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1

Flood water level prediction and tracking using particle filter algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the countries have paid great attention to flood water level monitoring and tracking because flood may damages people's life and property. Since flood water level fluctuate highly nonlinear, it is very difficult to predict the flood water level. The particle filter algorithm is well known as a very effective solution for handling nonlinear problems. Thus, in this paper,

Fazlina Ahmat Ruslan; Ramli Adnan; Abd Manan Samad

2012-01-01

2

Predicting Mean Monthly Lake Water Level Using Support Vector Machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment on predicting mean monthly lake water level up to 12 month ahead using a recently evolved neural network topology namely support vector machine (SVM) is presented. The support vector machine is firmly based on the theory of statistical learning, which implements a structural risk minimization principle that minimizes the mean square error and an upper bound on the expected risk, as opposed to empirical risk minimization that minimizes the error on the training data only. This has made the support vector training algorithm robust compared to conventional neural network models. The modeling experiment is conducted using historical records of Lake Erie mean monthly water level of 1918 to 2001. The performance of the SVM model is compared with a widely used neural network model called multilayer perceptron (MLP) and with a conventional multiplicative seasonal autoregressive model (SAR) based on correlation coefficients and root mean squared errors performance criteria. Since the ultimate goal concerns the improvement of long-term forecast accuracy, overall, the prediction results show that the proposed method is effective for improving prediction accuracy compared to the MLP and SAR models up to 12 month lead time.

Khan, M.; Coulibaly, P.

2004-05-01

3

Interstation prediction of ocean water levels using methods of nonlinear dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe prediction of ocean water levels between geographically separated locations by using a method derived from studies of chaotic dynamical systems. This interstation predictor requires only previously observed water-level data collected simultaneously from the target and baseline water-level measuring stations. The current observations at the baseline station are then used for making the predictions. The method is demonstrated using

Ted W. Frison; Marshall D. Earle; Henry D. I. Abanel; Wolfgang D. Scherer

1999-01-01

4

Analysis and Predictions on Extreme Coastal Water Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the characteristics of probability distribution of extreme water levels is important for coastal flood mitigation and engineering design. In this study, frequency analysis has been conducted to investigate probability distributions along the coast of the U.S. by using three-parameter General Extreme Value (GEV) method. The GEV model combines three types of probability distributions (Type I for Gumbel distribution, Type

Sudong Xu

2007-01-01

5

Combination of Tank Model and Reservoir Routing for predicting water level at Wonogiri Dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water level predicting model is one of model to support the reservoir operation. This paper, discusses the results of research on the use of tank model combined with reservoir routing to predict the water level of Wonogiri Dam. Tank model was constructed consisting of 2 tank model structured the series, parallel, and parallel-series and 3 models composed tank series and

Umboro Lasminto; Yuddi Yudhistira

2010-01-01

6

Predicted impacts of future water level decline on monitoring wells using a ground-water model of the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

A ground-water flow model was used to predict water level decline in selected wells in the operating areas (100, 200, 300, and 400 Areas) and the 600 Area. To predict future water levels, the unconfined aquifer system was stimulated with the two-dimensional version of a ground-water model of the Hanford Site, which is based on the Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) Code in conjunction with the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software package. The model was developed using the assumption that artificial recharge to the unconfined aquifer system from Site operations was much greater than any natural recharge from precipitation or from the basalt aquifers below. However, artificial recharge is presently decreasing and projected to decrease even more in the future. Wells currently used for monitoring at the Hanford Site are beginning to go dry or are difficult to sample, and as the water table declines over the next 5 to 10 years, a larger number of wells is expected to be impacted. The water levels predicted by the ground-water model were compared with monitoring well completion intervals to determine which wells will become dry in the future. Predictions of wells that will go dry within the next 5 years have less uncertainty than predictions for wells that will become dry within 5 to 10 years. Each prediction is an estimate based on assumed future Hanford Site operating conditions and model assumptions.

Wurstner, S.K.; Freshley, M.D.

1994-12-01

7

Combination of Tank Model and Reservoir Routing for predicting water level at Wonogiri Dam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water level predicting model is one of model to support the reservoir operation. This paper, discusses the results of research on the use of tank model combined with reservoir routing to predict the water level of Wonogiri Dam. Tank model was constructed consisting of 2 tank model structured the series, parallel, and parallel-series and 3 models composed tank series and parallel. The objective of this modeling is to obtain the values of tank model parameters are calibrated with measurement data to predict the reservoir water level. Water level measurement at Wonogiri Dam is only done in spillway location and no water level measurement in the cross-section of the rivers before entering the reservoir. Therefore, combining equations of tanks model and reservoir routing is needed so that the hydrograph outflow generated by the tank model become an input of the routing reservoir and will produce an output of the reservoir water level. The data used in this modeling is the daily rainfall data, climatology, elevation-storage curve, daily average water level in reservoir and daily average discharge outflow from reservoir. Genetic Algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of the model to generate predictions of water level close to the measurement during the calibration process. The results of the model are evaluated by calculating the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Coefficient of Efficiency (COE) between the predictions and observations. Calibration results obtained that the best model is the model of the architecture comprises a series of 3 tanks and the parameters k1 = 8,340, k2 = 1.006, k3 = 0.158, k4 = 2.275, k5 = 3.887, k6 = 0.063, d1 = 176.387, d2 = 81.445, d3 = 21.973, s1 = 46.631, s2 = 7.095 , s3 = 5.708, which generate RMSE = 1.260 m and COE = 0.669. While the verification, is obtained the RMSE = 0.878 m and COE = 0.599. The parameter of k4 is the most sensitive parameter that will affect to the performance of the model. Keywords: tank model, reservoir routing, water level predicting, Wonogiri Dam

Lasminto, Umboro; Yudhistira, Yuddi

2010-05-01

8

Predicting Wetland Plant Community Responses to Proposed Water-level-regulation Plans for Lake Ontario: GIS-based Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated, GIS-based, wetland predictive models were constructed to assist in predicting the responses of wetland plant communities to proposed new water-level regulation plans for Lake Ontario. The modeling exercise consisted of four major components: 1) building individual site wetland geometric models; 2) constructing generalized wetland geometric models representing specific types of wetlands (rectangle model for drowned river mouth wetlands, half

Douglas A. Wilcox; Yichun Xie

2007-01-01

9

Interpretation of changes in water level accompanying fault creep and implications for earthquake prediction.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantitative calculations for the effect of a fault creep event on observations of changes in water level in wells provide an approach to the tectonic interpretation of these phenomena. For the pore pressure field associated with an idealized creep event having an exponential displacement versus time curve, an analytic expression has been obtained in terms of exponential-integral functions. The pore pressure versus time curves for observation points near the fault are pulselike; a sharp pressure increase (or decrease, depending on the direction of propagation) is followed by more gradual decay to the normal level after the creep event. The time function of the water level change may be obtained by applying the filter - derived by A.G.Johnson and others to determine the influence of atmospheric pressure on water level - to the analytic pore pressure versus time curves. The resulting water level curves show a fairly rapid increase (or decrease) and then a very gradual return to normal. The results of this analytic model do not reproduce the steplike changes in water level observed by Johnson and others. If the procedure used to obtain the water level from the pore pressure is correct, these results suggest that steplike changes in water level are not produced by smoothly propagating creep events but by creep events that propagate discontinuously, by changes in the bulk properties of the region around the well, or by some other mechanism.-Author

Wesson, R. L.

1981-01-01

10

Construction and use of special drawdown scales for use in prediction of water-level changes throughout heavily pumped areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Problem and Proposed Method of Solution Frequently the Theis nonequilibrium formula is use din the quantitative analyses that are part of many-ground-water investigations. The computations associated therewith may become quite involved and tedious, especially when dealing with predictions of the decline of water levels throughout large areas in which there are many discharging wells. The process of predicting future water-level declines can be greatly simplified and shortened by preparing a special draw-down scale for given conditions. Through use of such a scale much of the computation can be reduced to scaling the values sought from a map, on which the pumped wells have been spotted. The net drawdown effect, which is the sum of the water-level declines caused by the many individual pumped wells, can be determined readily for any desired point in the area. If the net drawdown effect is desired, a summation of the effects of all the pumped wells can be repeated for each point. By determining the water-level change at a number of points, for a given period of time, a contour map of predicted water-level changes for the multiple-well system can be drawn.

Conover, C. S.; Reeder, H. O.

1957-01-01

11

Variations in trihalomethane levels in three French water distribution systems and the development of a predictive model.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that chlorination by-products in drinking water may cause some types of cancer in humans. However, due to differences in methodology between the various studies, it is not possible to establish a dose-response relationship. This shortcoming is due primarily to uncertainties about how exposure is measured-made difficult by the great number of compounds present-the exposure routes involved and the variation in concentrations in water distribution systems. This is especially true for trihalomethanes for which concentrations can double between the water treatment plant and the consumer tap. The aim of this study is to describe the behaviour of trihalomethanes in three French water distribution systems and develop a mathematical model to predict concentrations in the water distribution system using data collected from treated water at the plant (i.e. the entrance of the distribution system). In 2006 and 2007, samples were taken successively from treated water at the plant and at several points in the water distribution system in three French cities. In addition to the concentrations of the four trihalomethanes (chloroform, dichlorobromomethane, chlorodibromomethane, bromoform), many other parameters involved in their formation that affect their concentration were also measured. The average trihalomethane concentration in the three water distribution systems ranged from 21.6 ?g/L to 59.9 ?g/L. The increase in trihalomethanes between the treated water at the plant and a given point in the water distribution system varied by a factor of 1.1-5.7 over all of the samples. A log-log linear regression model was constructed to predict THM concentrations in the water distribution system. The five variables used were trihalomethane concentration and free residual chlorine for treated water at the plant, two variables that characterize the reactivity of organic matter (specific UV absorbance (SUVA), an indicator developed for the free chlorine consumption in the treatment plant before distribution ?) and water residence time in the distribution system. French regulations impose a minimum trihalomethane level for drinking water and most tests are performed on treated water at the plant. Applied in this context, the model developed here helps better to understand trihalomethane exposure in the French population, particularly useful for epidemiological studies. PMID:20663536

Mouly, Damien; Joulin, Eric; Rosin, Christophe; Beaudeau, Pascal; Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Olszewski-Ortar, Agnès; Munoz, Jean François; Welté, Bénédicte; Joyeux, Michel; Seux, René; Montiel, Antoine; Rodriguez, M J

2010-10-01

12

Alternative configurations of Quantile Regression for estimating predictive uncertainty in water level forecasts for the Upper Severn River: a comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study comprises an inter-comparison of different configurations of a statistical post-processor that is used to estimate predictive hydrological uncertainty. It builds on earlier work by Weerts et al. (2011, herinafter referred to as wwv2011), who used the Quantile Regression technique to estimate predictive hydrological uncertainty using a deterministic water level forecast as a predictor. The various configurations are designed to address two issues with the wwv2011 implementation: (i) quantile crossing, which causes non-strictly rising cumulative predictive distributions, and (ii) the use of linear quantile models to describe joint distributions that may not be strictly linear. Thus, four configurations were built: (i) the "as is" implementation used by wwv2011, (ii) a configuration that implements a non-crossing quantile technique, (iii) a configuration where quantile models are built in Normal space after application of the Normal Quantile Transform, and (iv) a configuration that builds quantile model separately on separate domains of the predictor. Using each, four re-forecasting series of water levels at fourteen stations in the Upper Severn River were established. The quality of these four series was inter-compared using a set of graphical and numerical verification metrics. Intercomparison showed that reliability and sharpness vary across configurations, but in none of the configurations do these two forecast quality aspects improve simultaneously. Further analysis shows that skills in terms of Brier Skill Score, mean Continuous Ranked Probability Skill Score and Relative Operating Characteristic Score is very similar across the four configurations.

López López, P.; Verkade, J. S.; Weerts, A. H.; Solomatine, D. P.

2014-04-01

13

Predicting Ground Water Flow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students learn how to draw ground water contours and understand how ground water flow may be predicted. As they complete this activity students will be able to draw a ground water contour map, have a basic understanding of how to predict the direction of ground water flow and understand the interrelated nature of ground water and surface water flow. They will also learn the difference between a gaining stream and a losing stream and why it is important to know the difference.

14

Alternative configurations of Quantile Regression for estimating predictive uncertainty in water level forecasts for the Upper Severn River: a comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrological forecasting is subject to many sources of uncertainty, including those originating in initial state, boundary conditions, model structure and model parameters. Although uncertainty can be reduced, it can never be fully eliminated. Statistical post-processing techniques constitute an often used approach to estimate the hydrological predictive uncertainty, where a model of forecast error is built using a historical record of past forecasts and observations. The present study focuses on the use of the Quantile Regression (QR) technique as a hydrological post-processor. It estimates the predictive distribution of water levels using deterministic water level forecasts as predictors. This work aims to thoroughly verify uncertainty estimates using the implementation of QR that was applied in an operational setting in the UK National Flood Forecasting System, and to inter-compare forecast quality and skill in various, differing configurations of QR. These configurations are (i) 'classical' QR, (ii) QR constrained by a requirement that quantiles do not cross, (iii) QR derived on time series that have been transformed into the Normal domain (Normal Quantile Transformation - NQT), and (iv) a piecewise linear derivation of QR models. The QR configurations are applied to fourteen hydrological stations on the Upper Severn River with different catchments characteristics. Results of each QR configuration are conditionally verified for progressively higher flood levels, in terms of commonly used verification metrics and skill scores. These include Brier's probability score (BS), the continuous ranked probability score (CRPS) and corresponding skill scores as well as the Relative Operating Characteristic score (ROCS). Reliability diagrams are also presented and analysed. The results indicate that none of the four Quantile Regression configurations clearly outperforms the others.

Lopez, Patricia; Verkade, Jan; Weerts, Albrecht; Solomatine, Dimitri

2014-05-01

15

Supplement to predictive modeling of effects of the planned Kindred Lake on ground-water levels and discharge, southeastern North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital model was used to describe a ground-water system in glacial deltaic deposits near Kindred, N.D., and to predict the effects on ground-water levels of a planned lake at the 950-, 960-, 970-, 984-, and 995-foot stages. Model analysis indicates that only the area within a radius of about 2 miles of the dam on the present Sheyenne River would be affected by rising water levels as a result of a lake stage at 995 feet. The rise of water levels depends on time and hydraulic properties of the aquifer. The maximum projected rise in water levels at the various stages should occur in about 50 to 100 years. Evapotranspiration and existing drains will be effective in limiting the extent of water-level rise. (USGS)

Armstrong, C. A.

1981-01-01

16

About Water Levels, Tides & Currents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Oceanographic Products and Services Division (OPSD) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) "collects, analyzes and distributes historical and real-time observations and predictions of water levels, coastal currents and other meteorological and oceanographic data." This wonderful site explains the science behind the tides and changing water levels, gives historical background on tidal predictions and tidal machines (including several fascinating old photographs), and details the challenges of measuring water currents. The combination of engineering, history, and oceanography ensures that students and educators will learn much here. For access to tidal data, a tidal and current glossary, and an interactive tidal prediction page, users may follow links from the OPSD homepage.

2007-11-28

17

Ground-water-level monitoring for earthquake prediction; a progress report based on data collected in Southern California, 1976-79  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a research program to determine if groundwater-level measurements can be used for earthquake prediction. Earlier studies suggest that water levels in wells may be responsive to small strains on the order of 10 to the minus 8th power to 10 to the minus 10th power (dimensionless). Water-level data being collected in the area of the southern California uplift show response to earthquakes and other natural and manmade effects. The data are presently (1979) being made ready for computer analysis. The completed analysis may indicate the presence of precursory earthquake information. (USGS)

Moyle, W. R., Jr.

1980-01-01

18

Predicting indoor air pollution levels  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes methods of predicting concentration levels of indoor air pollution in a variety of residences by using residence air-infiltration rates, residence volumes, and source terms, and by making assumptions about occupant lifestyle and pollutant distribution. The range of the maximum to minimum concentration, as well as a representative value, of each pollutant present in a residence can be predicted. The predicted values vary for some pollutants by up to three orders of magnitude. The methods can be used for predicting concentration levels in residences with and without retrofitted air-infiltration reduction measures, which are means of making the home more energy efficient. Concentration levels are predicted so that the risk of health effects from installing air-infiltration reduction measures can be assessed.

Parker, G.B.; Droppo, J.G.; Owczarski, P.C.

1982-10-01

19

Predicted water-level and water-quality effects of artificial recharge in the Upper Coachella Valley, California, using a finite-element digital model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1936 to 1974, water levels declined more than 100 feet in the Palm Springs area and 60 feet in the Palm Desert area of the upper Coachella Valley, Calif. Water from the Colorado River Aqueduct is presently being recharged to the basin. The dissolved-solids concentration of native ground water in the recharge area is about 210 mg/liter and that of recharge water ranges from 600 to 750 mg/liter. A finite-element model indicates that without recharge the 1974 water levels in the Palm Springs area will decline 200 feet by the year 2000 because of pumpage. If the aquifer is recharged at a rate from about 7 ,500 acre-feet per year in 1973 increasing to 61,200 acre-feet per year in 1990 and thereafter, the water level in the Palm Springs area will decline about 20 feet below the 1974 level by 1991 and recover to the 1974 level by 2000. The solute-transport finite-element model of the recharge area indicates that the artificial recharge plume (bounded by the 300-mg/liter line) will move about 1.1 miles downgradient of the recharge ponds by 1981 and about 4.5 miles from the ponds by 2000. (Woodard-USGS)

Swain, Lindsay A.

1978-01-01

20

Probability prediction of the Caspian sea level with consideration of the development of water-consuming industries in its basin  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the consequences for the Caspian Sea of the future economic and industrial development of the area and proposes a strategy for forecasting its continued existence from hydrological and meteorological standpoints as well as on the basis of projected water consumption by the industries moving into the area. Further strategies are put forth for resource management and conservation which are responsive to variations in the level of the sea and in the inflow from surrounding rivers and watersheds. Government policy toward development and utilization of the Caspian Sea over the past few years is also discussed.

Berezner, A.S.

1987-11-01

21

NOAA: About Water Levels, Tides and Currents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A comprehensive lesson on what causes tides, current and past techniques for predicting tides, how and why water level is measured, and the challenges of measuring water currents. Site provides additional links to other NOAA tide resources.

22

Tides and Water Levels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site serves as a gateway to three sections devoted to learning about tides and water levels: an online tutorial, an list of links to tidal resources, and formal lesson plans. The tutorial is an overview of the complex systems that govern the movement of tides and water levels. It is content rich, is presented in easy-to-understand language, and includes many illustrative and interactive graphics to visually enhance the text. The links direct users to specific tidal and current data offered within the National Ocean Service and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's family of products. Lesson plans integrate information presented in the tutorial with online data. These lesson plans have been developed for students in grades 9-12 and focus on the forces that cause and effect tides, analysis of the variations in tidal patterns and what conditions may cause them, and the effect of lunar cycles on living organisms.

23

Predicting wetland water storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual wetland model was developed to describe the interactions between a wetland, the surrounding catchment, and the local groundwater. Numerical evaluation of the wetland water balance was achieved by applying a bucket model. The model required little calibration and used physically based catchment properties and recorded climatic data sets. Model flexibility lends itself to application across a broad range

A. L. Krasnostein; C. E. Oldham

2004-01-01

24

PREDICTING FUTURE WATER DEMAND  

EPA Science Inventory

Decentralization within metropolitan areas has been a major aspect of population movement in the United States over the past two decades. The trend has great significance for all urban service activities. In particular, it affects water supply planning in urban areas. Both number...

25

Auto-tuned PID controller using a model predictive control method for the steam generator water level  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control gains are automatically tuned by using a model predictive control (MPC) method. The MPC has received much attention as a powerful tool for the control of industrial process systems. An MPC-based PID controller can be derived from the second-order linear model of a process. The steam generator is usually described by the well-known fourth-order

Man Gyun Na

2001-01-01

26

How predictable are water resources?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peter Mason, technical director of international dams and hydropower at MWH, explains how some water resources might be more predictable than generally supposed. Some years ago the writer examined the levels of Lake Victoria in east Africa as part of a major refurbishment project. This revealed a clear cyclic behavior in lake level and hence in discharges from the lake down the Nile system and up into Egypt. A recent study by the writer demonstrated that 20-year mean flows in the Kafue River in Zambia corresponded well to reconstructed rainfall records based on regional tree ring records. The Rio Parana has a catchment area of 3,100,000km 2 and a mean stream flow of 21,300m 3/sec. In the wider context an improved understanding of apparent periodicities in the natural record would seem to offer at least one planning scenario to be considered in terms of investment and even for the long term planning of aid and famine relief.

Mason, P.

2010-10-01

27

Forecasting Water Levels for Lake Chad  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for predicting the low levels in Lake Chad and a statistical model for describing the probability of the low-level variations at various periods ahead are presented. The first model will assist in the planning of the agricultural operations one season in advance for schemes that rely on the lake water. The second provides the low levels on a

K. Guganesharajah; E. M. Shaw

1984-01-01

28

Prediction of the air-water partition coefficient for perfluoro-2-methyl-3-pentanone using high-level Gaussian-4 composite theoretical methods.  

PubMed

The air-water partition coefficient (Kaw) of perfluoro-2-methyl-3-pentanone (PFMP) was estimated using the G4MP2/G4 levels of theory and the SMD solvation model. A suite of 31 fluorinated compounds was employed to calibrate the theoretical method. Excellent agreement between experimental and directly calculated Kaw values was obtained for the calibration compounds. The PCM solvation model was found to yield unsatisfactory Kaw estimates for fluorinated compounds at both levels of theory. The HENRYWIN Kaw estimation program also exhibited poor Kaw prediction performance on the training set. Based on the resulting regression equation for the calibration compounds, the G4MP2-SMD method constrained the estimated Kaw of PFMP to the range 5-8 × 10(-6) M atm(-1). The magnitude of this Kaw range indicates almost all PFMP released into the atmosphere or near the land-atmosphere interface will reside in the gas phase, with only minor quantities dissolved in the aqueous phase as the parent compound and/or its hydrate/hydrate conjugate base. Following discharge into aqueous systems not at equilibrium with the atmosphere, significant quantities of PFMP will be present as the dissolved parent compound and/or its hydrate/hydrate conjugate base. PMID:24967555

Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

2014-09-19

29

Intelligent modeling of urban water supply prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

To reduce energy and water, water supply company need estimate future water consumption according to the record of daily water supply, and best arrange future production planning and control, water consumption is uncertainty and is strong non-linear time series, water consumption prediction estimation is more concerned by academics, it is predicted through various methods, multiple regression analysis and gray forecast

Yangu Zhang; Yanlin Zhang

2010-01-01

30

Water Level Gauge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to an improved device for measuring liquid levels and specifically provides a pair of capacitance probes, one of which is coated with a dielectric material, positioned in a stilling well which is coupled to a conical housing...

N. H. Rector

1974-01-01

31

Coastal Water Optical Properties Prediction Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Remote sensing concepts were evaluated for providing initial conditions to the Coastal Water Clarity predictive model. The most important water physical properties that strongly influence water optical properties are the concentrations of chlorophyll, sed...

D. Leonard T. Driscoll P. Titterton

1995-01-01

32

Incorporating observational uncertainties more explicitly within GLUE: Examples using the rainfall-runoff model Dynamic TOPMODEL including predictions of fuzzy water table levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) procedure is underpinned by the equifinality thesis. This thesis maintains that for a given modelling problem, errors associated with the model structure and the observational data result in multiple acceptable representations that cannot be easily rejected and that should be considered in assessing the uncertainty associated with predictions. In this form errors in fitting observations are then treated as 'measurement error', even though the total model error derives from many different sources and is often larger than any conceivable real measurement error. An alternative approach is proposed, as a more rigorous implementation of the GLUE methodology. Arguments are developed to define an effective observation error, prior to the application of the model. The effective observation error may need to account for scale, heterogeneity, non-stationary error properties and other sources of incommensurability between model output variables and observables. Models that then fall outside of this allowable range are rejected. Models that fall inside the allowable range are used in prediction. The effects of input error, model structural error and effective observation error can, in principle, be separated. This modified GLUE approach is explored with examples using the rainfall-runoff model Dynamic TOPMODEL applied to discharge and fuzzy estimates of water table depths for 2 locations at Maimai catchment, New Zealand. The results have implications for how we, as modellers, consider observational uncertainties in the assessment of our model predictions.

Freer, J.

2004-12-01

33

Computer program to predict aircraft noise levels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting the noise contributions from various aircraft noise sources were programmed to predict aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground tests. The noise sources include fan inlet and exhaust, jet, flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine, and airframe. Noise propagation corrections are available for atmospheric attenuation, ground reflections, extra ground attenuation, and shielding. Outputs can include spectra, overall sound pressure level, perceived noise level, tone-weighted perceived noise level, and effective perceived noise level at locations specified by the user. Footprint contour coordinates and approximate footprint areas can also be calculated. Inputs and outputs can be in either System International or U.S. customary units. The subroutines for each noise source and propagation correction are described. A complete listing is given.

Clark, B. J.

1981-01-01

34

Blood gene expression signatures predict exposure levels  

PubMed Central

To respond to potential adverse exposures properly, health care providers need accurate indicators of exposure levels. The indicators are particularly important in the case of acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication, the leading cause of liver failure in the U.S. We hypothesized that gene expression patterns derived from blood cells would provide useful indicators of acute exposure levels. To test this hypothesis, we used a blood gene expression data set from rats exposed to APAP to train classifiers in two prediction algorithms and to extract patterns for prediction using a profiling algorithm. Prediction accuracy was tested on a blinded, independent rat blood test data set and ranged from 88.9% to 95.8%. Genomic markers outperformed predictions based on traditional clinical parameters. The expression profiles of the predictor genes from the patterns extracted from the blood exhibited remarkable (97% accuracy) transtissue APAP exposure prediction when liver gene expression data were used as a test set. Analysis of human samples revealed separation of APAP-intoxicated patients from control individuals based on blood expression levels of human orthologs of the rat discriminatory genes. The major biological signal in the discriminating genes was activation of an inflammatory response after exposure to toxic doses of APAP. These results support the hypothesis that gene expression data from peripheral blood cells can provide valuable information about exposure levels, well before liver damage is detected by classical parameters. It also supports the potential use of genomic markers in the blood as surrogates for clinical markers of potential acute liver damage.

Bushel, P. R.; Heinloth, A. N.; Li, J.; Huang, L.; Chou, J. W.; Boorman, G. A.; Malarkey, D. E.; Houle, C. D.; Ward, S. M.; Wilson, R. E.; Fannin, R. D.; Russo, M. W.; Watkins, P. B.; Tennant, R. W.; Paules, R. S.

2007-01-01

35

Forecasting Water Levels for Lake Chad  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model for predicting the low levels in Lake Chad and a statistical model for describing the probability of the low-level variations at various periods ahead are presented. The first model will assist in the planning of the agricultural operations one season in advance for schemes that rely on the lake water. The second provides the low levels on a probabilistic basis and can be used to measure the risk involved in selecting various abstraction levels of water from the lake during the proposed life span of the projects, and this is also a particularly useful aid in the economic and planning studies for future developments. The probabilistic model is based on the Markov chain process applied to two statistical models of the main input variable (the runoff from the River Chari); the first assuming the annual discharges to be random and the second incorporating significant cyclical components, although determined from inadequate data, and a large stochastic component.

Guganesharajah, K.; Shaw, E. M.

1984-08-01

36

Method for steam generator water level measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a nuclear power plant, a method of controlling the steam generator water level, wherein the steam generator has an upper level tap corresponding to an upper level, a lower level, a riser positioned between the lower and upper taps, and level sensor means for indicating water level between a first range limit and a second range limit,

Srinivasan

1991-01-01

37

Satellite Water Impurity Marker (SWIM) for predicting seasonal cholera outbreaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prediction of outbreaks of cholera, a deadly water related disease, remains elusive. Since coastal brackish water provides a natural ecological niche for cholera bacteria and because a powerful evidence of new biotypes is emerging, it is highly unlikely that cholera will be fully eradicated. Therefore, it is necessary to develop cholera prediction model with several months' of lead time. Satellite based estimates of chlorophyll, a surrogate for phytoplankton abundance, has been associated with proliferation of cholera bacteria. However, survival of cholera bacteria in a variety of coastal ecological environment put constraints on predictive abilities of chlorophyll algorithm since it only measures greenness in coastal waters. Here, we propose a new remote sensing reflectance based statistical index: Satellite Water Impurity Marker, or SWIM. This statistical index estimates impurity levels in the coastal waters and is based on the variability observed in the difference between the blue (412nm) and green (555nm) wavelengths in coastal waters. The developed index is bounded between clear and impure water and shows the ability to predict cholera outbreaks in the Bengal Delta with a predicted r2 of 78% with two months lead time. We anticipate that a predictive system based on SWIM will provide essential lead time allowing effective intervention and mitigation strategies to be developed for other cholera endemic regions of the world.

Jutla, A. S.; Akanda, A. S.; Islam, S.

2011-12-01

38

Blind prediction of interfacial water positions in CAPRI.  

PubMed

We report the first assessment of blind predictions of water positions at protein-protein interfaces, performed as part of the critical assessment of predicted interactions (CAPRI) community-wide experiment. Groups submitting docking predictions for the complex of the DNase domain of colicin E2 and Im2 immunity protein (CAPRI Target 47), were invited to predict the positions of interfacial water molecules using the method of their choice. The predictions-20 groups submitted a total of 195 models-were assessed by measuring the recall fraction of water-mediated protein contacts. Of the 176 high- or medium-quality docking models-a very good docking performance per se-only 44% had a recall fraction above 0.3, and a mere 6% above 0.5. The actual water positions were in general predicted to an accuracy level no better than 1.5 Å, and even in good models about half of the contacts represented false positives. This notwithstanding, three hotspot interface water positions were quite well predicted, and so was one of the water positions that is believed to stabilize the loop that confers specificity in these complexes. Overall the best interface water predictions was achieved by groups that also produced high-quality docking models, indicating that accurate modelling of the protein portion is a determinant factor. The use of established molecular mechanics force fields, coupled to sampling and optimization procedures also seemed to confer an advantage. Insights gained from this analysis should help improve the prediction of protein-water interactions and their role in stabilizing protein complexes. PMID:24155158

Lensink, Marc F; Moal, Iain H; Bates, Paul A; Kastritis, Panagiotis L; Melquiond, Adrien S J; Karaca, Ezgi; Schmitz, Christophe; van Dijk, Marc; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Eisenstein, Miriam; Jiménez-García, Brian; Grosdidier, Solène; Solernou, Albert; Pérez-Cano, Laura; Pallara, Chiara; Fernández-Recio, Juan; Xu, Jianqing; Muthu, Pravin; Praneeth Kilambi, Krishna; Gray, Jeffrey J; Grudinin, Sergei; Derevyanko, Georgy; Mitchell, Julie C; Wieting, John; Kanamori, Eiji; Tsuchiya, Yuko; Murakami, Yoichi; Sarmiento, Joy; Standley, Daron M; Shirota, Matsuyuki; Kinoshita, Kengo; Nakamura, Haruki; Chavent, Matthieu; Ritchie, David W; Park, Hahnbeom; Ko, Junsu; Lee, Hasup; Seok, Chaok; Shen, Yang; Kozakov, Dima; Vajda, Sandor; Kundrotas, Petras J; Vakser, Ilya A; Pierce, Brian G; Hwang, Howook; Vreven, Thom; Weng, Zhiping; Buch, Idit; Farkash, Efrat; Wolfson, Haim J; Zacharias, Martin; Qin, Sanbo; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Huang, Shen-You; Zou, Xiaoqin; Wojdyla, Justyna A; Kleanthous, Colin; Wodak, Shoshana J

2014-04-01

39

Incorporating observational uncertainties more explicitly within GLUE: Examples using the rainfall-runoff model Dynamic TOPMODEL including predictions of fuzzy water table levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) procedure is underpinned by the equifinality thesis. This thesis maintains that for a given modelling problem, errors associated with the model structure and the observational data result in multiple acceptable representations that cannot be easily rejected and that should be considered in assessing the uncertainty associated with predictions. In this form errors in fitting

J. Freer

2004-01-01

40

Predicting Trihalomethanes (THMs) in the New York City Water Supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chlorine, a commonly used disinfectant in most water supply systems, can combine with organic carbon to form disinfectant byproducts including carcinogenic trihalomethanes (THMs). We used water quality data from 24 monitoring sites within the New York City (NYC) water supply distribution system, measured between January 2009 and April 2012, to develop site-specific empirical models for predicting total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels. Terms in the model included various combinations of the following water quality parameters: total organic carbon, pH, specific conductivity, and water temperature. Reasonable estimates of TTHM levels were achieved with overall R2 of about 0.87 and predicted values within 5 ?g/L of measured values. The relative importance of factors affecting TTHM formation was estimated by ranking the model regression coefficients. Site-specific models showed improved model performance statistics compared to a single model for the entire system most likely because the single model did not consider locational differences in the water treatment process. Although never out of compliance in 2011, the TTHM levels in the water supply increased following tropical storms Irene and Lee with 45% of the samples exceeding the 80 ?g/L Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) in October and November. This increase was explained by changes in water quality parameters, particularly by the increase in total organic carbon concentration and pH during this period.

Mukundan, R.; Van Dreason, R.

2013-12-01

41

PREDICTING ATTENUATION OF VIRUSES IN PERCOLATING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A new screening model developed by EPA can be used to predict the fate of viruses in percolating water. The model can be used even when limited information is available, provided the user is willing to accept the quality and quantity of the data at hand. We present a simple GIS...

42

Application of TDR to water level measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A specialised time domain reflectometry (TDR) probe for measuring water level in tanks collecting surface runoff was developed, calibrated and field-tested. The water level probe — in the form of a slightly modified soil moisture probe — was developed as part of a TDR measuring system designed for continuous monitoring of soil water content and surface runoff in plot studies

A. Thomsen; B Hansen; K Schelde

2000-01-01

43

Prediction uncertainty in basin-scale predictions of water quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upward trends in dissolved solids are occurring in some wells, ranging in depth from 100 to 1,250 feet, in the basin-fill aquifer in Salt Lake Valley, Utah. Possible sources and constituents of dissolved solids include mineral dissolution in native and recently recharged water (calcium, sulfate, and bicarbonate), surface water concentrated by evaporation (sodium and chloride), and application of road de-icing chemicals (sodium and chloride). A groundwater simulation model is being used to understand the trends. Model parameters are optimized using nonlinear regression to match tritium concentrations in samples from public-supply wells. Tritium is considered here to be conservative and non-sorbing, whereas dissolved solid chemistry is probably more complex. The migration of atmospheric tritium through the area where dissolved solids trends are observed provides some information on groundwater velocity in the area of interest. The effect of model cell size on accuracy of tritium concentration predictions is tested. In this case, a coarse model grid may be sufficient to understand the causes of the trends. The simulation strategy is to use an existing calibrated groundwater flow model with parameters (hydraulic conductivity, storativity, and boundary fluxes) regularized at previously calibrated values. An advective transport simulation of tritium, observed at 135 well locations (many of which were sampled multiple times), was calibrated by optimizing porosity parameter values regularized using pilot points. Two models are tested-a single porosity domain and a dual porosity domain with mass transfer. Sensitivity of the model parameters is affected by the model structure (large grid cells), model conceptualization (porosity domains), and data quality (locations and times of samples). Prediction uncertainty is assessed using a Monte Carlo simulation, and a comparison of the results for the two models indicates that parameter estimates are affected by real and numerical dispersion, particularly in the dual-domain porosity simulations, where the additional parameters can mimic the effect of dispersion. The multiple ways of simulating (or ignoring) dispersion affects parameter estimates, parameter uncertainty, and prediction uncertainty. Although prediction uncertainty can be high, a simplified interpretation of the model helps explain the trends in dissolved solids.

Starn, J. J.; Green, C. T.

2011-12-01

44

Installing Water-Level Monitoring Gage  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Installing a water-level monitoring gage, Coosawattee River, Georgia. Two USGS workers installing a "stilling well"s, which is a major component of most systems used to monitor stream stage (gage height). The pipe is placed vertically into the stream and the level of the water in the pipe is co...

2008-12-04

45

Water Level Measurement Network Computer File.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computer system has been developed to manage the water level measurement network used for hydrologic studies of specific plant areas and the region. Water level data for 150 wells has been entered with a time span ranging from one to 20 years of monthly...

C. W. Krapp L. D. McClain

1982-01-01

46

Water Level Measuring Network Design and Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yangtze River model was constructed to study the flood evolution in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River. To automatically measure and dynamically track the water level in the river model, water level meter was designed. An optical scale with 1um resolution was used as a position detection sensor; the optical scale output signals were processed and then

Xiwei Yang; Minyi Ke; Yonghui Chen; Hao Li; Jianzhou Liu; Tianxiao Yang

2010-01-01

47

Water level measurement network computer file  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer system has been developed to manage the water level measurement network used for hydrologic studies of specific plant areas and the region. Water level data for 150 wells has been entered with a time span ranging from one to 20 years of monthly measurements. Using the flexibility of the Statistical Analysis System (SAS), the data can be retrieved

C. W. Krapp; L. D. McClain

1982-01-01

48

Two-level adaptive training branch prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-performance microarchitectures use, among other structures, deep pipelines to help speed up exe- cution. The importance of a good branch predictor to the effectiveness of a deep pipeline in the presence of condi- tional branches is well-known. In fact, the literature contains proposals for a number of branch prediction schemes. Some are static in that they use opcode information and

Tse-Yu Yeh; Yale N. Patt

1991-01-01

49

Water Levels on the Great Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource explains that water levels are part of the ebb and flow of nature and the difference between the amount of water coming into a lake and the amount going out is the determining factor in whether the water level will rise, fall or remain stable. Students will learn that there are three types of water level fluctuations: short-term changes due to winds or changes in barometric pressure, seasonal changes depending on evaporation and precipitations, and long-term changes due to successive years of weather aberrations. Textual information is accompanied by graphs that illustrate these changes. The site also includes information about methods of measuring water levels and the economic impact of the changing levels.

50

Predicting DNA methylation level across human tissues  

PubMed Central

Differences in methylation across tissues are critical to cell differentiation and are key to understanding the role of epigenetics in complex diseases. In this investigation, we found that locus-specific methylation differences between tissues are highly consistent across individuals. We developed a novel statistical model to predict locus-specific methylation in target tissue based on methylation in surrogate tissue. The method was evaluated in publicly available data and in two studies using the latest IlluminaBeadChips: a childhood asthma study with methylation measured in both peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and lymphoblastoid cell lines; and a study of postoperative atrial fibrillation with methylation in PBL, atrium and artery. We found that our method can greatly improve accuracy of cross-tissue prediction at CpG sites that are variable in the target tissue [R2 increases from 0.38 (original R2 between tissues) to 0.89 for PBL-to-artery prediction; from 0.39 to 0.95 for PBL-to-atrium; and from 0.81 to 0.98 for lymphoblastoid cell line-to-PBL based on cross-validation, and confirmed using cross-study prediction]. An extended model with multiple CpGs further improved performance. Our results suggest that large-scale epidemiology studies using easy-to-access surrogate tissues (e.g. blood) could be recalibrated to improve understanding of epigenetics in hard-to-access tissues (e.g. atrium) and might enable non-invasive disease screening using epigenetic profiles.

Ma, Baoshan; Wilker, Elissa H.; Willis-Owen, Saffron A. G.; Byun, Hyang-Min; Wong, Kenny C. C.; Motta, Valeria; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Schwartz, Joel; Cookson, William O. C. M.; Khabbaz, Kamal; Mittleman, Murray A.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Liang, Liming

2014-01-01

51

Ground-water levels in observation wells in Oklahoma, 1975  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The objectives of the observation-well program are (1) to provide long-term records of water-level fluctuations in representative wells, (2) to facilitate the prediction of water-level trends and indicate the future availability of ground-water supplies, and (3) to provide information for use in basic research. These selected records serve as a framework to which other types of hydrologic data may be related. The stratigraphic nomenclature and age determinations used in this report are those accepted by the Oklahoma Geological Survey and do not necessarily agree with those of the U.S. Geological Survey.

Goemaat, Robert L.

1977-01-01

52

Is Cognitive Aging Predicted by Educational Level?  

PubMed Central

A higher educational level has consistently been associated with a lower incidence of dementia. However, in the current issue of the Journal, Glymour et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2012;175(8):750–759.) present findings that are in agreement with other research in showing a lack of association between educational level and cognitive decline in the elderly. These findings are not inconsistent with the hope, yet unproven, that persons might reduce their risk of dementia by engaging in cognitively stimulating activities.

Sharrett, A. Richey

2012-01-01

53

Information Fusion for High Level Situation Assessment and Prediction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final report for our AFOSR sponsored project: Information Fusion for High Level Situation Assessment and Prediction. Through this project, we developed a probabilistic framework for performing high level information fusion. In addition, we dev...

Q. Ji

2007-01-01

54

National wheat yield prediction of France as affected by the prediction level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study are to: (1) investigate the effects of the prediction level on the prediction accuracy of total national yield; (2) examine a prediction model, using a non-linear trend function, simulation results and a value for planted area; (3) compare two different methods to estimate global radiation and evaluate the prediction results established with these estimates. France

I Supit; E van der Goot

1999-01-01

55

Subtidal water level variation controlled by river flow and tides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subtidal water level dynamics in the Berau river, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, feature a pronounced fortnightly variation. The daily mean water levels at a station about 60 km from the sea are 0.2-0.6 m higher during spring tide than during neap tide. To explain the underlying mechanisms, a local subtidal momentum balance is set up from field data, using continuous discharge estimates inferred from measurements taken with a horizontal acoustic Doppler current profiler. It is demonstrated that terms accounting for friction and variation in the water surface gradient are dominant in the subtidal momentum balance. To further investigate the sources of subtidal water level variation, a generic method of analysis is proposed to decompose the subtidal friction term into contributions caused by river flow, by interaction between tidal motions and river flow, and by the tidal motions alone. At the station under study, mainly the river-tide interaction term is responsible for generating fortnightly variation of the subtidal water level. The contribution from interaction between diurnal, semidiurnal, and quarterdiurnal tides to subtidal friction is significantly smaller. Provided that the reduction of tidal velocity amplitudes with increasing discharges can be predicted from a regression model, the results presented herein can be used to predict changes in subtidal water levels as a result of increased river discharges.

Buschman, F. A.; Hoitink, A. J. F.; van der Vegt, M.; Hoekstra, P.

2009-10-01

56

Defect level prediction for newly designed Printed Circuit Board Assemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a new defect level prediction tool is presented, which is intended for newly designed printed circuit board assemblies, especially for the PCBAs (printed circuit board assembly) determined for automotive industry. The tool is programmed in Visual Basic for Application (VBA) and can be operated in MS Excel environment. On the one hand, the defect level prediction tool

R. Soukup

2009-01-01

57

Water level detection using a numerical camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrometric measurement system using a numerical video camera is presented. This system can feed the manager with images of the flood in real-time, which is an efficient way to assess the flood hazard. In the same time, detection algorithm are performed on the images of the video camera to get two additional informations: the water level and the water

G. Fourquet; G. M. Saulnier

2003-01-01

58

The University of Minnesota Pathway Prediction System: multi-level prediction and visualization  

PubMed Central

The University of Minnesota Pathway Prediction System (UM-PPS, http://umbbd.msi.umn.edu/predict/) is a rule-based system that predicts microbial catabolism of organic compounds. Currently, its knowledge base contains 250 biotransformation rules and five types of metabolic logic entities. The original UM-PPS predicted up to two prediction levels at a time. Users had to choose a predicted product to continue the prediction. This approach provided a limited view of prediction results and heavily relied on manual intervention. The new UM-PPS produces a multi-level prediction within an acceptable time frame, and allows users to view prediction alternatives much more easily as a directed acyclic graph.

Gao, Junfeng; Ellis, Lynda B. M.; Wackett, Lawrence P.

2011-01-01

59

Great Lakes Water Level Statistical Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every day, important decisions are made regarding activities affected by variations in water levels and flows on the Great Lakes. These involve large-scale issues, such as lake-level control or land-use regulation, as well as local issues, such as siting ...

D. H. Lee

1993-01-01

60

Predictability of charmonium levels from a range of good fits  

SciTech Connect

A QCD-motivated potential with five parameters and a cutoff on high virtual momentum is used in a relativistic bound-state equation to examine the predictive power of valence quark potential models by computing fits to the seven well-established charmonium levels. The predictions of potential models are really ranges for new levels given by the ranges of parameters that give good fits to established levels, rather than the single best fit. The range of parameters that give good fits is presented in three-dimensional plots by isosurfaces of fits with fixed theoretical standard deviations in energy from the known levels. Next, for each value of a predicted splitting we show the minimum deviation found over all the fits that lead to that value of splitting. We also show correlations between predictions by finding for each pair of values for two predictions the mininum deviation among the fits that give those predicted values, and making contour plots. For the [sup 1][ital P][sub 1-][sup 3][ital P][sub c.g.] splitting we find the predictions to cover a range of several MeV both positive and negative. A correlation of the spin-spin [sup 1][ital P][sub 1]-[sup 3][ital P][sub c.g.] splitting with the similar [psi][prime]-[eta][sub [ital c

Silverman, D.; Altshuler, E. (Department of Physics, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California 92717 (United States))

1993-09-01

61

Water level simulation in bays by spatial interpolation of tidal constituents, residual water levels, and datums  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method of simulating total water level relative to a datum takes values at the tide gauges and spatially interpolates them throughout the region. The values at the gauges which are spatially interpolated are: (1) each tidal constituent's amplitude and (2) phase value; (3) the residual, or non-tidal, water level; and (4) the offset, which is either the difference

Kurt Hess

2003-01-01

62

Hydro Static Water Level Systems at Fermilab.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several Hydrostatic Water Leveling systems (HLS) are in use at Fermilab. Three systems are used to monitor quadrupoles in the Tevatron and two systems are used to monitor ground motion for potential sites for the International Linear Collider (ILC). All s...

