gernert

1958-01-01

46

Recent and late quaternary changes in water level  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water level changes of both the Great Lakes and the sea are described along with methods of analyzing water level data. The influence of elastic deformation of the earth and viscosity is discussed. Causes of water level changes reviewed include: earth movements, geoid changes, storm surges or meteorological phenomena, and melting ice in Antarctica, Greenland, and the mountain glaciers.

Walcott, R. I.

1975-01-01

47

Water nanodroplets: Predictions of five model potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Putative global minima for five intermolecular potential energy models are reported for water clusters (H2O)n with n ? 55. The models studied include three empirical, pairwise-additive potential energy surfaces, TIP4P, TIP4P-Ew, and TIP4P/2005, which use fixed point charges and rigid monomers. The other two, TTM2.1-F and AMOEBA, are polarizable, include non-additive inductive effects, have flexible monomers, and were parametrized, at least partially, using ab initio data. The n = 51 cluster has the same structure and is exceptionally stable for all five potentials. A structured inner core can be seen in cage clusters with n > 37. Periplanar rings, branched rings, and coils are among the structural motifs of the inner core.

Kazachenko, Sergey; Thakkar, Ajit J.

2013-05-01

48

Predictive modelling of the mine water rebound in an old abandoned Dongwon mine in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The closure of over three-hundred deep coal mines in Korea since the late-1980s, primarily due to the energy and environmental concerns, has produced significant side effects. One of the major challenges is to assess the risk from mine water rebound to overlying aquifers and surface waters, which can produce significant environmental hazards. Some numerical models such as VSS-NET, GRAM and MODFLOW have been developed to predict the quantity, timing and location of discharges resulting from mine water rebound. In this study, we developed a GRAM-based windows program for mine water rebound modelling in abandoned deep mine systems. The program consists of the simulation engine and the GUI modules, each has several subroutines. Changes in mine water level of the Dongwon coal mine, presumably hydrogeologically connected to nearby old abandoned mines, has been monitored after the mine was finally closed in 2005. The water level in the vertical shaft rised up to 420m during the period of 3 years. The system was modelled as two ponds connected by a pipe. Input data include the areas of each pond, catchment areas, the storage coefficient, etc. The predicted changes in the mine water level was very similar to the observed data in the field. For this modelling, in fact, some of the input variable were roughly assumed to match the field data. Nevertheless, this program can be effectively applied to predict the rising of the mine water after the mine closure.

Baek, Hwanjo; Kim, Daehoon; Park, Seunghwan; Kim, Gyoungman

2014-05-01

49

Rising ground-water level in downtown Louisville, Kentucky, 1972-1977  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water levels in the alluvial aquifer in Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky, are rising at a rate which could cause wet basements and possible structural damage to buildings in the downtown area by 1982. The predicted water level for 1982 is based on the nearly linear increase which has been observed from 1972 to 1977, during which period a rise of as much as 32 feet was recorded in water-level observation wells. Foremost among the possible causes of the rise is a decrease in withdrawal of ground water. (Woodard-USGS)

Kernodle, J.M.; Whitesides, D.V.

1977-01-01

50

Predicting impacts from water conservation and energy development on the Salton Sea, California  

SciTech Connect

An input-output model was developed to predict changes in Salton Sea salinity and water level until the year 2000 due to proposed water conservation efforts and geothermal and solar pond energy developments. The model SALINP provided good agreement with the observed salinities for 1960-80. While SALINP was not overly sensitive to one-year changes in any of the major inputs, a change in the historical means of the Imperial Valley runoff and evaporative loss inputs produced a significant effect on future predictions. The proposed water conservation measures caused the predicted Salton Sea salinity for 2000 to greatly exceed 40,000 ppm, the level at which adverse effects to wildlife are believed to occur. The possible geothermal development also produced predicted salinities considerably above 40,000 ppm. The salinity predictions for solar ponds by themselves and in conjunction with geothermal development were below 45,000 ppm for 2000. The solar pond and geothermal combination also resulted in a predicted lowering of the natural water level by 5 to 7 feet by 2000.

Kratzer, C.R.; Dritschilo, W.; Hannah, L.J.; Broutman, M.A.

1985-08-01

51

A Seamless Framework for Global Water Cycle Monitoring and Prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Water Strategy ('From Observations to Decisions') recognizes that 'water is essential for ensuring food and energy security, for facilitating poverty reduction and health security, and for the maintenance of ecosystems and biodiversity', and that water cycle data and observations are critical for improved water management and water security - especially in less developed regions. The GEOSS Water Strategy has articulated a number of goals for improved water management, including flood and drought preparedness, that include: (i) facilitating the use of Earth Observations for water cycle observations; (ii) facilitating the acquisition, processing, and distribution of data products needed for effective management; (iii) providing expertise, information systems, and datasets to the global, regional, and national water communities. There are several challenges that must be met to advance our capability to provide near real-time water cycle monitoring, early warning of hydrological hazards (floods and droughts) and risk assessment under climate change, regionally and globally. Current approaches to monitoring and predicting hydrological hazards are limited in many parts of the world, and especially in developing countries where national capacity is limited and monitoring networks are inadequate. This presentation describes the development of a seamless monitoring and prediction framework at all time scales that allows for consistent assessment of water variability from historic to current conditions, and from seasonal and decadal predictions to climate change projections. At the center of the framework is an experimental, global water cycle monitoring and seasonal forecast system that has evolved out of regional and continental systems for the US and Africa. The system is based on land surface hydrological modeling that is driven by satellite remote sensing precipitation to predict current hydrological conditions, flood potential and the state of drought. Seasonal climate model forecasts are downscaled and bias-corrected to drive the land surface model to provide hydrological forecasts and drought products out 6-9 months. The system relies on historic reconstructions of water variability over the 20th century, which forms the background climatology to which current conditions can be assessed. Future changes in water availability and drought risk are quantified based on bias-corrected and downscaled climate model projections that are used to drive the land surface models. For regions with lack of on-the-ground data we are field-testing low-cost environmental sensors and along with new satellite products for terrestrial hydrology and vegetation, integrating these into the system for improved monitoring and prediction. We provide an overview of the system and some examples of real-world applications to flood and drought events, with a focus on Africa.

Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.; Chaney, N.; Fisher, C. K.; Caylor, K. K.

2013-12-01

52

Drought-trigger ground-water levels and analysis of historical water-level trends in Chester County, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Chester County observation-well network was established in 1973 through a cooperative agreement between the Chester County Water Resources Authority (CCWRA) and the U.S. Geological Survey. The network was established to monitor local ground-water levels, to determine drought conditions, and to monitor ground-water-level trends. Drought-warning and drought-emergency water-level triggers were determined for 20 of the 23 wells in the Chester County observation-well network. A statistical test to determine either rising or declining water-level trends was performed on data for all wells in the network. Water-level data from both of these wells showed a rising trend. A decrease in ground-water pumping in the area near these wells was probably the reason for the rise in water levels.

Schreffler, Curtis L.

1996-01-01

53

Assimilation of spatially distributed water levels into a shallow-water flood model. Part  

E-print Network

Assimilation of spatially distributed water levels into a shallow-water flood model. Part II: use water levels extracted from spatial images) and a 2D shallow water model. In the present article (Part.jhydrol.2010.07.003 #12;age of a Mosel River flood event (1997, France). Assimilated in a 2D shallow water

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

54

Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Water levels were monitored in 28 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1993. Seventeen wells were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, and 11 wells representing 18 intervals were monitored hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks, except one that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes and pressure transducers; steel-tape measurements were corrected for mechanical stretch, thermal expansion, and borehole deviation to obtain precise water-level altitudes. Water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 meters above sea level east of Yucca Mountain to about 1,034 meters above sea level north of Yucca Mountain. Water-level altitudes in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks varied between 752 and 753 meters above sea level during 1993. Water levels were an average of about 0.04 meter lower than 1992 water levels. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data.

Tucci, P.; Goemaat, R.L.; Burkhardt, D.J.

1996-07-01

55

Predicting impacts from water conservation and energy development on the Salton Sea, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

An input-output model was developed to predict changes in Salton Sea salinity and water level until the year 2000 due to proposed water conservation efforts and geothermal and solar pond energy developments. The model SALINP provided good agreement with the observed salinities for 1960-80. While SALINP was not overly sensitive to one-year changes in any of the major inputs, a

Charles R. Kratzer; William Dritschilo; Lee J. Hannah; Marlene A. Broutman

1985-01-01

56

A multivariate linear regression model for predicting children's blood lead levels based on soil lead levels: A study at four Superfund sites  

SciTech Connect

For the purpose of examining the association between blood lead levels and household-specific soil lead levels, the authors used a multivariate linear regression model to find a slope factor relating soil lead levels to blood lead levels. They used previously collected data from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR's) multisite lead and cadmium study. The data included in the blood lead measurements of 1,015 children aged 6--71 months, and corresponding household-specific environmental samples. The environmental samples included lead in soil, house dust, interior paint, and tap water. After adjusting for income, education or the parents, presence of a smoker in the household, sex, and dust lead, and using a double log transformation, they found a slope factor of 0.1388 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.09--0.19 for the dose-response relationship between the natural log of the soil lead level and the natural log of the blood lead level. The predicted blood lead level corresponding to a soil lead level of 500 mg/kg was 5.99 [micro]g/kg with a 95% prediction interval of 2.08--17.29. Predicted values and their corresponding prediction intervals varied by covariate level. The model shows that increased soil lead level is associated with elevated blood leads in children, but that predictions based on this regression model are subject to high levels of uncertainty and variability.

Lewin, M.D.; Sarasua, S.; Jones, P.A. (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States). Div. of Health Studies)

1999-07-01

57

Predicting fire activity using terrestrial water storage data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High fire activity periods in the Amazon region can be predicted months in advance on the basis of water storage data, a new study shows. Chen et al. analyzed satellite observations of terrestrial water storage from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, along with satellite observations of fire activity from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) mission. GRACE measures the Earth's gravity field by calculating the changes in the distance between two satellites as slight variations in density pull on one satellite more than the other. The gravity measurements provide information about the amount of groundwater or surface water in a given region.

Balcerak, Ernie

2013-05-01

58

Predicting Soil-Water Partition Coefficients for Cadmium  

E-print Network

when applied to measurements at the natural soil pH because of the competition of protons with Cd and adsorption to components of the soil, processes that are highly pH dependent. For trace metals, adsorptionPredicting Soil-Water Partition Coefficients for Cadmium S U E N - Z O N E L E E Department

Sparks, Donald L.

59

Geospatial application of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

At the hillslope profile and/or field scale, a simple Windows graphical user interface (GUI) is available to easily specify the slope, soil, and management inputs for application of the USDA Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model. Likewise, basic small watershed configurations of a few hillsl...

60

Predicting Risk from Radon in Source Waters from Water Quality Parameters  

EPA Science Inventory

Overall, 47 groundwater samples were collected from 45 small community water systems (CWSs) and analyzed for radon and other water quality constituents. In general, groundwater from unconsolidated deposits and sedimentary rocks had lower average radon levels (ranging from 223 to...

61

Predicting tree water use and drought tolerance from leaf traits in the Los Angeles urban ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban green space provides a suite of valuable ecosystem services. In semiarid systems, like Los Angeles, trees rely primarily on irrigation water for transpiration. Managers may need to reduce irrigation associated with urban trees given climate change, urban expansion, and the steady decrease in available freshwater. While leaf and whole plant water relations have been extensively studied, we are only now gaining a detailed understanding of diverse leaf anatomical designs, and their use for predicting physiology and water use at landscape scale. For 50 diverse urban species, we quantified leaf anatomical and physiological traits important to tree drought tolerance and water use efficiency including turgor loss point, vein architecture, cellular anatomy, leaf mass per unit area, and petiole and leaf dimensions. We hypothesized detailed relationships to develop models relating leaf functional traits to tree water relations. These models provide key insights regarding the role of anatomical designs in leaf stress tolerance and water use efficiency. Additionally we predicted how traits measured at the leaf level would scale with existing data for individuals at the whole plant level. We tested our predictions by determining correlations between leaf level anatomical traits and drought tolerance. Additionally, we determined correlations between functional traits, physiology and water use, and the climate of origin for the urban species. Leaf level measurements will be valuable for rapid estimation of more difficult to measure whole plant water relations traits important at the landscape scale. The Los Angeles urban ecosystem can serve as a model for other semiarid system and provide more informed system wide water conservation strategies.

John, G. P.; Scoffoni, C.; Sack, L.

2013-12-01

62

PERSPECTIVE FROM WATER LEVEL, SOUTHEAST BY 165 DEGREES. Wright's ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PERSPECTIVE FROM WATER LEVEL, SOUTHEAST BY 165 DEGREES. - Wright's Bridge, Spanning Sugar River, former Boston & Maine Railroad (originally Concord & Claremont Railroad), Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

63

Ensemble streamflow prediction adjustment for upstream water use and regulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrologic model forecasts are commonly biased in watersheds where water use and regulation activities cause flow alterations. Furthermore, direct accounting of such biases in forecast preparation is impractical as the information required is extensive and usually unavailable. This article introduces a new method to characterize the aggregate flow alteration biases and associated uncertainty in watersheds with important but largely undocumented water use and regulation activities. It also uses these assessments to adjust the ensemble streamflow predictions at downstream locations. The method includes procedures to (a) detect the presence of significant upstream regulation and water use influences; (b) correct the ensemble streamflow predictions and associated uncertainty for any biases in periods when such influences are detectable; and (c) assess the adjusted forecast reliability improvements. Applications in three watersheds of the American River in California demonstrate that the new method leads to significant forecast skill improvements and is also readily applicable to other regions.

Georgakakos, Aris P.; Yao, Huaming; Georgakakos, Konstantine P.

2014-11-01

64

Predicting climate fluctuations for water management by applying neural network  

SciTech Connect

The ability to forecast climate fluctuations would be a valuable asset to regional water management authorities such as the South Florida Water Management District. These forecasts may provide advanced warnings of possible extended periods of deficits or surpluses of water availability allowing better regional water management for flood protection, water supply, and environmental enhancement. In order to achieve this goal, it is necessary to have a global perspective of the oceanic and atmospheric phenomena which may affect regional water resources. However, the complexity involved may hinder traditional analytical approaches in forecasting because such approaches are based on many simplified assumptions about the natural phenomena. This paper investigates the applicability of neural networks in climate forecasting for regional water resources management. This paper applies the most widely used Back Propagation model to the climate forecasting. In this study, issues such as selecting a best fit neural network configuration, deploying a proper training algorithm, and preprocessing input data are addressed. The effects of various global oceanic and atmospheric variables to the regional water resources are also discussed. The study is focused on the prediction of water storage for Lake Okeechobee, the liquid heart for south Florida. Several global weather parameters over the past several decades are used as input data for training and testing. Different combinations of the variables are explored. Preliminary results show that the neural networks are promising tools in this type of forecasting.

Zhang, E.Y. [South Florida Water Management District, West Palm Beach, FL (United States)

1996-12-31

65

Impact of Plumbing Age on Copper Levels in Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Theory and limited practical experiences suggest that higher copper levels in drinking water tap samples are typically associated with newer plumbing systems, and levels decrease with increasing plumbing age. Past researchers have developed a conceptual model to explain the ?agin...

66

Global Epistasis Makes Adaptation Predictable Despite Sequence-Level Stochasticity  

PubMed Central

Epistatic interactions between mutations can make evolutionary trajectories contingent on the chance occurrence of initial mutations. We used experimental evolution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to quantify this contingency, finding differences in adaptability between 64 closely related genotypes. Despite these differences, sequencing of 104 evolved clones showed that initial genotype did not constrain future mutational trajectories. Instead, reconstructed combinations of mutations revealed a pattern of diminishing returns epistasis: beneficial mutations have consistently smaller effects in fitter backgrounds. Taken together, these results show that beneficial mutations affecting a variety of biological processes are globally coupled: they interact strongly, but only through their combined effect on fitness. As a consequence, fitness evolution follows a predictable trajectory even though sequence-level adaptation is stochastic. PMID:24970088

Jerison, Elizabeth R.; Desai, Michael M.

2015-01-01

67

A new-type sensor for monitoring oil-water interface level and oil level  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach for monitoring oil-water interface level and oil level in a single tank is presented. A liquid level sensor has been developed that is suitable to determine the oil-water interface level and oil level. This sensor can realize two sensing functions, namely, inductive and capacitive sensing functions. For achieving this multi-sensing function, the designed sensor employed two coils

Guirong Lu; Hao Hu; Baoxiang He; Shuyue Chen

2009-01-01

68

Ecology predicts levels of genetic differentiation in neotropical birds.  

PubMed

Despite the theoretical link between the ecology and the population genetics of species, little empirical evidence is available that corroborates the association. Here, we examined genetic variation in 40 codistributed species of lowland Neotropical rain forest birds that have populations isolated on either side of the Andes, the Amazon River, and the Madeira River. We found widely varying levels of genetic divergence among these taxa across the same biogeographic barriers. Our investigation of the extent to which ecological traits predicted the amount of cross-barrier divergence revealed a strongly significant relationship between the forest stratum at which a species forages and the level of cross-barrier genetic differentiation. Canopy species had statistically lower genetic divergence values across the Andes and the two Amazonian rivers than did understory birds. We hypothesize that the association reflects an effect of dispersal propensity, which is greater in canopy birds, on the movement of alleles among demes (i.e., migration) and, consequently, on the interdemic proportion of the genetic variance. Differences in dispersal propensity may also explain the observation that understory species contain a significantly greater number of subspecies than do canopy species. This result indicates that higher rates of diversification may occur in lineages with lower dispersal propensity. PMID:19627230

Burney, Curtis W; Brumfield, Robb T

2009-09-01

69

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN (RISK LEVEL 1)  

E-print Network

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN (RISK LEVEL 1) for BUILDING 90 USER TEST BED FACILITY.G., GEOLOGIST/QSD (530) 222-4339 SWPPP Preparation Date: JUNE 10, 2012 #12;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan) 222-4339 Name and Title Telephone Number #12;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan Building 90 User

Eisen, Michael

70

Hydrological and water management related applications of long term meteorological prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal forecast activities at the Hungarian Meteorological Service have a long history. Published forecasts used to be the results of different statistical procedures based on clustering of different typical sequences. Long term meteorological forecasts of recent years are based on ECMWF long term projections. Those are interpreted and downscaled for the territory of Hungary and Danube catchments. 1 - 6-month forecasts of 2-m temperatures and precipitation are used for hydrological projections. Seasonal forecasts of Lake Balaton water budget, monthly mean streamflow and low water estimates for central Danube are targeted. The catchments comprising the river system are situated in various climatological and geo-morphological settings across the region. Skill score of the projections are investigated for average and extreme conditions. The five year period in between 2000-2004 resulted dry conditions over the Balaton drainage area. The continuous extreme low values in water budget of the Lake led to significant drop of water levels. Starting with the summer of 2000 water level of the Lake remained most time below the lower regulation level. Typical patterns of water level fluctuation remained in this dry period (rises during cold half year, decreases during warm half year). However the series of annual deficits are expressed in lower and lower annual minimum of water levels. The accumulated deficit of natural water budget relative to multi-annual average reached a maximum for lake surface without any precedent for the period of water budget accounting. Danube monthly flow, minimum flow and water level predictions for the period 1984-2009 are also analysed.

Varga, György; Body, Károly; Hunyady, Adrienn; Balint, Gabor

2010-05-01

71

Prediction of dimethyl disulfide levels from biosolids using statistical modeling.  

PubMed

Two statistical models were used to predict the concentration of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) released from biosolids produced by an advanced wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) located in Washington, DC, USA. The plant concentrates sludge from primary sedimentation basins in gravity thickeners (GT) and sludge from secondary sedimentation basins in dissolved air flotation (DAF) thickeners. The thickened sludge is pumped into blending tanks and then fed into centrifuges for dewatering. The dewatered sludge is then conditioned with lime before trucking out from the plant. DMDS, along with other volatile sulfur and nitrogen-containing chemicals, is known to contribute to biosolids odors. These models identified oxidation/reduction potential (ORP) values of a GT and DAF, the amount of sludge dewatered by centrifuges, and the blend ratio between GT thickened sludge and DAF thickened sludge in blending tanks as control variables. The accuracy of the developed regression models was evaluated by checking the adjusted R2 of the regression as well as the signs of coefficients associated with each variable. In general, both models explained observed DMDS levels in sludge headspace samples. The adjusted R2 value of the regression models 1 and 2 were 0.79 and 0.77, respectively. Coefficients for each regression model also had the correct sign. Using the developed models, plant operators can adjust the controllable variables to proactively decrease this odorant. Therefore, these models are a useful tool in biosolids management at WWTPs. PMID:16287638

Gabriel, Steven A; Vilalai, Sirapong; Arispe, Susanna; Kim, Hyunook; McConnell, Laura L; Torrents, Alba; Peot, Christopher; Ramirez, Mark

2005-01-01

72

A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.  

PubMed

Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

2014-01-01

73

A Hydro-Economic Model for Water Level Fluctuations: Combining Limnology with Economics for Sustainable Development of Hydropower  

PubMed Central

Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

2014-01-01

74

Level Estimation in a Water Model of Continuous Casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluctuations in the level of a physical model of a continuous casting mold were studied to determine the structure of the oscillations in the molten steel level. A water model of one third of scale of an actual continuous casting machine with a perfect control configuration was used in experiments. The liquid level in the mold is measured by recording

Francisco Sánchez; Raúl Miranda-Tello; Cesar Real-Ramírez; Luis Hoyos; Miguel Ramírez; Jesús González-Trejo

2010-01-01

75

Effects of Barometric Fluctuations on Well Water-Level Measurements and Aquifer Test Data  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, as part of the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project, examines the potential for offsite migration of contamination within underlying aquifer systems. Well water-level elevation measurements from selected wells within these aquifer systems commonly form the basis for delineating groundwater-flow patterns (i.e., flow direction and hydraulic gradient). In addition, the analysis of water-level responses obtained in wells during hydrologic tests provides estimates of hydraulic properties that are important for evaluating groundwater-flow velocity and transport characteristics. Barometric pressure fluctuations, however, can have a discernible impact on well water-level measurements. These barometric effects may lead to erroneous indications of hydraulic head within the aquifer. Total hydraulic head (i.e., sum of the water-table elevation and the atmospheric pressure at the water-table surface) within the aquifer, not well water-level elevation, is the hydrologic parameter for determining groundwater-flow direction and hydraulic gradient conditions. Temporal variations in barometric pressure may also adversely affect well water-level responses obtained during hydrologic tests. If significant, adjustments or removal of these barometric effects from the test-response record may be required for quantitative hydraulic property determination. This report examines the effects of barometric fluctuations on well water-level measurements and evaluates adjustment and removal methods for determining areal aquifer head conditions and aquifer test analysis. Two examples of Hanford Site unconfined aquifer tests are examined that demonstrate barometric response analysis and illustrate the predictive/removal capabilities of various methods for well water-level and aquifer total head values. Good predictive/removal characteristics were demonstrated with best corrective results provided by multiple-regression deconvolution methods.

FA Spane, Jr.

1999-12-16

76

Prediction of the safety level to an installation of the tritium process through predictive maintenance  

SciTech Connect

The safety level for personnel and environment to a nuclear installation is given in generally by the technological process quality of operation and maintenance and in particular by a lot of technical, technological, economic and human factors. The maintenance role is fundamental because it has to quantify all the technical, economic and human elements as an integrated system for it creates an important feedback for activities concerning the life cycle of the nuclear installation. In maintenance activities as in any dynamic area, new elements appear continuously which, sometimes require new approaches. The theory of fuzzy logic and the software LabVIEW supplied to the Nuclear Detritiation Plant (NDP) is part of National Research and Development Inst. for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies-ICIT, Rm.Valcea, used for predictive maintenance to assure safety operation. The final aim is to achieve the best practices for maintenance of the Plant that processes tritium. (authors)

Anghel, V. [National Research and Development Inst. for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies - ICIT, Rm. Valcea Uzinei Street no.4, 240050 (Romania)

2008-07-15

77

Assimilation of spatially distributed water levels into a shallow-water flood model, Part I  

E-print Network

Assimilation of spatially distributed water levels into a shallow-water flood model, Part I from spatial images) and a 2D shallow water model. In the present paper (part I), we demonstrate flood models based on two-dimensional shallow water equations (St- Venant equations) are widely used

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

78

The Constant Levelers: Water, Ice, and Gravity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site has information about the work of three of the agents of erosion in the Northern Cascade Range. Since much of the range is made up of exotic terrains that probably did not evolve on the same spot on the Earth as the present North Cascades, the geologists confine their view to some time since the earliest Tertiary. Within that time frame, they can speculatively recreate the North Cascade scene and ponder its erosional history. The erosional work of rivers has constantly been altered by volcanic activity and whatever drainage pattern was established. It was profoundly altered about 35 million years ago by the renewed volcanic activity of the Cascade Volcanic Arc. A section about how rivers erode describes differential erosion, stream capture, and base level. The section about glaciers explains how they are formed, how they do their work, and what is left behind. The section about the work of gravity focuses on creep and landslides.

79

Prediction of water loss and viscoelastic deformation of apple tissue using a multiscale model.  

PubMed

A two-dimensional multiscale water transport and mechanical model was developed to predict the water loss and deformation of apple tissue (Malus?×?domestica Borkh. cv. 'Jonagold') during dehydration. At the macroscopic level, a continuum approach was used to construct a coupled water transport and mechanical model. Water transport in the tissue was simulated using a phenomenological approach using Fick's second law of diffusion. Mechanical deformation due to shrinkage was based on a structural mechanics model consisting of two parts: Yeoh strain energy functions to account for non-linearity and Maxwell's rheological model of visco-elasticity. Apparent parameters of the macroscale model were computed from a microscale model. The latter accounted for water exchange between different microscopic structures of the tissue (intercellular space, the cell wall network and cytoplasm) using transport laws with the water potential as the driving force for water exchange between different compartments of tissue. The microscale deformation mechanics were computed using a model where the cells were represented as a closed thin walled structure. The predicted apparent water transport properties of apple cortex tissue from the microscale model showed good agreement with the experimentally measured values. Deviations between calculated and measured mechanical properties of apple tissue were observed at strains larger than 3%, and were attributed to differences in water transport behavior between the experimental compression tests and the simulated dehydration-deformation behavior. Tissue dehydration and deformation in the high relative humidity range (?> 97% RH) could, however, be accurately predicted by the multiscale model. The multiscale model helped to understand the dynamics of the dehydration process and the importance of the different microstructural compartments (intercellular space, cell wall, membrane and cytoplasm) for water transport and mechanical deformation. PMID:25347182

Aregawi, Wondwosen A; Abera, Metadel K; Fanta, Solomon W; Verboven, Pieter; Nicolai, Bart

2014-11-19

80

Developing and implementing the use of predictive models for estimating water quality at Great Lakes beaches  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Predictive models have been used at beaches to improve the timeliness and accuracy of recreational water-quality assessments over the most common current approach to water-quality monitoring, which relies on culturing fecal-indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E. coli.). Beach-specific predictive models use environmental and water-quality variables that are easily and quickly measured as surrogates to estimate concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria or to provide the probability that a State recreational water-quality standard will be exceeded. When predictive models are used for beach closure or advisory decisions, they are referred to as “nowcasts.” During the recreational seasons of 2010-12, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with 23 local and State agencies, worked to improve existing nowcasts at 4 beaches, validate predictive models at another 38 beaches, and collect data for predictive-model development at 7 beaches throughout the Great Lakes. This report summarizes efforts to collect data and develop predictive models by multiple agencies and to compile existing information on the beaches and beach-monitoring programs into one comprehensive report. Local agencies measured E. coli concentrations and variables expected to affect E. coli concentrations such as wave height, turbidity, water temperature, and numbers of birds at the time of sampling. In addition to these field measurements, equipment was installed by the USGS or local agencies at or near several beaches to collect water-quality and metrological measurements in near real time, including nearshore buoys, weather stations, and tributary staff gages and monitors. The USGS worked with local agencies to retrieve data from existing sources either manually or by use of tools designed specifically to compile and process data for predictive-model development. Predictive models were developed by use of linear regression and (or) partial least squares techniques for 42 beaches that had at least 2 years of data (2010-11 and sometimes earlier) and for 1 beach that had 1 year of data. For most models, software designed for model development by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Virtual Beach) was used. The selected model for each beach was based on a combination of explanatory variables including, most commonly, turbidity, day of the year, change in lake level over 24 hours, wave height, wind direction and speed, and antecedent rainfall for various time periods. Forty-two predictive models were validated against data collected during an independent year (2012) and compared to the current method for assessing recreational water quality-using the previous day’s E. coli concentration (persistence model). Goals for good predictive-model performance were responses that were at least 5 percent greater than the persistence model and overall correct responses greater than or equal to 80 percent, sensitivities (percentage of exceedances of the bathing-water standard that were correctly predicted by the model) greater than or equal to 50 percent, and specificities (percentage of nonexceedances correctly predicted by the model) greater than or equal to 85 percent. Out of 42 predictive models, 24 models yielded over-all correct responses that were at least 5 percent greater than the use of the persistence model. Predictive-model responses met the performance goals more often than the persistence-model responses in terms of overall correctness (28 versus 17 models, respectively), sensitivity (17 versus 4 models), and specificity (34 versus 25 models). Gaining knowledge of each beach and the factors that affect E. coli concentrations is important for developing good predictive models. Collection of additional years of data with a wide range of environmental conditions may also help to improve future model performance. The USGS will continue to work with local agencies in 2013 and beyond to develop and validate predictive models at beaches and improve existing nowcasts, restructuring monitoring activities to accommodate future uncertainties in

Francy, Donna S.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Carvin, Rebecca B.; Corsi, Steven R.; Fuller, Lori M.; Harrison, John H.; Hayhurst, Brett A.; Lant, Jeremiah; Nevers, Meredith B.; Terrio, Paul J.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.

2013-01-01

81

Predicting habitat distribution to conserve seagrass threatened by sea level rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level rise (SLR) over the 21st century will cause significant redistribution of valuable coastal habitats. Seagrasses form extensive and highly productive meadows in shallow coastal seas support high biodiversity, including economically valuable and threatened species. Predictive habitat models can inform local management actions that will be required to conserve seagrass faced with multiple stressors. We developed novel modelling approaches, based on extensive field data sets, to examine the effects of sea level rise and other stressors on two representative seagrass habitats in Australia. First, we modelled interactive effects of SLR, water clarity and adjacent land use on estuarine seagrass meadows in Moreton Bay, Southeast Queensland. The extent of suitable seagrass habitat was predicted to decline by 17% by 2100 due to SLR alone, but losses were predicted to be significantly reduced through improvements in water quality (Fig 1a) and by allowing space for seagrass migration with inundation. The rate of sedimentation in seagrass strongly affected the area of suitable habitat for seagrass in sea level rise scenarios (Fig 1b). Further research to understand spatial, temporal and environmental variability of sediment accretion in seagrass is required. Second, we modelled changes in wave energy distribution due to predicted SLR in a linked coral reef and seagrass ecosystem at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef. Scenarios where the water depth over the coral reef deepened due to SLR and minimal reef accretion, resulted in larger waves propagating shoreward, changing the existing hydrodynamic conditions sufficiently to reduce area of suitable habitat for seagrass. In a scenario where accretion of the coral reef was severely compromised (e.g. warming, acidification, overfishing), the probability of the presence of seagrass declined significantly. Management to maintain coral health will therefore also benefit seagrasses subject to SLR in reef environments. Further disentangling direct and indirect effects of climate change on seagrass will be necessary to inform management of these valuable coastal ecosystems. Models such as these will be important sources of information for management agencies, which require specific information on the likely impacts of sea level rise in coastal areas.

Saunders, M. I.; Baldock, T.; Brown, C. J.; Callaghan, D. P.; Golshani, A.; Hamylton, S.; Hoegh-guldberg, O.; Leon, J. X.; Lovelock, C. E.; Lyons, M. B.; O'Brien, K.; Mumby, P.; Phinn, S. R.; Roelfsema, C. M.

2013-12-01

82

Implications of Predicted Hydrologic Changes on Lake Senftenberg as Calculated Using Water and Reactive Mass Budgets  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Lake Senftenberg, Germany, is a post-mining lake that was flooded 30 years ago. It is anticipated that the levels of the\\u000a surrounding post-mining lakes will rise, and that this will lead to a reversal of groundwater flow and consequently to an\\u000a increase of acidifying groundwater flux into the lake. A tool to predict the future water quality of Lake

Florian Werner; Felix Bilek; Ludwig Luckner

2001-01-01

83

Origin of elevated water levels encountered in Pahute Mesa emplacement boreholes: Preliminary investigations  

SciTech Connect

The presence of standing water well above the predicted water table in emplacement boreholes on Pahute Mesa has been a recurring phenomenon at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). If these levels represent naturally perched aquifers, they may indicate a radionuclide migration hazard. In any case, they can pose engineering problems in the performance of underground nuclear tests. The origin of these elevated waters is uncertain. Large volumes of water are introduced during emplacement drilling, providing ample source for artificially perched water, yet elevated water levels can remain constant for years, suggesting a natural origin instead. In an effort to address the issue of unexpected standing water in emplacement boreholes, three different sites were investigated in Area 19 on Pahute Mesa by Desert Research Institute (DRI) staff from 1990-93. These sites were U-19az, U-19ba, and U-19bh. As of this writing, U-19bh remains available for access; however, nuclear tests were conducted at the former two locations subsequent to this investigations. The experiments are discussed in chronological order. Taken together, the experiments indicate that standing water in Pahute Mesa emplacement holes originates from the drainage of small-volume naturally perched zones. In the final study, the fluids used during drilling of the bottom 100 m of emplacement borehole U-19bh were labeled with a chemical tracer. After hole completion, water level rose in the borehole, while tracer concentration decreased. In fact, total mass of tracer in the borehole remained constant, while water levels rose. After water levels stabilized in this hole, no change in tracer mass was observed over two years, indicating that no movement of water out of the borehole is taking place (as at U- 19ba). Continued labeling tests of standing water are recommended to confirm the conclusions made here, and to establish their validity throughout Pahute Mesa.

Brikowski, T.; Chapman, J.; Lyles, B.; Hokett, S.

1993-11-01

84

Quantifying the water balance in a planar hillslope plot: Effects of measurement errors on flow prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryWe examine comprehensively the water balance of an experimental plot in Seattle, WA, USA to determine the magnitude of hydrologic measurement errors and their effects on flow prediction. The plot represents a fully contained planar hillslope with known size and boundary conditions. Precipitation input to the plot is measured with a series of rain gauges installed above the ground surface and buried with rims at the ground surface level. Output from the plot via subsurface flow is measured by continuously recording tipping buckets. Evapotranspiration ( ET) output is characterized using weather station and energy budget measurements. Analyses of water balance measurements show that the best precipitation measurements come from buried rain gauges, particularly simple funnel collectors, whereas surface rain gauges under-report rain by an average of 8%. ET is the most uncertain component of the water balance, with land surface energy budget, Penman-Monteith equation, and a calibrated empirical equation predicting seasonal ET rates that differ from one another by up to 18%. Standard un-calibrated empirical ET equations prove unsuitable for the plot site. To evaluate how differences in measured precipitation and evapotranspiration affect flow prediction, we run continuous flow simulations with the physically-based variably saturated flow model, HYDRUS-2D, for four scenarios, each with a different combination of forcing data (precipitation and reference ET time series). Results show that biases in the atmospheric forcing data propagate into flow predictions, causing biases in discharge predictions of up to 22%. Some scenarios show an apparent mass balance that results from compensating errors in precipitation and ET. Simulations demonstrate that errors in forcing data are not easily discernable from model performance metrics and highlight the importance of analyzing the water balance at multiple time scales to identify sources of bias in water balance predictions.

Kampf, Stephanie K.; Burges, Stephen J.

2010-01-01

85

Enhancing resilience in great lakes water levels management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Great Lakes water levels management has been the focus of major studies by the Canada?U.S. International Joint Commission (IJC) since 1964. The main reason for this activity is the economic significance of lake levels fluctuations to navigation, hydro?electric power generation, recreation, shoreline erosion, industrial and municipal water supply and wildlife. Reviews of public policies for Great Lakes shoreline management indicate

A. P. Lino Grima

1993-01-01

86

Prediction of water surface elevation of Great Salt Lake using Support Vector Machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Record breaking rises of Great Salt Lake (GSL) water levels that were observed in the period 1982-1987 resulted in severe economic impact to the State of Utah. Rising lake levels caused flooding that damaged highways, railways, recreation facilities and industries located in exposed lake bed. Prediction of GSL water levels necessitates the development of a model for accurate predictions of such levels in order to reduce or prevent economic loss due to flooding as happened in the past. A data-driven model, whose intent is to determine the relationship between inputs and outputs without knowing underlying physical process, was used in this project. A data-driven model can bridge the gap between classical regression-based and physically-based hydrological models. A Support Vector Machines (SVM) was used to predict water surface elevation of the GSL. The SVM-based reconstruction was used to develop time series forecast for multiple lead times. The model is able to extract the dynamics of the system by using only a few observed data points for training. The reliability of the algorithm in learning and forecasting the dynamics of the system was tested by changing two parameters: the integer time lag and the dimension (d) of the system. Parameter tau models the delay in which the dynamics unfolds by creating vectors of dimension d out of single measurements. For a given set of parameters tau and d, the discrepancy between observation and prediction is reduced by changing the cost parameter and a parameter called epsilon that controls the width of the SVM insensitive zone. All the data points within the epsilon insensitive zone are neglected in the SVM analysis. The analysis was performed for two time periods. The period of 1982 to 1987 was used to test the model performance in predicting the corresponding dramatic rise of GSL elevation. The period of 1987 to 2008 was used to test the performance of model for the normal water level rise and fall of the GSL. This analysis was conducted on both the North and South arms of the lake. After testing the model for different combinations of integer lag and dimension d, it was found that these data-driven models made fairly precise prediction based on only observed water surface elevation data.

Shrestha, N. K.; Urroz, G.

2009-12-01

87

Responses of wetland plants to ammonia and water level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed wetland systems receiving animal wastewater may enhance water quality when designed, operated, and maintained properly. In the case of wetlands designed to treat animal waste, system effectiveness may be limited by high ammonia concentrations and inundation, conditions that can adversely affect macrophytic vegetation. We conducted a 4-month greenhouse experiment to assess the impact of ammonia concentration and water level

Ernest Clarke; Andrew H. Baldwin

2002-01-01

88

Parameter estimation techniques and uncertainty in ground water flow model predictions  

SciTech Connect

Quantification of uncertainty in predictions of nuclear waste repository performance is a requirement of Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations governing the licensing of proposed geologic repositories for high-level radioactive waste disposal. One of the major uncertainties in these predictions is in estimating the ground-water travel time of radionuclides migrating from the repository to the accessible environment. The cause of much of this uncertainty has been attributed to a lack of knowledge about the hydrogeologic properties that control the movement of radionuclides through the aquifers. A major reason for this lack of knowledge is the paucity of data that is typically available for characterizing complex ground-water flow systems. Because of this, considerable effort has been put into developing parameter estimation techniques that infer property values in regions where no measurements exist. Currently, no single technique has been shown to be superior or even consistently conservative with respect to predictions of ground-water travel time. This work was undertaken to compare a number of parameter estimation techniques and to evaluate how differences in the parameter estimates and the estimation errors are reflected in the behavior of the flow model predictions. That is, we wished to determine to what degree uncertainties in flow model predictions may be affected simply by the choice of parameter estimation technique used. 3 refs., 2 figs.

Zimmerman, D.A. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Davis, P.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-01-01

89

Ecological changes and water level variation in Sélingué Reservoir (Mali)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sélingué is a monomictic reservoir in Mali (West Africa), featuring annual water level change up to 8 m. High waters occur from November, after the flood, while low waters occur from June, at the end of the dry season. Water level decrease is linked to environmental factors (marked hydrological pattern, both for flow and rains) and to human management of the dam (keeping high the water level of the Office du Niger Agriculture Area during the dry season and hydropower production during the hottest months of the year). To study the ecological impact of such water level variations, environmental and biological descriptors were studied on water sampled biweekly from November 2000 to November 2001 in a station representative of the north part of Sélingué. The water column is stratified from March to May, as a result of the cooling induced by NE trade winds. In such conditions, the hypolimnion is anoxic. During calm periods in the dry season, the hypolimnion can progressively increase in thickness; the metalimnion gets closer to the surface and in some cases, the epilimnion can vanish and fish mortality is then observed. But stratification can also act as a trap for nutrients in the hypolimnion, preventing the euphotic epilimnion to be re-alimented in dissolved P and N mineral components. This sink-phase is replaced by a spring-phase when the water column is not anymore stratified and when the water level is low enough to allow wind-induced resuspension and vertical mixing. Such nutrient enrichment of the euphotic layer is observed at the end of the dry season. As a consequence, phytoplankton blooms are observed. Finally, water level is also important for fisheries, since fishes are diluted in high water (i.e. more difficult to catch with the artisanal tools operated by the local fishermen) but are concentrated in low water (i.e. more easily over fished in the minor bed, where most fishes are sheltered at the end of the dry season). Wise rules of water level management could help to minimize these ecological consequences.

Arfi, R.

2003-04-01

90

Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood  

PubMed Central

Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual’s future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival. PMID:25279258

Griffith, Simon C.

2014-01-01

91

Should a water colour parameter be included in lake total phosphorus prediction models used for the Water Framework Directive?  

PubMed

Under the Water Framework Directive (WFD) lakes are classified according to a variety of criteria. This classification facilitates state of the environment assessments and helps identify work needed to achieve the objectives of the WFD, which are broadly to maintain and/or restore water quality and ecological status at a level recognised as good or high. To achieve high or good status, lakes must meet a criterion for total phosphorus (TP) that is linked to a predicted reference condition value that is derived by various models. Lakes which fail to meet good status may require expensive remedial actions to be undertaken, thus accurate identification of the reference condition TP concentration is vital for effective environmental management. However, the models currently employed could be improved for some regions, particularly those with carbon rich soils. By examining 19 reference condition lakes (i.e. lakes essentially non-impacted by humans) in peaty areas of Scotland, we found that a simple parameter linked to water colour and humic substances was a better predictor of TP than the currently employed models (R(2) 0.585 vs R(2) < 0.01). Therefore, for Scotland and elsewhere, in regions with carbon rich soils and lakes with humic waters the TP predictive models could be improved by development and incorporation of a parameter related to water colour and humic components. PMID:25262390

Vinogradoff, Susan I; Oliver, Ian W

2015-01-01

92

Predicting doubly labeled water energy expenditure from ambulatory activity.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for using accelerometer-determined ambulatory activity indicators (steps per day and cadence) to predict total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) derived from doubly labeled water (DLW). Twenty men and 34 women (20-36 years of age) provided complete anthropometric, accelerometer, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and DLW data. TEE and PAEE were determined for the same week that accelerometers were worn during waking hours. Accelerometer data included mean steps per day, peak 30-min cadence (average steps per minute for the highest 30 min of the day), and time spent in each incremental cadence band: 0 (nonmovement), 1-19 (incidental movement), 20-39 (sporadic movement), 40-59 (purposeful steps), 60-79 (slow walking), 80-99 (medium walking), 100-119 (brisk walking), and 120+ steps·min(-1) (indicative of all faster ambulatory activities). Regression analyses were employed to develop sex-specific equations for predicting TEE and PAEE. The final model predicting TEE included body weight, steps per day, and time in incremental cadence bands and explained 79% (men) and 65% (women) of the variability. The final model predicting PAEE included peak 30-min cadence, steps per day, and time in cadence bands and explained 76% (men) and 46% (women) of the variability. Time in cadence bands alone explained 39%-73% of the variability in TEE and 30%-63% of the variability in PAEE. Prediction models were stronger for men than for women. PMID:22963352

Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Martin, Corby K; Brashear, Meghan M; Rood, Jennifer C; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Johnson, William D

2012-12-01

93

ELEVATED LEVELS OF SODIUM IN COMMUNITY DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A comparison study of students from towns with differing levels of sodium in drinking water revealed statistically significantly higher blood pressure distributions among the students from the town with high sodium levels. Differences were found in both systolic and diastolic rea...

