Sample records for water level predictions

  1. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for prediction of water level in reservoir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fi-John Chang; Ya-Ting Chang

    2006-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the water level in a reservoir is crucial to optimizing the management of water resources. A neuro-fuzzy hybrid approach was used to construct a water level forecasting system during flood periods. In particular, we used the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to build a prediction model for reservoir management. To illustrate the applicability and capability of

  2. Analysis and Predictions on Extreme Coastal Water Levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudong Xu

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the characteristics of probability distribution of extreme water levels is important for coastal flood mitigation and engineering design. In this study, frequency analysis has been conducted to investigate probability distributions along the coast of the U.S. by using three-parameter General Extreme Value (GEV) method. The GEV model combines three types of probability distributions (Type I for Gumbel distribution, Type

  3. A Novel Predictive Control and Its Application on Water Level System of Ship Boiler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng Liu; Yanyan Li

    2006-01-01

    Water level is an important index to ensure the safety and stable operation of the ship boiler. Because of the nonlinear and time lag of the water level system, normal PID control can't obtain the satisfactory effect. So the improved neural network predictive control based on support vector machine (SVM) was presented. This method used SVM to identify the predictive

  4. Multi-model predictive control method for nuclear steam generator water level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ke Hu; Jingqi Yuan

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of a nuclear steam generator (SG) is very different according to the power levels and changes as time goes on. Therefore, it is an intractable as well as challenging task to improve the water level control system of the SG. In this paper, a robust model predictive control (RMPC) method is developed for the level control problem. Based

  5. Predicting Atrazine Levels in Water Utility Intake Water for MCL Compliance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To protect human health, atrazine concentrations in drinking water must not exceed its maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 3 ug/L. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) mandates that municipal water providers sample quarterly to determine MCL compliance. Atrazine levels were mon...

  6. Study of two-cell immune feedback control for water level of boiler drum based on gray prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dao-Gang Peng; Hao Zhang; Cong-Hua Huang; Fei Xia; Hui Li

    2010-01-01

    Due to the `false water level' phenomenon in power station makes the traditional control strategy can't be a good solution to the problem, a two-cell immune feedback control strategy based on gray prediction for water level of boiler drum in power station is proposed, which using the function of gray prediction with strong self-adaptability and advanced control functions, and learning

  7. Construction and use of special drawdown scales for use in prediction of water-level changes throughout heavily pumped areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conover, C.S.; Reeder, H.O.

    1957-01-01

    Problem and Proposed Method of Solution Frequently the Theis nonequilibrium formula is use din the quantitative analyses that are part of many-ground-water investigations. The computations associated therewith may become quite involved and tedious, especially when dealing with predictions of the decline of water levels throughout large areas in which there are many discharging wells. The process of predicting future water-level declines can be greatly simplified and shortened by preparing a special draw-down scale for given conditions. Through use of such a scale much of the computation can be reduced to scaling the values sought from a map, on which the pumped wells have been spotted. The net drawdown effect, which is the sum of the water-level declines caused by the many individual pumped wells, can be determined readily for any desired point in the area. If the net drawdown effect is desired, a summation of the effects of all the pumped wells can be repeated for each point. By determining the water-level change at a number of points, for a given period of time, a contour map of predicted water-level changes for the multiple-well system can be drawn.

  8. Importance of long-term cycles for predicting water level dynamics in natural lakes.

    PubMed

    García Molinos, Jorge; Viana, Mafalda; Brennan, Michael; Donohue, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Lakes are disproportionately important ecosystems for humanity, containing 77% of the liquid surface freshwater on Earth and comprising key contributors to global biodiversity. With an ever-growing human demand for water and increasing climate uncertainty, there is pressing need for improved understanding of the underlying patterns of natural variability of water resources and consideration of their implications for water resource management and conservation. Here we use Bayesian harmonic regression models to characterise water level dynamics and study the influence of cyclic components in confounding estimation of long-term directional trends in water levels in natural Irish lakes. We found that the lakes were characterised by a common and well-defined annual seasonality and several inter-annual and inter-decadal cycles with strong transient behaviour over time. Importantly, failing to account for the longer-term cyclic components produced a significant overall underestimation of the trend effect. Our findings demonstrate the importance of contextualising lake water resource management to the specific physical setting of lakes. PMID:25757071

  9. Predicting wetland plant community responses to proposed water-level-regulation plans for Lake Ontario: GIS-based modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, D.A.; Xie, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated, GIS-based, wetland predictive models were constructed to assist in predicting the responses of wetland plant communities to proposed new water-level regulation plans for Lake Ontario. The modeling exercise consisted of four major components: 1) building individual site wetland geometric models; 2) constructing generalized wetland geometric models representing specific types of wetlands (rectangle model for drowned river mouth wetlands, half ring model for open embayment wetlands, half ellipse model for protected embayment wetlands, and ellipse model for barrier beach wetlands); 3) assigning wetland plant profiles to the generalized wetland geometric models that identify associations between past flooding / dewatering events and the regulated water-level changes of a proposed water-level-regulation plan; and 4) predicting relevant proportions of wetland plant communities and the time durations during which they would be affected under proposed regulation plans. Based on this conceptual foundation, the predictive models were constructed using bathymetric and topographic wetland models and technical procedures operating on the platform of ArcGIS. An example of the model processes and outputs for the drowned river mouth wetland model using a test regulation plan illustrates the four components and, when compared against other test regulation plans, provided results that met ecological expectations. The model results were also compared to independent data collected by photointerpretation. Although data collections were not directly comparable, the predicted extent of meadow marsh in years in which photographs were taken was significantly correlated with extent of mapped meadow marsh in all but barrier beach wetlands. The predictive model for wetland plant communities provided valuable input into International Joint Commission deliberations on new regulation plans and was also incorporated into faunal predictive models used for that purpose.

  10. Digital-model analysis to predict water levels in a well field near Columbus, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Planert, Michael

    1976-01-01

    Columbus, Indiana, obtains its water supply from six municipally owned wells southwest of the city. The wells are screened in an outwash sand and gravel aquifer that was deposited by glacial melt water in a preglacial bedrock valley. The well field is midway between the East Fork White River and the western edge of the valley. A digital model was used to determine the effects of two pumping plans on the outwash sand and gravel aquifer. In pumping plan 1, a continuous pumping rate of 1,400 gallons per minute (gpm) for 10 years in each of the city 's six existing wells was simulated with the model. Model results of plan 1 indicate that the water levels in the area of the well field would be lowered more than 20 ft and that drawdowns in the wells would approach 35 ft after 10 years ' pumping. Pumping plan 2 had two stages of pumping. In the first, a continuous pumping rate of 1,400 gpm for 5 years in each of the city 's six existing wells was simulated with the model; the second stage of pumping plan 2 differed from stage 1 only in that five planned wells were added to the six existing wells. Model results of plan 2 indicate that water levels in the area of the well field would be lowered as much as 40 feet. Drawdown at two of the well sites would approach 60 ft, leaving less than 15 ft of the initial 70 ft of saturated thickness at the two wells after 10 years ' pumping. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Predicting Ground Water Flow

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity students learn how to draw ground water contours and understand how ground water flow may be predicted. As they complete this activity students will be able to draw a ground water contour map, have a basic understanding of how to predict the direction of ground water flow and understand the interrelated nature of ground water and surface water flow. They will also learn the difference between a gaining stream and a losing stream and why it is important to know the difference.

  12. Predictive control of water supply plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris AzeniC; Nedjeljko PeriC; D. Sliskovic

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the possibility of applying predictive control for water level control in tanks of water supply plants. The proposed control system includes a ground water intake plant; water treatment plant and water tanks. Since predictive controllers are based on mathematical models of controlled processes, the mathematical model of a water supply plant has been created for the

  13. Predicted Changes in Interannual Water-Level Fluctuations Due to Climate Change and Its Implications for the Vegetation of the Florida Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Valk, Arnold G.; Volin, John C.; Wetzel, Paul R.

    2015-04-01

    The number of dominant vegetation types (wet prairies, sawgrass flats, ridges and sloughs, sloughs, and tree islands) historically and currently found in the Everglades, FL, USA, as with other wetlands with standing water, appears to be primarily a function of the magnitude of interannual water-level fluctuations. Analyses of 40 years of water-depth data were used to estimate the magnitude of contemporary (baseline) water-level fluctuations in undisturbed ridge and slough landscapes. Baseline interannual water-level fluctuations above the soil surface were at least 1.5 m. Predicted changes in interannual water-level fluctuations in 2060 were examined for seven climate change scenarios. When rainfall is predicted to increase by 10 %, the wettest scenario, the interannual range of water-level fluctuation increases to 1.8 m above the soil surface in sloughs. When rainfall is predicted to decrease by 10 % and temperatures to increase by 1.5 °C, the driest scenario, the range of interannual range of water-level fluctuations is predicted to decrease to 1.2 m above the soil surface in sloughs. A change of 25-30 cm in interannual water-level fluctuations is needed to change the number of vegetation types in a wetland. This suggests that the two most extreme climate change scenarios could have a significant impact on the overall structure of wetland vegetation, i.e., the number of vegetation types or zones, found in the Everglades.

  14. NOAA: About Water Levels, Tides and Currents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A comprehensive lesson on what causes tides, current and past techniques for predicting tides, how and why water level is measured, and the challenges of measuring water currents. Site provides additional links to other NOAA tide resources.

  15. Predicted water-level and water-quality effects of artificial recharge in the Upper Coachella Valley, California, using a finite-element digital model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, Lindsay A.

    1978-01-01

    From 1936 to 1974, water levels declined more than 100 feet in the Palm Springs area and 60 feet in the Palm Desert area of the upper Coachella Valley, Calif. Water from the Colorado River Aqueduct is presently being recharged to the basin. The dissolved-solids concentration of native ground water in the recharge area is about 210 mg/liter and that of recharge water ranges from 600 to 750 mg/liter. A finite-element model indicates that without recharge the 1974 water levels in the Palm Springs area will decline 200 feet by the year 2000 because of pumpage. If the aquifer is recharged at a rate from about 7 ,500 acre-feet per year in 1973 increasing to 61,200 acre-feet per year in 1990 and thereafter, the water level in the Palm Springs area will decline about 20 feet below the 1974 level by 1991 and recover to the 1974 level by 2000. The solute-transport finite-element model of the recharge area indicates that the artificial recharge plume (bounded by the 300-mg/liter line) will move about 1.1 miles downgradient of the recharge ponds by 1981 and about 4.5 miles from the ponds by 2000. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Probability prediction of the Caspian sea level with consideration of the development of water-consuming industries in its basin

    SciTech Connect

    Berezner, A.S.

    1987-11-01

    This article discusses the consequences for the Caspian Sea of the future economic and industrial development of the area and proposes a strategy for forecasting its continued existence from hydrological and meteorological standpoints as well as on the basis of projected water consumption by the industries moving into the area. Further strategies are put forth for resource management and conservation which are responsive to variations in the level of the sea and in the inflow from surrounding rivers and watersheds. Government policy toward development and utilization of the Caspian Sea over the past few years is also discussed.

  17. How historical information can improve estimation and prediction of extreme coastal water levels: application to the Xynthia event at La Rochelle (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulteau, T.; Idier, D.; Lambert, J.; Garcin, M.

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of extreme coastal water levels is useful for coastal flooding studies or the design of coastal defences. While deriving such extremes with standard analyses using tide-gauge measurements, one often needs to deal with limited effective duration of observation which can result in large statistical uncertainties. This is even truer when one faces the issue of outliers, those particularly extreme values distant from the others which increase the uncertainty on the results. In this study, we investigate how historical information, even partial, of past events reported in archives can reduce statistical uncertainties and relativise such outlying observations. A Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method is developed to tackle this issue. We apply this method to the site of La Rochelle (France), where the storm Xynthia in 2010 generated a water level considered so far as an outlier. Based on 30 years of tide-gauge measurements and 8 historical events, the analysis shows that (1) integrating historical information in the analysis greatly reduces statistical uncertainties on return levels (2) Xynthia's water level no longer appears as an outlier, (3) we could have reasonably predicted the annual exceedance probability of that level beforehand (predictive probability for 2010 based on data until the end of 2009 of the same order of magnitude as the standard estimative probability using data until the end of 2010). Such results illustrate the usefulness of historical information in extreme value analyses of coastal water levels, as well as the relevance of the proposed method to integrate heterogeneous data in such analyses.

  18. Sentence-Level Attachment Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albakour, M.-Dyaa; Kruschwitz, Udo; Lucas, Simon

    Attachment prediction is the task of automatically identifying email messages that should contain an attachment. This can be useful to tackle the problem of sending out emails but forgetting to include the relevant attachment (something that happens all too often). A common Information Retrieval (IR) approach in analyzing documents such as emails is to treat the entire document as a bag of words. Here we propose a finer-grained analysis to address the problem. We aim at identifying individual sentences within an email that refer to an attachment. If we detect any such sentence, we predict that the email should have an attachment. Using part of the Enron corpus for evaluation we find that our finer-grained approach outperforms previously reported document-level attachment prediction in similar evaluation settings.

  19. Model identification by neuro-fuzzy techniques: Predicting the water level in a steam generator of a PWR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Marseguerra; E Zio; P Avogadri

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present a neuro-fuzzy technique which allows building a predictive model of an evolving signal. The fuzzy if-then rules are inferred from the available input-output data through a training procedure. During operation, in correspondence of each incoming input pattern the corresponding output is predicted and a measure of the strength of the model rules is computed: the

  20. PREDICTING FUTURE WATER DEMAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Decentralization within metropolitan areas has been a major aspect of population movement in the United States over the past two decades. The trend has great significance for all urban service activities. In particular, it affects water supply planning in urban areas. Both number...