H. Jostlein J. A. Guerra J. T. Volk S. U. Hansen T. E. Kiper

2006-01-01

63

Hydro static water level systems at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

Several Hydrostatic Water Leveling systems (HLS) are in use at Fermilab. Three systems are used to monitor quadrupoles in the Tevatron and two systems are used to monitor ground motion for potential sites for the International Linear Collider (ILC). All systems use capacitive sensors to determine the water level of water in a pool. These pools are connected with tubing so that relative vertical shifts between sensors can be determined. There are low beta quadrupoles at the B0 and D0 interaction regions of Tevatron accelerator. These quadrupoles use BINP designed and built sensors and have a resolution of 1 micron. All regular lattice superconducting quadrupoles (a total of 204) in the Tevatron use a Fermilab designed system and have a resolution of 6 microns. Data on quadrupole motion due to quenches, changes in temperature will be presented. In addition data for ground motion for ILC studies caused by natural and cultural factors will be presented.

Volk, J.T.; Guerra, J.A.; Hansen, S.U.; Kiper, T.E.; Jostlein, H.; Shiltsev, V.; Chupyra, A.; Kondaurov, M.; Singatulin, S.

2006-09-01

64

Fuzzy Neural Networks for water level and discharge forecasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new procedure for water level (or discharge) forecasting under uncertainty using artificial neural networks is proposed: uncertainty is expressed in the form of a fuzzy number. For this purpose, the parameters of the neural network, namely, the weights and biases, are represented by fuzzy numbers rather than crisp numbers. Through the application of the extension principle, the fuzzy number representative of the output variable (water level or discharge) is then calculated at each time step on the basis of a set of crisp inputs and fuzzy parameters of the neural network. The proposed neural network thus allows uncertainty to be taken into account at the forecasting stage not providing only deterministic or crisp predictions, but rather predictions in terms of 'the discharge (or level) will fall between two values, indicated according to the level of credibility considered, whereas it will take on a certain value when the level of credibility is maximum'. The fuzzy parameters of the neural network are estimated using a calibration procedure that imposes a constraint whereby for an assigned h-level the envelope of the corresponding intervals representing the outputs (forecasted levels or discharges, calculated at different points in time) must include a prefixed percentage of observed values. The proposed model is applied to two different case studies. Specifically, the data related to the first case study are used to develop and test a flood event-based water level forecasting model, whereas the data related to the latter are used for continuous discharge forecasting. The results obtained are compared with those provided by other data-driven models - Bayesian neural networks (Neal, R.M. 1992, Bayesian training of backpropagation networks by the hybrid Monte Carlo method. Tech. Rep. CRG-TR-92-1, Dep. of Comput. Sci., Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., Canada.) and the Local Uncertainty Estimation Model (Shrestha D.L. and Solomatine D.P. 2006, Machine learning approaches for estimation of prediction interval for the model output. Neural Networks, 19(2), 225-235.). The comparison shows the effectiveness of the fuzzy neural network forecasting model in estimating water levels or discharges under uncertainty. In particular, the fuzzy neural network enables us to define bands that describe, for an assigned h-level, the range of variability of the predicted variable. An analysis of the results obtained reveals that these bands generally have a slightly smaller width compared to the bands obtained using other data-driven models, the percentage of observed values contained within the bands being equal.

Alvisi, Stefano; Franchini, Marco

2010-05-01

65

Predicting stream water quality using artificial neural networks (ANN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicting point and nonpoint source runoff of dissolved and suspended materials into their receiving streams is important to protecting water quality and traditionally has been modeled using deterministic or statistical methods. The purpose of this study was to predict water quality in small streams using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The selected input variables were local precipitation, stream flow rates

2000-01-01

66

GNSS-Reflectometry based water level monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to climate changing conditions severe changes in the Mekong delta in Vietnam have been recorded in the last years. The goal of the German Vietnamese WISDOM (Water-related Information system for the Sustainable Development Of the Mekong Delta) project is to build an information system to support and assist the decision makers, planners and authorities for an optimized water and land management. One of WISDOM's tasks is the flood monitoring of the Mekong delta. Earth reflected L-band signals from the Global Navigation Satellite System show a high reflectivity on water and ice surfaces or on wet soil so that GNSS-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) could contribute to monitor the water level in the main streams of the Mekong delta complementary to already existing monitoring networks. In principle, two different GNSS-R methods exist: the code- and the phase-based one. As the latter being more accurate, a new generation of GORS (GNSS Occultation, Reflectometry and Scatterometry) JAVAD DELTA GNSS receiver has been developed with the aim to extract precise phase observations. In a two week lasting measurement campaign, the receiver has been tested and several reflection events at the 150-200 m wide Can Tho river in Vietnam have been recorded. To analyze the geometrical impact on the quantity and quality of the reflection traces two different antennas height were tested. To track separately the direct and the reflected signal, two antennas were used. To derive an average height of the water level, for a 15 min observation interval, a phase model has been developed. Combined with the coherent observations, the minimum slope has been calculated based on the Least- Squares method. As cycle slips and outliers will impair the results, a preprocessing of the data has been performed. A cycle slip detection strategy that allows for automatic detection, identification and correction is proposed. To identify outliers, the data snooping method developed by Baarda 1968 is used. In this context, issues related to the stochastic modeling of GPS observations are addressed and a first model is proposed. First results of water level derivation with precisions below decimeter level are presented. These results could then be used as an approximation for the next computation step: the ambiguities fixing.

Beckheinrich, Jamila; Schön, Steffen; Beyerle, Georg; Apel, Heiko; Semmling, Maximilian; Wickert, Jens

2013-04-01

67

Predicting and understanding home garden water use  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is now substantial literature describing the importance of home gardens for a variety of quality of life variables such as avoidance of stress, recreation and personal and social identity. From a water resource management perspective it is reasonable to hypothesise that those households that gain the most personal benefits from their gardens will use more water. Consideration of the

Geoffrey J. Syme; Quanxi Shao; Murni Po; Eddy Campbell

2004-01-01

68

January 2000 Kansas Water Levels and Data Related to Water-level Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Water levels measured,in January 2002 generally showed,slightly fewer declines and slightly fewer rises than those measured in January 2001, except in the south- central region, where slightly more declines were observed. The 2002 measurements (a total of 1,370 in all) showed an average water-level decline of 0.91 ft (27.7 cm) for the 2001-2002 period compared,to an average decline of

John J. Woods; Jeffrey A. Schloss; P. Allen Macfarlane

2000-01-01

69

Prediction of equilibrium adsorption of water onto activated carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In applications such as VOC removal from humid air streams and steam regeneration of activated carbon, adsorption of water vapor has been encountered. The equilibrium adsorption of water onto activated carbon is a frequently encountered phenomenon in the industrial operation of adsorbers. This situation highlights a need for a method of prediction of equilibrium adsorption of water onto activated carbon

Madhusudhan Huggahalli; James R. Fair

1996-01-01

70

AUTOMATED WATER LEVEL MEASUREMENTS IN SMALL-DIAMETER AQUIFER TUBES  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium, strontium-90, and uranium discharges into the Columbia River along approximately 16 km (10 mi) of the shoreline. Various treatment systems have and will continue to be implemented to eliminate the impact of Hanford Site contamination to the river. To optimize the various remediation strategies, it is important to understand interactions between groundwater and the surface water of the Columbia River. An automated system to record water levels in aquifer sampling tubes installed in the hyporheic zone was designed and tested to (1) gain a more complete understanding of groundwater/river water interactions based on gaining and losing conditions ofthe Columbia River, (2) record and interpret data for consistent and defensible groundwater/surface water conceptual models that may be used to better predict subsurface contaminant fate and transport, and (3) evaluate the hydrodynamic influence of extraction wells in an expanded pump-and-treat system to optimize the treatment system. A system to measure water levels in small-diameter aquifer tubes was designed and tested in the laboratory and field. The system was configured to allow manual measurements to periodically calibrate the instrument and to permit aquifer tube sampling without removing the transducer tube. Manual measurements were collected with an e-tape designed and fabricated especially for this test. Results indicate that the transducer system accurately records groundwater levels in aquifer tubes. These data are being used to refine the conceptual and numeric models to better understand interactions in the hyporheic zone of the Columbia River and the adjacent river water and groundwater, and changes in hydrochemistry relative to groundwater flux as river water recharges the aquifer and then drains back out in response to changes in the river level.

PETERSEN SW; EDRINGTON RS; MAHOOD RO; VANMIDDLESWORTH PE

2011-01-14

71

Alternative implementations of two-level adaptive branch prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the issue rate and depth of pipelining of high performance Superscalar processors increase, the importance of an excellent branch predictor becomes more vital to delivering the potential performance of a wide-issue, deep pipelined microarchitecture. We propose a new dynamic branch predictor (Two-Level Adaptive Branch Prediction) that achieves substantially higher accuracy than any other scheme reported in the literature. The

Tse-Yu Yeh; Yale N. Patt

1992-01-01

72

The response of mire vegetation to water level drawdown  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mires have a significant role in climate change mitigation due to their enormous carbon storage and due to the fluxes of greenhouse gases between ecosystem and the atmosphere. Mire vegetation is controlled by ecohydrology, climate and by the competition of plants on light and nutrients. The water logged conditions create a challenging environment for both vascular plants and bryophytes; therefore majority of plants growing in these habitats are highly specialized. Global warming is predicted to affect mire vegetation indirectly through increased evapotranspiration leading to decreased water table levels down to 14-22 centimeters. Water level drawdown is likely to affect the vegetation composition and consequently the ecosystem functioning of mires. Previous studies covering the first years following water table level drawdown have shown that vascular plants benefit from a lower water table and hollow-specific Sphagnum species suffer. In addition to changes in plant abundances the diversity of plant communities decreases. The lawn and hollow communities of Sphagna and sedges are found to be the most sensitive plant groups. It has been shown that surveys on vegetation changes can have different results depending on the time scale. The short and long term responses are likely vary in heterogenous mire vegetation; therefore predictions can be done more reliably with longer surveys. We applied BACI (before-after-control-impact) experimental approach to study the responses of different functional mire plant groups to water level drawdown. There are 3 control plots, 3 treatment plots with moderate water level drawdown and 3 plots drained for forestry 40 years ago as a reference. The plots are located in meso-, oligo- and ombrotrophic sites in Lakkasuo (Orivesi, Finland). The vegetation was surveyed from permanent sampling points before ditching in 2000 and during the years 2001-2003 and 2009. The data was analyzed with NMDS (PC-Ord) and DCA (CANOCO). Overall results show that the control and treatment plots were similar before the treatment which is crucial in studies conducted with BACI- experimental design. The vegetation composition in the varied between the years also in the control plots following variation in weather conditions, i.e., growing season temperature and precipitation. The year 2003 stood out with lowest water table levels and with highest coverage of the evergreen vascular plants in all plots. By 2009 there was a dramatic decrease in sedge species cover. There seems to be more changes in bryophyte cover in mesotrophic sites than in ombrotrophic ones. Especially lawn-specific Sphagnum responded to water level drawdown. To quantify the impact of water level drawdown for different plant groups we used Principal Response Curves (CANOCO). Results show that all plant groups have a different short and long term response to water level drawdown. The first three years after ditching appeared to be a disturbance state. Only after that the vegetation started to adapt to the lowered water table conditions.

Kurki, Kirsi; Laine, Jukka; Vasander, Harri; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

2010-05-01

73

Performance prediction of CIAS solar water heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation program has been developed for Changi International Airport Services (CIAS) solar heating system and predicted results are compared with observed performance. The solar system consists of energy collection and storage device, heat exchangers, air cooling units, and auxiliary heaters. Established engineering principles have been used for the simulation of the components, and the meteorological data have been used

M. N. A. Hawlader; K. C. Ng; T. T. Chandratilleke; H. L. Kelvin Koay

1988-01-01

74

Tides and Water Levels: What are Tides?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial is an overview of the complex systems that govern the movement of tides and water levels. The tutorial is content rich and presented in easy-to-understand language with many illustrative and interactive graphics to visually enhance the text. This page begins with what tides are while other linked pages cover What Causes Tides, Gravity, Inertia, and Bulges, Changing Angles and Tides, The Frequency of Tides, Tidal Variations, Types and Causes of Tidal Cycles, What Else Affects Tides, Monitoring the Tides, How are Tides Measured, and a page of references.

75

A technical development plan for a next generation water level measurement system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Ocean Service (NOS) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has statutory responsibility for tidal measurements, analyses, predictions, and datum determinations. To satisfy this responsibility, NOS maintains a network of 225 permanent tidal and water level measurement stations throughout the United States and its territories. This network is called the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). Because

Eugene M. Russin; D. Beaumariage; L. Deibel; B. Zumwalt

1985-01-01

76

On the robustness of predictions of sea level fingerprints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid melting of the Earth's ice reservoirs will produce geographically distinct patterns of sea level change that have come to be known as sea level fingerprints. A basic, gravitationally self-consistent theory for computing these patterns appeared in the 1970s; however, recent, highly discrepant fingerprint calculations have led to suggestions that the algorithms and/or theoretical implementation adopted in many previous predictions is not robust. We present a suite of numerical predictions, including benchmark comparisons with analytic results, that counter this argument and demonstrate the accuracy of most published predictions. Moreover, we show that small differences apparent in calculations published by some groups can be accounted for by subtle differences in the underlying physics. The paper concludes with two sensitivity analyses: (1) we present the first-ever calculation of sea level fingerprints on earth models with 3-D variations in elastic structure and density, and conclude that this added complexity has a negligible effect on the predictions; (2) we compare fingerprints of polar ice sheet mass flux computed under the (very common) assumption of a uniform melt distribution to fingerprints calculated using melt geometries constrained by analysing recent trends in GRACE gravity data. Predictions in the near field of the ice sheets are sensitive to the assumed melt geometry; however, this sensitivity also extends to the far field, particularly in the case of Antarctic mass changes, because of the strong dependence of the rotational feedback signal on the melt geometry. We conclude that inferences of ice sheet mass flux based on modern sea level constraints should consider these more realistic melt geometries.

Mitrovica, J. X.; Gomez, N.; Morrow, E.; Hay, C.; Latychev, K.; Tamisiea, M. E.

2011-11-01

77

Water Impact Prediction Tool for Recoverable Rockets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reusing components from a rocket launch can be cost saving. NASA's space shuttle system has reusable components that return to the Earth and impact the ocean. A primary example is the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) that descends on parachutes to the Earth after separation and impacts the ocean. Water impact generates significant structural loads that can damage the booster, so it is important to study this event in detail in the design of the recovery system. Some recent examples of damage due to water impact include the Ares I-X First Stage deformation as seen in Figure 1 and the loss of the SpaceX Falcon 9 First Stage.To ensure that a component can be recovered or that the design of the recovery system is adequate, an adequate set of structural loads is necessary for use in failure assessments. However, this task is difficult since there are many conditions that affect how a component impacts the water and the resulting structural loading that a component sees. These conditions include the angle of impact with respect to the water, the horizontal and vertical velocities, the rotation rate, the wave height and speed, and many others. There have been attempts to simulate water impact. One approach is to analyze water impact using explicit finite element techniques such as those employed by the LS-Dyna tool [1]. Though very detailed, this approach is time consuming and would not be suitable for running Monte Carlo or optimization analyses. The purpose of this paper is to describe a multi-body simulation tool that runs quickly and that captures the environments a component might see. The simulation incorporates the air and water interaction with the component, the component dynamics (i.e. modes and mode shapes), any applicable parachutes and lines, the interaction of winds and gusts, and the wave height and speed. It is capable of quickly conducting Monte Carlo studies to better capture the environments and genetic algorithm optimizations to reproduce a flight.

Rooker, William; Glaese, John; Clayton, Joe

2011-01-01

78

Prediction of Squat of Ships Sailing in Restricted Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are several methods for the determination of sinkage and trim of ships sailing in restricted water described in literature. Two main categories can be distinguished: methods which enable the designer to calculate the water-level depression and metho...

H. G. Blaauw F. M. C. van der Knaap

1983-01-01

79

County-Level Crop Yield Prediction Using Remote Sensing Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early estimates of crop yield, particularly at a fine scale, can inform precision agriculture efforts. The USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) currently provides estimates of yield on a monthly basis for each state. These estimates are based on phone interviews with farmers and in-situ examination of randomly selected plots. We seek to provide predictions at a much higher spatial resolution, on a more frequent basis, using remote sensing observations. We use publicly available data from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instruments on the Aqua and Terra spacecraft. These observations have a spatial resolution of 250 m and consist of two spectral bands (red and infra-red) with a repeat period of 8 days. As part of the HARVIST (Heterogeneous Agricultural Research Via Interactive, Scalable Technology) project, we have created statistical crop yield models using historical MODIS data combined with the per-county yield reported by the USDA at the end of the growing season. In our approach, we analyze 100 randomly selected historical pixels from each county to generate a yield prediction for the county as a whole. We construct a time series for each pixel that consists of its NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) value observed during each 8-day time period to date. We then cluster all pixels together to identify groups of distinct elements (different crops, bodies of water, urban areas, desert, etc.) and create a regression model for each one. For each crop of interest, the model that best predicts that crop's historical yield is selected. These models can then be applied to data from subsequent years to generate predictions for the future. We applied this approach to data from California and Kansas for corn and wheat. We found that, in general, the yield prediction error decreased as the harvest time approached. In California, distinctly different models were selected to predict corn and wheat, permitting specialization for each crop type. The best models from 2001 predicted yield for 2002 with a 10% (corn) and 23% (wheat) relative error three months before harvest. In Kansas, the 2001 models for corn and wheat were not well distinguished, providing good predictions for wheat (19% error three months before harvest) but poor predictions for corn (55% error three months before harvest). In post-analysis, we found that the 2001 pixel NDVI time series for Kansas are much more homogeneous than those for California, making it difficult to select crop-specific models. We are currently working on incorporating historical data from additional years, which will provide more diversity and potentially better predictions. We are also in the process of applying this technique to additional crops.

Wagstaff, K. L.; Roper, A.; Lane, T.

2007-12-01

80

MODELING AND PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF PELLET REACTORS FOR WATER SOFTENING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonlinear chemical\\/physical dynamic model in the form of partial difierential equations was adopted and further developed to serve as a basis for model predictive control of a pellet reactor for drinking water softening. The model was calibrated using full-scale process measurements. A linear predictive controller based on a lineralization of the model has been designed to achieve the desired

K. M. van Schagen; R. Babuska; L. C. Rietveld; J. Wuister; A. M. J. Veersma

81

Ground-water levels in observation wells in Oklahoma, 1961-62  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The investigation of the ground-water resources of Oklahoma by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board includes a continuing program to collect records of water levels in selected observation wells on a systematic basis. These water-level records: (1) provide an index to available ground-water supplies; (2) facilitate the prediction of trends in water levels that will indicate likely changes in storage; (3) aid in the prediction of the base flow of streams; (4) provide information for use in basic research; and (5) provide long-time continuous records of fluctuations of water levels in representative wells; and (6) serve as a framework to which other types of hydrologic data my be related. Prior to 1956, measurements of water levels in observation wells in Oklahoma were included in water-supply papers published annually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Beginning with the 1956 calendar year, however, Geological Survey water-level reports will contain only records of a selected network of observation wells, and will be published at 5-year intervals. The first of this series, for the 1956-59 period was published in 1962. This report has been prepared primarily to present water-level records of wells not included in the Federal network. However, for the sake of completeness it includes water-level records of Federal wells that either have been or will be published in water-supply papers since 1955. This report, which contains water-level records for the 2-year period (1960-62), is the second of a series presenting water-level records for all permanent observations wells in Oklahoma. The first report, published in 1963, contains water-level records for the 5-year period of (1956-60). (available as photostat copy only)

Wood, P. R.; Moeller, M. D.

1964-01-01

82

Predicting ground level impacts of solid rocket motor testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Beginning in August of 1988 and continuing until the present, NASA at Stennis Space Center, Mississippi has conducted environmental monitoring of selected static test firings of the solid rocket motor used on the Space Shuttle. The purpose of the study was to assess the modeling protocol adapted for use in predicting plume behavior for the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor that is to be tested in Mississippi beginning in the mid-1990's. Both motors use an aluminum/ammonium perchlorate fuel that produces HCl and Al2O3 particulates as the major combustion products of concern. A combination of COMBUS.sr and PRISE.sr subroutines and the INPUFF model are used to predict the centerline stabilization height, the maximum concentration of HCl and Al2O3 at ground level, and distance to maximum concentration. Ground studies were conducted to evaluate the ability of the model to make these predictions. The modeling protocol was found to be conservative in the prediction of plume stabilization height and in the concentrations of the two emission products predicted.

Douglas, Willard L.; Eagan, Ellen E.; Kennedy, Carolyn D.; Mccaleb, Rebecca C.

1993-01-01

83

Water quality prediction in a reservoir: Linguistic model approach for interval prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is difficult to predict water quality in a reservoir because of the complex physical, chemical, and biological processes\\u000a involved. In contrast to the well-known numeric models and artificial neural network models, Linguistic Models (LM) with context-based\\u000a fuzzy clustering can offer reliable predictions of water quality. The main characteristics of LM are that it is user-centric\\u000a and that it inherently

Jin-Il Park; Nahm-Chung Jung; Keun-Chang Kwak; Myung-Geun Chun

2010-01-01

84

Ecological changes and water level variation in Sélingué Reservoir (Mali)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sélingué is a monomictic reservoir in Mali (West Africa), featuring annual water level change up to 8 m. High waters occur from November, after the flood, while low waters occur from June, at the end of the dry season. Water level decrease is linked to environmental factors (marked hydrological pattern, both for flow and rains) and to human management of

R. Arfi

2003-01-01

85

Ground water level measurements using a segmented resistance sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground water level measurements are very important for a wide range of applications in geosciences, agriculture, environment monitoring and mining industry. Currently, reliable and automatic ground water level measurements have not been realized. This paper presents the simulation and design of a segmented resistance sensor for measuring ground water level. Based on this sensor design, we have developed an instrument

Xianhua Yao; Ying-mei Zhang; Lin Gao; Wuliang Yin; Juan Yang; Chao Wang

2009-01-01

86

County Level Assessment of Impaired Waters and Gastrointestinal Infections  

EPA Science Inventory

Water quality data are measured at a watershed level and health data are organized at different levels of aggregation therefore, assessing the population-level impact of water quality on health can be difficult. To address this discrepancy and enable the consideration of water ...

87

Recent and late quaternary changes in water level  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water level changes of both the Great Lakes and the sea are described along with methods of analyzing water level data. The influence of elastic deformation of the earth and viscosity is discussed. Causes of water level changes reviewed include: earth movements, geoid changes, storm surges or meteorological phenomena, and melting ice in Antarctica, Greenland, and the mountain glaciers.

Walcott, R. I.

1975-01-01

88

Predictive modelling of the mine water rebound in an old abandoned Dongwon mine in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The closure of over three-hundred deep coal mines in Korea since the late-1980s, primarily due to the energy and environmental concerns, has produced significant side effects. One of the major challenges is to assess the risk from mine water rebound to overlying aquifers and surface waters, which can produce significant environmental hazards. Some numerical models such as VSS-NET, GRAM and MODFLOW have been developed to predict the quantity, timing and location of discharges resulting from mine water rebound. In this study, we developed a GRAM-based windows program for mine water rebound modelling in abandoned deep mine systems. The program consists of the simulation engine and the GUI modules, each has several subroutines. Changes in mine water level of the Dongwon coal mine, presumably hydrogeologically connected to nearby old abandoned mines, has been monitored after the mine was finally closed in 2005. The water level in the vertical shaft rised up to 420m during the period of 3 years. The system was modelled as two ponds connected by a pipe. Input data include the areas of each pond, catchment areas, the storage coefficient, etc. The predicted changes in the mine water level was very similar to the observed data in the field. For this modelling, in fact, some of the input variable were roughly assumed to match the field data. Nevertheless, this program can be effectively applied to predict the rising of the mine water after the mine closure.

Baek, Hwanjo; Kim, Daehoon; Park, Seunghwan; Kim, Gyoungman

2014-05-01

89

Serum BDNF Levels Before Treatment Predict SSRI Response in Depression  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES The “neurotrophin hypothesis” of depression posits a role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in depression, although it is unknown whether BDNF is more involved in the etiology of depression or in the mechanism of action of antidepressants. . It is also unknown whether pre-treatment serum BDNF levels predict antidepressant response. METHODS Thirty un-medicated depressed subjects were treated with escitalopram (N=16) or sertraline (N=14) for eight weeks. Twenty-five of the depressed subjects completed 8 weeks of antidepressant treatment and had analyzable data. Twenty-eight healthy controls were also studied. Serum for BDNF assay was obtained at baseline in all subjects and after 8 weeks of treatment in the depressed subjects. Depression ratings were obtained at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment in the depressed subjects. RESULTS Pre-treatment BDNF levels were lower in the depressed subjects than the controls (p= 0.001) but were not significantly correlated with pre-treatment depression severity. Depression ratings improved with SSRI treatment (p< 0.001), and BDNF levels increased with treatment (p= 0.005). Changes in BDNF levels were not significantly correlated with changes in depression ratings. However, pre-treatment BDNF levels were directly correlated with antidepressant responses (p<0.01), and “Responders” to treatment (? 50% improvement in depression ratings) had higher pre-treatment BDNF levels than did “Non-responders” (p< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS These results confirm low serum BDNF levels in unmedicated depressed subjects and confirm antidepressant-induced increases in BDNF levels, but they suggest that antidepressants do not work simply by correcting BDNF insufficiency. Rather, these findings are consistent with a permissive or facilitatory role of BDNF in the mechanism of action of antidepressants.

Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Wolf, Jessica; Shelly, Wendy; Rosser, Rebecca; Burke, Heather; Lerner, George K.; Reus, Victor I.; Nelson, J. Craig; Epel, Elissa S.; Mellon, Synthia H.

2011-01-01

90

Cerebrospinal Fluid PKR Level Predicts Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the proapoptotic kinase R (PKR) and its phosphorylated PKR (pPKR) are increased in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but whether CSF PKR concentrations are associated with cognitive decline in AD patients remain unknown. In this study, 41 consecutive patients with AD and 11 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) from our Memory Clinic were included. A lumbar puncture was performed during the following month of the clinical diagnosis and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) evaluations were repeated every 6 months during a mean follow-up of 2 years. In AD patients, linear mixed models adjusted for age and sex were used to assess the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between MMSE scores and baseline CSF levels of A? peptide (A? 1-42), Tau, phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau 181), PKR and pPKR. The mean (SD) MMSE at baseline was 20.5 (6.1) and MMSE scores declined over the follow-up (-0.12 point/month, standard error [SE]?=?0.03). A lower MMSE at baseline was associated with lower levels of CSF A? 1–42 and p-Tau 181/Tau ratio. pPKR level was associated with longitudinal MMSE changes over the follow-up, higher pPKR levels being related with an exacerbated cognitive deterioration. Other CSF biomarkers were not associated with MMSE changes over time. In aMCI patients, mean CSF biomarker levels were not different in patients who converted to AD from those who did not convert.These results suggest that at the time of AD diagnosis, a higher level of CSF pPKR can predict a faster rate of cognitive decline.

Lapalus, Pauline; Prevot, Magali; Laplanche, Jean-Louis

2013-01-01

91

Plasma irisin levels predict telomere length in healthy adults.  

PubMed

The ageing process is strongly influenced by nutrient balance, such that modest calorie restriction (CR) extends lifespan in mammals. Irisin, a newly described hormone released from skeletal muscles after exercise, may induce CR-like effects by increasing adipose tissue energy expenditure. Using telomere length as a marker of ageing, this study investigates associations between body composition, plasma irisin levels and peripheral blood mononuclear cell telomere length in healthy, non-obese individuals. Segmental body composition (by bioimpedance), telomere length and plasma irisin levels were assessed in 81 healthy individuals (age 43?±?15.8 years, BMI 24.3?±?2.9 kg/m(2)). Data showed significant correlations between log-transformed relative telomere length and the following: age (p?level (p?predicted by age (b?=?-0.00735, p?=?0.001) and plasma irisin levels (b?=?0.04527, p?=?0.021). These data support the view that irisin may have a role in the modulation of both energy balance and the ageing process. PMID:24469890

Rana, Karan S; Arif, Muhammad; Hill, Eric J; Aldred, Sarah; Nagel, David A; Nevill, Alan; Randeva, Harpal S; Bailey, Clifford J; Bellary, Srikanth; Brown, James E

2014-04-01

92

Prediction of corrosion rates of water distribution pipelines according to aggressive corrosive water in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drinking water network serving Korea has been used for almost 100 years. Therefore, pipelines have suffered various degrees of deterioration due to aggressive environments. The pipe breaks were caused by in-external corrosion, water hammer, surface loading, etc. In this paper, we focused on describing corrosion status in water distribution pipes in Korea and reviewing some methods to predict corrosion

W. S. Chung; M. J. Yu; H. D. Lee

93

QSPR for predicting chloroform formation in drinking water disinfection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorination is the most widely used technique for water disinfection, but may lead to the formation of chloroform (trichloromethane; TCM) and other by-products. This article reports the first quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR) for predicting the formation of TCM in chlorinated drinking water. Model compounds (n?=?117) drawn from 10 literature sources were divided into training data (n?=?90, analysed by five-way leave-many-out

G. B. Luilo; S. E. Cabaniss

2011-01-01

94

Ground-water levels in observation wells in Oklahoma, 1967-68  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The investigation of the ground-water resources of Oklahoma by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board includes a continuing program to collect records of water levels in selected observation wells on a systematic basis. These water-level records: (1) provide an index to available ground-water supplies; (2) facilitate the prediction of trends in water levels that will indicate likely changes in storage; (3) aid in the prediction of the base flow of streams; (4) provide information for use in basic research; (5) provide long-time continuous records of fluctuations of water levels in representative wells; and (6) serve as a framework to which other types of hydrologic data my be related. Prior to 1956, measurements of water levels in observation wells in Oklahoma were included in water-supply papers published annually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Beginning with the 1956 calendar year, however, Geological Survey water-level reports will contain only records of a selected network of observation wells, and will be published at 5-year intervals. The first of this series, for the 1956-59 period was published in 1962. This report has been prepared primarily to present water-level records of wells not included in the Federal network. However, for the sake of completeness it includes water-level records of Federal wells that either have been or will be published in water-supply papers since 1955. This report, which contains water-level records for the 2-year period (1967-68), is the fifth in a series presenting water-level records for all permanent observations wells in Oklahoma. The first report, published in 1963, contains water-level records for the 2-year period of (1961-62); the second report, published in 1964, contains water-level records for the 2-year period (1961-62); the third report, published in 1965, contains water-level records for the 2-year period (1963-64); and the fourth report contains water-level records for the 2-year period (1965-66).

Bingham, R. H.

1969-01-01

95

Potential Seasonal Predictability of Water Cycle in Observations and Reanalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification of predictability of water cycle variability is crucial for climate prediction, water resources availability, ecosystem management and hazard mitigation. An analysis that can assess the potential skill in seasonal prediction was proposed by the authors, named as analysis of covariance (ANOCOVA). This method tests whether interannual variability of seasonal means exceeds that due to weather noise under the null hypothesis that seasonal means are identical every year. It has the advantage of taking into account autocorrelation structure in the daily time series but also accounting for the uncertainty of the estimated parameters in the significance test. During the past several years, multiple reanalysis datasets have become available for studying climate variability and understanding climate system. We are motivated to compare the potential predictability of water cycle variation from different reanalysis datasets against observations using the newly proposed ANOCOVA method. The selected eight reanalyses include the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) 40-year Reanalysis Project (NNRP), the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy (NCEP/DOE) Reanalysis Project (NDRP), the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) 40-year Reanalysis, The Japan Meteorological Agency 25-year Reanalysis Project (JRA25), the ECMWF) Interim Reanalysis (ERAINT), the NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (NOAA/CIRES) 20th Century Reanalysis Version 2 (20CR). For key water cycle components, precipitation and evaporation, all reanalyses consistently show high fraction of predictable variance in the tropics, low predictability over the extratropics, more potential predictability over the ocean than land, and a stronger seasonal variation in potential predictability over land than ocean. The substantial differences are observed especially over the extropical areas where boundary-forced signal is not as significant as in tropics. We further evaluate the accuracy of reanalysis in estimating seasonal predictability over several selected regions, where rain gauge measurement or land surface data assimilation product is available and accurate, to gain insight on the strength and weakness of reanalysis products.

Feng, X.; Houser, P.

2012-12-01

96

Diabetes is predicted by the beta cell level of autoantigen.  

PubMed

Two novel transgenic (Tg) strains were created expressing hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL) in a pancreas-specific fashion. RmHP.111 mice had levels of HEL per cell similar to that of the established ILK-3 strain, while RmHP.117 mice had 10-fold lower levels (50,000 molecules per cell). When bred to 3A9 TCR Tg mice, negative selection occurred equally in all three double-Tg combinations, yet only ILK-3 x 3A9 and RmHP.111 x 3A9 mice became diabetic. Additionally, activated 3A9 cells readily transferred diabetes into ILK-3 or RmHP.111 mice, but only marginally into the RmHP.117 strain. In the peripancreatic lymph node, division of naive 3A9 cells was similar between RmHP.111 and RmHP.117 strains, but pancreatic APCs from RmHP.111 x 3A9 mice stimulated HEL-reactive cells to a much greater degree than those from RmHP.117 x 3A9 mice. In this model, diabetes was dependent upon both initial priming in the peripancreatic lymph node and subsequent presentation in the pancreas, with disease incidence predicted by the beta cell level of autoantigen. PMID:16177075

Byersdorfer, Craig A; Schweitzer, George G; Unanue, Emil R

2005-10-01

97

Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Water levels were monitored in 28 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1993. Seventeen wells were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, and 11 wells representing 18 intervals were monitored hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks, except one that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes and pressure transducers; steel-tape measurements were corrected for mechanical stretch, thermal expansion, and borehole deviation to obtain precise water-level altitudes. Water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 meters above sea level east of Yucca Mountain to about 1,034 meters above sea level north of Yucca Mountain. Water-level altitudes in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks varied between 752 and 753 meters above sea level during 1993. Water levels were an average of about 0.04 meter lower than 1992 water levels. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data.

Tucci, P.; Goemaat, R.L.; Burkhardt, D.J.

1996-07-01

98

Variation in the sensitivity of predicted levels of atmospheric organic particulate matter (OPM).  

PubMed

This study examines the sensitivity in predicted levels of atmospheric organic particulate matter (M(o), microg m(-3)) to changes in the governing gas/particle partitioning constants and the tau(I) (levels of condensable organic compounds, microg m(-3)). M(o) is given by the difference between sigma tau(i) and the corresponding sum for the gas-phase levels. It is demonstrated that the sensitivity in predicted M(o) levels increases rapidly as M(o) becomes very small relative to sigma tau(i): as the tau(i), decrease, the gas phase becomes increasingly capable of holding the majority of all tau(i) and small changes in system parameters can cause large relative changes in M(o). These effects are illustrated using predictions for two values of the reacted hydrocarbon concentration (deltaHC) for each of three secondary organic aerosol systems for relative humidity (RH) = 20-80%. Specific structures for the oxidation products allows consideration of the effects of varying activity coefficients and water uptake. At low M(o)/sigma tau(i) (as may be found in the atmosphere away from sources and at warm temperatures), relatively small errors in model input parameters (e.g., vapor pressures, vaporization enthalpies, activity coefficient parameters, and the tau(i) values for low volatility compounds) will be amplified into large errors in the predicted M(o) values. PMID:18939565

Pankow, James F; Chang, Elsa I

2008-10-01

99

Circulating Fractalkine Levels Predict the Development of the Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The fractalkine/CX3CR1 axis plays an important role in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the role of fractalkine in metabolic disorders remains to be fully elucidated. We selected 887 Chinese (40–65 years old) at baseline, with a subgroup of 459 participants examined again 2 years later. The relationship of serum fractalkine levels with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components was investigated. At baseline, participants with MetS had higher fractalkine concentrations than their counterparts without MetS (P < 0.001). At the 2-year follow-up, participants in the highest quartile of baseline fractalkine exhibited higher values for body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat percentage, glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and lower value for high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) (all P < 0.05). Among 390 participants without MetS at baseline, 45 developed it at year 2. Even after multiple adjustments for visceral adipose tissue area, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein (CRP), or TG and HDL-c, baseline fractalkine predicted the development of MetS (OR = 7.18, 95%CI: 2.28–18.59). In conclusion, circulating fractalkine predicts the development of the MetS independently of central obesity, CRP, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia.

Xueyao, Yin; Saifei, Zhang; Dan, Yu; Qianqian, Pan; Xuehong, Dong; Jiaqiang, Zhou; Fenping, Zheng; Hong, Li

2014-01-01

100

Neural networks to simulate regional ground water levels affected by human activities.  

PubMed

In arid regions, human activities like agriculture and industry often require large ground water extractions. Under these circumstances, appropriate ground water management policies are essential for preventing aquifer overdraft, and thereby protecting critical ecologic and economic objectives. Identification of such policies requires accurate simulation capability of the ground water system in response to hydrological, meteorological, and human factors. In this research, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were developed and applied to investigate the effects of these factors on ground water levels in the Minqin oasis, located in the lower reach of Shiyang River Basin, in Northwest China. Using data spanning 1980 through 1997, two ANNs were developed to model and simulate dynamic ground water levels for the two subregions of Xinhe and Xiqu. The ANN models achieved high predictive accuracy, validating to 0.37 m or less mean absolute error. Sensitivity analyses were conducted with the models demonstrating that agricultural ground water extraction for irrigation is the predominant factor responsible for declining ground water levels exacerbated by a reduction in regional surface water inflows. ANN simulations indicate that it is necessary to reduce the size of the irrigation area to mitigate ground water level declines in the oasis. Unlike previous research, this study demonstrates that ANN modeling can capture important temporally and spatially distributed human factors like agricultural practices and water extraction patterns on a regional basin (or subbasin) scale, providing both high-accuracy prediction capability and enhanced understanding of the critical factors influencing regional ground water conditions. PMID:18181867

Feng, Shaoyuan; Kang, Shaozhong; Huo, Zailin; Chen, Shaojun; Mao, Xiaomin

2008-01-01

101

The Impact of Climate Change on Great Lakes Water Levels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is about the decline in water level of the Great Lakes. After using different maps to compare the size of different lakes in the world, learners will discuss the positive and negative effects of changing water levels. They will also consider the seemingly contradictory events of decreasing fresh water levels and rising sea levels. Working in groups, learners will construct and explain theories for the decline in water level of the Great Lakes. An extension activity is available. This activity is part of the "Climate Change, Wildlife and Wildlands: A Toolkit for Formal and Informal Educators."

102

Predicting stream water quality using artificial neural networks (ANN)  

SciTech Connect

Predicting point and nonpoint source runoff of dissolved and suspended materials into their receiving streams is important to protecting water quality and traditionally has been modeled using deterministic or statistical methods. The purpose of this study was to predict water quality in small streams using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The selected input variables were local precipitation, stream flow rates and turbidity for the initial prediction of suspended solids in the stream. A single hidden-layer feedforward neural network using backpropagation learning algorithms was developed with a detailed analysis of model design of those factors affecting successful implementation of the model. All features of a feedforward neural model were investigated including training set creation, number and layers of neurons, neural activation functions, and backpropagation algorithms. Least-squares regression was used to compare model predictions with test data sets. Most of the model configurations offered excellent predictive capabilities. Using either the logistic or the hyperbolic tangent neural activation function did not significantly affect predicted results. This was also true for the two learning algorithms tested, the Levenberg-Marquardt and Polak-Ribiere conjugate-gradient descent methods. The most important step during model development and training was the representative selection of data records for training of the model.

Bowers, J.A.

2000-05-17

103

A multivariate linear regression model for predicting children's blood lead levels based on soil lead levels: A study at four Superfund sites  

SciTech Connect

For the purpose of examining the association between blood lead levels and household-specific soil lead levels, the authors used a multivariate linear regression model to find a slope factor relating soil lead levels to blood lead levels. They used previously collected data from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR's) multisite lead and cadmium study. The data included in the blood lead measurements of 1,015 children aged 6--71 months, and corresponding household-specific environmental samples. The environmental samples included lead in soil, house dust, interior paint, and tap water. After adjusting for income, education or the parents, presence of a smoker in the household, sex, and dust lead, and using a double log transformation, they found a slope factor of 0.1388 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.09--0.19 for the dose-response relationship between the natural log of the soil lead level and the natural log of the blood lead level. The predicted blood lead level corresponding to a soil lead level of 500 mg/kg was 5.99 [micro]g/kg with a 95% prediction interval of 2.08--17.29. Predicted values and their corresponding prediction intervals varied by covariate level. The model shows that increased soil lead level is associated with elevated blood leads in children, but that predictions based on this regression model are subject to high levels of uncertainty and variability.

Lewin, M.D.; Sarasua, S.; Jones, P.A. (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States). Div. of Health Studies)

1999-07-01

104

26. Mechanical float gages used to monitor level of water ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Mechanical float gages used to monitor level of water in the filtration bed reservoir. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

105

7 CFR 610.12 - Equations for predicting soil loss due to water erosion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Equations for predicting soil loss due to water erosion. 610.12...CONSERVATION OPERATIONS TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE Soil Erosion Prediction Equations § 610.12 Equations for predicting soil loss due to water erosion. (a)...

2010-01-01

106

7 CFR 610.12 - Equations for predicting soil loss due to water erosion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Equations for predicting soil loss due to water erosion. 610.12...CONSERVATION OPERATIONS TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE Soil Erosion Prediction Equations § 610.12 Equations for predicting soil loss due to water erosion. (a)...

2009-01-01

107

Predicting tree water use and drought tolerance from leaf traits in the Los Angeles urban ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban green space provides a suite of valuable ecosystem services. In semiarid systems, like Los Angeles, trees rely primarily on irrigation water for transpiration. Managers may need to reduce irrigation associated with urban trees given climate change, urban expansion, and the steady decrease in available freshwater. While leaf and whole plant water relations have been extensively studied, we are only now gaining a detailed understanding of diverse leaf anatomical designs, and their use for predicting physiology and water use at landscape scale. For 50 diverse urban species, we quantified leaf anatomical and physiological traits important to tree drought tolerance and water use efficiency including turgor loss point, vein architecture, cellular anatomy, leaf mass per unit area, and petiole and leaf dimensions. We hypothesized detailed relationships to develop models relating leaf functional traits to tree water relations. These models provide key insights regarding the role of anatomical designs in leaf stress tolerance and water use efficiency. Additionally we predicted how traits measured at the leaf level would scale with existing data for individuals at the whole plant level. We tested our predictions by determining correlations between leaf level anatomical traits and drought tolerance. Additionally, we determined correlations between functional traits, physiology and water use, and the climate of origin for the urban species. Leaf level measurements will be valuable for rapid estimation of more difficult to measure whole plant water relations traits important at the landscape scale. The Los Angeles urban ecosystem can serve as a model for other semiarid system and provide more informed system wide water conservation strategies.

John, G. P.; Scoffoni, C.; Sack, L.

2013-12-01

108

Ecology predicts levels of genetic differentiation in neotropical birds.  

PubMed

Despite the theoretical link between the ecology and the population genetics of species, little empirical evidence is available that corroborates the association. Here, we examined genetic variation in 40 codistributed species of lowland Neotropical rain forest birds that have populations isolated on either side of the Andes, the Amazon River, and the Madeira River. We found widely varying levels of genetic divergence among these taxa across the same biogeographic barriers. Our investigation of the extent to which ecological traits predicted the amount of cross-barrier divergence revealed a strongly significant relationship between the forest stratum at which a species forages and the level of cross-barrier genetic differentiation. Canopy species had statistically lower genetic divergence values across the Andes and the two Amazonian rivers than did understory birds. We hypothesize that the association reflects an effect of dispersal propensity, which is greater in canopy birds, on the movement of alleles among demes (i.e., migration) and, consequently, on the interdemic proportion of the genetic variance. Differences in dispersal propensity may also explain the observation that understory species contain a significantly greater number of subspecies than do canopy species. This result indicates that higher rates of diversification may occur in lineages with lower dispersal propensity. PMID:19627230

Burney, Curtis W; Brumfield, Robb T

2009-09-01

109

Nicotine metabolite ratio predicts smoking topography and carcinogen biomarker level  

PubMed Central

Background Variability in smoking behavior is partly attributable to heritable individual differences in nicotine clearance rates. This can be assessed as the ratio of the metabolites cotinine (COT) and 3'-hydroxycotinine (3HC) (referred to as the nicotine metabolism ratio, NMR). We hypothesized that faster NMR would be associated with greater cigarette puff volume and higher levels of total NNAL, a carcinogen biomarker. Methods Current smokers (n=109) smoked one of their preferred brand cigarettes through a smoking topography device and provided specimens for NMR and total NNAL assays. Results Faster nicotine metabolizers (third and fourth quartiles versus first quartile) based on the NMR exhibited significantly greater total puff volume and total NNAL; the total puff volume by daily cigarette consumption interaction was a significant predictor of total NNAL level. Conclusion A heritable biomarker of nicotine clearance predicts total cigarette puff volume and total NNAL. Impact If validated, the NMR could contribute to smoking risk assessment in epidemiological studies and potentially in clinical practice.