94

The Dead Sea: Impacts of the Rapidly Declining Water Level and the Expected "Anthropogenic" Meromixis Upon Water Level Stabilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dead Sea (DS) is a highly perturbed terminal lake experiencing major changes in its limnology. Exploitation of water resources in its drainage basin as well as salt extraction through brine evaporation by Israeli and Jordanian chemical industries have resulted in a decline of its water level by more than 25 meter over the past few decades. The DS current level, which is the lowest surface on Earth, is 418 meters below mean sea level, and the level continues to drop at a rate of about 1 m/yr. This represents annual water deficient of about 650 MCM/yr, which is equivalent to more than a third and a half of the water consumptions in Israel and Jordan, respectively. The declining water level is having negative environmental impacts on the lake's surroundings such as exposure of large mud flats and development of sinkholes in the vicinity of the lake. Yet, it is unlikely that in this water scarce region, stabilization of the DS level would be achieved through new freshwater allocation. Introduction of seawater, which is being considered today as a mean of stabilizing or raising lake level, will however have other environmental impacts, including changes in the DS chemical composition. We present a study providing forecast for the evolution of the DS under different operational scenarios, including conveyance of seawater from the Red Sea. The impact of increasing inflows (fresh or seawater) on the lake's dynamics is considered. All scenarios assumed continuation of operation of the chemical plants. Modeling was carried out using the modified 1-D POM-based code adopted for the DS chemistry. Long term dilution and the development of meromixis is expected to occur when lake level is raised. However, we show that meromixis would occur also when inflow volumes are smaller but enough to stabilize water level or decrease the current rate of water level decline. This seemingly unlikely behavior of a terminal lake experiencing a negative or a balanced water regime will be due to the continued operation of the chemical industries. Stratification develops because of excess inflow over evaporation, while water level decline occurs due to brine withdrawal from the hypolimnion by the industries. Anthropogenic impact would thus continue to control the DS evolution, even if lake level is stabilized. If the additional inflow is derived from seawater, the anthropogenic impact on the DS evolution would be even more pronounced.

Gavrieli, I.; Dvorkin, Y.; Lensky, N. G.; Lyakhovsky, V.

2006-12-01

95

Water jump reorientation: from theoretical prediction to experimental observation.  

PubMed

Liquid water is remarkably labile in reorganizing its hydrogen-bond (HB) network through the breaking and forming of HBs. This rapid restructuring, which occurs on the picosecond time scale, is critical not only for many of the pure liquid's special features but also for a range of aqueous media phenomena, including chemical reactions and protein activity. An essential part of the HB network reorganization is water molecule reorientation, which has long been described as Debye rotational diffusion characterized by very small angular displacements. Recent theoretical work, however, has presented a starkly contrasting picture: a sudden, large-amplitude jump mechanism, in which the reorienting water molecule rapidly exchanges HB partners in what amounts to an activated chemical reaction. In this Account, we first briefly review the jump mechanism and then discuss how it is supported by a series of experiments. These studies range from indirect indications to direct characterization of the jumps through pioneering two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR), the power of which accords it a special focus here. The scenarios in which experimental signatures of the jump mechanism are sought increase in complexity throughout the Account, beginning with pure water. Here 2D-IR in combination with theory can give a glimpse of the jumps, but the tell-tale markers are not pronounced. A more fruitful arena is provided by aqueous ionic solutions. The difference between water-water and water-anion HB strengths provides the experimental handle of differing OH stretch frequencies; in favorable cases, the kinetic exchange of a water between these two sites can be monitored. Sole observation of this exchange, however, is insufficient to establish the jump mechanism. Fortunately, 2D-IR with polarized pulses has demonstrated that HB exchange is accompanied by significant angular displacement, with an estimated jump angle similar to theoretical estimates. The Janus-like character of amphiphilic solutes, with their hydrophobic and hydrophilic faces, presents a special challenge for theory and experiment. Here a consensus on the 2D-IR interpretation has not yet been achieved; this lack of accord impedes the understanding of, for example, biochemical solutes and interfaces. We argue that the influence of hydrophobic groups on water jumps is only modest and well accounted for by an excluded volume effect in the HB exchange process. Conversely, hydrophilic groups have an important influence when their HB strength with water differs significantly from that of the water-water HB. The power of 2D-IR is argued to be accompanied by subtleties that can lead to just the opposite and, in our view, erroneous conclusion. We close with a prediction that a hydrophobic surface offers an arena in which the dynamics of "dangling" water OHs, bereft of a HB, could provide a 2D-IR confirmation of water jumps. PMID:21749157

Laage, Damien; Stirnemann, Guillaume; Sterpone, Fabio; Hynes, James T

2012-01-17

96

Striatal Volume Predicts Level of Video Game Skill Acquisition  

PubMed Central

Video game skills transfer to other tasks, but individual differences in performance and in learning and transfer rates make it difficult to identify the source of transfer benefits. We asked whether variability in initial acquisition and of improvement in performance on a demanding video game, the Space Fortress game, could be predicted by variations in the pretraining volume of either of 2 key brain regions implicated in learning and memory: the striatum, implicated in procedural learning and cognitive flexibility, and the hippocampus, implicated in declarative memory. We found that hippocampal volumes did not predict learning improvement but that striatal volumes did. Moreover, for the striatum, the volumes of the dorsal striatum predicted improvement in performance but the volumes of the ventral striatum did not. Both ventral and dorsal striatal volumes predicted early acquisition rates. Furthermore, this early-stage correlation between striatal volumes and learning held regardless of the cognitive flexibility demands of the game versions, whereas the predictive power of the dorsal striatal volumes held selectively for performance improvements in a game version emphasizing cognitive flexibility. These findings suggest a neuroanatomical basis for the superiority of training strategies that promote cognitive flexibility and transfer to untrained tasks. PMID:20089946

Erickson, Kirk I.; Boot, Walter R.; Basak, Chandramallika; Neider, Mark B.; Prakash, Ruchika S.; Voss, Michelle W.; Simons, Daniel J.; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Kramer, Arthur F.

2010-01-01

97

Great Lakes Water Levels Bounce Back After Record Lows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water levels in the Great Lakes have rebounded dramatically from historic lows in December 2012 and January 2013, though the levels still remain lower than average in some of the lakes, scientists with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers said during a 20 November briefing. The low lake levels had hampered shipping and other commercial and recreational uses of the waterways.

Showstack, Randy

2013-12-01

98

Measuring Water Level Fluctuations of two Connected Wetlands in the Dominican Republic Using InSAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands are ecosystems of high endemism and great biodiversity. Using the double-reflected radar waves off the water surface and trunks of inundated vegetation, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is capable of measuring water level fluctuations from space at a cm-level accuracy in these ecosystems with emergent vegetation. InSAR can provide a high spatial resolution over a large area that the more traditional terrestrial-based methods lack. In this study, we applied InSAR to study the seasonal variations in water level of the wetlands near two lakes in the southwest of the Dominican Republic: Lake Enriquillo, a highly saline lake designated as a Wetland of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention in 2002, and Laguna del Limon. Both lake-wetland systems are located in the Jaragua-Bahoruco-Enriquillo Biosphere Reserve. Since 2003 the water level of Lake Enriquillo has increased drastically and caused the evacuation of many farmers from nearby villages. Lake level changes also affected the habitats of several native and migratory species. We used the data acquired by the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) sensor on board of the Japanese Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) from October 2008 to January 2011. For the smaller lake, Laguna del Limon, we found a seasonal variation of 10-15 centimeters. This result was confirmed using two different satellite paths. For Lake Enriquillo we found a net decrease of about 20 centimeters in the water level from September 2009 to January 2011. This result agrees with an independent estimation based on lake hydrodynamics model predictions. In addition, our InSAR-based time series of lake level fluctuations revealed distinct behaviors of the two wetlands. For the Lake Enriquillo we found a continuous decrease in the water level throughout 2010 with a brief increase of the water level during the summer months, while for Laguna del Limon during the summer months the water level decreased and the lake presented a net increase in the water level. The decrease in water level for Lake Enriquillo can be explained by the reduce precipitation rate in 2010 compared to previous years. We demonstrate that InSAR is an effective way to measure water level fluctuations at wetlands in this region. The same method could be applied to other wetlands in the area to fully understand the complex hydrology of the connected wetland systems and the impacts of the hydrological changes on the environment and local human community.

Pichardo Marcano, M. D.; Liu, L.; Zebker, H. A.

2012-12-01

99

Use of tritium to predict soluble pollutants transport in Ebro River waters (Spain).  

PubMed

The Ebro River, in Northeast Spain, discharges into the Mediterranean Sea after flowing through several large cities and agricultural, mining and industrial areas. The Ascó nuclear power plant (NPP) is located in its lower section and comprises two pressurised water reactor units, from which low-level liquid radioactive waste is released to river waters under authority control. Tritium routinely released by the NPP was used as a radiotracer to determine the longitudinal dispersion coefficient and velocity of the river waters. Several field experiments, in co-ordination with the NPP, were carried out during 1991 and 1992. During each field experiment, the flow rate was kept constant by dams located upstream from the NPP. After each tritium release, water was sampled downstream at periodic intervals over several hours and tritium was measured with a low-background liquid scintillation counter. Velocity and dispersion coefficient were determined in river waters for several river discharges using an analytical, box-type and numerical approach to solve the one-dimensional advection-diffusion equation. The set of calibrated parameters was used to predict the displacement and dispersion of soluble pollutants in river waters. Velocity was determined as a function of river discharge and river slope, and dispersion coefficient was determined as a function of distance. Finally, sensitivity of the model predictions was studied and uncertainties of the fitted parameters were estimated. PMID:15092956

Pujol, L; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A

2000-05-01

100

RADIOLYTIC HYDROGEN GENERATION INSAVANNAH RIVER SITE (SRS) HIGH LEVEL WASTETANKS COMPARISON OF SRS AND HANFORDMODELING PREDICTIONS  

SciTech Connect

In the high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), hydrogen is produced continuously by interaction of the radiation in the tank with water in the waste. Consequently, the vapor spaces of the tanks are purged to prevent the accumulation of H{sub 2} and possible formation of a flammable mixture in a tank. Personnel at SRS have developed an empirical model to predict the rate of H{sub 2} formation in a tank. The basis of this model is the prediction of the G value for H{sub 2} production. This G value is the number of H{sub 2} molecules produced per 100 eV of radiolytic energy absorbed by the waste. Based on experimental studies it was found that the G value for H{sub 2} production from beta radiation and from gamma radiation were essentially equal. The G value for H{sub 2} production from alpha radiation was somewhat higher. Thus, the model has two equations, one for beta/gamma radiation and one for alpha radiation. Experimental studies have also indicated that both G values are decreased by the presence of nitrate and nitrite ions in the waste. These are the main scavengers for the precursors of H{sub 2} in the waste; thus the equations that were developed predict G values for hydrogen production as a function of the concentrations of these two ions in waste. Knowing the beta/gamma and alpha heat loads in the waste allows one to predict the total generation rate for hydrogen in a tank. With this prediction a ventilation rate can be established for each tank to ensure that a flammable mixture is not formed in the vapor space in a tank. Recently personnel at Hanford have developed a slightly different model for predicting hydrogen G values. Their model includes the same precursor for H{sub 2} as the SRS model but also includes an additional precursor not in the SRS model. Including the second precursor for H{sub 2} leads to different empirical equations for predicting the G values for H{sub 2} as a function of the nitrate and nitrite concentrations in the waste. The difference in the two models has led to the questions of how different are the results predicted by the two models and which model predicts the more conservative (larger) G values. More conservative G values would predict higher H{sub 2} generation rates that would require higher ventilation rates in the SRS tanks. This report compares predictions based on the two models at various nitrate and nitrite concentrations in the SRS HLW tanks for both beta/gamma and for alpha radiation. It also compares predicted G values with those determined by actually measuring the H{sub 2} production from four SRS HLW tanks (Tanks 32H, 35H, 39H, and 42H). Lastly, the H{sub 2} generation rates predicted by the two models are compared for the 47 active SRS high level waste tanks using the most recent tank nitrate and nitrite concentrations and the beta/gamma and alpha heat loads for each tank. The predictions of the models for total H{sub 2} generation rates from the 47 active SRS waste were, for the most part, similar. For example, the predictions for both models applied to 25 tanks agreed within {+-}10% of each other. For the remaining 22 tanks, the SRS prediction was more conservative for 9 tanks (maximum 29% higher) and the Hanford prediction was more conservative for 13 tanks (maximum 19% higher). When comparing G values predicted by the equations presuming only alpha radiation or only beta/gamma was present the results were somewhat different. The results of predictions for alpha radiation, at the 47 current nitrate and nitrite concentrations in the SRS tanks indicated that all the SRS predictions were higher (up to 30%) than the Hanford predictions and thus more conservative. For beta/gamma radiation the predictions for both models agreed to {+-}10% for 18 of the combinations, the Hanford model predicted higher values (11 up to 17%) for 25 of the concentrations considered, and the SRS model predicted higher G values for the remaining two combinations (12 and 17%). For the four SRS tanks, where we compared measured G values to those predicted by the two differen

Crawford, C; Ned Bibler, N

2009-04-15

101

A Methylmercury Prediction Too For Surface Waters Across The Contiguous United States (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 20 years ago, researchers at a few locations across the globe discovered high levels of mercury in fish from remote settings lacking any obvious mercury source. We now know that for most locations atmospheric deposition is the dominant mercury source, and that mercury methylation is the key process that translates low mercury loading rates into relatively high levels in top predators of aquatic food webs. Presently, almost all US states have advisories for elevated levels of mercury in sport fish, and as a result there is considerable public awareness and concern for this nearly ubiquitous contaminant issue. In some states, “statewide” advisories have been issued because elevated fish mercury levels are so common, or the state has no effective way to monitor thousands of lakes, reservoirs, wetlands, and streams. As such, resource managers and public health officials have limited options for informing the public on of where elevated mercury concentrations in sport fish are more likely to occur than others. This project provides, for the first time, a national map of predicted (modeled) methylmercury concentrations in surface waters, which is the most toxic and bioaccumulative form of mercury in the environment. The map is the result of over two decades of research that resulted in the formulation of conceptual models of the mercury methylation process, which is strongly governed by environmental conditions - specifically hydrologic landscapes and water quality. The resulting predictive map shows clear regional trends in the distribution of methylmercury concentrations in surface waters. East of the Mississippi, the Gulf and southeastern Atlantic coast, the northeast, the lower Mississippi valley, and Great Lakes area are predicted to have generally higher environmental methylmercury levels. Higher-elevation, well-drained areas of Appalachia are predicted to have relatively lower methylmercury abundance. Other than the prairie pothole region, in the western US incessant regional patterns are less clear. However, the full range of predicted methylmercury levels are predicted to occur in western US watersheds. Lastly, although this map is being presented at the continental US scale, the principles used to generate the modeled results can easily applied to data sets that represent a range of geographic scales.

Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Booth, N.; Lutz, M.; Fienen, M. N.; Saltman, T.

2009-12-01

102

Reverse water level fluctuations in semiconfined aquifer systems — ``rhade effect''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pumping tests in semiconfined aquifer systems near Dorsten (F.R.G.) caused anomalous reverse water level fluctuations in observation wells tapping the overlying confining bed (aquitard) at different depths (multilevel piezometer). Whenever water is pumped from a well that is screened in the aquifer of the "Halterner Sande", the piezometric surface in the aquitard ("Bottroper Mergel") rises. After that increase, the water level falls according to the drawdown of head within the pumped aquifer (Noordbergum effect according to Verruijt, 1969). Conversely, the piezometric surface in the aquitard falls whenever the pump is shut off (Rhade effect). The anomalous water level reactions propagate with decreasing amplitude from the aquifer-aquitard boundary to the top of the semipermeable layer. Such water level fluctuations ("swelling effects") may be explained by the capability of a water-saturated, compacted material to change volume when subjected to sudden pressure changes. On a practical basis, the Noordbergum and Rhade effects must be taken into consideration for evaluating long-term changes in chemical and hydraulic properties in pumped, semiconfined aquifer systems.

Langguth, H. R.; Treskatis, C.

1989-07-01

103

Validation of Aircraft Noise Prediction Models at Low Levels of Exposure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft noise measurements were made at Denver International Airport for a period of four weeks. Detailed operational information was provided by airline operators which enabled noise levels to be predicted using the FAA's Integrated Noise Model. Several thrust prediction techniques were evaluated. Measured sound exposure levels for departure operations were found to be 4 to 10 dB higher than predicted, depending on the thrust prediction technique employed. Differences between measured and predicted levels are shown to be related to atmospheric conditions present at the aircraft altitude.

Page, Juliet A.; Hobbs, Christopher M.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Stusnick, Eric; Shepherd, Kevin P. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

104

Predicting Change in Eelgrass Distribution Due to Sea Level Rise  

EPA Science Inventory

The eelgrass species Zostera marina is the dominant estuarine seagrass on the Pacific Northwest coast of North America and provides important ecosystem services and functions. The loss of eelgrass bed acreage due to environmental pressures is of world-wide concern, yet predicted ...

105

A useful prediction variable for student models: cognitive development level  

E-print Network

: Cognitive resources, Piaget, student modeling. Ivon Arroyo Ivon@cs.umass.edu Computer Science Department In this paper we describe the use of Piaget's notion of cognitive development to improve a tutor's reasoning ability (Piaget, 1953). We are interested in finding information that not only predicts a student

Arroyo, Ivon M.

106

Predicting Water Activity for Complex Wastes with Solvation Cluster Equilibria (SCE) - 12042  

SciTech Connect

Predicting an electrolyte mixture's water activity, i.e. the ratio of water vapor pressure over a solution with that of pure water, in principle reveals both boiling point and solubilities for that mixture. Better predictions of these properties helps support the ongoing missions to concentrate complex nuclear waste mixtures in order to conserve tank space and improved predictions of water activity will help. A new approach for predicting water activity, the solvation cluster equilibria (SCE) model, uses pure electrolyte water activities to predict water activity for a complex mixture of those electrolytes. An SCE function based on electrolyte hydration free energy and a standard Debye- Hueckel (DH) charge compression fits each pure electrolyte's water activity with three parameters. Given these pure electrolyte water activities, the SCE predicts any mixture water activity over a large range of concentration with an additional parameter for each mixture vector, the multinarity. In contrast to ionic strength, which scales with concentration, multinarity is related to the relative proportion of electrolytes in a mixture and can either increase or decrease the water activity prediction over a broad range of concentration for that mixture. The SCE model predicts water activity for complex electrolyte mixtures based on the water activities of pure electrolytes. Three parameter SCE functions fit the water activities of pure electrolytes and along with a single multinarity parameter for each mixture vector then predict the mixture water activity. Predictions of water activity can in principle predict solution electrolyte activity and this relationship will be explored in the future. Predicting electrolyte activities for complex mixtures provides a means of determining solubilities for each electrolyte. Although there are a number of reports [9, 10, 11] of water activity models for pure and binary mixtures of electrolytes, none of them compare measured versus calculated water activity for more complex mixtures. (authors)

Agnew, S.F. [Columbia Energy and Environmental Services, Inc., Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Reynolds, J.G. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Johnston, C.T. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47906 (United States)

2012-07-01

107

Modeling water ages and thermal structure of Lake Mead under changing water levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water age and thermal structure of Lake Mead were modeled using the 3-dimensional hydrodynamic Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). The model was calibrated using observed data from 2005 and then applied to simulate 2 scenarios: high-stage with an initial water level of 370.0 m and low-stage with a projected initial water level of 320.0 m. The high-stage simulation described predrought

Yiping Li; Kumud Acharya; Dong Chen; Mark Stone

2010-01-01

108

Regional and State Level Water Scarcity Report: Northeast United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are an abundance of large-scale, coarse resolution global water scarcity studies, but the existing literature fails to address regional and state specific scarcity measures. Moreover, while environmental water requirements are an integral factor in the development and implementation of sustainable water management practices, only recently has this notion been introduced to water scarcity research. In this paper, we argue that developing a preliminary measure of water scarcity, at the regional and state levels, will allow for more informed policy development. The goal of this study is to generate a more comprehensive understanding of water scarcity in the Northeast, by gathering fine scale data, applying a consistent methodology to the calculation of a scarcity index, and analyzing the results to see relative trends in spatio-temporal water scarcity. Public supply, irrigation, rural, industrial and thermo-power withdrawals have been compiled from USGS state water use publications from 1950 to 1985. Using the WBMplus water model runoff data, state specific in-stream environmental water requirements were calculated using the accepted hydro-ecological methodology. Water scarcity was then calculated as a ratio of water withdrawals to total available water minus environmental flow requirements for the system. In so doing, this study generates a spatially explicit and temporally varying water scarcity indicator (WSI) for the Northeastern United States between 1950 and 2000 at the regional and state levels at a five-year time interval. Calculation of a spatial and temporal water scarcity indicator enabled us to identify regions and specific states that were: slightly exploited (WSI < 0.3), moderately exploited (0.31.0). The minimum environmental water requirements to maintain in-stream aquatic and riparian ecosystems for the Northeastern states ranged between 27.5 to 36.3 percent of the mean annual runoff within Vermont and Maryland, respectively. The regional WSI values ranged between 0.199 in 1950 and 0.512 in 1995, indicating increasing water scarcity over time as population and employment growth has placed greater demands on water resources. Additionally, our study revealed that in 1980, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania and New Jersey scarcity levels were 0.733, 0.790 and 0.857, respectively. Although the Northeastern United States is commonly perceived as a water rich region, moderate to heavily exploited levels of water stress were observed over the time period when a finer spatial scale is utilized. Water scarcity indicator values were disaggregated by state for each time period and illustrated using a series of maps. Additional descriptive statistics were used to elucidate the differences in water scarcity between states over time.

Nicoletti, C. K.; Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Mohammed, I. N.

2010-12-01

109

Daily water level by ENVISAT altimetry of the Amazon River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radar Altimetry is a remote sensing technique applied in order to obtain the level of water of the hydrological processes, mostly in remote regions such as in the Amazon basin. However, the altimetry satellites have a limitation in their temporal resolution, which in the case of ENVISAT is 35 days, which prevents the study of short-term hydrological events alert of floods and droughts and etc. Thus, a method of obtaining altimetric daily time series water level, based on a linear model of interpolation by optimization with multi-objective criteria was applied, using data from in situ on pluvial stations, along the Amazon River. The altimetry data validation show accurate results with a RMS of 11 cm, while the estimates carried out by the model obtained 63% of altimetric daily time series water level data with RMS less than 40 cm, thus allowing the use of altimetry data daily at various hydrological studies, hydrodynamic modeling and monitoring of extreme events.

Sousa, A. C.; Pereira, P.; Silva, J. S.; Calmant, S.; Seyler, F.

2013-05-01

110

Using Reverse Water Levels to Characterize Fractured-Rock Aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reverse water-level fluctuations have been widely observed in aquitards or aquifers separated from a pumped confined aquifer (Noordbergum effect) immediately after the initiation of pumping. This same reverse fluctuation has been observed in a fractured crystalline-rock aquifer at the Coles Hill Uranium site in Virginia in which the reverse water-level response occurs within the pumped fracture (Mandel-Cryer effect) and results from an instantaneous strain response to pumping that supersedes the pore-pressure response in observation wells of sufficient distance from the pumped well. The unique aspect of this water level rise during a controlled 24 hour pumping test was that the reverse water levels lasted for approximately 100 minutes and reached a magnitude of nearly 1 cm prior to a typical drawdown response. The duration and magnitude of the response reflects the poromechanical properties of the fractured host rock and hydraulic properties of the pumped fracture. A flow and deformation model was developed using Abaqus in an effort to simulate the observed water-level response along a horizontal fracture 176 m from the pumping well and to identify the importance of the poroelastic response. Simulation results indicate that traditional aquifer-testing methods that ignore the poromechanical response underestimate the fracture conductivity by a factor of 15. The results show that the strain response initiating the reverse water-level fluctuation is an important diagnostic tool that provides valuable information about the hostrock environment that cannot be obtained by analysis of traditional drawdown curves in fractured media.

Burbey, T. J.

2011-12-01

111

Orion Crew Member Injury Predictions during Land and Water Landings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of astronaut whole body impact tolerance is discussed for land or water landings of the next generation manned space capsule named Orion. LS-DYNA simulations of Orion capsule landings are performed to produce a low, moderate, and high probability of injury. The paper evaluates finite element (FE) seat and occupant simulations for assessing injury risk for the Orion crew and compares these simulations to whole body injury models commonly referred to as the Brinkley criteria. The FE seat and crash dummy models allow for varying the occupant restraint systems, cushion materials, side constraints, flailing of limbs, and detailed seat/occupant interactions to minimize landing injuries to the crew. The FE crash test dummies used in conjunction with the Brinkley criteria provides a useful set of tools for predicting potential crew injuries during vehicle landings.

Lawrence, Charles; Littell, Justin D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Tabiei, Ala

2008-01-01

112

Water Quality and pH Levels in Aquatic Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this fun and in depth hands-on experiment, learners test various liquid samples (distilled water, lemon juice, vinegar, and baking soda mixed with water) to determine their pH levels and identify each sample as either acid, base or neutral chemical. Then, over the course of several weeks, learners perform a number of tests and observe the affects of pH level on plants. The wrap up section of this activity discusses acid rain and its dramatic impact on aquatic animals, and tips for going further.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

113

Ensemble approach for projections of return periods of extreme water levels in Estonian waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of various drivers to the water level in the eastern Baltic Sea and the presence of outliers in the time series of observed and hindcast water level lead to large spreading of projections of future extreme water levels. We explore the options for using an ensemble of projections to more reliably evaluate return periods of extreme water levels. An example of such an ensemble is constructed by means of fitting several sets of block maxima (annual maxima and stormy season maxima) with a Generalised Extreme Value, Gumbel and Weibull distribution. The ensemble involves projections based on two data sets (resolution of 6 h and 1 h) hindcast by the Rossby Centre Ocean model (RCO; Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute) and observed data from four representative sites along the Estonian coast. The observed data are transferred into the grid cells of the RCO model using the HIROMB model and a linear regression. For coastal segments where the observations represent the offshore water level well, the overall appearance of the ensembles signals that the errors of single projections are randomly distributed and that the median of the ensemble provides a sensible projection. For locations where the observed water level involves local effects (e.g. wave set-up) the block maxima are split into clearly separated populations. The resulting ensemble consists of two distinct clusters, the difference between which can be interpreted as a measure of the impact of local features on the water level observations.

Eelsalu, Maris; Soomere, Tarmo; Pindsoo, Katri; Lagemaa, Priidik

2014-12-01

114

Predicting water quality data in an unfilled reservoir using microcosm sediment-water simulation.  

PubMed

The technique of microcosm sediment-water simulation was used to obtain predictive water quality data for the proposed Jordanelle Reservoir, Heber City, Utah. Sediment-water microcosms were prepared for four sites located in the north arm of the reservoir basin, including two sites located in an abandoned acid mine tailings pond. Data obtained from the tailings pond microcosms indicated that low pH water and high trace metal concentrations may exist in this area of the reservoir. These data suggested that the tailings material should be contained or removed prior to reservoir filling. Other sites in the reservoir basin exhibited water quality considered normal for reservoirs of similar elevation and basin geology. Near the proposed dam, anaerobic conditions could develop rapidly due to available concentrations of organic carbon, and the subsequent release of Zn, Fe, and Mn may pose a water quality problem. At the sampling site near Keetley, simulation data indicated that anaerobic conditions will not develop as quickly or be as severe as conditions expected near the dam. Overall, the availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in the Provo River and Jordanelle sediments indicated that problems with algal blooms may exist in the reservoir. Also presented is a brief discussion of the advantages and disadvantages associated with microcosm sediment-water simulation. PMID:24213801

Craft, D

1985-12-01

115

Politics of innovation in multi-level water governance systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Innovations are being proposed in many countries in order to support change towards more sustainable and water secure futures. However, the extent to which they can be implemented is subject to complex politics and powerful coalitions across multi-level governance systems and scales of interest. Exactly how innovation uptake can be best facilitated or blocked in these complex systems is thus a matter of important practical and research interest in water cycle management. From intervention research studies in Australia, China and Bulgaria, this paper seeks to describe and analyse the behind-the-scenes struggles and coalition-building that occurs between water utility providers, private companies, experts, communities and all levels of government in an effort to support or block specific innovations. The research findings suggest that in order to ensure successful passage of the proposed innovations, champions for it are required from at least two administrative levels, including one with innovation implementation capacity, as part of a larger supportive coalition. Higher governance levels can play an important enabling role in facilitating the passage of certain types of innovations that may be in competition with currently entrenched systems of water management. Due to a range of natural biases, experts on certain innovations and disciplines may form part of supporting or blocking coalitions but their evaluations of worth for water system sustainability and security are likely to be subject to competing claims based on different values and expertise, so may not necessarily be of use in resolving questions of "best courses of action". This remains a political values-based decision to be negotiated through the receiving multi-level water governance system.

Daniell, Katherine A.; Coombes, Peter J.; White, Ian

2014-11-01

116

Prediction of Turbulent Jet Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the confrol volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on perfectly expanded hot supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

Kandula, Max

2008-01-01

117

Comparison of numerical models for predicting ground water rebound in abandoned deep mine systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cessation of dewatering usually results in ground water rebound after closing a deep underground mine because the mind voids and surrounding strata flood up to the levels of decant points such as shafts and drifts. Several numerical models have been developed to predict the timing, magnitude and location of discharges resulting from ground water rebound. We compared the numerical models such as VSS-NET, GRAM and MODFLOW codes at different spatial and time scales. Based on the comparisons, a new strategy is established to develop a program for ground water rebound modeling in abandoned deep mine systems. This presentation describes the new strategy and its application to an abandoned underground mine in Korea.

Choi, Y.; Baek, H.; Kim, D.

2012-12-01

118

CALCULATION OF NONLINEAR CONFIDENCE AND PREDICTION INTERVALS FOR GROUND-WATER FLOW MODELS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method is derived to efficiently compute nonlinear confidence and prediction intervals on any function of parameters derived as output from a mathematical model of a physical system. The method is applied to the problem of obtaining confidence and prediction intervals for manually-calibrated ground-water flow models. To obtain confidence and prediction intervals resulting from uncertainties in parameters, the calibrated model and information on extreme ranges and ordering of the model parameters within one or more independent groups are required. If random errors in the dependent variable are present in addition to uncertainties in parameters, then calculation of prediction intervals also requires information on the extreme range of error expected. A simple Monte Carlo method is used to compute the quantiles necessary to establish probability levels for the confidence and prediction intervals. Application of the method to a hypothetical example showed that inclusion of random errors in the dependent variable in addition to uncertainties in parameters can considerably widen the prediction intervals.

Cooley, Richard L.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

1987-01-01

119

Effect of Increased Water Vapor Levels on TBC Lifetime  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the effect of increased water vapor levels on thermal barrier coating (TBC) lifetime, furnace cycle tests were performed at 1150 C in air with 10 vol.% water vapor (similar to natural gas combustion) and 90 vol.%. Either Pt diffusion or Pt-modified aluminide bond coatings were applied to specimens from the same batch of a commercial second-generation single-crystal superalloy and commercial vapor-deposited yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats were applied. Three coatings of each type were furnace cycled to failure to compare the average lifetimes obtained in dry O{sub 2}, using the same superalloy batch and coating types. Average lifetimes with Pt diffusion coatings were unaffected by the addition of water vapor. In contrast, the average lifetime of Pt-modified aluminide coatings was reduced by more than 50% with 10% water vapor but only slightly reduced by 90% water vapor. Based on roughness measurements from similar specimens without a YSZ coating, the addition of 10% water vapor increased the rate of coating roughening more than 90% water vapor. Qualitatively, the amount of {beta}-phase depletion in the coatings exposed in 10% water vapor did not appear to be accelerated.

Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Garner, George Walter [ORNL; Lowe, Tracie M [ORNL; Haynes, James A [ORNL; Zhang, Ying [Tennessee Technological University

2011-01-01

120

Predicting Radon levels in homes based on geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By supplementing existing traditional labs on mineral and rock identification, and on interpreting geologic maps, and creating a lab time for analyzing data available on the web, the students will determine if indoor radon levels correlate best to bedrock geology or to glacial deposits in New York State.

Gleason, Gayle

121

Prediction models of landscape preferences at the forest stand level  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimated quantitative models for Finns’ forest stand level landscape preferences, using a new modelling technique. The highly automated forest management planning systems used in commercial forestry could benefit from the quantification of scenic beauty. A total of 137 judges with different backgrounds made paired comparisons of photographs of 100 stands with known growing stock characteristics. The dependence of

Harri Silvennoinen; Juha Alho; Osmo Kolehmainen; Timo Pukkala

2001-01-01

122

Predicting the Proficiency Level of Language Learners Using Lexical Indices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores how second language (L2) texts written by learners at various proficiency levels can be classified using computational indices that characterize lexical competence. For this study, 100 writing samples taken from 100 L2 learners were analyzed using lexical indices reported by the computational tool Coh-Metrix. The L2 writing…

Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.

2012-01-01

123

[Relationship between groundwater level in riparian wetlands and water level in the river].  

PubMed

The development and degradation processes of riparian wetlands are significantly affected by river hydrological processes. By observing the variation of groundwater levels in riparian wetlands at the Kouma section of the Yellow River Wetland, especially that during the period of regulation for water and sediment at the Xiaolangdi Reservoir, relationship between groundwater level in riparian wetlands and flood water level in the river is studied. The results show that groundwater level in riparian wetlands is significantly affected by water level in the river investigated. There is a negative exponential relationship between groundwater level and the distance between wells and river. The correlation coefficient shows the maximum (R2 > 0.98) during the period of regulation for water and sediment. Affected by the cultivation system in the flooding area, distance between monitoring wells and river bank, water level in the river variation of groundwater level in the wetland changed greatly. In artificial wetland, which is far from the river, the inter-annual variation in groundwater levels show a " (see symbol)" shape, while in the farmland, which is close to the river, the inter-annual variation of groundwater levels show a big peak. The groundwater level 400 m from the river is affected by flood events obviously, that in the area which is less than 200 m from the river is significantly affected by flood events in the area which is especially less than that in the area that is less than 100 m from the river, the groundwater level is affected by flood events intensively. The result indicated that there was a very close relationship between groundwater and surface water, and it was the hydrological ecotone between groundwater of riparian wetlands and the river. It is very important that rational protection for this region (very important for the area which is less than 100 m from the river, important for the area that is between 100 m and 200 m from the river) is critical for the conservation of water quality in the river and groundwater quality. PMID:21528555

Xu, Hua-Shan; Zhao, Tong-Qian; Meng, Hong-Qi; Xu, Zong-Xue; Ma, Chao-Hong

2011-02-01

124

Improving frost-simulation subroutines of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Erosion models play an important role in assessing the influence of human activities on the environment. For cold areas, adequate frost simulation is crucial for predicting surface runoff and water erosion. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model, physically-based erosion-prediction softwa...

125

Multidroplet Impact Model for Prediction of Residual Stresses in Water Jet Peening of Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, a multidroplet impact model, proposed for predicting residual stresses induced on materials subjected to water jet peening, is presented. This approach considers the impact pressure distribution due to high-velocity droplets impinging on the material surface instead of stationary pressure distribution for prediction of residual stresses on water jet-peened surfaces. It makes use of Reichardt's theory for predicting

N. Rajesh; N. Ramesh Babu

2006-01-01

126

Prediction of Solid Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Solubility in Water with the NRTL-PR Model  

E-print Network

Prediction of Solid Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Solubility in Water with the NRTL-PR Model conditions. The aim of this work is to explore the capability of the NRTL-PR model to predict the solubility consider the prediction of the solid solubility of PAH in water, by fitting group parameters either only

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

127

CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT WATER LEAD LEVELS AND LEAD NEUROTOXICITY?  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent reports have attempted to show that certain approaches to fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of nexafluo...

128

Effect of Temperature on Ground-Water Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of both laboratory experiments and field investigations in Minnesota and Nebraska are presented to show that ground-water levels fall from I to 2 feet during the winter, with reduction in air temperature, and rise approximately the same amount in spring with increased air temperature. This condition was found to prevail in different soils during periods when there was

Adolph F. Meyer

1960-01-01

129

TRIHALOMETHANE LEVELS IN HOME TAP WATER AND SEMEN QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Trihalomethane Levels in Home Tap Water and Semen Quality Laura Fenster, 1 Kirsten Waller, 2 Gayle Windham, 1 Tanya Henneman, 2 Meredith Anderson, 2 Pauline Mendola, 3 James W. Overstreet, 4 Shanna H. Swan5 1California Department of Health Services, Division of Environm...

130

NOAA Water Level and Meteorological Data Report HURRICANE ISAAC  

E-print Network

levels, winds (speed, direction and gusts), barometric pressure, and air/water temperature. CO-OPS also high tide cycle was not measured due to station/sensor damage (Appendix 3). Individual time series graphs are provided for each station (Figures 4 ­ 54). For comparison and context, the historical

131

Predicting Group-Level Outcome Variables from Variables Measured at the Individual Level: A Latent Variable Multilevel Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In multilevel modeling, one often distinguishes between macro-micro and micro-macro situations. In a macro-micro multilevel situation, a dependent variable measured at the lower level is predicted or explained by variables measured at that lower or a higher level. In a micro-macro multilevel situation, a dependent variable defined at the higher…

Croon, Marcel A.; van Veldhoven, Marc J. P. M.

2007-01-01

132

Predicting Spoken Language Level in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-five children who received an autism spectrum diagnosis at the age of 2 years (24 with autism, 11 with PDD-NOS) were re-evaluated 2 years later to examine factors related to the development of spoken language. Child variables (play level, motor imitation ability and joint attention) and environmental variables (socioeconomic status and hours of speech\\/language therapy between ages 2 and 3)

Wendy L. Stone; Paul J. Yoder

2001-01-01

133

A methodology for memory chip stress levels prediction  

E-print Network

. Electrostatic discharge and electrical overstress (EOS) caused due to voltage overshoot are blamed for up to 60% of field failures [2]. Due to the unavailability of accurate circuit level simulation tool lots of work had been done on simulation models [3... of dollars are spent to find out the answers to various reliability issues and for the analysis of chip failure. Two main reasons for many research efforts in the field of chip reliability and failure analysis are given below: ? First, the use...

Sharma, Kartik

2006-10-30

134

Predicting airborne particle levels aboard Washington State school buses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

School buses contribute substantially to childhood air pollution exposures yet they are rarely quantified in epidemiology studies. This paper characterizes fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) aboard school buses as part of a larger study examining the respiratory health impacts of emission reducing retrofits. To assess onboard concentrations, continuous PM 2.5 data were collected during 85 trips aboard 43 school buses during normal driving routines, and aboard hybrid lead vehicles traveling in front of the monitored buses during 46 trips. Ordinary and partial least squares regression models for PM 2.5 onboard buses were created with and without control for roadway concentrations, which were also modeled. Predictors examined included ambient PM 2.5 levels, ambient weather, and bus and route characteristics. Average concentrations aboard school buses (21 ?g m -3) were four and two-times higher than ambient and roadway levels, respectively. Differences in PM 2.5 levels between the buses and lead vehicles indicated an average of 7 ?g m -3 originating from the bus's own emission sources. While roadway concentrations were dominated by ambient PM 2.5, bus concentrations were influenced by bus age, diesel oxidative catalysts, and roadway concentrations. Cross-validation confirmed the roadway models but the bus models were less robust. These results confirm that children are exposed to air pollution from the bus and other roadway traffic while riding school buses. In-cabin air pollution is higher than roadway concentrations and is likely influenced by bus characteristics.

Adar, Sara D.; Davey, Mark; Sullivan, James R.; Compher, Michael; Szpiro, Adam; Sally Liu, L.-J.

135

Predicting Airborne Particle Levels Aboard Washington State School Buses  

PubMed Central

School buses contribute substantially to childhood air pollution exposures yet they are rarely quantified in epidemiology studies. This paper characterizes fine particulate matter (PM2.5) aboard school buses as part of a larger study examining the respiratory health impacts of emission-reducing retrofits. To assess onboard concentrations, continuous PM2.5 data were collected during 85 trips aboard 43 school buses during normal driving routines, and aboard hybrid lead vehicles traveling in front of the monitored buses during 46 trips. Ordinary and partial least square regression models for PM2.5 onboard buses were created with and without control for roadway concentrations, which were also modeled. Predictors examined included ambient PM2.5 levels, ambient weather, and bus and route characteristics. Concentrations aboard school buses (21 ?g/m3) were four and two-times higher than ambient and roadway levels, respectively. Differences in PM2.5 levels between the buses and lead vehicles indicated an average of 7 ?g/m3 originating from the bus's own emission sources. While roadway concentrations were dominated by ambient PM2.5, bus concentrations were influenced by bus age, diesel oxidative catalysts, and roadway concentrations. Cross validation confirmed the roadway models but the bus models were less robust. These results confirm that children are exposed to air pollution from the bus and other roadway traffic while riding school buses. In-cabin air pollution is higher than roadway concentrations and is likely influenced by bus characteristics. PMID:18985175

Adar, Sara D.; Davey, Mark; Sullivan, James R.; Compher, Michael; Szpiro, Adam; Liu, L.-J. Sally

2008-01-01

136

OVERLAP OF PREDICTED COLD-WATER CORAL HABITAT AND BOTTOM-CONTACT FISHERIES  

E-print Network

OVERLAP OF PREDICTED COLD-WATER CORAL HABITAT AND BOTTOM-CONTACT FISHERIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA of Resource Management Title of Thesis: Overlap of predicted cold-water coral habitat and bottom- contact-contact fishing on cold-water corals (class Anthozoa) due to the role corals play in providing biogenic habitat

137

Water Level Dynamics in the Great Lakes of North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic as well as natural fluctuations such as precipitation, runoff, snowmelt, retention time, evaporation, and outflow all contribute to water levels observed in the Great Lakes. Verified hourly water level data for five stations in Lake Michigan and four stations in Lake Superior were obtained from NOAA and examined. For each station, an hourly time series ranging from 20 to 30 years in duration was decimated to produce a time series with four hour intervals. Four distinct regions of scaling are observed with inflection points at approximately 1 day, 5 days, and 30 - 60 days. For time scales of less than one day, the power-scaling exponent (?) ranges from 0.1 to 0.5, indicating a white noise. From 1 day to 5 - 7 days, ? ranges from 1.5 to 2.6, indicating moderate to strong persistence which is probably due to frontal movements of weather systems. On timescales between 5 days and 30 - 60 days, ? ranges from 0.1 to 0.4, again indicating a white noise which may be due to monthly and seasonal weather variations within the Great Lakes System. Beyond 30 - 60 days, all stations exhibit strong persistence, with ? between 2.1 and 2.7. Barometric pressure and precipitation data also exhibit scaling with ? different from the water level data, but with breaks in slope occurring over the same period of time. The variations observed in the changing ? of water levels (environmental noise) are likely to have biological impacts on population dynamics of organisms, including rates of survival or extinction (Batchhelder and Powell 2002). Understanding biological-physical coupling and the impact of water level fluctuations is fundamental to ecosystem dynamics.