  1. Auto-tuned PID controller using a model predictive control method for the steam generator water level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Man Gyun Na

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control gains are automatically tuned by using a model predictive control (MPC) method. The MPC has received much attention as a powerful tool for the control of industrial process systems. An MPC-based PID controller can be derived from the second-order linear model of a process. The steam generator is usually described by the well-known fourth-order

  2. Water in protein structure prediction

    PubMed Central

    Papoian, Garegin A.; Ulander, Johan; Eastwood, Michael P.; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2004-01-01

    Proteins have evolved to use water to help guide folding. A physically motivated, nonpairwise-additive model of water-mediated interactions added to a protein structure prediction Hamiltonian yields marked improvement in the quality of structure prediction for larger proteins. Free energy profile analysis suggests that long-range water-mediated potentials guide folding and smooth the underlying folding funnel. Analyzing simulation trajectories gives direct evidence that water-mediated interactions facilitate native-like packing of supersecondary structural elements. Long-range pairing of hydrophilic groups is an integral part of protein architecture. Specific water-mediated interactions are a universal feature of biomolecular recognition landscapes in both folding and binding. PMID:14988499

  3. How predictable are water resources?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, P.

    2010-10-01

    Peter Mason, technical director of international dams and hydropower at MWH, explains how some water resources might be more predictable than generally supposed. Some years ago the writer examined the levels of Lake Victoria in east Africa as part of a major refurbishment project. This revealed a clear cyclic behavior in lake level and hence in discharges from the lake down the Nile system and up into Egypt. A recent study by the writer demonstrated that 20-year mean flows in the Kafue River in Zambia corresponded well to reconstructed rainfall records based on regional tree ring records. The Rio Parana has a catchment area of 3,100,000km 2 and a mean stream flow of 21,300m 3/sec. In the wider context an improved understanding of apparent periodicities in the natural record would seem to offer at least one planning scenario to be considered in terms of investment and even for the long term planning of aid and famine relief.

  4. Intelligent modeling of urban water supply prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yangu Zhang; Yanlin Zhang

    2010-01-01

    To reduce energy and water, water supply company need estimate future water consumption according to the record of daily water supply, and best arrange future production planning and control, water consumption is uncertainty and is strong non-linear time series, water consumption prediction estimation is more concerned by academics, it is predicted through various methods, multiple regression analysis and gray forecast

  5. Boiler water liquid level control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1993-01-01

    In a boiling water boiler having a boiler tank which is externally fired by a burner under control of a fuel supply valve, and is supplied with make-up water through a make-up water valve, both of the valves being under the control of a control system, the control system including an upper control level sensor disposed at an elevation in

  6. Geophysical modeling of the static water level

    SciTech Connect

    Bochicchio, R.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this study is to determine if a geophysical investigation technique could be used to delineate depth to static water level to within 20 meters in several areas of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Using noninvasive geophysical methods to obtain water-level data is potentially faster and more cost-effective than drilling wells, especially in the areas concerned, where water-level depths vary from approximately 200 to 600 meters. Electrical geophysical methods are well-suited for water-level delineation. The depth to the static water level is often related to that of the saturated zone, and the saturated zone often has a different electrical resistivity character than the adjacent unsaturated material. Most of the time, this will be a resistivity decrease, due to the presence of water instead of air in the pore spaces. However, a saturated zone with a resistive matrix may show a resistivity increase compared to an unsaturated layer composed of more conductive material, such as clay. The analytical method is to use known depths and electrical resistivities of the static water level to obtain simulated geophysical field data. These simulated data are referred to as the synthetic sounding curve. The synthetic sounding curve will be analyzed to see if it can be used to predict the static water level. 8 refs., 22 figs.

  7. NOS Tides and Water Levels Discovery Kit

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Ocean Service (NOS) scientists collect, study, predict and disseminate information about tides and water levels. Tutorial introduces the causes and variations of tides and currents, their impacts on human activities, navigation and organisms. Lesson plans include data for classroom activities, as well as resource links and teacher guides. A NSTA SciLinks selected site.

  8. NOAA Water Level and Meteorological Data Report HURRICANE ISAAC

    E-print Network

    in relating water levels to coastal inundation estimates. Table 1 provides storm tide elevations and predicted tides are the maximum water level elevations during a storm passage. Residuals are the elevationNOAA Water Level and Meteorological Data Report HURRICANE ISAAC Silver Spring, Maryland October 14

  9. Streamflow and Water Level Measurements

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists Joel Galloway and Dan Thomas prepare to take streamflow and water level measurements of the flooded Red River in downtown Fargo, ND. The USGS Red River of the North at Fargo streamgage can be seen in the background....

  10. Groundwater Level Prediction using M5 Model Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalarajan, Nitha Ayinippully; Mohandas, C.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater is an important resource, readily available and having high economic value and social benefit. Recently, it had been considered a dependable source of uncontaminated water. During the past two decades, increased rate of extraction and other greedy human actions have resulted in the groundwater crisis, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Under prevailing circumstances, the availability of predicted groundwater levels increase the importance of this valuable resource, as an aid in the planning of groundwater resources. For this purpose, data-driven prediction models are widely used in the present day world. M5 model tree (MT) is a popular soft computing method emerging as a promising method for numeric prediction, producing understandable models. The present study discusses the groundwater level predictions using MT employing only the historical groundwater levels from a groundwater monitoring well. The results showed that MT can be successively used for forecasting groundwater levels.

  11. Computer program to predict aircraft noise levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    Methods developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting the noise contributions from various aircraft noise sources were programmed to predict aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground tests. The noise sources include fan inlet and exhaust, jet, flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine, and airframe. Noise propagation corrections are available for atmospheric attenuation, ground reflections, extra ground attenuation, and shielding. Outputs can include spectra, overall sound pressure level, perceived noise level, tone-weighted perceived noise level, and effective perceived noise level at locations specified by the user. Footprint contour coordinates and approximate footprint areas can also be calculated. Inputs and outputs can be in either System International or U.S. customary units. The subroutines for each noise source and propagation correction are described. A complete listing is given.

  12. Ground-water levels in Wyoming, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballance, W.C.; Freudenthal, Pamela B.

    1976-01-01

    Ground-water levels are measured periodically in a network of about 260 observation wells in Wyoming to record changes in ground-water storage. The areas of water-level observation are mostly where ground water is used in large quantities for irrigation or municipal purposes. This report contains maps showing location of observation wells and water-level changes from 1975 to 1976. Well history, highest and lowest water levels , and hydrographs for most wells also are included. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. ANNs and GAs for predictive control of water supply networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Damas; M. Salmeron; J. Ortega

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure for controlling the water supply system. The controller uses a neural network to predict the water demand levels and a genetic algorithm to determine the feasible operation points in an optimal strategy that is based on dynamic programming. The controller has been executed in parallel in a cluster of computers. This has allowed not only

  14. Method for steam generator water level measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srinivasan

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a nuclear power plant, a method of controlling the steam generator water level, wherein the steam generator has an upper level tap corresponding to an upper level, a lower level, a riser positioned between the lower and upper taps, and level sensor means for indicating water level between a first range limit and a second range limit,

  15. Satellite Water Impurity Marker (SWIM) for predicting seasonal cholera outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutla, A. S.; Akanda, A. S.; Islam, S.

    2011-12-01

    Prediction of outbreaks of cholera, a deadly water related disease, remains elusive. Since coastal brackish water provides a natural ecological niche for cholera bacteria and because a powerful evidence of new biotypes is emerging, it is highly unlikely that cholera will be fully eradicated. Therefore, it is necessary to develop cholera prediction model with several months' of lead time. Satellite based estimates of chlorophyll, a surrogate for phytoplankton abundance, has been associated with proliferation of cholera bacteria. However, survival of cholera bacteria in a variety of coastal ecological environment put constraints on predictive abilities of chlorophyll algorithm since it only measures greenness in coastal waters. Here, we propose a new remote sensing reflectance based statistical index: Satellite Water Impurity Marker, or SWIM. This statistical index estimates impurity levels in the coastal waters and is based on the variability observed in the difference between the blue (412nm) and green (555nm) wavelengths in coastal waters. The developed index is bounded between clear and impure water and shows the ability to predict cholera outbreaks in the Bengal Delta with a predicted r2 of 78% with two months lead time. We anticipate that a predictive system based on SWIM will provide essential lead time allowing effective intervention and mitigation strategies to be developed for other cholera endemic regions of the world.

  16. Ground-water levels in Wyoming, 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballance, W.C.; Freudenthal, Pamela B.

    1977-01-01

    Ground-water levels are measured periodically in a network of about 280 observation wells in Wyoming to record changes in ground-water storage. The areas of water-level observation are mostly where ground water is used in large quantities for irrigation or municipal purposes. This report contains maps showing location of observation wells and water-level changes from 1976 to 1977. Well history, highest and lowest water levels , and hydrographs for most wells also are included. The program of groundwater observation is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer and the city of Cheyenne. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Parathyroid hormone levels predict posttotal thyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Rivere, Amy E; Brooks, Ashton J; Hayek, Genevieve A; Wang, Heng; Corsetti, Ralph L; Fuhrman, George M

    2014-08-01

    We hypothesized that parathyroid hormone (PTH) determination would be the most effective strategy to identify posttotal thyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism (PTTHP) compared with other clinical and laboratory parameters. We retrospectively reviewed our recent experience with total thyroidectomy. We recorded demographics, malignancy, thyroid weight, parathyroid autotransplantation, hospital stay, use of postoperative calcium and hormonally active vitamin D3 (calcitriol), and postoperative serum calcium and PTH levels. Patients were divided into two groups depending on whether supplemental calcitriol was required to maintain eucalcemia and therefore reflecting the diagnosis of PTTHP. From October 2010 to June 2013, a total of 202 total thyroidectomies were performed. Twenty-four patients (12%) developed PTTHP and required calcitriol replacement. Logistic regression analysis revealed that only postoperative calcium levels (P = 0.02) and PTH levels (P < 0.0001) statistically significantly predicted PTTHP. Twenty-two of 29 patients with PTH 13 pg/mL or less had PTTHP. Only two of 173 patients with a PTH level greater than 13 pg/mL were diagnosed with PTTHP. We recommend using PTH levels after total thyroidectomy to determine which patients will have hypoparathyroidism requiring calcitriol therapy. An early determination of PTTHP allows for prompt management that can shorten hospital stay and improve outcomes. PMID:25105405

  18. 2, 11071145, 2005 Water level

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    are parameterised with reference to flood events alone, where water lev- els are higher than a selected threshold with great attention to the reliability and accuracy of each model, with reference to the Reno river is important for environmental protection and flood control since, when flood events occur, reliable water

  19. Predicting levels of preventive dental behaviors.

    PubMed

    McCaul, K D; Glasgow, R E; Gustafson, C

    1985-10-01

    This study examined the value of SLT as a model for predicting levels of dental hygiene behaviors. The brushing and flossing frequency of 131 adults was measured both retrospectively (via questionnaire) and prospectively (via self-monitoring records). Two types of SLT variables--expectations and environmental influences--were reliably related to dental hygiene behaviors. Such variables (for example, self-efficacy expectations and the dental behaviors of significant others) accounted for up to 38% of the variance in brushing frequency and 33% of the variance in flossing frequency. Overall, a SLT model appears to hold promise for identifying psychosocial variables that are related to dental hygiene behaviors. The findings suggest that educational programs intended to increase the frequency of such behaviors should focus on increasing self-efficacy, reducing structural and life-style barriers to adherence, and involving significant others in educational efforts. PMID:3863862

  20. PREDICTABILITY A proposed new 600-level course for MPO

    E-print Network

    Miami, University of

    PREDICTABILITY A proposed new 600-level course for MPO Spring Semester 2012. Ensemble Prediction a. Concepts behind perturbation techniques i. Initial condition. Quantitative probabilistic verification 4. Predictability and Error Growth a. Concepts

  1. Water Level Measuring Network Design and Implementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiwei Yang; Minyi Ke; Yonghui Chen; Hao Li; Jianzhou Liu; Tianxiao Yang

    2010-01-01

    The Yangtze River model was constructed to study the flood evolution in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River. To automatically measure and dynamically track the water level in the river model, water level meter was designed. An optical scale with 1um resolution was used as a position detection sensor; the optical scale output signals were processed and then

  2. Water Levels on the Great Lakes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource explains that water levels are part of the ebb and flow of nature and the difference between the amount of water coming into a lake and the amount going out is the determining factor in whether the water level will rise, fall or remain stable. Students will learn that there are three types of water level fluctuations: short-term changes due to winds or changes in barometric pressure, seasonal changes depending on evaporation and precipitations, and long-term changes due to successive years of weather aberrations. Textual information is accompanied by graphs that illustrate these changes. The site also includes information about methods of measuring water levels and the economic impact of the changing levels.

  3. Method for steam generator water level measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, J.S.

    1991-06-18

    This paper describes a nuclear power plant, a method of controlling the steam generator water level, wherein the steam generator has an upper level tap corresponding to an upper level, a lower level, a riser positioned between the lower and upper taps, and level sensor means for indicating water level between a first range limit and a second range limit, the sensor means being connected to at least the lower tap. It comprises: calculating a measure of velocity head at about the lower level tap; calculating a measure of full water level as the upper level less the measure of velocity head; calibrating the level sensor means to provide an output at the first limit corresponding to an input thereto representative of the measure of full level; calculating a high level setpoint equal to the level of the riser less a bias amount which is a function of the position of the riser relative to the span between the taps; and controlling the water level when the sensor means indicates that the high level setpoint has been reached.