Strasser, Andrew A.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Pinto, Angela G.; Tang, Kathy Z.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Carmella, Steve G.; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Lerman, Caryn E.

2010-01-01

110

Groundwater-level prediction using multiple linear regression and artificial neural network techniques: a comparative assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in predicting transient water levels over a groundwater basin were compared. MLR and ANN modeling was carried out at 17 sites in Japan, considering all significant inputs: rainfall, ambient temperature, river stage, 11 seasonal dummy variables, and influential lags of rainfall, ambient temperature, river stage and groundwater level. Seventeen site-specific ANN models were developed, using multi-layer feed-forward neural networks trained with Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithms. The performance of the models was evaluated using statistical and graphical indicators. Comparison of the goodness-of-fit statistics of the MLR models with those of the ANN models indicated that there is better agreement between the ANN-predicted groundwater levels and the observed groundwater levels at all the sites, compared to the MLR. This finding was supported by the graphical indicators and the residual analysis. Thus, it is concluded that the ANN technique is superior to the MLR technique in predicting spatio-temporal distribution of groundwater levels in a basin. However, considering the practical advantages of the MLR technique, it is recommended as an alternative and cost-effective groundwater modeling tool.

Sahoo, Sasmita; Jha, Madan K.

2013-12-01

111

Impact of Plumbing Age on Copper Levels in Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Theory and limited practical experiences suggest that higher copper levels in drinking water tap samples are typically associated with newer plumbing systems, and levels decrease with increasing plumbing age. Past researchers have developed a conceptual model to explain the ?agin...

112

Prediction of octanol?water partition coefficients, Henry coefficients and water solubilities using UNIFAC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Octanol\\/water partition coefficients, Henry coefficients and water solubilities can serve as basic physicochemical parameters for estimating the effects to the environment which can arise from potentially hazardous substances. We discuss the application of the UNIFAC method, which allows the prediction of these values on the basis of molecular structure. The UNIFAC method has the advantage over other models that the

G. Wienke; J. Gmehling

1998-01-01

113

January 1984 water levels, and data related to water-level changes, western and south-central Kansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides hydrologic data related to water-level measurements made in about 1450 observation wells in western and south-central Kansas during January and February 1984. Water-level measurements are made in mid-winter of each year to minimize the effect of seasonal pumping. However, a few water-level measurements that are made in mid-winter of some years may reflect either the effects of

M. E. Pabst; B. J. Dague

1984-01-01

114

Microsystem sediment-water simulation: a practical technique for predicting reservoir water quality  

SciTech Connect

Water quality at the bottom of a lake or reservoir may be conveniently simulated in a controlled laboratory environment using the technique of microsystem sediment-water simulation. The technique provides predictive data on planned or existing reservoirs and lakes by duplicating conditions expected at the sediment-water interface including anaerobic (chemically reducing) conditions which may occur in the hypolimnion during summer and winter stratification. Using many small sediment-water 'microsystems' allows for replication and the estimation of experimental error, as well as application of a variety of analytical chemical techniques for characterizing the simulation water.

Craft, D.

1983-10-01

115

Relevant variables to predict macrophyte communities in running waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In both predictive theoretical and empirical models for aquatic plant communities in running waters, the development and competition are many times explained in terms of nutrients. Minerals necessary for growth are generally not assumed to be limiting, although they influence the important pH-value. At the same time it is known that factors such as oxygen-concentration, solar energy, salinity, dimension of

Aat Barendregt; Ana M. F. Bio

2003-01-01

116

Statistical summaries of ground-water level data collected in the Suwannee River Water Management District, 1948 to 1994  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since 1948, ground-water level data have beensystematically collected from selected wells in theSuwannee River Water Management District (SRWMD) by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),the SRWMD, and other agencies. Records of waterlevels in the SRWMD (fig. 1), collected by the USGS and SRWMD through 1990, and by the SRWMD from 1990 to 1994, have been published for many years in the USGS annual report series "Water Resources Data for Florida." However, no systematic statistical summaries of water levels in the SRWMD have been previously published. The need for such statistical summary data forevaluations of drought severity, ground-water supplyavailability, and minimum water levels for regulatory purposes increases daily as demands for ground-water usage increase. Also, much of the base flow of the Suwannee River is dependent upon ground water. As the population and demand for ground water for drinking water and irrigation purposes increase, the ability to quickly and easily predict trends in ground-water availability will become paramount. In response to this need, the USGS, in cooperation with the SRWMD, compiled this report. Ground-water sta tistics for 136 sites are presented as well as figures showing water levels that were measured in wells from 1948 through September 1994. In 1994, the SRWMD and the USGS began a long- term program of cooperative studies designed tobetter understand minimum and maximum streamflows and ground-water levels in the SRWMD. Minimum and maximum flows and levels are needed by the district to manage the surface- and ground-water resources of the SRWMD and to maintain or improve the various ecosystems. Data evaluation was a necessary first step in the long- term SRWMD ground-water investigations program, because basic statistics for ground-water levels are not included in the USGS annual data reports such as "Water Resources Data for Florida, Water Year 1994" (Fran klin and others, 1995). Statistics included in this report were generated using the USGS computer pro gram ADAPS (Automatic Data Processing System) to characterize normal ground-water levels and depar tures from normal. The report has been organized so that the statisti cal analyses of water levels in the wells are presentedfollowing this introductory material, a description ofthe hydrogeology in the study area, and a description of the statistics used to present the water-level data. Specifically, the report presents statistical analyses for each well, as appropriate, in the following manner: Description of the well.Hydrographs of ground-water levels for the period of record, for the last 10 years of record, and for the last 5 years of record. Graphs of maximum, minimum, and mean of monthly mean ground-water levels for wells with 5 or more years of record.Frequency hydrographs (25, 50, and 75 percent) of monthly mean ground-water levels for wells with 5 or more years of record. Water-level data and statistical plots are grouped by county and sorted within the county by ascendingsite identification number. Well locations are plottedon county maps preceding the well descriptions andhydrographs.

Collins, J. J.; Freeman, L. D.

1996-01-01

117

Changes in Water Levels in Texas, 1995-2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Groundwater is a critical water resource for Texas, providing 59 percent of all the water used in Texas in 2003. Measuring and monitoring water levels in the states aquifers are important for understanding how pumping and climate affect the aquifers of th...

R. Boghici

2011-01-01

118

TYPHOON AND ELEVATED RADON LEVEL IN A MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Municipal Water Supply at Hsinchu City is a water treatment plant using poly- aluminum chloride (PAC) for coagulation and then followed by precipitation and filtration. Its capacity is 70,000 m3\\/day. The raw water is drawn from the nearby river. Since the subject of interest is the radon level during typhoon season, the sampling period was from March to December

Cheng-Hsin Mao; Pao-Shan Weng

119

A siphon gage for monitoring surface-water levels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A device that uses a siphon tube to establish a hydraulic connection between the bottom of an onshore standpipe and a point at the bottom of a water body was designed and tested for monitoring surface-water levels. Water is added to the standpipe to a level sufficient to drive a complete slug of water through the siphoning tube and to flush all air out of the system. The water levels in the standpipe and the water body equilibrate and provide a measurable static water surface in the standpipe. The siphon gage was designed to allow quick and accurate year-round measurements with minimal maintenance. Currently available devices for monitoring surface-water levels commonly involve time-consuming and costly installation and surveying, and the movement of reference points and the presence of ice cover in cold regions cause discontinuity and inaccuracy in the data collected. Installation and field testing of a siphon gage using 0.75-in-diameter polyethylene tubing at Ashumet Pond in Falmouth, Massachusetts, demonstrated that the siphon gage can provide long-term data with a field effort and accuracy equivalent to measurement of ground-water levels at an observation well.A device that uses a siphon tube to establish a hydraulic connection between the bottom of an onshore standpipe and a point at the bottom of a water body was designed and tested for monitoring surface-water levels. Water is added to the standpipe to a level sufficient to drive a complete slug of water through the siphoning tube and to flush all air out of the system. The water levels in the standpipe and the water body equilibrate and provide a measurable static water surface in the standpipe. The siphon gage was designed to allow quick and accurate year-round measurements with minimal maintenance. Currently available devices for monitoring surface-water levels commonly involve time-consuming and costly installation and surveying, and the movement of reference points and the presence of ice cover in cold regions cause discontinuity and inaccuracy in the data collected. Installation and field testing of a siphon gage using 0.75-in-diameter polyethylene tubing at Ashumet Pond in Falmouth, Massachusetts, demonstrated that the siphon gage can provide long-term data with a field effort and accuracy equivalent to measurement of ground-water levels at an observation well.

McCobb, T. D.; LeBlanc, D. R.; Socolow, R. S.

1999-01-01

120

EFFECTS OF MEASUREMENT FREQUENCY ON WATER-LEVEL SUMMARY STATISTICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetland scientists and managers recognize the need to characterize hydrology for understanding wetland ecosystems. Hydrologic data, however, are not routinely collected in wetlands, in part because of a lack of knowledge about how to effectively measure hydrologic attributes and how frequently to measure water levels. To determine how measurement interval affects interpretation of water-level data, we analyzed data from seven

Paul W. Shaffer; C. Andrew Cole; Mary E. Kentula; Robert P. Brooks

2000-01-01

121

Calculating flow into coastal lakes from water level measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some coastal lakes in New South Wales have narrow channels to the ocean. Runoff from the catchment elevates water levels within the lake because of the constricted nature of the entrance. Freshwater inflow affects many ecological processes in these lakes. Often freshwater inflow comes from multiple sources and is difficult to measure directly. Water level is easy to measure and

Brian G. Sanderson; Barbara Baginska

2007-01-01

122

Water Level Detection in Silty Materials Using Ground Penetrating Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of water level in silty soils can be complicated because of capillary action. In this study, the water level in a silty soil sample was detected using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique in the laboratory. The soil sample has dimensions of 62 cm × 48 cm × 46 cm and was kept in a clear Plexiglas container which facilitated

Udaya B. Halabe; Hema J. Siriwardane; Sandeep Pyakurel; Ricardo Kiriakidis; Ronald Ingram

2007-01-01

123

Water Levels and Total Phosphorus in Lake Okeechobee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pelagic total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in Lake Okeechobee were shown previously to be correlated with lake water levels, possibly due to littoral flooding and subsequent P release from vegetation (Canfield and Hoyer 1988). The present paper reviews the research to test this and other hypotheses to explain the water level – TP relationship. Research in the littoral region indicates that

Karl E. Havens

1997-01-01

124

Optical Water-Level Sensors using Fiber Bragg Grating Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an optical high-precision water-level sensors based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology. The sensors can be applied to measure the water levels of rivers, lakes, and sewage systems. The sensor head consists of a diaphragm, a customized Bourdon tube and two FBGs, one for tensile measurement and the other for temperature compensation. The FBG attached to the Bourdon

Keisuke Fukuchi; Seiji Kojima; Yasuyuki Hishida; Shinya Ishi

2002-01-01

125

Prediction of the safety level to an installation of the tritium process through predictive maintenance  

SciTech Connect

The safety level for personnel and environment to a nuclear installation is given in generally by the technological process quality of operation and maintenance and in particular by a lot of technical, technological, economic and human factors. The maintenance role is fundamental because it has to quantify all the technical, economic and human elements as an integrated system for it creates an important feedback for activities concerning the life cycle of the nuclear installation. In maintenance activities as in any dynamic area, new elements appear continuously which, sometimes require new approaches. The theory of fuzzy logic and the software LabVIEW supplied to the Nuclear Detritiation Plant (NDP) is part of National Research and Development Inst. for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies-ICIT, Rm.Valcea, used for predictive maintenance to assure safety operation. The final aim is to achieve the best practices for maintenance of the Plant that processes tritium. (authors)

Anghel, V. [National Research and Development Inst. for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies - ICIT, Rm. Valcea Uzinei Street no.4, 240050 (Romania)

2008-07-15

126

Fluctuations of ground-water levels in Lee County, Florida, in 1975 water year  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the 1975 water year, rainfall was about average at Page Field, Florida, and from 20-25 percent below average at Lehigh Acres and Sanibel Island. Water levels were monitored in 57 observation wells in Lee County, Florida. Of the 23 wells that tap the water-table aquifer, one record high and 5 record low water levels were established. Record low water levels were established in 5 of 20 wells that tap the sandstone aquifer and in 1 of 10 wells that tap the upper Hawthorn aquifer. A record high water level was established in 1 of 3 wells that tap the lower Hawthorn aquifer. (Woodard-USGS)

O'Donnell, T. H.

1977-01-01

127

Sea-level change model predictions based on geomorphological data in Cyclades (Greece) and Tunisia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The palaeo relative sea-level indicators are the most important type of data as far as the Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) related to the Last Glacial Maximum is concerned. The geomorphological and archaeological indicators have recorded the long-term sea-level variation that accompanied and followed the melting of the Late Pleistocene ice sheets. This bathymetry change stems for the combined effects of the eustatic sea-level change, the gravitational interactions between the geoid and the ice sheets and the deformation of the solid Earth. Since these three factors are fully described by the sea level equation in a self-consistent manner, the comparison of relative sea-level (rsl) data and predicted Holocene curves provides fundamental constraints on the GIA models. While the rsl data from the formerly glaciated area may provide constraints on both the extent and thickness with time of the ice sheets and the local shallow Earth structure and rheology, the palaeo sea-levels from the Mediterranean Sea may constrain the volumes of melt water that has been globally released through time and also the lower mantle rheological parameters. In this work we combine archaeological and geomorphological rsl indicators with GIA-model predictions to investigate the Holocene sea level changes in Tunisia and Cyclades islands (Central Aegean). While the former area has been proven to be vertically stable on the long timescale, the Central Aegean could be affected by local tectonics that would result in vertical deformations. We therefore compare at first the available rsl data from Tunisia with GIA predictions based on a suite of available late Pleistocene ice chronologies and Earth rheological models. We find the best combination of ice and earth models to explain the rsl data from Tunisia and finally apply those to investigate the vertical stability at the Cyclades islands and to quantify the tectonics-related rates of vertical crustal deformation.

Stocchi, Paolo; Evelpidou, Niki; Pirazzoli, Paolo; Vassilopoulos, Andreas; Ruggieri, Gabriella; Vermeersen, Bert; Spada, Giorgio

2010-05-01

128

A Review of the Prediction of Squat in Shallow Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent evidence has shown that the effect of a ship moving in shallow water and the resultant squat are not well understood. This paper reviews the general problem of a ship in shallow water and illustrates the corresponding resistance, trim and sinkage at both sub-critical and also at super-critical speeds.The paper then reviews the various methods of predicting the squat of a ship in shallow water in the sub-critical range, which is applicable to most ships. It is suggested that the simple rule-of-thumb methods are, at best, unreliable and the paper gives examples of empirical methods which have been tested against various sets of data and seem to give more representative answers. A summary of the notation used is given at the end of the paper.

Millward, A.

129

A seasonal hydrologic ensemble prediction system for water resource management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A seasonal hydrologic ensemble prediction system, developed for the Ohio River basin, has been improved and expanded to several other regions including the Eastern U.S., Africa and East Asia. The prediction system adopts the traditional Extended Streamflow Prediction (ESP) approach, utilizing the VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity) hydrological model as the central tool for producing ensemble prediction of soil moisture, snow and streamflow with lead times up to 6-month. VIC is forced by observed meteorology to estimate the hydrological initial condition prior to the forecast, but during the forecast period the atmospheric forcing comes from statistically downscaled, seasonal forecast from dynamic climate models. The seasonal hydrologic ensemble prediction system is currently producing realtime seasonal hydrologic forecast for these regions on a monthly basis. Using hindcasts from a 19-year period (1981-1999), during which seasonal hindcasts from NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS) and European Union DEMETER project are available, we evaluate the performance of the forecast system over our forecast regions. The evaluation shows that the prediction system using the current forecast approach is able to produce reliable and accurate precipitation, soil moisture and streamflow predictions. The overall skill is much higher then the traditional ESP. In particular, forecasts based on multiple climate model forecast are more skillful than single model-based forecast. This emphasizes the significant need for producing seasonal climate forecast with multiple climate models for hydrologic applications. Forecast from this system is expected to provide very valuable information about future hydrologic states and associated risks for end users, including water resource management and financial sectors.

Luo, L.; Wood, E. F.

2006-12-01

130

Some Findings on Predicting Reading Performance at the Kindergarten Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings concerning the relationship of perceptual-motor and oral-language organization to later reading achievement are discussed in relation to a predictive battery of 15 tests. It was concluded that the predictive efficacy of the tests depends on the degree to which they measure integrative ability rather than on the specific skills measured.…

Medina-Spyropoulos, E.

131

The Constant Levelers: Water, Ice, and Gravity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site has information about the work of three of the agents of erosion in the Northern Cascade Range. Since much of the range is made up of exotic terrains that probably did not evolve on the same spot on the Earth as the present North Cascades, the geologists confine their view to some time since the earliest Tertiary. Within that time frame, they can speculatively recreate the North Cascade scene and ponder its erosional history. The erosional work of rivers has constantly been altered by volcanic activity and whatever drainage pattern was established. It was profoundly altered about 35 million years ago by the renewed volcanic activity of the Cascade Volcanic Arc. A section about how rivers erode describes differential erosion, stream capture, and base level. The section about glaciers explains how they are formed, how they do their work, and what is left behind. The section about the work of gravity focuses on creep and landslides.

132

Predictive direct power control of MV-grid-connected two-level and, three-level npc converters: experimental results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the Predictive Direct Power Control of MV-grid-connected two-level and three- level NPC converters. The well-known direct power control is combined with a predictive selection of a voltage-vectors sequence, obtaining both high transient dynamic and constant switching frequency on high-power converters. The initial Predictive Direct Power Control proposal explored only the basic formulation based on simple vector-sequences

S. Aurtenechea; M. A. Rodriguez; E. Oyarbide; J. R. Torrealday

2007-01-01

133

Predicting Microgravity Levels for Space Station Using VAPEPS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: a vibroacoustic payload environment prediction system (VAPEPS); objectives of the JPL space station analysis effort; statistical energy analysis (SEA); VAPEPS Space Station Freedom (SSF) model descri...

G. Badilla T. Bergen D. Kern T. Scharton

1992-01-01

134

Land-based sources of pollutants to coastal waters of southern Belize: Comparison of predictive model with empirical data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Level III fugacity-type model was applied to southern Belize (Stann Creek and Toledo Districts) to predict which of the pesticides most heavily used in banana and citrus farms are most likely to end up in streams and coastal waters via surface runoff. Concentrations of all target pesticides in coastal waters of southern Belize were then measured during two sampling

Victor Eduardo Alegria

2009-01-01

135

Predicting habitat distribution to conserve seagrass threatened by sea level rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level rise (SLR) over the 21st century will cause significant redistribution of valuable coastal habitats. Seagrasses form extensive and highly productive meadows in shallow coastal seas support high biodiversity, including economically valuable and threatened species. Predictive habitat models can inform local management actions that will be required to conserve seagrass faced with multiple stressors. We developed novel modelling approaches, based on extensive field data sets, to examine the effects of sea level rise and other stressors on two representative seagrass habitats in Australia. First, we modelled interactive effects of SLR, water clarity and adjacent land use on estuarine seagrass meadows in Moreton Bay, Southeast Queensland. The extent of suitable seagrass habitat was predicted to decline by 17% by 2100 due to SLR alone, but losses were predicted to be significantly reduced through improvements in water quality (Fig 1a) and by allowing space for seagrass migration with inundation. The rate of sedimentation in seagrass strongly affected the area of suitable habitat for seagrass in sea level rise scenarios (Fig 1b). Further research to understand spatial, temporal and environmental variability of sediment accretion in seagrass is required. Second, we modelled changes in wave energy distribution due to predicted SLR in a linked coral reef and seagrass ecosystem at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef. Scenarios where the water depth over the coral reef deepened due to SLR and minimal reef accretion, resulted in larger waves propagating shoreward, changing the existing hydrodynamic conditions sufficiently to reduce area of suitable habitat for seagrass. In a scenario where accretion of the coral reef was severely compromised (e.g. warming, acidification, overfishing), the probability of the presence of seagrass declined significantly. Management to maintain coral health will therefore also benefit seagrasses subject to SLR in reef environments. Further disentangling direct and indirect effects of climate change on seagrass will be necessary to inform management of these valuable coastal ecosystems. Models such as these will be important sources of information for management agencies, which require specific information on the likely impacts of sea level rise in coastal areas.

Saunders, M. I.; Baldock, T.; Brown, C. J.; Callaghan, D. P.; Golshani, A.; Hamylton, S.; Hoegh-guldberg, O.; Leon, J. X.; Lovelock, C. E.; Lyons, M. B.; O'Brien, K.; Mumby, P.; Phinn, S. R.; Roelfsema, C. M.

2013-12-01

136

Water Resources Data, Montana, Water Year 2005. Volume 2: Yellowstone and Upper Columbia River Basins and Ground-Water Levels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water resources data for Montana for the 2005 water year, volumes 1 and 2, consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels in wells. This volume contains di...

F. A. Bailey K. A. Dodge M. K. White P. B. Ladd W. R. Berkas

2006-01-01

137

Predicting arsenic concentrations in groundwater of San Luis Valley, Colorado: implications for individual-level lifetime exposure assessment.  

PubMed

Consumption of inorganic arsenic in drinking water at high levels has been associated with chronic diseases. Risk is less clear at lower levels of arsenic, in part due to difficulties in estimating exposure. Herein we characterize spatial and temporal variability of arsenic concentrations and develop models for predicting aquifer arsenic concentrations in the San Luis Valley, Colorado, an area of moderately elevated arsenic in groundwater. This study included historical water samples with total arsenic concentrations from 595 unique well locations. A longitudinal analysis established temporal stability in arsenic levels in individual wells. The mean arsenic levels for a random sample of 535 wells were incorporated into five kriging models to predict groundwater arsenic concentrations at any point in time. A separate validation dataset (n = 60 wells) was used to identify the model with strongest predictability. Findings indicate that arsenic concentrations are temporally stable (r = 0.88; 95 % CI 0.83-0.92 for samples collected from the same well 15-25 years apart) and the spatial model created using ordinary kriging best predicted arsenic concentrations (? = 0.72 between predicted and observed validation data). These findings illustrate the value of geostatistical modeling of arsenic and suggest the San Luis Valley is a good region for conducting epidemiologic studies of groundwater metals because of the ability to accurately predict variation in groundwater arsenic concentrations. PMID:24429726

James, Katherine A; Meliker, Jaymie R; Buttenfield, Barbara E; Byers, Tim; Zerbe, Gary O; Hokanson, John E; Marshall, Julie A

2014-08-01

138

Lithium levels in drinking water and risk of suicide.  

PubMed

Although lithium is known to prevent suicide in people with mood disorders, it is uncertain whether lithium in drinking water could also help lower the risk in the general population. To investigate this, we examined lithium levels in tap water in the 18 municipalities of Oita prefecture in Japan in relation to the suicide standardised mortality ratio (SMR) in each municipality. We found that lithium levels were significantly and negatively associated with SMR averages for 2002-2006. These findings suggest that even very low levels of lithium in drinking water may play a role in reducing suicide risk within the general population. PMID:19407280

Ohgami, Hirochika; Terao, Takeshi; Shiotsuki, Ippei; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Iwata, Noboru

2009-05-01

139

Developing and implementing the use of predictive models for estimating water quality at Great Lakes beaches  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Predictive models have been used at beaches to improve the timeliness and accuracy of recreational water-quality assessments over the most common current approach to water-quality monitoring, which relies on culturing fecal-indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E. coli.). Beach-specific predictive models use environmental and water-quality variables that are easily and quickly measured as surrogates to estimate concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria or to provide the probability that a State recreational water-quality standard will be exceeded. When predictive models are used for beach closure or advisory decisions, they are referred to as “nowcasts.” During the recreational seasons of 2010-12, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with 23 local and State agencies, worked to improve existing nowcasts at 4 beaches, validate predictive models at another 38 beaches, and collect data for predictive-model development at 7 beaches throughout the Great Lakes. This report summarizes efforts to collect data and develop predictive models by multiple agencies and to compile existing information on the beaches and beach-monitoring programs into one comprehensive report. Local agencies measured E. coli concentrations and variables expected to affect E. coli concentrations such as wave height, turbidity, water temperature, and numbers of birds at the time of sampling. In addition to these field measurements, equipment was installed by the USGS or local agencies at or near several beaches to collect water-quality and metrological measurements in near real time, including nearshore buoys, weather stations, and tributary staff gages and monitors. The USGS worked with local agencies to retrieve data from existing sources either manually or by use of tools designed specifically to compile and process data for predictive-model development. Predictive models were developed by use of linear regression and (or) partial least squares techniques for 42 beaches that had at least 2 years of data (2010-11 and sometimes earlier) and for 1 beach that had 1 year of data. For most models, software designed for model development by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Virtual Beach) was used. The selected model for each beach was based on a combination of explanatory variables including, most commonly, turbidity, day of the year, change in lake level over 24 hours, wave height, wind direction and speed, and antecedent rainfall for various time periods. Forty-two predictive models were validated against data collected during an independent year (2012) and compared to the current method for assessing recreational water quality-using the previous day’s E. coli concentration (persistence model). Goals for good predictive-model performance were responses that were at least 5 percent greater than the persistence model and overall correct responses greater than or equal to 80 percent, sensitivities (percentage of exceedances of the bathing-water standard that were correctly predicted by the model) greater than or equal to 50 percent, and specificities (percentage of nonexceedances correctly predicted by the model) greater than or equal to 85 percent. Out of 42 predictive models, 24 models yielded over-all correct responses that were at least 5 percent greater than the use of the persistence model. Predictive-model responses met the performance goals more often than the persistence-model responses in terms of overall correctness (28 versus 17 models, respectively), sensitivity (17 versus 4 models), and specificity (34 versus 25 models). Gaining knowledge of each beach and the factors that affect E. coli concentrations is important for developing good predictive models. Collection of additional years of data with a wide range of environmental conditions may also help to improve future model performance. The USGS will continue to work with local agencies in 2013 and beyond to develop and validate predictive models at beaches and improve existing nowcasts, restructuring monitoring activities to accommodate future uncertainties in

Francy, Donna S.; Brady, Amie M. G.; Carvin, Rebecca B.; Corsi, Steven R.; Fuller, Lori M.; Harrison, John H.; Hayhurst, Brett A.; Lant, Jeremiah; Nevers, Meredith B.; Terrio, Paul J.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.

2013-01-01

140

Auto Detection For High Level Water Content For Oil Well  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Auto detection of high level water content for oil well is a system that measures the percentage of water in crude oil. This paper aims to discuss an auto detection system for measuring the content of water level in crude oil which is applicable for offshore and onshore oil operations. Data regarding water level content from wells can be determined by using automation thus, well with high water level can be determined immediately whether to be closed or not from operations. Theoretically the system measures the percentage of two- fluid mixture where the fluids have different electrical conductivities which are water and crude oil. The system made use of grid sensor which is a grid pattern like of horizontal and vertical wires. When water occupies the space at the intersection of vertical and horizontal wires, an electrical signal is detected which proved that water completed the circuit path in the system. The electrical signals are counted whereas the percentage of water is determined from the total electrical signals detected over electrical signals provided. Simulation of the system using the MultiSIM showed that the system provided the desired result.

Janier, Josefina Barnachea; Jumaludin, Zainul Arifin B.

2010-06-01

141

Multiscale Model Predicts Tissue-Level Failure From Collagen Fiber-Level Damage  

PubMed Central

Excessive tissue-level forces communicated to the microstructure and extracellular matrix of soft tissues can lead to damage and failure through poorly understood physical processes that are multiscale in nature. In this work, we propose a multiscale mechanical model for the failure of collagenous soft tissues that incorporates spatial heterogeneity in the microstructure and links the failure of discrete collagen fibers to the material response of the tissue. The model, which is based on experimental failure data derived from different collagen gel geometries, was able to predict the mechanical response and failure of type I collagen gels, and it demonstrated that a fiber-based rule (at the micrometer scale) for discrete failure can strongly shape the macroscale failure response of the gel (at the millimeter scale). The model may be a useful tool in predicting the macroscale failure conditions for soft tissues and engineered tissue analogs. In addition, the multiscale model provides a framework for the study of failure in complex fiber-based mechanical systems in general.

Hadi, Mohammad F.; Sander, Edward A.; Barocas, Victor H.

2013-01-01

142

Army Study Improves Ability to Predict Drinking Water Needs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The study, ÃÂExpanded prediction equations of human sweat loss and water needs,ÃÂ appears in the online edition of the journal. The researchers are Richard R. Gonzalez, Samuel N. Cheuvront, Scott J. Montain, Daniel A. Goodman, Laurie A. Blanchard, Larry G. Berglund and Michael N. Sawka. The researchers are with the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, except for Dr. Gonzalez, who is an adjunct professor at New Mexico State University. The American Physiological Society published the study. (The full link to the study appears at the bottom of the release.)

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2006-07-08

143

Predicting groundwater level fluctuations with meteorological effect implications—A comparative study among soft computing techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The knowledge of groundwater table fluctuations is important in agricultural lands as well as in the studies related to groundwater utilization and management levels. This paper investigates the abilities of Gene Expression Programming (GEP), Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) techniques for groundwater level forecasting in following day up to 7-day prediction intervals. Several input combinations comprising water table level, rainfall and evapotranspiration values from Hongcheon Well station (South Korea), covering a period of eight years (2001-2008) were used to develop and test the applied models. The data from the first six years were used for developing (training) the applied models and the last two years data were reserved for testing. A comparison was also made between the forecasts provided by these models and the Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) technique. Based on the comparisons, it was found that the GEP models could be employed successfully in forecasting water table level fluctuations up to 7 days beyond data records.

Shiri, Jalal; Kisi, Ozgur; Yoon, Heesung; Lee, Kang-Kun; Hossein Nazemi, Amir

2013-07-01

144

Prediction of water surface elevation of Great Salt Lake using Support Vector Machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Record breaking rises of Great Salt Lake (GSL) water levels that were observed in the period 1982-1987 resulted in severe economic impact to the State of Utah. Rising lake levels caused flooding that damaged highways, railways, recreation facilities and industries located in exposed lake bed. Prediction of GSL water levels necessitates the development of a model for accurate predictions of such levels in order to reduce or prevent economic loss due to flooding as happened in the past. A data-driven model, whose intent is to determine the relationship between inputs and outputs without knowing underlying physical process, was used in this project. A data-driven model can bridge the gap between classical regression-based and physically-based hydrological models. A Support Vector Machines (SVM) was used to predict water surface elevation of the GSL. The SVM-based reconstruction was used to develop time series forecast for multiple lead times. The model is able to extract the dynamics of the system by using only a few observed data points for training. The reliability of the algorithm in learning and forecasting the dynamics of the system was tested by changing two parameters: the integer time lag and the dimension (d) of the system. Parameter tau models the delay in which the dynamics unfolds by creating vectors of dimension d out of single measurements. For a given set of parameters tau and d, the discrepancy between observation and prediction is reduced by changing the cost parameter and a parameter called epsilon that controls the width of the SVM insensitive zone. All the data points within the epsilon insensitive zone are neglected in the SVM analysis. The analysis was performed for two time periods. The period of 1982 to 1987 was used to test the model performance in predicting the corresponding dramatic rise of GSL elevation. The period of 1987 to 2008 was used to test the performance of model for the normal water level rise and fall of the GSL. This analysis was conducted on both the North and South arms of the lake. After testing the model for different combinations of integer lag and dimension d, it was found that these data-driven models made fairly precise prediction based on only observed water surface elevation data.

Shrestha, N. K.; Urroz, G.

2009-12-01

145

Analysis of Trace Level Perchlorate in Drinking Water and Ground Water by Electrospray Mass Spectrometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new method involving the use of electrospray mass spectrometry was developed for the detection of trace levels of perchlorate in ground water and drinking water. Electrospray mass spectrometry was shown to be both sensitive and selective for the detecti...

R. A. Clewell W. T. Brashear D. T. Tsui S. Chaudhuri R. S. Cassady

1998-01-01

146

Trace-level mercury removal from surface water  

SciTech Connect

Many sorbents have been developed for the removal of mercury and heavy metals from waters; however, most of the data published thus far do not address the removal of mercury to the target levels represented in this project. The application to which these sorbents are targeted for use is the removal of mercury from microgram-per-liter levels to low nanogram-per-liter levels. Sorbents with thiouronium, thiol, amine, sulfur, and proprietary functional groups were selected for these studies. Mercury was successfully removed from surface water via adsorption onto Ionac SR-4 and Mersorb resins to levels below the target goal of 12 ng/L in batch studies. A thiol-based resin performed the best, indicating that over 200,000 volumes of water could be treated with one volume of resin. The cost of the resin is approximately $0.24 per 1,000 gal of water.

Klasson, K.T.; Bostick, D.T.

1998-06-01

147

1. East side of lower dam shown with water level ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. East side of lower dam shown with water level dropped. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Lower Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

148

Terrestrial Waters and Sea Level Variations on Interannual Time Scale  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On decadal to multi-decadal time scales, thermal expansion of sea waters and land ice loss are the main contributors to sea level variations. However, modification of the terrestrial water cycle due to climate variability and direct anthropogenic forcing may also affect sea level. For the past decades, variations in land water storage and corresponding effects on sea level cannot be directly estimated from observations because these are almost non-existent at global continental scale. However, global hydrological models developed for atmospheric and climatic studies can be used for estimating total water storage. For the recent years (since mid-2002), terrestrial water storage change can be directly estimated from observations of the GRACE space gravimetry mission. In this study, we analyse the interannual variability of total land water storage, and investigate its contribution to mean sea level variability at interannual time scale. We consider three different periods that, each, depend on data availability: (1) GRACE era (2003-2009), (2) 1993-2003 and (3) 1955-1995. For the GRACE era (period 1), change in land water storage is estimated using different GRACE products over the 33 largest river basins worldwide. For periods 2 and 3, we use outputs from the ISBA-TRIP (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere-Total Runoff Integrating Pathways) global hydrological model. For each time span, we compare change in land water storage (expressed in sea level equivalent) to observed mean sea level, either from satellite altimetry (periods 1 and 2) or tide gauge records (period 3). For each data set and each time span, a trend has been removed as we focus on the interannual variability. We show that whatever the period considered, interannual variability of the mean sea level is essentially explained by interannual fluctuations in land water storage, with the largest contributions arising from tropical river basins.

Llovel, W.; Becker, M.; Cazenave, A.; Jevrejeva, S.; Alkama, R.; Decharme, B.; Douville, H.; Ablain, M.; Beckley, B.

2011-01-01

149

Responses of wetland plants to ammonia and water level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed wetland systems receiving animal wastewater may enhance water quality when designed, operated, and maintained properly. In the case of wetlands designed to treat animal waste, system effectiveness may be limited by high ammonia concentrations and inundation, conditions that can adversely affect macrophytic vegetation. We conducted a 4-month greenhouse experiment to assess the impact of ammonia concentration and water level

Ernest Clarke; Andrew H. Baldwin

2002-01-01

150

Northern Pike Year-Class Strength and Spring Water Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between spring water levels and strength of year classes of northern pike (Esox lucius) produced in Ball Club Lake of north-central Minnesota are considered for the 7 years between 1945 and 1952. The years are ranked according to water conditions, including height during spawning and fluctuation during egg incubation, and according to the strength of year classes produced as

Fritz H. Johnson

1957-01-01

151

Effects of measurement frequency on water-level summary statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetland scientists and managers recognize the need to characterize hydrology for understanding wetland ecosystems. Hydrologic\\u000a data, however, are not routinely collected in wetlands, in part because of a lack of knowledge about how to effectively measure\\u000a hydrologic attributes and how frequently to measure water levels. To determine how measurement interval affects interpretation\\u000a of water-level data, we analyzed data from seven

Paul W. Shaffer; C. Andrew Cole; Mary E. Kentula; Robert P. Brooks

2000-01-01

152

A multivariate linear regression model for predicting children's blood lead levels based on soil lead levels: A study at four superfund sites.  

PubMed

For the purpose of examining the association between blood lead levels and household-specific soil lead levels, we used a multivariate linear regression model to find a slope factor relating soil lead levels to blood lead levels. We used previously collected data from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR's) multisite lead and cadmium study. The data included the blood lead measurements (0.5 to 40.2 microg/dL) of 1015 children aged 6-71 months, and corresponding household-specific environmental samples. The environmental samples included lead in soil (18.1-9980 mg/kg), house dust (5.2-71,000 mg/kg), interior paint (0-16.5 mg/cm2), and tap water (0.3-103 microg/L). After adjusting for income, education of the parents, presence of a smoker in the household, sex, and dust lead, and using a double log transformation, we found a slope factor of 0.1388 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.09-0.19 for the dose-response relationship between the natural log of the soil lead level and the natural log of the blood lead level. The predicted blood lead level corresponding to a soil lead level of 500 mg/kg was 5.99 microg/kg with a 95% prediction interval of 2. 08-17.29. Predicted values and their corresponding prediction intervals varied by covariate level. The model shows that increased soil lead level is associated with elevated blood leads in children, but that predictions based on this regression model are subject to high levels of uncertainty and variability. PMID:10361026

Lewin, M D; Sarasua, S; Jones, P A

1999-07-01

153

Predicting Wilderness Snow Water Equivalent With Nonwilderness Snow Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten pairs of snow sensors were analyzed to investigate the feasibility of predicting snow water equivalent at high-elevation, telemetered snow sensor sites from lower-elevation sensors. The need for this analysis stems from an agreement between the California Department of Water Resources and the USDA Forest Service to temporarily allow snow sensors in California? wilderness areas so that a predictive relationship can be developed. After 10 or 15 years, the agreement calls for the sensors to be removed. Initial efforts to a priori select sensor pairs were based on proximity, colocation within a basin, and annual precipitation amount, but regression yielded poor fits (R2 < 0.65) and high standard errors in eight of the ten cases. Analysis of the results suggested that elevational similarity was the most important selection criteria, and that all available sensors near the target site should be analyzed via a regression screening. Using elevation for selection and the regression screening, five sensors that initially had poor fits were reanalyzed. Each of the five sensors was paired with between two and five new sensors, and R2 values improved between 27 and 46 percent. Various data smoothing and editing algorithms were evaluated, but they rarely resulted in improved fits.

McGurk, Bruce J.; Edens, Thaddeus J.; Azuma, David L.

1993-02-01

154

County-Level Crop Yield Prediction Using Remote Sensing Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early estimates of crop yield, particularly at a fine scale, can inform precision agriculture efforts. The USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) currently provides estimates of yield on a monthly basis for each state. These estimates are based on phone interviews with farmers and in-situ examination of randomly selected plots. We seek to provide predictions at a much higher spatial

K. L. Wagstaff; A. Roper

2007-01-01

155

Predicting microgravity levels for space station using VAPEPS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: a vibroacoustic payload environment prediction system (VAPEPS); objectives of the JPL space station analysis effort; statistical energy analysis (SEA); VAPEPS Space Station Freedom (SSF) model description; noise control treatments; and SSF microgravity preliminary analysis results.

Badilla, G.; Bergen, T.; Kern, D.; Scharton, T.

1992-01-01

156

Ecological changes and water level variation in Sélingué Reservoir (Mali)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sélingué is a monomictic reservoir in Mali (West Africa), featuring annual water level change up to 8 m. High waters occur from November, after the flood, while low waters occur from June, at the end of the dry season. Water level decrease is linked to environmental factors (marked hydrological pattern, both for flow and rains) and to human management of the dam (keeping high the water level of the Office du Niger Agriculture Area during the dry season and hydropower production during the hottest months of the year). To study the ecological impact of such water level variations, environmental and biological descriptors were studied on water sampled biweekly from November 2000 to November 2001 in a station representative of the north part of Sélingué. The water column is stratified from March to May, as a result of the cooling induced by NE trade winds. In such conditions, the hypolimnion is anoxic. During calm periods in the dry season, the hypolimnion can progressively increase in thickness; the metalimnion gets closer to the surface and in some cases, the epilimnion can vanish and fish mortality is then observed. But stratification can also act as a trap for nutrients in the hypolimnion, preventing the euphotic epilimnion to be re-alimented in dissolved P and N mineral components. This sink-phase is replaced by a spring-phase when the water column is not anymore stratified and when the water level is low enough to allow wind-induced resuspension and vertical mixing. Such nutrient enrichment of the euphotic layer is observed at the end of the dry season. As a consequence, phytoplankton blooms are observed. Finally, water level is also important for fisheries, since fishes are diluted in high water (i.e. more difficult to catch with the artisanal tools operated by the local fishermen) but are concentrated in low water (i.e. more easily over fished in the minor bed, where most fishes are sheltered at the end of the dry season). Wise rules of water level management could help to minimize these ecological consequences.

Arfi, R.

2003-04-01

157

A simplified model to predict diurnal water temperature dynamics in a shallow tropical water pool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water temperature is a critical regulator in the growth and development of malaria mosquito immatures, as they are poikilothermic. Measuring or estimating the diurnal temperature ranges to which these immatures are exposed is of the utmost importance, as these immatures will develop into adults that can transmit malaria. Recent attempts to predict the daily water temperature dynamics in mosquito breeding sites in Kenya have been successful. However, the developed model may be too complex, as the sophisticated equipment that was used for detailed meteorological observations is not widely distributed in Africa, making it difficult to predict the daily water temperature dynamics on a local scale. Therefore, we compared two energy budget models with earlier made observations of the daily water temperature dynamics in a small, shallow and clear water pool (diameter 0.96 m, depth 0.32 m) in Kenya. This paper describes (1) a complex 1-Dimensional model, and (2) a simplified second model, and (3) shows that both models mimic the water temperature dynamics in the water pool accurately. The latter model has the advantage that it only needs common weather data (air temperature, air humidity, wind speed and cloud cover) to estimate the diurnal temperature dynamics in breeding sites of African malaria mosquitoes.

Paaijmans, Krijn P.; Heusinkveld, Bert G.; Jacobs, Adrie F. G.

2008-11-01

158

Water-level controls on macro-tidal rip currents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field measurements and numerical modelling have been used to investigate the water-level control of rip current dynamics on a macro-tidal beach. Field data collected over 32 complete tidal cycles, spanning a range of wave and tide conditions, demonstrate that rip current strength and behaviour is modulated at the semi-diurnal frequency by tide-induced changes in the water-level over bar/rip morphology. Peak flow speeds in the rip neck correspond to the time of maximum wave breaking 1.5 h before and after low water.

Austin, Martin J.; Masselink, Gerd; Scott, Tim M.; Russell, Paul E.

2014-03-01

159

Predicting water consumption habits for seven arsenic-safe water options in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background In Bangladesh, 20 million people are at the risk of developing arsenicosis because of excessive arsenic intake. Despite increased awareness, many of the implemented arsenic-safe water options are not being sufficiently used by the population. This study investigated the role of social-cognitive factors in explaining the habitual use of arsenic-safe water options. Methods Eight hundred seventy-two randomly selected households in six arsenic-affected districts of rural Bangladesh, which had access to an arsenic-safe water option, were interviewed using structured face-to-face interviews in November 2009. Habitual use of arsenic-safe water options, severity, vulnerability, affective and instrumental attitudes, injunctive and descriptive norms, self-efficacy, and coping planning were measured. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regressions. Results Linear regression revealed that self-efficacy (B?=?0.42, SE?=?.03, p?water option (B?=?0.24, SE?=?.04, p?water options (R2?=?0.688). This model proved highly generalizable to all seven arsenic-safe water options investigated, even though habitual use of single options were predicted on the basis of parameters estimated without these options. Conclusions This general model for the habitual use of arsenic-safe water options may prove useful to predict other water consumption habits. Behavior-change interventions are derived from the model to promote the habitual use of arsenic-safe water options.

2013-01-01

160

ELEVATED LEVELS OF SODIUM IN COMMUNITY DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A comparison study of students from towns with differing levels of sodium in drinking water revealed statistically significantly higher blood pressure distributions among the students from the town with high sodium levels. Differences were found in both systolic and diastolic rea...

161

Predicted transport of pyrethroid insecticides from an urban landscape to surface water.  