Smigelski, J. R.; Tebbens, S. F.; Barton, C. C.

2007-12-01

138

Rising water levels and the future of southeastern Louisiana swamp forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An important factor contributing to the deterioration of wetland forests in Louisiana is increasing water levels resulting from eustatic sea-level rise and subsidence. Analyses of long-term water level records from the Barataria and Verret watersheds in southeastern Louisiana indicate an apparent sea level rise of about 1-m per century, mainly the result of subsidence. Permanent study plots were established in cypress-tupelo stands in these two watersheds. The tree, water level, and subsidence data collected in these plots were entered into the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Servicea??s FORFLO bottomland hardwood succession model to determine the long-term effects of rising water levels on forest structure. Analyses were made of 50a??100 years for a cypress-tupelo swamp site in each basin and a bottomland hardwood ridge in the Verret watershed. As flooding increased, less flood tolerant species were replaced by cypress-tupelo within 50 years. As flooding continued, the sites start to become nonforested. From the test analyses, the FORFLO model seems to be an excellent tool for predicting long-term changes in the swamp habitat of south Louisiana.

Conner, W.H.; Brody, M.

1989-01-01

139

The biology of Butomus umbellatus in shallow waters with fluctuating water level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Butomus umbellatus L. is a plant species typical of littoral communities of river and stream shores. It can form continuous stands in shallow reservoirs with fluctuating water level. Their expansion is promoted by: (a) intensive vegetative reproduction of plants, (b) crowded sprouting from rhizome fragments on emerged pond bottom, (c) shallow water layer in the year following summer drainage. Expansion

Hroudová Zdenka; Krahulcová Anna; Zákravský Petr; Jarolímová Vlasta

1996-01-01

140

Multiple Metals Predict Prolactin and Thyrotropin (TSH) Levels in Men  

PubMed Central

Exposure to a number of metals can affect neuroendocrine and thyroid signaling, which can result in adverse effects on development, behavior, metabolism, reproduction, and other functions. The present study assessed the relationship between metal concentrations in blood and serum prolactin (PRL) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels, markers of dopaminergic and thyroid function, respectively, among men participating in a study of environmental influences on male reproductive health. Blood samples from 219 men were analyzed for concentrations of 11 metals and serum levels of PRL and TSH. In multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, BMI and smoking, PRL was inversely associated with arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc, but positively associated with chromium. Several of these associations (Cd, Pb, Mo) are consistent with limited studies in humans or animals, and a number of the relationships (Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo) remained when additionally considering multiple metals in the model. Lead and copper were associated with non-monotonic decreases in TSH, while arsenic was associated with a dose-dependent increase in TSH. For arsenic these findings were consistent with recent experimental studies where arsenic inhibited enzymes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis and signaling. More research is needed for a better understanding of the role of metals in neuroendocrine and thyroid function and related health implications. PMID:19595304

Meeker, John D.; Rossano, Mary G.; Protas, Bridget; Diamond, Michael P.; Puscheck, Elizabeth; Daly, Douglas; Paneth, Nigel; Wirth, Julia J.

2009-01-01

141

Multiple metals predict prolactin and thyrotropin (TSH) levels in men  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to a number of metals can affect neuroendocrine and thyroid signaling, which can result in adverse effects on development, behavior, metabolism, reproduction, and other functions. The present study assessed the relationship between metal concentrations in blood and serum prolactin (PRL) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels, markers of dopaminergic, and thyroid function, respectively, among men participating in a study of environmental influences on male reproductive health. Blood samples from 219 men were analyzed for concentrations of 11 metals and serum levels of PRL and TSH. In multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, BMI and smoking, PRL was inversely associated with arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc, but positively associated with chromium. Several of these associations (Cd, Pb, Mo) are consistent with limited studies in humans or animals, and a number of the relationships (Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo) remained when additionally considering multiple metals in the model. Lead and copper were associated with non-monotonic decrease in TSH, while arsenic was associated with a dose-dependent increase in TSH. For arsenic these findings were consistent with recent experimental studies where arsenic inhibited enzymes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis and signaling. More research is needed for a better understanding of the role of metals in neuroendocrine and thyroid function and related health implications.

Meeker, John D., E-mail: meekerj@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 6635 SPH Tower, 109 S. Observatory St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Rossano, Mary G. [Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)] [Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Protas, Bridget [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Diamond, Michael P.; Puscheck, Elizabeth [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Daly, Douglas [Grand Rapids Fertility and IVF, Grand Rapids, MI (United States)] [Grand Rapids Fertility and IVF, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Paneth, Nigel [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Wirth, Julia J. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States) [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)

2009-10-15

142

Simulated effects of pumping irrigation wells on ground-water levels in western Saginaw County, Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Success of agriculture in many areas of Michigan relies on withdrawal of large quantities of ground water for irrigation. In some areas of the State, water-level declines associated with large ground-water withdrawals may adversely affect nearby residential wells. Residential wells in several areas of Saginaw County, in Michigan?s east-central Lower Peninsula, recently went dry shortly after irrigation of crop lands commenced; many of these wells also went dry during last year?s agricultural cycle (summer 2000). In September 2000, residential wells that had been dry returned to function after cessation of pumping from large-capacity irrigation wells. To evaluate possible effects of ground-water withdrawals from irrigation wells on residential wells, the U.S. Geological Survey used hydrogeologic data including aquifer tests, water-level records, geologic logs, and numerical models to determine whether water-level declines and the withdrawal of ground water for agricultural irrigation are related. Numerical simulations based on representative irrigation well pumping volumes and a 3-month irrigation period indicate water-level declines that range from 5.3 to 20 feet, 2.8 to 12 feet and 1.7 to 6.9 feet at distances of about 0.5, 1.5 and 3 miles from irrigation wells, respectively. Residential wells that are equipped with shallow jet pumps and that are within 0.5 miles of irrigation wells would likely experience reduced yield or loss of yield during peak periods of irrigation. The actual extent that irrigation pumping cause reduced function of residential wells, however, cannot be fully predicted on the basis of the data analyzed because many other factors may be adversely affecting the yield of residential wells.

Hoard, Christopher J.; Westjohn, David B.

2001-01-01

143

Investigation of natural radioactivity levels in water around Kadugli, Sudan.  

PubMed

Surface water from Miri Lake and groundwater from around Kadugli (West-Central Sudan) obtained by means of hand-pumps was analysed for (238)U, (226)Ra, (222)Rn, and (232)Th activity concentrations. The surface water showed very low levels of radionuclide concentrations: <1.0-7.5, 8.5-16.5, <1.6, and <0.1-0.39 mBq L(-1) for (238)U, (226)Ra, (222)Rn, and (232)Th, respectively. Groundwater revealed a significant amount of natural radioactivity (16.1-1720, 7.7-14.3, 3000-139,000, <0.1-39 mBq L(-1)) respectively. The overall annual effective dose was below the WHO reference dose level of 0.1 mSv yr(-1) except in one groundwater sample with an associated dose of 0.7 mSv yr(-1). PMID:18513978

Osman, Alfatih A A; Salih, Isam; Shaddad, Ibrahim A; El Din, Saif; Siddeeg, M B; Eltayeb, Hatem; Idriss, Hajo; Hamza, Walid; Yousif, E H

2008-11-01

144

Robust predictive controller of the mold level in a steel continuous casting process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mold level control is one of most important control loops in a steel continuous casting process, since level variations higher than 10?2m may impair the quality of the steel. The goal of this paper is to apply the Hammerstein Generalized Predictive Controller (HGPC) technique to control the mold level, considering the effects of external disturbs and random noises. The

F. B. Sanchotene; G. M. de Almeida; J. L. F. Salles

2011-01-01

145

Growth of Butomus umbellatus at a stable water level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of an experiment with the cultivation ofButomus umbellatus at a stable water level of 0.8 m for 6 years. The plant growth, flowering and vegetative reproduction were measured and recorded\\u000a at the end of each growing season. The species showed a great ability to reproduce vegetatively by rhizome fragments. Cultured\\u000a plants ofButomus umbellatus did not

Zdenka Hroudová

1989-01-01

146

Runoff prediction from sagebrush rangelands using water erosion prediction project (WEPP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Runoff prediction is an important component,of any process- based soil erosion model. In this paper we evaluate the runoff prediction capabilities of a new soil erosion model, WEPP, on sagebrush rangelands. Particular attentton was,given to the parameter estimation techniques used in WEPP to predict htfiltra- tion. Runoff volume predicted by WEPP is based on the Green and Ampt infiltration

Bradford P. Wilcox; Mina Sbaa; Wilbert H. Blackburn; H James

147

Predictive control as an intelligent tool to manage water distribution networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh water is becoming a major concern in actual societies as it represents only 2.5% of the total Earth water reserves. Some recent studies point the year 2025 when 2 of every 3 persons will be affected by the lack of fresh water. This paper presents a predictive controller strategy that is implemented on a modern automated water canal where

João Figueiredo; José Sá da Costa

2006-01-01

148

Remotely mapping river water quality using multivariate regression with prediction validation.  

SciTech Connect

Remote spectral sensing offers an attractive means of mapping river water quality over wide spatial regions. While previous research has focused on development of spectral indices and models to predict river water quality based on remote images, little attention has been paid to subsequent validation of these predictions. To address this oversight, we describe a retrospective analysis of remote, multispectral Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) images of the Ohio River and its Licking River and Little Miami River tributaries. In conjunction with the CASI acquisitions, ground truth measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity were made for a small set of locations in the Ohio River. Partial least squares regression models relating the remote river images to ground truth measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity for the Ohio River were developed. Employing these multivariate models, chlorophyll-a concentrations and turbidity levels were predicted in river pixels lacking ground truth measurements, generating detailed estimated water quality maps. An important but often neglected step in the regression process is to validate prediction results using a spectral residual statistic. For both the chlorophyll-a and turbidity regression models, a spectral residual value was calculated for each river pixel and compared to the associated statistical confidence limit for the model. These spectral residual statistic results revealed that while the chlorophyll-a and turbidity models could validly be applied to a vast majority of Ohio River and Licking River pixels, application of these models to Little Miami River pixels was inappropriate due to an unmodeled source of spectral variation.

Stork, Christopher Lyle; Autry, Bradley C. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)

2005-07-01

149

Predicting Impacts of tropical cyclones and sea-Level rise on beach mouse habitat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Alabama beach mouse (ABM) (Peromyscus polionotus ammobates) is an important component of the coastal dune ecosystem along the Gulf of Mexico. Due to habitat loss and degradation, ABM is federally listed as an endangered species. In this study, we examined the impacts of storm surge and wind waves, which are induced by hurricanes and sea-level rise (SLR), on the ABM habitat on Fort Morgan Peninsula, Alabama, using advanced storm surge and wind wave models and spatial analysis tools in geographic information systems (GIS). Statistical analyses of the long-term historical data enabled us to predict the extreme values of winds, wind waves, and water levels in the study area at different return periods. We developed a series of nested domains for both wave and surge modeling and validated the models using field observations of surge hydrographs and high watermarks of Hurricane Ivan (2004). We then developed wave atlases and flood maps corresponding to the extreme wind, surge and waves without SLR and with a 0.5 m of SLR by coupling the wave and surge prediction models. The flood maps were then merged with a map of ABM habitat to determine the extent and location of habitat impacted by the 100-year storm with and without SLR. Simulation results indicate that more than 82% of ABM habitat would be inundated in such an extreme storm event, especially under SLR, making ABM populations more vulnerable to future storm damage. These results have aided biologists, community planners, and other stakeholders in the identification, restoration and protection of key beach mouse habitat in Alabama. Methods outlined in this paper could also be used to assist in the conservation and recovery of imperiled coastal species elsewhere.

Chen, Qin; Wang, Hongqing; Wang, Lixia; Tawes, Robert; Rollman, Drew

2014-01-01

150

Shallow ground-water flow, water levels, and quality of water, 1980-84, Cowles Unit, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cowles Unit of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in Porter County, northwest Indiana, contains a broad dune-beach complex along the southern shoreline of Lake Michigan and a large wetland, called the Great Marsh, that occupies the lowland between the shoreline dunes and an older dune-beach complex farther inland. Water levels and water quality in the surficial aquifer were monitored from

D. A. Cohen; R. J. Shedlock

1986-01-01

151

Flow in a limestone aquifer as determined from water tracing and water levels in wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Inner Bluegrass Karst Region of central Kentucky, U.S.A., is a fluviokarst underlain by flat-lying slightly argillaceous limestones (Ordovician). Water tracing and field observations have shown the aquifer to be divisible into groundwater basins and intervening interbasin areas. Flow in groundwater basins is in a dendritic system of solution conduits at depths as great as 35 m beneath the surface which often passes beneath surface divides to emerge at low-level springs, in contrast to interbasin areas in which the flow is shallow and generally parallels surface slopes. The availability of relatively dense water-level data in an area in which a number of water traces had been conducted allowed a comparison between the configuration of the potentiometric surface and water tracing data. The potentiometric surface map was generally consistent with the location of groundwater basins and interbasin areas. In addition, water levels near streams were found to be controlled by the stream and a few wells indicated perched aquifers. The potentiometric surface, however, failed to show narrow groundwater basins and did not adequately indicate groundwater flow directions previously established by water tracing. Although well data may furnish valuable supplemental information, it is concluded that water tracing is necessary to determine adequately subsurface flow directions in the region and in similar karst aquifers elsewhere.

Thrailkill, John

1985-05-01

152

Prediction of the Caspian Sea level using ECMWF seasonal forecasts and reanalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrological budget of the Caspian Sea (CS) is investigated using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts interim reanalysis (ERAi) and seasonal forecast (FCST) data with the aim of predicting the Caspian Sea Level (CSL) some months ahead. Precipitation and evaporation are used. After precipitation events over the Volga River, the discharge (Volga River discharge (VRD)) follows with delays, which are parameterized. The components of the water budget from ERAi and FCSTs are integrated to obtain time series of the CSL. Observations of the CSL and the VRD are used for comparison and tuning. The quality of ERAi data is sufficiently good to calculate the time variability of the CSL with a satisfactory accuracy. Already the storage of water within the Volga Basin allows forecasts of the CSL a few months ahead, and using the FCSTs of precipitation improves the CSL forecasts. The evaporation in the seasonal forecasts is deficient due to unrealistic sea surface temperatures over the CS. Impacts of different water budget terms on the CSL variability are shown by a variety of validation tools. The importance of precipitation anomalies over the catchment of the Volga River is confirmed, but also impacts from the two southern rivers (Sefidrud and Kura River) and the evaporation over the CS become obvious for some periods. When pushing the FCSTs beyond the limits of the seasonal FCSTs to 1 year, considerable forecast skill can still be found. Validating only FCSTs by the present approach, which show the same trend as one based on a statistical method, significantly enhances the skill scores.

Arpe, K.; Leroy, S. A. G.; Wetterhall, F.; Khan, V.; Hagemann, S.; Lahijani, H.

2014-07-01

153

Calibration of Predicted Hourly Zone-Level Supply Air Flows with Measurements  

E-print Network

data extracted from the Building Energy Management System (EMS). The paper presents the calibration of predicted hourly zone-level supply air flows with measurements. The suggested approach is applied to a new institutional building of Concordia...

Mihai, A.; Zmeureanu, R.

2013-01-01

154

Quantifying the rainfall-water level fluctuation process in a geologically complex lake catchment.  

PubMed

Simulating hydrologic processes in geologically complex environments is a difficult scientific task since it incorporates high level of uncertainty. Many studies have attempted to accurately quantify the rainfall-water level elevation relationship in freshwater bodies so as to predict flooding and drought events. For this purpose several types of models have been implemented including distributed, black box and conceptual models that often provide efficient results, depending on the availability of reliable data as well as on the level of understanding of the system. Nevertheless, in the particular effort, three different models have been used to describe the relationship between rainfall and water level elevation in Trichonis Lake during the period 1951-1997. A Transfer Function model, a Dynamic Linear Regression and a physically based model, consisting of the lake's water budget equation, its Digital Bathymetric Model and GIS algorithms. These models have been tested to assess their efficiency and applicability in a karstic environment and the aim of the study was to find the best modeling option for developing sustainable water management plans and establishing a flooding/drought warning system in the particular lake catchment. The results indicated that in areas with geologically complex conditions, simple, physically-based models operate better than mechanistic models which usually cannot describe adequately the complexity of the system. PMID:16741814

Elias, Dimitriou; Ierotheos, Zacharias

2006-08-01

155

Predicting Field of Job Entry from Expressed Vocational Choice and Certainty Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expressed vocational choices correctly predicted actual occupations 2 years after high school for 38 percent of the total sample. When certainty level was added to expressed choice, prediction rates were 43 percent for very sure choosers, 38 percent for fairly sure choosers, and 28 percent who were not sure. (Author)

Noeth, Richard J.; Jepsen, David A.

1981-01-01

156

A Robot Waiter that Predicts Events by High-level Scene Interpretation  

E-print Network

. There are several methodological approaches for realizing predictive power in robots, which will be discussedA Robot Waiter that Predicts Events by High-level Scene Interpretation Jos Lehmann1 , Bernd Neumann1 , Wilfried Bohlken2 and Lothar Hotz2 1Cognitive Systems Laboratory, Department of Informatics

Hamburg,.Universität

157

Water-Level Measurements for the Coastal Plain Aquifers of South Carolina Prior to Development  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tabulations of water-level measurements for the Coastal Plain aquifers of South Carolina representing water levels prior to man-made development are presented. Included with the tabulations are local well number, location, land-surface altitude, well depth, screened interval, depth to water, water- level altitude, and date measured. These water-level measurements were used in compiling regional potentiometric maps for the Coastal Plain aquifers. This data set will be useful in the planning for future water-resource development.

Aucott, Walter R.; Speiran, Gary K.

1984-01-01

158

Prediction of light aircraft interior sound pressure level using the room equation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The room equation is investigated for predicting interior sound level. The method makes use of an acoustic power balance, by equating net power flow into the cabin volume to power dissipated within the cabin using the room equation. The sound power level transmitted through the panels was calculated by multiplying the measured space averaged transmitted intensity for each panel by its surface area. The sound pressure level was obtained by summing the mean square sound pressures radiated from each panel. The data obtained supported the room equation model in predicting the cabin interior sound pressure level.

Atwal, M.; Bernhard, R.

1984-01-01

159

mirMark: a site-level and UTR-level classifier for miRNA target prediction.  

PubMed

MiRNAs play important roles in many diseases including cancers. However computational prediction of miRNA target genes is challenging and the accuracies of existing methods remain poor. We report mirMark, a new machine learning-based method of miRNA target prediction at the site- and UTR-levels. This method uses experimentally verified miRNA targets from miRecords and mirTarBase as training sets and considers over 700 features. By combining Correlation-based Feature Selection with a variety of statistical or machine learning methods for the site- and UTR-level classifiers, mirMark significantly improves the overall predictive performance compared to existing publicly available methods. MirMark is available from https://github.com/lanagarmire/MirMark. PMID:25344330

Menor, Mark; Ching, Travers; Zhu, Xun; Garmire, David; Garmire, Lana X

2014-10-25

160

Water-level model in density-based unsupervised classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water level model is an effective method in density-based classification. To improve the result, we use biased sampling, local similarity and popularity as preprocessing, and then apply the water-level model for classification. Biased sampling is to get some information about the global structure. Similarity and local density are mainly used to understand the local structure. In biased sampling, images are divided into many l*l patches and a sample pixel is selected from each patch. Similarity at a point p, denoted by sim(p), measures the change of gray level between point p an its neighborhood N(p). Besides using biased sampling to combine spectral and spatial information, we use similarity and local popularity in selecting sample points. A sample point is chosen based on the minimum value of sin(p) + [1-P(p)] after normalization. The selected pixel is a better representative, especially near the border of an object. Kernel estimators are employed to obtain smooth density approximation. The water-level model is relatively easy and effective when the density function is smoothed. To make it more effective in other cases, one has to deal with small spikes and bumps. To get rid of the small spikes, we establish a threshold "[f(P1) - f(P 2)*(P1-P 2) " > c*l*l , where c is a constant, P1 is a local maximum point to be tested and P2 is the nearest local minimum form P1. The condition is only related to the size of the patches l*l. After using the average filter, we choose l to be the square root of the fifth peak if it is between 5 and 20, otherwise set l = 10. Preliminary experiments have been conducted using proposed methods with different values of the constant c in the threshold condition. Experimental results are provided.

Deng, Shangrong; Qian, Kai; Hung, Chih-Cheng

2004-07-01

161

Ground-water monitoring at Santa Barbara, California; Phase 2, effects of pumping on water levels and water quality in the Santa Barbara ground-water basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From July 1978 to January 1980, water levels declined more than 100 feet in the coastal area of the Santa Barbara ground-water basin in southern California. The water-level declines are the result of increases in municipal pumping since July 1978. The pumping, centered in the city less than 1 mile from the coast, has caused water-level declines in the main water-bearing zones to altitudes below sea level. Consequently, the ground-water basin is threatened with salt-water intrusion if the present pumpage is maintained or increased. Water-quality data suggest that salt-water intrusion has already degraded the water yielded from six coastal wells. Chloride concentrations in the six wells ranged from about 400 to 4,000 milligrams per liter. Municipal supply wells near the coast currently yield water of suitable quality for domestic use. There is, however, no known physical barrier to the continued inland advance salt water. Management alternatives to control salt-water intrusion in the Santa Barbara area include (1) decreasing municipal pumping, (2) increasing the quantity of water available for recharge by releasing surplus water to Mission Creek, (3) artificially recharing the basin using injection wells, and (4) locating municipal supply wells farther from the coast and farther apart to minimize drawdown. (USGS)

Martin, Peter

1982-01-01

162

Epidemiology can help predict urban water system failures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A broken water pipe can mean flooded streets, damaged property, disrupted traffic, and income loss for local businesses. In the summer of 2009, the water system of Los Angeles experienced an unprecedented 75 of these water main blowouts. Notably, two transmission mains burst just days apart.

Palus, Shannon

2014-11-01

163

BIOASSAY PROCEDURE FOR PREDICTING COLIFORM BACTERIAL GROWTH IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Water quality degradation due to the growth of microorganisms Is an area of concern for many water utilities. urrently the nutrient status of drinking water is difficult to measure and can only be defined in relative terms. o date, the procedures developed for determining the amo...

164

BIOASSAY PROCEDURES FOR PREDICTING COLIFORM BACTERIAL GROWTH IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Water quality degradation due to the growth of microorganisms is an area of concern for many water utilities. o date, the procedures developed or determining the amount of biodegradable material present in potable water have utilized heterotrophic non-coliform bacteria as bioassa...

165

Application of data assimilation for improving forecast of water levels and residual currents in Singapore regional waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrodynamic models are commonly used for predicting water levels and currents in the deep ocean, ocean margins and shelf seas. Their accuracy is typically limited by factors, such as the complexity of the coastal geometry and bathymetry, plus the uncertainty in the flow forcing (deep ocean tide, winds and pressure). In Southeast Asian waters with its strongly hydrodynamic characteristics, the lack of detailed marine observations (bathymetry and tides) for model validation is an additional factor limiting flow representation. This paper deals with the application of ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF)-based data assimilation with the purpose of improving the deterministic model forecast. The efficacy of the EnKF is analysed via a twin experiment conducted with the 2D barotropic Singapore regional model. The results show that the applied data assimilation can improve the forecasts significantly in this complex flow regime.

Karri, Rama Rao; Badwe, Abhijit; Wang, Xuan; El Serafy, Ghada; Sumihar, Julius; Babovic, Vladan; Gerritsen, Herman

2013-01-01

166

Prediction of tritium level in agricultural plants after short term exposure to HTO vapor and its comparison with experimental results.  

PubMed

This paper describes a dynamic compartment model for evaluating the tritium level in agricultural plants after a short-term exposure to HTO vapor and its comparison with experimental results to test the predictive accuracy of the model. The model uses a time-dependent growth equation of a plant so that it can predict the contamination level of tritium depending on the stage of the growth of the plant, which is a major difference from some other compartment models using a constant crop yield. The model is able to calculate the time variable concentrations of the compartments representing the atmosphere, soil, and plants of four categories including leafy vegetables, root vegetables, grains, and tuber plants. Experimental results include the tissue free water tritium (TFWT) and the organically bound tritium (OBT) concentration of rice, soybean, cabbage, and radish exposed to HTO vapor for 1 h in the daytime at different growth stages. The model predictions showed that the model could simulate well not only the time-dependent tritium concentration of the plants but also the effect of the growth stage of the plant at the exposure time. Comparison of the model predictions with the experimental results suggested that the model could predict reasonably well the observed TFWT and OBT concentrations of the plants considered. PMID:16340607

Keum, Dong-Kwon; Lee, Han-Soo; Kang, Hee-Seok; Jun, In; Choi, Young-Ho; Lee, Chang-Woo

2006-01-01

167

Dispersion of buoyant emissions from low level sources in urban areas: water channel modelling  

E-print Network

sources in urban areas: water channel modelling’, Int. J.level sources in urban areas: water channel modelling Sammodelling the dispersion from low level buoyant sources: Dispersion of buoyant emissions from low level sources in urban

Pournazeri, Sam; Schulte, Nico; Tan, Si; Princevac, Marko; Venkatram, Akula

2013-01-01

168

Earthquake dates and water level changes in wells in the Eskisehir region,Turkey Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(5), 777781 (2003) EGU  

E-print Network

Earthquake dates and water level changes in wells in the Eskisehir region,Turkey 777 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(5), 777781 (2003) © EGU Technical Note: Earthquake dates and water level@ogu.edu.tr Abstract Although satisfactory results have yet to be obtained in earthquake prediction, one of the most

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

169

Variation of Great Lakes Water Levels Derived from Geosat Altimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique for using satellite radar altimetry data to estimate the temporal variation of the water level in moderate to large lakes and enclosed seas is described. Great Lakes data from the first 2 years of the U.S. Navy's Geosat Exact Repeat Mission (November 1986 to November 1988), for which there is an improved orbit, are used to demonstrate the technique. The Geosat results are compared to the lake level data collected by the Great Lakes Section, National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and are found to reproduce the temporal variations of the five major lakes with Root-Mean-Square error (RMS) ranging from 9.4 to 13.8 cm and a combined average of 11.1 cm. Geosat data are also analyzed for Lake St. Clair, representing a moderate-sized lake, with a resulting rms of 17.0 cm. During this study period, the water level in the Great Lakes varied in a typical annual cycle of about 0.2 m (0.5 in for Lake Ontario) superimposed on a general decline of approximately 0.5 m. The altimeter data reproduced the general decline reasonably well for all the lakes, but the annual cycle was obscured in some lakes due to systematic errors in the altimeter data. Current and future altimetry missions will have markedly improved accuracy which will permit many moderate (25 km diameter) or larger lakes or enclosed seas to be routinely monitored.

Morris, Charles S.; Gill, Stephen K.

1994-01-01

170

Screening Experiments for Removal of Low-Level Tritiated Water  

SciTech Connect

Screening experiments for low levels of tritiated water (HTO) remediation based upon selective adsorption/desorption mechanisms utilizing equilibrium isotope effects have been carried out. Several organic and inorganic high surface area materials were investigated to assess their ability to selectively adsorb low concentrations of HTO. Ion-exchange resins with cation functionalities, chitosan, sodium alginate, and several inorganic media modified with metal cations exhibited promising results. Biomaterials, for example, chitosan and modified alginate, demonstrated positive results. Based on the literature and our preliminary testing, we postulate four possible mechanisms for selected tritium adsorption: hydrogen ion exchange, HTO coordination with surface cation sites, hydrogen bonding to surface basic sites, and secondary hydrogen bonding (structural water) in fine pores.

Kim, Yun Mi; Baney, Ronald; Powers, Kevin; Koopman, Ben; Tulenko, James [University of Florida (United States)

2005-03-15

171

The Organochlorine Pesticides Residue Levels in Karun River Water  

PubMed Central

Background The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are among the most commonly used in water streams around the world. Most of these contaminants are highly hydrophobic and persist in sediments of rivers and lakes. Studies have suggested that OCPs may affect the normal function of the human and wildlife endocrine systems. Objectives The aim of this study is to determine the concentrations of selected organochlorine pesticides residues [OP'DDT, PP'DDT, alderin, dieldrin, heptachlor, (?,ß,?,?) HCH, (?, ß) endosulfan and metoxychlor] in samples from Karun River water at Khuzestan province in Iran , by GC-µ-ECD. Materials and Methods Water was extracted with n-hexane and then purified by passing through a glass column packed with Florisil and Na2SO4, which was then eluted with ether: hexane solution v/v. Results In general, all of 12 investigated organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were detected. Regardless of the kind of OCPs, the highest OCP pollution level in Karun River were seen from August to November 2009 ranging 71.43 – 89.34 µg/L, and the lowest were seen from Dec 2010 to March 2011 at levels of 22.25 - 22.64 µg/L. The highest and lowest mean concentrations of 12 investigated pesticides were ß-Endosulfan and pp' DDT with 28.51and 0.01 µg/L respectively. Conclusions Comparison of total organochlorine pesticides residues concentration with WHO guidelines revealed that the Karun River had total OCPs residues above the probable effect level (0.2-20 µg/L, P < 0.05), which could pose a risk to aquatic life. PMID:24624185

Behfar, Abdolazim; Nazari, Zahra; Rabiee, Mohammad Hassan; Raeesi, Gholamreza; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Nafiseh; Jannat, Behrooz

2013-01-01

172

Diurnal variation of low-level cloudiness over tropical waters  

E-print Network

, and Lavoie. Cloud amounts by Riehl and Lavoie are per- centage variation. Cloud amounts by Nalkus, for obser- vations taken aboard the R. V. CP~'VJFORD in 1957, are in eighths of sky cover. Time is local standard. . ~ . . . ~ ~ & ~ ~ 18, Diurnal hect... is local standard. . ~ ~ ~ INT ROD UCT ION Problem The existence of a diurnal variation of low-level cloud amount over tropical water areas has been known for many years. A complete pattern has not been clearly seen, due at least in part to inadequate...

Peterson, Wayne Miller

1968-01-01

173

Using Trust-Based Information Aggregation for Predicting Security Level of Systems  

E-print Network

Using Trust-Based Information Aggregation for Predicting Security Level of Systems Siv Hilde Houmb1 level of a security solution using information sources who are trusted to varying degrees. We show how.colostate.edu Abstract. Sometimes developers must design innovative security solutions that have a rapid development

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

174

A Machine Learning Approach to Predicting Blood Glucose Levels for Diabetes Management  

E-print Network

A Machine Learning Approach to Predicting Blood Glucose Levels for Diabetes Management Kevin Plis The Diabetes Institute Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701, USA Abstract Patients with diabetes must continually monitor their blood glucose levels and adjust insulin

Bunescu, Razvan C.

175

On the interpretation of coastal aquifer water level trends and water balances: A precautionary note  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is common for seawater intrusion-induced interface movements and associated changes in seawater volume not to be considered in coastal aquifer management studies. However, it is not well understood when this simplified approach may result in erroneous estimates of freshwater volumes and flawed interpretations of water level trend analyses. This gap is addressed in this study using a simple steady-state, sharp-interface, analytic modelling approach (i.e., Strack, 1976) to generate idealised relationships between seawater volume, freshwater volume and water levels. For a number of case studies, water level trends were found to be increasingly insensitive to reductions in freshwater volume and, as such, changes in seawater volume need to be considered when using water level trends as a measure of sustainability (e.g., within trigger-level management approaches, as commonly applied in Australia). The conditions under which seawater volume changes have greatest impact on water level trends are also described. Changes in seawater volume (over an assumed timescale) were found to represent 10% to 30% of freshwater discharge under realistic water table decline scenarios. As such, it is shown that changes in seawater volume need to be included within water balance assessments for the case studies considered. These results have wide-sweeping implications for coastal aquifer management, demonstrating that seawater volume changes may, in many cases, need to be included to avoid over-allocation of groundwater. In view of the short-comings associated with using water level trends to assess coastal aquifer status, an approach involving the comparison of groundwater levels relative to the hydraulic head imposed by the ocean, accounting for density effects, is recommended. A representative head for the coastal boundary in freshwater-only representations of unconfined aquifers is proposed that produces reasonable fluxes of freshwater discharge to the sea. This new coastal head adds to the Post et al. (2007) discussion of freshwater head calculations. It provides a first-order estimate of the value that near-shoreline watertable levels should exceed to maintain a discharge to the sea and to avoid SWI issues. The analytic solution used for this study involves an assumption of quasi-equilibrium conditions between the water table and interface. This assumption was evaluated using a selection of transient simulations and was found to be a reasonable approximation in the majority of case studies. As such, the analytic methods presented here can, in many cases, be rapidly applied to assess the need to consider seawater volumes within specific cases. References Post, V., Kooi, H., Simmons, C., 2007. Using hydraulic head measurements in variable-density ground water flow analyses. Ground Water 45(6), 664-671. Strack, O.D.L., 1976. Single-potential solution for regional interface problems in coastal aquifers. Water Resources Research 12, 1165-1174.

Morgan, L.; Werner, A. D.; Simmons, C.

2012-12-01

176

Water Reuse Technology Trains for Medium-level Water and Industrial Cooling Water in South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater is considered as stable and substantial amount of alternative water resource. In case of South Korea, it is known that 73.2 percents of supplied water discharge 16 million m3\\/day of treated effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants. Calculation simply tells that 0.58 billion m3\\/year can be available if only 10 percent of wastewater could be reused. In this study,

Namjung Jang; Xianghao Ren; Jihee Moon; Kwang-Ho Choi; Jaeweon Cho; In S. Kim

177

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LEVELS OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA AND WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS IN A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Conventional plating methods were used to quantify heterotrophic bacteria from a drinking water distribution system. Three media, plate count agar (PCA), R2A agar and sheep blood agar (TSA-SB) were used to determine heterotrophic plate count (HPC) levels. Grab samples were collec...

178

Coastal retreat and improved water quality mitigate losses of seagrass from sea level rise.  

PubMed

The distribution and abundance of seagrass ecosystems could change significantly over the coming century due to sea level rise (SLR). Coastal managers require mechanistic understanding of the processes affecting seagrass response to SLR to maximize their conservation and associated provision of ecosystem services. In Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia, vast seagrass meadows supporting populations of sea turtles and dugongs are juxtaposed with the multiple stressors associated with a large and rapidly expanding human population. Here, the interactive effects of predicted SLR, changes in water clarity, and land use on future distributions of seagrass in Moreton Bay were quantified. A habitat distribution model of present day seagrass in relation to benthic irradiance and wave height was developed which correctly classified habitats in 83% of cases. Spatial predictions of seagrass and presence derived from the model and bathymetric data were used to initiate a SLR inundation model. Bathymetry was iteratively modified based on SLR and sedimentary accretion in seagrass to simulate potential seagrass habitat at 10 year time steps until 2100. The area of seagrass habitat was predicted to decline by 17% by 2100 under a scenario of SLR of 1.1 m. A scenario including the removal of impervious surfaces, such as roads and houses, from newly inundated regions, demonstrated that managed retreat of the shoreline could potentially reduce the overall decline in seagrass habitat to just 5%. The predicted reduction in area of seagrass habitat could be offset by an improvement in water clarity of 30%. Greater improvements in water clarity would be necessary for larger magnitudes of SLR. Management to improve water quality will provide present and future benefits to seagrasses under climate change and should be a priority for managers seeking to compensate for the effects of global change on these valuable habitats. PMID:23564697

Saunders, Megan I; Leon, Javier; Phinn, Stuart R; Callaghan, David P; O'Brien, Katherine R; Roelfsema, Chris M; Lovelock, Catherine E; Lyons, Mitchell B; Mumby, Peter J

2013-08-01

179

Updating Slope Topography During Erosion Simulations with the Water Erosion Prediction Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) is a process-based continuous simulation erosion prediction model. However, WEPP currently assumes a fixed soil surface topography that does not change due to predicted detachment and\\/or deposition through a simulation period. While this approach might be satisfactory for slopes with uniform management, we hypothesized that long-term erosion predictions could be seriously altered by modifications

Jingcai Zhu; Seth M. Dabney; Dennis C. Flanagan

180

[Surveillance of perchlorate level in leafy vegetables and bottled water].  

PubMed

Perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) is both a naturally occurring and artificial compound, and it inhibits iodide uptake into the thyroid gland and disturbs thyroid function. It has been detected in many foods in the United States. In order to investigate perchlorate contamination in foods in Japan, perchlorate level in 82 leafy vegetable samples and 20 bottled mineral water samples was measured using a procedure based on the FDA's procedure, employing IC-MS/MS with (18)O(4)-labeled perchlorate as an internal standard. Among 82 leafy vegetable samples tested, perchlorate levels were under the LOQ (0.3 ng/g) in 3 samples and ranged from 0.3 ng/g to 29.7 ng/g in 79 samples. In 20 bottled water samples, perchlorate was under the LOQ (0.1 ng/mL) in 14 samples and ranged from 0.14 ng/mL to 0.35 ng/mL in 6 samples. PMID:19745587

Takatsuki, Satoshi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Sakai, Takatoshi; Matsuda, Rieko; Maitani, Tamio

2009-08-01

181

Reverse water-level fluctuations associated with fracture connectivity.  

PubMed

Reverse water-level fluctuations (RWFs), a phenomenon in which water levels rise briefly in response to pumping, were detected in monitoring wells in a fractured siliciclastic aquifer system near a deep public supply well. The magnitude and timing of RWFs provide important information that can help interpret aquifer hydraulics near pumping wells. A RWF in a well is normally attributed to poroelastic coupling between the solid and fluid components in an aquifer system. In addition to revealing classical pumping-induced poroelastic RWFs, data from pressure transducers located at varying depths and distances from the public supply well suggest that the RWFs propagate rapidly through fractures to influence wells hundreds of meters from the pumping well. The rate and cycling frequency of pumping is an important factor in the magnitude of RWFs. The pattern of RWF propagation can be used to better define fracture connectivity in an aquifer system. Rapid, cyclic head changes due to RWFs may also serve as a mechanism for contaminant transport. PMID:23473020

Gellasch, Christopher A; Wang, Herbert F; Bradbury, Kenneth R; Bahr, Jean M; Lande, Lauren L

2014-01-01

182

Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium Isotopic Fractionation of Water. How well can classical water models predict it?  

SciTech Connect

The liquid-vapor equilibrium isotopic fractionation of water is determined by molecular-based simulation, via Gibbs Ensemble Monte Carlo and isothermal-isochoric molecular dynamics involving two radically different but realistic models, the extended simple point charge (SPC/E) and the Gaussian charge polarizable (GCP) models. The predicted temperature dependence of the liquid-vapor equilibrium isotopic fractionation factors for H 2 18O / H 2 16O, H 2 17O / H 2 16O, and 2H 1H 16O / 1H 2 16O are compared against the most accurate experimental datasets to assess the ability of these intermolecular potential models to describe quantum effects according to the Kirkwood-Wigner free energy perturbation ! 2 !expansion. Predictions of the vapor pressure isotopic effect for the H 2 18O / H 2 16O and H 2 17O / H 2 16O pairs are also presented in comparison with experimental data and two recently proposed thermodynamic modeling approaches. Finally, the simulation results are used to discuss some approximations behind the microscopic interpretation of isotopic fractionation based on the underlying roto-translational coupling.

Chialvo, Ariel A [ORNL; Horita, Juske [ORNL

2009-01-01

183

Fish in Long Beach waters have risky contamination levels From staff reports Long Beach Press Telegram  

E-print Network

Fish in Long Beach waters have risky contamination levels From staff reports Long Beach Press coast showed high levels of methylmercury and moderate levels of PCBs in fish in Long Beach bay waters the coast. In the bay waters of Long Beach, the levels found in fish were of "high concern," according

184

A Bayesian network to predict coastal vulnerability to sea level rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level rise during the 21st century will have a wide range of effects on coastal environments, human development, and infrastructure in coastal areas. The broad range of complex factors influencing coastal systems contributes to large uncertainties in predicting long-term sea level rise impacts. Here we explore and demonstrate the capabilities of a Bayesian network (BN) to predict long-term shoreline change associated with sea level rise and make quantitative assessments of prediction uncertainty. A BN is used to define relationships between driving forces, geologic constraints, and coastal response for the U.S. Atlantic coast that include observations of local rates of relative sea level rise, wave height, tide range, geomorphic classification, coastal slope, and shoreline change rate. The BN is used to make probabilistic predictions of shoreline retreat in response to different future sea level rise rates. Results demonstrate that the probability of shoreline retreat increases with higher rates of sea level rise. Where more specific information is included, the probability of shoreline change increases in a number of cases, indicating more confident predictions. A hindcast evaluation of the BN indicates that the network correctly predicts 71% of the cases. Evaluation of the results using Brier skill and log likelihood ratio scores indicates that the network provides shoreline change predictions that are better than the prior probability. Shoreline change outcomes indicating stability (-1 < rate < 1 m/yr) or erosion (rate < -1 m/yr) tend to occur for two sets of input scenarios. Stable shoreline change rates occur mainly for low rates of relative sea level rise and occur in low-vulnerability geomorphic settings. Rates indicating erosion result for cases where the rate of relative sea level rise is high and moderate-to-high vulnerability geomorphic settings occur. In contrast, accretion (rate > 1 m/yr) was not well predicted. We find that BNs can assimilate important factors contributing to coastal change in response to sea level rise and can make quantitative, probabilistic predictions that can be applied to coastal management decisions.

Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Thieler, E. Robert

2011-06-01

185

Interactive effects of salinity and N on pepper yield, water use efficiency and root zone and drainage salinity: Experimental data and UNSATCHEM predictions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The aim of this study is to examine the effects of optimal and suboptimal N fertilizer levels in saline conditions on pepper plant and to predict the yield, soil water and drainage water EC and ETa using UNSATCHEM. The salinity effect on pepper plant biomass was statistically significant. Increasing...

186

Peak sound pressure and sound exposure level from underwater explosions in shallow water.  

PubMed

Experimental measurements of the peak pressure and sound exposure level (SEL) from underwater explosions collected 7?km off the coast of Virginia Beach, Virginia are presented. The peak pressures are compared to results from previous studies and a semi-empirical equation that is a function of measurement range and charge weight, and are found to be in good agreement. An empirical equation for SEL that similarly employs a scaling approach involving charge weight and range is also presented and shows promise for the prediction of SEL in shallow water. PMID:25190424

Soloway, Alexander G; Dahl, Peter H

2014-09-01

187

Predicting Fire Suppression Efficiency Using Polydisperse Water Sprays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoplastic fire suppression by water sprays is numerically investigated using an Eulerian-Eulerian two-phase approach. The polydisperse spray model is based on the moments of the droplet size distribution function. Turbulent combustion is approached using the Arrhenius\\/Eddy-Break-up model coupled with the RNGk ? ? turbulence model. A multiphase radiative transfer equation including the contributions of soot, combustion products and water droplets is used

F. Nmira; A. Kaiss; J.-L. Consalvi; B. Porterie

2008-01-01

188

Effects of sea-level rise on ground water flow in a coastal aquifer system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of sea-level rise on the depth to the fresh water/salt water interface were simulated by using a density-dependent, three-dimensional numerical ground water flow model for a simplified hypothetical fresh water lens that is similar to shallow, coastal aquifers found along the Atlantic coast of the United States. Simulations of sea-level rise of 2.65 mm/year from 1929 to 2050 resulted in an increase in water levels relative to a fixed datum, yet a net decrease in water levels relative to the increased sea-level position. The net decrease in water levels was much greater near a gaining stream than farther from the stream. The difference in the change in water levels is attributed to the dampening effect of the stream on water level changes in response to sea-level rise. In response to the decreased water level altitudes relative to local sea level, the depth to the fresh water/salt water interface decreased. This reduction in the thickness of the fresh water lens varied throughout the aquifer and was greatly affected by proximity to a ground water fed stream and whether the stream was tidally influenced. Away from the stream, the thickness of the fresh water lens decreased by about 2% from 1929 to 2050, whereas the fresh water lens thickness decreased by about 22% to 31% for the same period near the stream, depending on whether the stream was tidally influenced. The difference in the change in the fresh water/salt water interface position is controlled by the difference in the net decline in water levels relative to local sea level. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

Masterson, J.P.; Garabedian, S.P.