  4. Cascade generalized predictive control strategy for boiler drum level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Xu; Shaoyuan Li; Wenjian Cai

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a cascade model predictive control scheme for boiler drum level control. By employing generalized predictive control structures for both inner and outer loops, measured and unmeasured disturbances can be effectively rejected, and drum level at constant load is maintained. In addition, nonminimum phase characteristic and system constraints in both loops can be handled effectively by generalized predictive

  5. Prediction uncertainty in basin-scale predictions of water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starn, J. J.; Green, C. T.

    2011-12-01

    Upward trends in dissolved solids are occurring in some wells, ranging in depth from 100 to 1,250 feet, in the basin-fill aquifer in Salt Lake Valley, Utah. Possible sources and constituents of dissolved solids include mineral dissolution in native and recently recharged water (calcium, sulfate, and bicarbonate), surface water concentrated by evaporation (sodium and chloride), and application of road de-icing chemicals (sodium and chloride). A groundwater simulation model is being used to understand the trends. Model parameters are optimized using nonlinear regression to match tritium concentrations in samples from public-supply wells. Tritium is considered here to be conservative and non-sorbing, whereas dissolved solid chemistry is probably more complex. The migration of atmospheric tritium through the area where dissolved solids trends are observed provides some information on groundwater velocity in the area of interest. The effect of model cell size on accuracy of tritium concentration predictions is tested. In this case, a coarse model grid may be sufficient to understand the causes of the trends. The simulation strategy is to use an existing calibrated groundwater flow model with parameters (hydraulic conductivity, storativity, and boundary fluxes) regularized at previously calibrated values. An advective transport simulation of tritium, observed at 135 well locations (many of which were sampled multiple times), was calibrated by optimizing porosity parameter values regularized using pilot points. Two models are tested-a single porosity domain and a dual porosity domain with mass transfer. Sensitivity of the model parameters is affected by the model structure (large grid cells), model conceptualization (porosity domains), and data quality (locations and times of samples). Prediction uncertainty is assessed using a Monte Carlo simulation, and a comparison of the results for the two models indicates that parameter estimates are affected by real and numerical dispersion, particularly in the dual-domain porosity simulations, where the additional parameters can mimic the effect of dispersion. The multiple ways of simulating (or ignoring) dispersion affects parameter estimates, parameter uncertainty, and prediction uncertainty. Although prediction uncertainty can be high, a simplified interpretation of the model helps explain the trends in dissolved solids.

  6. Models to predict water chemical cluster variables

    SciTech Connect

    Hakanson, L. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    1994-10-01

    This study is an attempt to quantify and rank variables of significance to predict mean values of lake pH and related variables (alkalinity, conductivity, hardness, etc.) in small glacial lakes. The work is based on a new and extensive set of data from 95 Swedish lakes and their catchment areas. Several empirical models based on catchment and lake morphometric parameters have been presented. These empirical models can only be used to predict mean values of these variables for lakes of the same type, and these models based on {open_quotes}geological{close_quotes} map parameters can evidently not be used for highly time-dependent and site-typical predictions. Various hypotheses concerning the factors regulating the mean values of the cluster variables were formulated and tested. Different statistical tests were used to separate random influences from causal. The most important {open_quotes}map parameters{close_quotes} were: the percent of rocks and open (=cultivated) land in the so-called near area to the lake [as determined with the drainage area zonation (DAZ) method], mean depth, linked to resuspension and the form and size of lakes, relief of the drainage area and lake area. Each of these variables only provides a limited degree of (statistical) explanation of the variability in mean annual values of pH and the water chemical cluster variables among the lakes. The predictability of some of the models can be markedly improved by accounting for the distribution of the characteristics in the drainage area. The variability in mean annual values of pH (and related variables) from other parameters, such as specific anthropogenic load, etc., may then be quantitatively differentiated from the impact of these {open_quotes}geological{close_quotes} parameters. This paper also gives a simple method to estimate natural, preindustrial reference values of these water chemical variables from the presented models. 39 refs., 21 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. Levels of exposure from drinking water.

    PubMed

    van Dijk-Looijaard, A M; van Genderen, J

    2000-01-01

    The relative exposure from drinking water is generally small, although there is a lack of information on total daily intake of individual organic micropollutants. There are, however, a few exceptions. Materials used in domestic distribution systems (lead, copper and plastics) may cause a deterioration of the water quality, especially in stagnant water. The relative exposure to the related compounds may increase considerably. Monitoring data from the tap (with defined sampling techniques) are needed. Also, disinfection/oxidation by-products (bromate, trihalomethanes) can be present in drinking water in considerable amounts and the relative exposure from drinking water may even approach 100%. Especially for volatile organic micropollutants, exposure routes from drinking water other than ingestion must be taken into account (inhalation, percutaneous uptake). When there is a need for detection of substances at very low levels it is important that the measurements are reliable. International interlaboratory comparisons for organic micropollutants are lacking at the moment. PMID:10717369

  8. The University of Minnesota Pathway Prediction System: multi-level prediction and visualization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junfeng; Ellis, Lynda B M; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2011-07-01

    The University of Minnesota Pathway Prediction System (UM-PPS, http://umbbd.msi.umn.edu/predict/) is a rule-based system that predicts microbial catabolism of organic compounds. Currently, its knowledge base contains 250 biotransformation rules and five types of metabolic logic entities. The original UM-PPS predicted up to two prediction levels at a time. Users had to choose a predicted product to continue the prediction. This approach provided a limited view of prediction results and heavily relied on manual intervention. The new UM-PPS produces a multi-level prediction within an acceptable time frame, and allows users to view prediction alternatives much more easily as a directed acyclic graph. PMID:21486753

  9. Water Supply Network System Control based on Model Predictive Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nagib G. N. Mohammed; Adel Abdulrahman

    2009-01-01

    An increasing demand for water due to population growth, industrial development and improvement of economic require management of water transfer and improve operation of water supply systems. This paper considers the application of a model predictive control (MPC) technique to improve the behavior of the water network supply system, to maintain stable operation of the water flow rate, and reduce

  10. Water level simulation in bays by spatial interpolation of tidal constituents, residual water levels, and datums

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt Hess

    2003-01-01

    A new method of simulating total water level relative to a datum takes values at the tide gauges and spatially interpolates them throughout the region. The values at the gauges which are spatially interpolated are: (1) each tidal constituent's amplitude and (2) phase value; (3) the residual, or non-tidal, water level; and (4) the offset, which is either the difference

  11. Reading Ground Water Levels with a Smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Overloop, Peter-Jules

    2015-04-01

    Most ground water levels in the world are measured manually. It requires employees of water management organizations to visit sites in the field and execute a measurement procedure that requires special tools and training. Once the measurement is done, the value is jotted down in a notebook and later, at the office, entered in a computer system. This procedure is slow and prone to human errors. A new development is the introduction of modern Information and Communication Technology to support this task and make it more efficient. Two innovations are introduced to measure and immediately store ground water levels. The first method is a measuring tape that gives a sound and light when it just touches the water in combination with an app on a smartphone with which a picture needs to be taken from the measuring tape. Using dedicated pattern recognition algorithms, the depth is read on the tape and it is verified if the light is on. The second method estimates the depth using a sound from the smartphone that is sent into the borehole and records the reflecting waves in the pipe. Both methods use gps-localization of the smartphone to store the depths in the right location in the central database, making the monitoring of ground water levels a real-time process that eliminates human errors.

  12. Cascade generalized predictive control strategy for boiler drum level.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Li, Shaoyuan; Cai, Wenjian

    2005-07-01

    This paper proposes a cascade model predictive control scheme for boiler drum level control. By employing generalized predictive control structures for both inner and outer loops, measured and unmeasured disturbances can be effectively rejected, and drum level at constant load is maintained. In addition, nonminimum phase characteristic and system constraints in both loops can be handled effectively by generalized predictive control algorithms. Simulation results are provided to show that cascade generalized predictive control results in better performance than that of well tuned cascade proportional integral differential controllers. The algorithm has also been implemented to control a 75-MW boiler plant, and the results show an improvement over conventional control schemes. PMID:16082788

  13. Hydro static water level systems at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, J.T.; Guerra, J.A.; Hansen, S.U.; Kiper, T.E.; Jostlein, H.; Shiltsev, V.; Chupyra, A.; Kondaurov, M.; Singatulin, S.

    2006-09-01

    Several Hydrostatic Water Leveling systems (HLS) are in use at Fermilab. Three systems are used to monitor quadrupoles in the Tevatron and two systems are used to monitor ground motion for potential sites for the International Linear Collider (ILC). All systems use capacitive sensors to determine the water level of water in a pool. These pools are connected with tubing so that relative vertical shifts between sensors can be determined. There are low beta quadrupoles at the B0 and D0 interaction regions of Tevatron accelerator. These quadrupoles use BINP designed and built sensors and have a resolution of 1 micron. All regular lattice superconducting quadrupoles (a total of 204) in the Tevatron use a Fermilab designed system and have a resolution of 6 microns. Data on quadrupole motion due to quenches, changes in temperature will be presented. In addition data for ground motion for ILC studies caused by natural and cultural factors will be presented.

  14. How Temperature and Water levels affect Polar Mesospheric Cloud Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. L.; Randall, C. E.; Harvey, V.

    2012-12-01

    Using the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument data, which is part of the Aeronomy in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission, we compare the albedo and ice water content measurements of CIPS with the Navy Operation Global Atmospheric Prediction System - Advanced Level Phyiscs and High Altitude (NOGAPS-ALPHA) temperature and water vapor data in order to derive a greater understanding of cloud formation and physics. We particularly focus on data from June 2007 and July 2007 in this case study because of particular cloud structures and formations during this time period for future studies.

  15. Platelet Serotonin Level Predicts Survival in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Platelet Serotonin Level Predicts Survival in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Luc Dupuis1,2 *, Odile. Methodology: Platelet and plasma unconjugated concentrations of serotonin and plasma 5-HIAA, the major: Platelet serotonin levels were significantly decreased in ALS patients. Platelet serotonin levels did

  16. iCOLT: Seasonal prediction of water irrigation need in Emilia-Romagna (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavan, Valentina; Villani, Giulia; Spisni, Andrea; Pratizzoli, William; Tomei, Fausto; Botarelli, Lucio; Marletto, Vittorio

    2015-04-01

    Mediterranean regions are frequently exposed to water scarcity and an early assessment of the potential water requirements from summer crops is very important for water management at regional and Reclamation Consortia level. Since 2007, ARPA-SIMC has developed the operational climate service iColt (irrigazione e Classificazione delle cOLture in atto tramite Telerilevamento - irrigation and classification of crops by remote sensing), in order to monitor and predict potential water needs for crop irrigation at different geographical scales. iColt has three components: a) a classification of crops through a set of satellite images acquired at different phenological stages; b) calibrated multi-model ensemble seasonal predictions of climate indices, using as input the EUROSIP products; c) a crop water balance prediction by the model CRITERIA. The climate indices are predicted as input for a weather generator to produce an ensemble of daily meteorological time-series. The meteorological series together with the regional distribution of crops, classified by remote sensing, are used by the water balance and crop development model CRITERIA to assess the crop potential water requirement at geographical level during the following summer. CRITERIA includes an empirical model for computing the shallow water table through spring (observed ) and summer (predicted) meteorological data. The water requirements predictions are verified at the end of summer by forcing the water balance model using the observed meteorological data. The results obtained from 2011 to 2014 are described and show that the operational service has a better skill than the seasonal ensemble prediction products used as input. In all the years, the sign of the irrigation water requirements anomaly has been correctly forecasted. Furthermore, the system has shown to be able to capture the spatial variability of the predicted field. These encouraging results are thought to be due partly to the correct initialization of the shallow water table level, both in time and space, and partly to a good evaluation of the geographical distribution of crop classes with different water needs.

  17. Real-time driving danger-level prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinjun Wang; Wei Xu; Yihong Gong

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a driving danger-level prediction system that uses multiple sensor inputs and statistical modeling to predict the driving risk. Three types of features were collected for the research, specifically the vehicle dynamic parameter, the driver's physiological data and the driver's behavior feature. To model the temporal patterns that lead to safe\\/dangerous driving state, several sequential supervised learning algorithms

  18. A methodology for memory chip stress levels prediction

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Kartik

    2006-10-30

    the prediction model and remaining one third was used to evaluate the model. The designed model would predict the stress levels existing in the chips based on the heating rates of the chips. Results obtained suggested 1. There is difference in heating rate...