PubMed

The authors developed a simple screening-level model of exposure of aquatic species to pyrethroid insecticides for the lower American River watershed (California, USA). The model incorporated both empirically derived washoff functions based on existing, small-scale precipitation simulations and empirical data on pyrethroid insecticide use and watershed properties for Sacramento County, California, USA. The authors calibrated the model to in-stream monitoring data and used it to predict daily river pyrethroid concentration from 1995 through 2010. The model predicted a marked increase in pyrethroid toxic units starting in 2000, coincident with an observed watershed-wide increase in pyrethroid use. After 2000, approximately 70% of the predicted total toxic unit exposure in the watershed was associated with the pyrethroids bifenthrin and cyfluthrin. Pyrethroid applications for aboveground structural pest control on the basis of suspension concentrate categorized product formulations accounted for greater than 97% of the predicted total toxic unit exposure. Projected application of mitigation strategies, such as curtailment of structural perimeter band and barrier treatments as recently adopted by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation, reduced predicted total toxic unit exposure by 84%. The model also predicted that similar reductions in surface-water concentrations of pyrethroids could be achieved through a switch from suspension concentrate-categorized products to emulsifiable concentrate-categorized products without restrictions on current-use practice. Even with these mitigation actions, the predicted concentration of some pyrethroids would continue to exceed chronic aquatic life criteria. PMID:24115122

Jorgenson, Brant; Fleishman, Erica; Macneale, Kate H; Schlenk, Daniel; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Spromberg, Julann A; Werner, Inge; Weston, Donald P; Xiao, Qingfu; Young, Thomas M; Zhang, Minghua

2013-11-01

162

Analysis for water level data for Everglades National Park, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stage-duration curves were developed for five gaging stations in Everglades National Park, Florida. Four of the five curves show similar characteristics with an increase in the slope when the water level is below land surface. Monthly stage-duration curves, developed for one of the stations, reflect the seasonal trends of the water level. Recession curves were prepared for the same five stations. These curves represent the average water-level decline during periods of little or no rainfall. They show the decline in level at the end of 10, 20, and 60 days for any given initial stage. A family of curves was also prepared to give the recession from various initial stages for any period up to 60 days.

Buchanan, T. J.; Hartwell, J. H.

1972-01-01

163

Orion Crew Member Injury Predictions during Land and Water Landings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of astronaut whole body impact tolerance is discussed for land or water landings of the next generation manned space capsule named Orion. LS-DYNA simulations of Orion capsule landings are performed to produce a low, moderate, and high probability of injury. The paper evaluates finite element (FE) seat and occupant simulations for assessing injury risk for the Orion crew and compares these simulations to whole body injury models commonly referred to as the Brinkley criteria. The FE seat and crash dummy models allow for varying the occupant restraint systems, cushion materials, side constraints, flailing of limbs, and detailed seat/occupant interactions to minimize landing injuries to the crew. The FE crash test dummies used in conjunction with the Brinkley criteria provides a useful set of tools for predicting potential crew injuries during vehicle landings.

Lawrence, Charles; Littell, Justin D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Tabiei, Ala

2008-01-01

164

Reverse water level fluctuations in semiconfined aquifer systems — ``rhade effect''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pumping tests in semiconfined aquifer systems near Dorsten (F.R.G.) caused anomalous reverse water level fluctuations in observation wells tapping the overlying confining bed (aquitard) at different depths (multilevel piezometer). Whenever water is pumped from a well that is screened in the aquifer of the "Halterner Sande", the piezometric surface in the aquitard ("Bottroper Mergel") rises. After that increase, the water level falls according to the drawdown of head within the pumped aquifer (Noordbergum effect according to Verruijt, 1969). Conversely, the piezometric surface in the aquitard falls whenever the pump is shut off (Rhade effect). The anomalous water level reactions propagate with decreasing amplitude from the aquifer-aquitard boundary to the top of the semipermeable layer. Such water level fluctuations ("swelling effects") may be explained by the capability of a water-saturated, compacted material to change volume when subjected to sudden pressure changes. On a practical basis, the Noordbergum and Rhade effects must be taken into consideration for evaluating long-term changes in chemical and hydraulic properties in pumped, semiconfined aquifer systems.

Langguth, H. R.; Treskatis, C.

1989-07-01

165

Measuring Water Level Fluctuations of two Connected Wetlands in the Dominican Republic Using InSAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands are ecosystems of high endemism and great biodiversity. Using the double-reflected radar waves off the water surface and trunks of inundated vegetation, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is capable of measuring water level fluctuations from space at a cm-level accuracy in these ecosystems with emergent vegetation. InSAR can provide a high spatial resolution over a large area that the more traditional terrestrial-based methods lack. In this study, we applied InSAR to study the seasonal variations in water level of the wetlands near two lakes in the southwest of the Dominican Republic: Lake Enriquillo, a highly saline lake designated as a Wetland of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention in 2002, and Laguna del Limon. Both lake-wetland systems are located in the Jaragua-Bahoruco-Enriquillo Biosphere Reserve. Since 2003 the water level of Lake Enriquillo has increased drastically and caused the evacuation of many farmers from nearby villages. Lake level changes also affected the habitats of several native and migratory species. We used the data acquired by the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) sensor on board of the Japanese Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) from October 2008 to January 2011. For the smaller lake, Laguna del Limon, we found a seasonal variation of 10-15 centimeters. This result was confirmed using two different satellite paths. For Lake Enriquillo we found a net decrease of about 20 centimeters in the water level from September 2009 to January 2011. This result agrees with an independent estimation based on lake hydrodynamics model predictions. In addition, our InSAR-based time series of lake level fluctuations revealed distinct behaviors of the two wetlands. For the Lake Enriquillo we found a continuous decrease in the water level throughout 2010 with a brief increase of the water level during the summer months, while for Laguna del Limon during the summer months the water level decreased and the lake presented a net increase in the water level. The decrease in water level for Lake Enriquillo can be explained by the reduce precipitation rate in 2010 compared to previous years. We demonstrate that InSAR is an effective way to measure water level fluctuations at wetlands in this region. The same method could be applied to other wetlands in the area to fully understand the complex hydrology of the connected wetland systems and the impacts of the hydrological changes on the environment and local human community.

Pichardo Marcano, M. D.; Liu, L.; Zebker, H. A.

2012-12-01

166

Serum Myoglobin Levels Predicted from Serum Enzyme Values.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One-hundred-thirty-two of 337 Marine recruits (39.2%) had demonstrable myoglobinemia on at least one occasion during their first six training days. Serum myoglobin levels were determined by means of a specific and sensitive immunologic assay based on the ...

J. E. Olerud L. D. Homer H. W. Carroll

1975-01-01

167

Predicting the Proficiency Level of Language Learners Using Lexical Indices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores how second language (L2) texts written by learners at various proficiency levels can be classified using computational indices that characterize lexical competence. For this study, 100 writing samples taken from 100 L2 learners were analyzed using lexical indices reported by the computational tool Coh-Metrix. The L2 writing…

Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.

2012-01-01

168

Water PMF for predicting the properties of water molecules in protein binding site.  

PubMed

Water is an important component in living systems and deserves better understanding in chemistry and biology. However, due to the difficulty of investigating the water functions in protein structures, it is usually ignored in computational modeling, especially in the field of computer-aided drug design. Here, using the potential of mean forces (PMFs) approach, we constructed a water PMF (wPMF) based on 3946 non-redundant high resolution crystal structures. The extracted wPMF potential was first used to investigate the structure pattern of water and analyze the residue hydrophilicity. Then, the relationship between wPMF score and the B factor value of crystal waters was studied. It was found that wPMF agrees well with some previously reported experimental observations. In addition, the wPMF score was also tested in parallel with 3D-RISM to measure the ability of retrieving experimentally observed waters, and showed comparable performance but with much less computational cost. In the end, we proposed a grid-based clustering scheme together with a distance weighted wPMF score to further extend wPMF to predict the potential hydration sites of protein structure. From the test, this approach can predict the hydration site at the accuracy about 80% when the calculated score lower than -4.0. It also allows the assessment of whether or not a given water molecule should be targeted for displacement in ligand design. Overall, the wPMF presented here provides an optional solution to many water related computational modeling problems, some of which can be highly valuable as part of a rational drug design strategy. PMID:23114863

Zheng, Mingyue; Li, Yanlian; Xiong, Bing; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Jingkang

2013-03-15

169

Regional and State Level Water Scarcity Report: Northeast United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are an abundance of large-scale, coarse resolution global water scarcity studies, but the existing literature fails to address regional and state specific scarcity measures. Moreover, while environmental water requirements are an integral factor in the development and implementation of sustainable water management practices, only recently has this notion been introduced to water scarcity research. In this paper, we argue that developing a preliminary measure of water scarcity, at the regional and state levels, will allow for more informed policy development. The goal of this study is to generate a more comprehensive understanding of water scarcity in the Northeast, by gathering fine scale data, applying a consistent methodology to the calculation of a scarcity index, and analyzing the results to see relative trends in spatio-temporal water scarcity. Public supply, irrigation, rural, industrial and thermo-power withdrawals have been compiled from USGS state water use publications from 1950 to 1985. Using the WBMplus water model runoff data, state specific in-stream environmental water requirements were calculated using the accepted hydro-ecological methodology. Water scarcity was then calculated as a ratio of water withdrawals to total available water minus environmental flow requirements for the system. In so doing, this study generates a spatially explicit and temporally varying water scarcity indicator (WSI) for the Northeastern United States between 1950 and 2000 at the regional and state levels at a five-year time interval. Calculation of a spatial and temporal water scarcity indicator enabled us to identify regions and specific states that were: slightly exploited (WSI < 0.3), moderately exploited (0.31.0). The minimum environmental water requirements to maintain in-stream aquatic and riparian ecosystems for the Northeastern states ranged between 27.5 to 36.3 percent of the mean annual runoff within Vermont and Maryland, respectively. The regional WSI values ranged between 0.199 in 1950 and 0.512 in 1995, indicating increasing water scarcity over time as population and employment growth has placed greater demands on water resources. Additionally, our study revealed that in 1980, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania and New Jersey scarcity levels were 0.733, 0.790 and 0.857, respectively. Although the Northeastern United States is commonly perceived as a water rich region, moderate to heavily exploited levels of water stress were observed over the time period when a finer spatial scale is utilized. Water scarcity indicator values were disaggregated by state for each time period and illustrated using a series of maps. Additional descriptive statistics were used to elucidate the differences in water scarcity between states over time.

Nicoletti, C. K.; Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Mohammed, I. N.

2010-12-01

170

Smoking cessation: social comparison level predicts success for adult smokers.  

PubMed

The affiliation preferences of 151 adult heavy smokers who joined smoking cessation groups were assessed at the 1st group session and were then used to predict their smoking status 6 and 12 months later. Those who preferred to be in groups with other smokers who were having relatively little trouble quitting were more likely to be successful than were those who preferred others who were having more difficulty quitting. This prospective effect was mediated by psychological distancing from the image of the typical smoker: Preference for others who were doing well was associated with a decrease in perceived similarity to the typical smoker, which, in turn, was associated with successful cessation. Implications of these findings for cessation groups and social comparison theory are discussed. PMID:16287409

Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X; Lane, David J; Stock, Michelle L

2005-11-01

171

Modeling water ages and thermal structure of Lake Mead under changing water levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water age and thermal structure of Lake Mead were modeled using the 3-dimensional hydrodynamic Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). The model was calibrated using observed data from 2005 and then applied to simulate 2 scenarios: high-stage with an initial water level of 370.0 m and low-stage with a projected initial water level of 320.0 m. The high-stage simulation described predrought

Yiping Li; Kumud Acharya; Dong Chen; Mark Stone

2010-01-01

172

Teacher Ability To Predict Middle Level Student Responses to Ethical Dilemmas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined teachers' understanding of the moral development of middle level students via prediction of student responses to the behavior of fictitious students in ethical dilemma situations. Found that teachers were able to predict characters which students admired least, but were unable to predict characters the students most admired. (Author)

Bedwell, Lance E.; Helms, Emory C.; Hunt, Gilbert H.

1998-01-01

173

Predicting Spoken Language Level in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-five children who received an autism spectrum diagnosis at the age of 2 years (24 with autism, 11 with PDD-NOS) were re-evaluated 2 years later to examine factors related to the development of spoken language. Child variables (play level, motor imitation ability and joint attention) and environmental variables (socioeconomic status and hours of speech\\/language therapy between ages 2 and 3)

Wendy L. Stone; Paul J. Yoder

2001-01-01

174

Jack-up leveling barge for shallow water rigs  

SciTech Connect

Generally, the only alternative to a shell pad is a shallow water jack-up or a submersible rig. And in some instances, it is impractical to tow these mobile rigs to the location because of the necessary dredging. A possible solution to this problem, devised by Chain Jacks, Inc., is a jack-up leveling barge that extends its legs and pads to the bottom in waters ranging to 35 ft deep, then ballasts down to a depth of 10 ft or so below the surface. The barge-mounted rigs move over the leveling barges, ballast down and start rigging up. At this point, the leveling barge de-ballasts to minimize the load on the legs and mats. Chain Jack says the concept will enable barge mounted rigs to drill in waters ranging from 25 to 35 ft, and the cost will be considerably less than that of jack-ups or submersibles.

Not Available

1982-07-01

175

Daily water level by ENVISAT altimetry of the Amazon River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radar Altimetry is a remote sensing technique applied in order to obtain the level of water of the hydrological processes, mostly in remote regions such as in the Amazon basin. However, the altimetry satellites have a limitation in their temporal resolution, which in the case of ENVISAT is 35 days, which prevents the study of short-term hydrological events alert of floods and droughts and etc. Thus, a method of obtaining altimetric daily time series water level, based on a linear model of interpolation by optimization with multi-objective criteria was applied, using data from in situ on pluvial stations, along the Amazon River. The altimetry data validation show accurate results with a RMS of 11 cm, while the estimates carried out by the model obtained 63% of altimetric daily time series water level data with RMS less than 40 cm, thus allowing the use of altimetry data daily at various hydrological studies, hydrodynamic modeling and monitoring of extreme events.

Sousa, A. C.; Pereira, P.; Silva, J. S.; Calmant, S.; Seyler, F.

2013-05-01

176

Fuzzy logic model of lake water level fluctuations in Lake Van, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Van is one of the largest terminal lakes in the world. In recent years, significant lake level fluctuations have occurred and can be related to global climatic change. This fluctuation sometimes exhibits abrupt shifts. Floods originating from the lake can cause considerable damage and loss in agriculture and urban areas. Therefore, water level forecasting plays a significant role in planning and design. This study is aimed at predicting future lake levels from past rainfall amounts and water level records. A dynamical change of the lake level is evaluated by the fuzzy approach. The fuzzy inference system has the ability to use fuzzy membership functions that include the uncertainties of the concerned event. This method is applied for Lake Van, in east Turkey. Furthermore, model capabilities are compared with ARMAX model. It is shown that lower absolute errors are obtained with the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy approach than with the ARMAX model.

Altunkaynak, A.; ?en, Z.

2007-11-01

177

Real time prediction of sea level anomaly data with the Prognocean system - comparison of results obtained using different prediction techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prognocean is a near-real time modeling and prediction system elaborated and based at University of Wroclaw, Poland. It operates on gridded Sea Level Anomaly (SLA) data obtained from the Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic data (AVISO), France. The data acquisition flow from AVISO to Prognocean is entirely automatic and is implemented in Python. The core of the system - including data pre-processing, modeling, prediction, validation and visualization procedures - is composed of a series of R scripts that are interrelated and work at three levels of generalization. The objective of the work presented here is to show the results of our numerical experiment that have been carried out since early 2012. Four prediction models have been implemented to date: (1) extrapolation of polynomial-harmonic model and the extrapolation of polynomial-harmonic model with (2) autoregressive model, (3) threshold autoregressive model and (4) autocovariance procedure. Although the presentation is limited to four models and their predictive skills, Prognocean consists of modules and hence new techniques may be plugged in at any time. In this paper, the comparison of the results into forecasting sea level anomaly maps is presented. Along with sample predictions, with various lead times up to two weeks, we present and discuss a set of root mean square prediction error maps computed in real time after the observations have been available. We identified areas where linear prediction models reveal considerable errors, which may indicate a non-linear mode of sea level change. In addition, we have identified an agreement between the spatial pattern of large prediction errors and the spatial occurrence of key mesoscale ocean eddies.

Mizinski, Bartlomiej; Niedzielski, Tomasz; Kosek, Wieslaw

2013-04-01

178

Hydrologic effects on water level changes associated with episodic fault creep near Parkfield, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the Parkfield, California, earthquake prediction experiment, water level is monitored in a well 460 m from the main trace of the San Andreas fault on Middle Mountain, in the preparation zone of the anticipated Parkfield earthquake. The well configuration allows water level to be monitored in two fluid reservoirs at depths of 85 and 250 m below land surface. During 1987, water level changes were recorded during 12 of the 18 episodes of accelerated fault creep detected by a creep meter spanning the fault trace 750 m northwest of the well. The creep-related water level changes in the shallow reservoir have durations of less than 1 day, whereas in the deeper reservoir the changes persist for as long as 2 months. These data suggest that the transient nature of the water level changes in the shallow interval is due to vertical flow to the water table and is not evidence that creep events propagate past the well. -from Authors

Roeloffs, E. A.; Burford, S. S.; Riley, F. S.; Records, A. W.

1989-01-01

179

Identifying Factors Predicting the Math Computation and Math Reasoning Performance Levels of Latino Elementary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cohort of 87 Latino elementary school students participated in a study to identify factors predictive of the math reasoning and math computation performance levels. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine which of the five blocks or combination of blocks were significantly predictive of performance levels on two standardized academic…

Guthmiller, Mark L.

2010-01-01

180

Water Quality and pH Levels in Aquatic Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this fun and in depth hands-on experiment, learners test various liquid samples (distilled water, lemon juice, vinegar, and baking soda mixed with water) to determine their pH levels and identify each sample as either acid, base or neutral chemical. Then, over the course of several weeks, learners perform a number of tests and observe the affects of pH level on plants. The wrap up section of this activity discusses acid rain and its dramatic impact on aquatic animals, and tips for going further.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

181

Wii mote as hydrological sensor: observation of water level fluctuations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The input device of the Nintendo Wii, the Wii-mote offers scientist a multitude of cheap, high quality sensors; ideal for proof of concept testing. For a specific application, i.e. the water level fluctuation in a floating evaporation pan the Wii-mote was tested as the observing device. It is shown that the controller can observe movements with high enough temporal and spatial resolution of up to 4 infrared LED’s to describe water level movements. Floating pans positioned in lakes and reservoirs better represent open water evaporation than evaporation pans installed on land. On the other hand performing water level measurements in a floating pan is more complicated due to movement of the pan and wave activities in the pan. The Wii-mote was mounted on the side of a standard class A-pan and a float was placed in the middle of the pan, with 4 LED’s on top moving along a fixed bar. The information that the Wii-mote wirelessly sends by blue tooth was captured on a laptop. With a MATLAB routine this data was converted into movement of the LED’s relatively to the controller. The observations show that wave activities are nicely captured with a typical spatial resolution smaller than 0.1 mm in our set-up and a temporal resolution of maximum 100 Hz. A frequency domain filter was applied to the observed datasets to obtain average water levels. In our laboratory setting the pan was placed in a large basin with a wave generator. A constant, but small, rate of water was added to the evaporation pan. The average pan levels from the filtered datasets showed systematically lower levels compared to the level without any wave activities. This is a typical effect of waves that occur in shallow basins. However, the added water with rates up to 5 mm/hour were clearly recognized in the filtered datasets which indicates that the Wii-mote is very well capable as a sensor for water level observations.

Luxemburg, W.; Hut, R.; Weijs, S.; Hegnauer, M.

2009-12-01

182

CALCULATION OF NONLINEAR CONFIDENCE AND PREDICTION INTERVALS FOR GROUND-WATER FLOW MODELS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method is derived to efficiently compute nonlinear confidence and prediction intervals on any function of parameters derived as output from a mathematical model of a physical system. The method is applied to the problem of obtaining confidence and prediction intervals for manually-calibrated ground-water flow models. To obtain confidence and prediction intervals resulting from uncertainties in parameters, the calibrated model and information on extreme ranges and ordering of the model parameters within one or more independent groups are required. If random errors in the dependent variable are present in addition to uncertainties in parameters, then calculation of prediction intervals also requires information on the extreme range of error expected. A simple Monte Carlo method is used to compute the quantiles necessary to establish probability levels for the confidence and prediction intervals. Application of the method to a hypothetical example showed that inclusion of random errors in the dependent variable in addition to uncertainties in parameters can considerably widen the prediction intervals.

Cooley, Richard, L.; Vecchia, Aldo, V.

1987-01-01

183

Multiple metals predict prolactin and thyrotropin (TSH) levels in men  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to a number of metals can affect neuroendocrine and thyroid signaling, which can result in adverse effects on development, behavior, metabolism, reproduction, and other functions. The present study assessed the relationship between metal concentrations in blood and serum prolactin (PRL) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels, markers of dopaminergic, and thyroid function, respectively, among men participating in a study of environmental influences on male reproductive health. Blood samples from 219 men were analyzed for concentrations of 11 metals and serum levels of PRL and TSH. In multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, BMI and smoking, PRL was inversely associated with arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc, but positively associated with chromium. Several of these associations (Cd, Pb, Mo) are consistent with limited studies in humans or animals, and a number of the relationships (Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo) remained when additionally considering multiple metals in the model. Lead and copper were associated with non-monotonic decrease in TSH, while arsenic was associated with a dose-dependent increase in TSH. For arsenic these findings were consistent with recent experimental studies where arsenic inhibited enzymes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis and signaling. More research is needed for a better understanding of the role of metals in neuroendocrine and thyroid function and related health implications.

Meeker, John D., E-mail: meekerj@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 6635 SPH Tower, 109 S. Observatory St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Rossano, Mary G. [Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)] [Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Protas, Bridget [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Diamond, Michael P.; Puscheck, Elizabeth [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Daly, Douglas [Grand Rapids Fertility and IVF, Grand Rapids, MI (United States)] [Grand Rapids Fertility and IVF, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Paneth, Nigel [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Wirth, Julia J. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States) [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)

2009-10-15

184

Predictive analyses of ground-water discharges in the Willow Creek Watershed, northeast Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water discharge to Willow Creek in northeast Nebraska was predicted with a digital model of the ground-water/surface-water system. Recharge and irrigation requirements were determined with a model of the soil zone. The regional aquifer is Pliocene and Pleistocene sands and gravels. Water in the regional aquifer is unconfined in the western part of the watershed and confined in the eastern part. The confining layer is Pleistocene eolian silts with very fine sand interbeds overlying a basal clay. Where the regional aquifer is unconfined, perennial flow of Willow Creek is sustained by ground-water discharge. Where it is confined, the low hydraulic conductivity of the confining beds isolates the regional aquifer from Willow Creek. Adequate agreement between simulated and observed streamflows and water levels during 1975 and 1976 was obtained by modifying initial estimates of hydraulic conductivity and specific storage. The future perennial flow of Willow Creek was simulated by superimposing six patterns of ground-water withdrawals upon variations in recharge for a monthly climatic sequence identical with the period 1931-34. These analyses showed that the perennial monthly flows would be less than 12 cubic feet per second at least 50 percent of the time. (Woodard-USGS)

Dugan, Jack T.; Lappala, E. G.

1978-01-01

185

Predicting Group-Level Outcome Variables from Variables Measured at the Individual Level: A Latent Variable Multilevel Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In multilevel modeling, one often distinguishes between macro-micro and micro-macro situations. In a macro-micro multilevel situation, a dependent variable measured at the lower level is predicted or explained by variables measured at that lower or a higher level. In a micro-macro multilevel situation, a dependent variable defined at the higher…

Croon, Marcel A.; van Veldhoven, Marc J. P. M.

2007-01-01

186

Comparison of numerical models for predicting ground water rebound in abandoned deep mine systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cessation of dewatering usually results in ground water rebound after closing a deep underground mine because the mind voids and surrounding strata flood up to the levels of decant points such as shafts and drifts. Several numerical models have been developed to predict the timing, magnitude and location of discharges resulting from ground water rebound. We compared the numerical models such as VSS-NET, GRAM and MODFLOW codes at different spatial and time scales. Based on the comparisons, a new strategy is established to develop a program for ground water rebound modeling in abandoned deep mine systems. This presentation describes the new strategy and its application to an abandoned underground mine in Korea.

Choi, Y.; Baek, H.; Kim, D.

2012-12-01

187

Predicting the optimum number, location, and signal sound level of auditory warning devices for manufacturing facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical method for predicting the optimum number, location, and signal sound level of auditory warning devices is proposed. Factors which influence the perception of alarm signals, namely, ambient sound level, machining workstations (locations and their generated sound levels), workers' locations, and recommended signal sound level reaching workers are considered in the development of the objective function and constraints. Solving

Suebsak Nanthavanij; Pisal Yenradee

1999-01-01

188

Data assimilation and adaptive forecasting of water levels in the river Severn catchment, United Kingdom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes data assimilation (DA) and adaptive forecasting techniques for flood forecasting and their application to forecasting water levels at various locations along a 120 km reach of the river Severn, United Kingdom. The methodology exploits the top-down, data-based mechanistic (DBM) approach to the modeling of environmental processes, concentrating on the identification and estimation of those "dominant modes" of dynamic behavior that are most important for flood prediction. In particular, hydrological processes active in the catchment are modeled using the state-dependent parameter (SDP) method of estimating a nonlinear, effective rainfall transformation together with a linear stochastic transfer function (STF) method for characterizing both the effective rainfall-river level behavior and the river level routing processes. The complete model consists of these lumped parameter, linear and nonlinear stochastic, dynamic elements connected in a quasi-distributed manner that represents the physical structure of the catchment. The adaptive forecasting system then utilizes a state-space form of the complete catchment model, including allowance for heteroscedasticity in the errors, as the basis for data assimilation and forecasting using a Kalman filter forecasting engine. Here the predicted model states (water levels) and adaptive parameters are updated recursively in response to input data received in real time from sensors in the catchment. Direct water level forecasting is considered, rather than flow, because this removes the need to transform the level measurement through the rating curve and tends to decrease the forecasting errors.

Romanowicz, Renata J.; Young, Peter C.; Beven, Keith J.

2006-06-01

189

Water-Table Levels and Gradients, Nevada, 1947-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1999, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency began a program to protect the quality of ground water in areas other than ground-water protection areas. These other sensitive ground water areas (OSGWA) are areas that are not currently, but could eventually be, used as a source of drinking water. The OSGWA program specifically addresses existing wells that are used for underground injection of motor-vehicle waste. To help determine whether a well is in an OSGWA, the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection needs statewide information on depth to water and the water table, which partly control the susceptibility of ground water to contamination and contaminant transport. This report describes a study that used available maps and data to create statewide maps of water-table and depth-to-water contours and surfaces, assessed temporal changes in water-table levels, and characterized water-table gradients in selected areas of Nevada. A literature search of published water-table and depth-to-water contours produced maps of varying detail and scope in 104 reports published from 1948 to 2004. Where multiple maps covered the same area, criteria were used to select the most recent, detailed maps that covered the largest area and had plotted control points. These selection criteria resulted in water-table and depth-to-water contours that are based on data collected from 1947 to 2004 being selected from 39 reports. If not already available digitally, contours and control points were digitized from selected maps, entered into a geographic information system, and combined to make a statewide map of water-table contours. Water-table surfaces were made by using inverse distance weighting to estimate the water table between contours and then gridding the estimates. Depth-to-water surfaces were made by subtracting the water-table altitude from the land-surface altitude. Water-table and depth-to-water surfaces were made for only 21 percent of Nevada because of a lack of information for 49 of 232 basins and for most consolidated-rock hydrogeologic units. Depth to water is commonly less than 50 feet beneath valley floors, 50 to 500 feet beneath alluvial fans, and more than 500 feet in some areas such as north-central and southern Nevada. In areas without water-table information, greasewood and mapped ground-water discharge areas are good indicators of depth to water less than 100 feet. The average difference between measured depth to water and depth to water estimated from surfaces was 90 feet. More recent and detailed information may be needed than that presented in this report to evaluate a specific site. Temporal changes in water-table levels were evaluated for 1,981 wells with 10 or more years between the first depth-to-water measurement and last measurement made since 1990. The greatest increases in depth to water occurred where the first measurement was less than 200 feet, where the time between first and last measurements was 40 years or less, and for wells between 100 and 600 feet deep. These characteristics describe production wells where ground water is fairly shallow in recently developing areas such as the Las Vegas and Reno metropolitan areas. In basins with little pumping, 90 percent of the changes during the past 100 years are within ?20 feet, which is about the natural variation in the water table due to changes in the climate and recharge. Gradients in unconsolidated sediments of the Great Basin are generally steep near mountain fronts, shallow beneath valley floors, and depend on variables such as the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of adjacent consolidated rocks and recharge. Gradients beneath alluvial fans and valley floors at 58 sites were correlated with selected variables to identify those variables that are statistically related. Water-table measurements at three sites were used to characterize the water table between the valley floor and consolidated rock. Water-table gradients beneath alluvial fan

Lopes, Thomas J.; Buto, Susan G.; Smith, J. LaRue; Welborn, Toby L.

2006-01-01

190

Analysis of water level variations in Brazilian basins using GRACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison between daily in-situ water level time series measured at ground-based hydrometric stations (HS - 1,899 stations located in twelve Brazilian basins) of the Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA) with vertically-integrated water height anomaly deduced from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) geoid is carried out in Brazil. The equivalent water height (EWH) of 10-day intervals of GRACE models were computed by GRGS/CNES. It is a 6-year analysis (July-2002 to May-2008). The coefficient of determination is computed between the ANA water level and GRACE EWH. Values higher than 0.6 were detected in the following basins: Amazon, north of Paraguay, Tocantins-Araguaia, Western North-East Atlantic and north of the Parnaíba. In the Uruguay (Pampas region) and the west of São Francisco basins, the coefficient of determination is around 0.5 and 0.6. These results were adjusted with a linear transfer function and two second degree polynomials (flood and ebb period) between GRACE EWH and ANA water level. The behavior of these two polynomials is related to the phase difference of the two time series and yielded four different types of responses. This paper shows seven ANA stations that represent these responses and relates them with their hydro-geological domain.

Matos, A.; Blitzkow, D.; Almeida, F.; Costa, S.; Campos, I.; Barbosa, A.

2012-01-01

191

Recent Developments in Canadian Tide and Water Level Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for accurate and continuous measurement of tides and water levels in the harsh climate of most Canada's seaboard and inland waterways presents a number of challenging problems in instrumentation. In this context, the philosophy behind our present and projected equipment needs is described, followed by a detailed discussion of some recent research and development which has resulted in

D. DeWolfe; B. Tait; B. White

1981-01-01

192

Extraction of wave information from NOAA's water level measurement network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term coastal wave data are useful information for public safety, coastal erosion studies, coastal flood planning, and coastal engineering projects because of great spatial variability along the coast lines. The collection of such data, however, is quite difficult and expensive. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining surface wave information from existing NOAA Next Generation Water Level Measurement Systems (NGWLMS)

H. H. Shih; M. A. Basileo

1996-01-01

193

RTK GPS water level measurement on dynamic sea surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers have been placed on buoys to determine the height of sea surface. GPS buoy always have an advantages over traditional techniques in measuring water level, which is their ability to determine heights relative to an absolute reference frame. There are scenarios where it is not practical or difficult to install a conventional

Siti Hawa Mohd Ngagipar; Othman Mohd Yusof

2011-01-01

194

Replacement of NOAA's National Tide and Water Level Measurement System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the missions, products and system requirements for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) next-generation tide and water level measurement system. It traces the ongoing process of system improvements which are necessary to: (1) maintain and enhance operation of the measurement system; (2) maintain and improve the quality of the data collected, and (3) ultimately improve the

T. Bartholemew; D. Spillman

1981-01-01

195

Stability and Change in Longitudinal Water-Level Task Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three samples of 8- to 16-year olds were assessed three times at yearly intervals on eight water-level items. Within-child change over age was viewed as stochastic process of the child changing or remaining in one of three latent strategy states. Although there was improvement in task performance over age, the general finding was that strategy…

Thomas, Hoben; Lohaus, Arnold; Kessler, Thomas

1999-01-01

196

A Receding Horizon Controller for the Steam Generator Water Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the receding horizon control method was used to control the water level of nuclear steam generators and applied to two linear models and also a nonlinear model of steam generators. A receding horizon control method is to solve an optimization problem for finite future steps at current time and to implement the first optimal control input as

Man Gyun Na; Yoon Joon Lee

2003-01-01

197

CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT WATER LEAD LEVELS AND LEAD NEUROTOXICITY?  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent reports have attempted to show that certain approaches to fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of nexafluo...

198

TRIHALOMETHANE LEVELS IN HOME TAP WATER AND SEMEN QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Trihalomethane Levels in Home Tap Water and Semen Quality Laura Fenster, 1 Kirsten Waller, 2 Gayle Windham, 1 Tanya Henneman, 2 Meredith Anderson, 2 Pauline Mendola, 3 James W. Overstreet, 4 Shanna H. Swan5 1California Department of Health Services, Division of Environm...

199

Serum Parathyroid Hormone Levels Predict Falls in Older Diabetic Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the association between serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and incident falls in older diabetic adults. Design Longitudinal analysis of incident falls over 1 year in a sub-study of diabetic participants in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study. Setting Pittsburgh, PA, and Memphis, TN. Participants Well-functioning, community-dwelling black and white adults aged 70-79 with diabetes (n = 472). Measurements Measured baseline serum PTH. Self-report of falls over the subsequent 12 months. Baseline physical performance and self-reported demographic, behavioral, and health status measures including kidney function, chronic conditions and medication use. Results 30.3% of participants reported falling over one year of follow-up. The mean ± SD baseline serum PTH was 53.5 ± 30.0 pg/mL in non-fallers and 62.6 ± 46.2 pg/mL in fallers (p = 0.01). For every 1 SD (36 pg/mL) increment in baseline serum PTH, there was approximately a 30% increased likelihood of reporting a fall in the subsequent year after adjusting for age, gender, race, field center, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity, and winter/spring season (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.59). Further adjustment for kidney function, chronic conditions, medication and supplement use, and physical performance attenuated the association slightly (OR (95% CI): 1.26 (1.01-1.58)). A trend remained after additional adjustment for reported falls in the previous year. Conclusion Higher serum PTH was associated with incident falls among older, well-functioning diabetic men and women. Further investigation aimed at understanding the underlying mechanism for the association between serum PTH and falls is needed.

Houston, Denise K.; Schwartz, Ann V.; Cauley, Jane A.; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Harris, Tamara B.; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Schwartz, Gary G.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

2008-01-01

200

Baldcypress response to increased water levels, Caddo Lake, Louisiana-Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of baldcypress stands associated with Caddo Lake was undertaken as part of an evaluation of a proposed project\\u000a to increase storage capacity of the lake. Existing stands either were impacted by or established in response to an increase\\u000a in water levels that occurred seventy years ago. Examination of stand characteristics and hydrologic records indicated a predictable\\u000a response to

Charles V. Klimas; S. Arm

1987-01-01

201

Isoform-level microRNA-155 target prediction using RNA-seq  

PubMed Central

Computational prediction of microRNA targets remains a challenging problem. The existing rule-based, data-driven and expression profiling approaches to target prediction are mostly approached from the gene-level. The increasing availability of RNA-seq data provides a new perspective for microRNA target prediction on the isoform-level. We hypothesize that the splicing isoform is the ultimate effector in microRNA targeting and that the proposed isoform-level approach is capable of predicting non-dominant isoform targets as well as their targeting regions that are otherwise invisible to many existing approaches. To test the hypothesis, we used an iterative expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to quantify transcriptomes at the isoform-level. The performance of the EM algorithm in transcriptome quantification was examined in simulation studies using FluxSimulator. We used joint evidence from isoform-level down-regulation and seed enrichment to predict microRNA-155 targets. We validated our computational approach using results from 149 in-house performed in vitro 3?-UTR assays. We also augmented the splicing database using exon–exon junction evidence, and applied the EM algorithm to predict and quantify 1572 cell line specific novel isoforms. Combined with seed enrichment analysis, we predicted 51 novel microRNA-155 isoform targets. Our work is among the first computational studies advocating the isoform-level microRNA target prediction.

Deng, Nan; Puetter, Adriane; Zhang, Kun; Johnson, Kristen; Zhao, Zhiyu; Taylor, Christopher; Flemington, Erik K.; Zhu, Dongxiao

2011-01-01

202

Predicting population dynamics from the properties of individuals: a cross-level test of dynamic energy budget theory.  

PubMed

Individual-based models (IBMs) are increasingly used to link the dynamics of individuals to higher levels of biological organization. Still, many IBMs are data hungry, species specific, and time-consuming to develop and analyze. Many of these issues would be resolved by using general theories of individual dynamics as the basis for IBMs. While such theories have frequently been examined at the individual level, few cross-level tests exist that also try to predict population dynamics. Here we performed a cross-level test of dynamic energy budget (DEB) theory by parameterizing an individual-based model using individual-level data of the water flea, Daphnia magna, and comparing the emerging population dynamics to independent data from population experiments. We found that DEB theory successfully predicted population growth rates and peak densities but failed to capture the decline phase. Further assumptions on food-dependent mortality of juveniles were needed to capture the population dynamics after the initial population peak. The resulting model then predicted, without further calibration, characteristic switches between small- and large-amplitude cycles, which have been observed for Daphnia. We conclude that cross-level tests help detect gaps in current individual-level theories and ultimately will lead to theory development and the establishment of a generic basis for individual-based models and ecology. PMID:23535615

Martin, Benjamin T; Jager, Tjalling; Nisbet, Roger M; Preuss, Thomas G; Grimm, Volker

2013-04-01

203

Relationships between levels of heterotrophic bacteria and water quality parameters in a drinking water distribution system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional plating methods were used to quantify heterotrophic bacteria from a drinking water distribution system. Three media, plate count agar (PCA), R2A agar and sheep blood agar (TSA-SB) were used to determine heterotrophic plate count (HPC) levels. Grab samples were collected weekly during the summer and autumn of 1997 at four locations in a municipal water distribution system. The four

J. T Carter; E. W Rice; S. G Buchberger; Y Lee

2000-01-01

204

Estimation of the uncertainty in water level forecasts at ungauged locations using Quantile Regression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water level predictions in rivers are used by operational managers to make water management decisions. Such decisions can concern water routing in times of drought, operation of weirs, and actions for flood protection, such as evacuation. Understanding the uncertainty in the predictions can help managers make better-informed decisions. Conditional Quantile Regression is a method that can be used to determine the uncertainty in forecasted water levels by providing an estimate of the probability density function of the error in the prediction conditional on the forecasted water level. To derive this relationship, a series of forecasts and errors in the forecasts (residuals) are required. Thus, conditional quantile regressions can be derived for locations where both observations and forecasts are available. However, 1D-hydraulic models that are used for operational forecasting produce forecasts at intermediate points where no measurements are available but for which predictive uncertainty estimates are also desired for decision making. The objective of our study is to test if interpolation methods can be used to adequately estimate conditional quantile regressions at these in-between locations. For this purpose, five years of hindcasts were used at seven stations along the IJssel River in the Netherlands. Residuals in water level hindcasts were interpolated at the five in-between lying stations. The interpolation was based solely on distance and the interpolated residuals were compared to the measured residuals at stations at the in-between locations. The resulting interpolated residuals estimated the measured residuals well, especially for longer lead times. Quantile regression was then carried out using the series of forecasts and interpolated residuals at the in-between stations. The interpolated quantile regressions were compared with regressions calibrated using the actual residuals at the in-between stations. Results show that even a simple interpolation based solely on distance provides good quantile estimates, making this method a promising option for estimating uncertainty in water level forecasts at locations without measurements. Practical considerations for implementing the method operationally will be discussed.

Roscoe, K. L.; Weerts, A. H.

2012-04-01

205

The Water Resources Division water level recorder rental program; history and operation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey introduced a new water level recorder in the early 1960 's to automate computation of streamflow records. At the same time it developed a rental program as a means of providing the recorders to field offices. This report documents the experience gained over the past 20 years and offers suggestions for operation of a rental program in the future, as preparation is made to introduce a third generation of water level recorders. (USGS)

Jeffers, S. R.; Wagner, C. R.

1984-01-01

206

Elevated fasting glucose levels predicts IGT and diabetes also in middle-age subjects.  

PubMed

To add to the discussion whether higher normal range fasting plasma glucose levels or "IFG" may be able to predict the risk to develop type 2 diabetes we tested in 294 healthy middle-age persons during a mean follow up time of 3.8 years which range of fasting glucose levels allowed to predict type 2 diabetes. A significant increase in frequency of IGT/diabetes was significantly observed for the "IFG" category. We therefore conclude that elevated fasting glucose levels in the "IFG" category predict the development of IGT/diabetes in a middle-age population. PMID:17092598

Schwarz, Peter E H; Bornstein, Stefan R; Hanefeld, Markolf

2007-07-01

207

Average County-Level IQ Predicts County-Level Disadvantage and Several County-Level Mortality Risk Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research utilizing individual-level data has reported a link between intelligence (IQ) scores and health problems, including early mortality risk. A growing body of evidence has found similar associations at higher levels of aggregation such as the state- and national-level. At the same time, individual-level research has suggested the…

Barnes, J. C.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Boutwell, Brian B.

2013-01-01

208

Predicting Homework Time Management at the Secondary School Level: A Multilevel Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to test empirical models of variables posited to predict homework time management at the secondary school level. Student- and class-level predictors of homework time management were analyzed in a survey of 1895 students from 111 classes. Most of the variance in homework time management occurred at the student level,…

Xu, Jianzhong

2010-01-01

209

Exploring predictions of safe operating spaces for human water use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Nature article 'A safe operating space for humanity', Rockström et al. (2009) introduce the idea of a safe space for human activities that will not push the planet out of the 'Holocene state'. Rockström et al. have identified nine earth-system processes and associated thresholds which, if crossed, are expected to generate unacceptable environmental change. Rockström et al. (2009) focus on the scientific prediction of these thresholds. Concerning the use of these boundaries for public policy, these authors limit their efforts to concluding that the evidence so far suggests that, as long as the thresholds are not crossed, humanity has the freedom to pursue long-term social and economic development. The approach advocated by Rockström et al. (2009) is plagued by two related problems: uncertainty and dynamic complexity (Molden, 2009; Brewer, 2009). The latter problem addresses the reductionist approach of Rockström et al and argues, in opposition, that the limits on each of the nine earth-system processes are co-depended and thus the safe operating space constitutes a single multi-dimensional space that can only be identified holistically. The first problem is that our current scientific knowledge and understanding of the earth system is incomplete and partly contested. A majority of the authors reacting on the global limit concept do however emphasize their relevance as "targets for policy makers". However, the two problems imply that the establishment of predicted global limits as a substantive base for public policy is meaningless. Still, the presence of scientific uncertainty and dynamic complexity and thus the omnipresence of unpredictability need not be used as an excuse to ignore the importance of a substantive grounding of these policies. In this paper, we argue and show how despite dynamic complexity and irreducible uncertainty, policies can be designed, tested, and shown to be effective in reaching broad social goals related to social and economic development. To this end, we utilize ANEMI (Davies and Simonovic, 2011), a dynamic impact assessment model of the planetary fresh water cycle and related systems (e.g. economy, land use, population, and climate). We assess the dynamics of this model over a broad range of different uncertainties; we identify combinations of uncertainties that produce dynamics that threaten the flourishing of humanity, and use these insights to develop public policies that can counteract these undesirable dynamics.

Kwakkel, J. H.; Timmermans, J. S.

2012-04-01

210

Effects of artificial-recharge experiments at Ship Creek alluvial fan on water levels at Spring Acres Subdivision, Anchorage, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effect of the artificial recharge experiments on water levels at Spring Acres subdivision, Anchorage, Alaska, was evaluated using two digital models constructed to simulate groundwater movement and water-level rises induced by the artificial recharge. The models predicted that the artificial recharge would have caused water levels in the aquifer immediately underlying Spring Acres subdivision to rise 0.2 foot from May 20 to August 7, 1975. The models also predicted a total rise in groundwater levels of 1.1 feet at this location from July 16, 1973 to August 7, 1975, as a result of the artificial-recharge experiments. Water-level data collected from auger holes in March 1975 by a consulting firm for the contractor indicated a depth to water of 6-7 feet below land surface at Spring Acres subdivision at this time. Water levels measured in and near Spring Acres subdivision several years before and after the 1973-75 artificial-recharge experiments showed seasonal rises of 2 to 12.4 feet. A depth to water below land surface of 2.6 feet was measured 600 feet from the subdivision in 1971 and in the subdivision in 1977. Average measured depth to water in the area was 7.0 feet from early 1976 to September 1979. (USGS)

Meyer, William; Patrick, Leslie

1980-01-01

211

Predictive control as an intelligent tool to manage water distribution networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh water is becoming a major concern in actual societies as it represents only 2.5% of the total Earth water reserves. Some recent studies point the year 2025 when 2 of every 3 persons will be affected by the lack of fresh water. This paper presents a predictive controller strategy that is implemented on a modern automated water canal where

João Figueiredo; José Sá da Costa

2006-01-01

212

Remotely mapping river water quality using multivariate regression with prediction validation.  