2007-01-01

189

Non Invasive Water Level Monitoring on Boiling Water Reactors Using Internal Gamma Radiation: Application of Soft Computing Methods  

SciTech Connect

To provide best knowledge about safety-related water level values in boiling water reactors (BWR) is essentially for operational regime. For the water level determination hydrostatic level measurement systems are almost exclusively applied, because they stand the test over many decades in conventional and nuclear power plants (NPP). Due to the steam generation especially in BWR a specific phenomenon occurs which leads to a water-steam mixture level in the reactor annular space and reactor plenum. The mixture level is a high transient non-measurable value concerning the hydrostatic water level measuring system and it significantly differs from the measured collapsed water level. In particular, during operational and accidental transient processes like fast negative pressure transients, the monitoring of these water levels is very important. In addition to the hydrostatic water level measurement system a diverse water level measurement system for BWR should be used. A real physical diversity is given by gamma radiation distribution inside and outside the reactor pressure vessel correlating with the water level. The vertical gamma radiation distribution depends on the water level, but it is also a function of the neutron flux and the coolant recirculation pump speed. For the water level monitoring, special algorithms are required. An analytical determination of the gamma radiation distribution outside the reactor pressure vessel is impossible due to the multitude of radiation of physical processes, complicated non-stationary radiation source distribution and complex geometry of fixtures. For creating suited algorithms Soft Computing methods (Fuzzy Sets Theory, Artificial Neural Networks, etc.) will be used. Therefore, a database containing input values (gamma radiation distribution) and output values (water levels) had to be built. Here, the database was established by experiments (data from BWR and from a test setup) and simulation with the authorised thermo-fluid code ATHLET. (authors)

Fleischer, Sebastian; Hampel, Rainer [University of Applied Sciences Zittau/Goerlitz, Theodor-Koerner-Str. 16, D-02763 Zittau (Germany)

2006-07-01

190

On the increase of predictive performance with high-level data fusion.  

PubMed

The combination of the different data sources for classification purposes, also called data fusion, can be done at different levels: low-level, i.e. concatenating data matrices, medium-level, i.e. concatenating data matrices after feature selection and high-level, i.e. combining model outputs. In this paper the predictive performance of high-level data fusion is investigated. Partial least squares is used on each of the data sets and dummy variables representing the classes are used as response variables. Based on the estimated responses ?(j) for data set j and class k, a Gaussian distribution p(g(k)|?(j)) is fitted. A simulation study is performed that shows the theoretical performance of high-level data fusion for two classes and two data sets. Within group correlations of the predicted responses of the two models and differences between the predictive ability of each of the separate models and the fused models are studied. Results show that the error rate is always less than or equal to the best performing subset and can theoretically approach zero. Negative within group correlations always improve the predictive performance. However, if the data sets have a joint basis, as with metabolomics data, this is not likely to happen. For equally performing individual classifiers the best results are expected for small within group correlations. Fusion of a non-predictive classifier with a classifier that exhibits discriminative ability lead to increased predictive performance if the within group correlations are strong. An example with real life data shows the applicability of the simulation results. PMID:21962346

Doeswijk, T G; Smilde, A K; Hageman, J A; Westerhuis, J A; van Eeuwijk, F A

2011-10-31

191

Project Water Science. General Science High School Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide presents 12 hands-on laboratory activities for high school science classes that cover the environmental issue of water resources in California. The activities are separated into three sections. Five activities in the section on water quality address the topics of groundwater, water hardness, bottled water, water purity, and…

Water Education Foundation, Sacramento, CA.

192

Water issues: the need for action at different levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fair fresh water distribution among humans and nature and among all sectors will be one of the main challenges of the 21st century. There is a complex interplay between the different water users, and clear systematics are needed for efficient decision making. Water uses can be divided into four sectors, (i) water for people, services and industries, (ii) water for

Alexander J. B. Zehnder; Hong Yang; Roland Schertenleib

2003-01-01

193

A predictive theory of intentions to exit street-level prostitution.  

PubMed

Street-level prostitution is notoriously difficult to escape and rarely do women exit prostitution on their first attempt or without experiencing serious negative consequences to their physical or mental health. Unfortunately, few theories exist that explain the exiting process and those that do exist are difficult to test quantitatively. This article applies the integrative model of behavioral prediction to examine intentions to exit prostitution through attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy beliefs that underlie a woman's intention to exit prostitution. Constructs unique prostitution--agency and societal context--enhance the model. This theory may explain and predict an exit from street-level prostitution. PMID:23136182

Cimino, Andrea N

2012-10-01

194

Application of empirical predictive modeling using conventional and alternative fecal indicator bacteria in eastern North Carolina waters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coastal and estuarine waters are the site of intense anthropogenic influence with concomitant use for recreation and seafood harvesting. Therefore, coastal and estuarine water quality has a direct impact on human health. In eastern North Carolina (NC) there are over 240 recreational and 1025 shellfish harvesting water quality monitoring sites that are regularly assessed. Because of the large number of sites, sampling frequency is often only on a weekly basis. This frequency, along with an 18–24 h incubation time for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) enumeration via culture-based methods, reduces the efficiency of the public notification process. In states like NC where beach monitoring resources are limited but historical data are plentiful, predictive models may offer an improvement for monitoring and notification by providing real-time FIB estimates. In this study, water samples were collected during 12 dry (n = 88) and 13 wet (n = 66) weather events at up to 10 sites. Statistical predictive models for Escherichiacoli (EC), enterococci (ENT), and members of the Bacteroidales group were created and subsequently validated. Our results showed that models for EC and ENT (adjusted R2 were 0.61 and 0.64, respectively) incorporated a range of antecedent rainfall, climate, and environmental variables. The most important variables for EC and ENT models were 5-day antecedent rainfall, dissolved oxygen, and salinity. These models successfully predicted FIB levels over a wide range of conditions with a 3% (EC model) and 9% (ENT model) overall error rate for recreational threshold values and a 0% (EC model) overall error rate for shellfish threshold values. Though modeling of members of the Bacteroidales group had less predictive ability (adjusted R2 were 0.56 and 0.53 for fecal Bacteroides spp. and human Bacteroides spp., respectively), the modeling approach and testing provided information on Bacteroidales ecology. This is the first example of a set of successful statistical predictive models appropriate for assessment of both recreational and shellfish harvesting water quality in estuarine waters.

Gonzalez, Raul; Conn, Kathleen E.; Crosswell, Joey; Noble, Rachel

2012-01-01

195

Water-level Fluctuations in the Eberswalde crater (Mars)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eberswalde crater represents a spectacularly exposed example of water-related activity on Mars past geological history [1,2,3,4,5,6,7]. Eberswalde Crater at about 24.9° S., 33.7° W., lies just NE of Holden Crater and Uzboi Valles in Margaritifer Terra, Mars. We investigated the geology of this crater using MOC NA and HRSC imagery in combination with MOLA and HRSC derived DTM in order to recognize water-related processes and to infer depositional environments and depositional architecture. The fan delta located in the easternmost part of the crater presents well developed morphologies [1,2,3,4,5,6,7]. It consists of five lobes, suggesting prevalence of input related processes [4], even if wave- related processes seem to have been present as well [7]. Some of these lobes are coeval with the emplacement of synsedimentary tectonics and their morphology appears at least partly structural-controlled. The delta is made of bright and dark interlayered deposits. Some of the bright layers consist of very poorly sorted material, with boulders up to 10 meters of diameter floating in a finer matrix suggesting an emplacement as mass flows. Other layers consist of finer and better-sorted material. Most of the lobes display a low-dipping proximal area (1°-2°), a distal high-dipping area (6°-10°) and a more distal low-dipping area (1°-2°). We interpret the low dipping proximal part as delta plain consisting of distributary areas, mostly built by coalescing point bars [4,5], and interdistributary areas, in which crevasse splays flooded into the plain [7]. At places the topset-foreset-bottomset architecture typical of fan delta is present. In other cases, friction-related processes appear to be dominant. We interpret the high-dipping part of the fan delta as delta front deposits [7]. The oldest lobe display a transgressive-regressive cycle with a retrogradational stacking pattern at the base on top of which progradation develops. We interpret the retrogradational stacking pattern as formed during a Transgressive System Tract and the progradational stacking pattern related to a HighStand System Tract. The transition among these systems is marked by a Maximum Flooding Surface. A change in the morphology of the distributary channels from meandering to braided associated with a distal shift of the system appear to be related to a drop of the water level depicting a forced regression scenario. We interpret this lobe as formed during a Falling Stage System Tract. Friction-related processes appear to be dominant in this shallow-water type fan delta. The following lobe was deposited during another phase of rising water table which displays an overall aggradational stacking pattern [6,7] suggesting a certain equilibrium between sedimentary input, tectonic subsidence and level of the water table. The youngest two lobes do not display such a well developed depositional architecture, suggesting more episodic sedimentary activity. References 1. Malin, and Edgett, Science, 302, 1931-1934, 2003.2. Moore et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 24, 2292, doi: 10.1029/2003GL019002, 2003.3. Jerolmack et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L21701, doi: 10.1029/2004GL021326, 2004.4. Bhattacharya et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L10201, doi: 10.1029/2005GL022747, 2005.5. Wood, GSA Bulletin, 118, 5-6, 557-566; doi: 10.1130/B25822.1, 2006.6. Lewis and Aharanson, J. Geophys. Res., 111, E06001, doi: 10.1029/2005JE002558, 2006.7. Pondrelli et al., LPSC XXXVII, abstract 1555, 2006.

Pondrelli, M.; Rossi, A. P.; Marinangeli, L.; Hauber, E.; Baliva, A.; Gwinner, K.

2006-12-01

196

Shallow ground-water flow, water levels, and quality of water, 1980-84, Cowles Unit, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore  

SciTech Connect

The Cowles Unit of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in Porter County, northwest Indiana, contains a broad dune-beach complex along the southern shoreline of Lake Michigan and a large wetland, called the Great Marsh, that occupies the lowland between the shoreline dunes and an older dune-beach complex farther inland. Water levels and water quality in the surficial aquifer were monitored from 1977 to 1984 near settling ponds on adjacent industrial property at the western end of the Cowles Unit. Since 1980, when the settling pond bottoms were sealed, these intradunal lowlands contained standing water only during periods of high snowmelt or rainfall. Water level declines following the cessation of seepage ranged from 6 feet at the eastern-most settling pond to nearly 14 feet at the western-most pond. No general pattern of water table decline was observed in the Great Marsh or in the shoreline dune complex at distances > 3,000 ft east or north of the settling ponds. Since the settling ponds were sealed, the concentration of boron has decreased while concentrations of cadmium, arsenic, zinc, and molybdenum in shallow ground-water downgradient of the ponds show no definite trends in time. Arsenic, boron and molybdenum have remained at concentrations above those of shallow groundwater in areas unaffected by settling pond seepage. 11 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Cohen, D.A.; Shedlock, R.J.

1986-01-01

197

[A simulation model for predicting the dry matter allocation in cut lily plants under effects of substrate water potential].  

PubMed

Dry matter allocation and translocation is the base of the formation of appearance quality of ornamental plants, and strongly affected by water supply. Taking cut lily cultivar 'Sorbonne' as test material, a culture experiment of different planting dates and water supply levels was conducted in a multi-span greenhouse in Nanjing from March 2009 to January 2010 to quantitatively analyze the seasonal changes of the dry matter allocation and translocation in 'Sorbonne' plants and the effects of substrate water potential on the dry matter allocation indices for different organs (flower, stem, leaf, bulb, and root), aimed to define the critical substrate water potential for the normal growth of the cultivar, and establish a simulation model for predicting the dry matter allocation in cut lily plants under effects of substrate water potential. The model established in this study gave a good prediction on the dry mass of plant organs, with the coefficient of determination and the relative root mean square error between the simulated and measured values of the cultivar' s flower dry mass, stem dry mass, leaf dry mass, bulb dry mass, and root dry mass being 0.96 and 19.2%, 0.95 and 12.4%, 0.86 and 19.4%, 0.95 and 12.2%, and 0.85 and 31.7%, respectively. The critical water potential for the water management of cut lily could be -15 kPa. PMID:22803474

Dong, Yong-Yi; Li, Gang; An, Dong-Sheng; Luo, Wei-Hong

2012-04-01

198

Subtidal variability in water levels inside a subtropical estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

time series of water level are analyzed at five locations along the St. Johns River Estuary, Florida, to investigate propagation of subtidal pulses. Hilbert-transformed Empirical Orthogonal Functions (HEOFs) are obtained after a dominant seasonal signal is extracted from the data. These functions provide information on spatial structure and propagation phase of subtidal water level pulses. The first HEOF mode explains 96% of the subtidal variability and features an unusual spatial structure: amplitude attenuation (averaging 1 mm/km) to 55 km upstream, slight amplification (0.16 mm/km) over the middle 70 km, and attenuation (2.3 mm/km) over the final 18 km of the estuary. The phase suggests a shift from progressive to quasi-standing wave behavior at 55 km from the estuary mouth. Additionally, local minima in the phase suggest two sources of subtidal forcing: the coastal ocean and the upstream end. An analytical model describing the evolution of long waves through a channel with frictional damping is fit to the amplitude of HEOF mode 1. Solutions are obtained as a function of two parameters: the nondimensional length of the basin, ?, and the nondimensional frictional depth, ?. Values of ? between 0.55 and 0.67 and ? between 1.45 and 1.7 provide the best fit with the HEOF results (1% error or less). These values indicate a highly frictional environment in which the average subtidal wavelength is 10 times the basin length. Subtidal pulses in this estuary, therefore, behave as damped waves that can be represented with idealized models.

Henrie, Krista; Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo

2014-11-01

199

NOAA tsunami water level archive - scientific perspectives and discoveries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and co-located World Data Service for Geophysics (WDS) provides long-term archive, data management, and access to national and global tsunami data. Currently, NGDC archives and processes high-resolution data recorded by the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) network, the coastal-tide-gauge network from the National Ocean Service (NOS) as well as tide-gauge data recorded by all gauges in the two National Weather Service (NWS) Tsunami Warning Centers' (TWCs) regional networks. The challenge in processing these data is that the observations from the deep-ocean, Pacific Islands, Alaska region, and United States West and East Coasts display commonalities, but, at the same time, differ significantly, especially when extreme events are considered. The focus of this work is on how time integration of raw observations (10-seconds to 1-minute) could mask extreme water levels. Analysis of the statistical and spectral characteristics obtained from records with different time step of integration will be presented. Results show the need to precisely calibrate the despiking procedure against raw data due to the significant differences in the variability of deep-ocean and coastal tide-gauge observations. It is shown that special attention should be drawn to the very strong water level declines associated with the passage of the North Atlantic cyclones. Strong changes for the deep ocean and for the West Coast have implications for data quality but these same features are typical for the East Coast regime.

Mungov, G.; Eble, M. C.; McLean, S. J.

2013-12-01

200

Improved multi-level protein–protein interaction prediction with semantic-based regularization  

PubMed Central

Background Protein–protein interactions can be seen as a hierarchical process occurring at three related levels: proteins bind by means of specific domains, which in turn form interfaces through patches of residues. Detailed knowledge about which domains and residues are involved in a given interaction has extensive applications to biology, including better understanding of the binding process and more efficient drug/enzyme design. Alas, most current interaction prediction methods do not identify which parts of a protein actually instantiate an interaction. Furthermore, they also fail to leverage the hierarchical nature of the problem, ignoring otherwise useful information available at the lower levels; when they do, they do not generate predictions that are guaranteed to be consistent between levels. Results Inspired by earlier ideas of Yip et al. (BMC Bioinformatics 10:241, 2009), in the present paper we view the problem as a multi-level learning task, with one task per level (proteins, domains and residues), and propose a machine learning method that collectively infers the binding state of all object pairs. Our method is based on Semantic Based Regularization (SBR), a flexible and theoretically sound machine learning framework that uses First Order Logic constraints to tie the learning tasks together. We introduce a set of biologically motivated rules that enforce consistent predictions between the hierarchy levels. Conclusions We study the empirical performance of our method using a standard validation procedure, and compare its performance against the only other existing multi-level prediction technique. We present results showing that our method substantially outperforms the competitor in several experimental settings, indicating that exploiting the hierarchical nature of the problem can lead to better predictions. In addition, our method is also guaranteed to produce interactions that are consistent with respect to the protein–domain–residue hierarchy. PMID:24725682

2014-01-01

201

Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of water level in Weihe River based on multi-objective and multi-level decision making method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, domestic water, industrial water, agricultural water and comprehensive water use level in Weihe River Valley in Shaanxi Province are studied to strengthen water resource management and realize sustainable use of water in Weihe River, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model established and the comprehensive wateruse level evaluated based on multi-objective and multi-level decision making methods. It shows that the

Shunsheng Wangl; Liangjun Fei; Yuping Han; Jianlong Zhangl

2010-01-01

202

The Water Level Fall of Lake Megali Prespa (N Greece): an Indicator of Regional Water Stress Driven by Climate Change and Amplified by Water Extraction?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean stands out globally due to its sensitivity to (future) climate change, with future projections predicting an increase in excessive drought events and declining rainfall. Regional freshwater ecosystems are particularly threatened: precipitation decreases, while extreme droughts increase and human impacts intensify (e.g. water extraction, drainage, pollution and dam-building). Many Mediterranean lake-wetland systems have shrunk or disappeared over the past two decades. Protecting the remaining systems is extremely important for supporting global biodiversity and for ensuring sustainable water availability. This protection should be based on a clear understanding of lake-wetland hydrological responses to natural and human-induced changes, which is currently lacking in many parts of the Mediterranean. The interconnected Prespa-Ohrid Lake system is a global hotspot of biodiversity and endemism. The unprecedented fall in water level (~8m) of Lake Megali Prespa threatens this system, but causes remain debated. Modelling suggests that the S Balkan will experience rainfall and runoff decreases of ~30% by 2050. However, projections revealing the potential impact of these changes on future lake level are unavailable as lake regime is not understood. A further drop in lake level may have serious consequences. The Prespa Lakes contribute ~25% of the total inflow into Lake Ohrid through underground karst channels; falling lake levels decrease this discharge. Lake Ohrid, in turn, feeds the Drim River. This entire catchment may therefore be affected by falling lake levels; its water resources are of great importance for Greece, Albania, FYROM and Montenegro (e.g. tourism, agriculture, hydro-energy, urban & industrial use). This new work proves that annual water level fluctuations of Lake Megali Prespa are predominantly related to precipitation during the first 7 months (Oct-Apr) of the hydrological year (Oct-Sep). Lake level is very sensitive to regional and Mediterranean wet-dry events during this period. There are robust indications for a link between lake level and the North Atlantic Oscillation, which is known to strongly influence Mediterranean winter precipitation. Hydro-climatic records show a complicated picture, but tentatively support the conclusion that the unprecedented lake level fall is principally related to climate change. The available fluvial discharge record and most existing snowfall records show statistically significant decreases in annual averages. Annual rainfall only shows a statistically significant decrease of the 25th percentile; 7-month rainfall (Oct-Apr) additionally shows a statistically significant but non-robust decrease of the mean. The modest amount of water extraction (annually: ~14*103m3, ~0.004% of total lake volume) exerts a progressive and significant impact on lake level over the longer term, accounting for ~25% of the observed fall. Lake level lowering ends when lake-surface area shrinkage has led to a decrease in lake-surface evaporation that is equivalent to the amount of water extracted. The adjustment of lake level to stable extraction rates requires two to three decades. This work aims to steer adaptation and mitigation strategies by informing on lake response under different climate change and extraction scenarios. Lake protection is a cost effective solution for supporting global biodiversity and for providing sustainable water resources.

van der Schriek, Tim; Giannakopoulos, Christos

2014-05-01

203

METHOD FOR QUANTIFYING THE PREDICTION UNCERTAINTIES ASSOCIATED WITH WATER QUALITY MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Many environmental regulatory agencies depend on models to organize, understand, and utilize the information for regulatory decision-making. eneral analytical protocol was developed to quantify prediction rror associated with commonly used surface, water quality models. ts applic...

204

Using hyperspectral imagery to predict post-wildfire soil water repellency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A principal task of evaluating large wildfires is to assess fire's effect on the soil in order to predict the potential watershed response. Two types of soil water repellency tests, the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test and the mini-disk infiltrometer (MDI) test, were performed after the Hayman Fire in Colorado, in the summer of 2002 to assess the infiltration potential of the soil. Remotely sensed hyperspectral imagery was also collected to map post-wildfire ground cover and soil condition. Detailed ground cover measurements were collected to validate the remotely sensed imagery and to examine the relationship between ground cover and soil water repellency. Percent ash cover measured on the ground was significantly correlated to WDPT ( r = 0.42; p-value < 0.0001), and the MDI test ( r = - 0.37; p-value < 0.0001). A Mixture Tuned Matched Filter (MTMF) spectral unmixing algorithm was applied to the hyperspectral imagery, which produced fractional cover maps of ash, soil, and scorched and green vegetation. The remotely sensed ash image had significant correlations to the water repellency tests, WDPT ( r = 0.24; p-value = 0.001), and the MDI test ( r = - 0.21; p-value = 0.005). An iterative threshold analysis was also applied to the ash and water repellency data to evaluate the relationship at increasingly higher levels of ash cover. Regression analysis between the means of grouped data: MDI time vs. ash cover data ( R2 =0.75) and vs. Ash MTMF scores ( R2 = 0.63) yielded significantly stronger relationships. From these results we found on-the-ground ash cover greater than 49% and remotely sensed ash cover greater than 33% to be indicative of strongly water repellent soils. Combining these results with geostatistical analyses indicated a spatial autocorrelation range of 15 to 40 m. Image pixels with high ash cover (> 33%), including pixels within 15 m of these pixel patches, were used to create a likelihood map of soil water repellency. This map is a good indicator of areas where soil experienced severe fire effects—areas that likely have strong water repellent soil conditions and higher potential for post-fire erosion.

Lewis, Sarah A.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Frazier, Bruce E.; Wu, Joan Q.; Laes, Denise Y. M.

2008-03-01

205

POST-BETZE PIT LAKE WATER QUALITY PREDICTION, NEVADA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Barrick Goldstrike Mine is located in the Carlin Trend, about 20 miles northwest of Carlin, Nevada. The majority of the ore mined at Goldstrike is from the Post-Betze open pit, the largest open pit operation in Nevada. Nevada law requires that the water quality of temporary or permanent reservoirs that may develop in open pits be periodically tested. Pit

William M. Schafer; Mark Logsdon; Guosheng Zhan; Ron Espell

206

Ground-water levels in water year 1987 and estimated ground-water pumpage in water years 1986-87, Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Groundwater levels were measured at 58 wells during water year 1987 and a summary of estimated pumpage is given for water years 1986 and 1987 in Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada. The data were collected to provide a record of groundwater changes over the long-term and pumpage estimates that can be incorporated into an existing groundwater model. The estimated total pumpage in water year 1986 was 10,200 acre-ft and in water year 1987 was 13,400 acre-ft. Groundwater levels exhibited seasonal fluctuations but remained relatively stable over the reporting period throughout most of the valley. (USGS)

Berger, D.L.

1990-01-01

207

A permeability-change model for water-level changes triggered by teleseismic waves  

E-print Network

A permeability-change model for water-level changes triggered by teleseismic waves Z. M. GEBALLE, C strains are often invoked to explain changes in water level. Using water-level data in Taiwan after-sealing mechanism(s). Key words: dynamic stresses, permeability evolution Received 7 February 2011; accepted 7 June

Manga, Michael

208

Concomitant prediction of function and fold at the domain level with GO-based profiles  

PubMed Central

Predicting the function of newly sequenced proteins is crucial due to the pace at which these raw sequences are being obtained. Almost all resources for predicting protein function assign functional terms to whole chains, and do not distinguish which particular domain is responsible for the allocated function. This is not a limitation of the methodologies themselves but it is due to the fact that in the databases of functional annotations these methods use for transferring functional terms to new proteins, these annotations are done on a whole-chain basis. Nevertheless, domains are the basic evolutionary and often functional units of proteins. In many cases, the domains of a protein chain have distinct molecular functions, independent from each other. For that reason resources with functional annotations at the domain level, as well as methodologies for predicting function for individual domains adapted to these resources are required. We present a methodology for predicting the molecular function of individual domains, based on a previously developed database of functional annotations at the domain level. The approach, which we show outperforms a standard method based on sequence searches in assigning function, concomitantly predicts the structural fold of the domains and can give hints on the functionally important residues associated to the predicted function. PMID:23514233

2013-01-01

209

Ground-water monitoring at Santa Barbara, California; Phase 2, Effects of pumping on water levels and on water quality in the Santa Barbara ground-water basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From July 1978 to January 1980, water levels in the southern part of the Santa Barbara ground-water basin declined more than 100 feet. These water-level declines resulted from increases in municipal pumping since July 1978. The increase in municipal pumping was part of a basin-testing program designed to determine the usable quantity of ground water in storage. The pumping, centered in the city less than 1 mile from the coast, has caused water-level declines to altitudes below sea level in the main water-bearing zones. As a result, the ground-water basin would be subject to saltwater intrusion if the study-period pumpage were maintained or increased. Data indicate that saltwater intrusion has degraded the quality of the water yielded from six coastal wells. During the study period, the six coastal wells all yielded water with chloride concentrations in excess of 250 milligrams per liter, and four of the wells yielded water with chloride concentrations in excess of 1,000 milligrams per liter. Previous investigators believed that saltwater intrusion was limited to the shallow part of the aquifer, directly adjacent to the coast. The possibility of saltwater intrusion into the deeper water-bearing deposits in the aquifer was thought to be remote because an offshore fault truncates these deeper deposits so that they lie against consolidated rocks on the seaward side of the fault. Results of this study indicate, however, that ocean water has intruded the deeper water-bearing deposits, and to a much greater extent than in the shallow part of the aquifer. Apparently the offshore fault is not an effective barrier to saltwater intrusion. No physical barriers are known to exist between the coast and the municipal well field. Therefore, if the pumping rate maintained during the basin-testing program were continued, the degraded water along the coast could move inland and contaminate the municipal supply wells. The time required for the degraded water to move from the coast to the nearest supply well is estimated, using Darcy's equation, to be about 20 years. Management alternatives for controlling saltwater intrusion in the Santa Barbara area include (1) decreasing municipal pumping, (2) increasing the quantity of water available for recharge by releasing surplus water from surface reservoirs to Mission Creek, (3) artificially recharging the basin using injection wells, and (4) locating municipal supply wells farther from the coast and spacing them farther apart in order to minimize drawdown. Continued monitoring of water levels and water quality would enable assessment of the effectiveness of the control measures employed.

Martin, Peter

1984-01-01

210

Towards a predictive systems-level model of the human microbiome: progress, challenges, and opportunities  

E-print Network

Towards a predictive systems-level model of the human microbiome: progress, challenges,2,3 The human microbiome represents a vastly complex ecosystem that is tightly linked to our development in a microbiome but also the interactions between these components. Such models should aim to study the microbiome

Borenstein, Elhanan

211

Regulation of Motivation: Predicting Students' Homework Motivation Management at the Secondary School Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines models of variables posited to predict students' homework motivation management (HMM), based on survey data from 866 8th graders (61 classes) and 745 11th graders (46 classes) in the south-eastern USA. Most of the variance in HMM occurred at the student level, with parent education as the only significant predictor at the…

Xu, Jianzhong

2014-01-01

212

High Level Computational Chemistry Approaches to the Prediction of the Energetic Properties of  

E-print Network

High Level Computational Chemistry Approaches to the Prediction of the Energetic Properties of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Systems David A. Dixon Chemistry, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL Cast transition states for critical reaction processes in catalysis. These are only accessible by computational

213

Amygdala norepinephrine levels after training predict inhibitory avoidance retention performance in rats  

E-print Network

and enhancing effects of drugs affecting GABA, opiate and glucocorticoid receptors (McGaugh et al., 1995., 1998). Additionally, systemic injections of epinephrine or drugs that enhance memory consolida- tionAmygdala norepinephrine levels after training predict inhibitory avoidance retention performance

O'Toole, Alice J.

214

Social Status Predicts How Sex Steroid Receptors Regulate Complex Behavior across Levels of  

E-print Network

Social Status Predicts How Sex Steroid Receptors Regulate Complex Behavior across Levels.A.H.), The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 Social status strongly affects behavior and physiology organization is not well understood. We examine the role of sex steroids in modulating social behavior

Hofmann, Hans A.

215

Variable Level-Of-Detail Motion Planning in Environments with Poorly Predictable Bodies  

E-print Network

Variable Level-Of-Detail Motion Planning in Environments with Poorly Predictable Bodies Stefan Zickler and Manuela Veloso1 Abstract. Motion planning in dynamic environments consists of the generation planning. We contribute VLOD planning on a rich simulated physics-based plan- ner and show results

Veloso, Manuela M.

216

HYDRONMR: Prediction of NMR Relaxation of Globular Proteins from Atomic-Level Structures and Hydrodynamic Calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heteronuclear NMR relaxation of globular proteins depends on the anisotropic rotational diffusion tensor. Using our previous developments for prediction of hydrodynamic properties of arbitrarily shaped particles, by means of bead models, we have constructed a computational procedure to calculate the rotational diffusion tensor and other properties of proteins from their detailed, atomic-level structure. From the atomic coordinates file used

J Garc??a de la Torre; M. L. Huertas; B. Carrasco

2000-01-01

217

High Level Describable Attributes for Predicting Aesthetics and Interestingness Sagnik Dhar Vicente Ordonez Tamara L Berg  

E-print Network

High Level Describable Attributes for Predicting Aesthetics and Interestingness Sagnik Dhar Vicente exponen- tially. Some of these pictures are extremely beautiful and aesthetically pleasing, but the vast to automatically select high aesthetic quality images from large image collections. Our aesthetic quality

Berg, Tamara L.

218

The Level of Quality of Work Life to Predict Work Alienation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current research aims to determine the level of elementary school teachers' quality of work life (QWL) to predict work alienation. The study was designed using the relational survey model. The research population consisted of 1096 teachers employed at 25 elementary schools within the city of Van in the academic year 2010- 2011, and 346…

Erdem, Mustafa

2014-01-01

219

Perceptions of Crowding: Predicting at the Residence, Neighborhood, and City Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details the results of a large-scale field study aimed at testing two theories on human crowding. Found that psychological factors are increasingly important for the prediction of crowding as one moved from the immediate residence to the less immediate city level. Implications, limitations and further results are discussed. (Author/MA)

Schmidt, Donald E.; And Others

1979-01-01

220

The effects of sea-level rise on water quality in coastal floodplain sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level has risen approximately 1.2 mm/year over the last 100 years (Hennessy et al. 2004) and is predicted to rise up to 80 cm by 2100 relative to 1990 sea levels (IPCC 2007). The number of extreme events related to sea level such as higher sea levels and increased inter-annual variability have also increased in frequency in the same time period (Hennessy et al. 2004). Globally, large areas of coastal and estuarine floodplains are underlain by sulfidic sediments and acid sulfate soils (ASS). These sediments frequently contain high concentrations of acidity and trace metals. A significant portion of the stored acidity occurs in the form of exchangeable and hydrolysable acidic metal cations such as Al and Fe. Watertables in these environments are often close to the surface and intercepted by relatively shallow drains. Due to their low elevation and locations, these floodplains are highly susceptible to pulses of saline water caused by saltwater intrusion, storm surge and rising sea levels. Construction of extensive drainage systems has further increased the susceptibility of the floodplain to seawater inundation by increasing connectivity to the estuarine channel. This risk is likely to increase in the future with predicted increases in sea level and extreme events due to climate change. This study uses both batch experiments to determine the effects of increasing ionic strength on exchange processes and trace metal desorption in oxidised floodplain sediments and sulfidic drain sediments, and intact soil cores to determine the surface water-porewater interactions over the short term following seawater inundation in coastal floodplain sediments. We found that that saline inundation of oxidised ASS floodplain sediments, even by relatively brackish water may cause rapid, shorter-term water quality changes and a pulse release of acidity due to desorption of acidic metal cations (Wong et al. 2010). We also found that trace metals can be mobilised from sulfidic estuarine drain sediments at near-neutral pH values without oxidation as a result of increased ionic strength and competitive desorption of metal cations (Wong et al. in press). Rapid seawater incursion in CASS drainage networks is likely to adversely impact drain water quality by increasing trace metal mobilization. Drainage networks on ASS floodplains are highly susceptible to rapid seawater inundation through storm surge, seasonal salt wedge migration, floodgate failure or floodgate opening. The experimental results show that the initial addition of marine derived salts will result in a decrease in pH and increase in trace metals, even at low salt concentrations such as that found in brackish waters in estuarine environments. References Hennessy K, Page C, McInnes K, Jones R, Bathols J, Collins D, Jones D (2004) Climate Change in New South Wales. In. CSIRO, Canberra. IPCC (2007) Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. In: An Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Wong VNL, Johnston SG, Burton ED, Bush RT, Sullivan LA, Slavich PG (2010) Seawater causes rapid trace metal mobilisation in coastal lowland acid sulfate soils: Implications of sea level rise for water quality. Geoderma 160(2): 252-263 Wong VNL, Johnston SG, Burton ED, Bush RT, Sullivan LA, Slavich PG (in press) Seawater-induced mobilization of trace metals from mackinawite-rich estuarine sediments. Water Research

Wong, Vanessa; Johnston, Scott; Burton, Edward; Bush, Richard; Sullivan, Leigh; Slavich, Peter

2013-04-01

221

Supervised prediction of drug-induced nephrotoxicity based on interleukin-6 and -8 expression levels  

PubMed Central

Background Drug-induced nephrotoxicity causes acute kidney injury and chronic kidney diseases, and is a major reason for late-stage failures in the clinical trials of new drugs. Therefore, early, pre-clinical prediction of nephrotoxicity could help to prioritize drug candidates for further evaluations, and increase the success rates of clinical trials. Recently, an in vitro model for predicting renal-proximal-tubular-cell (PTC) toxicity based on the expression levels of two inflammatory markers, interleukin (IL)-6 and -8, has been described. However, this and other existing models usually use linear and manually determined thresholds to predict nephrotoxicity. Automated machine learning algorithms may improve these models, and produce more accurate and unbiased predictions. Results Here, we report a systematic comparison of the performances of four supervised classifiers, namely random forest, support vector machine, k-nearest-neighbor and naive Bayes classifiers, in predicting PTC toxicity based on IL-6 and -8 expression levels. Using a dataset of human primary PTCs treated with 41 well-characterized compounds that are toxic or not toxic to PTC, we found that random forest classifiers have the highest cross-validated classification performance (mean balanced accuracy = 87.8%, sensitivity = 89.4%, and specificity = 85.9%). Furthermore, we also found that IL-8 is more predictive than IL-6, but a combination of both markers gives higher classification accuracy. Finally, we also show that random forest classifiers trained automatically on the whole dataset have higher mean balanced accuracy than a previous threshold-based classifier constructed for the same dataset (99.3% vs. 80.7%). Conclusions Our results suggest that a random forest classifier can be used to automatically predict drug-induced PTC toxicity based on the expression levels of IL-6 and -8. PMID:25521947

2014-01-01

222

Water levels and water-level changes in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan and Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifers, Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1971-80  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mississippi, Minnesota, and St. Croix Rivers greatly influence flow patterns in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer. Water generally flows toward these streams from surrounding water-level highs. Heavy pumping has caused only localized cones of depression. In contrast, pumping in Minneapolis and St. Paul has greatly influenced ground-water flow in the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer, resulting in a large cone of depression. Between 1971 and 1980 average water levels in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer changed less than 5 feet in most of the study area, while average water levels in the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer rose as much as 60 feet in the center of the cone of depression. Water-level data suggest that (1) little variation of annual pumpage between 1971 and 1980 from the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer produced generally stable water levels in that aquifer, (2) decreased annual pumpage from 1971 to 1980 from the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer caused rising water levels in that aquifer, and (3) a greater seasonal component of pumpage for the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer than for the Prairie du Chien-Jordan produced larger and more widespread seasonal water-level declines in the Mount Simon-Hinckley than in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan, particularly during dry years. (USGS)

Schoenberg, Michael

1984-01-01

223

Adapting to Climate ChangeAdapting to Climate Change ExtremeExtreme Water Levels, Invasive Species andWater Levels, Invasive Species and  

E-print Network

Species andWater Levels, Invasive Species and Harmful Algal BloomsHarmful Algal Blooms ­­ Oh My!Oh My! TimAdapting to Climate ChangeAdapting to Climate Change ­­ ExtremeExtreme Water Levels, Invasive storms, more intense flooding, forest fires and species loss in other places." THOMAS L. FRIEDMAN ­ NY

Sheridan, Jennifer

224

Critical heat flux prediction for water boiling in vertical tubes of a steam generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a methodology for the prediction of the critical heat flux (CHF) for the boiling of water in vertical tubes operating under typical conditions found in steam generators. At the furnace, the water flows through long vertical tubes under an axially non-uniform heat flux and with relatively low mass fluxes. This fact causes that the recent theories and

L. A. Payan-Rodriguez; A. Gallegos-Muñoz; G. L. Porras-Loaiza; M. Picon-Nuñez

2005-01-01

225

PREDICTING THE PERFORMANCE OF AN ELEVATED WATER TABLE FOR PREVENTING ACID  

E-print Network

PREDICTING THE PERFORMANCE OF AN ELEVATED WATER TABLE FOR PREVENTING ACID MINE DRAINAGE M. The effectiveness of an elevated water table in preventing acid mine drainage (AMD) can be quantified using diffusion de l'oxygène en milieu quasi saturé. Cette efficacité à empêcher le drainage minier acide (DMA

Aubertin, Michel

226

A semi-analytical model for predicting water quality from an aquifer storage and recovery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) involves the injection of freshwater in an aquifer through wells for the purpose of creating a subsurface water supply that is recovered at a later time, often using the same wells, to meet seasonal, long-term, emergency, or other demands. In this paper a numerically efficient semi-analytical model is developed for predicting the quality of water

Ali Sedighi; Harald Klammler; Chris Brown; Kirk Hatfield

2006-01-01

227

Using a Dynamic Hydrology Model To Predict Mosquito Abundances in Flood and Swamp Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

We modeled surface wetness at high resolution, using a dynamic hydrology model, to predict flood and swamp water mosquito abundances. Historical meteorologic data, as well as topographic, soil, and vegeta- tion data, were used to model surface wetness and identify potential fresh and swamp water breeding habi- tats in two northern New Jersey watersheds. Surface wetness was positively associated with

Jeffrey Shaman; Marc Stieglitz; Colin Stark; Sylvie Le Blancq; Mark Cane

2002-01-01

228

Water Levels In Major Artesian Aquifers Of The New Jersey Coastal Plain, 1988  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water levels in 1,251 wells in the New Jersey Coastal Plain, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, and Kent and New Castle Counties, Delaware, were measured from October 1988 to February 1989 and compared with 1,071 water levels measured from September 1983 to May 1984. Water levels in 916 of the wells measured in the 1983 study were remeasured in the 1988 study. Alternate wells were selected to replace wells used in 1983 that were inaccessible at the time of the water-level measurements in 1988 or had been destroyed. New well sites were added in strategic locations to increase coverage where possible. Large cones of depression have formed or expanded in the nine major artesian aquifers that underlie the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Water levels are shown on nine potentiometric-surface maps. Hydrographs for observation wells typically show water-level declines for 1983, through 1989. In the confined Cohansey aquifer, the lowest water level, 20 feet below sea level, was measured in a well located at Cape May City Water Department, Cape May County. Water levels in the Atlantic City 800-foot sand declined as much as 21 feet at Ventnor, Atlantic County, over the 6-year period from the 1983 study to this study for 1988. Water levels in the Piney Point aquifer were as low as 56 feet below sea level at Seaside Park, Ocean County; 45 feet below sea level in southern Cumberland County; and 28 feet below sea level at Margate, Atlantic County. Water levels in the Vincentown aquifer did not change over the 6-year period. The lowest water levels in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer and the Englishtown aquifer system were 218 feet and 256 feet below sea level, respectively. Large cones of depression in the Potomac- Raritan-Magothy aquifer system are centered in the Camden County area and the Middlesex and Monmouth County area. Water levels declined as much as 46 feet in these areas over the 6-year period.

Rosman, Robert; Lacombe, Pierre J.; Storck, Donald A.

1995-01-01

229

Predicting the Health of a Natural Water System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project was developed as an interdisciplinary application of the optimization of a single-variable function. It was used in a freshman-level single-variable calculus course. After the first month of the course, students had been exposed to the concepts of the derivative as a rate of change, average and instantaneous velocities, derivatives of…

Graves, Gregory H.

2010-01-01

230

One-level prediction-A numerical method for estimating undiscovered metal endowment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One-level prediction has been developed as a numerical method for estimating undiscovered metal endowment within large areas. The method is based on a presumed relationship between a numerical measure of geologic favorability and the spatial distribution of metal endowment. Metal endowment within an unexplored area for which the favorability measure is greater than a favorability threshold level is estimated to be proportional to the area of that unexplored portion. The constant of proportionality is the ratio of the discovered endowment found within a suitably chosen control region, which has been explored, to the area of that explored region. In addition to the estimate of undiscovered endowment, a measure of the error of the estimate is also calculated. One-level prediction has been used to estimate the undiscovered uranium endowment in the San Juan basin, New Mexico, U.S.A. A subroutine to perform the necessary calculations is included. ?? 1992 Oxford University Press.

McCammon, R.B.; Kork, J.O.

1992-01-01

231

Predicting Land-Ice Retreat and Sea-Level Rise with the Community Earth System Model  

SciTech Connect

Coastal stakeholders need defensible predictions of 21st century sea-level rise (SLR). IPCC assessments suggest 21st century SLR of {approx}0.5 m under aggressive emission scenarios. Semi-empirical models project SLR of {approx}1 m or more by 2100. Although some sea-level contributions are fairly well constrained by models, others are highly uncertain. Recent studies suggest a potential large contribution ({approx}0.5 m/century) from the marine-based West Antarctic Ice Sheet, linked to changes in Southern Ocean wind stress. To assess the likelihood of fast retreat of marine ice sheets, we need coupled ice-sheet/ocean models that do not yet exist (but are well under way). CESM is uniquely positioned to provide integrated, physics based sea-level predictions.

Lipscomb, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-19

232

The Impact of Climate Change on Great Lakes Water Levels Region: Great Lakes  

E-print Network

The Impact of Climate Change on Great Lakes Water Levels Region: Great Lakes Grade Level(s): 9 on the Great Lakes? Learning Objectives: · The students will construct and explain theories for the decline in water level of the Great Lakes. · The students will be able to describe the effects of global warming

233

Nitrates in drinking water and methemoglobin levels in pregnancy: a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Private water systems are more likely to have nitrate levels above the maximum contaminant level (MCL). Pregnant women are considered vulnerable to the effects of exposure to high levels of nitrates in drinking water due to their altered physiological states. The level of methemoglobin in the blood is the biomarker often used in research for assessing exposure to nitrates.