  19. Two-Level Address Storage and Address Prediction

    E-print Network

    Morancho, Enric

    Two-Level Address Storage and Address Prediction Enric Morancho, José María Llabería and Àngel. : The amount of information recorded in the prediction tables of the address predictors turns out-locality property of memory references. We propose to split the addresses in two parts (high-order bits and low

  20. Source Level Static Branch Prediction Department of Computer Science

    E-print Network

    Wong, Weng Fai

    Source Level Static Branch Prediction W. F. Wong Department of Computer Science School of Computing-4580 Email: wongwf@comp.nus.edu.sg March 24, 1999 Abstract The ability to predict the directions of branches, especially conditional branches, is an important problem in modern computer architecture and advanced

  1. Overview of predicting noise levels in indoor industrial spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brittain, Frank

    2002-11-01

    Predicting indoor noise in industrial facilities is a vital part of designing industrial plants. The predicted levels are used in the design process to determine compliance with occupation noise exposure limits, and to estimate levels inside the walls as starting point for predicting community noise radiated by buildings. Once levels are predicted, the noise controls needed can be developed. Special methodologies are needed, because normal room acoustics found in architectural acoustics texts is valid only for nearly empty rooms with limited absorption and ranges of room dimensions. The fittings inside industrial spaces can profoundly affect the propagation of noise and the resulting noise levels. In an industrial space, such as a power plant, there is no such thing as a reverberant field, except in isolated areas. In industrial spaces, including factories, predicting noise levels by summing free and reverberant fields gives erroneous results that are usually overly conservative. This paper discusses normal empty room acoustics, and problems typically encountered when it is applied to industrial spaces, particularly those with a high density of fittings or very large spaces. Also, alternative methodologies for predicting indoor noise levels in industrial spaces, which are based on standards and software, are identified and discussed.

  2. Model predictive control of water transportation networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherin Zamora; Juan Manuel Giraldo; Sylvain Leirens

    2010-01-01

    In this paper water distribution systems and sewer systems are considered. Both can be seen as complementary networks: water distribution systems supply the commodity to consumers while sewer systems drain the wastewater which is produced by domestic usage and industrial facilities. In the water distribution case an application of a distributed control scheme for management of urban water supply networks

  3. Monitoring Lake and Reservoir Level: Satellite Observations, Modeling and Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricko, M.; Birkett, C. M.; Adler, R. F.; Carton, J.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite measurements of lake and reservoir water levels complement in situ observations by providing stage information for un-gauged basins and by filling data gaps in gauge records. However, different satellite radar altimeter-derived continental water level products may differ significantly owing to choice of satellites and data processing methods. To explore the impacts of these differences, a direct comparison between three different altimeter-based surface water level estimates (USDA/NASA GRLM, LEGOS and ESA-DMU) will be presented and products validated with lake level gauge time series for lakes and reservoirs of a variety of sizes and conditions. The availability of satellite-based rainfall (i.e., TRMM and GPCP) and satellite-based lake/reservoir levels offers exciting opportunities to estimate and monitor the hydrologic properties of the lake systems. Here, a simple water balance model is utilized to relate net freshwater flux on a catchment basin to lake/reservoir level. Focused on tropical lakes and reservoirs it allows a comparison of the flux to altimetric lake level estimates. The combined use of model, satellite-based rainfall, evaporation information and reanalysis products, can be used to output water-level hindcasts and seasonal future forecasts. Such a tool is fundamental for understanding present-day and future variations in lake/reservoir levels and enabling a better understand of climatic variations on inter-annual to inter-decadal time-scales. New model-derived water level estimates of lakes and reservoirs, on regional to global scales, would assist communities with interests in climate studies focusing on extreme events, such as floods and droughts, and be important for water resources management.

  4. Geospatial application of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model is a process-based technology for prediction of soil erosion by water at hillslope profile, field, and small watershed scales. In particular, WEPP utilizes observed or generated daily climate inputs to drive the surface hydrology processes (infiltrat...

  5. Continuous nonlinear model predictive control of a hybrid water system — Application of DNPC to a Dutch polder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eelco Nederkoorn; Jan Schuurmans; Wytze Schuurmans

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating weather forecasts in the control of land surface water levels requires predicting the outcome of a control action. In Model-Predictive Control (MPC) such predictions are generated by a model of the water system. The actuators in this specific application typically cause disconti- nuities in this model. Avoiding complex solving techniques for such hybrid systems, this paper introduces an alternative

  6. AUTOMATED WATER LEVEL MEASUREMENTS IN SMALL-DIAMETER AQUIFER TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN SW; EDRINGTON RS; MAHOOD RO; VANMIDDLESWORTH PE

    2011-01-14

    Groundwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium, strontium-90, and uranium discharges into the Columbia River along approximately 16 km (10 mi) of the shoreline. Various treatment systems have and will continue to be implemented to eliminate the impact of Hanford Site contamination to the river. To optimize the various remediation strategies, it is important to understand interactions between groundwater and the surface water of the Columbia River. An automated system to record water levels in aquifer sampling tubes installed in the hyporheic zone was designed and tested to (1) gain a more complete understanding of groundwater/river water interactions based on gaining and losing conditions ofthe Columbia River, (2) record and interpret data for consistent and defensible groundwater/surface water conceptual models that may be used to better predict subsurface contaminant fate and transport, and (3) evaluate the hydrodynamic influence of extraction wells in an expanded pump-and-treat system to optimize the treatment system. A system to measure water levels in small-diameter aquifer tubes was designed and tested in the laboratory and field. The system was configured to allow manual measurements to periodically calibrate the instrument and to permit aquifer tube sampling without removing the transducer tube. Manual measurements were collected with an e-tape designed and fabricated especially for this test. Results indicate that the transducer system accurately records groundwater levels in aquifer tubes. These data are being used to refine the conceptual and numeric models to better understand interactions in the hyporheic zone of the Columbia River and the adjacent river water and groundwater, and changes in hydrochemistry relative to groundwater flux as river water recharges the aquifer and then drains back out in response to changes in the river level.

  7. Water level detection using a numerical camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourquet, G.; Saulnier, G. M.

    2003-04-01

    A hydrometric measurement system using a numerical video camera is presented. This system can feed the manager with images of the flood in real-time, which is an efficient way to assess the flood hazard. In the same time, detection algorithm are performed on the images of the video camera to get two additional informations: the water level and the water surface velocity (using PIV methods which need the water level estimation to fix the coordinates of the river surface in the three-dimensional referentiel). These informations can be used as it is in alarm system or be assimilated by hydrological model of flood forecast. This is a non-contact measurement system which remains the most expensive part (the camera) sheltered from the floods, costs are low compared to gauge station setting up and it allows non-permanent measurements network for temporary intense observation period for example. Detections algorithms will be presented. Uncertainties estimation have been analyticaly expressed, taking into account the lens properties, the geometrical characteristics of the measurement (distance to the river, ground points reference, etc.). A comparison will be shown between these mathematical uncertainty estimation and real uncertainties estimation got from the observation period performed this 2002 winter on the Isere river at Grenoble (5800 km^2), France. A protoype installed for a long observation period (at least 2 years) will be also presented.

  8. Hydrostatic Water Level Systems At Homestake DUSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetler, L. D.; Volk, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    Two arrays of Fermilab-style hydrostatic water level sensors have been installed in the former Homestake gold mine in Lead, SD, the site of the new Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). Sensors were constructed at Fermilab from 8.5 cm diameter PVC pipe (housing) that was sealed on the ends and fit with a proximity sensor. The instrument have a height of 10 cm. Two ports in each sensor housing provide for connectivity, the upper port for air and the bottom port for water. Multiple instruments connected in series provide a precise water level and differences in readings between successive sensors provide for ground tilt to be resolved. Sensor resolution is 5 ?m per count and has a range of approximately 1.25 cm. Data output from each sensor is relayed to a Fermilab-constructed readout card that also has temperature/relative humidity and barometric pressure sensors connected. All data are relayed out of the mine by fiber optic cable and can be recorded by Ethernet at remote locations. The current arrays have been installed on the 2000-ft level (610 m) and consist of six instruments in each array. Three sensors were placed in a N-S oriented drift and three in an E-W oriented drift. Using this orientation, it is anticipated that tilt direction may be resolved in addition to overall tilt magnitude. To date the data show passage of earth tides and frequency analysis has revealed five components to this signal, three associated with the semi-diurnal (~12.4 hr) and two with the diurnal (~24.9 hr) tides. Currently, installation methods are being analyzed between concrete pillar and rib-mounting using the existing setup on the 2000-ft level. Using these results, two additional arrays of Fermilab instruments will be installed on the 4550-ft and 4850-ft levels (1387 and 1478 m, respectively). In addition to Fermilab instruments, several high resolution Budker tiltmeters (1 ?m resolution) will be installed in the mine workings in the near future, some correlated to Fermilab instruments (for comparative analysis) and others in independent arrays. All tiltmeter data will be analyzed with water reduction data (currently being collected from the #6 winze as the mine is dewatered) and data from rock stress/fracture experiments to document net ground settling due to dewatering, potential collapse of stope areas and renewed excavation activities.

  9. Fuzzy controller of drum water level for Industrial boile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zang Haihe; Wang Li; Yu Xinjun

    2010-01-01

    Drum water level control of Industrial boiler is one of main technical specifications for boiler control system. Because of the phenomenon of False Water Level (FWL), according to the human thinking processes in manual adjustment, three measurement signals, i.e. drum water level, water supply flow and steam flow are introduced, and a fuzzy control algorithm is used to calculate the

  10. Can level of safety climate predict level of orientation toward safety in a decision making task?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nir Keren; Troy R. Mills; Steven A. Freeman; Mack C. Shelley II

    2009-01-01

    Establishing the relationship between level of safety climate and safety performance is a current challenge. This work examines the relationship between level of safety climate and orientation toward safety in the decision making process and choice. Alternatively, this work seeks to answer the question of whether level of safety climate can predict safety-oriented decision making. A generalized safety climate questionnaire

  11. Predictions of the properties of water from first principles.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Robert; Szalewicz, Krzysztof; Groenenboom, Gerrit C; van der Avoird, Ad

    2007-03-01

    A force field for water has been developed entirely from first principles, without any fitting to experimental data. It contains both pairwise and many-body interactions. This force field predicts the properties of the water dimer and of liquid water in excellent agreement with experiments, a previously elusive objective. Precise knowledge of the intermolecular interactions in water will facilitate a better understanding of this ubiquitous substance. PMID:17332406

  12. Predictions of the Properties of Water from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukowski, Robert; Szalewicz, Krzysztof; Groenenboom, Gerrit C.; van der Avoird, Ad

    2007-03-01

    A force field for water has been developed entirely from first principles, without any fitting to experimental data. It contains both pairwise and many-body interactions. This force field predicts the properties of the water dimer and of liquid water in excellent agreement with experiments, a previously elusive objective. Precise knowledge of the intermolecular interactions in water will facilitate a better understanding of this ubiquitous substance.

  13. Water level simulation in bays by spatial interpolation of tidal constituents, residual water levels, and datums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Kurt

    2003-03-01

    A new method of simulating total water level relative to a datum takes values at the tide gauges and spatially interpolates them throughout the region. The values at the gauges which are spatially interpolated are: (1) each tidal constituent's amplitude and (2) phase value; (3) the residual, or non-tidal, water level; and (4) the offset, which is either the difference between local mean sea level (MSL) and mean lower low water (MLLW), or a tidal datum (either MSL or MLLW) relative to the ellipsoid. The water level at any point is computed by summing the astronomic tide (computed from the interpolated constituents), the interpolated residual, and the interpolated offset. In addition, for a GPS-supported survey, the ellipsoidally referenced MLLW values can be spatially interpolated and used to determine MLLW depth. The spatial interpolation at the core of this method is carried out by the use of a set of weighting functions that quantify the local contribution from each of the shore gauges. The weighting functions are generated numerically by solving Laplace's equation on a grid. The new method of estimating total water levels relative to a datum is called tidal constituent and residual interpolation (TCARI). The TCARI method was tested for accuracy using post-processed kinematic GPS measurements of water level collected by NOS in Galveston Bay, Texas, and San Francisco Bay, California. The root mean square errors were estimated to be 8 cm for the Galveston Bay data and 9.2 cm for the San Francisco Bay data, which is approximately the error in the measurements.

  14. VEHICLE DYNAMICS MODEL FOR PREDICTING MAXIMUM TRUCK ACCELERATION LEVELS

    E-print Network

    Rakha, Hesham A.

    VEHICLE DYNAMICS MODEL FOR PREDICTING MAXIMUM TRUCK ACCELERATION LEVELS by Hesham Rakha1 , Member, Setti, and Van Aerde 2 ABSTRACT The paper presents a simple vehicle dynamics model for estimating and deceleration behavior contradicts basic vehicle dynamics. It is not clear at this point if this difference

  15. Alternative implementations of two-level adaptive branch prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tse-Yu Yeh; Yale N. Patt

    1992-01-01

    As the issue rate and depth of pipelining of high performance Superscalar processors increase, the importance of an excellent branch predictor becomes more vital to delivering the potential performance of a wide-issue, deep pipelined microarchitecture. We propose a new dynamic branch predictor (Two-Level Adaptive Branch Prediction) that achieves substantially higher accuracy than any other scheme reported in the literature. The

  16. On-line hydraulic state prediction for water distribution systems

    E-print Network

    Whittle, Andrew

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for on?line hydraulic state prediction in urban water networks. The proposed method uses a Predictor?Corrector (PC) approach in which a statistical data?driven algorithm is ...

  17. County-Level Crop Yield Prediction Using Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagstaff, K. L.; Roper, A.; Lane, T.