SciTech Connect

Remote spectral sensing offers an attractive means of mapping river water quality over wide spatial regions. While previous research has focused on development of spectral indices and models to predict river water quality based on remote images, little attention has been paid to subsequent validation of these predictions. To address this oversight, we describe a retrospective analysis of remote, multispectral Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) images of the Ohio River and its Licking River and Little Miami River tributaries. In conjunction with the CASI acquisitions, ground truth measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity were made for a small set of locations in the Ohio River. Partial least squares regression models relating the remote river images to ground truth measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity for the Ohio River were developed. Employing these multivariate models, chlorophyll-a concentrations and turbidity levels were predicted in river pixels lacking ground truth measurements, generating detailed estimated water quality maps. An important but often neglected step in the regression process is to validate prediction results using a spectral residual statistic. For both the chlorophyll-a and turbidity regression models, a spectral residual value was calculated for each river pixel and compared to the associated statistical confidence limit for the model. These spectral residual statistic results revealed that while the chlorophyll-a and turbidity models could validly be applied to a vast majority of Ohio River and Licking River pixels, application of these models to Little Miami River pixels was inappropriate due to an unmodeled source of spectral variation.

Stork, Christopher Lyle; Autry, Bradley C. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)

2005-07-01

213

Prediction of the Caspian Sea level using ECMWF seasonal forecasts and reanalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrological budget of the Caspian Sea (CS) is investigated using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts interim reanalysis (ERAi) and seasonal forecast (FCST) data with the aim of predicting the Caspian Sea Level (CSL) some months ahead. Precipitation and evaporation are used. After precipitation events over the Volga River, the discharge (Volga River discharge (VRD)) follows with delays, which are parameterized. The components of the water budget from ERAi and FCSTs are integrated to obtain time series of the CSL. Observations of the CSL and the VRD are used for comparison and tuning. The quality of ERAi data is sufficiently good to calculate the time variability of the CSL with a satisfactory accuracy. Already the storage of water within the Volga Basin allows forecasts of the CSL a few months ahead, and using the FCSTs of precipitation improves the CSL forecasts. The evaporation in the seasonal forecasts is deficient due to unrealistic sea surface temperatures over the CS. Impacts of different water budget terms on the CSL variability are shown by a variety of validation tools. The importance of precipitation anomalies over the catchment of the Volga River is confirmed, but also impacts from the two southern rivers (Sefidrud and Kura River) and the evaporation over the CS become obvious for some periods. When pushing the FCSTs beyond the limits of the seasonal FCSTs to 1 year, considerable forecast skill can still be found. Validating only FCSTs by the present approach, which show the same trend as one based on a statistical method, significantly enhances the skill scores.

Arpe, K.; Leroy, S. A. G.; Wetterhall, F.; Khan, V.; Hagemann, S.; Lahijani, H.

2013-08-01

214

The predictability of strong-campbell interest themes among tertiary-level students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest assessment is an integral part of vocational counselling. In this study, tertiary-level students predicted their Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory theme scores prior to receiving test results. Findings revealed considerable accuracy in the predictions. Significant results relating to year of tertiary education, sex differences, and differences between seekers and non-seekers of counselling, are discussed, along with implications for counselling.

A. P. Thompson; G. E. Hutchinson

1981-01-01

215

A Bayesian network to predict coastal vulnerability to sea level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sea level rise during the 21st century will have a wide range of effects on coastal environments, human development, and infrastructure in coastal areas. The broad range of complex factors influencing coastal systems contributes to large uncertainties in predicting long-term sea level rise impacts. Here we explore and demonstrate the capabilities of a Bayesian network (BN) to predict long-term shoreline change associated with sea level rise and make quantitative assessments of prediction uncertainty. A BN is used to define relationships between driving forces, geologic constraints, and coastal response for the U.S. Atlantic coast that include observations of local rates of relative sea level rise, wave height, tide range, geomorphic classification, coastal slope, and shoreline change rate. The BN is used to make probabilistic predictions of shoreline retreat in response to different future sea level rise rates. Results demonstrate that the probability of shoreline retreat increases with higher rates of sea level rise. Where more specific information is included, the probability of shoreline change increases in a number of cases, indicating more confident predictions. A hindcast evaluation of the BN indicates that the network correctly predicts 71% of the cases. Evaluation of the results using Brier skill and log likelihood ratio scores indicates that the network provides shoreline change predictions that are better than the prior probability. Shoreline change outcomes indicating stability (-1 1 m/yr) was not well predicted. We find that BNs can assimilate important factors contributing to coastal change in response to sea level rise and can make quantitative, probabilistic predictions that can be applied to coastal management decisions. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Gutierrez, B. T.; Plant, N. G.; Thieler, E. R.

2011-01-01

216

Application of Excitation Function to the Prediction of RI Level Caused by Corona Discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio interference (RI), as an aftereffect of corona discharge, is an important research topic in the field of electromagnetic compatibility, where excitation function is applied broadly to the prediction of RI level. This paper presents the theory of excitation function method used in the RI level prediction. Then, some practical problems related to this method are discussed. The propagation procedure of corona current is solved by the phase-modal transformation, and the impedance matrix of multi transmission lines is calculated by a double logarithmic approximate model of Carson's Ground-Return impedance. At the same time, in order to calculate the RI level when total line corona is assumed, an analytical formula is deduced for integral operation. Based on the above solutions, an algorithm is presented and applied to the prediction of RI level of a practical overhead transmission line. Comparison of prediction and measurement results indicates that the algorithm proposed in this paper is effective and feasible.

Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Hui, Sisi; Guo, Jun; Li, Yansong; Fu, Chenzhao

2012-12-01

217

Methods of measuring water levels in deep wells  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accurate measurement of water levels deeper than 1,000 feet in wells requires specialized equipment. Corrections for stretch and thermal expansion of measuring tapes must be considered, and other measuring devices must be calibrated periodically. Bore-hole deviation corrections also must be made. Devices for recording fluctuation of fluid level usually require mechanical modification for use at these depths. A multichannel recording device utilizing pressure transducers has been constructed. This device was originally designed to record aquifer response to nearby underground nuclear explosions but can also be used for recording data from multi-well pumping tests. Bottom-hole recording devices designed for oil-field use have been utilized in a limited manner. These devices were generally found to lack the precision required, in ground-water investigations at the Nevada Test Site but may be applicable in other areas. A newly developed bottom-hole recording pressure gauge of improved accuracy has been used with satisfactory results.

Garber, M. S.; Koopman, F. C.

1968-01-01

218

Off-calibration effects on boiling water reactor water level instruments that tap into jet pump diffusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of water level instruments are included in boiling water reactor (BWR) plant design. These instruments measure reactor pressure vessel (RPV) water level by measuring the differential pressure (DP) between a fixed-height water column (the reference leg) and the RPV (the variable leg) and converting the DP to a height of water. Thus, plant conditions that affect the DP

J. Post; M. Opstad

1989-01-01

219

Understanding and predicting climate variations in the Middle East for sustainable water resource management and development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water issues are a source of tension between Israelis and Palestinians. In the and region of the Middle East, water supply is not just scarce but also uncertain: It is not uncommon for annual rainfall to be as little as 60% or as much as 125% of the multiannual average. This combination of scarcity and uncertainty exacerbates the already strained economy and the already tensed political situation. The uncertainty could be alleviated if it were possible to better forecast water availability. Such forecasting is key not only for water planning and management, but also for economic policy and for political decision making. Water forecasts at multiple time scales are necessary for crop choice, aquifer operation and investments in desalination infrastructure. The unequivocal warming of the climate system adds another level of uncertainty as global and regional water cycles change. This makes the prediction of water availability an even greater challenge. Understanding the impact of climate change on precipitation can provide the information necessary for appropriate risk assessment and water planning. Unfortunately, current global circulation models (GCMs) are only able to predict long term climatic evolution at large scales but not local rainfall. The statistics of local precipitation are traditionally predicted using historical rainfall data. Obviously these data cannot anticipate changes that result from climate change. It is therefore clear that integration of the global information about climate evolution and local historical data is needed to provide the much needed predictions of regional water availability. Currently, there is no theoretical or computational framework that enables such integration for this region. In this dissertation both a conceptual framework and a computational platform for such integration are introduced. In particular, suite of models that link forecasts of climatic evolution under different CO2 emissions scenarios to observed rainfall data from local stations are developed. These are used to develop scenarios for local rainfall statistics such as average annual amounts, dry spells, wet spells and drought persistence. This suite of models can provide information that is not attainable from existing tools in terms of its spatial and temporal resolution. Specifically, the goal is to project the impact of established global climate change scenarios in this region and, how much of the change might be mitigated by proposed CO2 reduction strategies. A major problem in this enterprise is to find the best way to integrate global climatic information with local rainfall data. From the climatologic perspective the problem is to find the right teleconnections. That is, non local or global measurable phenomena that influence local rainfall in a way that could be characterized and quantified statistically. From the computational perspective the challenge is to model these subtle, nonlinear relationships and to downscale the global effects into local predictions. Climate simulations to the year 2100 under selected climate change scenarios are used. Overall, the suite of models developed and presented can be applied to answer most questions from the different water users and planners. Farmers and the irrigation community can ask "What is the probability of rain over the next week?" Policy makers can ask "How much desalination capacity will I need to meet demand 90% of the time in the climate change scenario over the next 20 years?" Aquifer managers can ask "What is the expected recharge rate of the aquifers over the next decade?" The use of climate driven answers to these questions will help the region better prepare and adapt to future shifts in water resources and availability.

Samuels, Rana

220

Trace metal levels in freshwater fish, sediment and water.  

PubMed

The trace metal concentrations in water, sediment and aquatic organisms, such as fish, could indicate the level and tendency of the pollution. This is important not only for the protection of the environment, but for evaluation of the quality of fish meat either captured from natural waters or cultured in fishponds. The total trace metal concentrations in samples of fish from different regions of Hungary and from different species have been determined by using an X-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF). Water, sediment and fish samples from fishpond systems with different feeding and stocking has also been analyzed. In the case of zinc contents, differences have been traced between the cultured and wild common carp. In the case of common carp reared under different feeding conditions, differences were also observed in the zinc concentration. The retention of the trace metals in the fish has been studied by measuring the levels in sediment, water and feed. The different retention can be explained by the different availability of zinc in the applied feeds, which can be related to the presence of different metal species in the feeds. PMID:11601363

Sandor, Z; Csengeri, I; Oncsik, M B; Alexis, M N; Zubcova, E

2001-01-01

221

Projecting Future Water Levels of the Laurentian Great Lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laurentian Great Lakes are the largest freshwater system on Earth, containing 84% of North America's freshwater. The lakes are a valuable economic and recreational resource, valued at over 62 billion in annual wages and supporting a 7 billion fishery. Shipping, recreation, and coastal property values are significantly impacted by water level variability, with large economic consequences. Great Lakes water levels fluctuate both seasonally and long-term, responding to natural and anthropogenic climate changes. Due to the integrated nature of water levels, a prolonged small change in any one of the net basin supply components: over-lake precipitation, watershed runoff, or evaporation from the lake surface, may result in important trends in water levels. We utilize the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics's Regional Climate Model Version 4.5.6 to dynamically downscale three global global climate models that represent a spread of potential future climate change for the region to determine whether the climate models suggest a robust response of the Laurentian Great Lakes to anthropogenic climate change. The Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate Version 5 (MIROC5), the National Centre for Meteorological Research Earth system model (CNRM-CM5), and the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) project different regional temperature increases and precipitation change over the next century and are used as lateral boundary conditions. We simulate the historical (1980-2000) and late-century periods (2080-2100). Upon model evaluation we will present dynamically downscaled projections of net basin supply changes for each of the Laurentian Great Lakes.

Bennington, V.; Notaro, M.; Holman, K.

2013-12-01

222

Effect of earth tide on deep well water level  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of the partial differential equations of the water level in a deep well that is affected by the bulk strain tide,\\u000a the boundary conditions of permeating each other between aquifer and well are considered. The solutions of the equations have\\u000a been obtained by the superposition principle, inpulse theorem and separation of the variations. Some suitable values are

Zhaodong Zhang; Jinhan Zheng; Chugang Feng

1992-01-01

223

Measurement and prediction of speech and noise levels and the Lombard effect in eating establishments.  

PubMed

Measurements made of the acoustical characteristics of, and occupied noise levels in, ten eating establishments are described. Levels to which diners and employees were exposed varied from 45 to 82 dB(A). From these levels and diner questionnaire responses, the number of customers present and average noise levels to which individual diners were exposed during their visits were estimated. These data, assumptions about the number of talkers per customer, and classical room-acoustical theory were used to deduce talker voice output levels. These varied from slightly above "casual" to "loud." An iterative model for predicting speech and noise levels in eating establishments, including the Lombard effect as described by a new, proposed model, was developed. With the measured noise levels as the target for prediction, optimization techniques were used to find best estimates of unknown prediction parameters--such as those defining the Lombard effect, the number of talkers per customer, and the average absorption per customer--with highly credible results. The prediction algorithm and optimal parameters constitute a novel model for predicting speech and noise levels--and thus speech intelligibility--in eating establishments, as a function of the number of customers, including a proven, realistic model of the Lombard effect. PMID:17471719

Hodgson, Murray; Steininger, Gavin; Razavi, Zohreh

2007-04-01

224

Prediction of light aircraft interior sound pressure level using the room equation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The room equation is investigated for predicting interior sound level. The method makes use of an acoustic power balance, by equating net power flow into the cabin volume to power dissipated within the cabin using the room equation. The sound power level transmitted through the panels was calculated by multiplying the measured space averaged transmitted intensity for each panel by its surface area. The sound pressure level was obtained by summing the mean square sound pressures radiated from each panel. The data obtained supported the room equation model in predicting the cabin interior sound pressure level.

Atwal, M.; Bernhard, R.

1984-01-01

225

Predicting Product Water Quality from the 600-Gallon-Per-Hour Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Unit. Field Water Supply on the Winter Battlefield.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary equation for predicting the total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration in the product water from the 600-gph ROWPU is presented. The equation requires the raw water temperature and TDS concentration as input data. Both of these variables can...

J. R. Bouzoun

1988-01-01

226

BIOASSAY PROCEDURE FOR PREDICTING COLIFORM BACTERIAL GROWTH IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Water quality degradation due to the growth of microorganisms Is an area of concern for many water utilities. urrently the nutrient status of drinking water is difficult to measure and can only be defined in relative terms. o date, the procedures developed for determining the amo...

227

BIOASSAY PROCEDURES FOR PREDICTING COLIFORM BACTERIAL GROWTH IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Water quality degradation due to the growth of microorganisms is an area of concern for many water utilities. o date, the procedures developed or determining the amount of biodegradable material present in potable water have utilized heterotrophic non-coliform bacteria as bioassa...

228

The acute-phase response varies with time and predicts serum albumin levels in hemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute-phase response varies with time and predicts serum albumin levels in hemodialysis patients.BackgroundCross sectional studies have established that the serum albumin level is dependent on serum levels of acute-phase proteins (APPs) or cytokine levels in hemodialysis patients. While the acute-phase response is generally associated with acute inflammatory events, a cross sectional analysis relating laboratory values to outcomes assumes these

George A. Kaysen; Joel A. Dubin; Hans G. Muller; Laura M. Rosales; Nathan W. Levin

2000-01-01

229

Flow in a limestone aquifer as determined from water tracing and water levels in wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Inner Bluegrass Karst Region of central Kentucky, U.S.A., is a fluviokarst underlain by flat-lying slightly argillaceous limestones (Ordovician). Water tracing and field observations have shown the aquifer to be divisible into groundwater basins and intervening interbasin areas. Flow in groundwater basins is in a dendritic system of solution conduits at depths as great as 35 m beneath the surface which often passes beneath surface divides to emerge at low-level springs, in contrast to interbasin areas in which the flow is shallow and generally parallels surface slopes. The availability of relatively dense water-level data in an area in which a number of water traces had been conducted allowed a comparison between the configuration of the potentiometric surface and water tracing data. The potentiometric surface map was generally consistent with the location of groundwater basins and interbasin areas. In addition, water levels near streams were found to be controlled by the stream and a few wells indicated perched aquifers. The potentiometric surface, however, failed to show narrow groundwater basins and did not adequately indicate groundwater flow directions previously established by water tracing. Although well data may furnish valuable supplemental information, it is concluded that water tracing is necessary to determine adequately subsurface flow directions in the region and in similar karst aquifers elsewhere.

Thrailkill, John

1985-05-01

230

Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2003, Volume 1: Continuous water-level, streamflow, water-quality data, and periodic water-quality data, Water Year 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2003, including: discharge records of 163 gaging stations; stage for 187 gaging stations; precipitation for 140 gaging stations; information for 19 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 40 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 65 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 36 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data at 162 stations in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2003, including continuous water-level records of 156 ground-water wells and periodic records at 130 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia.

Hickey, Andrew C.; Kerestes, John F.; McCallum, Brian E. McCallum

2004-01-01

231

A Study on Predicting Shinkansen Noise Levels Using the Sound Intensity Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a new method developed to predict track wayside noise levels resulting from the passage of high-speed trains. The method calculates noise levels based on data acquired by the sound intensity method developed by the Central Japan Railway Company. This measurement method allows one to identify each sound source and its characteristics as well as identify how much each source contributes to the overall resulting noise level. Structure borne noise and multiple reflected noise between train car bodies and noise barriers are also studied. As a result of this study, a prediction method was created which can calculate and predict noise levels resulting from such various factors as structure, train type, train speed and noise barrier. Noise levels predicted during this study agreed well with those actually measured under various conditions, thus indicating the prediction method model resulting from the study is a useful tool to verify noise levels occurring at receiver positions. Furthermore, it can also verify in advance how much effect noise barriers or train source noise level reduction devices would have on noise reduction.

Okada, Tadashi

232

Wheat: Its water use, production and disease detection and prediction. [Kansas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Discussed in this report are: (1) the effects of wheat disease on water use and yield; and (2) the use of ERTS-1 imagery in the evaluation of wheat growth and in the detection of disease severity. Leaf area index was linearly correlated with ratios MSS4:MSS5 and MSS5:MSS6. In an area of severe wheat streak mosaic virus infected fields, correlations of ERTS-1 digital counts with wheat yields and disease severity levels were significant at the 5% level for MSS bands 4 and 5 and band ratios 4/6 and 4/7. Data collection platforms were used to gather meteorological data for the early prediction of rust severity and economic loss.

Kanemasu, E. T. (principal investigator); Lenhert, D.; Niblett, C.; Manges, H.; Eversmeyer, M. G.

1974-01-01

233

A Noise Level Prediction Method Based on Electro-Mechanical Frequency Response Function for Capacitors  

PubMed Central

The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible noise which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing noise level prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new noise level prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible noise is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The noise level under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the noise prediction method is effective.

Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao

2013-01-01

234

Noaa's Role in the Monitoring and Prediction of Sea-Level Rise: Historical Datasets and Scientific Gaps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the monitoring and predictive capabilities of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) related to long-term Sea-Level Rise (SLR) will be presented. In 2009 the agency undertook an internal assessment of its capabilities and gaps relevant to the monitoring and prediction of SLR, specifically addressing the development, application and availability of baseline datasets and derived products that are needed for accurately analyzing and predicting long-term SLR. The focus of this talk will be on those historical datasets, how they are applied to support decision-making, and the identification of gaps in the science and/or datasets. Factors relevant to NOAA’s capabilities in historical data analysis and synthesis and in closing identified gaps will also be shown in terms of both internal and external drivers to the agency. In addition, examples of those data, capabilities and gaps related to monitoring and predicting absolute SLR versus relative SLR will be discussed, including: limitations in observational coverage, uncertainties associated with land motion and water reserves, and other changes in the geophysical environment that impact the global sea level budget. Finally, several recommendations and next steps were identified that the agency must address to improve its capabilities relevant to end users. Observed changes in global sea level since 1500 A.D., along with future predictions of sea level rise and its uncertainty projected out to 2100 A.D. Historical observations of global sea level are based on paleo-climate records before the late 1800s, followed by the period of in situ observations from tide gauges, and more recently supplemented with measurements from satellite altimeters since the early 1990s (adapted from Church et al. 2008).

Levinson, D. H.; Scholz, P. M.

2010-12-01

235

Multi-temporal, high spatial resolution water level monitoring of the Everglades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water level information in South Florida's Everglades is very important for understanding the hydrology of this fragile ecosystem. Currently water levels are determined by a dense stage (water level) network providing high spatial resolution observation. However, because there are a finite number of stage stations in Everglades, water levels in areas located between stage stations can only be estimated by

S. Hong; S. Wdowinski; S. Kim

2008-01-01

236

Water levels in periodically measured wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1981--1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents water-level data for 28 wells that have been periodically measured in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada. The report includes discussions of the methods used and corrections applied to obtain water-level depths and altitudes from onsite measurements. Water levels for each well are presented in tabular and graphical (hydrograph) form. The altitude of the water level in the

J. H. Robison; D. M. Stephens; R. R. Luckey; D. A. Baldwin

1988-01-01

237

Water levels in periodically measured wells in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada, 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents water-level data for 10 wells that were periodically measured in 1988 in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada. Water levels measured during 1987 are included in the report for reference. The report includes discussions of the methods used and corrections applied to obtain water-level depths and altitudes from onsite measurements. Water levels for each well are presented in

Gemmell

1990-01-01

238

Interleukin–8 Serum Levels at Fever Onset in Patients with Neutropenia Predict Early Medical Complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous studies have shown that interleukin-8 serum levels in febrile neutropenic patients are significantly higher in patients with gram-negative bacteremia than in patients with other causes of fever and may indicate unfavorable outcomes. We assessed the value of interleukin-8 serum levels at fever onset to predict clinical complications in order to confirm these earlier findings. Patients and Methods: In

A. Engel; Stefanie Knoll; P. Kern; W. V. Kern

2005-01-01

239

Utility of maternal 6-thioguanine nucleotide levels in predicting neonatal pancytopenia.  

PubMed

An infant with pancytopenia was born to a mother who used the common immunosuppressant azathioprine (AZA). Maternal and neonatal blood levels of 6-thioguanine nucleotides (6TGN; metabolite of AZA) were 1890 and 1480 pmol/8?×?10(8) red blood cells, respectively. Maternal 6TGN levels could be useful in predicting neonatal pancytopenia. PMID:23943705

Maruyama, Hidehiko; Tada, Katsuhiko; Fujiwara, Takuzo; Ota, Kosuke; Kageyama, Misao

2013-05-01

240

Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels Predict Perioperative Events in Cardiac Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery: A Prospective Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels correlate with prognosis in patients with cardiac disease and may be useful in the risk stratification of cardiac patients undergoing noncardiac surgery (NCS). The objective of this study was to examine whether BNP levels predict perioperative events in cardiac patients undergoing NCS. Methods: Patients undergoing NCS with at least 1 of the following criteria

David Leibowitz; David Planer; David Rott; Yair Elitzur; Tova Chajek-Shaul; A. Teddy Weiss

2008-01-01

241

A Study on Predicting Shinkansen Noise Levels Using the Sound Intensity Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a new method developed to predict track wayside noise levels resulting from the passage of high-speed trains. The method calculates noise levels based on data acquired by the sound intensity method developed by the Central Japan Railway Company. This measurement method allows one to identify each sound source and its characteristics as

Tadashi Okada

2004-01-01

242

Effects of Educational Level on Prediction of Training Success with the ACB (Army Classification Battery).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The publication reports on a statistical analysis of educational level as it affects the prediction of enlisted performance in Army training courses. Samples of the men at each of four educational levels were formed: non-high school graduation, high school graduation, some college, and college graduation. Using the Gulliksen-Wilks analysis of…

Maier, Milton H.

243

Predicting Parathyroid Hormone Levels in Diabetic Hemodialysis Patients Using Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) is an important biochemical indicator for the medical condition of osteodystrophy in patients on hemodialysis. Prior studies have been conducted to classify hemodialysis patients based on their PTH level, using neural networks. This paper introduces the possibilities of predicting parathyroid hormone levels in the more specific case of diabetic patients. The performance of two different neural network

Jesse Bumanlag; Anahita Zarei; Pourya Ghazi; Sheela Kapre; Lawrence Frank

2009-01-01

244

Water-Level Measurements for the Coastal Plain Aquifers of South Carolina Prior to Development  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tabulations of water-level measurements for the Coastal Plain aquifers of South Carolina representing water levels prior to man-made development are presented. Included with the tabulations are local well number, location, land-surface altitude, well depth, screened interval, depth to water, water- level altitude, and date measured. These water-level measurements were used in compiling regional potentiometric maps for the Coastal Plain aquifers. This data set will be useful in the planning for future water-resource development.

Aucott, Walter R.; Speiran, Gary K.

1984-01-01

245

Application of data assimilation for improving forecast of water levels and residual currents in Singapore regional waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrodynamic models are commonly used for predicting water levels and currents in the deep ocean, ocean margins and shelf seas. Their accuracy is typically limited by factors, such as the complexity of the coastal geometry and bathymetry, plus the uncertainty in the flow forcing (deep ocean tide, winds and pressure). In Southeast Asian waters with its strongly hydrodynamic characteristics, the lack of detailed marine observations (bathymetry and tides) for model validation is an additional factor limiting flow representation. This paper deals with the application of ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF)-based data assimilation with the purpose of improving the deterministic model forecast. The efficacy of the EnKF is analysed via a twin experiment conducted with the 2D barotropic Singapore regional model. The results show that the applied data assimilation can improve the forecasts significantly in this complex flow regime.

Karri, Rama Rao; Badwe, Abhijit; Wang, Xuan; El Serafy, Ghada; Sumihar, Julius; Babovic, Vladan; Gerritsen, Herman

2013-01-01

246

A screening level fate model of organic contaminants from advanced water treatment in a potable water supply reservoir.  

PubMed

Augmentation of potable water sources by planned indirect potable reuse of wastewater is being widely considered to address growing water shortages. Environmental buffers such as lakes and dams may act as one of a series of barriers to potable water contamination stemming from micropollutants in wastewater. In South-East Queensland, Australia, current government policy is to begin indirect potable reuse of water from reverse osmosis equipped advanced water treatment plants (AWTPs) when the combined capacity of its major storages is at 40% capacity. A total of 15 organic contaminants including NDMA and bisphenol A have been publically reported as detected in recycled water from one of South-East Queensland's AWTPs, while another 98 chemicals were analysed for, but found to be below their detection limit. To assess the natural attenuation in Lake Wivenhoe, a Level III fugacity based evaluative fate model was constructed using the maximum concentrations of these contaminants detected as input data. A parallel aquivalence based model was constructed for those contaminants, such as dichloroacetic acid, dalapon and triclopyr, which are ionised in the environment of Lake Wivenhoe. A total of 247 organic chemicals of interest, including disinfection by-products, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, xenoestrogens and industrial chemicals, were evaluated with the model to assess their potential for natural attenuation. Out of the 15 detected chemicals, trihalomethanes are expected to volatilise with concentrations in the outflow from the dam approximately 400 times lower than influent from the AWTPs. Transformation processes in water are likely to be more significant for NDMA and pharmaceuticals such as salicylic acid and paracetamol as well as for caffeine and the herbicides dalapon and triclopyr. For hydrophobic contaminants such as cholesterol and phenolic xenoestrogens such as 4-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol and bisphenol A, equilibrium between water and sediments will not be attained and hence fate processes such as removal in outflow are predicted to become relatively important. PMID:20851445

Hawker, Darryl W; Cumming, Janet L; Neale, Peta A; Bartkow, Michael E; Escher, Beate I

2011-01-01

247

Variation of Great Lakes Water Levels Derived from Geosat Altimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique for using satellite radar altimetry data to estimate the temporal variation of the water level in moderate to large lakes and enclosed seas is described. Great Lakes data from the first 2 years of the U.S. Navy's Geosat Exact Repeat Mission (November 1986 to November 1988), for which there is an improved orbit, are used to demonstrate the technique. The Geosat results are compared to the lake level data collected by the Great Lakes Section, National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and are found to reproduce the temporal variations of the five major lakes with Root-Mean-Square error (RMS) ranging from 9.4 to 13.8 cm and a combined average of 11.1 cm. Geosat data are also analyzed for Lake St. Clair, representing a moderate-sized lake, with a resulting rms of 17.0 cm. During this study period, the water level in the Great Lakes varied in a typical annual cycle of about 0.2 m (0.5 in for Lake Ontario) superimposed on a general decline of approximately 0.5 m. The altimeter data reproduced the general decline reasonably well for all the lakes, but the annual cycle was obscured in some lakes due to systematic errors in the altimeter data. Current and future altimetry missions will have markedly improved accuracy which will permit many moderate (25 km diameter) or larger lakes or enclosed seas to be routinely monitored.

Morris, Charles S.; Gill, Stephen K.

1994-01-01

248

Predicting Fecal Coliform Bacteria Levels in the Charles River, Massachusetts, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Massachusetts, the Charles River Watershed Association conducts a regular water quality monitoring and public notification program in the Charles River Basin during the recreational season to inform users of the river? health. This program has relied on laboratory analyses of river samples for fecal coliform bacteria levels, however, results are not available until at least 24 hours after sampling. To avoid the need for laboratory analyses, ordinary least squares (OLS) and logistic regression models were developed to predict fecal coliform bacteria concentrations and the probabilities of exceeding the Massachusetts secondary contact recreation standard for bacteria based on meteorological conditions and streamflow. The OLS models resulted in adjusted R2s ranging from 50 to 60 percent. An uncertainty analysis reveals that of the total variability of fecal coliform bacteria concentrations, 45 percent is explained by the OLS regression model, 15 percent is explained by both measurement and space sampling error, and 40 percent is explained by time sampling error. Higher accuracy in future bacteria forecasting models would likely result from reductions in laboratory measurement errors and improved sampling designs.

Eleria, Anna; Vogel, Richard M.

2005-10-01

249

Predicting runoff-induced pesticide input in agricultural sub-catchment surface waters: linking catchment variables and contamination.  

PubMed

An urgent need exists for applicable methods to predict areas at risk of pesticide contamination within agricultural catchments. As such, an attempt was made to predict and validate contamination in nine separate sub-catchments of the Lourens River, South Africa, through use of a geographic information system (GIS)-based runoff model, which incorporates geographical catchment variables and physicochemical characteristics of applied pesticides. We compared the results of the prediction with measured contamination in water and suspended sediment samples collected during runoff conditions in tributaries discharging these sub-catchments. The most common insecticides applied and detected in the catchment over a 3-year sampling period were azinphos-methyl (AZP), chlorpyrifos (CPF) and endosulfan (END). AZP was predominantly found in water samples, while CPF and END were detected at higher levels in the suspended particle samples. We found positive (p < 0.002) correlations between the predicted average loss and the concentrations of the three insecticides both in water and suspended sediments (r between 0.87 and 0.94). Two sites in the sub-catchment were identified as posing the greatest risk to the Lourens River mainstream. It is assumed that lack of buffer strips, presence of erosion rills and high slopes are the main variables responsible for the high contamination at these sites. We conclude that this approach to predict runoff-related surface water contamination may serve as a powerful tool for risk assessment and management in South African orchard areas. PMID:12448545

Dabrowski, James M; Peall, Sue K C; Van Niekerk, Adriaan; Reinecke, Adriaan J; Day, Jenny A; Schulz, Ralf

2002-12-01

250

Pretreatment serum FGF23 levels predict the efficacy of calcitriol therapy in dialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment serum FGF-23 levels predict the efficacy of calcitriol therapy in dialysis patients.BackgroundThe predictor for the result of calcitriol therapy would be useful in the clinical practice of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) is a newly found circulating phosphaturic factor. Its circulating level is elevated in uremia.MethodsDialysis patients with plasma intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels greater than 300 pg\\/mL

Junichiro J. Kazama; FUMINORI SATO; KENTARO OMORI; HITOMI HAMA; SUGURU YAMAMOTO; HIROKI MARUYAMA; ICHIEI NARITA; FUMITAKE GEJYO; TAKEYOSHI YAMASHITA; SEIJI FUKUMOTO; MASAFUMI FUKAGAWA

2005-01-01

251

Projected climate change effects on water level of an oxbow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most vulnerable regions in the Carpathian Basin is the Great Hungarian Plain, where small and shallow oxbows are endangered along river Tisza. The purpose of this paper is to determine how the global warming affects a typical oxbow, located on the floodplain of river Tisza, in Hungary. A coupled meteorological-hydraulic model is developed and applied for this oxbow. Results suggest that the monthly minimum water levels are expected to decrease, moreover, extreme drought events sometimes result temporary drying-up of the oxbow.

Hunyady, Adrienn

252

PROGRAMMED EFFECTS OF SURFACE WATER PRICE LEVELS ON U.S. AGRICULTURAL WATER USE AND PRODUCTION PATTERNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Iowa State University national interregional programming model is used to simulate increases in the price of surface water for irrigated agriculture, and to evaluate the economic impact of these increases on U.S. agricultural water use and production patterns. Four alternative price levels of surface water are analyzed with the base level being 1975 surface water prices. The model minimizes

Andrew S. Morton; Douglas A. Christensen; Earl O. Heady

1981-01-01

253

Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium Isotopic Fractionation of Water. How well can classical water models predict it?  

SciTech Connect

The liquid-vapor equilibrium isotopic fractionation of water is determined by molecular-based simulation, via Gibbs Ensemble Monte Carlo and isothermal-isochoric molecular dynamics involving two radically different but realistic models, the extended simple point charge (SPC/E) and the Gaussian charge polarizable (GCP) models. The predicted temperature dependence of the liquid-vapor equilibrium isotopic fractionation factors for H 2 18O / H 2 16O, H 2 17O / H 2 16O, and 2H 1H 16O / 1H 2 16O are compared against the most accurate experimental datasets to assess the ability of these intermolecular potential models to describe quantum effects according to the Kirkwood-Wigner free energy perturbation ! 2 !expansion. Predictions of the vapor pressure isotopic effect for the H 2 18O / H 2 16O and H 2 17O / H 2 16O pairs are also presented in comparison with experimental data and two recently proposed thermodynamic modeling approaches. Finally, the simulation results are used to discuss some approximations behind the microscopic interpretation of isotopic fractionation based on the underlying roto-translational coupling.

Chialvo, Ariel A [ORNL; Horita, Juske [ORNL

2009-01-01

254

Liquid-vapor equilibrium isotopic fractionation of water: how well can classical water models predict it?  

PubMed

The liquid-vapor equilibrium isotopic fractionation of water is determined by molecular-based simulation, via Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo and isothermal-isochoric molecular dynamics involving two radically different but realistic models, the extended simple point charge, and the Gaussian charge polarizable models. The predicted temperature dependence of the liquid-vapor equilibrium isotopic fractionation factors for H(2) (18)O/H(2) (16)O, H(2) (17)O/H(2) (16)O, and (2)H(1)H(16)O/(1)H(2) (16)O are compared against the most accurate experimental datasets to assess the ability of these intermolecular potential models to describe quantum effects according to the Kirkwood-Wigner free energy perturbation variant Planck's over h(2)-expansion. Predictions of the vapor pressure isotopic effect for the H(2) (18)O/H(2) (16)O and H(2) (17)O/H(2) (16)O pairs are also presented in comparison with experimental data and two recently proposed thermodynamic modeling approaches. Finally, the simulation results are used to discuss some approximations behind the microscopic interpretation of isotopic fractionation based on the underlying rototranslational coupling. PMID:19275411

Chialvo, Ariel A; Horita, Juske

2009-03-01

255

Water-level maps of the alluvial aquifer, northwestern Mississippi, September 1982  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water levels were measured in about 500 wells in the Mississippi River valley alluvial aquifer in northwestern Mississippi during September 13-24, 1982. The water-level change from September 1981 to September 1982 showed some recovery, but the depth-to-water map showed areas of continual water-level decline in the central part of the Delta. Water levels in the Delta were higher along the Mississippi River and Bluff Hills and Yazoo River. Historically, water levels decline and rise as the amount of precipitation decreases or increases. Recently, continuous heavy pumping for irrigation has caused general water-level declines in the alluvial aquifer. (USGS)

Darden, Daphne

1983-01-01

256

Non Invasive Water Level Monitoring on Boiling Water Reactors Using Internal Gamma Radiation: Application of Soft Computing Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

To provide best knowledge about safety-related water level values in boiling water reactors (BWR) is essentially for operational regime. For the water level determination hydrostatic level measurement systems are almost exclusively applied, because they stand the test over many decades in conventional and nuclear power plants (NPP). Due to the steam generation especially in BWR a specific phenomenon occurs which

Sebastian Fleischer; Rainer Hampel

2006-01-01

257

On the interpretation of coastal aquifer water level trends and water balances: A precautionary note  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is common for seawater intrusion-induced interface movements and associated changes in seawater volume not to be considered in coastal aquifer management studies. However, it is not well understood when this simplified approach may result in erroneous estimates of freshwater volumes and flawed interpretations of water level trend analyses. This gap is addressed in this study using a simple steady-state, sharp-interface, analytic modelling approach (i.e., Strack, 1976) to generate idealised relationships between seawater volume, freshwater volume and water levels. For a number of case studies, water level trends were found to be increasingly insensitive to reductions in freshwater volume and, as such, changes in seawater volume need to be considered when using water level trends as a measure of sustainability (e.g., within trigger-level management approaches, as commonly applied in Australia). The conditions under which seawater volume changes have greatest impact on water level trends are also described. Changes in seawater volume (over an assumed timescale) were found to represent 10% to 30% of freshwater discharge under realistic water table decline scenarios. As such, it is shown that changes in seawater volume need to be included within water balance assessments for the case studies considered. These results have wide-sweeping implications for coastal aquifer management, demonstrating that seawater volume changes may, in many cases, need to be included to avoid over-allocation of groundwater. In view of the short-comings associated with using water level trends to assess coastal aquifer status, an approach involving the comparison of groundwater levels relative to the hydraulic head imposed by the ocean, accounting for density effects, is recommended. A representative head for the coastal boundary in freshwater-only representations of unconfined aquifers is proposed that produces reasonable fluxes of freshwater discharge to the sea. This new coastal head adds to the Post et al. (2007) discussion of freshwater head calculations. It provides a first-order estimate of the value that near-shoreline watertable levels should exceed to maintain a discharge to the sea and to avoid SWI issues. The analytic solution used for this study involves an assumption of quasi-equilibrium conditions between the water table and interface. This assumption was evaluated using a selection of transient simulations and was found to be a reasonable approximation in the majority of case studies. As such, the analytic methods presented here can, in many cases, be rapidly applied to assess the need to consider seawater volumes within specific cases. References Post, V., Kooi, H., Simmons, C., 2007. Using hydraulic head measurements in variable-density ground water flow analyses. Ground Water 45(6), 664-671. Strack, O.D.L., 1976. Single-potential solution for regional interface problems in coastal aquifers. Water Resources Research 12, 1165-1174.

Morgan, L.; Werner, A. D.; Simmons, C.

2012-12-01

258

Performance of a new dynamic model for predicting diurnal time courses of stomatal conductance at the leaf level.  

PubMed

Under natural conditions, plants are subjected to continuous changes of irradiance that drive variations of stomatal conductance to water vapour (g(s)). We propose a dynamic model to predict the temporal response of g(s) at the leaf level using an asymmetric sigmoid function with a unique parameter describing time constants for increasing and decreasing g(s). The model parameters were adjusted to observed data using Approximate Bayesian Computation. We tested the model performance for (1) instant changes of irradiance; or (2) continuous and controlled variations of irradiance simulating diurnal time courses. Compared with the two mostly used steady-state models, our dynamic model described daily time courses of g(s) with a higher accuracy. In particular, it was able to describe the hysteresis of g(s) responses to increasing/decreasing irradiance and the resulting rapid variations of intrinsic water-use efficiency. Compared to the mechanistic model of temporal responses of g(s) by Kirschbaum, Gross & Pearcy, for which time constants were estimated with a large variance, our model estimated time constants with a higher precision. It is expected to improve predictions of water loss and water-use efficiency in higher scale models by using a small number of parameters. PMID:23448751

Vialet-Chabrand, Silvère; Dreyer, Erwin; Brendel, Oliver

2013-08-01

259

Water hexamer clusters: Structures, energies, and predicted mid-infrared spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an ab initio theoretical study of five low-energy isomers of the water hexamer {Chair, Cage(du)1, Book, Prism, and Boat}, their intramolecular vibrations, binding energies De and dissociation energies D0. Moller-Plesset second order perturbation calculations using the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set at aug-cc-pVDZ optimized geometries including vibrational zero point energy corrections predict Chair to be the most stable isomer, followed closely by Cage(du)1 (+0.02 kcal/mol) and Book (+0.05 kcal/mol), while Prism is 0.15 kcal/mol higher. The Boat conformer is least stable at both the De and D0 levels. The main focus is on the intramolecular normal modes of the five isomers. The calculated O-H stretching frequencies and intensities are compared to recent infrared spectra of water hexamer in supersonic jets, liquid-helium droplets and solid para-hydrogen matrices. The IR spectra indicate that Book and Chair are major species in the latter two environments and may also exist in supersonic jets. The (H2)O6 gas phase interconversion equilibria are calculated and predict that the most abundant isomer is Chair below 8 K, Cage between 8-26 K, and Book above 26 K. Several of the low-frequency vibrational modes are identified as low-amplitude precursors of the Chair[leftright arrow]Book[leftright arrow]Cage isomerization pathways.

Losada, Martin; Leutwyler, Samuel

2002-08-01

260

Extraction of wafer-level defect density distributions to improve yield prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defect density distributions play an important role in process control and yield prediction. To improve yield prediction we present a methodology to extract wafer-level defect density distributions better reflecting such chip-to-chip defect density variations that occur in reality. For that, imaginary wafermaps are generated for a variety of different chip areas to calculate a yield-to-area dependency. Based on these calculations

Christopher Hess; Larg H. Weiland

1999-01-01

261

A Receding Horizon Controller for the Steam Generator Water Level  

SciTech Connect

In this work, the receding horizon control method was used to control the water level of nuclear steam generators and applied to two linear models and also a nonlinear model of steam generators. A receding horizon control method is to solve an optimization problem for finite future steps at current time and to implement the first optimal control input as the current control input. The procedure is then repeated at each subsequent instant. The dynamics of steam generators is very different according to power levels. The receding horizon controller is designed by using a reduced linear steam generator model fixed over a certain power range and applied to a Westinghouse-type (U-tube recirculating type) nuclear steam generator. The proposed controller designed at a fixed power level shows good performance for any other power level within this power range. The steam generator shows actually nonlinear characteristics. Therefore, the proposed algorithm is implemented for a nonlinear model of the nuclear steam generator to verify its real performance and also shows good responses.

Na, Man Gyun [Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon Joon [Cheju National University (Korea, Republic of)

2003-08-15

262

Comparative Analysis of Seepage Losses From Nighttime Water Level Changes and Water Balance Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several techniques including Darcy's theory of one and two dimensional groundwater flow, seepage meters, and water balance have been used in the past to estimate seepage from impoundments such as reservoirs, ponds, and constructed wetlands. These methods result in varying level of errors in seepage estimates depending on method and biogeophysical setting to which they are applied. In this study, we explore a simple yet effective method of estimating groundwater fluxes for two stormwater impoundments (SIs) and a partially drained wetland located in agricultural areas using diurnal changes in surface water levels inside these systems. Days with no inflow, outflow, and rainfall were selected to minimize the effect of the error associated water balance components on seepage estimation. Difference in water levels between 20:00 hrs and 5:00 hrs was calculated for the selected days. Only nighttime change was considered keeping in mind the fact that evapotranspiration is negligible during night and hence, the change in water levels can be attributed to seepage alone. Seepage from the analysis of night-time change in the water levels was compared to the estimates from the water balance method with seepage being the residual component of the balance. Results show that seepage constitutes a large part of total outflow from the impoundments (29% and 17% for SI1 during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 respectively, 30% for SI2 during 2009-2010 and seepage was greater than the total surface water outflow from SI2 during 2010-2011). Accuracy of this method varied from 5% to 41% for first and 4% to 29% for the second SI. Considering that errors as high as 100% have been reported with the use of Darcy's approach, the errors from our method are lower. The lower errors combined with ease of application without using the hydraulic conductivity values makes our approach feasible for other similar systems. Improved seepage estimate from the proposed method will result in quantification of nutrient fluxes from SI through subsurface pathways, which is likely to result in a more realistic representation of treatment efficiency of these impoundments. For instance, phosphorus treatment efficiency of SI1 for 2008-2009 was estimated to be -17% and -60% with and without seepage consideration, respectively. Key words: Groundwater flux, impoundment, wetland, water balance, Phosphorus, treatment efficiency.

Shukla, A.; Shukla, S.; Wu, C.

2013-12-01

263

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LEVELS OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA AND WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS IN A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Conventional plating methods were used to quantify heterotrophic bacteria from a drinking water distribution system. Three media, plate count agar (PCA), R2A agar and sheep blood agar (TSA-SB) were used to determine heterotrophic plate count (HPC) levels. Grab samples were collec...