Deana M Manassaram; Lorraine C Backer; Rita Messing; Lora E Fleming; Barbara Luke; Carolyn P Monteilh

2010-01-01

234

Waterpas-model: a predictive tool for water management, agriculture, and environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water managers, policy makers, and farmers need tools to estimate the impact of water management on agricultural yields, economic benefits, and environmental effects to be able to make strategic and operational decisions. Historically, relationships between groundwater level and crop yields were used to calculate the reductions in crop yield due to suboptimal water status of fields. Nowadays, state-of-the-art deterministic models

Vos de J. A; Bakel van P. J. T; I. E. Hoving; J. G. Conijn

2006-01-01

235

Waterpas-model: A predictive tool for water management, agriculture, and environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water managers, policy makers, and farmers need tools to estimate the impact of water management on agricultural yields, economic benefits, and environmental effects to be able to make strategic and operational decisions. Historically, relationships between groundwater level and crop yields were used to calculate the reductions in crop yield due to suboptimal water status of fields. Nowadays, state-of-the-art deterministic models

J. A. de Vos; P. J. T. van Bakel; I. E. Hoving; J. G. Conijn

2006-01-01

236

Distinct coping strategies differentially predict urge levels and lapses in a smoking cessation attempt.  

PubMed

This study analysed mechanisms through which stress-coping and temptation-coping strategies were associated with lapses. Furthermore, we explored whether distinct coping strategies differentially predicted reduced lapse risk, lower urge levels, or a weaker association between urge levels and lapses during the first week of an unassisted smoking cessation attempt. Participants were recruited via the internet and mass media in Switzerland. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) with mobile devices was used to assess urge levels and lapses. Online questionnaires were used to measure smoking behaviours and coping variables at baseline, as well as smoking behaviour at the three-month follow-up. The sample consisted of 243 individuals, aged 20 to 40, who reported 4199 observations. Findings of multilevel regression analyses show that coping was mainly associated with a reduced lapse risk and not with lower urge levels or a weaker association between urge levels and lapses. 'Calming down' and 'commitment to change' predicted a lower lapse risk and also a weaker relation between urge levels and lapses. 'Stimulus control' predicted a lower lapse risk and lower urge levels. Conversely, 'task-orientation' and 'risk assessment' were related to higher lapse risk and 'risk assessment' also to higher urge levels. Disengagement coping i.e. 'eating or shopping', 'distraction', and 'mobilising social support' did not affect lapse risk. Promising coping strategies during the initial stage of smoking cessation attempt are targeted directly at reducing the lapse risk and are characterised by engagement with the stressor or one's reactions towards the stressor and a focus on positive consequences instead of health risks. PMID:23501139

Brodbeck, Jeannette; Bachmann, Monica S; Znoj, Hansjörg

2013-06-01

237

Can sediment data be used to predict alkalinity and base cation chemistry of surface waters?  

PubMed

We hypothesise that stream sediment elemental composition can predict mean and minimum concentrations of alkalinity, Ca and Mg in the river water throughout a river network. We tested this hypothesis for the River Derwent catchment in North Yorkshire, England, by using 6 years of water chemistry data from the Environment Agency and a digital elevation model to flow path-weight British Geological Survey (BGS) sediment element concentration data. The predictive models for mean concentrations were excellent for Ca and alkalinity, but less good for Mg, and did not require land use data inputs as stream water sediment composition seems to reflect all aspects of the riparian zone soil system. Predictive model forms were linear. Attempts to predict minimum values for Ca and alkalinity also were less satisfactory. This probably is due to variations in hydrological response times to individual precipitation events across the catchment. PMID:21051075

Begum, S; McClean, C J; Cresser, M S; Breward, N

2010-12-15

238

Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI, www.nhi.nu), which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (www.deltamodel.nl), which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with? by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses. Regional expertise is welcomed in the calibration phase of NHI. It aims to reduce uncertainties by improving the rules for manmade re-direction of surface water, schematizations & parameters included in the model. This is carried out in workshops and in one-to-one expert meetings on regional models & the NHI. All results of NHI are presented on the internet and any expert may suggest improvements to the model. The final goal of the involvement of regional parties is the acceptation by decision impact receiving authorities

de Lange, Wim; Prinsen, Geert.; Hoogewoud, Jacco; Veldhuizen, Ab; Ruijgh, Erik; Kroon, Timo

2013-04-01

239

A noise level prediction method based on electro-mechanical frequency response function for capacitors.  

PubMed

The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible noise which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing noise level prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new noise level prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible noise is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The noise level under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the noise prediction method is effective. PMID:24349105

Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao

2013-01-01

240

A Noise Level Prediction Method Based on Electro-Mechanical Frequency Response Function for Capacitors  

PubMed Central

The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible noise which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing noise level prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new noise level prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible noise is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The noise level under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the noise prediction method is effective. PMID:24349105

Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao

2013-01-01

241

Projecting groundwater arsenic levels to define water use options in South Asia (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than a hundred million people are at risk of exposure to dangerous levels of geogenic arsenic in drinking water across South Asia. Arsenic within rocks of the Himalayas is liberated to the sediment load of the major river systems draining these mountain systems through erosion and ultimately deposited within the massive deltas of South Asia. Upon burial, arsenic may be released to the aqueous phase through microbially driven reduction of arsenic and iron, leading to contamination of groundwater now commonly used for human consumption. Fueling this process is organic carbon that stimulates microbial activity and, with limited oxygen supply, anaerobic metabolisms. Resulting concentrations of arsenic, however, are distributed unevenly in the subsurface as a result of heterogeneity in groundwater flow and biogeochemical processes. While such heterogeneity make predicting groundwater arsenic concentrations difficult both spatially and temporally, it provides an opportunity to potentially extract water safe (or safer) for human consumption. Here we describe the fate controlling processes of arsenic with a coupled biogeochemical-hydrologic model for the Mekong Delta and illustrate changes in groundwater quality with land use alterations—a key driver in determining long-term temporal variation in arsenic distribution. For areas where low-arsenic groundwater is not available, we further examine possible solutions, including alternate water resources, for providing safe drinking water to the local populous.

Fendorf, S.; Kocar, B. D.; Polizzotto, M.; Stuckey, J.; Benner, S. G.

2010-12-01

242

Shallow ground-water flow, water levels, and quality of water, 1980-84, Cowles Unit, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cowles Unit of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in Porter County, northwest Indiana, contains a broad dune-beach complex along the southern shoreline of Lake Michigan and a large wetland, called the Great Marsh, that occupies the lowland between the shoreline dunes and an older dune-beach complex farther inland. These lacustrine sediments form a surficial aquifer that extends from the Lake Michigan shoreline to the northern edge of the Lake Border moraine. Water levels and water quality in the surficial aquifer were monitored from 1977 to 1984 near settling ponds on adjacent industrial property at the western end of the Cowles Unit. Seepage from the settling ponds from 1967 to 1980 created a water table mound that extended north into the shoreline dune complex and caused perennial flooding of several intradunal lowlands on National Lakeshore property. Since 1980, when the settling pond bottoms were sealed , these intradunal lowlands contained standing water only during periods of high snowmelt or rainfall. Water level declines following the cessation of seepage ranged from 6 feet at the eastern-most settling pond to nearly 14 feet at the westernmost pond. No general pattern of water table decline was observed in the Great Marsh or in the shoreline dune complex at distances > 3,000 ft east or north of the settling ponds. Since the settling ponds were sealed, the concentration of boron has decreased while concentrations of cadmium, arsenic, zinc, and molybdenum in shallow groundwater downgradient of the ponds show no definite trends in time. Arsenic, boron and molybdenum have remained at concentrations above those of shallow groundwater in areas unaffected by settling pond seepage. (Author 's abstract)

Cohen, D.A.; Shedlock, R.J.

1986-01-01

243

Predicting bone remodeling around tissue- and bone-level dental implants used in reduced bone width.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to predict time-dependent bone remodeling around tissue- and bone-level dental implants used in patients with reduced bone width. The remodeling of bone around titanium tissue-level, and titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy bone-level implants was studied under 100 N oblique load for one month by implementing the Stanford theory into three-dimensional finite element models. Maximum principal stress, minimum principal stress, and strain energy density in peri-implant bone and displacement in x- and y- axes of the implant were evaluated. Maximum and minimum principal stresses around tissue-level implant were higher than bone-level implants and both bone-level implants experienced comparable stresses. Total strain energy density in bone around titanium implants slightly decreased during the first two weeks of loading followed by a recovery, and the titanium-zirconium implant showed minor changes in the axial plane. Total strain energy density changes in the loading and contralateral sides were higher in tissue-level implant than other implants in the cortical bone at the horizontal plane. The displacement values of the implants were almost constant over time. Tissue-level implants were associated with higher stresses than bone-level implants. The time-dependent biomechanical outcome of titanium-zirconium alloy bone-level implant was comparable to the titanium implant. PMID:23876712

Eser, Atilim; Tonuk, Ergin; Akca, Kivanc; Dard, Michel M; Cehreli, Murat Cavit

2013-09-01

244

Investigations on boron levels in drinking water sources in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate boron contamination of public drinking water in China, both dissolved and total boron contents in 98 public drinking\\u000a water sources from 49 cities, 42 brands of bottled water samples from supermarkets in several cities, and 58 water samples\\u000a from boron industrial area were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Our experimental results\\u000a showed that boron existed in

Ren-ji Xu; Xiao-ru Xing; Qun-fang Zhou; Gui-bin Jiang; Fu-sheng Wei

2010-01-01

245

Model analysis of effects on water levels at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore caused by construction dewatering  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The computer models were developed to investigate possible hydrologic effects within the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore caused by planned dewatering at the adjacent Bailly Nuclear Generator construction site. The model analysis indicated that the planned dewatering would cause a drawdown of about 4 ft under the westernmost pond of the Lakeshore and that this drawdown would cause the pond to go almost dry--less than 0.5 ft of water remaining in about 1 percent of the pond--under average conditions during the 18-month dewatering period. When water levels are below average, as during late July and early August 1974, the pond would go dry in about 5.5 months. However, the pond may not have to go completely dry to damage the ecosystem. If the National Park Service 's independent study determines the minimum pond level at which ecosystem damage would be minimized, the models developed in this study could be used to predict the hydrologic conditions necessary to maintain that level. (Woodard-USGS)

Marie, James R.

1976-01-01

246

Regional Drinking Water Security District Level Pilot Project  

E-print Network

of western and central Maharashtra have had scanty rainfall this year. As a con- sequence, it is likely. This stress will create a composite set of demands: domestic water, water and fodder for cattle, livelihoods. The central objective of the project will be to ensure regional drinking water security for a district

Sohoni, Milind

247

Growth and food consumption by tiger muskellunge: Effects of temperature and ration level on bioenergetic model predictions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We measured growth of age-0 tiger muskellunge as a function of ration size (25, 50, 75, and 100% C(max))and water temperature (7.5-25??C) and compared experimental results with those predicted from a bioenergetic model. Discrepancies between actual and predicted values varied appreciably with water temperature and growth rate. On average, model output overestimated winter consumption rates at 10 and 7.5??C by 113 to 328%, respectively, whereas model predictions in summer and autumn (20-25??C) were in better agreement with actual values (4 to 58%). We postulate that variation in model performance was related to seasonal changes in esocid metabolic rate, which were not accounted for in the bioenergetic model. Moreover, accuracy of model output varied with feeding and growth rate of tiger muskellunge. The model performed poorly for fish fed low rations compared with estimates based on fish fed ad libitum rations and was attributed, in part, to the influence of growth rate on the accuracy of bioenergetic predictions. Based on modeling simulations, we found that errors associated with bioenergetic parameters had more influence on model output when growth rate was low, which is consistent with our observations. In addition, reduced conversion efficiency at high ration levels may contribute to variable model performance, thereby implying that waste losses should be modeled as a function of ration size for esocids. Our findings support earlier field tests of the esocid bioenergetic model and indicate that food consumption is generally overestimated by the model, particularly in winter months and for fish exhibiting low feeding and growth rates.

Chipps, S.R.; Einfalt, L.M.; Wahl, D.H.

2000-01-01

248

Prediction of steady-state plasma levels of doxepin and imipramine from single dose levels in depressed outpatients.  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the predictive value of single dose levels for steady state levels of two commonly used antidepressants, doxepin (DOX) and imipramine (IMI) in a population of 40 outpatients with unipolar depression. After a wash-out period, patients were given 75 mg of either doxepin or imipramine and blood samples were drawn 16 h after the dose. Treatment was continued for 2 weeks on a fixed 100 mg/day dose and after that the dose was adjusted according to patients' response. Drugs and their demethylated metabolites were determined weekly using a GC technique. There was a large (more than 5-fold) inter-individual variation in both the single dose and steady-state levels of the two drugs. However, a significant correlation was found between the single-dose levels and initial steady-state levels for both. The respective linear regression equations were: DOX (parent drug & demethylated metabolite): y = 1.4x + 16.8; r = 0.75, p less than 0.001; IMI (parent drug & demethylated metabolite): y = 3.1x + 4.9; r = 0.85; p less than 0.001. These results confirm, in a population of depressed outpatients, previous findings of a significant correlation between single dose and steady state plasma levels of imipramine, and indicate for the first time that such a correlation also exists for another commonly used tricyclic antidepressant, doxepin. From this relationship, dose requirement can be estimated for individual patients to achieve a desired steady-state concentration of total tricyclics (parent drug & metabolite). PMID:2049367

Hrdina, P D; Bakish, D; Swenson, S; Lapierre, Y D

1991-01-01

249

Fundamental understanding, prediction and validation of rotor vibratory loads in steady-level flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work isolates the physics of aerodynamics and structural dynamics from the helicopter rotor aeromechanics problem, investigates them separately, identifies the prediction deficiencies in each, improves upon them, and couples them back together. The objective is to develop a comprehensive analysis capability for accurate and consistent prediction of rotor vibratory loads in steady level flight. The rotor vibratory loads are the dominant source of helicopter vibration. There are two critical vibration regimes for helicopters in steady level flight: (1) low speed transition and (2) high speed forward flight. The mechanism of rotor vibration at low speed transition is well understood---inter-twinning of blade tip vortices below the rotor disk. The mechanism of rotor vibration at high speed is not clear. The focus in this research is on high speed flight. The goal is to understand the key mechanisms involved and accurately model them. Measured lift, chord force, pitching moment and damper force from the UH-60A Flight Test Program are used to predict, validate and refine the rotor structural dynamics. The prediction errors originate entirely from structural modeling. Once validated, the resultant blade deformations are used to predict and validate aerodynamics. Air loads are calculated using a table look up based unsteady lifting-line model and compared with predictions from a 3-dimensional unsteady CFD model. Both Navier-Stokes and Euler predictions are studied. (Abstract shortened by UMI.) The 3D Navier-Stokes CFD analysis is then consistently coupled with a rotor comprehensive analysis to improve prediction of rotor vibratory loads at high speed. The CFD-comprehensive code coupling is achieved using a loose coupling methodology. The CFD analysis significantly improves section pitching moment prediction near the blade tip, because it captures the steady and unsteady 3D transonic effects. Accurate pitching moments drive elastic twist deformations which together with a refined rotor wake model generate the right vibratory airload harmonics at all radial stations. The flap bending moments, torsion bending moments and pitch link load predictions are significantly improved by CFD coupling. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Datta, Anubhav

250

Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes  

SciTech Connect

While it is important to make the equipment (or 'plant') in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10 to 30 percent of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Five houses near Syracuse NY were monitored. Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

Henderson, H.; Wade, J.

2014-04-01

251

Comparative evaluation of set-level techniques in predictive classification of gene expression samples  

PubMed Central

Background Analysis of gene expression data in terms of a priori-defined gene sets has recently received significant attention as this approach typically yields more compact and interpretable results than those produced by traditional methods that rely on individual genes. The set-level strategy can also be adopted with similar benefits in predictive classification tasks accomplished with machine learning algorithms. Initial studies into the predictive performance of set-level classifiers have yielded rather controversial results. The goal of this study is to provide a more conclusive evaluation by testing various components of the set-level framework within a large collection of machine learning experiments. Results Genuine curated gene sets constitute better features for classification than sets assembled without biological relevance. For identifying the best gene sets for classification, the Global test outperforms the gene-set methods GSEA and SAM-GS as well as two generic feature selection methods. To aggregate expressions of genes into a feature value, the singular value decomposition (SVD) method as well as the SetSig technique improve on simple arithmetic averaging. Set-level classifiers learned with 10 features constituted by the Global test slightly outperform baseline gene-level classifiers learned with all original data features although they are slightly less accurate than gene-level classifiers learned with a prior feature-selection step. Conclusion Set-level classifiers do not boost predictive accuracy, however, they do achieve competitive accuracy if learned with the right combination of ingredients. Availability Open-source, publicly available software was used for classifier learning and testing. The gene expression datasets and the gene set database used are also publicly available. The full tabulation of experimental results is available at http://ida.felk.cvut.cz/CESLT. PMID:22759420

2012-01-01

252

Predicting hemoglobin levels in whole blood donors using transition models and mixed effects models  

PubMed Central

Background To optimize the planning of blood donations but also to continue motivating the volunteers it is important to streamline the practical organization of the timing of donations. While donors are asked to return for donation after a suitable period, still a relevant proportion of blood donors is deferred from donation each year due to a too low hemoglobin level. Rejection of donation may demotivate the candidate donor and implies an inefficient planning of the donation process. Hence, it is important to predict the future hemoglobin level to improve the planning of donors’ visits to the blood bank. Methods The development of the hemoglobin prediction rule is based on longitudinal (panel) data from blood donations collected by Sanquin (the only blood product collecting and supplying organization in the Netherlands). We explored and contrasted two popular statistical models, i.e. the transition (autoregressive) model and the mixed effects model as plausible models to account for the dependence among subsequent hemoglobin levels within a donor. Results The predictors of the future hemoglobin level are age, season, hemoglobin levels at the previous visits, and a binary variable indicating whether a donation was made at the previous visit. Based on cross-validation, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) for male donors are 0.83 and 0.81 for the transition model and the mixed effects model, respectively; for female donors we obtained AUC values of 0.73 and 0.72 for the transition model and the mixed effects model, respectively. Conclusion We showed that the transition models and the mixed effects models provide a much better prediction compared to a multiple linear regression model. In general, the transition model provides a somewhat better prediction than the mixed effects model, especially at high visit numbers. In addition, the transition model offers a better trade-off between sensitivity and specificity when varying the cut-off values for eligibility in predicted values. Hence transition models make the prediction of hemoglobin level more precise and may lead to less deferral from donation in the future. PMID:23635008

2013-01-01

253

Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2002--Volume 2: Continuous ground-water-level data, and periodic surface-water- and ground-water-quality data, Calendar Year 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2002, including: discharge records of 154 gaging stations; stage for 165 gaging stations; precipitation for 105 gaging stations; information for 20 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 27 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 72 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 50 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data recorded by the NAWQA program in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2002, including continuous water-level records of 155 ground-water wells and periodic records at 132 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia.

Coffin, Robert; Grams, Susan C.; Leeth, David C.; Peck, Michael F.

2002-01-01

254

Corticosterone levels predict survival probabilities of Galápagos marine iguanas during El Niño events  

PubMed Central

Plasma levels of corticosterone are often used as a measure of “stress” in wild animal populations. However, we lack conclusive evidence that different stress levels reflect different survival probabilities between populations. Galápagos marine iguanas offer an ideal test case because island populations are affected differently by recurring El Niño famine events, and population-level survival can be quantified by counting iguanas locally. We surveyed corticosterone levels in six populations during the 1998 El Niño famine and the 1999 La Niña feast period. Iguanas had higher baseline and handling stress-induced corticosterone concentrations during famine than feast conditions. Corticosterone levels differed between islands and predicted survival through an El Niño period. However, among individuals, baseline corticosterone was only elevated when body condition dropped below a critical threshold. Thus, the population-level corticosterone response was variable but nevertheless predicted overall population health. Our results lend support to the use of corticosterone as a rapid quantitative predictor of survival in wild animal populations. PMID:11416210

Romero, L. Michael; Wikelski, Martin

2001-01-01

255

Investigations on boron levels in drinking water sources in China.  

PubMed

To evaluate boron contamination of public drinking water in China, both dissolved and total boron contents in 98 public drinking water sources from 49 cities, 42 brands of bottled water samples from supermarkets in several cities, and 58 water samples from boron industrial area were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Our experimental results showed that boron existed in public drinking water sources mainly in dissolved status with total concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 0.337 mg/L (mean = 0.046 mg/L). The mean boron concentrations in mineral and pure bottled water were 0.052 and 0.028 mg/L, respectively. The results obtained in this work showed that there was no health risk on view of boron in public drinking water sources and bottled water. In boron industrial area, boron concentrations in surface water and ground water were 1.28 mg/L (range = 0.007-3.8 mg/L) and 18.3 mg/L (range = 0.015-140 mg/L), respectively, which indicated that boron industry caused boron pollution in local water system. PMID:19444639

Xu, Ren-ji; Xing, Xiao-ru; Zhou, Qun-fang; Jiang, Gui-bin; Wei, Fu-sheng

2010-06-01

256

Plasma IGFBP-2 Levels after Postoperative Combined Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy Predict Prognosis in Elderly Glioblastoma Patients  

PubMed Central

It has been found that preoperative plasma IGFBP-2 levels correlate with prognosis in glioma patients. The prognostic value of plasma IGFBP-2 after postoperative combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy in glioma patients is unknown. Plasma IGFBP-2 levels in 83 glioblastoma patients after postoperative radiotherapy plus chemotherapy were analyzed using an IGFBP-2 ELISA kit. We found that after standard therapy plasma IGFBP-2 levels significantly correlated with the patient's age (R?=?0.738, P<0.001) and Karnofsky performance status (KPS, R?=??0.633, P<0.05). Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) of death according to plasma IGFBP-2 levels adjusted for patient clinical characteristics. Plasma IGFBP-2 levels significantly correlated with overall survival in glioblastoma patients (multivariate HR?=?1.035; 95% CI, 1.024–1.047; P<0.001). The effect of plasma IGFBP-2 levels on survival seemed to differ according to patients' age. Among patients older than 60, high plasma IGFBP-2 levels were associated with a significant increase in overall mortality (HR?=?1.097; 95% CI, 1.055–1.140; P<0.001). In contrast, plasma IGFBP-2 levels conferred no significant effect on mortality among patients younger than 60. Elevated plasma IGFBP-2 levels after combined postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy in elderly glioblastoma patients correlate with poor KPS score and predicts poor prognosis. PMID:24690948

Han, Sheng; Meng, Lingxuan; Han, Shuai; Wang, Yunjie; Wu, Anhua

2014-01-01

257

Comparison of accuracy of intramuscular fat prediction in live pigs using five different ultrasound intensity levels.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of prediction of intramuscular fat (IMF) in live pigs using ultrasound method. Moreover, the accuracy of prediction at five different ultrasound intensity levels was investigated. Cross-sectional images of longissimus dorsi muscle (LD) at right last rib area, from hybrid pigs, were taken. Each pig was scanned at the same frequency (3.5 MHz) and at the five different ultrasound intensity levels 70%, 75%, 80%, 85% and 90% of total amplifying of sonograph, using the device ALOKA SSD-500. The video image analysis was used to predict IMF content (ultrasound intramuscular fat (UIMF) 70 to UIMF90). The second day after slaughter, the dissection of right half carcass was done. A sample of LD at the last rib was taken for laboratory analysis of IMF content (LAIMF). Scatter plots with UIMF on the x-axis and LAIMF on the y-axis were constructed to account for individual variability within and between intensity levels. Correlations between LAIMF and UIMF were significantly different from zero (r = 0.40-0.52), except for correlation between LAIMF and UIMF90 (r = 0.14). Statistical model with LAIMF (the dependent variable), UIMF (the same model for each intensity level), live weight (the covariates) and sex (the fixed effect) was developed. Coefficients of determination (R2) were 0.33, 0.38, 0.34, 0.25 and 0.17 with UIMF at the intensity level 70%, 75%, 80%, 85% and 90%. Root mean square errors ranged from 0.516% to 0.639%. Standard errors of individual prediction ranged from 0.523% to 0.649%. Goodness-of-fit of the model was also justified by testing the residuals for normality. Although the results are not quite unequivocal in favour of the one intensity level, it seems that intensity levels 75% and 80% are the most suitable to predict IMF in live pigs. Further research is needed, mainly to increase accuracy of collecting, processing and evaluating the sonograms using video image analysis. PMID:22444851

Bahelka, I; Oravcová, M; Peškovi?ová, D; Tomka, J; Hanusová, E; Lahu?ký, R; Demo, P

2009-08-01

258

Options for future effective water management in Lombok: A multi-level nested framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research on water use in Lombok identified reduced water available in springs and limits on seasonal water availability. It foreshadowed increasing competition for water resources in critical areas of Lombok. This study examines preliminary information on local social-institutional arrangements for water allocation in the context of Ostrom's rules for self-governing institutions. We identify robust customary mechanisms for decision-making about water sharing and rules at a local level and suggest areas of further investigation for strengthening multi-level networked and nested frameworks, in collaboration with higher levels of government.

Sjah, Taslim; Baldwin, Claudia

2014-11-01

259

Using land surface model and satellite observations to simulate lake water level and thermal variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, lakes are included in a coupled routing model and catchment-based land surface model (CHARMS), which is modified from the land-surface component (CLM4) of an Earth system model (CESM1). In the routing scheme, lakes are connected with rivers using upstream/downstream relationships in a lake basin. Evaporation, precipitation, and river runoff are modeled in order to close the lake water budget. However, the original lake model in CLM4 poorly predicts the lake temperature, which highly affects the evaporation and surface energy fluxes. Using an improved lake model (CLM4-LISSS) the lake water temperature and surface energy flux are better predicted. This new version of CHARMS is tested on several large lakes around the world (e.g., the Great Lakes, and Lake Victoria) to evaluate its performance in different climate zones. Modeled lake level time series are compared with satellite altimetry. In order to test the ability of CHARMS to simulating the variations of lake temperature, we compare the amount of thermal expansion calculated from modeled lake temperature with the amount of thermal expansion determined from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and satellite altimetry data.

Liu, H.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Subin, Z. M.

2011-12-01

260

Prediction of Air and Water Film Coefficients in Cooling Towers from Penetration Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the experimental analysis of cooling towers, it is not necessarily easy to obtain the values of air and water phase film volumetric coefficients, because the experimental conditions are limited to which the Mickley's graphical method is applicable. The purpose of this study is to predict the individual coefficients using more practical method based on the penetration theory for water film. The tower used in this study is of a commercial induced draft counterflow type. Water-cooling experiments were made with constantly designed air and water flow rates and with varied water temperatures. Then, we attempted to predict the individual coefficients from these over-all results by means of the reported procedure. Finally, applying our method to the similar experimental date of other workers, we obtained nearly equal results compared with the Mickley's method.

Yazaki, Yoshimu; Yoshioka, Hideaki

261

Predicting inhomogeneous water absorption in an ionic diblock polymer membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuel cells convert fuel directly into electrical power. Their performance depends on a permeable (yet strong) membrane to allow ion conduction (while preventing combustion). Anion-exchange membrane fuel-cells are especially economical to produce, but technological hurdles currently limit durability and OH^- conductivity of the membrane. One solution to these problems is a diblock morphology. Layers of stiff hydrophobic polymer provide structure, while interspersed layers of polyelectrolyte provide avenues for conduction. Previously, little was known about the structure within the conducting layer. We adapted Scheutjens-Fleer polymer-brush theory to a lamellar geometry. The calculation tells where the polyelectrolytes congregate within a lamella, and hence how conduction occurs. This talk focuses on a new diblock material, PMB-PVBTMA. We show how the features of the material determine the intra-lamellar structure. We conclude that at low humidity, the bulkiness of PVBTMA causes it to adopt a near-uniform distribution within the conducting block. At high humidity, however, a phase separation may induce abrupt water channels. Understanding the architecture within the conducting layer will help guide research into better anion-exchange membranes materials.

Herbst, Daniel; Witten, Thomas

2013-03-01

262

Investigating Storm-Induced Total Water Levels on Complex Barred Beaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water levels in coastal environments are not static, but rather vary from a range of factors including mean sea level, tides, storm surge, and wave runup. Cumulatively these superimposed factors determine the total water level (TWL), the extent of which has major implications for coastal erosion and inundation during periods of high energy. Storm-induced, super-elevated water levels pose a threat to low lying coastal regions, as clearly demonstrated by recent events such as Hurricanes Sandy and Katrina. For this reason, the ability to accurately predict the TWL is crucial for both emergency managers and coastal planners. While some components of TWL are well understood (e.g., tides) there is still significant uncertainty in predicting runup, a process that can be a major contributor to instantaneous TWLs. Traditionally, empirical relationships derived from observational field data have been used to estimate runup, including wave setup and both incident and infragravity swash (Stockdon et al., 2006). While these formulations have shown skill in predicting the runup extent on natural beaches, these equations consider only the most basic contributing factors - namely the mean foreshore beach slope, the offshore wave height, and offshore wave period. Not included in these empirical estimates is the role of nearshore morphology on TWLs. However, it has long been recognized that nearshore sandbars act as natural barriers to coastal erosion during storm events by dissipating wave energy far from the beach face. Nonetheless, the influence of nearshore morphology on inner surf zone processes, including wave runup, is poorly understood. Recent pioneering studies (eg., Soldini et al., 2013 and Stephens et al., 2011) have explored the role of simple nearshore features (single Gaussian bars) on swash processes. Many locations in the world, however, are characterized by more complex morphologies such as multiple barred systems. Further, in many such places, including Columbia River Littoral Cell (USA), Duck, NC (USA), Hasaki (Japan), and the Netherlands, a net offshore bar migration (NOM) cycle has been observed whereby bars migrate seaward across the surf zone and decay offshore on interannual cycles. Depending on the stage of the cycle, the number and configuration of the bars may differ widely. For example in the Columbia River Littoral Cell there are typically 2 to 4 nearshore bars. In 1999, the outermost bar crest was located in a water depth of 6.5 m (relative to MLLW) while in 2009 it was located only in 3 m of water. Such large differences in nearshore morphology clearly influence wave breaking patterns and have the potential for influencing the corresponding wave runup as well. Here we apply a numerical, short-wave averaged yet long-wave resolving, non-linear hydrodynamic model (XBeach) to investigate the role that real world (non-synthetic), complex morphologies exert on TWLs. Model simulations under moderate to extreme wave forcing conditions are being used to develop relationships between offshore wave conditions, bar configuration, and runup extent. Additionally, we are exploring how, under the same wave conditions, a particular location may be more vulnerable to flooding simply based on the stage of the NOM cycle. Comparisons with the Stockdon et al. (2006) runup equation will be made to assess traditional empirical approaches relative to model predictions.

Cohn, N.; Ruggiero, P.; Walstra, D.

2013-12-01

263

Predicting spatial kelp abundance in shallow coastal waters using the acoustic ground discrimination system RoxAnn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kelp forests represent a major habitat type in coastal waters worldwide and their structure and distribution is predicted to change due to global warming. Despite their ecological and economical importance, there is still a lack of reliable spatial information on their abundance and distribution. In recent years, various hydroacoustic mapping techniques for sublittoral environments evolved. However, in turbid coastal waters, such as off the island of Helgoland (Germany, North Sea), the kelp vegetation is present in shallow water depths normally excluded from hydroacoustic surveys. In this study, single beam survey data consisting of the two seafloor parameters roughness and hardness were obtained with RoxAnn from water depth between 2 and 18 m. Our primary aim was to reliably detect the kelp forest habitat with different densities and distinguish it from other vegetated zones. Five habitat classes were identified using underwater-video and were applied for classification of acoustic signatures. Subsequently, spatial prediction maps were produced via two classification approaches: Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and manual classification routine (MC). LDA was able to distinguish dense kelp forest from other habitats (i.e. mixed seaweed vegetation, sand, and barren bedrock), but no variances in kelp density. In contrast, MC also provided information on medium dense kelp distribution which is characterized by intermediate roughness and hardness values evoked by reduced kelp abundances. The prediction maps reach accordance levels of 62% (LDA) and 68% (MC). The presence of vegetation (kelp and mixed seaweed vegetation) was determined with higher prediction abilities of 75% (LDA) and 76% (MC). Since the different habitat classes reveal acoustic signatures that strongly overlap, the manual classification method was more appropriate for separating different kelp forest densities and low-lying vegetation. It became evident that the occurrence of kelp in this area is not simply linked to water depth. Moreover, this study shows that the two seafloor parameters collected with RoxAnn are suitable indicators for the discrimination of different densely vegetated seafloor habitats in shallow environments.

Mielck, F.; Bartsch, I.; Hass, H. C.; Wölfl, A.-C.; Bürk, D.; Betzler, C.

2014-04-01

264

Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage volume changes. Ground-based data can, in some cases, test the remote sensing accuracy and precision. Data accuracy requirements vary for different applications: reservoir management for flood control, agriculture, or power generation may need more accurate and timely information than (for example) regional assessments of water and food security issues. Thus, the long-term goal for the hydrological sciences community should be to efficiently mesh both types of information and with as extensive geographic coverage as possible.

Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

2013-12-01

265

Sources of Elevated Sodium Levels in Drinking Water...and Recommendations for Reduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sodium enters drinking water by a variety of human activities and by natural means. Evidence suggests elevated levels of sodium in drinking water may adversely affect health. Action should be taken to reduce the level of human exposure to sodium in drinking water. (RE)

Calabrese, Edward J.; Tuthill, Robert W.

1978-01-01

266

On the Coupling Between Channel Level and Surface Ground Water Flows  

E-print Network

On the Coupling Between Channel Level and Surface Ground Water Flows S. N. Antontsev (1), , J.I. D@mail.ru Abbreviated Title: CHANNEL LEVEL AND GROUND WATER FLOWS Abstract. This paper is devoted to a mathematical in simultaneous flows of surface, soil and ground waters. Such models are widely used for forecasting (numerical

Díaz, Jesús Ildefonso

267

Effect of water level drawdown on decomposition in boreal peatlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant litter production and decomposition are key processes in element cycling in most ecosystems. In peatlands, there has been a long-term imbalance between litter production and decay caused by high water levels (WL) and consequent anoxia. This has resulted in peatlands being a significant sink of carbon (C) from the atmosphere. However, peatlands are experiencing both "natural" (global climate change) and anthropogenic (ditching) changes that threaten their ability to retain this ecosystem identity and function. Many of these alterations can be traced back to WL drawdown, which can cause increased aeration, higher acidity, falling temperatures, and a greater probability of drought. Such changes are also associated with an increasing decomposition rate, and therefore a greater amount of C released back to the atmosphere. Yet studies about how the overall C balance of peatlands will be affected have come up with conflicting conclusions, demonstrating that the C store could increase, decrease, or remain static. A factor that has been largely overlooked is the change in litter type composition following persistent WL drawdown. It is the aim of our study, then, to help to resolve this issue. We studied the effects of short-term (ca. 4 years) and long-term (ca. 40 years) persistent WL drawdown on the decomposition of numerous types of above-ground and below-ground plant litters at three boreal peatland sites: bog, oligotrophic fen and mesotrophic fen. We thus believe that enough permutations have been created to obtain a good assessment of how each factor, site nutrient level, WL regime, and litter type composition, influences decomposition. We used the litter bag method to measure the decomposition rates: placed measured amounts of plant litter, or cellulose strips as a control, into closed mesh bags, and installed the bags in the natural environment for decomposition for each litter type for varying amounts of time. Following litter bag recovery, the litter was cleaned of excess debris and analyzed for changes in mass, enzyme activity, mesofauna presence, and microbial community composition, among other things. The experiment has a run-time of ten years, the results from the first two years are presented in the poster.

Straková, Petra; Penttilä, Timo; Laiho, Raija

2010-05-01

268

Seasonal prediction of global sea level anomalies using an ocean-atmosphere dynamical model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced warning of extreme sea level events is an invaluable tool for coastal communities, allowing the implementation of management policies and strategies to minimise loss of life and infrastructure damage. This study is an initial attempt to apply a dynamical coupled ocean-atmosphere model to the prediction of seasonal sea level anomalies (SLA) globally for up to 7 months in advance. We assess the ability of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's operational seasonal dynamical forecast system, the Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA), to predict seasonal SLA, using gridded satellite altimeter observation-based analyses over the period 1993-2010 and model reanalysis over 1981-2010. Hindcasts from POAMA are based on a 33-member ensemble of seasonal forecasts that are initialised once per month for the period 1981-2010. Our results show POAMA demonstrates high skill in the equatorial Pacific basin and consistently exhibits more skill globally than a forecast based on persistence. Model predictability estimates indicate there is scope for improvement in the higher latitudes and in the Atlantic and Southern Oceans. Most characteristics of the asymmetric SLA fields generated by El-Nino/La Nina events are well represented by POAMA, although the forecast amplitude weakens with increasing lead-time.

Miles, Elaine R.; Spillman, Claire M.; Church, John A.; McIntosh, Peter C.

2014-10-01

269

Predicting population-level risk effects of predation from the responses of individuals.  

PubMed

Fear of predation produces large effects on prey population dynamics through indirect risk effects that can cause even greater impacts than direct predation mortality. As yet, there is no general theoretical framework for predicting when and how these population risk effects will arise in specific prey populations, meaning that there is often little consideration given to the key role predator risk effects can play in understanding conservation and wildlife management challenges. Here, we propose that population predator risk effects can be predicted through an extension of individual risk trade-off theory and show for the first time that this is the case in a wild vertebrate system. Specifically, we demonstrate that the timing (in specific months of the year), occurrence (at low food availability), cause (reduction in individual energy reserves), and type (starvation mortality) of a population-level predator risk effect can be successfully predicted from individual responses using a widely applicable theoretical framework (individual-based risk trade-off theory). Our results suggest that individual-based risk trade-off frameworks could allow a wide range of population-level predator risk effects to be predicted from existing ecological theory, which would enable risk effects to be more routinely integrated into consideration of population processes and in applied situations such as conservation. PMID:25163131

MacLeod, Colin D; MacLeod, Ross; Learmonth, Jennifer A; Cresswell, Will; Pierce, Graham J

2014-07-01

270

Quantitative structure-ion intensity relationship strategy to the prediction of absolute levels without authentic standards.  

PubMed

The lack of authentic standards represents a major bottleneck in the quantitative analysis of complex samples. Here we propose a quantitative structure and ionization intensity relationship (QSIIR) approach to predict the absolute levels of compounds in complex matrixes. An absolute quantitative method for simultaneous quantification of 25 organic acids was firstly developed and validated. Napierian logarithm (LN) of the relative slope rate derived from the calibration curves was applied as an indicator of the relative ionization intensity factor (RIIF) and serves as the dependent variable for building a QSIIR model via a multiple linear regression (MLR) approach. Five independent variables representing for hydrogen bond acidity, HOMO energy, the number of hydrogen bond donating group, the ratio of organic phase, and the polar solvent accessible surface area were found as the dominant contributors to the RIIF of organic acids. This QSIIR model was validated to be accurate and robust, with the correlation coefficients (R(2)), R(2) adjusted, and R(2) prediction at 0.945, 0.925, and 0.89, respectively. The deviation of accuracy between the predicted and experimental value in analyzing a real complex sample was less than 20% in most cases (15/18). Furthermore, the high adaptability of this model was validated one year later in another LC/MS system. The QSIIR approach is expected to provide better understanding of quantitative structure and ionization efficiency relationship of analogous compounds, and also to be useful in predicting the absolute levels of analogous analytes in complex mixtures. PMID:23972977

Wu, Liang; Wu, Yuzheng; Shen, Hanyuan; Gong, Ping; Cao, Lijuan; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

2013-09-10

271

Improving Neural Network Prediction Accuracy for PM10 Individual Air Quality Index Pollution Levels.  

PubMed

Fugitive dust deriving from construction sites is a serious local source of particulate matter (PM) that leads to air pollution in cities undergoing rapid urbanization in China. In spite of this fact, no study has yet been published relating to prediction of high levels of PM with diameters <10??m (PM10) as adjudicated by the Individual Air Quality Index (IAQI) on fugitive dust from nearby construction sites. To combat this problem, the Construction Influence Index (Ci) is introduced in this article to improve forecasting models based on three neural network models (multilayer perceptron, Elman, and support vector machine) in predicting daily PM10 IAQI one day in advance. To obtain acceptable forecasting accuracy, measured time series data were decomposed into wavelet representations and wavelet coefficients were predicted. Effectiveness of these forecasters were tested using a time series recorded between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, at six monitoring stations situated within the urban area of the city of Wuhan, China. Experimental trials showed that the improved models provided low root mean square error values and mean absolute error values in comparison to the original models. In addition, these improved models resulted in higher values of coefficients of determination and AHPC (the accuracy rate of high PM10 IAQI caused by nearby construction activity) compared to the original models when predicting high PM10 IAQI levels attributable to fugitive dust from nearby construction sites. PMID:24381481

Feng, Qi; Wu, Shengjun; Du, Yun; Xue, Huaiping; Xiao, Fei; Ban, Xuan; Li, Xiaodong

2013-12-01

272

Improving Neural Network Prediction Accuracy for PM10 Individual Air Quality Index Pollution Levels  

PubMed Central

Abstract Fugitive dust deriving from construction sites is a serious local source of particulate matter (PM) that leads to air pollution in cities undergoing rapid urbanization in China. In spite of this fact, no study has yet been published relating to prediction of high levels of PM with diameters <10??m (PM10) as adjudicated by the Individual Air Quality Index (IAQI) on fugitive dust from nearby construction sites. To combat this problem, the Construction Influence Index (Ci) is introduced in this article to improve forecasting models based on three neural network models (multilayer perceptron, Elman, and support vector machine) in predicting daily PM10 IAQI one day in advance. To obtain acceptable forecasting accuracy, measured time series data were decomposed into wavelet representations and wavelet coefficients were predicted. Effectiveness of these forecasters were tested using a time series recorded between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, at six monitoring stations situated within the urban area of the city of Wuhan, China. Experimental trials showed that the improved models provided low root mean square error values and mean absolute error values in comparison to the original models. In addition, these improved models resulted in higher values of coefficients of determination and AHPC (the accuracy rate of high PM10 IAQI caused by nearby construction activity) compared to the original models when predicting high PM10 IAQI levels attributable to fugitive dust from nearby construction sites. PMID:24381481

Feng, Qi; Wu, Shengjun; Du, Yun; Xue, Huaiping; Xiao, Fei; Ban, Xuan; Li, Xiaodong

2013-01-01

273

Prediction of water quality index in constructed wetlands using support vector machine.  