    2007-12-01

    Early estimates of crop yield, particularly at a fine scale, can inform precision agriculture efforts. The USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) currently provides estimates of yield on a monthly basis for each state. These estimates are based on phone interviews with farmers and in-situ examination of randomly selected plots. We seek to provide predictions at a much higher spatial resolution, on a more frequent basis, using remote sensing observations. We use publicly available data from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instruments on the Aqua and Terra spacecraft. These observations have a spatial resolution of 250 m and consist of two spectral bands (red and infra-red) with a repeat period of 8 days. As part of the HARVIST (Heterogeneous Agricultural Research Via Interactive, Scalable Technology) project, we have created statistical crop yield models using historical MODIS data combined with the per-county yield reported by the USDA at the end of the growing season. In our approach, we analyze 100 randomly selected historical pixels from each county to generate a yield prediction for the county as a whole. We construct a time series for each pixel that consists of its NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) value observed during each 8-day time period to date. We then cluster all pixels together to identify groups of distinct elements (different crops, bodies of water, urban areas, desert, etc.) and create a regression model for each one. For each crop of interest, the model that best predicts that crop's historical yield is selected. These models can then be applied to data from subsequent years to generate predictions for the future. We applied this approach to data from California and Kansas for corn and wheat. We found that, in general, the yield prediction error decreased as the harvest time approached. In California, distinctly different models were selected to predict corn and wheat, permitting specialization for each crop type. The best models from 2001 predicted yield for 2002 with a 10% (corn) and 23% (wheat) relative error three months before harvest. In Kansas, the 2001 models for corn and wheat were not well distinguished, providing good predictions for wheat (19% error three months before harvest) but poor predictions for corn (55% error three months before harvest). In post-analysis, we found that the 2001 pixel NDVI time series for Kansas are much more homogeneous than those for California, making it difficult to select crop-specific models. We are currently working on incorporating historical data from additional years, which will provide more diversity and potentially better predictions. We are also in the process of applying this technique to additional crops.

  18. County Level Assessment of Impaired Waters and Gastrointestinal Infections

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality data are measured at a watershed level and health data are organized at different levels of aggregation therefore, assessing the population-level impact of water quality on health can be difficult. To address this discrepancy and enable the consideration of water ...

  19. Water Habitat Study: Prediction Makes It More Meaningful.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasgow, Dennis R.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests a teaching strategy for water habitat studies to help students make a meaningful connection between physiochemical data (dissolved oxygen content, pH, and water temperature) and biological specimens they collect. Involves constructing a poster and using it to make predictions. Provides sample poster. (DC)

  20. Predicting Ground Water Nitrate Concentration from Land Use

    E-print Network

    Vogel, Richard M.

    to assess the effects of land use on ground water quality. Exploratory data analysis was applied to historic with highly permeable materials to evaluate potential effects of development on ground water quality concentrations of nitrate in drinking water can cause low oxygen levels in the blood of infants, known

  1. Predicting ICU survival: A meta-level approach

    PubMed Central

    Gortzis, Lefteris G; Sakellaropoulos, Filippos; Ilias, Ioannis; Stamoulis, Konstantinos; Dimopoulou, Ioanna

    2008-01-01

    Background The performance of separate Intensive Care Unit (ICU) status scoring systems vis-à-vis prediction of outcome is not satisfactory. Computer-based predictive modeling techniques may yield good results but their performance has seldom been extensively compared to that of other mature or emerging predictive models. The objective of the present study was twofold: to propose a prototype meta-level predicting approach concerning Intensive Care Unit (ICU) survival and to evaluate the effectiveness of typical mining models in this context. Methods Data on 158 men and 46 women, were used retrospectively (75% of the patients survived). We used Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Injury Severity Score (ISS) values to structure a decision tree (DTM), a neural network (NNM) and a logistic regression (LRM) model and we evaluated the assessment indicators implementing Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) plot analysis. Results Our findings indicate that regarding the assessment of indicators' capacity there are specific discrete limits that should be taken into account. The Az score ± SE was 0.8773± 0.0376 for the DTM, 0.8061± 0.0427 for the NNM and 0.8204± 0.0376 for the LRM, suggesting that the proposed DTM achieved a near optimal Az score. Conclusion The predicting processes of ICU survival may go "one step forward", by using classic composite assessment indicators as variables. PMID:18655727

  2. Serum Myeloperoxidase Levels Independently Predict Endothelial Dysfunction in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph A. Vita; Marie-Luise Brennan; Noyan Gokce; Shirley A. Mann; Marlene Goormastic; Mehdi H. Shishehbor; Marc S. Penn; John F. Keaney; Stanley L. Hazen

    2011-01-01

    Background—In vitro and animal studies demonstrate that myeloperoxidase catalytically consumes nitric oxide as a substrate, limiting its bioavailability and function. We therefore hypothesized that circulating levels of myeloperoxidase would predict risk of endothelial dysfunction in human subjects. Methods and Results—Serum myeloperoxidase was measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay, and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation were determined by ultrasound in a

  3. Predictive modelling of the mine water rebound in an old abandoned Dongwon mine in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Hwanjo; Kim, Daehoon; Park, Seunghwan; Kim, Gyoungman

    2014-05-01

    The closure of over three-hundred deep coal mines in Korea since the late-1980s, primarily due to the energy and environmental concerns, has produced significant side effects. One of the major challenges is to assess the risk from mine water rebound to overlying aquifers and surface waters, which can produce significant environmental hazards. Some numerical models such as VSS-NET, GRAM and MODFLOW have been developed to predict the quantity, timing and location of discharges resulting from mine water rebound. In this study, we developed a GRAM-based windows program for mine water rebound modelling in abandoned deep mine systems. The program consists of the simulation engine and the GUI modules, each has several subroutines. Changes in mine water level of the Dongwon coal mine, presumably hydrogeologically connected to nearby old abandoned mines, has been monitored after the mine was finally closed in 2005. The water level in the vertical shaft rised up to 420m during the period of 3 years. The system was modelled as two ponds connected by a pipe. Input data include the areas of each pond, catchment areas, the storage coefficient, etc. The predicted changes in the mine water level was very similar to the observed data in the field. For this modelling, in fact, some of the input variable were roughly assumed to match the field data. Nevertheless, this program can be effectively applied to predict the rising of the mine water after the mine closure.

  4. Levels of exposure from drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M van Dijk-Looijaard; J van Genderen

    2000-01-01

    The relative exposure from drinking water is generally small, although there is a lack of information on total daily intake of individual organic micropollutants. There are, however, a few exceptions. Materials used in domestic distribution systems (lead, copper and plastics) may cause a deterioration of the water quality, especially in stagnant water. The relative exposure to the related compounds may

  5. Water nanodroplets: predictions of five model potentials.

    PubMed

    Kazachenko, Sergey; Thakkar, Ajit J

    2013-05-21

    Putative global minima for five intermolecular potential energy models are reported for water clusters (H2O)n with n ? 55. The models studied include three empirical, pairwise-additive potential energy surfaces, TIP4P, TIP4P-Ew, and TIP4P/2005, which use fixed point charges and rigid monomers. The other two, TTM2.1-F and AMOEBA, are polarizable, include non-additive inductive effects, have flexible monomers, and were parametrized, at least partially, using ab initio data. The n = 51 cluster has the same structure and is exceptionally stable for all five potentials. A structured inner core can be seen in cage clusters with n > 37. Periplanar rings, branched rings, and coils are among the structural motifs of the inner core. PMID:23697413

  6. A Seamless Framework for Global Water Cycle Monitoring and Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.; Chaney, N.; Fisher, C. K.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Water Strategy ('From Observations to Decisions') recognizes that 'water is essential for ensuring food and energy security, for facilitating poverty reduction and health security, and for the maintenance of ecosystems and biodiversity', and that water cycle data and observations are critical for improved water management and water security - especially in less developed regions. The GEOSS Water Strategy has articulated a number of goals for improved water management, including flood and drought preparedness, that include: (i) facilitating the use of Earth Observations for water cycle observations; (ii) facilitating the acquisition, processing, and distribution of data products needed for effective management; (iii) providing expertise, information systems, and datasets to the global, regional, and national water communities. There are several challenges that must be met to advance our capability to provide near real-time water cycle monitoring, early warning of hydrological hazards (floods and droughts) and risk assessment under climate change, regionally and globally. Current approaches to monitoring and predicting hydrological hazards are limited in many parts of the world, and especially in developing countries where national capacity is limited and monitoring networks are inadequate. This presentation describes the development of a seamless monitoring and prediction framework at all time scales that allows for consistent assessment of water variability from historic to current conditions, and from seasonal and decadal predictions to climate change projections. At the center of the framework is an experimental, global water cycle monitoring and seasonal forecast system that has evolved out of regional and continental systems for the US and Africa. The system is based on land surface hydrological modeling that is driven by satellite remote sensing precipitation to predict current hydrological conditions, flood potential and the state of drought. Seasonal climate model forecasts are downscaled and bias-corrected to drive the land surface model to provide hydrological forecasts and drought products out 6-9 months. The system relies on historic reconstructions of water variability over the 20th century, which forms the background climatology to which current conditions can be assessed. Future changes in water availability and drought risk are quantified based on bias-corrected and downscaled climate model projections that are used to drive the land surface models. For regions with lack of on-the-ground data we are field-testing low-cost environmental sensors and along with new satellite products for terrestrial hydrology and vegetation, integrating these into the system for improved monitoring and prediction. We provide an overview of the system and some examples of real-world applications to flood and drought events, with a focus on Africa.

  7. Neural networks to simulate regional ground water levels affected by human activities.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shaoyuan; Kang, Shaozhong; Huo, Zailin; Chen, Shaojun; Mao, Xiaomin

    2008-01-01

    In arid regions, human activities like agriculture and industry often require large ground water extractions. Under these circumstances, appropriate ground water management policies are essential for preventing aquifer overdraft, and thereby protecting critical ecologic and economic objectives. Identification of such policies requires accurate simulation capability of the ground water system in response to hydrological, meteorological, and human factors. In this research, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were developed and applied to investigate the effects of these factors on ground water levels in the Minqin oasis, located in the lower reach of Shiyang River Basin, in Northwest China. Using data spanning 1980 through 1997, two ANNs were developed to model and simulate dynamic ground water levels for the two subregions of Xinhe and Xiqu. The ANN models achieved high predictive accuracy, validating to 0.37 m or less mean absolute error. Sensitivity analyses were conducted with the models demonstrating that agricultural ground water extraction for irrigation is the predominant factor responsible for declining ground water levels exacerbated by a reduction in regional surface water inflows. ANN simulations indicate that it is necessary to reduce the size of the irrigation area to mitigate ground water level declines in the oasis. Unlike previous research, this study demonstrates that ANN modeling can capture important temporally and spatially distributed human factors like agricultural practices and water extraction patterns on a regional basin (or subbasin) scale, providing both high-accuracy prediction capability and enhanced understanding of the critical factors influencing regional ground water conditions. PMID:18181867

  8. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Tucci, P.; Goemaat, R.L.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1996-07-01

    Water levels were monitored in 28 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1993. Seventeen wells were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, and 11 wells representing 18 intervals were monitored hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks, except one that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes and pressure transducers; steel-tape measurements were corrected for mechanical stretch, thermal expansion, and borehole deviation to obtain precise water-level altitudes. Water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 meters above sea level east of Yucca Mountain to about 1,034 meters above sea level north of Yucca Mountain. Water-level altitudes in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks varied between 752 and 753 meters above sea level during 1993. Water levels were an average of about 0.04 meter lower than 1992 water levels. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data.

  9. Neural Networks as Prediction Models for Water Intake in Water Supply System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Izabela Rojek; Kazimierz Wielki

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents neural networks as models for prediction of the water intake. For construction of prediction models three\\u000a types of neural networks were used: linear network, multi-layer network with error backpropagation and Radial Basis Function\\u000a network (RBF).\\u000a \\u000a The prediction models were compared for obtaining optima quality prognosis. Prediction models were done for working days,\\u000a Saturdays and Sundays. The research

  10. 26. Mechanical float gages used to monitor level of water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Mechanical float gages used to monitor level of water in the filtration bed reservoir. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  11. Serum BDNF Levels Before Treatment Predict SSRI Response in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Wolf, Jessica; Shelly, Wendy; Rosser, Rebecca; Burke, Heather; Lerner, George K.; Reus, Victor I.; Nelson, J. Craig; Epel, Elissa S.; Mellon, Synthia H.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The “neurotrophin hypothesis” of depression posits a role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in depression, although it is unknown whether BDNF is more involved in the etiology of depression or in the mechanism of action of antidepressants. . It is also unknown whether pre-treatment serum BDNF levels predict antidepressant response. METHODS Thirty un-medicated depressed subjects were treated with escitalopram (N=16) or sertraline (N=14) for eight weeks. Twenty-five of the depressed subjects completed 8 weeks of antidepressant treatment and had analyzable data. Twenty-eight healthy controls were also studied. Serum for BDNF assay was obtained at baseline in all subjects and after 8 weeks of treatment in the depressed subjects. Depression ratings were obtained at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment in the depressed subjects. RESULTS Pre-treatment BDNF levels were lower in the depressed subjects than the controls (p= 0.001) but were not significantly correlated with pre-treatment depression severity. Depression ratings improved with SSRI treatment (p< 0.001), and BDNF levels increased with treatment (p= 0.005). Changes in BDNF levels were not significantly correlated with changes in depression ratings. However, pre-treatment BDNF levels were directly correlated with antidepressant responses (p<0.01), and “Responders” to treatment (? 50% improvement in depression ratings) had higher pre-treatment BDNF levels than did “Non-responders” (p< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS These results confirm low serum BDNF levels in unmedicated depressed subjects and confirm antidepressant-induced increases in BDNF levels, but they suggest that antidepressants do not work simply by correcting BDNF insufficiency. Rather, these findings are consistent with a permissive or facilitatory role of BDNF in the mechanism of action of antidepressants. PMID:21749907

  12. Older adults in the Emergency Department: predicting physicians' burden levels.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, John G; Deimling, Gary T; Meldon, Stephen; Woolard, Bert

    2006-05-01

    The aging of the U.S population will have impact on hospital Emergency Departments (ED) nationwide. To date, ED research has focused on utilization rates and acuity without considering issues of burden and stress that emergency physicians may experience caring for the increasing numbers of older adult patients. Results of a survey of Emergency Medicine residents and their attendings indicates that physicians overestimate the percentage of their patient load aged 65 years and older, have less confidence managing older patients, and desire more geriatric Emergency Medicine training. Based on regression analysis, several factors predict higher levels of emergency physician burden including training level, experiences, patient census estimate gaps, and relational issues with patients. Findings suggest the need to systematically address how the profession of Emergency Medicine is responding to its growing older adult patient population. PMID:16740465

  13. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, R.P.