264

Computation of water levels on the open boundary of tide-surge interaction hydrodynamic model based on LS-SVM  

Microsoft Academic Search

To minimize the difference between the events of storm surges and model of tide-surge interaction hydrodynamic (navier-stoker equation) in shallow water, it's important to exactly confirm water level of the open boundary. In this study, according to historical record of tide-gage measurements during the storm events, a method based on least squares support vector machine was proposed to predict the

Shijun He; Zhou Wenjun; Zhou Ruyan; Dongmei Huang

2010-01-01

265

A numerical analysis on the applicability of the water level fluctuation method for quantifying groundwater recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water table fluctuation(WTF) method is a conventional method for quantifying groundwater recharge by multiplying the specific yield to the water level rise. Based on the van Genuchten model, an analytical relationship between groundwater recharge and the water level rise is derived. The equation is used to analyze the effects of the depth to water level and the soil properties

M. Koo; D. Lee

2002-01-01

266

Accuracy of Boiling Water Reactor Sub channel Void Distribution Predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to accurately predict the void fraction in a nuclear reactor plays a vital role in the field of nuclear safety. Specifically, high volumetric fractions of vapour in a reactor core can lead to a severe degradation in the ability of the coolant to remove heat from the fuel. Unfortunately, the behaviour of two-phase flow is complex and not

Kenneth Leung

2009-01-01

267

Predicting Impacts of Increased CO2 and Climate Change on the Water Cycle and Water Quality in the Semiarid James River Basin of the Midwestern USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols from human activities continue to alter the climate and likely will have significant impacts on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and water quality, especially in arid and semiarid regions. We applied an improved Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to evaluate impacts of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration and potential climate change on the water cycle and nitrogen loads in the semiarid James River Basin (JRB) in the Midwestern United States. We assessed responses of water yield, soil water content, groundwater recharge, and nitrate nitrogen (NO3–N) load under hypothetical climate-sensitivity scenarios in terms of CO2, precipitation, and air temperature. We extended our predictions of the dynamics of these hydrological variables into the mid-21st century with downscaled climate projections integrated across output from six General Circulation Models. Our simulation results compared against the baseline period 1980 to 2009 suggest the JRB hydrological system is highly responsive to rising levels of CO2 concentration and potential climate change. Under our scenarios, substantial decrease in precipitation and increase in air temperature by the mid-21st century could result in significant reduction in water yield, soil water content, and groundwater recharge. Our model also estimated decreased NO3–N load to streams, which could be beneficial, but a concomitant increase in NO3–N concentration due to a decrease in streamflow likely would degrade stream water and threaten aquatic ecosystems. These results highlight possible risks of drought, water supply shortage, and water quality degradation in this basin.

Yiping Wu; Liu , Shuguang; Gallant, Alisa L.

2012-01-01

268

A predictive theory of intentions to exit street-level prostitution.  

PubMed

Street-level prostitution is notoriously difficult to escape and rarely do women exit prostitution on their first attempt or without experiencing serious negative consequences to their physical or mental health. Unfortunately, few theories exist that explain the exiting process and those that do exist are difficult to test quantitatively. This article applies the integrative model of behavioral prediction to examine intentions to exit prostitution through attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy beliefs that underlie a woman's intention to exit prostitution. Constructs unique prostitution--agency and societal context--enhance the model. This theory may explain and predict an exit from street-level prostitution. PMID:23136182

Cimino, Andrea N

2012-10-01

269

The prediction of en route noise levels for a DC-9 aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

En route noise for advanced propfan powered aircraft has become an issue of concern for the Federal Aviation Administration. The NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) is used to demonstrate the source noise and propagation effects for an aircraft in level flight up to 35,000 feet altitude. One-third octave band spectra of the source noise, atmospheric absorption loss, and received noise are presented. The predicted maximum A-weighted sound pressure level is compared to measured data from the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden. ANOPP is shown to be an effective tool in evaluating the en route noise characteristics of a DC-9 aircraft.

Weir, Donald S.

1988-01-01

270

Serum VEGF levels as predictive marker of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have been reported that angiogenesis suppression may play a role in developing bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (B-ONJ). According to these evidence we evaluated the role of VEGF as predictive marker of B-ONJ onset. Of the 81 patients, 6 developed B-ONJ following bisphosphonate treatment. These patients showed a strongest decrease in VEGF circulating levels at day 7 and at day 21 after the first administration. These data demonstrated for the first time that the anti-angiogenic properties of bisphosphonates are directly linked to B-ONJ pathogenesis and serum VEGF levels could represent an effective early predictive marker.

2012-01-01

271

Serum VEGF levels as predictive marker of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw.  

PubMed

Recent studies have been reported that angiogenesis suppression may play a role in developing bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (B-ONJ). According to these evidence we evaluated the role of VEGF as predictive marker of B-ONJ onset. Of the 81 patients, 6 developed B-ONJ following bisphosphonate treatment. These patients showed a strongest decrease in VEGF circulating levels at day 7 and at day 21 after the first administration. These data demonstrated for the first time that the anti-angiogenic properties of bisphosphonates are directly linked to B-ONJ pathogenesis and serum VEGF levels could represent an effective early predictive marker. PMID:22986334

Vincenzi, Bruno; Napolitano, Andrea; Zoccoli, Alice; Iuliani, Michele; Pantano, Francesco; Papapietro, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo; Santini, Daniele; Tonini, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

272

Water levels in periodically measured wells in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada, 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents water-level data for 11 wells periodically measured during 1989 in the Yucca Mountain area. Water levels measured during 1988 and annual maximum, minimum, and average water levels from previous reports are included for reference. Discussions of the methods used and adjustments applied to obtain depths and altitudes from depth-to-water measurements are included. Water levels for each well

1991-01-01

273

Inflow, outflow, and water levels in Lake Michigan during the last part of the Wisconsin glaciation  

SciTech Connect

Between about 14,000 and 10,000 B.P., water flowed to and from Lake Michigan through several channels connected with adjacent glacial lakes and the Mississippi basin. Inflow and outflow depend on lake-level fluctuations, but no known lake-level chronology for the Lake Michigan basin explains all the supposed facts. Several kinds of information can be use to construct such a chronology: elevations of beaches, elevations and locations of outlets, ice-margin positions, till stratigraphy, and glacial history relative to outlets and lake-sediment distribution. If the crustal rebound predicted by J.A. Clark (bracketed by glacial Lake Wisconsin and Door Peninsula water planes) is used as the basis for a lake-level chronology, lake elevations would have been much higher than previously recognized, beaches previously thought to be late glacial must be middle Holocene, and the predicted sequence of spillways from glacial Lake Oshkosh, in the Green Bay basin, to Lake Michigan seems incompatible with the till stratigraphy of the region. On the other hand, a hinge line model such as proposed by J.W. Goldthwait allows far less rebound than is required by their knowledge of present-day rebound and by the rebound interpreted from shore features of glacial Lake Wisconsin. Therefore major flaws exist in their understanding of the glacial chronology and stratigraphy, of the glacial lake deposits, or of the crustal rebound; the reconstructed of inflow and outflow will remain uncertain until these conflicts are resolved.

Clayton, L.; Attig, J.W. (Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, Madison, WI (United States)); Mickelson, D.M. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

1992-01-01

274

An empirical method for predicting the mixing noise levels of subsonic circular and coaxial jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An empirical method for predicting the static free field source noise levels of subsonic circular and coaxial jet flow streams is presented. The method was developed from an extensive data base of 817 jet tests obtained from five different government and industry sources in three nations. The prediction method defines the jet noise in terms of four components which are overall power level, power spectrum level, directivity index, and relative spectrum level. The values of these noise level components are defined on a grid consisting of seven frequency parameter values (Strouhal numbers) and seven directivity angles. The value of the noise level at each of these grid points is called a noise level coordinate and was defined as a function of five jet exhaust flow state parameters which are equivalent jet velocity, equivalent jet total temperature, the velocity ratio (outer stream to inner stream), temperature ratio, and area ratio. The functions were obtained by curve fitting in a least squares sense the noise level coordinates from the data base in a five dimensional flow state space using a third order Taylor series. The noise level coordinates define the component noise levels for all frequencies and directivities through a bicubic spline function.

Russell, J. W.

1984-01-01

275

Improved multi-level protein-protein interaction prediction with semantic-based regularization  

PubMed Central

Background Protein–protein interactions can be seen as a hierarchical process occurring at three related levels: proteins bind by means of specific domains, which in turn form interfaces through patches of residues. Detailed knowledge about which domains and residues are involved in a given interaction has extensive applications to biology, including better understanding of the binding process and more efficient drug/enzyme design. Alas, most current interaction prediction methods do not identify which parts of a protein actually instantiate an interaction. Furthermore, they also fail to leverage the hierarchical nature of the problem, ignoring otherwise useful information available at the lower levels; when they do, they do not generate predictions that are guaranteed to be consistent between levels. Results Inspired by earlier ideas of Yip et al. (BMC Bioinformatics 10:241, 2009), in the present paper we view the problem as a multi-level learning task, with one task per level (proteins, domains and residues), and propose a machine learning method that collectively infers the binding state of all object pairs. Our method is based on Semantic Based Regularization (SBR), a flexible and theoretically sound machine learning framework that uses First Order Logic constraints to tie the learning tasks together. We introduce a set of biologically motivated rules that enforce consistent predictions between the hierarchy levels. Conclusions We study the empirical performance of our method using a standard validation procedure, and compare its performance against the only other existing multi-level prediction technique. We present results showing that our method substantially outperforms the competitor in several experimental settings, indicating that exploiting the hierarchical nature of the problem can lead to better predictions. In addition, our method is also guaranteed to produce interactions that are consistent with respect to the protein–domain–residue hierarchy.

2014-01-01

276

Space-time model to predict tropospheric ozone concentration levels in an industrial region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this work was to develop a space-time model to predict tropospheric ozone (O3) concentration levels in the surroundings of an industrial Portuguese region, Sines. Regional air quality monitoring network is composed by three conventional monitoring stations, which register hourly O3 concentrations levels on a high temporal resolution but with very low spatial resolution. To overcome the lack of spatial data to characterize ozone dispersion, O3 spatial patterns were obtained through several field campaigns of passive samplers (Radiello diffusive tubes) performed over time. This passive sampler allows collecting data on a high spatial density sampling design but for periods of time between 1 to 2 weeks for each campaign, obtaining O3 mean concentrations over this period. The proposed space-time model is based in a two steps methodology: 1. Time prediction of O3 concentration levels on monitoring stations location using Multilayer perceptron (MLP) networks. 2. Spatial prediction of O3 concentration levels for the Sines region using block simulation. The main advantages of applying MLP networks to predict pollutant concentrations are that MLP models do not need exhaustive information about measured pollutant concentrations, reaction mechanisms, meteorological parameters or emission pollutant concentrations, identifying and reproducing nonlinear relationships between the different predictor variables. The developed MLP models presented good performances with values reaching up to 78% of prediction success of O3 hourly concentrations levels. In the second step Block Sequential Simulation (BSSIM) algorithm is applied to predict spatial pattern of O3 concentration levels. This simulation method is based on direct sequential simulation (DSS) (Soares, 2001), which does not require a non-linear transformation of the main variable; hence, data with different supports can be jointly used in the same model. In this study we considered O3 concentrations measured/predicted in point locations but in different time supports. Hence, BSSIM algorithm allowed the integration of hourly O3 concentration predictions at monitoring station locations and block data such as O3 mean ozone concentrations over the passive samplers exposure period of time on their locations. Block data error was set for different weather conditions, based on the field campaigns exposed data periods. Preliminary results are quite satisfactory since Block simulation seems able to reproduce the relation between real and predicted values, guaranteeing that the implementation conditions of the stochastic simulation algorithm (variograms, histograms and correlation coefficient of each pair of variables) are reproduced in the final results.

Melo Durao, Rita; João Pereira, Maria; Soares, Amílcar

2014-05-01

277

Uncertainty estimation of water levels for the Mitch flood event in Tegucigalpa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hurricane Mitch in 1998 left a devastating flood in Tegucigalpa, the capital city of Honduras. Simulation of elevated water surfaces provides a good way to understand the hydraulic mechanism of large flood events. In this study the one-dimensional HEC-RAS model for steady flow conditions together with the two-dimensional Lisflood-fp model were used to estimate the water level for the Mitch event in the river reaches at Tegucigalpa. Parameters uncertainty of the model was investigated using the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) framework. Because of the extremely large magnitude of the Mitch flood, no hydrometric measurements were taken during the event. However, post-event indirect measurements of discharge and observed water levels were obtained in previous works by JICA and USGS. To overcome the problem of lacking direct hydrometric measurement data, uncertainty in the discharge was estimated. Both models could well define the value for channel roughness, though more dispersion resulted from the floodplain value. Analysis of the data interaction showed that there was a tradeoff between discharge at the outlet and floodplain roughness for the 1D model. The estimated discharge range at the outlet of the study area encompassed the value indirectly estimated by JICA, however the indirect method used by the USGS overestimated the value. If behavioral parameter sets can well reproduce water surface levels for past events such as Mitch, more reliable predictions for future events can be expected. The results acquired in this research will provide guidelines to deal with the problem of modeling past floods when no direct data was measured during the event, and to predict future large events taking uncertainty into account. The obtained range of the uncertain flood extension will be an outcome useful for decision makers.

Fuentes Andino, D. C.; Halldin, S.; Lundin, L.; Xu, C.

2012-12-01

278

Ground-water levels near the top of the water-table mound, western Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2002-04  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In January 2002 the U.S. Geological Survey began continuous water-level monitoring in three wells in the vicinity of the Southeast Ranges of Camp Edwards, near the Impact Area of the Massachusetts Military Reservation on Cape Cod. The purpose of this effort was to examine how water levels at sites with different unsaturated-zone thicknesses near the top of the water-table mound beneath western Cape Cod are affected by temporally variable recharge from precipitation, which is the sole source of water to the sand and gravel aquifer. The depths to water at the well sites are about 18, 30, and 101 feet below land surface. This report presents the first 3 years of water-level records and an estimate of aquifer recharge calculated from climatological measurements by the Jensen and Haise method and the Thornthwaite method. The water levels in the three wells varied temporally by about 4.5 feet during the study period. A comparison of the water levels with those measured in a nearby monitoring well with about 42 years of monthly measurements indicates that the 3-year monitoring period included the lowest water levels on western Cape Cod since the drought of the 1960's. The response of water levels to recharge was related to the depth to water. Water levels in the two wells with shallow depths to water responded quickly (within hours or days) to recharge, whereas the water-level response in the well with the greatest depth to water often lagged the recharge event by a month or more. The variations in the water levels among the wells changed as the location of the top of the water-table mound moved with the changing water-table altitude.

Massey, Andrew J.; Carlson, Carl S.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

2006-01-01

279

Prediction of the water balance of two soil cover systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil cover systems are widely used for containment of municipal solid waste, hazardous and mine waste, with the objective\\u000a of limiting the ingress of precipitation and oxygen. The ability to predict their long-term performance is crucial, as their\\u000a failure would result in the release of contaminants to the environment. However, monitoring covers over the long term to derive\\u000a the information

Celestina Adu-Wusu; Ernest K. Yanful; Lisa Lanteigne; Mike O’Kane

2007-01-01

280

Surface water storage independent equation for predicting furrow irrigation advance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple equation is developed to predict the advance rate of flow in furrows. The proposed equation does not use as inputs\\u000a the data required for estimating the surface storage. In previous surface storage independent models it is generally assumed\\u000a that the surface storage volume is negligible (compared with infiltrated volume). The proposed equation is derived by eliminating\\u000a the surface

John D. Valiantzas

2000-01-01

281

POST-BETZE PIT LAKE WATER QUALITY PREDICTION, NEVADA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Barrick Goldstrike Mine is located in the Carlin Trend, about 20 miles northwest of Carlin, Nevada. The majority of the ore mined at Goldstrike is from the Post-Betze open pit, the largest open pit operation in Nevada. Nevada law requires that the water quality of temporary or permanent reservoirs that may develop in open pits be periodically tested. Pit

William M. Schafer; Mark Logsdon; Guosheng Zhan; Ron Espell

282

Modeling and predicting solubility of n-alkanes in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate knowledge on the phase equilibrium of hydrocarbons and water is needed to design and operate gas, petroleum and petrochemical plants. Usually famous simulation softwares are used to simulate and design industrial plants during the basic design stage. In most famous softwares, well known cubic equations of state (e.g. Peng–Robinson) are employed. These models, in most cases, are reliable for

Mani Safamirzaei; Hamid Modarress

2011-01-01

283

Water-level maps of the alluvial aquifer northwestern Mississippi, April 1982  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water levels were measured in about 500 wells in the Mississippi River valley alluvial aquifer in northwestern Mississippi during the period April 12-23, 1982. The water-level change from April 1981 to April 1982, showed a general decline, but the water-level change from September 1981 to April 1982 showed some recovery. Water levels in the Delta were higher along the Mississippi River and Bluff Hills. Historically, water levels decline and rise as the amount of precipitation decreases or increases. Recently, continuous heavy pumping for irrigation has caused general water-level declines in the alluvial aquifer. (USGS)

Darden, Daphne

1982-01-01

284

Water issues: the need for action at different levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fair fresh water distribution among humans and nature and among all sectors will be one of the main challenges of the 21st century. There is a complex interplay between the different water users, and clear systematics are needed for efficient decision making. Water uses can be divided into four sectors, (i) water for people, services and industries, (ii) water for

Alexander J. B. Zehnder; Hong Yang; Roland Schertenleib

2003-01-01

285

PREDICTIVE MODELING OF LIGHT-INDUCED MORTALITY OF ENTEROCOCCI FAECALIS IN RECREATIONAL WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

One approach to predictive modeling of biological contamination of recreational waters involves the application of process-based approaches that consider microbial sources, hydrodynamic transport, and microbial fate. This presentation focuses on one important fate process, light-...

286

Emissions Prediction and Measurement for Liquid-Fueled TVC Combustor with and without Water Injection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation is performed to evaluate the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid-fueled combustor that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions. The experiment consis...

A. Brankovic R. C. Ryder R. C. Hendricks N. S. Liu D. T. Shouse W. M. Roquemore

2005-01-01

287

Concomitant prediction of function and fold at the domain level with GO-based profiles  

PubMed Central

Predicting the function of newly sequenced proteins is crucial due to the pace at which these raw sequences are being obtained. Almost all resources for predicting protein function assign functional terms to whole chains, and do not distinguish which particular domain is responsible for the allocated function. This is not a limitation of the methodologies themselves but it is due to the fact that in the databases of functional annotations these methods use for transferring functional terms to new proteins, these annotations are done on a whole-chain basis. Nevertheless, domains are the basic evolutionary and often functional units of proteins. In many cases, the domains of a protein chain have distinct molecular functions, independent from each other. For that reason resources with functional annotations at the domain level, as well as methodologies for predicting function for individual domains adapted to these resources are required. We present a methodology for predicting the molecular function of individual domains, based on a previously developed database of functional annotations at the domain level. The approach, which we show outperforms a standard method based on sequence searches in assigning function, concomitantly predicts the structural fold of the domains and can give hints on the functionally important residues associated to the predicted function.

2013-01-01

288

Predicting blood lead levels from current and past environmental data in Europe.  

PubMed

The present case study on lead in Europe illustrates the use of the Integrated Monitoring Framework Strategy to assess the health outcome of environmental pollution by evaluating the associations between lead in various environmental compartments (air, soil, dust, drinking water and diet) and lead concentrations in blood (B-Pb) for various age-related sub-populations. The case study was aimed to investigate whether environmental, exposure and biomonitoring data at general population level, covering all EU member states, could be integrated. Although blood lead has been monitored extensively in Europe, consistent datasets are not yet available. Data diverge with regard to objectives, regional scale, sampling years, gender, age groups and sample size. Significant correlations were found between B-Pb and the concentrations of Pb in air and diet. The significant decrease of the Pb in air over time from 0.31 ?g/m(3) (P95: 0.94; n=98) prior to 1990 to 0.045 ?g/m(3) (P95: 0.11; n=256) in 2007 (latest observations included) (?=-85%) corresponds to a decline in B-Pb by 48% and 57% in adult women and adult men, respectively. For pre-school children a more shallow decline in B-Pb of 16% was calculated over the same period. Similarly, the reduction in Pb-dietary intake from on average 68.7 ?g/d (P95: 161.6; n=19) in 1978 to 35.7 ?g/d (P95: 82.3; n=33) in the years post 2000 (?=-48%) is paralleled by a decline in B-Pb of 32, 33 and 19% in adult women, primary- and pre-school children, respectively. Insufficient data exist for other age groups to calculate statistically significant correlations. Although regression models have been derived to predict B-Pb for different sub-populations in Europe based on Pb concentrations in air and soil as well as dietary intake, it is concluded that the available data are insufficient to accurately predict actual and future simultaneous exposure to Pb from various environmental compartments, and as a consequence the health impact of Pb for various target populations at EU scale. At least due to data availability, air Pb remains the best predictor of B-Pb in the population. However, lead emission sources have largely been reduced and inhalation of lead in air is not causal to B-Pb levels. Therefore, there is a need of adequate data for Pb in soil and house dust, and in diet and drinking water as these are causal exposure sources with a longer Pb half-life than air. An extended and more harmonized surveillance system monitoring B-Pb, especially in children, is urgently required in order to identify, quantify and reduce still remaining sources of Pb exposure. PMID:21917298

Bierkens, J; Smolders, R; Van Holderbeke, M; Cornelis, C

2011-11-01

289

Method for Measuring Enriched Levels of Deuterium in Soil Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes procedures for analyzing hydrogen isotope ratios. Hydrogen is separated from liquid water or soil water by reacting the water with heated uranium. An isotope-ratio mass spectrometer determines the atom % deuterium in the hydrogen to ...

J. L. Oliphant T. F. Jenkins A. R. Tice

1982-01-01

290

[A simulation model for predicting the dry matter allocation in cut lily plants under effects of substrate water potential].  

PubMed

Dry matter allocation and translocation is the base of the formation of appearance quality of ornamental plants, and strongly affected by water supply. Taking cut lily cultivar 'Sorbonne' as test material, a culture experiment of different planting dates and water supply levels was conducted in a multi-span greenhouse in Nanjing from March 2009 to January 2010 to quantitatively analyze the seasonal changes of the dry matter allocation and translocation in 'Sorbonne' plants and the effects of substrate water potential on the dry matter allocation indices for different organs (flower, stem, leaf, bulb, and root), aimed to define the critical substrate water potential for the normal growth of the cultivar, and establish a simulation model for predicting the dry matter allocation in cut lily plants under effects of substrate water potential. The model established in this study gave a good prediction on the dry mass of plant organs, with the coefficient of determination and the relative root mean square error between the simulated and measured values of the cultivar' s flower dry mass, stem dry mass, leaf dry mass, bulb dry mass, and root dry mass being 0.96 and 19.2%, 0.95 and 12.4%, 0.86 and 19.4%, 0.95 and 12.2%, and 0.85 and 31.7%, respectively. The critical water potential for the water management of cut lily could be -15 kPa. PMID:22803474

Dong, Yong-Yi; Li, Gang; An, Dong-Sheng; Luo, Wei-Hong

2012-04-01

291

Predicted and Measured Modal Sound Power Levels for a Fan Ingesting Distorted Inflow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Refinements have been made to a method for estimating the modal sound power levels of a ducted fan ingesting distorted inflow. By assuming that each propagating circumferential mode consists only of a single radial mode (the one with the highest cut-off ratio), circumferential mode sound power levels can be computed for a variety of inflow distortion patterns and operating speeds. Predictions from the refined theory have been compared to data from an experiment conducted in the Advanced Noise Control Fan at NASA Glenn Research Center. The inflow to the fan was distorted by inserting cylindrical rods radially into the inlet duct. The rods were placed at an axial location one rotor chord length upstream of the fan and arranged in both regular and irregular circumferential patterns. The fan was operated at 2000, 1800, and 1400 rpm. Acoustic pressure levels were measured in the fan inlet and exhaust ducts using the Rotating Rake fan mode measurement system. Far field sound pressure levels were also measured. It is shown that predicted trends in circumferential mode sound power levels closely match the experimental data for all operating speeds and distortion configurations tested. Insight gained through this work is being used to develop more advanced tools for predicting fan inflow distortion tone noise levels.

Koch, L. Danielle

2010-01-01

292

Baseline serum TARC levels predict therapy outcome in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma.  

PubMed

Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has become one of the best curable cancers. However, better biomarkers are needed for outcome prediction that would allow protecting patients from over- or under-dosing of treatment. Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine/CCL17 (TARC) is highly and specifically elevated in this disease and has been proposed as possible biomarker in HL patients. In this study, we show that pretreatment TARC levels were associated with established clinical risk factors and predictive for response to treatment in a large cohort of HL patients treated in clinical trials by the German Hodgkin Study Group. Moreover, TARC levels also significantly contributed to a novel multivariate model predicting treatment response. These data clearly suggest an important role for this chemokine as biomarker in HL. PMID:23225085

Sauer, Maike; Plütschow, Annette; Jachimowicz, Ron D; Kleefisch, Dominik; Reiners, Katrin S; Ponader, Sabine; Engert, Andreas; von Strandmann, Elke Pogge

2013-02-01

293

Using hyperspectral imagery to predict post-wildfire soil water repellency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A principal task of evaluating large wildfires is to assess fire's effect on the soil in order to predict the potential watershed response. Two types of soil water repellency tests, the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test and the mini-disk infiltrometer (MDI) test, were performed after the Hayman Fire in Colorado, in the summer of 2002 to assess the infiltration potential of the soil. Remotely sensed hyperspectral imagery was also collected to map post-wildfire ground cover and soil condition. Detailed ground cover measurements were collected to validate the remotely sensed imagery and to examine the relationship between ground cover and soil water repellency. Percent ash cover measured on the ground was significantly correlated to WDPT ( r = 0.42; p-value < 0.0001), and the MDI test ( r = - 0.37; p-value < 0.0001). A Mixture Tuned Matched Filter (MTMF) spectral unmixing algorithm was applied to the hyperspectral imagery, which produced fractional cover maps of ash, soil, and scorched and green vegetation. The remotely sensed ash image had significant correlations to the water repellency tests, WDPT ( r = 0.24; p-value = 0.001), and the MDI test ( r = - 0.21; p-value = 0.005). An iterative threshold analysis was also applied to the ash and water repellency data to evaluate the relationship at increasingly higher levels of ash cover. Regression analysis between the means of grouped data: MDI time vs. ash cover data ( R2 =0.75) and vs. Ash MTMF scores ( R2 = 0.63) yielded significantly stronger relationships. From these results we found on-the-ground ash cover greater than 49% and remotely sensed ash cover greater than 33% to be indicative of strongly water repellent soils. Combining these results with geostatistical analyses indicated a spatial autocorrelation range of 15 to 40 m. Image pixels with high ash cover (> 33%), including pixels within 15 m of these pixel patches, were used to create a likelihood map of soil water repellency. This map is a good indicator of areas where soil experienced severe fire effects—areas that likely have strong water repellent soil conditions and higher potential for post-fire erosion.

Lewis, Sarah A.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Frazier, Bruce E.; Wu, Joan Q.; Laes, Denise Y. M.

2008-03-01

294

Analysis of Predictive Factors that Influence Faculty Members Technology Adoption Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative study used the Learning/Adoption Trajectory model of technology adoption as a scaffold to investigate whether a faculty adoption level of instructional technology in the College of Education (COE) at a large midwestern university in the US can be predicted by the faculty members' responses to questionnaire items in four areas:…

Sahin, Ismail; Thompson, Ann

2007-01-01

295

Construal Levels and Psychological Distance: Effects on Representation, Prediction, Evaluation, and Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

distance they construe the same objects or events in terms of high-level, abstract, and stable characteristics.Research has shown that different dimensions of psychological distance (time, space, social distance, and hypotheticality) affect mental construal and that these construals, inturn, guide prediction, evaluation, and behavior. The present paper reviews this research and its implications for consumer psychology. One of the ,primary ,aims

Yaacov Trope; Nira Liberman; Cheryl Wakslak

2007-01-01

296

Strength and Comprehensiveness of District School Wellness Policies Predict Policy Implementation at the School Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In 2006, all local education agencies in the United States participating in federal school meal programs were required to establish school wellness policies. This study documented the strength and comprehensiveness of 1 state's written district policies using a coding tool, and tested whether these traits predicted school-level

Schwartz, Marlene B.; Henderson, Kathryn E.; Falbe, Jennifer; Novak, Sarah A.; Wharton, Christopher M.; Long, Michael W.; O'Connell, Meghan L.; Fiore, Susan S.

2012-01-01

297

Correlates of Achievement: Prediction and Cross-Validation for Intermediate Grade Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to: (1) determine the simple and multiple correlation coefficients between selected educational/personal variables and academic achievement at intermediate grade levels as measured by the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills; (2) determine the multiple linear regression equations for predicting individual student achievement as…

Marshall, Jon C.; Powers, Jerry M.

298

Concurrent and Predictive Validity of the Battelle Development Inventory at the First Grade Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concurrent and predictive validity of the Battelle Developmental Inventory (BDI) was investigated. A random sample (N = 50) of 124 children comprising a total grade level in a school district was evaluated during both the kindergarten and first grade school years by using a comprehensive battery of assessments. Results indicated a consistent pattern of relationships between separate BDI domains and

John Guidubaldi; Joseph D. Perry

1984-01-01

299

Improved Frame Level MAD Prediction and Bit Allocation Scheme for H.264\\/AVC Rate Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an improved frame level mean absolute difference (MAD) prediction model for H.264\\/AVC rate control. Based on the histogram information of successive frames, the MAD of current frame can be accurately estimated. Instead of only using buffer status in the frame target bits allocation process, we also take into consideration the frame complexity which depends on

Xuan Jing; Lap-pui Chau

2007-01-01

300

Perceptions of Crowding: Predicting at the Residence, Neighborhood, and City Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details the results of a large-scale field study aimed at testing two theories on human crowding. Found that psychological factors are increasingly important for the prediction of crowding as one moved from the immediate residence to the less immediate city level. Implications, limitations and further results are discussed. (Author/MA)

Schmidt, Donald E.; And Others

1979-01-01

301

The Development of a Prediction Model to Determine the Appropriate Level of Entering Students in Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem was to determine the appropriate level of mathematics for an entering student at Chattanooga State Technical Institute to ensure probability of success in his initial course. A multiple regression analysis was used to establish an equation to determine the lower limit of the prediction interval, to determine whether I.Q. or mathematics…

Hooper, Herbert L., Jr.

302

Prediction of county-level cancer incidence rates and counts in the United States  

Cancer.gov

March 28, 2012 1:30 PM - 2:30 PM + Add to Outlook Calendar Speaker Binbing Yu, PhDChief, Biometry SectionLaboratory of Epidemiology, Demography, and BiometryNational Institute on Aging (NIA) Topic Prediction of county-level cancer incidence rates and

303

Anomalous properties of water predicted by the BK3 model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, we proposed a new model for water [P. T. Kiss and A. Baranyai, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 204507 (2013)]. We presented a detailed description of the development of this classical, polarizable model, and a large number of calculated properties. The model provided excellent estimates for ambient liquid properties and reasonably good results from high-pressure solids to gas-phase clusters. In this paper we present results of extensive calculations for temperature-dependent water anomalies in terms of the pressure. The calculated isobars of the temperature-density and the self-diffusion diagrams provide excellent estimates of the experimental values. The estimated compressibility isobars perfectly match the experimental ones if we shift our numbers by ˜10 K upwards. The calculated pressure-dependent viscosity values are excellent at higher temperatures and qualitatively correct at lower temperatures.

Kiss, Péter T.; Baranyai, András

2014-04-01

304

Prediction of altimetric sea level anomalies using time series models based on spatial correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level anomaly (SLA) times series, which are time-varying gridded data, can be modelled and predicted using time series methods. This approach has been shown to provide accurate forecasts within the Prognocean system, the novel infrastructure for anticipating sea level change designed and built at the University of Wroc?aw (Poland) which utilizes the real-time SLA data from Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic data (AVISO). The system runs a few models concurrently, and our ocean prediction experiment includes both uni- and multivariate time series methods. The univariate ones are: extrapolation of polynomial-harmonic model (PH), extrapolation of polynomial-harmonic model and autoregressive prediction (PH+AR), extrapolation of polynomial-harmonic model and self-exciting threshold autoregressive prediction (PH+SETAR). The following multivariate methods are used: extrapolation of polynomial-harmonic model and vector autoregressive prediction (PH+VAR), extrapolation of polynomial-harmonic model and generalized space-time autoregressive prediction (PH+GSTAR). As the aforementioned models and the corresponding forecasts are computed in real time, hence independently and in the same computational setting, we are allowed to compare the accuracies offered by the models. The objective of this work is to verify the hypothesis that the multivariate prediction techniques, which make use of cross-correlation and spatial correlation, perform better than the univariate ones. The analysis is based on the daily-fitted and updated time series models predicting the SLA data (lead time of two weeks) over several months when El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) was in its neutral state.

Mizi?ski, Bart?omiej; Niedzielski, Tomasz

2014-05-01

305

Diagnostic performance and discriminative value of the serum ferritin level for predicting preterm labor  

PubMed Central

Background: The measuring serum ferritin level as a sensitive inflammatory biomarker might effectively predict preterm delivery, but the power and the best cut-off point of this biomarker for predicting preterm labor in Iranian population has not been substantially identified. Our purpose was to determine what concentrations of serum ferritin could identify patients at risk for preterm delivery in Iranian population for the first time. Materials and Methods: This case control study involved 222 singleton pregnancies that were referred to referral university hospitals clinics in Isfahan. Women with spontaneous preterm delivery before 24–26 weeks (preterm delivery group, n = 69) and those who delivered at term (term delivery group, n = 153) were compared with respect to serum ferritin concentration. Venous blood samples were analyzed for the serum ferritin level using the ferritin quantitative test system-sensitive for the normal ferritin range. Results: Women who delivered before 37 weeks had a higher mean serum ferritin concentration than those who delivered after 37 weeks of gestation (26.7 ± 5.5 ng/mL versus 19.8 ± 3.6 ng/mL, P<0.001). A serum ferritin level of 22.5 ng/mL yielded the best combination with sensitivity of 78.3%, specificity of 83.0%, positive predictive value of 67.5%, and negative predictive value of 89.4% for prediction of preterm delivery. Conclusion: The serum ferritin level provides an appropriate discrimination in predicting preterm delivery with an optimal cut-off value of 22.5 ng/mL in Iranian population.

Movahedi, Mino; Saiedi, Mahmoud; Gharipour, Mojgan; Aghadavoudi, Omid

2012-01-01

306

Relationship between water color, water levels, and climate indices in large rivers: Case of the St. Lawrence River (Canada)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between the color (measured with Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper sensors in bands 1, 2, and 3) of St. Lawrence River (SLR) water and water levels (in SLR and Lake Ontario) was first analyzed, followed by the analysis of the relationship between water levels and four climate indices for the period from 1984 to 2009. Although there is a statistically significant relationship between these first two variables, this link depends on the strength of two factors: the type of color (band) and inflows from tributaries. Bands 1 (blue) and 2 (green) were negatively correlated with water levels. This correlation, however, is spatially influenced by water inflows from tributaries. Band 3 (red) showed no significant correlation with either water level. Over the same period, water levels were negatively correlated with the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation index. Results suggest that the color of waters in the SLR may be used as an indicator to monitor environmental and climate changes in its watershed.

Massicotte, Philippe; Assani, Ali A.; Gratton, Denis; Frenette, Jean-Jacques

2013-04-01

307

Free surface water wave 1-D LBGK predictions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of a single phase free surface lattice Boltzmann (LB) solver is investigated. The lattice-BGK (LBGK) model explores the free surface behavior with a focus on non-overturning water waves. The discretized equations are based on shallow water wave theory in viscous flow. Therefore, only flows with horizontal velocity dominating free surface waves is applicable. The solutions on uniform grids implement an elastic-collision scheme assuming slip boundaries at the tank walls. Simulations are carried out in horizontal base-excited square tanks. The forcing amplitude and the tank aspect ratios of are kept constant while the forcing frequency is varied off- and near resonance. At this water depth, the free surface was observed to slosh in a first sway mode initially; however, the following cycles would typically consist of traveling waves or bores. The flow typically remained 1-D in resonance cases except at the bore front and near the walls. The LB experiments are limited to flow simulations of weak bores which occurred near resonance with forcing amplitude in the order of . The LB solutions were in good agreement with a Riemann solver and agreed fairly well with experimental data.

Frandsen, J. B.

2006-07-01

308

Thermophysical Properties of Ammonia–Water Mixtures for Prediction of Heat Transfer Areas in Power Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In power cycles using ammonia–water mixtures as the working fluid, several heat exchangers are used. The influence of different correlations for predicting thermophysical properties on the calculations of the size of the heat exchangers is presented. Different correlations for predicting both the thermodynamic and the transport properties are included. The use of different correlations for the thermodynamic properties gives a

E. Thorin

2001-01-01

309

Effects of sea-level rise on ground water flow in a coastal aquifer system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of sea-level rise on the depth to the fresh water/salt water interface were simulated by using a density-dependent, three-dimensional numerical ground water flow model for a simplified hypothetical fresh water lens that is similar to shallow, coastal aquifers found along the Atlantic coast of the United States. Simulations of sea-level rise of 2.65 mm/year from 1929 to 2050 resulted in an increase in water levels relative to a fixed datum, yet a net decrease in water levels relative to the increased sea-level position. The net decrease in water levels was much greater near a gaining stream than farther from the stream. The difference in the change in water levels is attributed to the dampening effect of the stream on water level changes in response to sea-level rise. In response to the decreased water level altitudes relative to local sea level, the depth to the fresh water/salt water interface decreased. This reduction in the thickness of the fresh water lens varied throughout the aquifer and was greatly affected by proximity to a ground water fed stream and whether the stream was tidally influenced. Away from the stream, the thickness of the fresh water lens decreased by about 2% from 1929 to 2050, whereas the fresh water lens thickness decreased by about 22% to 31% for the same period near the stream, depending on whether the stream was tidally influenced. The difference in the change in the fresh water/salt water interface position is controlled by the difference in the net decline in water levels relative to local sea level. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

Masterson, J. P.; Garabedian, S. P.

2007-01-01

310

Non Invasive Water Level Monitoring on Boiling Water Reactors Using Internal Gamma Radiation: Application of Soft Computing Methods  

SciTech Connect

To provide best knowledge about safety-related water level values in boiling water reactors (BWR) is essentially for operational regime. For the water level determination hydrostatic level measurement systems are almost exclusively applied, because they stand the test over many decades in conventional and nuclear power plants (NPP). Due to the steam generation especially in BWR a specific phenomenon occurs which leads to a water-steam mixture level in the reactor annular space and reactor plenum. The mixture level is a high transient non-measurable value concerning the hydrostatic water level measuring system and it significantly differs from the measured collapsed water level. In particular, during operational and accidental transient processes like fast negative pressure transients, the monitoring of these water levels is very important. In addition to the hydrostatic water level measurement system a diverse water level measurement system for BWR should be used. A real physical diversity is given by gamma radiation distribution inside and outside the reactor pressure vessel correlating with the water level. The vertical gamma radiation distribution depends on the water level, but it is also a function of the neutron flux and the coolant recirculation pump speed. For the water level monitoring, special algorithms are required. An analytical determination of the gamma radiation distribution outside the reactor pressure vessel is impossible due to the multitude of radiation of physical processes, complicated non-stationary radiation source distribution and complex geometry of fixtures. For creating suited algorithms Soft Computing methods (Fuzzy Sets Theory, Artificial Neural Networks, etc.) will be used. Therefore, a database containing input values (gamma radiation distribution) and output values (water levels) had to be built. Here, the database was established by experiments (data from BWR and from a test setup) and simulation with the authorised thermo-fluid code ATHLET. (authors)

Fleischer, Sebastian; Hampel, Rainer [University of Applied Sciences Zittau/Goerlitz, Theodor-Koerner-Str. 16, D-02763 Zittau (Germany)

2006-07-01

311

Does Postevacuation ?-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Level Predict the Persistent Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia?  

PubMed Central

?-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) level is not a reliable marker for early identification of persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) after evacuation of hydatidiform mole. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate ?-HCG regression after evacuation as a predictive factor of malignant GTN in complete molar pregnancy. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated a total of 260 patients with complete molar pregnancy. Sixteen of the 260 patients were excluded. Serum levels of HCG were measured in all patients before treatment and after evacuation. HCG level was measured weekly until it reached a level lower than 5?mIU/mL. Results. The only predictors of persistent GTN are HCG levels one and two weeks after evacuation. The cut-off point for the preevacuation HCG level was 6000?mIU/mL (area under the curve, AUC, 0.58; sensitivity, 38.53%; specificity, 77.4%), whereas cut-off points for HCG levels one and two weeks after evacuation were 6288?mIU/mL (AUC, 0.63; sensitivity, 50.46%; specificity, 77.0%) and 801?mIU/mL (AUC, 0.80; sensitivity, 79.82%; specificity, 71.64%), respectively. Conclusion. The rate of decrease of HCG level at two weeks after surgical evacuation is the most reliable and strongest predictive factor for the progression of molar pregnancies to persistent GTN.

Mousavi, Azam Sadat; Modarres Gilani, Mitra; Akhavan, Setareh; Rezayof, Elahe

2014-01-01

312

Does Postevacuation ? -Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Level Predict the Persistent Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia?  

PubMed

? -human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) level is not a reliable marker for early identification of persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) after evacuation of hydatidiform mole. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate ? -HCG regression after evacuation as a predictive factor of malignant GTN in complete molar pregnancy. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated a total of 260 patients with complete molar pregnancy. Sixteen of the 260 patients were excluded. Serum levels of HCG were measured in all patients before treatment and after evacuation. HCG level was measured weekly until it reached a level lower than 5?mIU/mL. Results. The only predictors of persistent GTN are HCG levels one and two weeks after evacuation. The cut-off point for the preevacuation HCG level was 6000?mIU/mL (area under the curve, AUC, 0.58; sensitivity, 38.53%; specificity, 77.4%), whereas cut-off points for HCG levels one and two weeks after evacuation were 6288?mIU/mL (AUC, 0.63; sensitivity, 50.46%; specificity, 77.0%) and 801?mIU/mL (AUC, 0.80; sensitivity, 79.82%; specificity, 71.64%), respectively. Conclusion. The rate of decrease of HCG level at two weeks after surgical evacuation is the most reliable and strongest predictive factor for the progression of molar pregnancies to persistent GTN. PMID:25006482

Mousavi, Azam Sadat; Karimi, Samieh; Modarres Gilani, Mitra; Akhavan, Setareh; Rezayof, Elahe

2014-01-01

313

Residue-Level Prediction of HIV-1 Antibody Epitopes Based on Neutralization of Diverse Viral Strains  

PubMed Central

Delineation of antibody epitopes at the residue level is key to understanding antigen resistance mutations, designing epitope-specific probes for antibody isolation, and developing epitope-based vaccines. Ideally, epitope residues are determined in the context of the atomic-level structure of the antibody-antigen complex, though structure determination may in many cases be impractical. Here we describe an efficient computational method to predict antibody-specific HIV-1 envelope (Env) epitopes at the residue level, based on neutralization panels of diverse viral strains. The method primarily utilizes neutralization potency data over a set of diverse viral strains representing the antigen, and enhanced accuracy could be achieved by incorporating information from the unbound structure of the antigen. The method was evaluated on 19 HIV-1 Env antibodies with neutralization panels comprising 181 diverse viral strains and with available antibody-antigen complex structures. Prediction accuracy was shown to improve significantly over random selection, with an average of greater-than-8-fold enrichment of true positives at the 0.05 false-positive rate level. The method was used to prospectively predict epitope residues for two HIV-1 antibodies, 8ANC131 and 8ANC195, for which we experimentally validated the predictions. The method is inherently applicable to antigens that exhibit sequence diversity, and its accuracy was found to correlate inversely with sequence conservation of the epitope. Together the results show how knowledge inherent to a neutralization panel and unbound antigen structure can be utilized for residue-level prediction of antibody epitopes.

Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Acharya, Priyamvada; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Yang, Yongping; Louder, Mark K.; Zhou, Tongqing; Kwon, Young Do; Pancera, Marie; Bailer, Robert T.; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.

2013-01-01

314

Residue-level prediction of HIV-1 antibody epitopes based on neutralization of diverse viral strains.  