PubMed

Poor water quality is a serious problem in the world which threatens human health, ecosystems, and plant/animal life. Prediction of surface water quality is a main concern in water resource and environmental systems. In this research, the support vector machine and two methods of artificial neural networks (ANNs), namely feed forward back propagation (FFBP) and radial basis function (RBF), were used to predict the water quality index (WQI) in a free constructed wetland. Seventeen points of the wetland were monitored twice a month over a period of 14 months, and an extensive dataset was collected for 11 water quality variables. A detailed comparison of the overall performance showed that prediction of the support vector machine (SVM) model with coefficient of correlation (R (2))?=?0.9984 and mean absolute error (MAE)?=?0.0052 was either better or comparable with neural networks. This research highlights that the SVM and FFBP can be successfully employed for the prediction of water quality in a free surface constructed wetland environment. These methods simplify the calculation of the WQI and reduce substantial efforts and time by optimizing the computations. PMID:25408070

Mohammadpour, Reza; Shaharuddin, Syafiq; Chang, Chun Kiat; Zakaria, Nor Azazi; Ghani, Aminuddin Ab; Chan, Ngai Weng

2014-11-19

274

CD4 memory T cell levels predict life span in genetically heterogeneous mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging leads to changes in the relative proportions of several functionally distinct T cell sub- sets, including increases in the proportions of mem- ory cells in the CD4 and CD8 subsets and in the proportion of T cells expressing the multiple-drug resistance pump P-glycoprotein. To see whether in- dividual differences in T cell subset levels predict life span, we measured

RICHARD A. MILLER; CLARENCE CHRISP; ANDRZEJ GALECKV

275

C-reactive protein levels and clinically important predictive outcomes in stable COPD patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and factors known to predict outcome in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. The following were studied in 130 stable COPD patients: spirometry, lung volume, arterial oxygen tension (Pa,O2), dyspnoea, 6-min walk distance (6MWD), body mass index, fat-free mass index, BODE (body mass index,

J. P. de Torres; E. Cordoba-Lanus; C. Lopez-Aguilar; M. Muros de Fuentes; A. Montejo de Garcini; A. Aguirre-Jaime; B. R. Celli; C. Casanova; Ctra del Rosario; Santa Cruz de Tenerife; Canary Islands

2006-01-01

276

Predicting Gene Expression Level from Relative Codon Usage Bias: An Application to Escherichia coli Genome  

PubMed Central

We present an expression measure of a gene, devised to predict the level of gene expression from relative codon bias (RCB). There are a number of measures currently in use that quantify codon usage in genes. Based on the hypothesis that gene expressivity and codon composition is strongly correlated, RCB has been defined to provide an intuitively meaningful measure of an extent of the codon preference in a gene. We outline a simple approach to assess the strength of RCB (RCBS) in genes as a guide to their likely expression levels and illustrate this with an analysis of Escherichia coli (E. coli) genome. Our efforts to quantitatively predict gene expression levels in E. coli met with a high level of success. Surprisingly, we observe a strong correlation between RCBS and protein length indicating natural selection in favour of the shorter genes to be expressed at higher level. The agreement of our result with high protein abundances, microarray data and radioactive data demonstrates that the genomic expression profile available in our method can be applied in a meaningful way to the study of cell physiology and also for more detailed studies of particular genes of interest. PMID:19131380

Roymondal, Uttam; Das, Shibsankar; Sahoo, Satyabrata

2009-01-01

277

Prediction of contaminant fate and transport in potable water systems using H2OFate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BlazeTech has recently developed a software called H2OFate to predict the fate and transport of chemical and biological contaminants in water distribution systems. This software includes models for the reactions of these contaminants with residual disinfectant in bulk water and at the pipe wall, and their adhesion/reactions with the pipe walls. This software can be interfaced with sensors through SCADA systems to monitor water distribution networks for contamination events and activate countermeasures, as needed. This paper presents results from parametric calculations carried out using H2OFate for a simulated contaminant release into a sample water distribution network.

Devarakonda, Venkat; Manickavasagam, Sivakumar; VanBlaricum, Vicki; Ginsberg, Mark

2009-05-01

278

Predicting impacts of increased CO? and climate change on the water cycle and water quality in the semiarid James River Basin of the Midwestern USA.  

PubMed

Emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols from human activities continue to alter the climate and likely will have significant impacts on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and water quality, especially in arid and semiarid regions. We applied an improved Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to evaluate impacts of increased atmospheric CO(2) concentration and potential climate change on the water cycle and nitrogen loads in the semiarid James River Basin (JRB) in the Midwestern United States. We assessed responses of water yield, soil water content, groundwater recharge, and nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N) load under hypothetical climate-sensitivity scenarios in terms of CO(2), precipitation, and air temperature. We extended our predictions of the dynamics of these hydrological variables into the mid-21st century with downscaled climate projections integrated across output from six General Circulation Models. Our simulation results compared against the baseline period 1980 to 2009 suggest the JRB hydrological system is highly responsive to rising levels of CO(2) concentration and potential climate change. Under our scenarios, substantial decrease in precipitation and increase in air temperature by the mid-21st century could result in significant reduction in water yield, soil water content, and groundwater recharge. Our model also estimated decreased NO(3)-N load to streams, which could be beneficial, but a concomitant increase in NO(3)-N concentration due to a decrease in streamflow likely would degrade stream water and threaten aquatic ecosystems. These results highlight possible risks of drought, water supply shortage, and water quality degradation in this basin. PMID:22641243

Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Gallant, Alisa L

2012-07-15

279

A comparison of simulation models for predicting soil water dynamics in bare and vegetated lysimeters  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of simulation models used to predict soil water storage dynamics at the Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) weighing lysimeters. The objectives of this research is to develop the capability to predict soil water storage dynamics with plants in support of water infiltration control studies for the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program. It is important to gain confidence in one`s ability to simulate soil water dynamics over long time periods to assess the barrier`s ability to prevent drainage. Two models were compared for their ability to simulate soil water storage dynamics with and without plants in weighing lysimeters, the soil water infiltration and movement (SWIM) and the simulation of production and utilization of rangelands (SPUR-91) models. These models adequately simulated soil water storage dynamics for the weighing lysimeters. The range of root mean square error values for the two models was 7.0 to 19.8. This compares well with the range reported by Fayer et al. (1992) for the bare soil data sets of 8.1 to 22.1. Future research will test the predictive capability of these models for longer term lysimeter data sets and for historical data sets collected in various plant community types.

Link, S.O.; Kickert, R.N.; Fayer, M.J.; Gee, G.W.

1993-06-01

280

6 ManagingWaterResourcesin DynamicSettings:AMulti-level,  

E-print Network

Ng'iro and Pangani river basins in East Africa. Both basins are characterised by humid, resource; sustainability; decision-mak- ing; contextuality; generalisation; East Africa. #12;Global Change and Sustainable Water Resources in Dynamic Settings in East Africa water and related resources. Based on practical

Richner, Heinz

281

Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2001, Volume 2: Continuous ground-water level data, and periodic surface-water- and ground-water-quality data, Calendar Year 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2001 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2001, including: discharge records of 133 gaging stations; stage for 144 gaging stations; precipitation for 58 gaging stations; information for 19 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 17 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 76 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 27 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data recorded by the NAWQA program in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2001, including continuous water-level records of 159 ground-water wells and periodic records at 138 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia. Note: Historically, this report was published as a paper report. For the 1999 and subsequent water-year reports, the Water Resources Data for Georgia changed to a new, more informative and functional format on CD-ROM. The format is based on a geographic information system (GIS) user interface that allows the user to view map locations of the hydrologic monitoring stations and networks within respective river basins. To obtain a copy of the CD version of this report, you may call the U.S. Geological Survey office in Atlanta at (770) 903-9100, or send e-mail to request the publication. Please include your name and mailing address in your e-mail.

Coffin, Robert; Grams, Susan C.; Cressler, Alan M.; Leeth, David C.

2001-01-01

282

Nitrates in drinking water and methemoglobin levels in pregnancy: a longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background Private water systems are more likely to have nitrate levels above the maximum contaminant level (MCL). Pregnant women are considered vulnerable to the effects of exposure to high levels of nitrates in drinking water due to their altered physiological states. The level of methemoglobin in the blood is the biomarker often used in research for assessing exposure to nitrates. The objective of this study was to assess methemoglobin levels and examine how various factors affected methemoglobin levels during pregnancy. We also examined whether differences in water use practices existed among pregnant women based on household drinking water source of private vs. public supply. Methods A longitudinal study of 357 pregnant women was conducted. Longitudinal regression models were used to examine changes and predictors of the change in methemoglobin levels over the period of gestation. Results Pregnant women showed a decrease in methemoglobin levels with increasing gestation although <1% had levels above the physiologic normal of 2% methemoglobin, regardless of the source of their drinking water. The multivariable analyses did not show a statistically significant association between methemoglobin levels and the estimated nitrate intake from tap water among pregnant women around 36 weeks gestation (? = 0.046, p = 0.986). Four women had tap water nitrate levels above the MCL of 10 mg/L. At enrollment, a greater proportion of women who reported using water treatment devices were private wells users (66%) compared to public system users (46%) (p < 0.0001). Also, a greater proportion of private well users (27%) compared to public system users (13%) were using devices capable of removing nitrate from water (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Pregnant women potentially exposed to nitrate levels primarily below the MCL for drinking water were unlikely to show methemoglobin levels above the physiologic normal. Water use practices such as the use of treatment devices to remove nitrates varied according to water source and should be considered in the assessment of exposure to nitrates in future studies. PMID:20946657

2010-01-01

283

Analysis on the characteristics of parameters in groundwater table fluctuation model for predicting groundwater levels in Hancheon watershed, South Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel application of groundwater table fluctuation method is suggested to predict groundwater level by means of groundwater table variation due to recharge and discharge under unsteady condition. This model analyzes transient groundwater characteristics by using reaction factor related with groundwater flow and specific yield related with recharge. The groundwater level varies according to the characteristics and composite materials of aquifer. In this study, specific yield and reaction factor which are the major two hydrogeological parameters in the WTF(Water Table Fluctuation) method were estimated and analyzed their spatial characteristics. 8 groundwater level stations which have enough measuring period and high correlation with rainfall in the Hancheon watershed were used. The results showed that specific yield was randomly distributed and reaction factor showed inverse trend with altitude. If the enough data were collected, reaction factor according to altitude in ungauged points could be estimated by using these parameter characteristics. keywords: Key words : Groundwater level, parameters, reaction factor, specific yield Acknowledgements This research was supported by the Regional Innovative Technology Project 2B from KICTTEP.

Kim, Nam Won; Kim, Youn Jung; Chung, Il-Moon; Lee, Jeongwoo

2014-05-01

284

Lower levels of nuclear beta-catenin predict for a poorer prognosis in localized prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Beta-catenin in its role as a nuclear signaling molecule has been implicated in prostate carcinogenesis primarily through modulation of androgen receptor activity. We defined the pattern of beta-catenin protein expression in the nuclei of normal, hyperplastic and malignant human prostate tissue and determined whether differences in expression were associated with disease progression and prognosis. Five normal prostates, 26 benign prostatic hypertrophy specimens, 232 radical prostatectomy specimens from patients with clinically localized prostate cancer (PC) and 20 cases of advanced PC were assessed for beta-catenin expression using immunohistochemistry. Nuclear beta-catenin expression in localized PC was significantly lower than that in benign prostate tissue (p < 0.001) and significantly higher than that in advanced PC tissue (p < 0.001). In addition, lower levels of nuclear beta-catenin expression (< 10% of cancer cells) predicted for a shorter biochemical relapse-free survival in patients with localized PC (p = 0.008) and were inversely correlated with preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels (p = 0.01). Analysis of the low-risk subgroup of patients with preoperative PSA levels < 10 ng/ml demonstrated that lower levels of nuclear beta-catenin expression (< 10% of cancer cells) again predicted for a poorer prognosis (p = 0.006). In conclusion, lower levels of nuclear beta-catenin expression are found in malignant compared to benign prostate tissue. In addition, lower nuclear beta-catenin expression is associated with a poorer prognosis in localized PC, in particular, in the low-risk subgroup of patients with preoperative PSA levels < 10 ng/ml. Thus, the level of nuclear beta-catenin expression may be of clinical utility as a preoperative prognostic marker in low-risk localized PC. PMID:15455387

Horvath, Lisa G; Henshall, Susan M; Lee, C-Soon; Kench, James G; Golovsky, David; Brenner, Phillip C; O'Neill, Gordon F; Kooner, Raji; Stricker, Phillip D; Grygiel, John J; Sutherland, Robert L

2005-01-20

285

Modelling of hydrogen production from pore water radiolysis in cemented intermediate level waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In France, some of the intermediate and low level wastes are embedded in hydraulic binder and put into concrete canisters. They contain ? and ? emitters which cause an irradiation of water present in the pores of the hydraulic binder. This is responsible for a dihydrogen (H2) production due to radiolysis. EDF R&D and CEA have collaborated since many years in order to understand this phenomenon and develop a model called DO-RE-MI which can predict such a production of dihydrogen in concrete waste packages. A parametric study, using the developed model, was implemented in order to determine the effects of each parameter on H2 production. The main results are presented in this paper.

Foct, F.; Di Giandomenico, M.-V.; Bouniol, P.

2013-07-01

286

Effect of time step size and turbulence model on the open water hydrodynamic performance prediction of contra-rotating propellers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A growing interest has been devoted to the contra-rotating propellers (CRPs) due to their high propulsive efficiency, torque balance, low fuel consumption, low cavitations, low noise performance and low hull vibration. Compared with the single-screw system, it is more difficult for the open water performance prediction because forward and aft propellers interact with each other and generate a more complicated flow field around the CRPs system. The current work focuses on the open water performance prediction of contra-rotating propellers by RANS and sliding mesh method considering the effect of computational time step size and turbulence model. The validation study has been performed on two sets of contra-rotating propellers developed by David W Taylor Naval Ship R & D center. Compared with the experimental data, it shows that RANS with sliding mesh method and SST k-? turbulence model has a good precision in the open water performance prediction of contra-rotating propellers, and small time step size can improve the level of accuracy for CRPs with the same blade number of forward and aft propellers, while a relatively large time step size is a better choice for CRPs with different blade numbers.

Wang, Zhan-zhi; Xiong, Ying

2013-04-01

287

Bath-tub vortex attenuation with the increase of in-vessel water level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the study of a bath-tub vortex formed in water flowing out through the hole in a vessel's bottom, a methodology was developed that enables controlling the change of in-vessel water level by continuous replenishment. The controlled rate of replenishment enables not only compensating for the loss of drained water and maintaining it at a constant level, but also increasing such a level. Enhancement of water level at different times after the formation of the bath-tub vortex leads to the gradual extinction of the vortex until its complete disappearance when a certain critical level of water in the vessel is achieved. A bath-tub vortex shape with a decrease of in-vessel water level and increase differs significantly.

Meshkov, E. E.; Sirotkin, A. A.

2013-07-01

288

A model on water level dynamics in natural circulation drum-type boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for water level dynamics in the drum-riser-downcomer loop of a natural circulation drum-type boiler is presented. The model is based on basic conservation rules of mass, momentum, and energy, together with well-known constitutional equations. Steam–water mixture in a drum is divided into three sub-volumes; water, steam above and below water level, and a mass balance relation is applied

H. Kim; S. Choi

2005-01-01

289

Use of the whole body ion loss sublethal bioassay for predicting stream water quality impaired by heavy metals and low pH. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The use of changes in whole body ion levels of stream organisms as a physiological bioindicator of water pollution by metals and acidity in coal mine effluents was tested. The authors compared: (1) lethality tests to body sodium loss after exposure of fathead minnows to simulated and field-collected mine water; (2) developed a predictive model of body ion loss in brook trout from water variables; (3) tested for H+/metals interactions in reconstituted mine water (RMW); and (4) determined if stonefly larvae exposed to RMW respond similarly to fish. It was concluded that whole body net sodium flux is a sensitive, reproducible bioindicator of toxic levels of acid and metals; and can be used to predict the combined toxicity of these variables in coal mine polluted streams.

Grippo, R.S.; Dunson, W.A.

1992-08-01

290

Prediction of physical properties of water under extremely supercritical conditions: a molecular dynamics study.  

PubMed

The physical properties of water under a wide range of pressure and temperature conditions are important in fundamental physics, chemistry, and geoscience. Molecular simulations are useful for predicting and understanding the physical properties of water at phases extremely different from ambient conditions. In this study, we developed a new five-site flexible induced point charge model to predict the density, static dielectric constant, and transport properties of water in the extremely supercritical phase at high temperatures and pressures of up to 2000 K and 2000 MPa. The model satisfactorily reproduced the density, radial distribution function, static dielectric constant, reorientation time, and self-diffusion coefficients of water above the critical points. We also developed a database of the static dielectric constant, which is useful for discussing the electrical conductivity of aqueous fluids in the earth's crust and mantle. PMID:23574243

Sakuma, Hiroshi; Ichiki, Masahiro; Kawamura, Katsuyuki; Fuji-ta, Kiyoshi

2013-04-01

291

The challenge of predicting karst water resources in a changing world (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karst regions represent a large part of global continental area providing drinking water to almost a quarter of the world population. Climate simulations predict a strong increase in temperature and a decrease of precipitation in many karst regions in the world (see figure below). Despite of this knowledge, there are only few studies that address the impact of climate or change on karst water resources. This presentation will provide an overview about different approaches for the simulation of karst water resources, comparing their data requirements and process representation, and elaborating reasons for their limited applicability. A set of case studies will be used to show the benefits of new modeling approaches that include hydrochemical observations, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis to evaluate and improve the prediction of karst water resources. Furthermore, the impact of uncertain temperature and precipitation predictions of climate simulation models on the prediction of karst water resources will be elaborated by another example and alternative approaches will be discussed. The presentation will end with an outlook about the application of karst simulation models on larger scales where no discharge and groundwater measurements will be presented. Location of carbonate rock outcrops in Europe [Williams and Ford, Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 2006, modified] compared to expected mean change of temperature and precipitation in North America (a,b) and Europe (c,d) from 1961-1990 to 2081-2090, derived from 20 general circulation models [IPCC, 2007].

Hartmann, A.

2013-12-01

292

Water quality management using statistical analysis and time-series prediction model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with water quality management using statistical analysis and time-series prediction model. The monthly variation of water quality standards has been used to compare statistical mean, median, mode, standard deviation, kurtosis, skewness, coefficient of variation at Yamuna River. Model validated using R-squared, root mean square error, mean absolute percentage error, maximum absolute percentage error, mean absolute error, maximum absolute error, normalized Bayesian information criterion, Ljung-Box analysis, predicted value and confidence limits. Using auto regressive integrated moving average model, future water quality parameters values have been estimated. It is observed that predictive model is useful at 95 % confidence limits and curve is platykurtic for potential of hydrogen (pH), free ammonia, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, water temperature (WT); leptokurtic for chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand. Also, it is observed that predicted series is close to the original series which provides a perfect fit. All parameters except pH and WT cross the prescribed limits of the World Health Organization /United States Environmental Protection Agency, and thus water is not fit for drinking, agriculture and industrial use.

Parmar, Kulwinder Singh; Bhardwaj, Rashmi

2014-12-01

293

Influence of summer water-level variability on St. Lawrence River-wetland fish assemblages  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-level and associated variability are substantial influences on wetland and shallow aquatic communities. The Akwesasne Wetland Complex is an extensive St. Lawrence River system affected by water regulation. The responses of fish assemblages to short-term summer water-level variation were examined throughout this section of the St. Lawrence River and its tributaries. An influence of water-level variability was detected on abundance of three common species [bluntnose minnow (Pimephales notatus), rock bass (Amboplites rupestris), and white sucker (Catastomus commersonii)] and explained 30-44% of variation. This influence has implications for water regulation and natural resource management, and a larger scope evaluation may reveal more extensive effects.

McKenna, J.E., Jr.; Barkley, J.L.; Johnson, J.H.

2008-01-01

294

Ground-water levels in water years 1984-86 and estimated ground-water pumpage in water years 1984-85, Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tabulations of groundwater level measurements made during the water years 1984-86 and summaries of estimated pumpage for water years 1984 and 1985 in Carson valley, Douglas County, Nevada, are included in this report. The data are being collected to provide a record of long-term groundwater changes and pumpage estimates that can be incorporated in a groundwater model change at a later date. (USGS)

Berger, D.L.

1987-01-01

295

Forecasting and Predicting Coastal Local Sea Level as Support for Coastal Zone Management Decisions and Policy Making (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local Sea Level (LSL) rise is one of the major anticipated impacts of future global warming with potentially devastating consequences, particularly in many low-lying, often subsiding, and densely populated coastal areas. Risk and vulnerability assessments in support of informed decisions ask for predictions of the plausible range of future LSL trajectories as input, while mitigation and adaptation to potentially rapid LSL changes would benefit from a forecasting of LSL changes on decadal time scales. Low-frequency to secular changes in LSL are the result of a number of location-dependent processes including ocean temperature and salinity changes, ocean and atmospheric circulation changes, mass exchange of the oceans with other reservoirs in the water cycle, and vertical land motion. Mass exchange between oceans and the ice sheets, glaciers, and land water storage has the potential to change coastal LSL in many geographical regions. LSL changes in response to mass exchange with land-based ice sheets, glaciers and water storage are spatially variable due to vertical land motion induced by the shifting loads and gravitational effects resulting from both the relocation of surface water mass and the deformation of the solid Earth under the load. As a consequence, close to a melting ice mass LSL will fall significantly and far away increase more than the global average. The so-called sea level equation expresses LSL as a function of current and past mass changes in ice sheets, glaciers, land water storage, and the resulting mass redistribution in the oceans. Predictions of mass-induced LSL changes exhibit significant inter-model differences, which introduce a large uncertainty in the prediction of LSL variations caused by changes in ice sheets, glaciers, and land water storage. Together with uncertainties in other contributions, this uncertainty produces a large range of plausible future LSL trajectories, which hampers the development of reasonable adaptation strategies for the coastal zone. While the sea level equation has been tested extensively in postglacial rebound studies for the viscous (post-mass change) contribution, a thorough validation of the elastic (co-mass change) contribution has yet to be done. Accurate observations of concurrent LSL changes, vertical land motion, and gravity changes required for such a test were missing until very recently. For the validation, new observations of LSL changes, vertical land motion, and gravity changes close to rapidly changing ice sheets and glaciers in Greenland, Svalbard, and other regions, as well as satellite altimetry observations of sea surface height changes and satellite gravity mission observations of mass changes in the hydrosphere are now available. With a validated solution, we will be able to better characterize LSL changes due to mass exchange of the oceans with, in particular, ice sheets and glaciers as an important contribution to the plausible range of future LSL trajectories in coastal zones. The current "error budget" will be assessed, and the impact of the uncertainties in LSL forecasts (on decadal time scales) and long-term projections (century time scales) on adaptation and mitigation strategies will be discussed.

Plag, H.

2009-12-01

296

Preoperative plasma leptin levels predict delirium in elderly patients after hip fracture surgery.  

PubMed

Leptin is considered to be a modulator of the immune response. Hypoleptinemia increases the risk for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of plasma leptin level to predict delirium in elderly patients after hip fracture surgery. Postoperative delirium (pod) was evaluated using the Confusion Assessment Method. Prolonged postoperative delirium (ppod) was defined as delirium lasting more than 4 weeks. Plasma leptin levels of 186 elderly patients and 186 elderly controls were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma leptin level was substantially lower in patients than in controls (4.6±2.2ng/ml vs. 7.5±1.8ng/ml, P<0.001). It was identified as an independent predictor for pod [odds ratio, 0.385; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.286-0.517; P<0.001] and ppod (odds ratio, 0.283; 95% CI, 0.152-0.527; P<0.001) using a multivariate analysis, and had high area under receiver operating characteristic curve for pod [area under curve (AUC), 0.850; 95% CI, 0.790-0.898] and ppod (AUC, 0.890; 95% CI, 0.836-0.931). The predictive value of leptin was markedly bigger than that of age for pod (AUC, 0.705; 95% CI, 0.634-0.770; P=0.002) and ppod (AUC, 0.713; 95% CI, 0.642-0.777; P=0.019). In a combined logistic-regression model, leptin improved the AUC of age to 0.890 (95% CI, 0.836-0.931) (P<0.001) for pod and 0.910 (95% CI, 0.860-0.947) (P=0.005) for ppod. Thus, preoperative plasma leptin level may be a useful, complementary tool to predict delirium and also prolonged delirium in elderly patients after hip fracture surgery. PMID:24787655

Chen, Xue-Wu; Shi, Jun-Wu; Yang, Ping-Shan; Wu, Zhu-Qi

2014-07-01

297

Muscle Architecture Predicts Maximum Strength and Is Related to Activity Levels in Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Background Muscle architecture is known to be predictive of muscle function. However, it is unknown whether this relationship is similar in children and adolescents with and without cerebral palsy (CP). Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether the architecture of the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles was predictive of maximum voluntary knee extensor torque in children and adolescents with and without CP and whether these measures were related to activity and participation levels. Design A case-control design was used. Methods Eighteen participants with CP (mean age=12.0 years, SD=3.2) at Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I through IV and 12 age-matched peers with typical development (mean age=12.3 years, SD=3.9) were evaluated. Muscle thickness, fascicle length, and fascicle angle of the RF and VL muscles were measured with 2-dimensional, B-mode ultrasound imaging. The activity and participation measures used for participants with CP were the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) and the Activities Scale for Kids, Performance Version (ASKp). Results When age and GMFCS level were controlled for, VL muscle thickness was the best predictor of knee extensor isometric torque in the group with CP (R2=.85). This prediction was similar to the prediction from VL muscle thickness and age in participants with typical development (R2=.91). Rectus femoris muscle fascicle length was significantly correlated with the Sports and Physical Functioning Scale of the PODCI (?=.49), and VL muscle fascicle angle was correlated with the Transfers and Basic Mobility Scale of the PODCI (r=.47) and with ASKp Locomotion subdomain (r=.50). Limitations A limitation of this study was the small sample size. Conclusions Ultrasound measures of VL muscle thickness, adjusted for age and GMFCS level, were highly predictive of maximum torque and have the potential to serve as surrogate measures of voluntary strength (force-generating capacity) in children and adolescents with and without CP. PMID:20847035

Simpson, Kit N.; Teefey, Sharlene A.; Damiano, Diane L.

2010-01-01

298

Can Serum Ferritin Level Predict Disease Severity in Patients with Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever?  

PubMed Central

Objective: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute viral disease. Several factors have already been suggested to explain the pathogenesis as well as predict the disease severity. In our study we aim to investigate the role of serum ferritin level as a possible predicting factor of disease severity in these patients. Materials and Methods: We evaluated all patients with laboratory confirmed diagnosis of CCHF who were admitted to Boo-Ali Hospital of Zahedan from May 2011 to June 2012. Confirmation of the disease determined using the presence of anti- CCHFV IgM in the serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or by polymerase chain reaction(PCR). After ethical approval, patients were categorized into two groups of mild and severe disease according to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) severity using the scoring system of International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH). Serum ferritin levels were evaluated and compared between these two groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to assess the optimal cutoff value of serum ferritin for predicting the disease severity. Results: A total of 42 patients (36 men, 6 women, age range: 17–78 years) were included in this study, of whom 38% had Persian and 62% had Baloch ethnicity. According to DIC severity score, 54.7% of the patients had severe disease and 45.3% had mild disease. The area under the ROC curve was 0.896 and 95% CI was 0.801–0.991 (p<0.0001). A cut-off point of 1060 ng/dL, had a sensitivity of 78.9%, a specificity of 87%, a positive predictive value of 6% and a negative predictive value of 100%. Positive and negative likelihood ratios for this serum ferritin level were 6.05 and 0.24, respectively. Conclusion: Increased serum ferritin level has a significant positive correlation with disease severity in patients with CCHF and can evaluate the prognosis of these patients with a high sensitivity and specificity.

Metanat, Maliheh; Sharifi-Mood, Batool; Tabatabaei, Mehdi; Sarraf-Shirazi, Mohammad

2013-01-01

299

Prediction of radiation effects from proposed low-level waste disposal sites in Turkey  

SciTech Connect

PRESTO-II (Prediction of Radiation Exposures From Shallow Trench Operations) computer code is used to assess the risk associated with the shallow land disposal of low level radioactive waste (LLW) in various sites in Turkey. A preliminary simulation using the PRESTO-II computer code has been run for the site in Koteyli-Belikesir and Kozakli-Nevsehir. This example simulation was performed using the same radionuclide data set believed representative of the LLW disposal facility in Barnwell, South Carolina. These simulation results must be generally regarded as estimates based on the assumptions about waste stream composition, disposal methodology, and site geography. Lower consequences are predicted for the Barnwell, South Carolina site and Kozakli-Nevsehir, relative to the Koteyli-Balikesir but this conclusion results largely from the assumption that the Koteyli, Turkey site were not irrigated, predicted consequences for this site would be considerably lessened. Preliminary simulations have been performed of release and transport of radionuclides from a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Turkey. The authors expect that the results of these simulations will be useful in providing estimates of the consequences of alternative disposal sites and practices.

Fields, D.E.; Yalcintas, M.G.

1988-04-01

300

Endocan Levels in Peripheral Blood Predict Outcomes of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To investigate the prognostic significance of endocan, compared with procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP),white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils (N), and clinical severity scores in patients with ARDS. Methods. A total of 42 patients with ARDS were initially enrolled, and there were 20 nonsurvivors and 22 survivors based on hospital mortality. Plasma levels of biomarkers were measured and the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) was calculated on day 1 after the patient met the defining criteria of ARDS. Results. Endocan levels significantly correlated with the APACHE II score in the ARDS group (r = 0.676, P = 0.000, n = 42). Of 42 individuals with ARDS, 20 were dead, and endocan was significantly higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors (median (IQR) 5.01 (2.98–8.44) versus 3.01 (2.36–4.36)?ng/mL, P = 0.017). According to the results of the ROC-curve analysis and COX proportional hazards models, endocan can predict mortality of ARDS independently with a hazard ratio of 1.374 (95% CI, 1.150–1.641) and an area of receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.715 (P = 0.017). Moreover, endocan can predict the multiple-organ dysfunction of ARDS. Conclusion. Endocan is a promising biomarker to predict the disease severity and mortality in patients with ARDS. PMID:25132734

Tang, Ling; Zhao, Ying; Deng, Wang; Li, Changyi; Li, Qi; Huang, Shicong; Shu, Chang

2014-01-01

301

Design of a breath analysis system for diabetes screening and blood glucose level prediction.  

PubMed

It has been reported that concentrations of several biomarkers in diabetics' breath show significant difference from those in healthy people's breath. Concentrations of some biomarkers are also correlated with the blood glucose levels (BGLs) of diabetics. Therefore, it is possible to screen for diabetes and predict BGLs by analyzing one's breath. In this paper, we describe the design of a novel breath analysis system for this purpose. The system uses carefully selected chemical sensors to detect biomarkers in breath. Common interferential factors, including humidity and the ratio of alveolar air in breath, are compensated or handled in the algorithm. Considering the intersubject variance of the components in breath, we build subject-specific prediction models to improve the accuracy of BGL prediction. A total of 295 breath samples from healthy subjects and 279 samples from diabetic subjects were collected to evaluate the performance of the system. The sensitivity and specificity of diabetes screening are 91.51% and 90.77%, respectively. The mean relative absolute error for BGL prediction is 21.7%. Experiments show that the system is effective and that the strategies adopted in the system can improve its accuracy. The system potentially provides a noninvasive and convenient method for diabetes screening and BGL monitoring as an adjunct to the standard criteria. PMID:24951676

Yan, Ke; Zhang, David; Wu, Darong; Wei, Hua; Lu, Guangming

2014-11-01

302

Predicting Trigger Level for Ice Jam Flooding of the lower Mohawk River using LiDAR and GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice jams are an annual occurrence along the Mohawk River in upstate New York. The jams commonly result in significant flooding especially when the progress of the ice is impeded by obstructions to the channel and flood plain. To minimize flooding hazards it is critical to know the trigger level of flooding so that we can better understand chronic jam points and simulate flooding events as jams occur as the lower Mohawk. A better understanding of jamming and trigger points may facilitate measures to reduce flooding and avoid the costly damage associated with these hazards. To determine the flood trigger level for one segment of the lower Mohawk we used Air-LiDAR elevation data to construct a digital elevation model to simulate a flooding event. The water flood simulation using a LiDAR elevation model allows accurate water level measurements for determining trigger levels of ice dam flooding. The study area comprises three sections of the lower Mohawk River from the (Before location) to the (After location), which are constrained by lock stations centered at the New York State Canal System Lock 9 (E9 Lock) and the B&M Rail Bridge at the Schenectady International (SI) Plant. This area is notorious for ice jams including one that resulted in a major flooding event on January 25th, 2010 which resulted in flood levels at 74.4 m in the upper portion of the second section of the study area (Lock 9) and at 73.4 m in the lower portion (SI plant). Minimum and maximum elevation levels were found to determine the values at which up stream water builds up and when flooding occurs. From these values, we are able to predict the flooding as the ice jam builds up and breaks as it progresses downstream. Similar methodology is applied to find the trigger points for flooding along other sections of the Mohawk River constrained by lock stations, and it may provide critical knowledge as to how to better manage the hazard of flooding due to ice jams.

Foster, J.; Marsellos, A.; Garver, J.

2011-12-01

303

Initial posttraumatic urinary cortisol levels predict subsequent PTSD symptoms in motor vehicle  

E-print Network

Background: This study was designed to examine the relationship between urinary hormone levels collected upon admission to the trauma unit following a motor vehicle accident and posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology 1 month later. Methods: Fifteen-hour urine samples were collected from 63 male and 36 female motor vehicle accident victims and were used to assess levels of catecholamines and cortisol reflecting peritraumatic and acute-phase posttraumatic levels. Presence of posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology was assessed 1 month after the accident. Results: Motor vehicle accident victims subsequently diagnosed with acute posttraumatic stress disorder excreted significantly lower levels of cortisol in 15-hour urines collected upon admission to the hospital. In addition, urinary levels of cortisol predicted a significant percentage of the variance in intrusive and avoidant thoughts 1 month after the accident. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that initial cortisol levels in the immediate aftermath of a traumatic event contribute, in part, to subsequent symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2000;48:

Douglas L. Delahanty; A. Jay Raimonde; Eileen Spoonster

2000-01-01

304

Postoperative plasma copeptin levels independently predict delirium and cognitive dysfunction after coronary artery bypass graft surgery.  

PubMed

Copeptin can reflect individual's stress state and are correlated with poor outcome of critical illness. The occurrence of postoperative delirium (POD) and cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is associated with worse outcome after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of postoperative plasma copeptin level to predict POD and POCD in patients undergoing CABG surgery. Postoperative plasma copeptin levels of 108 patients were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. It was demonstrated that plasma copeptin levels were substantially higher in patients with POD than without POD (1.8±0.6 ng/mL vs. 1.1±0.3 ng/mL; P<0.001) and in patients with POCD than without POCD (1.9±0.6 ng/mL vs. 1.1±0.4 ng/mL; P<0.001). Plasma copeptin level and age were identified as independent predictors for POD [odds ratio (OR), 67.386; 95% confidence interval (CI), 12.031-377.426; P<0.001 and OR, 1.202; 95% CI, 1.075-1.345; P=0.001] and POCD (OR, 28.814; 95% CI, 7.131-116.425; P<0.001 and OR, 1.151; 95% CI, 1.030-1.285; P=0.003) using a multivariate analysis. For prediction of POD, the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the copeptin concentration (AUC, 0.883; 95% CI, 0.807-0.937) was markedly higher than that of age (AUC, 0.746; 95% CI, 0.653-0.825; P=0.020). For prediction of POCD, the AUC of the copeptin concentration (AUC, 0.870; 95% CI, 0.792-0.927) was markedly higher than that of age (AUC, 0.735; 95% CI, 0.641-0.815; P=0.043). Thus, postoperative plasma copeptin level may be a useful, complementary tool to predict POD and POCD in patients undergoing CABG surgery. PMID:25073070

Dong, Sheng; Li, Chun-Lai; Liang, Wan-Dong; Chen, Mao-Hua; Bi, Yun-Tian; Li, Xing-Wang

2014-09-01

305

Toward a predictive model for water and carbon fluxes of non-native trees in urban habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is considerable interest in estimating uptake of water and carbon by urban trees, in order to assess some of the major costs and benefits associated with maintaining or expanding urban tree cover. However, making large-scale estimates of water and carbon fluxes is challenging in urban ecosystems, where community composition and environmental conditions are highly altered and experimental data is sparse. This is particularly true in regions such as southern California, where few trees are native, yet many species can flourish given supplemental irrigation. In such scenarios one practical way to scale water and carbon fluxes may be to identify reliable traits which can be used to predict gas exchange when trees are transplanted to a new environment. To test this approach, leaf level gas exchange measurements were conducted on eight common urban tree species within the Los Angeles basin. The objective was to determine how well gas exchange parameters, including maximum photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, sensitivity of stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and water use efficiency (WUE), can be predicted based on the native habitat and climate (temperature and precipitation) of each study species. All of the species studied naturally occur in humid tropical or subtropical climate zones where precipitation varies widely from ~400 - 3000 mm per year. We found Jacaranda (Jacaranda chelonia) and honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos) to have the highest photosynthesis and reference (at VPD=1 kPa) conductance, and to be most sensitive to VPD. WUE was found to be greatest in Indian laurel fig (Ficus microcarpa), rose gum (Eucalyptus grandis) and Queensland lacebark (Brachychiton discolor). The relative ordering of maximum photosynthesis and conductance across species was not entirely predictable based on our current knowledge of the native habitats of each species: several other species had similar native climates to Jacaranda and honey locust, yet had lower photosynthesis and conductance. However, WUE generally followed the expected trends, with species predicted to have low conductance showing higher WUE. This implies that WUE is strongly genetically controlled and may be predictable with knowledge of imported species' native habitat. Other traits, such as leaf nitrogen and isotopes, are also being investigated as proxies for detailed gas exchange measurements in this ecosystem. Further refinement of predictive factors will facilitate conceptual and quantitative models that can be used for robust scaling of water and carbon fluxes from trees to urban regions.

McCarthy, H. R.; Jenerette, G. D.; Pataki, D. E.

2008-12-01

306

Temporal and Spatial prediction of groundwater levels using Artificial Neural Networks, Fuzzy logic and Kriging interpolation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to examine the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) combined with kriging interpolation method, in order to simulate the hydraulic head both spatially and temporally. Initially, ANNs are used for the temporal simulation of the hydraulic head change. The results of the most appropriate ANNs, determined through a fuzzy logic system, are used as an input for the kriging algorithm where the spatial simulation is conducted. The proposed algorithm is tested in an area located across Isar River in Bayern, Germany and covers an area of approximately 7800 km2. The available data extend to a time period from 1/11/2008 to 31/10/2012 (1460 days) and include the hydraulic head at 64 wells, temperature and rainfall at 7 weather stations and surface water elevation at 5 monitoring stations. One feedforward ANN was trained for each of the 64 wells, where hydraulic head data are available, using a backpropagation algorithm. The most appropriate input parameters for each wells' ANN are determined considering their proximity to the measuring station, as well as their statistical characteristics. For the rainfall, the data for two consecutive time lags for best correlated weather station, as well as a third and fourth input from the second best correlated weather station, are used as an input. The surface water monitoring stations with the three best correlations for each well are also used in every case. Finally, the temperature for the best correlated weather station is used. Two different architectures are considered and the one with the best results is used henceforward. The output of the ANNs corresponds to the hydraulic head change per time step. These predictions are used in the kriging interpolation algorithm. However, not all 64 simulated values should be used. The appropriate neighborhood for each prediction point is constructed based not only on the distance between known and prediction points, but also on the training and testing error of the ANN. Therefore, the neighborhood of each prediction point is the best available. Then, the appropriate variogram is determined, by fitting the experimental variogram to a theoretical variogram model. Three models are examined, the linear, the exponential and the power-law. Finally, the hydraulic head change is predicted for every grid cell and for every time step used. All the algorithms used were developed in Visual Basic .NET, while the visualization of the results was performed in MATLAB using the .NET COM Interoperability. The results are evaluated using leave one out cross-validation and various performance indicators. The best results were achieved by using ANNs with two hidden layers, consisting of 20 and 15 nodes respectively and by using power-law variogram with the fuzzy logic system.

Tapoglou, Evdokia; Karatzas, George P.; Trichakis, Ioannis C.; Varouchakis, Emmanouil A.

2014-05-01

307

A method for predicting the noise levels of coannular jets with inverted velocity profiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A coannular jet was equated with a single stream equivalent jet with the same mass flow, energy, and thrust. The acoustic characteristics of the coannular jet were then related to the acoustic characteristics of the single jet. Forward flight effects were included by incorporating a forward exponent, a Doppler amplification factor, and a Strouhal frequency shift. Model test data, including 48 static cases and 22 wind tunnel cases, were used to evaluate the prediction method. For the static cases and the low forward velocity wind tunnel cases, the spectral mean square pressure correlation coefficients were generally greater than 90 percent, and the spectral sound pressure level standard deviation were generally less than 3 decibels. The correlation coefficient and the standard deviation were not affected by changes in equivalent jet velocity. Limitations of the prediction method are also presented.

Russell, J. W.

1979-01-01

308

NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-68 POTENTIAL VARIATION OF GREAT LAKES WATER LEVELS  

E-print Network

NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-68 POTENTIAL VARIATION OF GREAT LAKES WATER LEVELS: A HYDROLOGIC RESPONSE ANALYSIS Holly C. Hartmann Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory Ann Arbor RESPONSE MODEL ............................................. 2 CLIMATIC EFFECTS ON LAKE LEVELS

309

Predicting water quality at Santa Monica Beach: Evaluation of five different models for public notification of unsafe swimming conditions.  

PubMed

Bathing beaches are monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) to protect swimmers from unsafe conditions. However, FIB assays take ?24 h and water quality conditions can change dramatically in that time, so unsafe conditions cannot presently be identified in a timely manner. Statistical, data-driven predictive models use information on environmental conditions (i.e., rainfall, turbidity) to provide nowcasts of FIB concentrations. Their ability to predict real time FIB concentrations can make them more accurate at identifying unsafe conditions than the current method of using day or older FIB measurements. Predictive models are used in the Great Lakes, Hong Kong, and Scotland for beach management, but they are presently not used in California - the location of some of the world's most popular beaches. California beaches are unique as point source pollution has generally been mitigated, the summer bathing season receives little to no rainfall, and in situ measurements of turbidity and salinity are not readily available. These characteristics may make modeling FIB difficult, as many current FIB models rely heavily on rainfall or salinity. The current study investigates the potential for FIB models to predict water quality at a quintessential California Beach: Santa Monica Beach. This study compares the performance of five predictive models, multiple linear regression model, binary logistic regression model, partial least square regression model, artificial neural network, and classification tree, to predict concentrations of summertime fecal coliform and enterococci concentrations. Past measurements of bacterial concentration, storm drain condition, and tide level are found to be critical factors in the predictive models. The models perform better than the current beach management method. The classification tree models perform the best; for example they correctly predict 42% of beach postings due to fecal coliform exceedances during model validation, as compared to 28% by the current method. Artificial neural network is the second best model which minimizes the number of incorrect beach postings. The binary logistic regression model also gives promising results, comparable to classification tree, by adjusting the posting decision thresholds to maximize correct beach postings. This study indicates that predictive models hold promise as a beach management tool at Santa Monica Beach. However, there are opportunities to further refine predictive models. PMID:25262555

Thoe, W; Gold, M; Griesbach, A; Grimmer, M; Taggart, M L; Boehm, A B

2014-12-15

310

Ground-water-quality and ground-water-level data, Bernalillo County, central New Mexico, 1990-1993  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water-quality and ground-water-level data were collected in four unincorporated areas of Bernalillo County during 1990-93. Twenty wells in the east mountain area of Bernalillo County were sampled approximately monthly between January 1990 and June 1993. The water samples were analyzed for concentrations of chloride and selected nutrient species; many of the samples also were analyzed for concentrations of total organic carbon and dissolved boron and iron. Eleven wells northeast of the city of Albuquerque, 20 wells in the Rio Grande Valley immediately north of Albuquerque, and 30 wells in the Rio Grande Valley immediately south of Albuquerque were sampled once each between December 1992 and September 1993; all water samples were analyzed for chloride and selected nutrient species, and selected samples from wells in the north and south valley areas were also analyzed for major dissolved constituents, iron, manganese, and methylene blue active substances. Samples from 10 of the wells in the north and south valley areas were analyzed for 47 selected pesticides. Field measurements of specific conductance, pH, temperature, and alkalinity were made on most samples at the time of sample collection. Water levels also were measured at the time of sample collection when possible. Results of the monthly water-quality and water-level monitoring in the east mountain area of Bernalillo County are presented in graphical form. Water-quality and water-level data collected from the other areas are presented in tabular form.