    1998-11-01

    Water levels were monitored in 24 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1996. Twenty-two wells representing 28 depth intervals were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, and 2 wells representing 3 depth intervals were monitored both hourly and periodically. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks except one that monitors water levels in paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using either calibrated steel tapes or a pressure sensor. Mean water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 727.86 to about 1,034.58 meters above sea level during 1996. The mean water-level altitude in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks was about 752.57 meters above sea level during 1996. Mean water-level altitudes for 1996 were an average of about 0.06 meter lower than 1995 mean water-level altitudes and 0.03 meter lower than 1985--95 mean water-level altitudes. During 1996, water levels in the Yucca Mountain area could have been affected by long-term pumping at the C-hole complex that began on May 8, 1996. Through December 31, 1996, approximately 196 million liters were pumped from well UE-25 c{number_sign}3 at the C-hole complex. Other ground-water pumpage in the Yucca Mountain area includes annual pumpage from water-supply wells UE-25 J-12 and UE-25 J-13 of approximately 163 and 105 million liters, respectively, and pumpage from well USW G-2 for hydraulic testing during February and April 1996 of approximately 6 million liters.

  14. Predicting fire activity using terrestrial water storage data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-05-01

    High fire activity periods in the Amazon region can be predicted months in advance on the basis of water storage data, a new study shows. Chen et al. analyzed satellite observations of terrestrial water storage from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, along with satellite observations of fire activity from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) mission. GRACE measures the Earth's gravity field by calculating the changes in the distance between two satellites as slight variations in density pull on one satellite more than the other. The gravity measurements provide information about the amount of groundwater or surface water in a given region.

  15. Predicting water uptake in poly(perfluorosulfonic acids) using force field simulation methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofeng; Li, Feng; Shi, Yue; Chen, Qing; Sun, Huai

    2010-11-21

    Free energy perturbation methods were applied to predict water contents in hydrated poly(perfluorosulfonic acids) (PPFSA). The simulations were based on the TEAM force field which was derived from quantum mechanical data calculated for small molecules using density functional theory (DFT) and thermodynamic data of molecular liquids and crystal. The equilibrium water contents in three PPFSA polymers (Nafion-117, Nafion-115 and Hyflon) were predicted by evaluating excess chemical potentials of water in hydrated polymers and in pure water. High level of precision measured by average uncertainty of ca. 0.1 kcal mol(-1), and accuracy in terms of deviation from experimental data by ca. 0.2 kcal mol(-1) were obtained in the predicted excess chemical potentials. The predicted amounts of water uptake agree well with experimental values. In addition, the equilibrium and dynamic properties of hydrated Nafion-117 were calculated and the results agree well with the existing experimental and computational data. The entropy and enthalpy contributions in the calculated excess chemical potentials are analyzed and the results are consistent with intuition. A linear correlation between the entropies and enthalpies is identified for the systems studied, which indicates that just increasing the interaction energies between water and host materials does not guarantee enhancement of the water uptake. PMID:20931118

  16. Geospatial application of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At the hillslope profile and/or field scale, a simple Windows graphical user interface (GUI) is available to easily specify the slope, soil, and management inputs for application of the USDA Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model. Likewise, basic small watershed configurations of a few hillsl...

  17. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, R.P.; Goemaat, R.L.

    1998-09-01

    Water levels were monitored in 28 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1995. Seventeen wells representing 18 depth intervals were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, 2 wells representing 3 depth intervals were monitored hourly, and 9 wells representing 15 depth intervals were monitored both periodically and hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks except one that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes, a multiconductor cable unit, and/or pressure transducers. Mean water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 to about 1,034 meters above sea level during 1995. The mean water-level altitude in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks was about 753 meters above sea level during 1995. Mean water level altitudes were only an average of about 0.01 meters higher than 1994 mean water level altitudes. A single-well aquifer test was conducted on well UE-25 WT{number_sign}12 during August and September 1995. Well USW 0-2 was also pumped during October and November 1995, in preparation for single-well aquifer test at that well. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data.

  18. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, R.P.; Tucci, P.; Goemaat, R.L.

    1996-12-31

    Water levels were monitored in 28 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1994. Twelve wells representing 13 intervals were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, 6 wells representing 10 intervals were monitored hourly, and 10 wells representing 13 intervals were monitored both periodically and hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks, except one, that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes, a multiconductor cable unit, and pressure transducers. Water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 to about 1,034 meters above sea level during 1994. The mean-annual water-level altitude in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks was about 753 meters above sea level during 1994. Water levels were only an average of about 0.01 meters lower than 1993 water levels. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data.

  19. Predicting Risk from Radon in Source Waters from Water Quality Parameters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overall, 47 groundwater samples were collected from 45 small community water systems (CWSs) and analyzed for radon and other water quality constituents. In general, groundwater from unconsolidated deposits and sedimentary rocks had lower average radon levels (ranging from 223 to...

  20. Impact of Plumbing Age on Copper Levels in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Theory and limited practical experiences suggest that higher copper levels in drinking water tap samples are typically associated with newer plumbing systems, and levels decrease with increasing plumbing age. Past researchers have developed a conceptual model to explain the ?agin...

  1. Statistical summaries of ground-water level data collected in the Suwannee River Water Management District, 1948 to 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, J.J.; Freeman, L.D.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1948, ground-water level data have beensystematically collected from selected wells in theSuwannee River Water Management District (SRWMD) by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),the SRWMD, and other agencies. Records of waterlevels in the SRWMD (fig. 1), collected by the USGS and SRWMD through 1990, and by the SRWMD from 1990 to 1994, have been published for many years in the USGS annual report series "Water Resources Data for Florida." However, no systematic statistical summaries of water levels in the SRWMD have been previously published. The need for such statistical summary data forevaluations of drought severity, ground-water supplyavailability, and minimum water levels for regulatory purposes increases daily as demands for ground-water usage increase. Also, much of the base flow of the Suwannee River is dependent upon ground water. As the population and demand for ground water for drinking water and irrigation purposes increase, the ability to quickly and easily predict trends in ground-water availability will become paramount. In response to this need, the USGS, in cooperation with the SRWMD, compiled this report. Ground-water sta tistics for 136 sites are presented as well as figures showing water levels that were measured in wells from 1948 through September 1994. In 1994, the SRWMD and the USGS began a long- term program of cooperative studies designed tobetter understand minimum and maximum streamflows and ground-water levels in the SRWMD. Minimum and maximum flows and levels are needed by the district to manage the surface- and ground-water resources of the SRWMD and to maintain or improve the various ecosystems. Data evaluation was a necessary first step in the long- term SRWMD ground-water investigations program, because basic statistics for ground-water levels are not included in the USGS annual data reports such as "Water Resources Data for Florida, Water Year 1994" (Fran klin and others, 1995). Statistics included in this report were generated using the USGS computer pro gram ADAPS (Automatic Data Processing System) to characterize normal ground-water levels and depar tures from normal. The report has been organized so that the statisti cal analyses of water levels in the wells are presentedfollowing this introductory material, a description ofthe hydrogeology in the study area, and a description of the statistics used to present the water-level data. Specifically, the report presents statistical analyses for each well, as appropriate, in the following manner: Description of the well.Hydrographs of ground-water levels for the period of record, for the last 10 years of record, and for the last 5 years of record. Graphs of maximum, minimum, and mean of monthly mean ground-water levels for wells with 5 or more years of record.Frequency hydrographs (25, 50, and 75 percent) of monthly mean ground-water levels for wells with 5 or more years of record. Water-level data and statistical plots are grouped by county and sorted within the county by ascendingsite identification number. Well locations are plottedon county maps preceding the well descriptions andhydrographs.

  2. Predicting stream water quality using artificial neural networks (ANN)

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.A.

    2000-05-17

    Predicting point and nonpoint source runoff of dissolved and suspended materials into their receiving streams is important to protecting water quality and traditionally has been modeled using deterministic or statistical methods. The purpose of this study was to predict water quality in small streams using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The selected input variables were local precipitation, stream flow rates and turbidity for the initial prediction of suspended solids in the stream. A single hidden-layer feedforward neural network using backpropagation learning algorithms was developed with a detailed analysis of model design of those factors affecting successful implementation of the model. All features of a feedforward neural model were investigated including training set creation, number and layers of neurons, neural activation functions, and backpropagation algorithms. Least-squares regression was used to compare model predictions with test data sets. Most of the model configurations offered excellent predictive capabilities. Using either the logistic or the hyperbolic tangent neural activation function did not significantly affect predicted results. This was also true for the two learning algorithms tested, the Levenberg-Marquardt and Polak-Ribiere conjugate-gradient descent methods. The most important step during model development and training was the representative selection of data records for training of the model.

  3. The prediction of total body water and extracellular water from bioelectric impedance in obese children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Bedogni; Bollea; S Severi; O Trunfio; AM Manzieri; N Battistini

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the reliability of bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) for predicting total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) in obese children.Design: Comparison of five prediction models based on: (i) body weight (Wt), (ii) the impedance (Z) index (ZI=height2\\/Z), (iii) the association of Wt and ZI, (iv) the body surface area (SA) to impedance ratio (SA:Z) and, (v) the

  4. 13.4.8. Options for Water-level Control

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    water birds depend on them. Human activities modified the natural hydrology of most remaining wetlands of managing wetlands for water birds is reduced and costs often are greater. Although we address13.4.8. Options for Water-level Control in Developed Wetlands J. R. Kelley, Jr.1 , M. K. Laubhan2

  5. A siphon gage for monitoring surface-water levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCobb, T.D.; LeBlanc, D.R.; Socolow, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    A device that uses a siphon tube to establish a hydraulic connection between the bottom of an onshore standpipe and a point at the bottom of a water body was designed and tested for monitoring surface-water levels. Water is added to the standpipe to a level sufficient to drive a complete slug of water through the siphoning tube and to flush all air out of the system. The water levels in the standpipe and the water body equilibrate and provide a measurable static water surface in the standpipe. The siphon gage was designed to allow quick and accurate year-round measurements with minimal maintenance. Currently available devices for monitoring surface-water levels commonly involve time-consuming and costly installation and surveying, and the movement of reference points and the presence of ice cover in cold regions cause discontinuity and inaccuracy in the data collected. Installation and field testing of a siphon gage using 0.75-in-diameter polyethylene tubing at Ashumet Pond in Falmouth, Massachusetts, demonstrated that the siphon gage can provide long-term data with a field effort and accuracy equivalent to measurement of ground-water levels at an observation well.A device that uses a siphon tube to establish a hydraulic connection between the bottom of an onshore standpipe and a point at the bottom of a water body was designed and tested for monitoring surface-water levels. Water is added to the standpipe to a level sufficient to drive a complete slug of water through the siphoning tube and to flush all air out of the system. The water levels in the standpipe and the water body equilibrate and provide a measurable static water surface in the standpipe. The siphon gage was designed to allow quick and accurate year-round measurements with minimal maintenance. Currently available devices for monitoring surface-water levels commonly involve time-consuming and costly installation and surveying, and the movement of reference points and the presence of ice cover in cold regions cause discontinuity and inaccuracy in the data collected. Installation and field testing of a siphon gage using 0.75-in-diameter polyethylene tubing at Ashumet Pond in Falmouth, Massachusetts, demonstrated that the siphon gage can provide long-term data with a field effort and accuracy equivalent to measurement of ground-water levels at an observation well.

  6. STEAM GENERATOR WATER LEVEL CONTROL OF A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETRU MAIOR

    Poor control of the steam generator water level in the secondary circuit of a nuclear power plant can lead to frequent reactor shutdowns. These shutdowns are caused by violation of safety limits on the water level and are common at low operating power where the plant exhibits strong non-minimum phase characteristics and flow measurements are unreliable. This work presents a

  7. Measuring Water Levels in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS hydrologic technician Jayson Blom collects a water-level measurement at a monitoring well on the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory site. During the summer of 2014, water levels measured at the site reached all-time lows....

  8. Prediction of risers’ tubes temperature in water tube boilers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. E. Emara-Shabaik; M. A. Habib; I. Al-Zaharna

    2009-01-01

    A dynamic model is developed which enables the prediction of risers’ tubes temperature of water tube boilers under various operating conditions. The model is composed of fluid dynamics model representing the fluid flow in the drum-downcomer-riser loop and a dynamic thermal model of the riser’s temperature. The model gives a detailed account of the two-phase heat transfer process which takes

  9. Interpretation of oscillatory water levels in observation wells during aquifer tests in fractured rock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shapiro, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Oscillatory water levels are predicted by the equations coupling the fluid movement in the observation well and the fluid movement in the surrounding formation. The equivalent-porous medium and dual-porosity models of fractured rock are two models considered in this analysis; however, other conceptual models of fractured media can also be coupled with the model presented here for fluid movement in the observation well. Type curves for the response of water levels in observation wells due to pumping in another well are generated by numerical inversion of the Laplace transform solution to the governing equations. Overdamped conditions, where inertial effects are insignificant, and underdamped conditions, where oscillations arise, are predicted by the solution to the governing equations. By matching water level measurements with the appropriate type curve, a conceptual model of the formation can be identified, and aquifer properties can be estimated. -from Author

  10. Predictive control of water distribution in the Dutch National Hydrological Instrument (NHI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talsma, J.; Patzke, S.; Becker, B. P. J.; Schwanenberg, D.; Jansen, M.