PubMed

Delineation of antibody epitopes at the residue level is key to understanding antigen resistance mutations, designing epitope-specific probes for antibody isolation, and developing epitope-based vaccines. Ideally, epitope residues are determined in the context of the atomic-level structure of the antibody-antigen complex, though structure determination may in many cases be impractical. Here we describe an efficient computational method to predict antibody-specific HIV-1 envelope (Env) epitopes at the residue level, based on neutralization panels of diverse viral strains. The method primarily utilizes neutralization potency data over a set of diverse viral strains representing the antigen, and enhanced accuracy could be achieved by incorporating information from the unbound structure of the antigen. The method was evaluated on 19 HIV-1 Env antibodies with neutralization panels comprising 181 diverse viral strains and with available antibody-antigen complex structures. Prediction accuracy was shown to improve significantly over random selection, with an average of greater-than-8-fold enrichment of true positives at the 0.05 false-positive rate level. The method was used to prospectively predict epitope residues for two HIV-1 antibodies, 8ANC131 and 8ANC195, for which we experimentally validated the predictions. The method is inherently applicable to antigens that exhibit sequence diversity, and its accuracy was found to correlate inversely with sequence conservation of the epitope. Together the results show how knowledge inherent to a neutralization panel and unbound antigen structure can be utilized for residue-level prediction of antibody epitopes. PMID:23843642

Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Acharya, Priyamvada; Schmidt, Stephen D; Yang, Yongping; Louder, Mark K; Zhou, Tongqing; Kwon, Young Do; Pancera, Marie; Bailer, Robert T; Doria-Rose, Nicole A; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Mascola, John R; Kwong, Peter D; Georgiev, Ivelin S

2013-09-01

315

DBP levels in chlorinated drinking water: effect of humic substances.  

PubMed

Chlorination is the most widely used technique for disinfection of drinking water. A consequence of chlorination is the formation of Disinfection By-Products (DBPs). The formation of DBPs in drinking water results from the reaction of chlorine with naturally occurring organic materials, principally humic and fulvic acids. This paper focuses on the effect of humic substances on the formation of twenty-four compounds belonging to different categories of DBPs. This investigation was conducted in two water treatment plants in Greece, Menidi and Galatsi, from July 1999 to April 2000. Humic substances were determined by the diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) method with subsequent UV measurement. The techniques used for the determination of DBPs were liquid-liquid extraction, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The concentrations of DBPs were generally low. Total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) ranged from 5.1 to 24.6 microg L(-1), and total haloacetic acids (HAAs) concentration ranged from 8.6 to 28.4 microg L(-1), while haloaketones (HKs) and chloral hydrate (CH) occurred below 1 microg L(-1). The content of humic substances was found to influence the formation of DBPs and especially TTHMs, trichloroacetic acid (TCA), dibromoacetic acid (DBA), CH, 1,1-dichloropropanone (1.1-DCP) and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone (1,1,1-TCP). Seasonal variation of TTHMs and HAAs generally followed that of humic substances content with peaks occurring in autumn and spring. The trends of 1,1-DCP, 1,1,1-TCP and CH formation seemed to be in contrast to TTHMs and HAAs. Trends of formation of individual compounds varied in some cases, probably due to influence of parameters other than humic substances content. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the concentrations of TTHMs, CH, 1,1-DCP, 1,1,1-TCP, TCA and DBA are strongly affected from humic substances content (at 0.01 confidence level). The opposite is true for dichloroacetic acid (DCA) concentration. Humic substances also vary to a statistically significant degree during different months, as well as the concentrations of TTHMs, CH, 1,1-DCP, 1,1,1-TCP, TCA and DCA. The variance of DBA was not statistically significant. Regarding the effect of sampling station, humic substances content showed no statistically significant difference between the two raw water sources studied. PMID:15074622

Nikolaou, Anastasia D; Golfinopoulos, Spyros K; Lekkas, Themistokles D; Kostopoulou, Maria N

2004-01-01

316

Construal Levels and Psychological Distance: Effects on Representation, Prediction, Evaluation, and Behavior  

PubMed Central

Construal level theory (CLT) is an account of how psychological distance influences individuals’ thoughts and behavior. CLT assumes that people mentally construe objects that are psychologically near in terms of low-level, detailed, and contextualized features, whereas at a distance they construe the same objects or events in terms of high-level, abstract, and stable characteristics. Research has shown that different dimensions of psychological distance (time, space, social distance, and hypotheticality) affect mental construal and that these construals, in turn, guide prediction, evaluation, and behavior. The present paper reviews this research and its implications for consumer psychology.

Trope, Yaacov; Liberman, Nira; Wakslak, Cheryl

2011-01-01

317

Predicting Land-Ice Retreat and Sea-Level Rise with the Community Earth System Model  

SciTech Connect

Coastal stakeholders need defensible predictions of 21st century sea-level rise (SLR). IPCC assessments suggest 21st century SLR of {approx}0.5 m under aggressive emission scenarios. Semi-empirical models project SLR of {approx}1 m or more by 2100. Although some sea-level contributions are fairly well constrained by models, others are highly uncertain. Recent studies suggest a potential large contribution ({approx}0.5 m/century) from the marine-based West Antarctic Ice Sheet, linked to changes in Southern Ocean wind stress. To assess the likelihood of fast retreat of marine ice sheets, we need coupled ice-sheet/ocean models that do not yet exist (but are well under way). CESM is uniquely positioned to provide integrated, physics based sea-level predictions.

Lipscomb, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-19

318

Prediction of the interior noise levels of high-speed propeller-driven aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theoretical basis for an analytical model developed to predict the interior noise levels of high-speed propeller-driven airplanes is presented. Particular emphasis is given to modeling the transmission of discrete tones through a fuselage element into a cavity, estimates for the mean and standard deviation of the acoustic power flow, the coupling between a non-homogeneous excitation and the fuselage vibration response, and the prediction of maximum interior noise levels. The model allows for convenient examination of the various roles of the excitation and fuselage structural characteristics on the fuselage vibration response and the interior noise levels, as is required for the design of model or prototype noise control validation tests.

Rennison, D. C.; Wilby, J. F.; Wilby, E. G.

1980-01-01

319

Predicting the Health of a Natural Water System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project was developed as an interdisciplinary application of the optimization of a single-variable function. It was used in a freshman-level single-variable calculus course. After the first month of the course, students had been exposed to the concepts of the derivative as a rate of change, average and instantaneous velocities, derivatives of…

Graves, Gregory H.

2010-01-01

320

PREDICTING SUSTAINABLE GROUND WATER TO CONSTRUCTED RIPARIAN WETLANDS: SHAKER TRACE, OHIO, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

Water isotopy is introduced as a best management practice for the prediction of sustained ground water inflows to prospective constructed wetlands. A primer and application of the stable isotopes, 18O and 2H, are discussed for riparian wetland restoration ar...

321

The Water Level Fall of Lake Megali Prespa (N Greece): an Indicator of Regional Water Stress Driven by Climate Change and Amplified by Water Extraction?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean stands out globally due to its sensitivity to (future) climate change, with future projections predicting an increase in excessive drought events and declining rainfall. Regional freshwater ecosystems are particularly threatened: precipitation decreases, while extreme droughts increase and human impacts intensify (e.g. water extraction, drainage, pollution and dam-building). Many Mediterranean lake-wetland systems have shrunk or disappeared over the past two decades. Protecting the remaining systems is extremely important for supporting global biodiversity and for ensuring sustainable water availability. This protection should be based on a clear understanding of lake-wetland hydrological responses to natural and human-induced changes, which is currently lacking in many parts of the Mediterranean. The interconnected Prespa-Ohrid Lake system is a global hotspot of biodiversity and endemism. The unprecedented fall in water level (~8m) of Lake Megali Prespa threatens this system, but causes remain debated. Modelling suggests that the S Balkan will experience rainfall and runoff decreases of ~30% by 2050. However, projections revealing the potential impact of these changes on future lake level are unavailable as lake regime is not understood. A further drop in lake level may have serious consequences. The Prespa Lakes contribute ~25% of the total inflow into Lake Ohrid through underground karst channels; falling lake levels decrease this discharge. Lake Ohrid, in turn, feeds the Drim River. This entire catchment may therefore be affected by falling lake levels; its water resources are of great importance for Greece, Albania, FYROM and Montenegro (e.g. tourism, agriculture, hydro-energy, urban & industrial use). This new work proves that annual water level fluctuations of Lake Megali Prespa are predominantly related to precipitation during the first 7 months (Oct-Apr) of the hydrological year (Oct-Sep). Lake level is very sensitive to regional and Mediterranean wet-dry events during this period. There are robust indications for a link between lake level and the North Atlantic Oscillation, which is known to strongly influence Mediterranean winter precipitation. Hydro-climatic records show a complicated picture, but tentatively support the conclusion that the unprecedented lake level fall is principally related to climate change. The available fluvial discharge record and most existing snowfall records show statistically significant decreases in annual averages. Annual rainfall only shows a statistically significant decrease of the 25th percentile; 7-month rainfall (Oct-Apr) additionally shows a statistically significant but non-robust decrease of the mean. The modest amount of water extraction (annually: ~14*103m3, ~0.004% of total lake volume) exerts a progressive and significant impact on lake level over the longer term, accounting for ~25% of the observed fall. Lake level lowering ends when lake-surface area shrinkage has led to a decrease in lake-surface evaporation that is equivalent to the amount of water extracted. The adjustment of lake level to stable extraction rates requires two to three decades. This work aims to steer adaptation and mitigation strategies by informing on lake response under different climate change and extraction scenarios. Lake protection is a cost effective solution for supporting global biodiversity and for providing sustainable water resources.

van der Schriek, Tim; Giannakopoulos, Christos

2014-05-01

322

Soil water balance scenario studies using predicted soil hydraulic parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) have become a topic drawing increasing interest within the field of soil and environmental research because they can provide important soil physical data at relatively low cost. Few studies, however, explore which contributions PTFs can make to land-use planning, in terms of examining the expected outcome of certain changes in soil and water management practices. This paper describes three scenario studies that show some aspects of how PTFs may help improve decision making about land management practices. We use an exploratory research approach using simulation modelling to explore the potential effect of alternative solutions in land management. We: (i) evaluate benefits and risks when irrigating a field, and the impact of soil heterogeneity; (ii) examine which changes can be expected (in terms of soil water balance and supply) if organic matter content is changed as a result of an alternative management system; (iii) evaluate the risk of leaching to deeper horizons in some soils of Hungary. Using this research approach, quantitative answers are provided to what if? type questions, allowing the distinction of trends and potential problems, which may contribute to the development of sustainable management systems.

Nemes, A.; Wösten, J. H. M.; Bouma, J.; Várallyay, G.

2006-03-01

323

Seasonal ecological changes and water level variations in the Sélingué Reservoir (Mali, West Africa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates the ecological modifications induced by the annual water level change as a consequence of hydrological regime and power production in Sélingué, a monomictic reservoir in Mali (West Africa). High waters occur from November, after the flood, while low waters occur from June, at the end of the dry season. Decrease of water level is linked to environmental

R. Arfi

2005-01-01

324

A noise level prediction method based on electro-mechanical frequency response function for capacitors.  

PubMed

The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible noise which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing noise level prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new noise level prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible noise is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The noise level under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the noise prediction method is effective. PMID:24349105

Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao

2013-01-01

325

Using Residence-Time Distributions to Compare Water-Level Hydrographs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of accurate, high-frequency water-level data has greatly improved the potential for site-specific hydrologic assessments. Traditional comparisons between sites included summary statistics (mean\\/median water level) and qualitative assessments of hydrographs. In many instances traditional summary statistics are not adequate to convey the importance of water-level fluctuation or the amount of time water levels are at or above a critical

J. F. Walker; R. J. Hunt

2004-01-01

326

Analysis of water levels in the Frenchman Flat area, Nevada Test Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of water levels in 21 wells in the Frenchman Flat area, Nevada Test Site, provides information on the accuracy of hydraulic-head calculations, temporal water-level trends, and potential causes of water-level fluctuations. Accurate hydraulic heads are particularly important in Frenchman Flat where the hydraulic gradients are relatively flat (less than 1 foot per mile) in the alluvial aquifer. Temporal water-level

D. J. Bright; S. A. Watkins; B. A. Lisle

2001-01-01

327

Hair loss in females after sleeve gastrectomy: predictive value of serum zinc and iron levels.  

PubMed

A common complication after bariatric surgery is hair loss, which is related to rapid weight reduction, but zinc, iron, and other micronutrient deficiencies can also be involved. Little is studied after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). A prospective observational study was performed of 42 morbidly obese females undergoing LSG. Incidence of hair loss was monitored. Micronutrients were investigated preoperatively and three, six, and 12 months after surgery. Sixteen patients (41%) reported hair loss in the postoperative course. A significant association was observed between hair loss and zinc levels (P = 0.021) but mean zinc levels were within the normal range in patients reporting hair loss. Only three patients (7.7%) presented low zinc levels, all of them reporting hair loss. There was also a significant association between iron levels and alopecia (P = 0.017), but mean values of the patients with hair loss were within normal range. Only four patients (10.2%) presented low iron levels, all of them presenting hair loss. A variable consisting of the addition of zinc + iron showed a significant association with hair loss (P = 0.013). A cutoff point was established in 115 (odds ratio, 4; P = 0.006). All the patients but two reporting hair loss presented addition levels under 115. This variable showed sensibility 88 per cent, specificity 84 per cent, positive predictive value 79 per cent, and negative predictive value 91 per cent to predict hair loss. Hair loss is a frequent condition after sleeve gastrectomy. In most cases, iron and zinc levels are within the normal range. The variable addition (zinc + iron) is a good predictor of hair loss. Patients with addition levels below 115 are fourfold more susceptible to present hair loss. In these cases, zinc supplements achieve the stop of hair loss in most cases. PMID:24887725

Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Oller, Inmaculada; Llavero, Carolina; Zubiaga, Lorea; Diez, María; Arroyo, Antonio; Calero, Alicia; Calpena, Rafael

2014-05-01

328

Distinct coping strategies differentially predict urge levels and lapses in a smoking cessation attempt.  

PubMed

This study analysed mechanisms through which stress-coping and temptation-coping strategies were associated with lapses. Furthermore, we explored whether distinct coping strategies differentially predicted reduced lapse risk, lower urge levels, or a weaker association between urge levels and lapses during the first week of an unassisted smoking cessation attempt. Participants were recruited via the internet and mass media in Switzerland. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) with mobile devices was used to assess urge levels and lapses. Online questionnaires were used to measure smoking behaviours and coping variables at baseline, as well as smoking behaviour at the three-month follow-up. The sample consisted of 243 individuals, aged 20 to 40, who reported 4199 observations. Findings of multilevel regression analyses show that coping was mainly associated with a reduced lapse risk and not with lower urge levels or a weaker association between urge levels and lapses. 'Calming down' and 'commitment to change' predicted a lower lapse risk and also a weaker relation between urge levels and lapses. 'Stimulus control' predicted a lower lapse risk and lower urge levels. Conversely, 'task-orientation' and 'risk assessment' were related to higher lapse risk and 'risk assessment' also to higher urge levels. Disengagement coping i.e. 'eating or shopping', 'distraction', and 'mobilising social support' did not affect lapse risk. Promising coping strategies during the initial stage of smoking cessation attempt are targeted directly at reducing the lapse risk and are characterised by engagement with the stressor or one's reactions towards the stressor and a focus on positive consequences instead of health risks. PMID:23501139

Brodbeck, Jeannette; Bachmann, Monica S; Znoj, Hansjörg

2013-06-01

329

Ground-water levels in water year 1987 and estimated ground-water pumpage in water years 1986-87, Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Groundwater levels were measured at 58 wells during water year 1987 and a summary of estimated pumpage is given for water years 1986 and 1987 in Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada. The data were collected to provide a record of groundwater changes over the long-term and pumpage estimates that can be incorporated into an existing groundwater model. The estimated total pumpage in water year 1986 was 10,200 acre-ft and in water year 1987 was 13,400 acre-ft. Groundwater levels exhibited seasonal fluctuations but remained relatively stable over the reporting period throughout most of the valley. (USGS)

Berger, D. L.

1990-01-01

330

Molecular-level engineering of protein physical hydrogels for predictive sol-gel phase behavior  

PubMed Central

Predictable tuning of bulk mechanics from the molecular level remains elusive in many physical hydrogel systems due to the reliance on non-specific and non-stoichiometric chain interactions for network formation. We describe a Mixing-Induced Two-Component Hydrogel (MITCH) system, in which network assembly is driven by specific and stoichiometric peptide-peptide binding interactions. By integrating protein science methodologies with simple polymer physics model, we manipulate the polypeptide binding interactions and demonstrate the direct ability to predict the resulting effects on network crosslinking density, sol-gel phase behavior, and gel mechanics.

Mulyasasmita, Widya; Lee, Ji Seok; Heilshorn, Sarah C.

2011-01-01

331

Can sediment data be used to predict alkalinity and base cation chemistry of surface waters?  

PubMed

We hypothesise that stream sediment elemental composition can predict mean and minimum concentrations of alkalinity, Ca and Mg in the river water throughout a river network. We tested this hypothesis for the River Derwent catchment in North Yorkshire, England, by using 6 years of water chemistry data from the Environment Agency and a digital elevation model to flow path-weight British Geological Survey (BGS) sediment element concentration data. The predictive models for mean concentrations were excellent for Ca and alkalinity, but less good for Mg, and did not require land use data inputs as stream water sediment composition seems to reflect all aspects of the riparian zone soil system. Predictive model forms were linear. Attempts to predict minimum values for Ca and alkalinity also were less satisfactory. This probably is due to variations in hydrological response times to individual precipitation events across the catchment. PMID:21051075

Begum, S; McClean, C J; Cresser, M S; Breward, N

2010-12-15

332

Use of predictive models and rapid methods to nowcast bacteria levels at coastal beaches  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The need for rapid assessments of recreational water quality to better protect public health is well accepted throughout the research and regulatory communities. Rapid analytical methods, such as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analysis, are being tested but are not yet ready for widespread use. Another solution is the use of predictive models, wherein variable(s) that are easily and quickly measured are surrogates for concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria. Rainfall-based alerts, the simplest type of model, have been used by several communities for a number of years. Deterministic models use mathematical representations of the processes that affect bacteria concentrations; this type of model is being used for beach-closure decisions at one location in the USA. Multivariable statistical models are being developed and tested in many areas of the USA; however, they are only used in three areas of the Great Lakes to aid in notifications of beach advisories or closings. These "operational" statistical models can result in more accurate assessments of recreational water quality than use of the previous day's Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration as determined by traditional culture methods. The Ohio Nowcast, at Huntington Beach, Bay Village, Ohio, is described in this paper as an example of an operational statistical model. Because predictive modeling is a dynamic process, water-resource managers continue to collect additional data to improve the predictive ability of the nowcast and expand the nowcast to other Ohio beaches and a recreational river. Although predictive models have been shown to work well at some beaches and are becoming more widely accepted, implementation in many areas is limited by funding, lack of coordinated technical leadership, and lack of supporting epidemiological data. ?? 2009 AEHMS.

Francy, D. S.

2009-01-01

333

Water levels in continuously monitored wells in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada, 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water levels have been monitored hourly in 16 wells representing 24 intervals in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada. Water levels were monitored using pressure transducers and were recorded by data loggers. The pressure transducers were periodically calibrated by raising and lowering them in the wells. The water levels were normally measured at approximately the same time that the transducers were

D. H. Lobmeyer; R. R. Luckey; D. J. Burkhardt

1995-01-01

334

Use of inexpensive pressure transducers for measuring water levels in wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequent measurement of below ground water levels at multiple locations is an important component of many wetland ecosystem studies. These measurements, however, are usually time consuming, labor intensive, and expensive. This paper describes a water-level sensor that is inexpensive and easy to construct. The sensor is placed below the expected low water level in a shallow well and, when connected

B. D. Keeland; J. F. Dowd; W. S. Hardegree

1997-01-01

335

The effects of sea-level rise on water quality in coastal floodplain sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level has risen approximately 1.2 mm/year over the last 100 years (Hennessy et al. 2004) and is predicted to rise up to 80 cm by 2100 relative to 1990 sea levels (IPCC 2007). The number of extreme events related to sea level such as higher sea levels and increased inter-annual variability have also increased in frequency in the same time period (Hennessy et al. 2004). Globally, large areas of coastal and estuarine floodplains are underlain by sulfidic sediments and acid sulfate soils (ASS). These sediments frequently contain high concentrations of acidity and trace metals. A significant portion of the stored acidity occurs in the form of exchangeable and hydrolysable acidic metal cations such as Al and Fe. Watertables in these environments are often close to the surface and intercepted by relatively shallow drains. Due to their low elevation and locations, these floodplains are highly susceptible to pulses of saline water caused by saltwater intrusion, storm surge and rising sea levels. Construction of extensive drainage systems has further increased the susceptibility of the floodplain to seawater inundation by increasing connectivity to the estuarine channel. This risk is likely to increase in the future with predicted increases in sea level and extreme events due to climate change. This study uses both batch experiments to determine the effects of increasing ionic strength on exchange processes and trace metal desorption in oxidised floodplain sediments and sulfidic drain sediments, and intact soil cores to determine the surface water-porewater interactions over the short term following seawater inundation in coastal floodplain sediments. We found that that saline inundation of oxidised ASS floodplain sediments, even by relatively brackish water may cause rapid, shorter-term water quality changes and a pulse release of acidity due to desorption of acidic metal cations (Wong et al. 2010). We also found that trace metals can be mobilised from sulfidic estuarine drain sediments at near-neutral pH values without oxidation as a result of increased ionic strength and competitive desorption of metal cations (Wong et al. in press). Rapid seawater incursion in CASS drainage networks is likely to adversely impact drain water quality by increasing trace metal mobilization. Drainage networks on ASS floodplains are highly susceptible to rapid seawater inundation through storm surge, seasonal salt wedge migration, floodgate failure or floodgate opening. The experimental results show that the initial addition of marine derived salts will result in a decrease in pH and increase in trace metals, even at low salt concentrations such as that found in brackish waters in estuarine environments. References Hennessy K, Page C, McInnes K, Jones R, Bathols J, Collins D, Jones D (2004) Climate Change in New South Wales. In. CSIRO, Canberra. IPCC (2007) Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. In: An Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Wong VNL, Johnston SG, Burton ED, Bush RT, Sullivan LA, Slavich PG (2010) Seawater causes rapid trace metal mobilisation in coastal lowland acid sulfate soils: Implications of sea level rise for water quality. Geoderma 160(2): 252-263 Wong VNL, Johnston SG, Burton ED, Bush RT, Sullivan LA, Slavich PG (in press) Seawater-induced mobilization of trace metals from mackinawite-rich estuarine sediments. Water Research

Wong, Vanessa; Johnston, Scott; Burton, Edward; Bush, Richard; Sullivan, Leigh; Slavich, Peter

2013-04-01

336

Assessing the variability in extreme high water levels and the implications for coastal flood risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessing the variability in extreme high water levels and the implications for coastal flood risk In this research we assess the temporal variability in the time-series of extreme water levels at 44 A- Class tide gauges around the UK. Extreme (> 99th percentile) storm tide events, sampled from water level measurements taken every 15 minutes between 1993 and 2012, were analysed at each site, and the variability in elevation relative to a given event storm tide peak was quantified. The magnitude of the variability in the time-series was found to be both spatially variable across the UK, and temporally variable relative to the time of the high water. Boundary water levels associated with a range of event magnitudes at case study locations around the UK were used to force two-dimensional hydrodynamic models to examine the importance of storm tide time-series uncertainty to flood risk predictions. The comparison of inundation extent, depth, and number of buildings affected demonstrated the importance of accurately defining the duration and magnitude of defence exceedance. For example, given a current 1 in 200 year event magnitude at Portsmouth (UK), the predicted number of buildings inundated differed by more than 30% when contrasting simulations forced with the 5th percentile time-series relative to those forced with the 95th percentile time-series. The results clearly indicate that variability in the time-series of the storm tide can have considerable influence upon the duration and magnitude by which defences are exceeded, hence with implications for coastal flood risk assessments. Therefore, further evaluating and representing this uncertainty in future flood risk assessments is vital, while the 5th and 95th percentile time-series defined in this research provide a tool for coastal flood modellers. Only defence overflow-induced inundation was examined in this research. However, it is expected that variability in storm tide time-series will also have important implications on other processes of interest to flood risk, including defence failure, wave-induced overtopping, and sediment transport in the nearshore region.

Quinn, Niall; Lewis, Matthew; Wadey, Matthew; Haigh, Ivan

2014-05-01

337

Water partitioning and intake prediction in dry and lactating Holstein cows.  

PubMed

Data from four energy and N balance trials with lactating Holstein cows (n = 329) and one trial with dry cows (n = 60) were used to predict free water intake and water-related traits. Lactating cows were between 36 and 159 DIM and, individually, were allowed ad libitum water and forage (corn silage without or with wilted haycrop silage) plus concentrates; dry cows accessed ad libitum water and single forages (grass, clover, or alfalfa, as hays or as wilted silages, or corn silage) varying in maturity. Intake of DM per day and dietary DM percentage were significant and positively related predictors of free water intake in dry and lactating cows. Daily milk yield (range 16 to 52 kg/d) was related linearly to water consumption (.60 L/kg of milk), and season effect in lactating cows was curvilinear; peak water intake was in late June and nadir in late December. Ration CP percentage (DM basis) affected free water intake only in dry cows; 1 unit of increase resulted in an increase of about 1 kg/d in water intake between 12 and 13% CP. As ration moisture dropped from 70 to 40%, free water intake increased about 7 L/d in dry cows, but this was accompanied by a drop of 15 L/d in total water intake (free plus feed water). Free water intakes were predicted with R2 of .64 and .69 in dry and lactating Holstein cows, respectively. Fecal water and urine outputs also were predicted. We found no significant relationship between DM content of the diet and the resulting ad libitum intake in either dry or lactating cows. PMID:1500553

Holter, J B; Urban, W E

1992-06-01

338

Predicting bone remodeling around tissue- and bone-level dental implants used in reduced bone width.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to predict time-dependent bone remodeling around tissue- and bone-level dental implants used in patients with reduced bone width. The remodeling of bone around titanium tissue-level, and titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy bone-level implants was studied under 100 N oblique load for one month by implementing the Stanford theory into three-dimensional finite element models. Maximum principal stress, minimum principal stress, and strain energy density in peri-implant bone and displacement in x- and y- axes of the implant were evaluated. Maximum and minimum principal stresses around tissue-level implant were higher than bone-level implants and both bone-level implants experienced comparable stresses. Total strain energy density in bone around titanium implants slightly decreased during the first two weeks of loading followed by a recovery, and the titanium-zirconium implant showed minor changes in the axial plane. Total strain energy density changes in the loading and contralateral sides were higher in tissue-level implant than other implants in the cortical bone at the horizontal plane. The displacement values of the implants were almost constant over time. Tissue-level implants were associated with higher stresses than bone-level implants. The time-dependent biomechanical outcome of titanium-zirconium alloy bone-level implant was comparable to the titanium implant. PMID:23876712

Eser, Atilim; Tonuk, Ergin; Akca, Kivanc; Dard, Michel M; Cehreli, Murat Cavit

2013-09-01

339

Water levels and water-level changes in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan and Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifers, Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1971-80  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mississippi, Minnesota, and St. Croix Rivers greatly influence flow patterns in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer. Water generally flows toward these streams from surrounding water-level highs. Heavy pumping has caused only localized cones of depression. In contrast, pumping in Minneapolis and St. Paul has greatly influenced ground-water flow in the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer, resulting in a large cone of depression. Between 1971 and 1980 average water levels in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer changed less than 5 feet in most of the study area, while average water levels in the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer rose as much as 60 feet in the center of the cone of depression. Water-level data suggest that (1) little variation of annual pumpage between 1971 and 1980 from the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer produced generally stable water levels in that aquifer, (2) decreased annual pumpage from 1971 to 1980 from the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer caused rising water levels in that aquifer, and (3) a greater seasonal component of pumpage for the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer than for the Prairie du Chien-Jordan produced larger and more widespread seasonal water-level declines in the Mount Simon-Hinckley than in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan, particularly during dry years. (USGS)

Schoenberg, Michael

1984-01-01

340

Comparative evaluation of set-level techniques in predictive classification of gene expression samples  

PubMed Central

Background Analysis of gene expression data in terms of a priori-defined gene sets has recently received significant attention as this approach typically yields more compact and interpretable results than those produced by traditional methods that rely on individual genes. The set-level strategy can also be adopted with similar benefits in predictive classification tasks accomplished with machine learning algorithms. Initial studies into the predictive performance of set-level classifiers have yielded rather controversial results. The goal of this study is to provide a more conclusive evaluation by testing various components of the set-level framework within a large collection of machine learning experiments. Results Genuine curated gene sets constitute better features for classification than sets assembled without biological relevance. For identifying the best gene sets for classification, the Global test outperforms the gene-set methods GSEA and SAM-GS as well as two generic feature selection methods. To aggregate expressions of genes into a feature value, the singular value decomposition (SVD) method as well as the SetSig technique improve on simple arithmetic averaging. Set-level classifiers learned with 10 features constituted by the Global test slightly outperform baseline gene-level classifiers learned with all original data features although they are slightly less accurate than gene-level classifiers learned with a prior feature-selection step. Conclusion Set-level classifiers do not boost predictive accuracy, however, they do achieve competitive accuracy if learned with the right combination of ingredients. Availability Open-source, publicly available software was used for classifier learning and testing. The gene expression datasets and the gene set database used are also publicly available. The full tabulation of experimental results is available at http://ida.felk.cvut.cz/CESLT.

2012-01-01

341

Corticosterone levels predict survival probabilities of Galapagos marine iguanas during El Nino events.  

PubMed

Plasma levels of corticosterone are often used as a measure of "stress" in wild animal populations. However, we lack conclusive evidence that different stress levels reflect different survival probabilities between populations. Galápagos marine iguanas offer an ideal test case because island populations are affected differently by recurring El Niño famine events, and population-level survival can be quantified by counting iguanas locally. We surveyed corticosterone levels in six populations during the 1998 El Niño famine and the 1999 La Niña feast period. Iguanas had higher baseline and handling stress-induced corticosterone concentrations during famine than feast conditions. Corticosterone levels differed between islands and predicted survival through an El Niño period. However, among individuals, baseline corticosterone was only elevated when body condition dropped below a critical threshold. Thus, the population-level corticosterone response was variable but nevertheless predicted overall population health. Our results lend support to the use of corticosterone as a rapid quantitative predictor of survival in wild animal populations. PMID:11416210

Romero, L M; Wikelski, M

2001-06-19

342

Basal salivary oxytocin level predicts extra- but not intra-personal dimensions of emotional intelligence.  

PubMed

A wealth of literature suggests that oxytocin is an important mediator of social cognition, but much of the research to date has relied on pharmaceutical administration methods that can raise oxytocin to artificially high levels. The present study builds upon previous work by examining whether basal oxytocin level predicts intra- and extra-personal (i.e., self- and other-focused) elements of emotional intelligence (EI), independent of shared variance with current mood. The sample included 71 healthy young adults (46 women). Assessment measures included the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test Version 2.0 (MSCEIT), the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, and the Profile of Mood States. Peripheral oxytocin levels were examined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from saliva after solid phase extraction. Oxytocin level was unrelated to TMMS scores but was positively associated with performance in the Experiential EI domain of the MSCEIT. However, total mood disturbance was positively related to MSCEIT scores. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that oxytocin level added unique variance to the prediction of MSCEIT performance beyond that of current mood. These results confirm an association between endogenous levels of oxytocin in healthy adults and a subset of EI abilities, including extra-personal emotion recognition and the channeling of emotions to enhance social proficiency. PMID:24767616

Koven, Nancy S; Max, Laura K

2014-06-01

343

Laboratory technique for predicting the scaling propensity of RO feed waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the further development of a novel laboratory technique for characterizing the scaling potential of RO feed waters. The work is focused on the CaCO3 scaling system, which is of general interest and is encountered in RO purification of Seine River water. Scaling intensity at various water recovery levels is characterized by measuring permeate flux decline and changes

Alexander Drak; Karl Glucina; Markus Busch; David Hasson; Jean-Michel Laîne; Raphael Semiat

2000-01-01

344

Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI, www.nhi.nu), which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (www.deltamodel.nl), which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with? by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses. Regional expertise is welcomed in the calibration phase of NHI. It aims to reduce uncertainties by improving the rules for manmade re-direction of surface water, schematizations & parameters included in the model. This is carried out in workshops and in one-to-one expert meetings on regional models & the NHI. All results of NHI are presented on the internet and any expert may suggest improvements to the model. The final goal of the involvement of regional parties is the acceptation by decision impact receiving authorities

de Lange, Wim; Prinsen, Geert.; Hoogewoud, Jacco; Veldhuizen, Ab; Ruijgh, Erik; Kroon, Timo

2013-04-01

345

Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wim J. de Lange, Geert F. Prinsen, Jacco H. Hoogewoud, Ab A Veldhuizen, Joachim Hunink, Erik F.W. Ruijgh, Timo Kroon Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI, www.nhi.nu), which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (www.deltamodel.nl), which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses. Regional expertise is welcomed in the calibration phase of NHI. It aims to reduce uncertainties by improving the rules for manmade re-direction of surface water, schematizations & parameters included in the model. This is carried out in workshops and in one-to-one expert meetings on regional models & the NHI. All results of NHI are presented on the internet and any expert may suggest improvements to the model. The final goal of the involvement of regional parties is the acceptation by decision impact receiving authorities. The presentation will give an overview of the experiences and results of the participation process both technically and in the national policy making context.

de Lange, W. J.

2014-05-01

346

Investigations on boron levels in drinking water sources in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate boron contamination of public drinking water in China, both dissolved and total boron contents in 98 public drinking\\u000a water sources from 49 cities, 42 brands of bottled water samples from supermarkets in several cities, and 58 water samples\\u000a from boron industrial area were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Our experimental results\\u000a showed that boron existed in

Ren-ji Xu; Xiao-ru Xing; Qun-fang Zhou; Gui-bin Jiang; Fu-sheng Wei

2010-01-01

347

Prediction of shock-induced cavitation in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluid-structure interaction problems that require estimating the response of thin structures within fluids to shock loading have wide applicability. For example, these problems may include underwater explosions and the dynamic response of ships and submarines; and biological applications such as Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and wound ballistics. In all of these applications the process of cavitation, where small cavities with dissolved gases or vapor are formed as the local pressure drops below the vapor pressure due to shock hydrodynamics, can cause significant damage to the surrounding thin structures or membranes if these bubbles collapse, generating additional shock loading. Hence, a two-phase equation of state (EOS) with three distinct regions of compression, expansion, and tension was developed to model shock-induced cavitation. This EOS was evaluated by comparing data from pressure and temperature shock Hugoniot measurements for water up to 400 kbar, and data from ultrasonic pressure measurements in tension to -0.3 kbar, to simulated responses from CTH, an Eulerian, finite volume shock code. The new EOS model showed significant improvement over preexisting CTH models such as the SESAME EOS for capturing cavitation.

Brundage, A.

2014-05-01

348

Predicting inhomogeneous water absorption in an ionic diblock polymer membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuel cells convert fuel directly into electrical power. Their performance depends on a permeable (yet strong) membrane to allow ion conduction (while preventing combustion). Anion-exchange membrane fuel-cells are especially economical to produce, but technological hurdles currently limit durability and OH^- conductivity of the membrane. One solution to these problems is a diblock morphology. Layers of stiff hydrophobic polymer provide structure, while interspersed layers of polyelectrolyte provide avenues for conduction. Previously, little was known about the structure within the conducting layer. We adapted Scheutjens-Fleer polymer-brush theory to a lamellar geometry. The calculation tells where the polyelectrolytes congregate within a lamella, and hence how conduction occurs. This talk focuses on a new diblock material, PMB-PVBTMA. We show how the features of the material determine the intra-lamellar structure. We conclude that at low humidity, the bulkiness of PVBTMA causes it to adopt a near-uniform distribution within the conducting block. At high humidity, however, a phase separation may induce abrupt water channels. Understanding the architecture within the conducting layer will help guide research into better anion-exchange membranes materials.

Herbst, Daniel; Witten, Thomas

2013-03-01

349

The Overlap in Predicting Alcohol Outcome for Two Measures of the Level of Response to Alcohol  

PubMed Central

Background Two different measures have been used to establish a person’s level of response (LR) to alcohol as a risk factor for alcohol use disorders. LR values established by the alcohol challenge protocol and the Self-Report of the Effects of Ethanol (SRE) questionnaire usually correlate at 0.3 to 0.4, up to 0.6. However, it is not clear how this correlation relates to the ability of each measure to predict alcohol outcomes. This paper evaluates that overlap. Methods Sixty-six Caucasian males (0 age 22) from two protocols participated in alcohol challenges with 0.75 ml/kg of ethanol, filled out the SRE, and were followed with a structured interview ? 5 years later. The relationship between the subjective feelings of intoxication at the time of peak breath alcohol levels from the alcohol challenge and the SRE score for a time early in the drinking career were evaluated regarding predicting the drinks per occasion in the six months prior to follow-up. Results Cross-sectional correlations between alcohol challenge and SRE LR’s ranged from -.25 (p<.05) to -.32 (p=.02) for the full sample, and the two LR measures correlated with drinking at follow-up (-.26 and .41, respectively). The SRE measure was more robust than the challenge in a regression analysis predicting the outcome in the context of other baseline predictors (e.g., drinking at baseline). As much as 60% of the ability of the more well established (gold standard) alcohol challenge LR to predict outcome was shared with the SRE. The alcohol challenge accounted for as much as 44% of the ability of the SRE to predict outcome. Conclusions The SRE-generated LR overlapped considerably with the alcohol challenge LR in the ability to predict future heavier drinking.

Schuckit, Marc A.; Smith, Tom L.; Trim, Ryan; Fukukura, Tsutomu; Allen, Rhonda

2008-01-01

350

Plasma IGFBP-2 Levels after Postoperative Combined Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy Predict Prognosis in Elderly Glioblastoma Patients  

PubMed Central

It has been found that preoperative plasma IGFBP-2 levels correlate with prognosis in glioma patients. The prognostic value of plasma IGFBP-2 after postoperative combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy in glioma patients is unknown. Plasma IGFBP-2 levels in 83 glioblastoma patients after postoperative radiotherapy plus chemotherapy were analyzed using an IGFBP-2 ELISA kit. We found that after standard therapy plasma IGFBP-2 levels significantly correlated with the patient's age (R?=?0.738, P<0.001) and Karnofsky performance status (KPS, R?=??0.633, P<0.05). Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) of death according to plasma IGFBP-2 levels adjusted for patient clinical characteristics. Plasma IGFBP-2 levels significantly correlated with overall survival in glioblastoma patients (multivariate HR?=?1.035; 95% CI, 1.024–1.047; P<0.001). The effect of plasma IGFBP-2 levels on survival seemed to differ according to patients' age. Among patients older than 60, high plasma IGFBP-2 levels were associated with a significant increase in overall mortality (HR?=?1.097; 95% CI, 1.055–1.140; P<0.001). In contrast, plasma IGFBP-2 levels conferred no significant effect on mortality among patients younger than 60. Elevated plasma IGFBP-2 levels after combined postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy in elderly glioblastoma patients correlate with poor KPS score and predicts poor prognosis.

Han, Sheng; Meng, Lingxuan; Han, Shuai; Wang, Yunjie; Wu, Anhua

2014-01-01

351

Quantitative structure-ion intensity relationship strategy to the prediction of absolute levels without authentic standards.  

PubMed

The lack of authentic standards represents a major bottleneck in the quantitative analysis of complex samples. Here we propose a quantitative structure and ionization intensity relationship (QSIIR) approach to predict the absolute levels of compounds in complex matrixes. An absolute quantitative method for simultaneous quantification of 25 organic acids was firstly developed and validated. Napierian logarithm (LN) of the relative slope rate derived from the calibration curves was applied as an indicator of the relative ionization intensity factor (RIIF) and serves as the dependent variable for building a QSIIR model via a multiple linear regression (MLR) approach. Five independent variables representing for hydrogen bond acidity, HOMO energy, the number of hydrogen bond donating group, the ratio of organic phase, and the polar solvent accessible surface area were found as the dominant contributors to the RIIF of organic acids. This QSIIR model was validated to be accurate and robust, with the correlation coefficients (R(2)), R(2) adjusted, and R(2) prediction at 0.945, 0.925, and 0.89, respectively. The deviation of accuracy between the predicted and experimental value in analyzing a real complex sample was less than 20% in most cases (15/18). Furthermore, the high adaptability of this model was validated one year later in another LC/MS system. The QSIIR approach is expected to provide better understanding of quantitative structure and ionization efficiency relationship of analogous compounds, and also to be useful in predicting the absolute levels of analogous analytes in complex mixtures. PMID:23972977

Wu, Liang; Wu, Yuzheng; Shen, Hanyuan; Gong, Ping; Cao, Lijuan; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

2013-09-10

352

Projecting groundwater arsenic levels to define water use options in South Asia (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than a hundred million people are at risk of exposure to dangerous levels of geogenic arsenic in drinking water across South Asia. Arsenic within rocks of the Himalayas is liberated to the sediment load of the major river systems draining these mountain systems through erosion and ultimately deposited within the massive deltas of South Asia. Upon burial, arsenic may be released to the aqueous phase through microbially driven reduction of arsenic and iron, leading to contamination of groundwater now commonly used for human consumption. Fueling this process is organic carbon that stimulates microbial activity and, with limited oxygen supply, anaerobic metabolisms. Resulting concentrations of arsenic, however, are distributed unevenly in the subsurface as a result of heterogeneity in groundwater flow and biogeochemical processes. While such heterogeneity make predicting groundwater arsenic concentrations difficult both spatially and temporally, it provides an opportunity to potentially extract water safe (or safer) for human consumption. Here we describe the fate controlling processes of arsenic with a coupled biogeochemical-hydrologic model for the Mekong Delta and illustrate changes in groundwater quality with land use alterations—a key driver in determining long-term temporal variation in arsenic distribution. For areas where low-arsenic groundwater is not available, we further examine possible solutions, including alternate water resources, for providing safe drinking water to the local populous.

Fendorf, S.; Kocar, B. D.; Polizzotto, M.; Stuckey, J.; Benner, S. G.

2010-12-01

353

Water-level map of the Mississippi delta alluvium in northwestern Mississippi, April 1981  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water levels were measured in 454 wells in the alluvial sediments in northwestern Mississippi during the period April 13-24, 1981. Ground-water levels are higher after winter and spring rains and lower after heavy agricultural and industrial pumping. Locally, water levels fluctuate as rivers and streams fluctuate. Because of the drought conditions in April 1981, most water wells had risen several feet. In some areas, however, water levels had not recovered from the relatively low levels measured in September 1980. (USGS)

Darden, Daphne

1981-01-01

354

Fuzzy logic control of steam generator water level in pressurized water reactors  

SciTech Connect

In this paper a fuzzy logic controller is applied to control the steam generator water level in a pressurized water reactor. The method does not require a detailed mathematical mode of the object to be controlled. The design is based on a set of linguistic rules that were adopted from the human operator's experience. After off-line fuzzy computation, the controller is a lookup table, and thus, real-time control is achieved. Shrink-and-swell phenomena are considered in the linguistic rules, and the simulation results show that their effect is dramatically reduced. The performance of the control system can also be improved by changing the input and output scaling factors, which is convenient for on-line tuning.

Kuan, C.C.; Lin, C.; Hsu, C.C. (National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

1992-10-01

355

Shallow ground-water flow, water levels, and quality of water, 1980-84, Cowles Unit, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cowles Unit of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in Porter County, northwest Indiana, contains a broad dune-beach complex along the southern shoreline of Lake Michigan and a large wetland, called the Great Marsh, that occupies the lowland between the shoreline dunes and an older dune-beach complex farther inland. These lacustrine sediments form a surficial aquifer that extends from the Lake Michigan shoreline to the northern edge of the Lake Border moraine. Water levels and water quality in the surficial aquifer were monitored from 1977 to 1984 near settling ponds on adjacent industrial property at the western end of the Cowles Unit. Seepage from the settling ponds from 1967 to 1980 created a water table mound that extended north into the shoreline dune complex and caused perennial flooding of several intradunal lowlands on National Lakeshore property. Since 1980, when the settling pond bottoms were sealed , these intradunal lowlands contained standing water only during periods of high snowmelt or rainfall. Water level declines following the cessation of seepage ranged from 6 feet at the eastern-most settling pond to nearly 14 feet at the westernmost pond. No general pattern of water table decline was observed in the Great Marsh or in the shoreline dune complex at distances > 3,000 ft east or north of the settling ponds. Since the settling ponds were sealed, the concentration of boron has decreased while concentrations of cadmium, arsenic, zinc, and molybdenum in shallow groundwater downgradient of the ponds show no definite trends in time. Arsenic, boron and molybdenum have remained at concentrations above those of shallow groundwater in areas unaffected by settling pond seepage. (Author 's abstract)

Cohen, D. A.; Shedlock, R. J.