Kues, G.E.; Garcia, B.M.

1995-01-01

311

Predicting the effects of soil water content and soil water potential on transpiration of maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved steady-state soil–vegetation–atmosphere transfer model was applied to three types of soils (loess, loamy soil, and sandy soil) and three typical daily meteorological conditions (a sunny day, a cloudy day, and an overcast day) to calculate the relationships between maize transpiration rates and an average soil water content or soil water potential. The model proposed can simulate the soil–plant–atmosphere

V. Novák; T. Hurtalová; F. Matejka

2005-01-01

312

Hepcidin levels predict nonresponsiveness to oral iron therapy in patients with iron deficiency anemia.  

PubMed

Levels of hepcidin, a major regulator of iron homeostasis, may identify patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) who will not respond to oral iron therapy. In this study, IDA patients underwent a 14-day trial (run-in) course of ferrous sulfate therapy. Nonresponders (Hgb increase <1 g/dL with 67% compliance rate) were randomized to IV ferric carboxymaltose (FCM; two injections of 750 mg) or further oral iron for 14 days. Screening hepcidin levels were 38.4 versus 11.3 ng/mL, P = 0.0002 in nonresponders versus responders to a trial of oral iron. Hepcidin of > 20 ng/mL, showed sensitivity of 41.3%, specificity of 84.4%, and positive predictive value of 81.6% for predicting nonresponsiveness to oral iron. PPVs for ferritin> 30 ng/mL or transferrin saturation (TSAT)>15% were 59.2 and 55%, respectively. Negative predictive values for hepcidin, ferritin, and TSAT were 46.3, 22.7, and 19.7, respectively. FCM versus oral iron showed Hgb increases of ? 1 gm/dL in 65.3% versus 20.8% (P < 0.0001) and Hgb increases of 1.7 ± 1.3 versus 0.6 ± 0.9 g/dL (P = 0.0025), respectively. We conclude that hepcidin predicts nonresponsiveness to oral iron in patients with IDA and is superior to TSAT or ferritin for this purpose. Nonresponse to oral iron therapy does not rule out IDA, since two-thirds of patients subsequently responded to intravenous iron. PMID:23335357

Bregman, David B; Morris, David; Koch, Todd A; He, Andy; Goodnough, Lawrence T

2013-02-01

313

Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory in Predicting Water Saving Behaviors in Yazd, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter¬mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha¬viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. Methods: The cross-sectional study used random cluster sampling to recruit 200 heads of households to collect the data. The survey questionnaire was tested for its content validity and reliability. Analysis of data included descriptive statistics, simple correlation, hierarchical multiple regression. Results: Simple correlations between water saving behaviors and Reasoned Action Theory and Health Belief Model constructs were statistically significant. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory constructs explained 20.80% and 8.40% of the variances in water saving beha-viors, respectively. Perceived barriers were the strongest Predictor. Additionally, there was a sta¬tistically positive correlation between water saving behaviors and intention. Conclusion: In designing interventions aimed at water waste prevention, barriers of water saving behaviors should be addressed first, followed by people's attitude towards water saving. Health Belief Model constructs, with the exception of perceived severity and benefits, is more powerful than is Reasoned Action Theory in predicting water saving behavior and may be used as a framework for educational interventions aimed at improving water saving behaviors. PMID:24688927

Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Momayyezi, Mahdieh; Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi

2012-01-01

314

Increased d-dimer levels predict cardiovascular mortality in patients with systolic heart failure.  

PubMed

D-dimer is a fibrin degradation product, and is implicated in pathologies of cardiovascular system. Thrombosis within the vascular system in relation with inflammation and stasis might be associated with poor prognosis in patients with systolic heart failure (HF). In this study we aimed to investigate for relationship between d-dimer levels and cardiovascular mortality in patients with systolic HF. A total of 174 consecutive patients with hospitalized systolic HF were evaluated. All hospitalized patients were obtained d-dimer levels within the first 24 h following admission after obtaining informed consent. Patients were followed up for cardiovascular mortality and 40 (23%) patients died. d-dimer levels were higher among those who died compared to those who survived (2727 ± 2569 (710-4438) versus. 1029 ± 1319 (303-1061) ng/ml, P < 0.001). Optimal cut-off level of d-dimer to predict cardiovascular mortality was found to be >1435 ng/ml. D-dimer levels were negatively correlated with ejection fraction, positively correlated with left atrium size and left ventricular diastolic diameter. D-dimer >1435 ng/ml, age, diabetes mellitus, presence of atrial fibrillation, and creatinine level were found to have prognostic significance in univariate analyses. In multivariate Cox proportional-hazards model, d-dimer > 1435 ng/ml (HR = 3.250, 95% CI 1.647-6.414, P = 0.001), creatinine level (HR = 1.269, 95% CI 1.008-1.599, P = 0.043), and presence of atrial fibrillation (HR = 2.159, 95% CI 1.047-4.452, P = 0.037) remained associated with an increased risk of death after adjustment for variables found to be statistically significant in univariate analysis and correlated with d-dimer level. In conclusion, d-dimer measurement could help risk stratification in patients with systolic HF. PMID:21901368

Zorlu, Ali; Yilmaz, Mehmet Birhan; Yucel, Hasan; Bektasoglu, Gokhan; Refiker Ege, Meltem; Tandogan, Izzet

2012-05-01

315

Increased total serum random cortisol levels predict mortality in critically ill trauma patients.  

PubMed

Dysfunction in the hypothalamopituitary adrenal axis is thought to exist; however, there continues to be controversy about what level of serum cortisol corresponds to adrenal insufficiency. Few studies have focused on the significance of serum random cortisol in the critically ill trauma patient. Trauma patients with total serum random cortisol levels drawn in the intensive care unit within the first seven days of hospitalization were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome measured was in-hospital mortality. Two hundred forty-two patients were analyzed. Nonsurvivors had significantly higher mean cortisol levels than survivors (28.7 ± 15.80 ?g/dL vs 22.9 ± 12.35 ?g/dL, P = 0.01). Patients with cortisol 30 ?g/dL or greater were more likely to die with odds ratio of 2.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5 to 5). The odds ratio increased to 4.0 and 3.8 (95% CI, 1.4 to 11.4 and 1.3 to 10.9) when cortisol was drawn on hospital Day 2 and Days 3 through 7, respectively. Among nonsurvivors, patients with an injury severity score less than 25 had significantly higher cortisol levels than patients with an Injury Severity Score 25 or higher (35.3 ± 19.21 ?g/dL vs 25.7 ± 13.21 ?g/dL, P = 0.009). Patients with massive transfusion, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, or solid organ injury did not have significantly different cortisol levels. The covariate-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristic curve indicated that cortisol level has a 77 per cent accuracy in differentiating survivors from nonsurvivors. Higher cortisol levels were predictive of mortality in critically ill trauma patients. Whether serum cortisol level is a marker that can be modified remains an area of interest for future study. PMID:25347501

Pandya, Urmil; Polite, Nathan; Wood, Teresa; Lieber, Michael

2014-11-01

316

The role of ethnicity in predicting diabetes risk at the population level  

PubMed Central

Background. The current form of the Diabetes Population Risk Tool (DPoRT) includes a non-specific category of ethnicity in concordance with publicly data available. Given the importance of ethnicity in influencing diabetes risk and its significance in a multi-ethnic population, it is prudent to determine its influence on a population-based risk prediction tool. Objective. To apply and compare the DPoRT with a modified version that includes detailed ethnic information in Canada's largest and most ethnically diverse province. Methods. Two additional diabetes prediction models were created: a model that contained predictors specific to the following ethnic groups – White, Black, Asian, south Asian, and First Nation; and a reference model which did not include a term for ethnicity. In addition to discrimination and calibration, 10-year diabetes incidence was compared. The algorithms were developed in Ontario using the 1996–1997 National Population Health Survey (N = 19,861) and validated in the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (N = 26,465). Results. All non-white ethnicities were associated with higher risk for developing diabetes with south Asians having the highest risk. Discrimination was similar (0.75–0.77) and sufficient calibration was maintained for all models except the detailed ethnicity models for males. DPoRT produced the lowest overall ratio between observed and predicted diabetes risk. DPoRT identified more high risk cases than the other algorithms in males, whereas in females both DPoRT and the full ethnicity model identified more high risk cases. Overall DPoRT and full ethnicity algorithms were very similar in terms of predictive accuracy and population risk. Conclusion. Although from the individual risk perspective, incorporating information on ethnicity is important, when predicting new cases of diabetes at the population level and accounting for other risk factors, detailed ethnic information did not improve the discrimination and accuracy of the model or identify significantly more diabetes cases in the population. PMID:22292745

Rosella, Laura C.; Mustard, Cameron A.; Stukel, Therese A.; Corey, Paul; Hux, Jan; Roos, Les; Manuel, Douglas G.

2012-01-01

317

Predicting red blood cell transfusion in hospitalized patients: role of hemoglobin level, comorbidities, and illness severity  

PubMed Central

Background Randomized controlled trial evidence supports a restrictive strategy of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, but significant variation in clinical transfusion practice persists. Patient characteristics other than hemoglobin levels may influence the decision to transfuse RBCs and explain some of this variation. Our objective was to evaluate the role of patient comorbidities and severity of illness in predicting inpatient red blood cell transfusion events. Methods We developed a predictive model of inpatient RBC transfusion using comprehensive electronic medical record (EMR) data from 21 hospitals over a four year period (2008-2011). Using a retrospective cohort study design, we modeled predictors of transfusion events within 24 hours of hospital admission and throughout the entire hospitalization. Model predictors included administrative data (age, sex, comorbid conditions, admission type, and admission diagnosis), admission hemoglobin, severity of illness, prior inpatient RBC transfusion, admission ward, and hospital. Results The study cohort included 275,874 patients who experienced 444,969 hospitalizations. The 24 hour and overall inpatient RBC transfusion rates were 7.2% and 13.9%, respectively. A predictive model for transfusion within 24 hours of hospital admission had a C-statistic of 0.928 and pseudo-R2 of 0.542; corresponding values for the model examining transfusion through the entire hospitalization were 0.872 and 0.437. Inclusion of the admission hemoglobin resulted in the greatest improvement in model performance relative to patient comorbidities and severity of illness. Conclusions Data from electronic medical records at the time of admission predicts with very high likelihood the incidence of red blood transfusion events in the first 24 hours and throughout hospitalization. Patient comorbidities and severity of illness on admission play a small role in predicting the likelihood of RBC transfusion relative to the admission hemoglobin. PMID:24884605

2014-01-01

318

Measured and predicted effects of gravity level on directional dendritic solidification of NH4Cl-H2O  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dendritic growth front rates during vertical directional solidification are predicted for gravity levels of 10 exp 0 g sub e (where e is earth gravity), 10 exp -1 g sub e, 10 exp -2 g sub e, 10 exp -3 g sub e, 10 exp -4 g sub e, and 10 exp -5 g sub e (microgravity) for the physical conditions used for a recent ammonium chloride-water solidification experiment on the International Microgravity Laboratory I (IMLI). The growth front rates at 10 exp 0 g sub e and 10 exp -5 g sub e are validated using ground based laboratory and IMLI experimental data. As the gravity decreases, the growth rates increase until they approach a maximum at approximately 10 exp -4 g sub e. The 10 exp -4 and 10 exp -5 levels are equivalent. Liquid concentration and volume fraction, temperature profiles and fluid flow velocities are also calculated. Kinetic energy calculations for each of the six gravity levels indicate that the threshold for fluid flow to affect the growth front rate is in the range of 10 exp -8 ergs.

Mccay, T. D.; Mccay, Mary H.

1993-01-01

319

Can site-specific heuristic toxicity models predict the toxicity of produced water?  

PubMed

An empirically derived model of major ion toxicity was combined with other toxicity assessments to account for the observed toxicity in field-collected produced water and produced water contaminated groundwater. The accuracy and precision of the ion toxicity model, calculated using model deviation ratios (MDR) and simple linear regressions, was determined for fathead minnows, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Daphnia magna. Model accuracy for produced water fell within a factor of two for all three organisms. The precision, or variability explained by the model, was 47.9%, 56.1%, and 0.00% for fathead minnows, C. dubia, and D. magna, respectively. Incorporating other measured potential toxicants improved predictive precision for fathead minnows to 67.0% using ion toxicity and pH and to 30.9% for D. magna using ion toxicity, pH, and total ammonia. The observed toxicity to Daphnia pulex was also evaluated using D. magna model predictions and other measured parameters, but no consistent relationship was found. Dissimilar results were found for produced water contaminated groundwaters with model predictions for D. magna falling within a factor of two of and explaining 53.8% of the observed variability in D. pulex responses. These results indicate that predicted major ion toxicity, combined with other measured parameters, can accurately and precisely account for observed responses in test organisms to field-collected samples. PMID:20466406

Fisher, Jonathan C; Belden, Jason B; Bidwell, Joseph R

2010-07-01

320

Prediction of the critical heat flux in water subcooled flow boiling using a new mechanistic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thorough examination of the results of existing models based on the liquid sublayer dryout theory suggested the need to postulate a new mechanism to predict the CHF in subcooled water flow boiling. Considering that we have local boiling with bulk subcooled conditions, there will be a distance from the wall at which the fluid temperature is equal to the

G. P. Celata; M. Cumo; Y. Katto; A. Mariani

1999-01-01

321

From climate history to prediction of regional water flows with machine learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigates a machine learning approach to discovering predictive relationships that can be used to integrate solar and ocean-atmospheric conditions into forecasts of regional water flows. In particular, we apply decision-tree learning and a recently developed inductive technique called \\

RATTIKORN HEWETT; JOHN LEUCHNER; M. Carvalho

2001-01-01

322

Adapting the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model for forest applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

summary There has been an increasing public concern over forest stream pollution by excessive sedimentation due to natural or human disturbances. Adequate erosion simulation tools are needed for sound management of forest resources. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) watershed model has proved useful in forest applications where Hortonian flow is the major form of runoff, such as modeling erosion

Shuhui Dun; Joan Q. Wu; William J. Elliot; Peter R. Robichaud; Dennis C. Flanagan; James R. Frankenberger; Robert E. Brown; Arthur C. Xu

2009-01-01

323

KNT-artificial neural network model for flux prediction of ultrafiltration membrane producing drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the prediction of flux behavior in an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane system using a Kalman neuro training (KNT) network model. The experimental data was obtained from operating a pilot plant of hollow fiber UF membrane with groundwater for 7 months. The network was trained using operating conditions such as inlet pressure, filtration duration, and feed water quality parameters

H. K. Oh; M. J. Yu; E. M. Gwon; J. Y. Koo; S. G. Kim; A. Koizumi

2004-01-01

324

Combining ARS Process-Based Water and Wind Erosion Prediction Technologies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Erosion process research in the United States has long been separated by location, experimental data collection, and prediction technologies. Erosion experiment stations were established in the l930’s throughout the country, however most examined erosion by water while a few in the Plains states we...

325

Adapting the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) Model for Forest Applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There has been an increasing public concern over forest stream pollution by excessive sedimentation due to natural or human disturbances. Adequate erosion simulation tools are needed for sound management of forest resources. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) watershed model has proved usef...

326

COMPARISON OF MODEL PREDICTIONS AND CONSUMPTIVE WATER USE OF CLOSED CYCLE COOLING SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a comparison of field-data-derived water evaporation rates with predictive model values for cooling towers and cooling ponds at steam-electric generating plants. The Leung Moore cooling tower model and five cooling pond models (Harbeck and Marciano; Ha...

327

Predictions of critical habitat for five whale species in the waters of coastal British Columbia  

E-print Network

whale breeding off British Columbia and identify humpback whale habitat in sheltered bays and straitsARTICLES Predictions of critical habitat for five whale species in the waters of coastal British Columbia Edward J. Gregr and Andrew W. Trites Abstract: Whaling records from British Columbia coastal

328

A simple model for predicting water table fluctuations in a tidal marsh  

E-print Network

A simple model for predicting water table fluctuations in a tidal marsh Franco A. Montalto,1,2 Jean describes tidal marsh hydrology from creek bank to interior, considering transient drainage, net at Piermont Marsh, a tidal wetland on the Hudson River in the New York/ New Jersey Estuary, indicates good

Walter, M.Todd

329

Optical Properties of Three Beach Waters: Implications for Predictive Modeling of Enterococci  

EPA Science Inventory

Sunlight plays an important role in the inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria in recreational waters. Solar radiation can explain temporal trends in bacterial counts and is commonly used as an explanatory variable in predictive models. Broadband surface radiation provides a ba...

330

PREDICTION OF OCTANOL/WATER PARTITION COEFFICIENT (KOW) WITH ALGORITHMICALLY DERIVED VARIABLES  

EPA Science Inventory

A statistical model was developed with algorithmically derived independent variables based on chemical structure for prediction of octanol/water partition coefficients (Kow) measured for more than 4,000 chemicals. he procedure first classified the chemicals into 14 groups based o...

331

Thyrotropin Level and Thyroid Volume for Prediction of Hypothyroidism Following Hemithyroidectomy in an Asian Patient Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  As more patients undergo diagnostic thyroid surgery, the development of posthemithyroidectomy hypothyroidism is becoming a\\u000a major concern. We hypothesized that the preoperative thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) level and ultrasonographically\\u000a measured thyroid volume, both commonly available in thyroid nodule patients, may predict the development of posthemithyroidectomy\\u000a hypothyroidism.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Among the 132 patients who underwent hemithyroidectomy from January 2004 to January 2006, a

Hyeong-Gon Moon; Eun-Jung Jung; Soon-Tae Park; Tae Sik Jung; Chi-Young Jeong; Young-Tae Ju; Young-Joon Lee; Soon-Chan Hong; Sang-Kyung Choi; Woo-Song Ha

2008-01-01

332

Corrosion models for predictions of performance of high-level radioactive-waste containers  

SciTech Connect

The present plan for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the US is to seal it in containers before emplacement in a geologic repository. A proposed site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being evaluated for its suitability as a geologic repository. The containers will probably be made of either an austenitic or a copper-based alloy. Models of alloy degradation are being used to predict the long-term performance of the containers under repository conditions. The models are of uniform oxidation and corrosion, localized corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking, and are applicable to worst-case scenarios of container degradation. This paper reviews several of the models.

Farmer, J.C.; McCright, R.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gdowski, G.E. [KMI Energy Services, Livermore, CA (United States)

1991-11-01

333

Prediction of infarct severity from triiodothyronine levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between thyroid hormone levels and infarct severity in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods We retrospectively reviewed thyroid hormone levels, infarct severity, and the extent of transmurality in 40 STEMI patients evaluated via contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Results The high triiodothyronine (T3) group (? 68.3 ng/dL) exhibited a significantly higher extent of transmural involvement (late transmural enhancement > 75% after administration of gadolinium contrast agent) than did the low T3 group (60% vs. 15%; p = 0.003). However, no significant difference was evident between the high- and low-thyroid-stimulating hormone/free thyroxine (FT4) groups. When the T3 cutoff level was set to 68.3 ng/dL using a receiver operating characteristic curve, the sensitivity was 80% and the specificity 68% in terms of differentiating between those with and without transmural involvement. Upon logistic regression analysis, high T3 level was an independent predictor of transmural involvement after adjustment for the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and the use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (odds ratio, 40.62; 95% confidence interval, 3.29 to 502; p = 0.004). Conclusions The T3 level predicted transmural involvement that was independent of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor use and DM positivity. PMID:25045293

Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Seo-Won; Kim, Bo-Bae; Chung, Joong-Wha; Koh, Young-Youp; Chang, Kyong-Sig; Hong, Soon-Pyo

2014-01-01

334

High-level radioactive waste from light-water reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of radioactive nuclei during the operation of a light-water reactor is traced, and their decay history is followed. The potential environmental impacts of this waste are calculated and shown to be comparable to those of other materials we produce. Assuming deep burial, it is shown that there are important time delays which prevent the waste from reaching the

Bernard Cohen

1977-01-01

335

Raising the level: orangutans use water as a tool.  

PubMed

We investigated the use of water as a tool by presenting five orangutans (Pongo abelii) with an out-of-reach peanut floating inside a vertical transparent tube. All orangutans collected water from a drinker and spat it inside the tube to get access to the peanut. Subjects required an average of three mouthfuls of water to get the peanut. This solution occurred in the first trial and all subjects continued using this successful strategy in subsequent trials. The latency to retrieve the reward drastically decreased after the first trial. Moreover, the latency between mouthfuls also decreased dramatically from the first mouthful in the first trial to any subsequent ones in the same trial or subsequent trials. Additional control conditions suggested that this response was not due to the mere presence of the tube, to the existence of water inside, or frustration at not getting the reward. The sudden acquisition of the behaviour, the timing of the actions and the differences with the control conditions make this behaviour a likely candidate for insightful problem solving. PMID:17609175

Mendes, Natacha; Hanus, Daniel; Call, Josep

2007-10-22

336

Improving and testing geochemical speciation predictions of metal ions in natural waters.  

PubMed

The ability of WHAM VII and NICA-Donnan models to predict free-ion activities of Cu in natural waters was examined from two perspectives, (i) the presence of EDTA and NTA contaminants, (ii) the need to improve estimates of HA and FA concentrations. Potentiometric responses of a Cu(II) ion-selective electrode were investigated in five assays containing dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolated from a series of polluted (urban) and relatively unpolluted (upland) streams in northern England. The [Cu]/[DOC] ratio in these assays spanned an environmentally realistic range of ?1-500 ?mol/g. Reasonably good agreement between measured and predicted Cu(2+) activities was obtained with both WHAM VII and NICA-Donnan models, assuming 65% of DOM as fulvic acid and including the measured EDTA and NTA concentrations, but generally the models overestimated the activities by a factor of ?2. In contrast, the models over-predicted the Cu(2+) activities by up to 2 orders of magnitude at low [Cu]/[DOC] ratios in urban waters if anthropogenic ligands were not included in the model simulations. Three-dimensional fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy was used to measure the functional properties of the isolated DOM and to estimate the fractions of FA and HA present. Using these fractions in the models gave improvements in predictions compared to the 65% FA assumption, as shown by higher correlations, reduced error and reduced bias. These results highlight various issues with the use of the available speciation models for predicting free ion concentrations in natural waters, such as the use of the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) for the derivation of environmental standards. It is clearly necessary to measure EDTA and NTA in waters with urban influences, while fluorescence measurements offer the possibility of appreciably improving the accuracy of predictions. PMID:25286438

Ahmed, Imad A M; Hamilton-Taylor, John; Bieroza, Magdalena; Zhang, Hao; Davison, William

2014-12-15

337

Automatic Measurement of Water Levels by Using Image Identification Method in Open Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water level data is indispensable to hydrology research, and it is important information for hydraulic engineering and overall utilization of water resources. The information of water level can be transmitted to management office by the network so that the management office may well understand whether the river level is exceeding the warning line. The existing water level measurement method can only present water levels in a form of data without any of images, the methods which make data just be a data and lack the sense of reality. Those images such as the rising or overflow of river level that the existing measurement method cannot obtain simultaneously. Therefore, this research employs a newly, improved method for water level measurement. Through the Video Surveillance System to record the images on site, an image of water surface will be snapped, and then the snapped image will be pre-processed and be compared with its altitude reference value to obtain a water level altitude value. With the ever-growing technology, the application scope of image identification is widely in increase. This research attempts to use image identification technology to analyze water level automatically. The image observation method used in this research is one of non-contact water level gage but it is quite different from other ones; the image observation method is cheap and the facilities can be set up beside an embankment of river or near the houses, thus the impact coming from external factors will be significantly reduced, and a real scene picture will be transmitted through wireless transmission. According to the dynamic water flow test held in an indoor experimental channel, the results of the research indicated that all of error levels of water level identification were less than 2% which meant the image identification could achieve identification result at different water levels. This new measurement method can offer instant river level figures and on-site video so that a disaster prevention measures can be made accordingly. Keywords: Image identification; Water Level; Video surveillance system.

Chung Yang, Han; Xue Yang, Jia

2014-05-01

338

Chronological age, but not FMRP levels, predicts neuropsychological performance in girls with fragile X syndrome  

PubMed Central

The effect of FMRP levels and chronological age on executive functioning, visual-spatial abilities and verbal fluency tasks were examined in 46 school-age girls with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Results indicated that FMRP levels were not predictive of outcome on the neuropsychological tests but that performance on the executive functioning task tended to worsen with chronological age. This age effect was not observed on the tests of visual-spatial abilities or verbal fluency. These data indicate that relative deficits in executive functioning in girls with FXS become more pronounced with age. In contrast, the relative deficits in spatial and verbal abilities of these girls did not appear to increase with age, suggesting that these abilities may be spared. PMID:16741913

Lightbody, Amy A.; Hall, Scott S.; Reiss, Allan L.

2009-01-01

339

Psychological language on twitter predicts county-level heart disease mortality.  

PubMed

Hostility and chronic stress are known risk factors for heart disease, but they are costly to assess on a large scale. We used language expressed on Twitter to characterize community-level psychological correlates of age-adjusted mortality from atherosclerotic heart disease (AHD). Language patterns reflecting negative social relationships, disengagement, and negative emotions-especially anger-emerged as risk factors; positive emotions and psychological engagement emerged as protective factors. Most correlations remained significant after controlling for income and education. A cross-sectional regression model based only on Twitter language predicted AHD mortality significantly better than did a model that combined 10 common demographic, socioeconomic, and health risk factors, including smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. Capturing community psychological characteristics through social media is feasible, and these characteristics are strong markers of cardiovascular mortality at the community level. PMID:25605707

Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Schwartz, Hansen Andrew; Kern, Margaret L; Park, Gregory; Labarthe, Darwin R; Merchant, Raina M; Jha, Sneha; Agrawal, Megha; Dziurzynski, Lukasz A; Sap, Maarten; Weeg, Christopher; Larson, Emily E; Ungar, Lyle H; Seligman, Martin E P

2015-02-01

340

Prospective memory predicts the level of community living skills in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia patients are known to have prospective memory (PM) deficits. There is no robust evidence showing that PM deficits have a major impact on community living skills in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine the association between PM and community living skills in schizophrenia. Forty-four individuals with schizophrenia formed the study sample. Participants? psychopathology, prospective and retrospective memory, level of intelligence, and community living skills were measured with standardized instruments. In bivariate analyses, community living skills overall but not self-care correlated with PM total and subscales scores. In multivariate analyses, event-based PM was more predictive than time-based PM of the level of community living skills. In conclusion, PM has a significant impact on community living skills in schizophrenia and attention should be paid to this type of memory disturbance in rehabilitation of schizophrenia. PMID:24863867

Au, Raymond W C; Man, David; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Shum, David; Lee, Edwin; Ungvari, Gabor S; Tang, Wai-Kwong

2014-09-30

341

Experimental and predicted cavitation performance of an 80.6 deg helical inducer in high temperature water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cavitating performance of a stainless steel 80.6 degree flat-plate helical inducer was investigated in water over a range of liquid temperatures and flow coefficients. A semi-empirical prediction method was used to compare predicted values of required net positive suction head in water with experimental values obtained in water. Good agreement was obtained between predicted and experimental data in water. The required net positive suction head in water decreased with increasing temperature and increased with flow coefficient, similar to that observed for a like inducer in liquid hydrogen.

Kovich, G.

1972-01-01

342

Research on water level forecasting associated with global climate for the Kahayan River in Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to analyze the characteristics of the Kahayan River watershed in Indonesia and to forecast the water level of that river. Carbon is accumulated in tropical peat land in huge quantities. In recent years, however, peat land has been drying due to groundwater drawdown associated with agricultural development, and such drying has contributed to large-scale peat fires. In Central Kalimantan alone, huge quantities of carbon dioxide roughly approximating Japan's annual emissions are released into the atmosphere, and this has become an international problem. Toward preventing peat fires, peat land drying must be curbed by properly controlling the groundwater level. To do this, it is necessary that countermeasures be based on an understanding of the hydrological environment and its variation in the basin. Studies on the hydrological environment of the Kahayan River, the Sebangau River and the Kalampangan area in Central Kalimantan have been conducted by several researchers. However, most of the research has not addressed the factors affecting groundwater-surface water, in particular. In the present study, the factors affecting river water level variation were determined with a focus on the dry season, when there is a high risk of peat fires. In addition, we analyzed the relationship between river water level and canal water level in order to apply the information on river water level to control of the canal water level. Finally, we tried to forecast the river water level so that the watershed could be managed to prevent groundwater drawdown by the preliminary installation of weirs to head up the canal water. When analysis was conducted, it had to be considered that information in relation to geography and hydrology is scarce on the Kahayan River basin. The factors affecting water level variation were analyzed and the water level was forecast by the following procedure. 1) Factors affecting the amount of rainfall in the basin in the dry season were analyzed, based on global climate and relational analysis between weather condition and river water level was conducted, with a focus on the low-water level. In addition, the relationship between river water level and canal water level was determined, in order to apply the information of river water level to control of the canal water level. 2) The Nearest-Neighbor Method (NNM) was adopted in order to forecast the water level for the basin, for which some data is missing. Sufficiently accurate water level was forecast by using basin hydrological data. In addition, we attempted to improve the accuracy of water level forecasting by incorporating into the NNM the sea surface temperature (SST), which is affected by the El Niño event. 3) A runoff model was constructed that can calculate the runoff in the Kahayan River, and SST data were used to forecast rainfall. Finally, a method was proposed for forecasting the water level even when portions of data are missing.

Nakatsugawa, M.

2013-12-01

343

Water pollution risk simulation and prediction in the main canal of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The middle route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (MRP) will divert water to Beijing Tuancheng Lake from Taocha in the Danjiangkou reservoir located in the Hubei province of China. The MRP is composed of a long canal and complex hydraulic structures and will transfer water in open channel areas to provide drinking water for Beijing, Shijiazhuang and other cities under extremely strict water quality requirements. A large number of vehicular accidents, occurred on the many highway bridges across the main canal would cause significant water pollution in the main canal. To ensure that water quality is maintained during the diversion process, the effects of pollutants on water quality due to sudden pollution accidents were simulated and analyzed in this paper. The MIKE11 HD module was used to calculate the hydraulic characteristics of the 42-km Xishi-to-Beijuma River channel of the MRP. Six types of hydraulic structures, including inverted siphons, gates, highway bridges, culverts and tunnels, were included in this model. Based on the hydrodynamic model, the MIKE11 AD module, which is one-dimensional advection dispersion model, was built for TP, NH3-N, CODMn and F. The validated results showed that the computed values agreed well with the measured values. In accordance with transportation data across the Dianbei Highway Bridge, the effects of traffic accidents on the bridge on water quality were analyzed. Based on simulated scenarios with three discharge rates (ranged from 12 m3/s to 17 m3/s, 40 m3/s, and 60 m3/s) and three pollution loading concentration levels (5 t, 10 t and 20 t) when trucks spill their contents (i.e., phosphate fertilizer, cyanide, oil and chromium solution) into the channel, emergency measures were proposed. Reasonable solutions to ensure the water quality with regard to the various types of pollutants were proposed, including treating polluted water, maintaining materials, and personnel reserves.

Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Cheng, Xi

2014-11-01

344

Effect of water currents on food capture in corals Grade LeveL  

E-print Network

Seamount Habitat Deep-water coral Hard coral Soft coral Zooxanthellae Microhabitat Polyp Nematocysts bac1 Focus Effect of water currents on food capture in corals Grade LeveL 9-12 (Life Science) Focus Question How do water currents affect the food capture by particle feeders? LearninG objectives Students

345

SELENIUM LEVELS IN HUMAN BLOOD, URINE, AND HAIR IN RESPONSE TO EXPOSURE VIA DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Blood, hair, urine and tap water samples were obtained from participants in a population exposed to varying amounts of selenium via water from home wells. Concentrations of selenium in urine and hair produced significant positive correlations with well-water selenium levels. Bloo...

346

Genomic risk models improve prediction of longitudinal lipid levels in children and young adults.  

PubMed

In clinical medicine, lipids are commonly measured biomarkers used to assess an individual's risk for cardiovascular disease, heart attack, and stroke. Accurately predicting longitudinal lipid levels based on genomic information can inform therapeutic practices and decrease cardiovascular risk by identifying high-risk patients prior to onset. Using genotyped and imputed genetic data from 523 unrelated Caucasian Americans from the Bogalusa Heart Study, surveyed on 4,026 occasions from 4 to 48?years of age, we generated various lipid genomic risk models based on previously reported markers. We observed a significant improvement in prediction over non-genetic risk models in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (increase in the squared correlation between observed and predicted values, ?R (2)?=?0.032), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (?R (2)?=?0.053), total cholesterol (?R (2)?=?0.043), and triglycerides (?R (2)?=?0.031). Many of our approaches are based on an n-fold cross-validation procedure that are, by design, adaptable to a clinical environment. PMID:23734161

Wineinger, Nathan E; Harper, Andrew; Libiger, Ondrej; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Chen, Wei; Berenson, Gerald S; Schork, Nicholas J

2013-01-01

347

The status of streamflow and ground-water-level monitoring networks in Maryland, 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The monitoring of streamflow and ground-water levels in Maryland is vitally important to the effective management and protection of the State?s water resources. Streamflow and ground-water-level monitoring networks have been operated for many years in Maryland, and in recent years, these networks have been redesigned to improve their efficiency. Unfortunately, these networks are increasingly at risk due to reduced and fluctuating funding from Federal, State, and local agencies. Stable, long-term funding is necessary to ensure that these networks will continue to provide valuable water data for use by State and local water-resources managers.

Gerhart, James M.; Cleaves, Emery T.

2005-01-01

348

Prediction of urban water demand on the basis of Engel's coefficient and Hoffmann index: case studies in Beijing and Jinan, China.  

PubMed

Domestic and industrial water uses are the most important segment of urban water consumption. Traditional urban water demand models are usually based on water consumption quotas or statistical relationships, which usually overestimate urban water demands. The efficiency of domestic and industrial water uses is associated with living standards and levels of industrialization. The correlation coefficient between per capita water consumption and Engel's Coefficient in Beijing and Jinan is 0.62 and 0.53, respectively. These values are much smaller than the correlation between added industrial value and the Hoffmann Index in Beijing (0.95) and Jinan (0.90). Demand models for urban water consumption, including a domestic water demand model based on Engel's Coefficient and an industrial water demand model based on the Hoffmann Index, were developed in this study to predict urban water demand in Beijing and Jinan for 2020. The results show that the models can effectively capture the trends of urban water demand. Urban water consumption in these two cities from 1995 to 2007 was used to calibrate the models. The coefficients of determination for residential and industrial water uses were 0.93 and 0.68 in Beijing, and 0.79 and 0.64 in Jinan. Social, economic and climate scenarios for Beijing and Jinan in 2020 were generated according to the Urban Master Plans for these two cities, and they formed the basis for predictions of water consumption in 2020. The results show that total water consumption will increase by 67.6% in Jinan and 33.0% in Beijing when compared with consumption from 2007. PMID:20651447

Zhi-Guo, Zhang; Yi-sheng, Shao; Zong-xue, Xu

2010-01-01

349

Research | Article Prediction of Residential Pet and Cockroach Allergen Levels Using Questionnaire Information  

E-print Network

We assessed the accuracy of questionnaire reports of cat and dog ownership and presence of cockroaches in predicting measured allergen concentrations in house dust. We collected dust samples in the homes of 932 newborns living in New England. Dust samples were taken from the main living area and the infant’s bedding. Allergen content of house dust was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and related to questionnaire information on past and current cat and dog ownership and presence of cockroaches. Allergen levels were dichotomized using the limit of detection and the following cut points: 1.0 µg/g and 8.0 µg/g for cat, 2.0 µg/g and 10.0 µg/g for dog, and 2 U/g and 8 U/g for cockroach allergen. For the upper cut point, both specificity and sensitivity of questionnaire-reported cat and dog ownership and presence of cockroaches were high. For the limit of detection and lower cut point, specificity was high (> 80%), whereas sensitivity was low, particularly for current cat and dog ownership (21–60%). Taking pet ownership during the preceding 2 years into account increased the sensitivity by 10%, but it remained relatively poor. In conclusion, questionnaire-reported pet ownership and presence of cockroaches predicts allergen levels above the upper cut point but is a relatively

Ulrike Gehring; Elizabeth Triche; Robert T. Van Strien; Kathleen Belanger; Theodore Holford; Diane R. Gold; Thomas Jankun; Ping Ren; Jean-ellen Mcsharry; William S. Beckett; Thomas A. E. Platts-mills; Martin D. Chapman; Michael B. Bracken; Brian P. Leaderer

350

Developing methods to assess and predict the population level effects of environmental contaminants.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The field of ecological toxicity seems largely to have drifted away from what its title implies--assessing and predicting the ecological consequences of environmental contaminants--moving instead toward an emphasis on individual effects and physiologic case studies. This paper elucidates how a relatively new ecological methodology, interaction assessment (INTASS), could be useful in addressing the field's initial goals. Specifically, INTASS is a model platform and methodology, applicable across a broad array of taxa and habitat types, that can be used to construct population dynamics models from field data. Information on environmental contaminants and multiple stressors can be incorporated into these models in a form that bypasses the problems inherent in assessing uptake, chemical interactions in the environment, and synergistic effects in the organism. INTASS can, therefore, be used to evaluate the effects of contaminants and other stressors at the population level and to predict how changes in stressor levels or composition of contaminant mixtures, as well as various mitigation measures, might affect population dynamics.

Emlen, J.M.; Springman, K.R.

2007-01-01

351

Natural radioactivity levels in bottled water in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spain is a country rich in mineral springs. A nationwide study on the natural radioactivity has been made to determine the gross-? and gross-? activities in bottled water. These measurements are important for extracting radiological information of the activity present in a sample. Of all samples collected, only 26.2% have an ?-activity higher than 100 mBq\\/l, and none of them

M. C. Fernández; E. Liger; J. Carretero

1997-01-01

352

System engineering for water pollution control at the watershed level in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present water pollution situation at watershed level in China has been systematically analyzed. The causes of water pollution\\u000a are attributed to the extensive economic developmental pattern, poor wastewater treatment, and a lack of nonpoint pollution\\u000a control. The problems of water pollution control at watershed level include a lack of thought and approach, developmental\\u000a delay in the environmental standard system,

Wei Meng

2009-01-01

353

Cyclic water level oscillations of the KaraBogazGol–Caspian Sea system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The KaraBogazGol (KBG) water level oscillations were reconstructed in the last 200 years using the geochemical evolution of the uppermost meter of its sedimentary infill. High-resolution studies of the mineralogical composition of the KBG sediments show alternating periods of high concentration brines followed by periods of more dilute waters. The relative water level reconstruction was based on statistical models (factor

S. Giralt; R. Julià; S. Leroy; F. Gasse

2003-01-01

354

City-level energy and CO 2 reduction effect by introducing new residential water heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation models for a variety of new water heater systems were developed and the models were integrated into a city-level residential energy end-use model for Osaka City. Using the model, the potential of energy conservation and CO2 emission-reduction by introducing new residential water heaters was evaluated at the city-level. Optimal water-heating systems for each household category for primary energy reduction,

Yoshiyuki Shimoda; Tomo Okamura; Yohei Yamaguchi; Yukio Yamaguchi; Ayako Taniguchi; Takao Morikawa

2010-01-01

355

Do level and variability of systolic blood pressure predict arterial properties or vice versa?  

PubMed

No longitudinal study addressed whether systolic blood pressure level (SBPL) or within-visit variability (SBPV) predict arterial properties or vice versa. In families randomly recruited from a Flemish population, we determined SBPL and SBPV from five consecutive blood pressure readings. The indexes of SBPV were variability independent of the mean, the difference between maximum and minimum SBPL, and average real variability. We measured carotid intima-media thickness and distensibility by ultrasound and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity by tonometry (SphygmoCor, version 8.2). Effect sizes were computed for 1-s.d. increments in the predictors, while accounting for covariables and family clusters. Among 1087 participants (50.4% women; mean age, 41.8 years), followed up for 2.55 years (median), higher SBPL predicted (P < or = 0.019) higher carotid intima-media thickness (+15??m), lower carotid distensibility (-1.53 10(-3)?kPa(-1)) and faster carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (+0.285?m?s(-1)) at follow-up, whereas none of the SBPV indexes predicted the arterial traits at follow-up (P> or = 0.11). In a subset of 713 participants, followed up for another 3.14 years, lower carotid distensibility predicted (P<0.01) higher SBPL (+2.57?mm?Hg), variability independent of the mean (+0.531 units), difference between maximum and minimum SBPL (+1.75?mm?Hg) and average real variability (+0.654?mm?Hg). Higher carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity predicted a 1.11?mm?Hg increase SBPL (P=0.031). In conclusion, temporality and effect size suggest that SBPL but not within-visit SBPV cause arterial stiffness and carotid intima-media thickness. Carotid stiffness, independent of SBPL, predicts within-visit SBPV, possibly because baroreflexes originating from a stiff carotid artery wall are impaired. Finally, stiffness of the aorta contributes to the age-related SBPL possibly, because faster returning reflected waves augments SBPL. PMID:24152823

Liu, Y P; Gu, Y M; Thijs, L; Asayama, K; Jin, Y; Jacobs, L; Kuznetsova, T; Verhamme, P; Van Bortel, L; Struijker-Boudier, H A J; Staessen, J A

2014-05-01

356

An Analysis of Historical Impacts of Water Resources Development on Water Levels of the Mekong River (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid rate of water resources development in the Mekong basin of Southeast Asia is a cause for concern due to potential impacts on highly valued fisheries and natural ecosystems. Historical water levels of the Mekong were analyzed by comparing pre and post 1991 daily data of 6 stations along the mainstream from Chiang Sean, in northern Lao PDR and Thailand, to Stung Treng, in Cambodia, and the Pre Kdam station near the Tonle Sap Lake in the lower Mekong floodplain using the Indicators of Hydrological Alteration (IHA) software. The year 1991 marks a turning point in the rate of development in the basin, with the start of development of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong and accelerated hydropower and irrigation development in key tributaries. Observed changes in water level patterns along the Mekong were linked to temporal and spatial water resources development from 1960 to 2010. Variations in climate were accounted for and are important, but they were not observed to be the main causes of changes in key hydrological indicators related to ecosystem productivity. The development of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong basin in the post 1991 period resulted in a significant change of seasonal water levels, raise rates, fall rates, and the number of water level fluctuations at Chiang Sean. This effect diminishes downstream until it becomes negligible at the Mukdahan monitoring station in Thailand, which represents a drainage area of over 50% of the total Mekong Basin. Further downstream at Pakse station in Southern Lao PDR, changes in hydrological indicators post 1991 were observed to be significant again, which can be directly attributed to water resource development in the Chi and Mun River basins in Northeastern Thailand. A reduction of 23% and 11% in water level raising rates and fall rates, respectively at Prek Kdam, provides clear evidence of a diminished flood pulse of the Tonle Sap Lake in the post 1991 period. Given the observed water level alterations from 1991 to 2010 as a result of water infrastructure development, we can extrapolate that future proposed development in the key transboundary Srepok, Sesan and Sekong basins of the Lower Mekong will have an even greater effect on the flood pulse of the Tonle Sap. Although much focus has been placed on impacts of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong, our analysis clearly shows that tributary development in the lower Mekong has already affected water level patterns significantly, particularly in the dry season. Through subsequent modeling we infer how future development could further impact water flows and livelihoods, and thus improve regional impact assessments. The analysis and methods can be translated to other river systems around the world undergoing rapid water resources development.