    2012-04-01

    In the Netherlands, water is extracted from rivers, lakes and canals for drinking water supply as well as industrial, agricultural and environmental water demands. These water extractions must be managed in such a way that constraints such as water quality, safety and minimum water levels for navigation are maintained as long as possible. The National Hydrological Instrument (NHI) has been developed for modeling the water distribution in the Netherlands and supporting the development of water management strategies. It is also integrated into the national Dutch forecasting system for predicting dry periods and their impacts on water supply, agriculture, aquatic ecosystems and navigation. With such setup, the NHI will be a fundamental tool for drought forecast in the Netherlands. The NHI consists of a groundwater model (MODFLOW), an unsaturated zone model (Metaswap) and surface water models which interact with each other in every time step via an OpenMI interface. The surface water models consist of a hydrological model MOZART for representing the regional catchments and computing a desired water demand, a SOBEK open channel flow model for flow routing in the network of the larger rivers, lakes and canals, and a real-time control component (RTC-Tools). The latter links the water demand generated by MOZART to the availably supply in the network for generating optimum water allocation policies within the prediction horizon of 10 days of the operational forecasting system. The approach relies on predictive control consisting of a simplified internal model of the network within a system-wide optimization algorithm. In a period of water shortages, the user can refine the water allocation by defining specific objectives and related priorities. Finally, the optimum water extractions from RTC-Tools are passed back to MOZART and SOBEK as allocated values. The RTC-Tools integration into the NHI is an ongoing activity. We present the new functionality based on a pilot system and demonstrate the ability of the approach dealing with different drought situations and distributed, prioritized water demands. Furthermore, we discuss the added value of the approach compared to previous NHI set-ups focusing in particular on operational drought management features.

  11. Sea-level change model predictions based on geomorphological data in Cyclades (Greece) and Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocchi, Paolo; Evelpidou, Niki; Pirazzoli, Paolo; Vassilopoulos, Andreas; Ruggieri, Gabriella; Vermeersen, Bert; Spada, Giorgio

    2010-05-01

    The palaeo relative sea-level indicators are the most important type of data as far as the Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) related to the Last Glacial Maximum is concerned. The geomorphological and archaeological indicators have recorded the long-term sea-level variation that accompanied and followed the melting of the Late Pleistocene ice sheets. This bathymetry change stems for the combined effects of the eustatic sea-level change, the gravitational interactions between the geoid and the ice sheets and the deformation of the solid Earth. Since these three factors are fully described by the sea level equation in a self-consistent manner, the comparison of relative sea-level (rsl) data and predicted Holocene curves provides fundamental constraints on the GIA models. While the rsl data from the formerly glaciated area may provide constraints on both the extent and thickness with time of the ice sheets and the local shallow Earth structure and rheology, the palaeo sea-levels from the Mediterranean Sea may constrain the volumes of melt water that has been globally released through time and also the lower mantle rheological parameters. In this work we combine archaeological and geomorphological rsl indicators with GIA-model predictions to investigate the Holocene sea level changes in Tunisia and Cyclades islands (Central Aegean). While the former area has been proven to be vertically stable on the long timescale, the Central Aegean could be affected by local tectonics that would result in vertical deformations. We therefore compare at first the available rsl data from Tunisia with GIA predictions based on a suite of available late Pleistocene ice chronologies and Earth rheological models. We find the best combination of ice and earth models to explain the rsl data from Tunisia and finally apply those to investigate the vertical stability at the Cyclades islands and to quantify the tectonics-related rates of vertical crustal deformation.

  12. Quantification of umu genotoxicity level of urban river water.

    PubMed

    Kameya, T; Nagato, T; Nakagawa, K; Yamashita, D; Kobayashi, T; Fujie, K

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the request of environmental safety management for carcinogenic substances, mutagenic substances and/or reproductive toxicity substances (CMR) has increased. This study focused on clarifying the genotoxicity level of environmental water and its release source by using the umu test provided in ISO13829. Although a genotoxicity index "induction ratio (IR)" is used in ISO13829, we normalised it to make it possible to compare various environmental water quantitatively to each other as a new index "genotoxic activity (GA=(IR-1)/Dose)". Sample water was collected and concentrated to 100 times or 1,000 times by a solid phase extraction method. As the test results, it was found that GA level in actual river water varied widely from less than the determination limit of 23 [1/L] to 1,100 [1/L] by quantitative comparison, and the value was also equivalent to more than 50 times the level of tap water. The GA level of household wastewater was not so high, but the levels of treated water from wastewater treatment plant (WTP) were from 220 [1/L] to 3,200 [1/L]. Raw sewage of some WTP shows high level genotoxicity. A part of genotoxicity substances, for example 50%, could be removed by conventional wastewater treatment, but it was not enough to reduce the water environmental load of genotoxicity. PMID:21278461

  13. Prediction of water loss and viscoelastic deformation of apple tissue using a multiscale model.

    PubMed

    Aregawi, Wondwosen A; Abera, Metadel K; Fanta, Solomon W; Verboven, Pieter; Nicolai, Bart

    2014-11-19

    A two-dimensional multiscale water transport and mechanical model was developed to predict the water loss and deformation of apple tissue (Malus?×?domestica Borkh. cv. 'Jonagold') during dehydration. At the macroscopic level, a continuum approach was used to construct a coupled water transport and mechanical model. Water transport in the tissue was simulated using a phenomenological approach using Fick's second law of diffusion. Mechanical deformation due to shrinkage was based on a structural mechanics model consisting of two parts: Yeoh strain energy functions to account for non-linearity and Maxwell's rheological model of visco-elasticity. Apparent parameters of the macroscale model were computed from a microscale model. The latter accounted for water exchange between different microscopic structures of the tissue (intercellular space, the cell wall network and cytoplasm) using transport laws with the water potential as the driving force for water exchange between different compartments of tissue. The microscale deformation mechanics were computed using a model where the cells were represented as a closed thin walled structure. The predicted apparent water transport properties of apple cortex tissue from the microscale model showed good agreement with the experimentally measured values. Deviations between calculated and measured mechanical properties of apple tissue were observed at strains larger than 3%, and were attributed to differences in water transport behavior between the experimental compression tests and the simulated dehydration-deformation behavior. Tissue dehydration and deformation in the high relative humidity range (?> 97% RH) could, however, be accurately predicted by the multiscale model. The multiscale model helped to understand the dynamics of the dehydration process and the importance of the different microstructural compartments (intercellular space, cell wall, membrane and cytoplasm) for water transport and mechanical deformation. PMID:25347182

  14. Prediction of water loss and viscoelastic deformation of apple tissue using a multiscale model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aregawi, Wondwosen A.; Abera, Metadel K.; Fanta, Solomon W.; Verboven, Pieter; Nicolai, Bart

    2014-11-01

    A two-dimensional multiscale water transport and mechanical model was developed to predict the water loss and deformation of apple tissue (Malus?×?domestica Borkh. cv. ‘Jonagold’) during dehydration. At the macroscopic level, a continuum approach was used to construct a coupled water transport and mechanical model. Water transport in the tissue was simulated using a phenomenological approach using Fick’s second law of diffusion. Mechanical deformation due to shrinkage was based on a structural mechanics model consisting of two parts: Yeoh strain energy functions to account for non-linearity and Maxwell’s rheological model of visco-elasticity. Apparent parameters of the macroscale model were computed from a microscale model. The latter accounted for water exchange between different microscopic structures of the tissue (intercellular space, the cell wall network and cytoplasm) using transport laws with the water potential as the driving force for water exchange between different compartments of tissue. The microscale deformation mechanics were computed using a model where the cells were represented as a closed thin walled structure. The predicted apparent water transport properties of apple cortex tissue from the microscale model showed good agreement with the experimentally measured values. Deviations between calculated and measured mechanical properties of apple tissue were observed at strains larger than 3%, and were attributed to differences in water transport behavior between the experimental compression tests and the simulated dehydration-deformation behavior. Tissue dehydration and deformation in the high relative humidity range (?>?97% RH) could, however, be accurately predicted by the multiscale model. The multiscale model helped to understand the dynamics of the dehydration process and the importance of the different microstructural compartments (intercellular space, cell wall, membrane and cytoplasm) for water transport and mechanical deformation.

  15. 1. East side of lower dam shown with water level ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. East side of lower dam shown with water level dropped. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Lower Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  16. Terrestrial Waters and Sea Level Variations on Interannual Time Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llovel, W.; Becker, M.; Cazenave, A.; Jevrejeva, S.; Alkama, R.; Decharme, B.; Douville, H.; Ablain, M.; Beckley, B.

    2011-01-01

    On decadal to multi-decadal time scales, thermal expansion of sea waters and land ice loss are the main contributors to sea level variations. However, modification of the terrestrial water cycle due to climate variability and direct anthropogenic forcing may also affect sea level. For the past decades, variations in land water storage and corresponding effects on sea level cannot be directly estimated from observations because these are almost non-existent at global continental scale. However, global hydrological models developed for atmospheric and climatic studies can be used for estimating total water storage. For the recent years (since mid-2002), terrestrial water storage change can be directly estimated from observations of the GRACE space gravimetry mission. In this study, we analyse the interannual variability of total land water storage, and investigate its contribution to mean sea level variability at interannual time scale. We consider three different periods that, each, depend on data availability: (1) GRACE era (2003-2009), (2) 1993-2003 and (3) 1955-1995. For the GRACE era (period 1), change in land water storage is estimated using different GRACE products over the 33 largest river basins worldwide. For periods 2 and 3, we use outputs from the ISBA-TRIP (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere-Total Runoff Integrating Pathways) global hydrological model. For each time span, we compare change in land water storage (expressed in sea level equivalent) to observed mean sea level, either from satellite altimetry (periods 1 and 2) or tide gauge records (period 3). For each data set and each time span, a trend has been removed as we focus on the interannual variability. We show that whatever the period considered, interannual variability of the mean sea level is essentially explained by interannual fluctuations in land water storage, with the largest contributions arising from tropical river basins.

  17. Suboptimal level controller for steam generators in pressurized water reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Feliachi; L. A. Belblidia

    1988-01-01

    The authors consider the design of a suboptimal water-level controller for steam generators in large pressurized water reactors using linear output feedback control. A methodology for feasibility analysis and linear output feedback control design is developed through eigenvalue dynamics. The proposed controller is a linear, constant, partial state feedback law. The controlled system has the following desirable features: (a) the

  18. Optimal level controller for steam generators in pressurized water reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Belblidia; A. Feliachi

    1986-01-01

    The paper presents a different approach via optimal control theory to the design of water level controller for steam generators in large pressurized water reactors. The problem is cast into an optimal linear regulator control problem and a linearized state space model in standard form is developed from the nonlinear descriptor representation of the system. The proposed controller is a

  19. Optimal Level Controller for Steam Generators in Pressurized Water Reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Feliachi; Lotfi A. Belblidia

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents a different approach via optimal control theory to the design of water level controller for steam generators in large pressurized water reactors. The problem is cast into an optimal linear regulator control problem and a linearized state space model in standard form is developed from the nonlinear descriptor representation of the system. The proposed controller is a

  20. WATER LEVEL RECOVERY WITH AN RTK GPS-EQUIPPED BUOY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SUNIL BISNATH; DAVID DODD; DAVID WELLS; STEPHAN HOWDEN; DENIS WIESENBURG

    In recent years, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers have been placed on buoys to determine sea surface height. The Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) has become interested in this application for tides work and has sponsored a series of GPS buoy experiments in Mississippi coastal waters. The primary goal of the experiments was the determination of water level with GPS using

  1. Nitrate Levels in Drinking Water in Rural New York State

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kitty H. Gelberg; Lou Church; Gabrielle Casey; Matthew London; D. Sue Roerig; Jane Boyd; Marylee Hill

    1999-01-01

    To obtain an indication of the nitrate–nitrogen levels in drinking water in rural areas of upstate New York and the number of infants at risk for methemoglobinemia, 419 wells supplying drinking water to farms were tested. Farmers were identified through two programs run by the New York State Department of Health. The farmers were asked to complete a short questionnaire

  2. Prediction of the safety level to an installation of the tritium process through predictive maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Anghel, V. [National Research and Development Inst. for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies - ICIT, Rm. Valcea Uzinei Street no.4, 240050 (Romania)

    2008-07-15

    The safety level for personnel and environment to a nuclear installation is given in generally by the technological process quality of operation and maintenance and in particular by a lot of technical, technological, economic and human factors. The maintenance role is fundamental because it has to quantify all the technical, economic and human elements as an integrated system for it creates an important feedback for activities concerning the life cycle of the nuclear installation. In maintenance activities as in any dynamic area, new elements appear continuously which, sometimes require new approaches. The theory of fuzzy logic and the software LabVIEW supplied to the Nuclear Detritiation Plant (NDP) is part of National Research and Development Inst. for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies-ICIT, Rm.Valcea, used for predictive maintenance to assure safety operation. The final aim is to achieve the best practices for maintenance of the Plant that processes tritium. (authors)

  3. Developing and implementing the use of predictive models for estimating water quality at Great Lakes beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Carvin, Rebecca B.; Corsi, Steven R.; Fuller, Lori M.; Harrison, John H.; Hayhurst, Brett A.; Lant, Jeremiah; Nevers, Meredith B.; Terrio, Paul J.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.