1986-01-01

356

C-reactive protein levels and clinically important predictive outcomes in stable COPD patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and factors known to predict outcome in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. The following were studied in 130 stable COPD patients: spirometry, lung volume, arterial oxygen tension (Pa,O2), dyspnoea, 6-min walk distance (6MWD), body mass index, fat-free mass index, BODE (body mass index,

J. P. de Torres; E. Cordoba-Lanus; C. Lopez-Aguilar; M. Muros de Fuentes; A. Montejo de Garcini; A. Aguirre-Jaime; B. R. Celli; C. Casanova; Ctra del Rosario; Santa Cruz de Tenerife; Canary Islands

2006-01-01

357

Predictive Direct Power Control of MV Grid-connected Three-level NPC Converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with an improvement of the predictive direct power control (P-DPC) for MV three-level NPC converters. Contrary to the previously developed P-DPC strategy, the proposed approach combines a symmetrical 3+3 voltage vectors' sequence for the steady-sate operation with a simple two voltage vectors' sequence for transient requirements. Simulations of the proposed hybrid algorithm are compared to a standard

S. Aurtenechea; M. A. Rodriguez; E. Oyarbide; J. R. Torrealday

2007-01-01

358

High serum KL6 levels predict the deterioration of pulmonary function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

KL-6 has been reported to be a serum marker for interstitial pneumonitis (IP). The purpose of this study was to determine\\u000a the predictive value of KL-6 on the deterioration of vital capacity (VC) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with IP. In\\u000a 32 RA patients we evaluated both the serum KL-6 level and VC in a prospective design. The diagnosis of

Tetsu Oyama; Nobuoki Kohno; Akihito Yokoyama; Yutaka Hirasawa; Keiichi Kondo; Kunio Hiwada; Hiroko Oyama; Kiyoshi Takasugi

1999-01-01

359

A New Design Methodology Based on System-Level Interconnect Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In current deep sub-micron chip design, interconnect effects start to dominate the chip's performance. Therefore, the design flow has to become more interconnect-oriented. To limit the number of design iterations (and hence improve the time-to-market) one has to estimate interconnect param- eters and their impact as early as possible. This is the goal of the field of System-Level Interconnect Prediction.

Dirk Stroobandt

360

Plasma cytokine levels predict mortality in patients with acute renal failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma cytokine levels predict mortality in patients with acute renal failure.BackgroundCritically ill patients with acute renal failure (ARF) experience a high mortality rate. Animal and human studies suggest that proinflammatory cytokines lead to the development of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), which is temporally followed by a counter anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS). This process has not been specifically described

Edith M. Simmons; JONATHAN HIMMELFARB; M. Tugrul Sezer; Glenn M. Chertow; Ravindra L. Mehta; Emil P. Paganini; SHARON SOROKO; STEPHANIE FREEDMAN; KAREN BECKER; DANIEL SPRATT; YU SHYR; T. Alp Ikizler

2004-01-01

361

Fungicide field concentrations exceed FOCUS surface water predictions: urgent need of model improvement.  

PubMed

FOCUS models are used in European regulatory risk assessment to predict the frequency and magnitude of individual pesticide surface water concentrations. A recent study showed that these models are not protective in the prediction of insecticide concentrations in surface waters and sediments. Since fungicides differ with regard to their physicochemical properties, application patterns, and entry routes, we compared a larger data set of 417 measured field concentrations (MFC) of agricultural fungicides in surface waters and sediments from 56 studies to the respective predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) calculated with FOCUS step 1-4. Although the fraction of the underestimation of fungicide MFC values was generally lower than that obtained for insecticides, 12% of step 3 and 23% of step 4 PECs were exceeded by surface water MFCs. Taking only the 90th percentile concentration of every substance and only E.U. studies into account (E.U. studies: n = 327; 90th percentile + E.U. studies: n = 136), a maximum of 25% of the step 3 and 43% of the step 4 PECs were exceeded by surface water MFCs, which is an even worse outcome than that obtained for insecticides. Our results demonstrate that FOCUS predictions are neither protective nor appropriate for predicting fungicide concentrations in the field in the context of European pesticide risk assessment. PMID:24299022

Knäbel, Anja; Meyer, Karsten; Rapp, Jörg; Schulz, Ralf

2014-01-01

362

Predicting Gene Expression Level from Relative Codon Usage Bias: An Application to Escherichia coli Genome  

PubMed Central

We present an expression measure of a gene, devised to predict the level of gene expression from relative codon bias (RCB). There are a number of measures currently in use that quantify codon usage in genes. Based on the hypothesis that gene expressivity and codon composition is strongly correlated, RCB has been defined to provide an intuitively meaningful measure of an extent of the codon preference in a gene. We outline a simple approach to assess the strength of RCB (RCBS) in genes as a guide to their likely expression levels and illustrate this with an analysis of Escherichia coli (E. coli) genome. Our efforts to quantitatively predict gene expression levels in E. coli met with a high level of success. Surprisingly, we observe a strong correlation between RCBS and protein length indicating natural selection in favour of the shorter genes to be expressed at higher level. The agreement of our result with high protein abundances, microarray data and radioactive data demonstrates that the genomic expression profile available in our method can be applied in a meaningful way to the study of cell physiology and also for more detailed studies of particular genes of interest.

Roymondal, Uttam; Das, Shibsankar; Sahoo, Satyabrata

2009-01-01

363

Strength and Comprehensiveness of District School Wellness Policies Predict Policy Implementation at the School Level  

PubMed Central

Background In 2006, all local education agencies in the United States participating in federal school meal programs were required to establish school wellness policies. The aim of this study was to document the strength and comprehensiveness of one state's written district policies using a quantitative coding tool, and test whether the strength and comprehensiveness of the written policy predicted school level implementation and practices. Methods School wellness policies from 151 Connecticut districts were evaluated using a quantitative coding system. In each district, school principal surveys were collected before and after the writing and expected implementation of wellness policies. Socio-demographic variables were assessed for each district, including enrollment, population density, political climate, racial composition and socio-economic status. Changes in school-level policy implementation before and after the federal wellness policy requirement were compared across districts by wellness policy strength, and policies were compared based on district-level demographic factors. Results Statewide, fuller implementation of nutrition and physical activity policies at the school level was reported after adoption of written policies in 2006. Districts with stronger, more comprehensive policies were more successful in implementing those policies at the school level. Some socio-demographic characteristics predicted the strength of wellness policies; larger, urban districts and districts with a greater ratio of registered Democrats to Republicans wrote stronger policies. Conclusions Written school wellness policies have the potential to promote significant improvements in the school environment. Future regulation of school wellness policies should focus on the importance of writing strong and comprehensive policies.

Henderson, Kathryn E; Falbe, Jennifer; Novak, Sarah A.; Wharton, Christopher; Long, Michael; O'Connell, Meghan L.; Fiore, Susan S.

2013-01-01

364

The Summarization of Pyro-shock Testing Data and SRS Level Prediction Methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical separation through pyrotechnic shock is widely employed in space vehicle separation. These kinds of pyrotechnic shock devices produce transient loads with high levels of acceleration at different location of satellite. The prediction of acceleration level is significant for the definition of payload shock environment in the earlier design phase and selection of proper accelerometers in the test. This paper summarizes the shock response spectrum (SRS) from the pyrotechnical testing data of several typical satellites from the view points of distance from the source, complex equipment mount structure, etc. The empirical curve for the prediction possibility of pyrotechnic shock level is discussed. At first, the SRS distribution maps at the measure points were compared to understand the shock response environment which may differ from the distance attenuation from the shock source, effects of material and size of structural components, effects of joints and inserts of structural components, etc. Then, the paper discusses the prediction methodologies related to the empirical and extrapolation model presented by NASA-HDBK-7005 is compared to the testing data distribution of several satellites.

Shi, Qinzhong; Ando, Shigemasa; Seko, Hiromi; Nagahama, Kenta; Saegusa, Hiroshi

2004-08-01

365

Model analysis of effects on water levels at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore caused by construction dewatering  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The computer models were developed to investigate possible hydrologic effects within the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore caused by planned dewatering at the adjacent Bailly Nuclear Generator construction site. The model analysis indicated that the planned dewatering would cause a drawdown of about 4 ft under the westernmost pond of the Lakeshore and that this drawdown would cause the pond to go almost dry--less than 0.5 ft of water remaining in about 1 percent of the pond--under average conditions during the 18-month dewatering period. When water levels are below average, as during late July and early August 1974, the pond would go dry in about 5.5 months. However, the pond may not have to go completely dry to damage the ecosystem. If the National Park Service 's independent study determines the minimum pond level at which ecosystem damage would be minimized, the models developed in this study could be used to predict the hydrologic conditions necessary to maintain that level. (Woodard-USGS)

Marie, James R.

1976-01-01

366

Plasma adiponectin levels for prediction of cardiovascular risk among hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

Adiponectin (ADPN) is an endogenous insulin sensitizing and anti-inflammatory hormone, released by the adipose tissue. We investigated the clinical and biochemical correlates of plasma ADPN levels and the predictive value of ADPN with respect to survival rates and cardiovascular (CV) events was tested prospectively in a cohort of hemodialysis (HD) patients. We measured baseline ADPN in 110 HD patients, in addition to, 34 healthy subjects to serve as reference group. ADPN levels, were related to different clinical and biochemical cardiovascular risk factors such as increased body mass index (BMI), serum triglycerides (TG), duration of HD, smoking, mean arterial blood pressure (MBP), heart rate (HR), high density (HDL) cholesterol, low density (LDL) cholesterol, serum glucose, hemoglobulin and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in HD patients. Plasma ADPN levels were higher (P?=?0.000) among HD patients (15.06?±?3.54??g/mL) than among reference subjects (6.52?±?1.07??g/mL), were independent of age, and higher among women (16.13?±?3.09??g/mL) than among men (13.94?±?3.65??g/mL). Plasma ADPN levels were inversely related to BMI, TG, CRP and glucose levels. Furthermore, plasma ADPN levels were directly related to HDL-cholesterol and Kt/V. Plasma ADPN levels were lower (P?=?0.000) among patients who experienced new CV events (11.13?±?2.15??g/mL) than among event-free patients (16.82?±?2.45??g/mL), and seem to predict cardiovascular outcomes. The inverse relationships between ADPN and several cardiovascular risk factors indicate that ADPN may have a protective role in the prevention of CV events. PMID:24720410

El-Shafey, Eid M; Shalan, Mohamed

2014-04-01

367

Water levels in continuously monitored wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1985--88  

SciTech Connect

Water levels have been monitored hourly in 15 wells completed in 23 depth intervals in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada. Water levels were monitored using pressure transducers and were recorded by data loggers. The pressure transducers were periodically calibrated by raising and lowering them in the wells. The water levels were normally measured at approximately the same time that the transducers were calibrated. Where the transducer output appeared reasonable, it was converted to water levels using the calibrations and manual water- level measurements. The amount of transducer output that was converted to water levels ranged from zero for several intervals to about 98 percent for one interval. Fourteen of the wells were completed in Tertiary volcanic rocks and one well was completed in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Each well monitored from one to four depth intervals. Water-level fluctuation caused by barometric pressure changes and earth tides were observed.

Luckey, R.R.; Lobmeyer, D.H.; Burkhardt, D.J.

1993-07-01

368

Predicting spatial kelp abundance in shallow coastal waters using the acoustic ground discrimination system RoxAnn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kelp forests represent a major habitat type in coastal waters worldwide and their structure and distribution is predicted to change due to global warming. Despite their ecological and economical importance, there is still a lack of reliable spatial information on their abundance and distribution. In recent years, various hydroacoustic mapping techniques for sublittoral environments evolved. However, in turbid coastal waters, such as off the island of Helgoland (Germany, North Sea), the kelp vegetation is present in shallow water depths normally excluded from hydroacoustic surveys. In this study, single beam survey data consisting of the two seafloor parameters roughness and hardness were obtained with RoxAnn from water depth between 2 and 18 m. Our primary aim was to reliably detect the kelp forest habitat with different densities and distinguish it from other vegetated zones. Five habitat classes were identified using underwater-video and were applied for classification of acoustic signatures. Subsequently, spatial prediction maps were produced via two classification approaches: Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and manual classification routine (MC). LDA was able to distinguish dense kelp forest from other habitats (i.e. mixed seaweed vegetation, sand, and barren bedrock), but no variances in kelp density. In contrast, MC also provided information on medium dense kelp distribution which is characterized by intermediate roughness and hardness values evoked by reduced kelp abundances. The prediction maps reach accordance levels of 62% (LDA) and 68% (MC). The presence of vegetation (kelp and mixed seaweed vegetation) was determined with higher prediction abilities of 75% (LDA) and 76% (MC). Since the different habitat classes reveal acoustic signatures that strongly overlap, the manual classification method was more appropriate for separating different kelp forest densities and low-lying vegetation. It became evident that the occurrence of kelp in this area is not simply linked to water depth. Moreover, this study shows that the two seafloor parameters collected with RoxAnn are suitable indicators for the discrimination of different densely vegetated seafloor habitats in shallow environments.

Mielck, F.; Bartsch, I.; Hass, H. C.; Wölfl, A.-C.; Bürk, D.; Betzler, C.

369

Prediction of water vapor transport rates across polyvinylchloride packaging systems using a novel radiotracer method.  

PubMed

A radiotracer method is used to study the transport properties of water vapor in polyvinylchloride (PVC), a plastic commonly used in the packaging of parenteral solutions. Water vapor transport across a PVC film appears to be Fickian in nature. Using the steady-state solution of Fick's second law and the permeability coefficient of water vapor across the PVC film obtained using the described method, the predicted water vapor transport rate (WVTR) for a parenteral solution packaged in PVC is in reasonable agreement with actual WVTR as determined by weight loss under precisely controlled conditions. PMID:2250204

Wood, R W; Mulski, M J; Kuu, W Y

1990-01-01

370

Prediction of water vapor transport rates across polyvinylchloride packaging systems using a novel radiotracer method  

SciTech Connect

A radiotracer method is used to study the transport properties of water vapor in polyvinylchloride (PVC), a plastic commonly used in the packaging of parenteral solutions. Water vapor transport across a PVC film appears to be Fickian in nature. Using the steady-state solution of Fick's second law and the permeability coefficient of water vapor across the PVC film obtained using the described method, the predicted water vapor transport rate (WVTR) for a parenteral solution packaged in PVC is in reasonable agreement with actual WVTR as determined by weight loss under precisely controlled conditions.

Wood, R.W.; Mulski, M.J.; Kuu, W.Y. (Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Round Lake, IL (USA))

1990-09-01

371

Prediction of contaminant fate and transport in potable water systems using H2OFate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BlazeTech has recently developed a software called H2OFate to predict the fate and transport of chemical and biological contaminants in water distribution systems. This software includes models for the reactions of these contaminants with residual disinfectant in bulk water and at the pipe wall, and their adhesion/reactions with the pipe walls. This software can be interfaced with sensors through SCADA systems to monitor water distribution networks for contamination events and activate countermeasures, as needed. This paper presents results from parametric calculations carried out using H2OFate for a simulated contaminant release into a sample water distribution network.

Devarakonda, Venkat; Manickavasagam, Sivakumar; Vanblaricum, Vicki; Ginsberg, Mark

2009-05-01

372

Correlation between predicted and observed levels of airborne tritium at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory site boundary  

SciTech Connect

At the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, a computer code based on the Gaussian plume model is used to estimate radiation doses from routine or accidental release of airborne radioactive material. Routine releases of tritium have been used as a test of the overall uncertainty associated with these estimates. The ration of concentration to release rate at distances from the two principal release points to each of six site boundary sampling locations has been calcuated using local meteorological data. The concentration of airborne tritiated water vapor is continuously measured at the six sampling stations as part of the Laboratory's environmental monitoring program. Comparison of predicted with observed annual tritiated water concentrations in 1978 showed an average ratio of 2.6 with a range of from 0.97 to 5.8.

Lindeken, C.L.; Silver, W.J.; Toy, A.J.; White, J.H.

1980-02-19

373

Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2002--Volume 2: Continuous ground-water-level data, and periodic surface-water- and ground-water-quality data, Calendar Year 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2002, including: discharge records of 154 gaging stations; stage for 165 gaging stations; precipitation for 105 gaging stations; information for 20 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 27 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 72 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 50 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data recorded by the NAWQA program in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2002, including continuous water-level records of 155 ground-water wells and periodic records at 132 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia.

Coffin, Robert; Grams, Susan C.; Leeth, David C.; Peck, Michael F.

2002-01-01

374

Effects of water level fluctuation on radial oxygen loss, root porosity, and nitrogen removal in subsurface vertical flow wetland mesocosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of water level fluctuation on plant radial oxygen loss (ROL), root porosity, plant growth performance, and nitrogen dynamics in vertical subsurface flow wetland mesocosms. Four types of mesocosms were used: control with static water level, control with fluctuating water level, static water level with plants, and fluctuating water level with plants. Typha

S. Sasikala; Norio Tanaka; H. S. Y. Wah Wah; K. B. S. N. Jinadasa

2009-01-01

375

Effect of water level drawdown on decomposition in boreal peatlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant litter production and decomposition are key processes in element cycling in most ecosystems. In peatlands, there has been a long-term imbalance between litter production and decay caused by high water levels (WL) and consequent anoxia. This has resulted in peatlands being a significant sink of carbon (C) from the atmosphere. However, peatlands are experiencing both "natural" (global climate change) and anthropogenic (ditching) changes that threaten their ability to retain this ecosystem identity and function. Many of these alterations can be traced back to WL drawdown, which can cause increased aeration, higher acidity, falling temperatures, and a greater probability of drought. Such changes are also associated with an increasing decomposition rate, and therefore a greater amount of C released back to the atmosphere. Yet studies about how the overall C balance of peatlands will be affected have come up with conflicting conclusions, demonstrating that the C store could increase, decrease, or remain static. A factor that has been largely overlooked is the change in litter type composition following persistent WL drawdown. It is the aim of our study, then, to help to resolve this issue. We studied the effects of short-term (ca. 4 years) and long-term (ca. 40 years) persistent WL drawdown on the decomposition of numerous types of above-ground and below-ground plant litters at three boreal peatland sites: bog, oligotrophic fen and mesotrophic fen. We thus believe that enough permutations have been created to obtain a good assessment of how each factor, site nutrient level, WL regime, and litter type composition, influences decomposition. We used the litter bag method to measure the decomposition rates: placed measured amounts of plant litter, or cellulose strips as a control, into closed mesh bags, and installed the bags in the natural environment for decomposition for each litter type for varying amounts of time. Following litter bag recovery, the litter was cleaned of excess debris and analyzed for changes in mass, enzyme activity, mesofauna presence, and microbial community composition, among other things. The experiment has a run-time of ten years, the results from the first two years are presented in the poster.

Straková, Petra; Penttilä, Timo; Laiho, Raija

2010-05-01

376

Tritium activity levels in environmental water samples from different origins.  

PubMed

Tritium activity was determined in environmental waters from different areas of Catalonia, using a distillation procedure before liquid scintillation counting. The developed method was validated by analysing two samples from proficiency tests. In most of water samples (from rivers, rain, mineral bottled waters and tap waters) analysed, the activity values were lower or close to the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for our method which has a value of 0.6 Bq/l. However, the Ebro river samples had a mean activity around 3.6 +/- 0.6 Bq/l. The nuclear power station of Ascó, which is located on the banks of this river, can be a source of tritium production and introduction into the environment, so a more exhaustive study of these waters was carried out. Tritium activities in this river were a long way above the normative limit in Spain for waters intended for human consumption, which is 100 Bq/l. PMID:17485217

Palomo, M; Peñalver, A; Aguilar, C; Borrull, F

2007-09-01

377

Using land surface model and satellite observations to simulate lake water level and thermal variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, lakes are included in a coupled routing model and catchment-based land surface model (CHARMS), which is modified from the land-surface component (CLM4) of an Earth system model (CESM1). In the routing scheme, lakes are connected with rivers using upstream/downstream relationships in a lake basin. Evaporation, precipitation, and river runoff are modeled in order to close the lake water budget. However, the original lake model in CLM4 poorly predicts the lake temperature, which highly affects the evaporation and surface energy fluxes. Using an improved lake model (CLM4-LISSS) the lake water temperature and surface energy flux are better predicted. This new version of CHARMS is tested on several large lakes around the world (e.g., the Great Lakes, and Lake Victoria) to evaluate its performance in different climate zones. Modeled lake level time series are compared with satellite altimetry. In order to test the ability of CHARMS to simulating the variations of lake temperature, we compare the amount of thermal expansion calculated from modeled lake temperature with the amount of thermal expansion determined from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and satellite altimetry data.

Liu, H.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Subin, Z. M.

2011-12-01

378

Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage volume changes. Ground-based data can, in some cases, test the remote sensing accuracy and precision. Data accuracy requirements vary for different applications: reservoir management for flood control, agriculture, or power generation may need more accurate and timely information than (for example) regional assessments of water and food security issues. Thus, the long-term goal for the hydrological sciences community should be to efficiently mesh both types of information and with as extensive geographic coverage as possible.

Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

2013-12-01

379

High osteoprotegerin levels predict MACCE in STEMI patients, but are not associated with myocardial salvage.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives. High circulating levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) carry prognostic impact in cohorts with various cardiovascular diagnoses. With the present study, we aim to investigate the role of OPG within the scale of myocardial damage. Design. This study includes 219 consecutive patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction randomized to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) or pPCI and remote ischemic per-conditioning. Salvage index via myocardial single-photon emission CT assessment (data available in 61% of the patients) was performed, and derived from Day 1 (myocardial area at risk) and Day 30 (final infarct size). Plasma OPG levels were measured using an in-house immunoassay. A combined end-point of all-mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, readmission for heart failure and ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack (Major Adverse Cardiac and Cerebrovascular Events [MACCE]) was used for follow-up; 45 (38-48 months). Results. High OPG levels were associated with the severity of cardiovascular disease. During follow-up, OPG was a predictor of MACCE (unadjusted, HR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.14-3.85, P = 0.017). Adjustments for age, gender, and body mass index preserved the independent predictive power of OPG. However, OPG levels were neither associated with salvage index nor with the final infarct size. Remote ischemic per-conditioning had no effect on OPG levels. Conclusion. Despite absent association between OPG levels and the scale of myocardial damage, high OPG levels predict a significantly increased risk of MACCE. PMID:24758546

Bjerre, Mette; Munk, Kim; Sloth, Astrid Drivsholm; Nielsen, Søren Steen; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Bøtker, Hans Erik

2014-08-01

380

Circulating levels of neuropeptide proenkephalin A predict outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

High plasma proenkephalin A level has been associated with ischemic stroke severity and clinical outcomes. This study aimed to assess the relationship between proenkephalin A and disease severity as well as to investigate its ability to predict long-term clinical outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Plasma proenkephalin A concentrations of one hundred and eighty patients and 180 sex- and age-matched healthy controls were measured by chemoluminescence sandwich immunoassay. Plasma proenkephalin A level was substantially higher in patients than in healthy controls (205.5±41.6pmol/L vs. 90.8±21.1pmol/L, P<0.001), was highly associated with World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) score (r=0.470, P<0.001) and Fisher score (r=0.488, P<0.001), was an independent predictor for 6-month mortality [odds ratio (OR), 1.183; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.067-1.339; P=0.004] and unfavorable outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 1-3) (OR, 1.119; 95% CI, 1.046-1.332; P=0.005) using multivariate analysis, and had high area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for prediction of 6-month mortality (AUC, 0.831; 95% CI, 0.768-0.883) and unfavorable outcome (AUC, 0.821; 95% CI, 0.757-0.874). The predictive value of the plasma proenkephalin A concentration was also similar to those of WFNS score and Fisher score (both P>0.05). In a combined logistic-regression model, proenkephalin A improved the AUCs of WFNS score and Fisher score, but the differences were not significant (both P>0.05). Thus, proenkephalin A level may be a useful, complementary tool to predict mortality and functional outcome at 6 months after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:24727154

Chen, Xiang-Lin; Yu, Bing-Jian; Chen, Mao-Hua

2014-06-01

381

Predicting hourly-based flow discharge hydrographs from level data using genetic algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThis study developed a genetic algorithm model to predict flow rates at sites receiving significant lateral inflow. It predicts flow rate at a downstream station from flow stage measured at upstream and downstream stations. For this purpose, it constructed two different models: First is analogous to the rating curve model (RCM) of Moramarco et al. [Moramarco, M., Barbetta, S., Melone, F., Singh, V.P., 2005. Relating local stage and remote discharge with significant lateral inflow. J. Hydrologic Eng., ASCE, 10(1)] and the second is based on summation of contributions from upstream station and lateral inflows using kinematic wave approximation. The model was applied to predict flow rates at three different gauging stations located on Tiber River, Upper Tiber River Basin, Italy. The model used average wave travel time for each river reach and obtained average set of parameter values for all the events observed in the same river reach. The GA model was calibrated, for each river reach and for each formulation, by three events and tested against three other events. The results showed that the GA model produced satisfactory results and it was superior over the most recently developed rating curve method. This study further analyzed the case where only water surface elevation data were used in the input vector to predict flow rates. The results showed that using elevation data produces satisfactory results. This has an implication for predicting flow rates at ungauged river sites since the surface elevation data can be obtained without needing the detailed geometry of river section which could change significantly during a flood.

Tayfur, Gokmen; Moramarco, Tommaso

2008-04-01

382

A comparison of simulation models for predicting soil water dynamics in bare and vegetated lysimeters  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of simulation models used to predict soil water storage dynamics at the Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) weighing lysimeters. The objectives of this research is to develop the capability to predict soil water storage dynamics with plants in support of water infiltration control studies for the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program. It is important to gain confidence in one`s ability to simulate soil water dynamics over long time periods to assess the barrier`s ability to prevent drainage. Two models were compared for their ability to simulate soil water storage dynamics with and without plants in weighing lysimeters, the soil water infiltration and movement (SWIM) and the simulation of production and utilization of rangelands (SPUR-91) models. These models adequately simulated soil water storage dynamics for the weighing lysimeters. The range of root mean square error values for the two models was 7.0 to 19.8. This compares well with the range reported by Fayer et al. (1992) for the bare soil data sets of 8.1 to 22.1. Future research will test the predictive capability of these models for longer term lysimeter data sets and for historical data sets collected in various plant community types.

Link, S.O.; Kickert, R.N.; Fayer, M.J.; Gee, G.W.

1993-06-01

383

Litter quality and its response to water level drawdown in boreal peatlands at plant species and community level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increasing evidence that changes in the species composition and structure of plant communities induced by global change will have much more impact on plant-mediated carbon cycling than any phenotypic responses. These impacts are largely mediated by shifts in litter quality. There are few documentations of these changes so far, due to the relatively long time scale required for their direct observation. Here, we examine the changes in litter inputs induced by persistent water-level drawdown in boreal peatland sites. Peatlands contain a major proportion of the terrestrial carbon pool, and it is thus important to be able to predict their behaviour and role in the global C cycle under different global change factors. We studied the effects of short-term (ca. 4 years) and long-term (ca. 40 years) persistent water level (WL) drawdown on the quantity and chemical quality of above-ground plant litter inputs at three sites: bog, oligotrophic fen and mesotrophic fen. The parameters used to characterize litter quality included various extractable substances, cellulose, holocellulose, composition of hemicellulose (neutral sugars, uronic acids), lignin, CuO oxidation phenolic products, and concentrations of C, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium, magnesium, manganese and calcium. Four different groups of litter were clearly distinct based on their chemical quality: foliar litters, graminoids, mosses and woody litters. The pristine conditions were characterized by Sphagnum moss and graminoid litter. Following short-term WL drawdown, changes in the quality and quantity of litter inputs were small. Following long-term WL drawdown, total litter inputs dramatically increased, due to increased tree litter inputs, and the litter type composition greatly changed. These changes resulted in annual inputs of 1901-2010 kg•ha-1 C, 22-24 kg•ha-1 N, 1.5-2.2 kg•ha-1 P, 967-1235 kg•ha-1 lignin and lignin-like compounds and 254-300 kg•ha-1 water solubles after long-term WL drawdown, compared to respective values of 394-658, 5.6-9.3, 0.22-24.4, 161-293 and 44-81 for the pristine conditions. The direct effects of WL drawdown on litter quality were overruled by the indirect effects via changes in vegetation composition. The short-term (reflecting transient conditions) and long-term (reflecting longer-lasting situation of already adapted ecosystem) effects were very different. Our results imply that the long-term effects will strongly affect the soil properties and C cycle of peatlands.

Straková, Petra; Anttila, Jani; Spetz, Peter; Kitunen, Veikko; Tapanila, Tarja; Laiho, Raija

2010-05-01

384

Rock motion simulation and prediction of porosity distribution for a two-void-level retort  

SciTech Connect

The computer program DMC (Distinct Motion Code) was developed in 1988 and 1989 to predict the motion of rock following a conventional blast. The ability to predict the rock motion associated with oil shale retort blasting, along with the induced porosity distribution, has been a driving force behind the development of DMC. Earlier this year DMC was used to simulate the rock motion associated with the rubblization of Occidental Oil Shale's Retort Number 8 which was a three-void-level retort processed in 1982. This paper discusses the algorithm developed to compute the porosity distribution of the muck after rock motion. It also contains a simulation of a two-void-level retort rubblization plan proposed by Ricketts, 1989. DMC is used to model the rock motion associated with the blasting and to obtain a final porosity distribution. Some improvement in the porosity distribution is seen over that observed in the three-void-level simulation. Thus, it may be that the two-void-level approach is not only more efficient to mine, but may also produce a more uniform rubble bed. 8 refs., 12 figs.

Preece, D.S.

1990-01-01

385

Serum tau protein level serves as a predictive factor for neurological prognosis in neonatal asphyxia.  

PubMed

Background: Tau protein is a microtubule-associated protein that is present in axons. Elevated tau protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid or serum are associated with several central nervous system diseases and can indicate neuronal injury. Objective: In the present study, we measured and then compared serum tau protein levels between infants with neonatal asphyxia and control subjects. We examined these data to investigate the correlation between serum tau protein levels and neurological outcomes after neonatal asphyxia. Patients and methods: Serum tau protein levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 19 neonates with neonatal asphyxia. Of these 19 neonates, 3 had severe spastic tetraplegia, and 1 had west syndrome. A group of 19 unaffected neonates was included in the study as a control group. Results: Serum tau protein levels on postnatal day 3 were significantly higher in the poor outcome group than those in the good outcome (p=0.010) and control groups (p=0.006). On postnatal day 7, serum tau protein levels again were significantly higher in the poor outcome group than those in the good outcome (p=0.007) and control groups (p=0.006). Conclusions: The present findings indicate serum tau protein levels measured on postnatal days 3 and 7 can predict neurological prognosis following neonatal asphyxia. PMID:24268747

Takahashi, Kazumasa; Hasegawa, Shunji; Maeba, Shinji; Fukunaga, Shinnosuke; Motoyama, Masashi; Hamano, Hiroki; Ichiyama, Takashi

2014-09-01

386

Simulated Water-Level Responses, Ground-Water Fluxes, and Storage Changes for Recharge Scenarios along Rillito Creek, Tucson, Arizona.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A local ground-water flow model is used to simulate four recharge scenarios along Rillito Creek in northern Tucson to evaluate mitigating effects on ground-water deficits and water-level declines in Tucson's Central Well Field. The local model, which deri...

J. P. Hoffmann S. A. Leake

2004-01-01

387

Predicting saturated hydraulic conductivity from air permeability: Application in stochastic water infiltration modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several relationships exist for predicting unsaturated hydraulic conductivity K(psi) from saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks and the soil-water retention curve. These relationships are convenient for modeling of field scale system sensitivity to spatial variability in K(psi). It is, however, faster and simpler to measure air permeability ka at psi=-100cm H2O, than Ks. This study explores the existence of a general prediction

Per Loll; Per Moldrup; Per Schjønning; Hugh Riley

1999-01-01

388

Prediction of UH60A Dynamic Stall Loads in High Altitude Level Flight using CFD\\/CSD Coupling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper predicts rotor loads under dynamic stall. The goal is to gain fundamental understand- ing of the stall mechanisms involved, and their accurate prediction. The approach is to decouple the physics of structural dynamics and aerodynamics in a high altitude level flight. Measured airloads from UH-60A Flight 9017 are used to validate the structural model. Once validated, the predicted

Anubhav Datta; Inderjit Chopra

2005-01-01

389

Modelling the impact of water level fluctuations on water quality (suspended particulate matter) in Lake Kinneret, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic (time dependent) mathematical model of the monthly cycling of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in lakes with variable water levels has been developed. The model has been applied for the large subtropical Lake Kinneret (Israel), which has variable water levels related to domestic freshwater needs and climatological conditions. The main conclusions from this work are: 1. Uncertainty analyses (Monte

L Håkanson; A Parparov; K. D Hambright

2000-01-01

390

Records of water levels in monitoring wells in the Gallatin Valley, southwestern Montana, 1947-93  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-level data were collected in the Gallatin Valley to provide a basis for evaluation of the configuration of the ground-water surface and water-level change. Water-level records collected during a 2-year study of the area and historical water-level data for 121 wells in the Gallatin Valley are summarized in the report. Well-depth and primary-aquifer data are included. The locations of the wells are shown on a map at a scale of 1:275,500.

Slagle, Steven E.

1994-01-01

391

Predicting natural base-flow stream water chemistry in the western United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robust predictions of stream solute concentrations expected under natural (reference) conditions would help establish more realistic water quality standards and improve stream ecological assessments. Models predicting solute concentrations from environmental factors would also help identify the relative importance of different factors that influence water chemistry. Although data are available describing the major factors controlling water chemistry (i.e., geology, climate, atmospheric deposition, soils, vegetation, topography), geologic maps do not adequately convey how rocks vary in their chemical and physical properties. We addressed this issue by associating rock chemical and physical properties with geological map units to produce continuous maps of percentages of CaO, MgO, S, uniaxial compressive strength, and hydraulic conductivity for western United States lithologies. We used catchment summaries of these geologic properties and other environmental factors to develop multiple linear regression (LR) and random forest (RF) models to predict base flow electrical conductivity (EC), acid neutralization capacity (ANC), Ca, Mg, and SO4. Models were derived from observations at 1414 reference-quality streams. RF models were superior to LR models, explaining 71% of the variance in EC, 61% in ANC, 92% in Ca, 58% in Mg, and 74% in SO4 when assessed with independent observations. The root-mean-square error for predictions on validation sites were all <11% of the range of observed values. The relative importance of different environmental factors in predicting stream chemistry varied among models, but on average rock chemistry > temperature > precipitation > soil = atmospheric deposition > vegetation > amount of rock/water contact > topography.

Olson, John R.; Hawkins, Charles P.

2012-02-01

392

Analysis on the characteristics of parameters in groundwater table fluctuation model for predicting groundwater levels in Hancheon watershed, South Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel application of groundwater table fluctuation method is suggested to predict groundwater level by means of groundwater table variation due to recharge and discharge under unsteady condition. This model analyzes transient groundwater characteristics by using reaction factor related with groundwater flow and specific yield related with recharge. The groundwater level varies according to the characteristics and composite materials of aquifer. In this study, specific yield and reaction factor which are the major two hydrogeological parameters in the WTF(Water Table Fluctuation) method were estimated and analyzed their spatial characteristics. 8 groundwater level stations which have enough measuring period and high correlation with rainfall in the Hancheon watershed were used. The results showed that specific yield was randomly distributed and reaction factor showed inverse trend with altitude. If the enough data were collected, reaction factor according to altitude in ungauged points could be estimated by using these parameter characteristics. keywords: Key words : Groundwater level, parameters, reaction factor, specific yield Acknowledgements This research was supported by the Regional Innovative Technology Project 2B from KICTTEP.

Kim, Nam Won; Kim, Youn Jung; Chung, Il-Moon; Lee, Jeongwoo

2014-05-01

393

Sources of Elevated Sodium Levels in Drinking Water...and Recommendations for Reduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sodium enters drinking water by a variety of human activities and by natural means. Evidence suggests elevated levels of sodium in drinking water may adversely affect health. Action should be taken to reduce the level of human exposure to sodium in drinking water. (RE)

Calabrese, Edward J.; Tuthill, Robert W.

1978-01-01

394

Experimental manipulation of water levels in two French riverine grassland soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this experimental study, we simulated the effects of different river flooding regimes on soil nutrient availability, decomposition and plant production in floodplain grasslands. This was done to investigate the influences of soil water contents on nutrient cycling. Water levels were manipulated in mesocosms with intact soil turfs from two French floodplain grasslands. Three water levels were established: a `wet'

Mark van Oorschot; Nils van Gaalen; Ed Maltby; Natalie Mockler; Andrew Spink

2000-01-01

395

Inter-comparison of time series models of lake levels predicted by several modeling strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five models are used to investigate monthly water level of six lakes.Models comprise: chaos theory, SARIMA, ANN, GEP and MLR; the lakes features vary.None of the model performance is outright good in all 6 cases.All 5 models perform well in 2, satisfactorily in 1, but poorly in other cases.The results may be seen as anecdotal evidence for pluralism in modeling cultures.

Khatibi, R.; Ghorbani, M. A.; Naghipour, L.; Jothiprakash, V.; Fathima, T. A.; Fazelifard, M. H.

2014-04-01

396

Plasma levels of angiopoietin-1 and -2 predict cerebral malaria outcome in Central India  

PubMed Central

Background The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM) syndrome are not well understood. Previous studies have shown a strong association of inflammatory chemokines, apoptotic markers and angiogenic molecules with CM associated mortality. Recognizing the importance of angiopoietins (ANG) in the pathogenesis of CM, a retrospective investigation was carried out in a hospital cohort of malaria patients with Plasmodium infection in central India to determine if these factors could be suitable markers of CM associated severity. Methods Patients enrolled in the study were clinically characterized as healthy controls (HC), mild malaria (MM), CM survivors (CMS) and CM non-survivors (CMNS) based on their malaria status and hospital treatment outcome. Plasma ANG-1 and ANG-2 levels were assessed using sandwich ELISA. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to calculate area under the curve (AUC) for each biomarker in order to assess predictive accuracy of individual biomarkers. Results The plasma levels of ANG-1 were lower in CMS and CMNS compared to control groups (mild malaria and healthy controls) at the time of hospital admission. On the contrary, ANG-2 levels positively correlated with malaria severity and were significantly higher in CMNS. The ratio of ANG-2/ANG-1 was highest in CMNS compared to other groups. Receiver operating characteristic curves revealed that compared to ANG-1 (AUC = 0.35), ANG-2 (AUC = 0.95) and ratio of ANG-2/ANG-1 (AUC = 0.90) were better markers to discriminate CMNS from MM cases. However, they were less specific in predicting fatal outcome amongst CM cases at the time of hospital admission. Conclusion These results suggest that at the time of admission plasma levels of ANG-2 and ratio of ANG-2/ANG-1 are clinically informative biomarkers to predict fatal CM from MM cases while they have limited usefulness in discriminating fatal CM outcomes in a pool of CM cases in endemic settings of Central India.

2011-01-01

397

Preoperative plasma leptin levels predict delirium in elderly patients after hip fracture surgery.  

PubMed

Leptin is considered to be a modulator of the immune response. Hypoleptinemia increases the risk for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of plasma leptin level to predict delirium in elderly patients after hip fracture surgery. Postoperative delirium (pod) was evaluated using the Confusion Assessment Method. Prolonged postoperative delirium (ppod) was defined as delirium lasting more than 4 weeks. Plasma leptin levels of 186 elderly patients and 186 elderly controls were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma leptin level was substantially lower in patients than in controls (4.6±2.2ng/ml vs. 7.5±1.8ng/ml, P<0.001). It was identified as an independent predictor for pod [odds ratio, 0.385; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.286-0.517; P<0.001] and ppod (odds ratio, 0.283; 95% CI, 0.152-0.527; P<0.001) using a multivariate analysis, and had high area under receiver operating characteristic curve for pod [area under curve (AUC), 0.850; 95% CI, 0.790-0.898] and ppod (AUC, 0.890; 95% CI, 0.836-0.931). The predictive value of leptin was markedly bigger than that of age for pod (AUC, 0.705; 95% CI, 0.634-0.770; P=0.002) and ppod (AUC, 0.713; 95% CI, 0.642-0.777; P=0.019). In a combined logistic-regression model, leptin improved the AUC of age to 0.890 (95% CI, 0.836-0.931) (P<0.001) for pod and 0.910 (95% CI, 0.860-0.947) (P=0.005) for ppod. Thus, preoperative plasma leptin level may be a useful, complementary tool to predict delirium and also prolonged delirium in elderly patients after hip fracture surgery. PMID:24787655

Chen, Xue-Wu; Shi, Jun-Wu; Yang, Ping-Shan; Wu, Zhu-Qi

2014-07-01

398

Fasting Serum C-Peptide Levels Predict Cardiovascular and Overall Death in Nondiabetic Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Insulin resistance, characterized by hyperinsulinemia and normal or elevated serum glucose, is an established precursor to diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Despite fasting serum C?peptide levels being an accurate and stable marker of endogenous insulin production used in patients with diabetes, it is unknown whether C?peptide could serve as a marker of insulin resistance and predict outcomes in patients without diabetes. Method and Results This is a retrospective cohort study using data from the NHANES?3 (1988–1994) survey with mortality follow?up through December 31, 2006. Participants included 5153 subjects, 40 to 74 years of age with fasting glucose ?70 mg/dL, without diabetes by history or laboratory testing. Receiver?operating?curve analysis compared fasting C?peptide against known insulin resistance measures such as fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin, HOMA?IR, quantitative?insulin?sensitivity?check?index, and metabolic syndrome for the prediction of cardiovascular and overall death. Subjects were then stratified by quartiles of C?peptide levels. Cox proportional?hazards modeling compared hazards of cardiovascular and overall death amongst C?peptide quartiles and adjusted for potential confounders of cardiovascular and diabetes risk. Fasting serum C?peptide levels predicted cardiovascular and overall death better than other studied measures (AUC=0.62 and 0.60 respectively vs the rest, with AUC?0.58 and ?0.57 respectively, P<0.001). When compared with the lowest C?peptide quartile, subjects in the highest quartile had significantly higher adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of cardiovascular death (HR=1.60, 95%CI 1.07 to 2.39) and overall mortality (HR=1.72, 95%CI 1.34 to 2.21) after controlling for confounders. Conclusions C?peptide levels significantly related to hazards of cardiovascular and overall death in nondiabetic adults and was a better predictor of these outcomes than serum insulin and/or glucose derived measures.

Patel, Nileshkumar; Taveira, Tracey H.; Choudhary, Gaurav; Whitlatch, Hilary; Wu, Wen-Chih

2012-01-01

399

The challenge of predicting karst water resources in a changing world (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karst regions represent a large part of global continental area providing drinking water to almost a quarter of the world population. Climate simulations predict a strong increase in temperature and a decrease of precipitation in many karst regions in the world (see figure below). Despite of this knowledge, there are only few studies that address the impact of climate or change on karst water resources. This presentation will provide an overview about different approaches for the simulation of karst water resources, comparing their data requirements and process representation, and elaborating reasons for their limited applicability. A set of case studies will be used to show the benefits of new modeling approaches that include hydrochemical observations, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis to evaluate and improve the prediction of karst water resources. Furthermore, the impact of uncertain temperature and precipitation predictions of climate simulation models on the prediction of karst water resources will be elaborated by another example and alternative approaches will be discussed. The presentation will end with an outlook about the application of karst simulation models on larger scales where no discharge and groundwater measurements will be presented. Location of carbonate rock outcrops in Europe [Williams and Ford, Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 2006, modified] compared to expected mean change of temperature and precipitation in North America (a,b) and Europe (c,d) from 1961-1990 to 2081-2090, derived from 20 general circulation models [IPCC, 2007].

Hartmann, A.

2013-12-01

400

Temporal and Spatial prediction of groundwater levels using Artificial Neural Networks, Fuzzy logic and Kriging interpolation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to examine the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) combined with kriging interpolation method, in order to simulate the hydraulic head both spatially and temporally. Initially, ANNs are used for the temporal simulation of the hydraulic head change. The results of the most appropriate ANNs, determined through a fuzzy logic system, are used as an input for the kriging algorithm where the spatial simulation is conducted. The proposed algorithm is tested in an area located across Isar River in Bayern, Germany and covers an area of approximately 7800 km2. The available data extend to a time period from 1/11/2008 to 31/10/2012 (1460 days) and include the hydraulic head at 64 wells, temperature and rainfall at 7 weather stations and surface water elevation at 5 monitoring stations. One feedforward ANN was trained for each of the 64 wells, where hydraulic head data are available, using a backpropagation algorithm. The most appropriate input parameters for each wells' ANN are determined considering their proximity to the measuring station, as well as their statistical characteristics. For the rainfall, the data for two consecutive time lags for best correlated weather station, as well as a third and fourth input from the second best correlated weather station, are used as an input. The surface water monitoring stations with the three best correlations for each well are also used in every case. Finally, the temperature for the best correlated weather station is used. Two different architectures are considered and the one with the best results is used henceforward. The output of the ANNs corresponds to the hydraulic head change per time step. These predictions are used in the kriging interpolation algorithm. However, not all 64 simulated values should be used. The appropriate neighborhood for each prediction point is constructed based not only on the distance between known and prediction points, but also on the training and testing error of the ANN. Therefore, the neighborhood of each prediction point is the best available. Then, the appropriate variogram is determined, by fitting the experimental variogram to a theoretical variogram model. Three models are examined, the linear, the exponential and the power-law. Finally, the hydraulic head change is predicted for every grid cell and for every time step used. All the algorithms used were developed in Visual Basic .NET, while the visualization of the results was performed in MATLAB using the .NET COM Interoperability. The results are evaluated using leave one out cross-validation and various performance indicators. The best results were achieved by using ANNs with two hidden layers, consisting of 20 and 15 nodes respectively and by using power-law variogram with the fuzzy logic system.

Tapoglou, Evdokia; Karatzas, George P.; Trichakis, Ioannis C.; Varouchakis, Emmanouil A.