Cochrane, T. A.; Arias, M. E.; Piman, T.

2013-12-01

357

Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.6 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with ground water in the aquifer area. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (before about 1950) to 2007 and serves as a companion product to a USGS report that presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2009).

McGuire, V.L.

2009-01-01

358

Incorporating inter-relationships between different levels of genomic data into cancer clinical outcome prediction.  

PubMed

In order to improve our understanding of cancer and develop multi-layered theoretical models for the underlying mechanism, it is essential to have enhanced understanding of the interactions between multiple levels of genomic data that contribute to tumor formation and progression. Although there exist recent approaches such as a graph-based framework that integrates multi-omics data including copy number alteration, methylation, gene expression, and miRNA data for cancer clinical outcome prediction, most of previous methods treat each genomic data as independent and the possible interplay between them is not explicitly incorporated to the model. However, cancer is dysregulated by multiple levels in the biological system through genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic level. Thus, genomic features are likely to interact with other genomic features in the different genomic levels. In order to deepen our knowledge, it would be desirable to incorporate such inter-relationship information when integrating multi-omics data for cancer clinical outcome prediction. In this study, we propose a new graph-based framework that integrates not only multi-omics data but inter-relationship between them for better elucidating cancer clinical outcomes. In order to highlight the validity of the proposed framework, serous cystadenocarcinoma data from TCGA was adopted as a pilot task. The proposed model incorporating inter-relationship between different genomic features showed significantly improved performance compared to the model that does not consider inter-relationship when integrating multi-omics data. For the pair between miRNA and gene expression data, the model integrating miRNA, for example, gene expression, and inter-relationship between them with an AUC of 0.8476 (REI) outperformed the model combining miRNA and gene expression data with an AUC of 0.8404. Similar results were also obtained for other pairs between different levels of genomic data. Integration of different levels of data and inter-relationship between them can aid in extracting new biological knowledge by drawing an integrative conclusion from many pieces of information collected from diverse types of genomic data, eventually leading to more effective screening strategies and alternative therapies that may improve outcomes. PMID:24561168

Kim, Dokyoon; Shin, Hyunjung; Sohn, Kyung-Ah; Verma, Anurag; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Kim, Ju Han

2014-06-01

359

Contribution of Climate-Driven Change in Continental Water Storage to Recent Sea-Level Rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a global model of continental water balance, forced by interannual variations in precipitation and near-surface atmospheric temperature for the period 1981-1998, we estimate the sea-level changes associated with climate-driven changes in storage of water as snow pack, soil water, and ground water; storage in ice sheets and large lakes is not considered. The 1981-1998 trend is estimated to be

P. C. D. Milly; A. Cazenave; M. C. Gennero

2003-01-01

360

A SCREENING ASSESSMENT OF THE RELATIVE VULNERABILITY OF COASTAL WATER SUPPLIES TO SALT WATER INTRUSION CAUSED BY SEA LEVEL RISE  

EPA Science Inventory

Sea levels have risen from four to eight inches in the 20th century, and model projections suggest an additional rise of 8 to 15 inches is possible during the 21st century. Rising sea levels can increase the upstream extent of salt water influence in coastal aquifers. In coasta...

361

A coupled model tree genetic algorithm scheme for flow and water quality predictions in watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe rapid advance in information processing systems along with the increasing data availability have directed research towards the development of intelligent systems that evolve models of natural phenomena automatically. This is the discipline of data driven modeling which is the study of algorithms that improve automatically through experience. Applications of data driven modeling range from data mining schemes that discover general rules in large data sets, to information filtering systems that automatically learn users' interests. This study presents a data driven modeling algorithm for flow and water quality load predictions in watersheds. The methodology is comprised of a coupled model tree-genetic algorithm scheme. The model tree predicts flow and water quality constituents while the genetic algorithm is employed for calibrating the model tree parameters. The methodology is demonstrated through base runs and sensitivity analysis for daily flow and water quality load predictions on a watershed in northern Israel. The method produced close fits in most cases, but was limited in estimating the peak flows and water quality loads.

Preis, Ami; Ostfeld, Avi

2008-02-01

362

Application of Method of Variation to Analyze and Predict Human Induced Modifications of Water Resource Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water resource systems have often used gravitational surface and subsurface flows because of their practicality in hydrological modeling and prediction. Activities such as inter/intra-basin water transfer, the use of small pumps and the construction of micro-ponds challenge the tradition of natural rivers as water resource management unit. On the contrary, precipitation is barely affected by topography and plot harvesting in wet regions can be more manageable than diverting from rivers. Therefore, it is indicative to attend to systems where precipitation drives the dynamics while the internal mechanics constitutes spectrum of human activity and decision in a network of plots. The trade-in volume and path of harvested precipitation depends on water balance, energy balance and the kinematics of supply and demand. Method of variation can be used to understand and predict the implication of local excess precipitation harvest and exchange on the natural water system. A system model was developed using the variational form of Euler-Bernoulli’s equation for the Kenyan Mara River basin. Satellite derived digital elevation models, precipitation estimates, and surface properties such as fractional impervious surface area, are used to estimate the available water resource. Four management conditions are imposed in the model: gravitational flow, open water extraction and high water use investment at upstream and downstream respectively. According to the model, the first management maintains the basin status quo while the open source management could induce externality. The high water market at the upstream in the third management offers more than 50% of the basin-wide total revenue to the upper third section of the basin thus may promote more harvesting. The open source and upstream exploitation suggest potential drop of water availability to downstream. The model exposed the latent potential of economic gradient to reconfigure the flow network along the direction where the marginal benefit is maximized. Therefore, the variation model can help to predict the possible human induced modification of natural water system in order to gain the maximum productivity and benefit.

Dessu, S. B.; Melesse, A. M.; Mahadev, B.; McClain, M.

2010-12-01

363

Environmental Factors Predicting Blood Lead Levels in Pregnant Women in the UK: The ALSPAC Study  

PubMed Central

Background Lead is a widespread environmental toxin. The behaviour and academic performance of children can be adversely affected even at low blood lead levels (BLL) of 5–10 µg/dl. An important contribution to the infant's lead load is provided by maternal transfer during pregnancy. Objectives Our aim was to determine BLL in a large cohort of pregnant women in the UK and to identify the factors that contribute to BLL in pregnant women. Methods Pregnant women resident in the Avon area of the UK were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in 1991–1992. Whole blood samples were collected at median gestational age of 11 weeks and analysed by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (n?=?4285). Self-completion postal questionnaires were used to collect data during pregnancy on lifestyle, diet and other environmental exposures. Statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS v19. Results The mean±SD BLL was 3.67±1.47 (median 3.41, range 0.41–19.14) µg/dl. Higher educational qualification was found to be one of the strongest independent predictor of BLL in an adjusted backwards stepwise logistic regression to predict maternal BLL <5 or ?5 µg/dl (odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.12–1.42; p<0.001). Other predictive factors included cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee drinking, and heating the home with a coal fire, with some evidence for iron and calcium intake having protective effects. Conclusion The mean BLL in this group of pregnant women is higher than has been found in similar populations in developed countries. The finding that high education attainment was independently associated with higher BLL was unexpected and currently unexplained. Reduction in maternal lead levels can best be undertaken by reducing intake of the social drugs cigarettes, alcohol and caffeine, although further investigation of the effect of calcium on lead levels is needed. PMID:24039753

Taylor, Caroline M.; Golding, Jean; Hibbeln, Joseph; Emond, Alan M.

2013-01-01

364

Prediction under Change (PUC): Water, Earth and Biota in the Anthropocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world is facing severe water management challenges, in the context of population growth, degradation of a poorly distributed resource, and the considerable uncertainties posed by the effects of climate change. Sustainable management requires the ability to predict the space-time distribution of water resources, water quality and environmental health, to help balance the needs of both humans and the environment. The rapid rates of change that the water cycle and the environment are likely to experience as a result of increasing human impacts (e.g., climate change, land use and land cover changes) requires that prediction and management frameworks better capture coupling and feedbacks across the built, natural, and social systems that define the sustainability of water resources. As we ponder a changing environment - climate, hydrology, land use, biogeochemical cycles, human dynamics - there is an increasing need now to embrace the long-term evolution of linked sub-systems (climatic, hydrologic, geomorphic, ecological etc., as well as human) through a new generation of conceptual and quantitative models that either explicitly or implicitly include the interactions and feedbacks between these sub-systems. Their co-evolution is driven by exogenous variability imposed on the system by weather, climate and anthropogenic factors, and endogenous variability generated by the sub-systems themselves as a result of certain adaptive evolutionary processes. In this talk I will outline the fundamental issues involved in predictions at long time scales (decades) and large space scales (regions) in a fast changing environment, including significant paradigm shifts in the way we seek the fundamental understanding needed to underpin these predictions, including the need for sustained community efforts.

Sivapalan, M.

2011-12-01

365

Changes in water levels and storage in the High Plains Aquifer, predevelopment to 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the onset of substantial irrigation with groundwater from the aquifer (about 1950 and termed "predevelopment" in this fact sheet). By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (ft) (Luckey and others, 1981). In 1987, in response to declining water levels, Congress directed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources entities, to assess and track water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment to 2009. Drainable water in storage is the fraction of water in the aquifer that will drain by gravity and can be withdrawn by wells. The remaining water in the aquifer is held to the aquifer material by capillary forces and generally cannot be withdrawn by wells. Drainable water in storage is termed "water in storage" in this report. A companion USGS report presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2011).

McGuire, V.L.

2011-01-01

366

Water levels in, extent of freshwater in, and water withdrawal from eight major confined aquifers, New Jersey Coastal Plain, 1993  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water levels in 722 wells in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and northeastern Delaware were measured during October and November 1993 and were used to define the potentiometric surface of the eight major confined aquifers of the area. Isochlors (lines of equal chloride concentration) for 250 and 10,000 milligrams per liter are included to show the extent of freshwater in each of the aquifers. Estimated water withdrawals from the eight major confined aquifers are reported for 1978-94. Water-withdrawal and water-level maps including isochlors were constructed for the Cohansey aquifer of Cape May County, the Atlantic City 800-foot sand, the Piney Point aquifer, the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer, the Englishtown aquifer system, the Upper Potomac-Raritan-Magothy, the Middle and undifferentiated Potomac-Raritan-Magothy, and the Lower Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifers. From 1988 to 1993, water levels near the center of the large cones of depression in the Middlesex-Monmouth County area rose as much as 120 ft in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer and Englishtown aquifer system, 40 ft in the Upper Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer, and 96 ft in the Middle and undifferentiated Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifers. Large cones of depression in the potentiometric surface of aquifers of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system in the Burlington-Camden-Gloucester area remained at about the same altitude; that is, the potentiometric surface neither rose nor fell in the aquifers by more than 5 feet. In the same area, water levels in the Englishtown aquifer system were static, whereas the water levels in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer declined 5 to 20 feet, forming an expanded cone of depression. Water levels in the Cohansey, Atlantic City 800-foot sand, and Piney Point aquifers declined by 1 to 10 feet during 1988?93.

Lacombe, Pierre J.; Rosman, Robert

1997-01-01

367

Earthquake-induced water-level fluctuations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, June 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report presents earthquake-induced water-level and fluid-pressure data for wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during June 1992. Three earthquakes occurred which caused significant water-level and fluid-pressure responses in wells. Wells USW H-5 and USW H-6 are continuously monitored to detect short-term responses caused by earthquakes. Two wells, monitored hourly, had significant, longer-term responses in water level following the earthquakes. On June 28, 1992, a 7.5-magnitude earthquake occurred near Landers, California causing an estimated maximum water-level change of 90 centimeters in well USW H-5. Three hours later a 6.6-magnitude earthquake occurred near Big Bear Lake, California; the maximum water-level fluctuation was 20 centimeters in well USW H-5. A 5.6-magnitude earthquake occurred at Little Skull Mountain, Nevada, on June 29, approximately 23 kilometers from Yucca Mountain. The maximum estimated short-term water-level fluctuation from the Little Skull Mountain earthquake was 40 centimeters in well USW H-5. The water level in well UE-25p {number_sign}1, monitored hourly, decreased approximately 50 centimeters over 3 days following the Little Skull Mountain earthquake. The water level in UE-25p {number_sign}1 returned to pre-earthquake levels in approximately 6 months. The water level in the lower interval of well USW H-3 increased 28 centimeters following the Little Skull Mountain earthquake. The Landers and Little Skull Mountain earthquakes caused responses in 17 intervals of 14 hourly monitored wells, however, most responses were small and of short duration. For several days following the major earthquakes, many smaller magnitude aftershocks occurred causing measurable responses in the continuously monitored wells.

O`Brien, G.M.

1993-07-01

368

Relation of water level and fish availability to wood stork reproduction in the southern Everglades, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The wood stork is a species of colonial wading bird in the Everglades that is most sensitive to changes in the availability of food. Previous studies have shown that the initiation and success of wood stork nesting depends on high densities of fish concentrated in ponds and other catchment basins during the dry season. The extreme dependence of the wood stork on the cyclic hydrologic regime of the southern Florida wetlands makes it an indicator of the well-being and ecological stability of the Everglades. The wood stork has declined in numbers over the last 25 years. One reason for the decline in wood stork population was the change in the hydrologic regimen of the Everglades which affected the feeding habitat and the food production. The fish on which the wood stork feeds increase in density during the dry season as water levels fall. In the Everglades marsh, densities were highest in front of the drying edge of surface water at a depth of about 0.3 m. Dry-season densities were greatest when a drought occurred the previous year. Historically wood stork nesting success was associated with high summer water levels, high rates of surface-water discharge and high rates of drying. Before the closure of the south side of Conservation Area 3 in 1962, years of successful and unsuccessful nesting were characterized by different patterns of drying. These patterns changed after 1962 and generally the predictability of successful nesting breaks down thereafter. Only two nesting years after 1962 were successful and in only one of these was the drying rate similar to years of successful nesting before 1962. Two other potentially successful years failed after 1962. This suggests that further changes in the hydrobiological relations occurred within the Everglades after 1962. Lack of successful nesting after 1962 can be attributed in large part to late colony formation and the interruption of nesting by winter rainfall. In this period (1962-72), colonies formed earlier in years of high early drying rates than in years of low early drying rates. Delay of colony formation is ultimately the result of inability to attain a suitable nutritional state since food supply is the primary factor in the initiation of nesting. Many of the complex food associations of the wood stork remain to be explained.

Kushlan, James A.; Ogden, John C.; Higer, Aaron L.

1975-01-01

369

CSF p-Tau levels in the prediction of Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Summary The two hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques. Neurofibrillary tangles are formed due to the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein. There is an urgent need to develop a reliable biomarker for the diagnosis of AD. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is surrounding the brain and reflects the major neuropathological features in the AD brain. Diagnosis, disease progression and drug actions rely on the AD biomarkers. Mainly CSF tau and phosphorylated tau (p-Tau) have been observed to serve the purpose for early AD. Keeping in view the early appearance of p-Tau in CSF, we analyzed p-Tau levels in 23 AD, 23 Non AD type dementia (NAD), 23 Neurological control (NC) and 23 Healthy control (HC) North Indian patients. The levels of p-Tau were found to be increased in AD patients (67.87±18.05?pg/ml, SEM 3.76) compared with NAD (47.55±7.85?pg/ml, SEM 1.64), NC (34.42±4.51?pg/ml, SEM 0.94) and HC (27.09±7.18?pg/ml, SEM 1.50). The resulting sensitivity for AD with NAD was 80.27% whereas with respect to the NAD, NC and HC was 85.40%. Therefore elevated levels of p-Tau in AD can be exploited as a predictive biomarker in North Indian AD patients. PMID:24244848

Kandimalla, Ramesh J. L.; Prabhakar, Sudesh; Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Kaushal, Alka; Gupta, Nidhi; Sharma, Deep Raj; Grover, V. K.; Bhardwaj, Neerja; Jain, Kajal; Gill, Kiran Dip

2013-01-01

370

Map of the Carpinteria area and vicinity, Santa Barbara County, California, showing water-level contours for March 1983, and net change in water level between March 1982 and March 1983  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A water-level contour map of the Carpinteria area, California, was constructed using 34 water-level measurements made by the Carpinteria County Water District in March 1983. Also shown on the map are five hydrographs that show water-level fluctuations in each well between 1978 and 1983. In addition, a water-level net-change map for March 1982 to March 1983 is shown. (USGS)

Moyle, W.R., Jr.

1984-01-01

371

Prediction of prostate cancer volume using prostate-specific antigen levels, transrectal ultrasound, and systematic sextant biopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives.Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, transrectal ultrasound, and systematic sextant biopsies have each shown limited ability to predict prostate cancer volume. In combination, these studies may allow more accurate estimation of volume and prognosis.

Martha K. Terris; Douglas J. Haney; Iain M. Johnstone; John E. McNeal; Thomas A. Stamey

1995-01-01

372

Comparison of measured and predicted pure tone propagation levels from JAPE-1: An evaluation of the performance of ASOPRAT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Joint Acoustic Propagation Experiment Phase One (JAPE-1 ) short range propagation data has been used to evaluate the performance of the Advanced Sound Propagation in the Atmosphere (ASOPRAT) prediction code. The pure tone short range data was Fourier analyzed giving the propagated pressure levels as a function of frequency. Meteorological profiles measured at the experimental site were used as input for the acoustic prediction routine ASOPRAT. Predicted and measured propagation levels are compared in decibels (dB) relative to one of the measurement positions for receivers on the line passing between the two thirty meter towers. Agreement between predicted and measured levels is very good. Source strength data was not available, hence the comparisons show good agreement as to the shape of the propagation loss curve not necessarily the propagation levels.

Frederickson, Carl K.; Bass, Henry E.; Raspet, Richard; Messer, John

1993-01-01

373

Description and effects of 1988 drought on ground-water levels, streamflow, and reservoir levels in Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Documentation of the 1988 drought in Indiana was undertaken to aid water-management agencies and planners concerned with periods of below-normal precipitation and their effect on commercial, agricultural, and residential water use. Precipitation, temperature, Palmer Drought Severity Indices, and ground- and surface-water levels from water years 1988 and 1989 were compared to the historical record to evaluate severity, extent, and duration of the 1988 drought in Indiana. Three types of drought-climatological, hydrologic, and agricultural--occurred in most of Indiana during water years 1988 and 1989. The drought began toward the end of calendar year 1987 as annual precipitation decreased to 4.6 inches below the long term mean. By the end of September 1988, statewide precipitation deficits had increased to almost 8 inches below normal. High temperatures during the summer months increased the stress on crops, livestock, and people. Northwest Indiana experienced the second warmest June-August on record. Palmer Drought Severity Indices indicated that a moderate-to-severe drought had occurred in Indiana during most of 1988. Ground-water levels were affected substantially in many areas of the State. Record low-water levels were observed at 12 of the 20 monitoring wells included in this report. A go-day ground-water emergency was declared in parts of northwestern Indiana. Streamflow throughout the State was affected to varying degrees by the drought. Annual mean discharge in some rivers was only slightly less than the mean annual discharge, while others flowed at less than half that value. The effects of low streamflows were felt by many as electric power plants reduced or ceased production and public-water utilities requested conservation measures by their customers. Major reservoirs in the State approached or reached record low levels, causing water supplies as well as recreational activities to be diminished. Most major crops produced in Indiana were affected by the dry conditions. Average yields in 1988 ranged from 50 to 86 percent of 1987 yields.

Fowler, K.K.

1992-01-01

374

Estimation of directivity and sound power levels emitted by aircrafts during taxiing, for outdoor noise prediction purpose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated noise model (INM) is the most internationally used software to calculate noise levels near airports. Take off, landing or pass by operations can be modeled by INM, but it does not consider aircrafts taxiing, which, in some cases, can be important to accurately evaluate and reduce airports’ noise assessment.Aircraft taxiing noise emission can be predicted using other prediction tools

C. Asensio; I. Pavón; M. Ruiz; R. Pagan; M. Recuero

2007-01-01

375

Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for crop water footprint accounting at a basin level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water footprint has been recognized as a comprehensive indicator in water management to evaluate the human pressure on water resources from either production or consumption perspectives. The agricultural sector in particular crop production takes the largest share of the global water footprint. Water footprint of producing unit mass of a crop (m3/ ton) is normally expressed by single volumetric numbers referring to an average value for certain areas and periods. However, the divergence in crop water footprint accounts from different studies, primarily due to the input data quality, may confuse water users and managers. The study investigates the output sensitivity and uncertainty of the green (rainfall) and blue (irrigation water) crop water footprint to key input variables (reference evapotranspiration (ETo), precipitation (PR), crop coefficient (Kc) and crop calendar (D)) at a basin level. A grid-based daily water balance model was applied to compute water footprints of four major crops - maize, rice, soybean and wheat - in the Yellow River basin for 1996-2005 at a 5 by 5 arc minute resolution. Sensitivities of the yearly crop water footprints to individual input variability were assessed by the one-at-a-time (';sensitivity curve') method. Uncertainty in crop water footprint to input uncertainties were quantified through Monte Carlo simulations for selected years 1996 (wet), 2000 (dry) and 2005 (average). Results show that the crop water footprint is most sensitive to ETo and Kc, followed by D and PR. Blue water footprints were more sensitive than green water footprints to input variability. Interestingly, the smaller the annual blue water footprint, the higher its sensitivity to PR, ETo and Kc variability. The uncertainties in total crop water footprints to combined uncertainties in four key input variables was less than × 30% for total water footprints at 95% confidence level. The sensitivity and uncertainty level of crop water footprints also differs with crop types. In the current study, soybean had the highest sensitivity and the largest uncertainty in water footprints. The study provides the first detailed estimate of the output sensitivity and uncertainty in crop water footprint accounting to input variability and uncertainties. Providing the uncertainty ranges in combination with the estimated crop water footprint can undoubtedly increase the output reliability and adaptability in water management.

Zhuo, L.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

2013-12-01

376

A Simple Water Balance Approach to Monitor Lake Water Level Changes: Validation using TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason Altimetry Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple water balance approach is adapted to monitor water resources in semi-arid region of east Africa by integrating coarse and dynamic datasets such as rainfall with fine and static elevation datasets. The model takes in Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall data, modeled runoff and reference evapotranspiration (ET) data to monitor changes in lake water heights. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Digital Elevation Model (SRTM DEM) was used to delineate lake Turkana watershed. A simple water balance modeling approach was applied on Turkana basin to estimate lake water level heights for ten years (1997- 2008) and the results were compared with TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason satellite altimeter data. It was observed that simple water balance approach could capture the trend and seasonal variations of lake water fluctuations as measured by the satellite. The El Nino year of 1998 and the following consecutive dry years until 2002 are captured well on both. A mean deviation up to 30 cm of lake water height was found when compared to the satellite measurements. The satellite measurements made since 2004 showed that the lake water height gradually reduced, whereas simulations made using the water balance model showed an increasing trend. This could be reasoned by the fact that, on the Omo river, which contributes to over 80% of the lake inflows, a dam was commissioned in 2004. Knowledge of such processes occurring upstream or downstream is often required while analyzing satellite altimetry data to avoid misinterpretation. Although the absolute accuracy is low, the advantage of the simple water balance method lies in its ability to: (i) capture the trend and seasonal variations of water level fluctuations of small to large lakes around the world; (ii) when coupled with ground measurements or satellite altimetry data for lake water heights, the simple water balance method can identify the presence and absence of upstream and downstream processes; (iii) since water balance approach gives water level variations assuming no flow regulating mechanisms, the simulations can be used to study the impact of climate change on the hydrology of the basin.

Velpuri, N.; Senay, G. B.; Alemu, H.; Asante, K. O.

2008-12-01

377

Platinum-based anticancer drugs in waste waters of a major UK hospital and predicted concentrations in recipient surface waters.  

PubMed

Concentrations of the cytotoxic platinum-based anticancer drugs, as total Pt, have been measured over a three week period in one of the main drains and in the effluent of the oncology ward of a major UK hospital (Derriford, Plymouth). Concentrations of Pt were highly variable in both discharges, and ranged from about 0.02 to 140 ?g L(-1) in the oncology effluent and from about 0.03 to 100 ?g L(-1) in the main drain. A comparison of drug administration figures over the study period with an estimate of the quantity of Pt discharged through the drains suggests that about 22% of total Pt is emitted to the environment from the hospital with the remainder being discharged by treated patients in the wider community. Administration figures for the three Pt-based drugs used in the hospital (cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin) coupled with published measurements on the removal of the drugs by conventional sewage treatment allowed the concentrations of Pt arising from each drug to be predicted in recipient surface waters as a function of water flow rate. For conditions representative of the region under study, concentrations of total Pt between a few tens and in excess of 100 pg L(-1) are predicted, with the principal form of the metal occurring as carboplatin and its metabolites. Although predicted concentrations are below EMEA guidelines warranting further risk assessment, the presence of substances in surface waters that are potentially carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic and yet whose environmental effects are not understood is cause for concern. PMID:24951889

Vyas, Nitin; Turner, Andrew; Sewell, Graham

2014-09-15

378

Prediction of the effects of size and morphology on the structure of water around hematite nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Compared with macroscopic surfaces, the structure of water around nanoparticles is difficult to probe directly. We used molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the effects of particle size and morphology on the time-averaged structure and the dynamics of water molecules around two sizes of hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles. Interrogation of the simulations via atomic density maps, radial distribution functions and bound water residence times provide insight into the relationships between particle size and morphology and the behavior of interfacial water. Both 1.6 and 2.7 nm particles are predicted to cause the formation of ordered water regions close to the nanoparticle surface, but the extent of localization and ordering, the connectivity between regions of bound water, and the rates of molecular exchange between inner and outer regions are all affected by particle size and morphology. These findings are anticipated to be relevant to understanding the rates of interfacial processes involving water exchange and the transport of aqueous ions to surface sites.

Spagnoli, D.; Gilbert, B.; Waychunas, G.A.; Banfield, J. F.

2009-05-15

379

On-line test of power distribution prediction system for boiling water reactors  

SciTech Connect

A power distribution prediction system for boiling water reactors has been developed and its on-line performance test has proceeded at an operating commercial reactor. This system predicts the power distribution or thermal margin in advance of control rod operations and core flow rate change. This system consists of an on-line computer system, an operator's console with a color cathode-ray tube, and plant data input devices. The main functions of this system are present power distribution monitoring, power distribution prediction, and power-up trajectory prediction. The calculation method is based on a simplified nuclear thermal-hydraulic calculation, which is combined with a method of model identification to the actual reactor core state. It has been ascertained by the on-line test that the predicted power distribution (readings of traversing in-core probe) agrees with the measured data within 6% root-mean-square. The computing time required for one prediction calculation step is less than or equal to 1.5 min by an HIDIC-80 on-line computer.

Nishizawa, Y.; Kiguchi, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Takumi, K.; Tanaka, H.; Tsutsumi, R.; Yokomi, M.

1982-07-01

380

Summary of recovered historical ground-water-level data for Michigan, 1934-2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents ground-water-level data-recovery efforts performed by the USGS Michigan Water Science Center and provides nearly three-hundred hydrographs generated from these recovered data. Data recovery is the process of verifying and transcribing data from paper files into the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) electronic databases appropriate for ground-water-level data. Entering these data into the NWIS databases makes them more useful for USGS analysis and also makes them available to the public through the internet.

Cornett, Cassaundra L.; Crowley, Suzanne L.; McGowan, Rose M.; Blumer, Stephen P.; Reeves, Howard W.

2006-01-01

381

A Nonparametric Instrumental Variable Approach to Estimating the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollutants at the Global Level1  

E-print Network

for Water Pollutants at the Global Level1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lin,2 Krishna P. Paudel, Mahesh Pandit for Water Pollutants at the Global Level Abstract We examine the relationship between income and water pollutants using country- level global water quality data over the period 1980 to 2012. We include civil

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

382

A Nonparametric Instrumental Variable Approach to Estimating the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollutants at the Global Level  

E-print Network

for Water Pollutants at the Global Level Krishna P. Paudel1 , C.-Y. Cynthia Lin2 , Mahesh Pandit the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollutants at the Global Level Abstract We examine the relationship between income and water pollutants using country- level global water quality data over the period 1980

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

383

Spontaneous Evolution in Bilirubin Levels Predicts Liver-Related Mortality in Patients with Alcoholic Hepatitis  

PubMed Central

The accurate prognostic stratification of alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is essential for individualized therapeutic decisions. The aim of this study was to develop a new prognostic model to predict liver-related mortality in Asian AH patients. We conducted a hospital-based, retrospective cohort study using 308 patients with AH between 1999 and 2011 (a derivation cohort) and 106 patients with AH between 2005 and 2012 (a validation cohort). The Cox proportional hazards model was constructed to select significant predictors of liver-related death from the derivation cohort. A new prognostic model was internally validated using a bootstrap sampling method. The discriminative performance of this new model was compared with those of other prognostic models using a concordance index in the validation cohort. Bilirubin, prothrombin time, creatinine, potassium at admission, and a spontaneous change in bilirubin levels from day 0 to day 7 (SCBL) were incorporated into a model for AH to grade the severity in an Asian patient cohort (MAGIC). For risk stratification, four risk groups were identified with cutoff scores of 29, 37, and 46 based on the different survival probabilities (P<0.001). In addition, MAGIC showed better discriminative performance for liver-related mortality than any other scoring system in the validation cohort. MAGIC can accurately predict liver-related mortality in Asian patients hospitalized for AH. Therefore, SCBL may help us decide whether patients with AH urgently require corticosteroid treatment. PMID:25013906

Lee, Minjong; Kim, Won; Choi, Yunhee; Kim, Sunhee; Kim, Donghee; Yu, Su Jong; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Hwi Young; Jung, Yong Jin; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Lee, Hyo-Suk

2014-01-01

384

Computational Approaches to Analyze and Predict Small Molecule Transport and Distribution at Cellular and Subcellular Levels  

PubMed Central

Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies and mechanistic mathematical modeling approaches have been independently employed for analyzing and predicting the transport and distribution of small molecule chemical agents in living organisms. Both of these computational approaches have been useful to interpret experiments measuring the transport properties of small molecule chemical agents, in vitro and in vivo. Nevertheless, mechanistic cell-based pharmacokinetic models have been especially useful to guide the design of experiments probing the molecular pathways underlying small molecule transport phenomena. Unlike QSAR models, mechanistic models can be integrated from microscopic to macroscopic levels, to analyze the spatiotemporal dynamics of small molecule chemical agents from intracellular organelles to whole organs, well beyond the experiments and training data sets upon which the models are based. Based on differential equations, mechanistic models can also be integrated with other differential equations-based systems biology models of biochemical networks or signaling pathways. Although the origin and evolution of mathematical modeling approaches aimed at predicting drug transport and distribution has occurred independently from systems biology, we propose that the incorporation of mechanistic cell-based computational models of drug transport and distribution into a systems biology modeling framework is a logical next-step for the advancement of systems pharmacology research. PMID:24218242

Ah Min, Kyoung; Zhang, Xinyuan; Yu, Jing-yu; Rosania, Gus R.

2013-01-01

385

Hormone levels predict individual differences in reproductive success in a passerine bird  

PubMed Central

Hormones mediate major physiological and behavioural components of the reproductive phenotype of individuals. To understand basic evolutionary processes in the hormonal regulation of reproductive traits, we need to know whether, and during which reproductive phases, individual variation in hormone concentrations relates to fitness in natural populations. We related circulating concentrations of prolactin and corticosterone to parental behaviour and reproductive success during both the pre-breeding and the chick-rearing stages in both individuals of pairs of free-living house sparrows, Passer domesticus. Prolactin and baseline corticosterone concentrations in pre-breeding females, and prolactin concentrations in pre-breeding males, predicted total number of fledglings. When the strong effect of lay date on total fledgling number was corrected for, only pre-breeding baseline corticosterone, but not prolactin, was negatively correlated with the reproductive success of females. During the breeding season, nestling provisioning rates of both sexes were negatively correlated with stress-induced corticosterone levels. Lastly, individuals of both sexes with low baseline corticosterone before and high baseline corticosterone during breeding raised the most offspring, suggesting that either the plasticity of this trait contributes to reproductive success or that high parental effort leads to increased hormone concentrations. Thus hormone concentrations both before and during breeding, as well as their seasonal dynamics, predict reproductive success, suggesting that individual variation in absolute concentrations and in plasticity is functionally significant, and, if heritable, may be a target of selection. PMID:21247953

Ouyang, Jenny Q.; Sharp, Peter J.; Dawson, Alistair; Quetting, Michael; Hau, Michaela

2011-01-01

386

Artificial neural network prediction of amino acid levels in feed ingredients.  

PubMed

Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), which are biologically inspired tools, serve as an alternative to regression analysis for complex data. Based on CP or proximate analysis (PA) of ingredients, two types of ANN and linear regression (LR) were evaluated for predicting amino acid levels in corn, wheat, soybean meal, meat and bone meal, and fish meal. The two ANN were a three layer Backpropagation network (BP3), and a General Regression Neural Network (GRNN). Methionine, TSAA, Lys, Thr, Tyr, Trp, and Arg were evaluated and R2 values calculated for each prediction method. Artificial neural network training was completed with NeuroShell 2 using Calibration to prevent overtraining. Ninety percent of the data were used as the input for the LR and the two ANN. The remaining 10% (randomly extracted data) were used to calibrate the performance of the ANN. As compared to LR, the R2 values were largest when PA input and GRNN were used. The BP3 did not consistently improve the R2 values for either CP or PA inputs as compared to LR. Each neural net can be incorporated into a computer or spreadsheet program. PMID:9154625

Roush, W B; Cravener, T L

1997-05-01

387

Serum levels of club (Clara) cell secretory protein predict cancer mortality in adults  

PubMed Central

Background Club (formerly Clara) cell secretory protein (CC16) is produced mainly by bronchiolar club cells and has been shown to have protective effects against airway inflammation and oxidative stress from cigarette smoking and related carcinogens. The goal of this study was to determine whether serum CC16 levels predict all-cause and cancer-specific mortality in adults. Methods We used data from the population-based TESAOD study, a prospective cohort study of respiratory health initiated in Tucson, AZ in 1972. At baseline, participants completed standardized respiratory questionnaires and lung function tests. Serum CC16 was measured in cryopreserved serum samples. A review of vital status of participants as of January 1st, 2011 was completed through contact with next of kin, collection of death certificates, and linkage with the National Death Index. Findings A total of 1086 participants who were 21 to 70 years old at enrollment were included. Of these, 653 (60%) died by 2011 and cause of death was ascertained for 649 (99%). In Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for sex, age, education, body mass index categories, smoking and pack-years, and baseline levels of lung function, serum CC16 levels at the baseline survey were inversely associated with mortality risk over the study follow-up. Mortality risk increased by 16% for each standard deviation (SD) decrease in CC16 (Hazard Ratio (HR), 95% CI: 1.16, 1.06 – 1.26; p = 0.0007). When data on cause-specific mortality were analyzed, each SD decrease in serum CC16 was associated with >40% increased risk of dying of cancer (adjusted HR=1.41, 1.19 – 1.67; p < 0.0001). Among smokers, the corresponding adjusted HRs for mortality by lung cancer were 1.52 (1.14 – 2.03; p = 0.004). Interpretation Serum CC16 levels predict mortality risk in the general adult population. The excess risk associated with lower CC16 is largely explained by cancer, particularly lung cancer. PMID:24461757

Guerra, Stefano; Vasquez, Monica M.; Spangenberg, Amber; Halonen, Marilyn; Martinez, Fernando D.

2014-01-01

388

Non-invasive prediction of hemoglobin levels by principal component and back propagation artificial neural network  

PubMed Central

To facilitate non-invasive diagnosis of anemia, specific equipment was developed, and non-invasive hemoglobin (HB) detection method based on back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) was studied. In this paper, we combined a broadband light source composed of 9 LEDs with grating spectrograph and Si photodiode array, and then developed a high-performance spectrophotometric system. By using this equipment, fingertip spectra of 109 volunteers were measured. In order to deduct the interference of redundant data, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to reduce the dimensionality of collected spectra. Then the principal components of the spectra were taken as input of BP-ANN model. On this basis we obtained the optimal network structure, in which node numbers of input layer, hidden layer, and output layer was 9, 11, and 1. Calibration and correction sample sets were used for analyzing the accuracy of non-invasive hemoglobin measurement, and prediction sample set was used for testing the adaptability of the model. The correlation coefficient of network model established by this method is 0.94, standard error of calibration, correction, and prediction are 11.29g/L, 11.47g/L, and 11.01g/L respectively. The result proves that there exist good correlations between spectra of three sample sets and actual hemoglobin level, and the model has a good robustness. It is indicated that the developed spectrophotometric system has potential for the non-invasive detection of HB levels with the method of BP-ANN combined with PCA. PMID:24761296

Ding, Haiquan; Lu, Qipeng; Gao, Hongzhi; Peng, Zhongqi

2014-01-01

389

Non-invasive prediction of hemoglobin levels by principal component and back propagation artificial neural network.  

PubMed

To facilitate non-invasive diagnosis of anemia, specific equipment was developed, and non-invasive hemoglobin (HB) detection method based on back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) was studied. In this paper, we combined a broadband light source composed of 9 LEDs with grating spectrograph and Si photodiode array, and then developed a high-performance spectrophotometric system. By using this equipment, fingertip spectra of 109 volunteers were measured. In order to deduct the interference of redundant data, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to reduce the dimensionality of collected spectra. Then the principal components of the spectra were taken as input of BP-ANN model. On this basis we obtained the optimal network structure, in which node numbers of input layer, hidden layer, and output layer was 9, 11, and 1. Calibration and correction sample sets were used for analyzing the accuracy of non-invasive hemoglobin measurement, and prediction sample set was used for testing the adaptability of the model. The correlation coefficient of network model established by this method is 0.94, standard error of calibration, correction, and prediction are 11.29g/L, 11.47g/L, and 11.01g/L respectively. The result proves that there exist good correlations between spectra of three sample sets and actual hemoglobin level, and the model has a good robustness. It is indicated that the developed spectrophotometric system has potential for the non-invasive detection of HB levels with the method of BP-ANN combined with PCA. PMID:24761296

Ding, Haiquan; Lu, Qipeng; Gao, Hongzhi; Peng, Zhongqi

2014-04-01

390

Spatial Prediction of Nitrate Concentration in Drinking Water Using pH as Auxiliary Cokriging Variable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lognormal ordinary cokriging (LnOCK) with auxiliary variables can sometimes improve estimates for a less densely sampled primary variable. The objective of this study was to compare lognormal ordinary cokriging (LnOCK) with lognormal ordinary kriging (LnOK) and lognormal inverse distance weighting (LnIDW) for the spatial prediction of NO3-N in drinking water using pH as an auxiliary variable in LnOCK. We collected

Jamshid Ghadermazi; Gholamabbas Sayyad; Jahangard Mohammadi; Abdulamir Moezzi; Firoz Ahmadi; Rainer Schulin

2011-01-01

391

Stability of low levels of perchlorate in drinking water and natural water samples  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Perchlorate ion (ClO4-) is an environmental contaminant of growing concern due to its potential human health effects, impact on aquatic and land animals, and widespread occurrence throughout the United States. The determination of perchlorate cannot normally be carried out in the field. As such, water samples for perchlorate analysis are often shipped to a central laboratory, where they may be stored for a significant period before analysis. The stability of perchlorate ion in various types of commonly encountered water samples has not been generally examined-the effect of such storage is thus not known. In the present study, the long-term stability of perchlorate ion in deionized water, tap water, ground water, and surface water was examined. Sample sets containing approximately 1000, 100, 1.0, and 0.5 ??g l-1 perchlorate ion in deionized water and also in local tap water were formulated. These samples were analyzed by ion chromatography for perchlorate ion concentration against freshly prepared standards every 24 h for the first 7 days, biweekly for the next 4 weeks, and periodically after that for a total of 400 or 610 days for the two lowest concentrations and a total of 428 or 638 days for the high concentrations. Ground and surface water samples containing perchlorate were collected, held and analyzed for perchlorate concentration periodically over at least 360 days. All samples except for the surface water samples were found to be stable for the duration of the study, allowing for holding times of at least 300 days for ground water samples and at least 90 days for surface water samples. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Stetson, S.J.; Wanty, R.B.; Helsel, D.R.; Kalkhoff, S.J.; Macalady, D.L.

2006-01-01

392

Optimal predictive control of water transport systems: Arrêt-Darré/Arros case study.  

PubMed

This paper proposes the use of predictive optimal control as a suitable methodology to manage efficiently transport water networks. The predictive optimal controller is implemented using MPC control techniques. The Arrêt-Darré/Arros dam-river system located in the Southwest region of France is proposed as case study. A high-fidelity dynamic simulator based on the full Saint-Venant equations and able to reproduce this system is developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK to validate the performance of the developed predictive optimal control system. The control objective in the Arrêt-Darré/Arros dam-river system is to guarantee an ecological flow rate at a control point downstream of the Arrêt-Darré dam by controlling the outflow of this dam in spite of the unmeasured disturbances introduced by rainfalls incomings and farmer withdrawals. PMID:19844059

Puig, V; Romera, J; Quevedo, J; Cardona, C M; Salterain, A; Ayesa, E; Irizar, I; Castro, A; Lujan, M; Charbonnaud, P; Chiron, P; Trouvat, J-L

2009-01-01

393

Emissions Prediction and Measurement for Liquid-Fueled TVC Combustor with and without Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation is performed to evaluate the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid-fueled combustor that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions. The experiment consists of a multisector, liquid-fueled combustor rig operated at different inlet pressures and temperatures, and over a range of fuel/air and water/fuel ratios. Fuel can be injected directly into the main combustion airstream and into the cavities. Test rig performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities such as temperature and emissions measurements using rakes and overall pressure drop from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Visualization of the flame is performed using gray scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. CFD simulations are performed utilizing a methodology that includes computer-aided design (CAD) solid modeling of the geometry, parallel processing over networked computers, and graphical and quantitative post-processing. Physical models include liquid fuel droplet dynamics and evaporation, with combustion modeled using a hybrid finite-rate chemistry model developed for Jet-A fuel. CFD and experimental results are compared for cases with cavity-only fueling, while numerical studies of cavity and main fueling was also performed. Predicted and measured trends in combustor exit temperature, CO and NOx are in general agreement at the different water/fuel loading rates, although quantitative differences exist between the predictions and measurements.

Brankovic, A.; Ryder, R. C., Jr.; Hendricks, R. C.; Liu, N.-S.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

2005-01-01

394

Intermolecular potentials and the accurate prediction of the thermodynamic properties of water  

SciTech Connect

The ability of intermolecular potentials to correctly predict the thermodynamic properties of liquid water at a density of 0.998 g/cm{sup 3} for a wide range of temperatures (298–650 K) and pressures (0.1–700 MPa) is investigated. Molecular dynamics simulations are reported for the pressure, thermal pressure coefficient, thermal expansion coefficient, isothermal and adiabatic compressibilities, isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, and Joule-Thomson coefficient of liquid water using the non-polarizable SPC/E and TIP4P/2005 potentials. The results are compared with both experiment data and results obtained from the ab initio-based Matsuoka-Clementi-Yoshimine non-additive (MCYna) [J. Li, Z. Zhou, and R. J. Sadus, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 154509 (2007)] potential, which includes polarization contributions. The data clearly indicate that both the SPC/E and TIP4P/2005 potentials are only in qualitative agreement with experiment, whereas the polarizable MCYna potential predicts some properties within experimental uncertainty. This highlights the importance of polarizability for the accurate prediction of the thermodynamic properties of water, particularly at temperatures beyond 298 K.

Shvab, I.; Sadus, Richard J., E-mail: rsadus@swin.edu.au [Centre for Molecular Simulation, Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)