    2013-01-01

    Predictive models have been used at beaches to improve the timeliness and accuracy of recreational water-quality assessments over the most common current approach to water-quality monitoring, which relies on culturing fecal-indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E. coli.). Beach-specific predictive models use environmental and water-quality variables that are easily and quickly measured as surrogates to estimate concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria or to provide the probability that a State recreational water-quality standard will be exceeded. When predictive models are used for beach closure or advisory decisions, they are referred to as “nowcasts.” During the recreational seasons of 2010-12, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with 23 local and State agencies, worked to improve existing nowcasts at 4 beaches, validate predictive models at another 38 beaches, and collect data for predictive-model development at 7 beaches throughout the Great Lakes. This report summarizes efforts to collect data and develop predictive models by multiple agencies and to compile existing information on the beaches and beach-monitoring programs into one comprehensive report. Local agencies measured E. coli concentrations and variables expected to affect E. coli concentrations such as wave height, turbidity, water temperature, and numbers of birds at the time of sampling. In addition to these field measurements, equipment was installed by the USGS or local agencies at or near several beaches to collect water-quality and metrological measurements in near real time, including nearshore buoys, weather stations, and tributary staff gages and monitors. The USGS worked with local agencies to retrieve data from existing sources either manually or by use of tools designed specifically to compile and process data for predictive-model development. Predictive models were developed by use of linear regression and (or) partial least squares techniques for 42 beaches that had at least 2 years of data (2010-11 and sometimes earlier) and for 1 beach that had 1 year of data. For most models, software designed for model development by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Virtual Beach) was used. The selected model for each beach was based on a combination of explanatory variables including, most commonly, turbidity, day of the year, change in lake level over 24 hours, wave height, wind direction and speed, and antecedent rainfall for various time periods. Forty-two predictive models were validated against data collected during an independent year (2012) and compared to the current method for assessing recreational water quality-using the previous day’s E. coli concentration (persistence model). Goals for good predictive-model performance were responses that were at least 5 percent greater than the persistence model and overall correct responses greater than or equal to 80 percent, sensitivities (percentage of exceedances of the bathing-water standard that were correctly predicted by the model) greater than or equal to 50 percent, and specificities (percentage of nonexceedances correctly predicted by the model) greater than or equal to 85 percent. Out of 42 predictive models, 24 models yielded over-all correct responses that were at least 5 percent greater than the use of the persistence model. Predictive-model responses met the performance goals more often than the persistence-model responses in terms of overall correctness (28 versus 17 models, respectively), sensitivity (17 versus 4 models), and specificity (34 versus 25 models). Gaining knowledge of each beach and the factors that affect E. coli concentrations is important for developing good predictive models. Collection of additional years of data with a wide range of environmental conditions may also help to improve future model performance. The USGS will continue to work with local agencies in 2013 and beyond to develop and validate predictive models at beaches and improve existing nowcasts, restructuring monitoring activities to accommodate future uncertainties in

  4. Contextual performance prediction for low-level image analysis algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Chalmond; Christine Graffigne; Michel Prenat; Michel Roux

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores a generic approach to predict the output accuracy of an algorithm without running it, by a careful examination of the local context. Such a performance prediction will allow one to qualify the appropriateness of an algorithm to treat images with given properties (contrast, resolution, noise, richness in details, contours or textures, etc.) resulting either from experimental acquisition

  5. Should a water colour parameter be included in lake total phosphorus prediction models used for the Water Framework Directive?

    PubMed

    Vinogradoff, Susan I; Oliver, Ian W

    2015-01-01

    Under the Water Framework Directive (WFD) lakes are classified according to a variety of criteria. This classification facilitates state of the environment assessments and helps identify work needed to achieve the objectives of the WFD, which are broadly to maintain and/or restore water quality and ecological status at a level recognised as good or high. To achieve high or good status, lakes must meet a criterion for total phosphorus (TP) that is linked to a predicted reference condition value that is derived by various models. Lakes which fail to meet good status may require expensive remedial actions to be undertaken, thus accurate identification of the reference condition TP concentration is vital for effective environmental management. However, the models currently employed could be improved for some regions, particularly those with carbon rich soils. By examining 19 reference condition lakes (i.e. lakes essentially non-impacted by humans) in peaty areas of Scotland, we found that a simple parameter linked to water colour and humic substances was a better predictor of TP than the currently employed models (R(2) 0.585 vs R(2) < 0.01). Therefore, for Scotland and elsewhere, in regions with carbon rich soils and lakes with humic waters the TP predictive models could be improved by development and incorporation of a parameter related to water colour and humic components. PMID:25262390

  6. Numerical simulation of the impacts of water level variation on water age in Dahuofang Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinwen; Shen, Yongming

    2015-06-01

    The transport timescales were investigated in response to water level variation under different constant flow rates in Dahuofang Reservoir. The concept of water age was applied to quantify the transport timescales. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was developed based on the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). The model was calibrated for water surface elevation and temperature profiles from April 1, 2008 to October 31, 2008. Comparisons of observed and modeled data showed that the model reproduced the water level fluctuation and thermal stratification during warm season and vertical mixing during cold season fairly well. The calibrated model was then applied to investigate the response of water age to water level changes in Dahuofang Reservoir. Model results showed that water age increases from confluence toward dam zone. In the vertical direction, the water age is relatively uniform at upstream and stratifies further downstream, with a larger value at bottom layer than at surface layer. Comparisons demonstrated that water level variation has a significant impact on transport timescales in the reservoir. The impact of water level drawdown on water age is stronger at bottom layer than at surface layer. Under high flow conditions, the water age decreases 0-20 days at surface layer and 15-25 days at bottom layer. Under mean flow conditions, the water age decreases 20-30 days at surface layer and 30-50 days at bottom layer. Furthermore, the impact is minor in the upstream and increases further downstream. The vertical stratification of water age weakens as the water level decreases. This study provides a numerical tool to quantify the transport timescale in Dahuofang Reservoir and supports adaptive management of regional water resources by local authorities.

  7. PLIO: a generic tool for real-time operational predictive optimal control of water networks.

    PubMed

    Cembrano, G; Quevedo, J; Puig, V; Pérez, R; Figueras, J; Verdejo, J M; Escaler, I; Ramón, G; Barnet, G; Rodríguez, P; Casas, M

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a generic tool, named PLIO, that allows to implement the real-time operational control of water networks. Control strategies are generated using predictive optimal control techniques. This tool allows the flow management in a large water supply and distribution system including reservoirs, open-flow channels for water transport, water treatment plants, pressurized water pipe networks, tanks, flow/pressure control elements and a telemetry/telecontrol system. Predictive optimal control is used to generate flow control strategies from the sources to the consumer areas to meet future demands with appropriate pressure levels, optimizing operational goals such as network safety volumes and flow control stability. PLIO allows to build the network model graphically and then to automatically generate the model equations used by the predictive optimal controller. Additionally, PLIO can work off-line (in simulation) and on-line (in real-time mode). The case study of Santiago-Chile is presented to exemplify the control results obtained using PLIO off-line (in simulation). PMID:22097020

  8. Army Study Improves Ability to Predict Drinking Water Needs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

    2006-07-08

    The study, Â?Expanded prediction equations of human sweat loss and water needs,Â? appears in the online edition of the journal. The researchers are Richard R. Gonzalez, Samuel N. Cheuvront, Scott J. Montain, Daniel A. Goodman, Laurie A. Blanchard, Larry G. Berglund and Michael N. Sawka. The researchers are with the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, except for Dr. Gonzalez, who is an adjunct professor at New Mexico State University. The American Physiological Society published the study. (The full link to the study appears at the bottom of the release.)

  9. Predicting groundwater level fluctuations with meteorological effect implications—A comparative study among soft computing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiri, Jalal; Kisi, Ozgur; Yoon, Heesung; Lee, Kang-Kun; Hossein Nazemi, Amir

    2013-07-01

    The knowledge of groundwater table fluctuations is important in agricultural lands as well as in the studies related to groundwater utilization and management levels. This paper investigates the abilities of Gene Expression Programming (GEP), Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) techniques for groundwater level forecasting in following day up to 7-day prediction intervals. Several input combinations comprising water table level, rainfall and evapotranspiration values from Hongcheon Well station (South Korea), covering a period of eight years (2001-2008) were used to develop and test the applied models. The data from the first six years were used for developing (training) the applied models and the last two years data were reserved for testing. A comparison was also made between the forecasts provided by these models and the Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) technique. Based on the comparisons, it was found that the GEP models could be employed successfully in forecasting water table level fluctuations up to 7 days beyond data records.

  10. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Simon C.

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual’s future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival. PMID:25279258

  11. Water uptake strategies of maize under varying levels of water stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ploeg, M.; Gooren, H. P. A.; Bakker, G.; de Rooij, G. H.

    2009-04-01

    More frequent and intense droughts due to global climate change, together with an increasing agricultural water use emphasize the importance of understanding root water uptake under water-stressed conditions. While root water uptake is driven by potential gradients, measurement of soil water potentials was limited by the measurement range of water-filled tensiometers (-0.085 MPa). A recently developed polymer tensiometer (POT) can measure soil water potentials down to -1.6 MPa. Monitoring low soil water potentials in the presence of root water uptake may help gain knowledge of a plant's strategy to cope with water stress, and allows improved determination of local water stress levels in experiments. To investigate plant strategies that cope with water stress, soil water potentials were measured in the vicinity of maize roots in three lysimeters. The lysimeters received different irrigation amounts: an optimal irrigation gift (-0.05 < p < -0.02 MPa) and minimized irrigation to create moderate (minimum p = -0.45 MPa) and severe (minimum p = -0.80 MPa) water stress. Measured soil water potentials showed that the water stressed plants started to take up water from deeper soil layers, and continued to take up water under very dry conditions. This research was funded by the Dutch Technology Foundation (STW).

  12. A simplified model to predict diurnal water temperature dynamics in a shallow tropical water pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paaijmans, Krijn P.; Heusinkveld, Bert G.; Jacobs, Adrie F. G.

    2008-11-01

    Water temperature is a critical regulator in the growth and development of malaria mosquito immatures, as they are poikilothermic. Measuring or estimating the diurnal temperature ranges to which these immatures are exposed is of the utmost importance, as these immatures will develop into adults that can transmit malaria. Recent attempts to predict the daily water temperature dynamics in mosquito breeding sites in Kenya have been successful. However, the developed model may be too complex, as the sophisticated equipment that was used for detailed meteorological observations is not widely distributed in Africa, making it difficult to predict the daily water temperature dynamics on a local scale. Therefore, we compared two energy budget models with earlier made observations of the daily water temperature dynamics in a small, shallow and clear water pool (diameter 0.96 m, depth 0.32 m) in Kenya. This paper describes (1) a complex 1-Dimensional model, and (2) a simplified second model, and (3) shows that both models mimic the water temperature dynamics in the water pool accurately. The latter model has the advantage that it only needs common weather data (air temperature, air humidity, wind speed and cloud cover) to estimate the diurnal temperature dynamics in breeding sites of African malaria mosquitoes.

  13. Analysis for water level data for Everglades National Park, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, T.J.; Hartwell, J.H.

    1972-01-01

    Stage-duration curves were developed for five gaging stations in Everglades National Park, Florida. Four of the five curves show similar characteristics with an increase in the slope when the water level is below land surface. Monthly stage-duration curves, developed for one of the stations, reflect the seasonal trends of the water level. Recession curves were prepared for the same five stations. These curves represent the average water-level decline during periods of little or no rainfall. They show the decline in level at the end of 10, 20, and 60 days for any given initial stage. A family of curves was also prepared to give the recession from various initial stages for any period up to 60 days.

  14. Simulating time-varying cave flow and water levels using the Storm Water Management Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Warren Campbell; Sean M Sullivan

    2002-01-01

    The Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is an Environmental Protection Agency code used to estimate runoff through storm water drainage systems that include channels, pipes, and manholes with storage. SWMM was applied to simulate flow and water level changes with time for a part of Stephens Gap Cave in Jackson County, Alabama. The goal of the simulation was to estimate

  15. Measuring Water Level Fluctuations of two Connected Wetlands in the Dominican Republic Using InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichardo Marcano, M. D.; Liu, L.; Zebker, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    Wetlands are ecosystems of high endemism and great biodiversity. Using the double-reflected radar waves off the water surface and trunks of inundated vegetation, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is capable of measuring water level fluctuations from space at a cm-level accuracy in these ecosystems with emergent vegetation. InSAR can provide a high spatial resolution over a large area that the more traditional terrestrial-based methods lack. In this study, we applied InSAR to study the seasonal variations in water level of the wetlands near two lakes in the southwest of the Dominican Republic: Lake Enriquillo, a highly saline lake designated as a Wetland of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention in 2002, and Laguna del Limon. Both lake-wetland systems are located in the Jaragua-Bahoruco-Enriquillo Biosphere Reserve. Since 2003 the water level of Lake Enriquillo has increased drastically and caused the evacuation of many farmers from nearby villages. Lake level changes also affected the habitats of several native and migratory species. We used the data acquired by the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) sensor on board of the Japanese Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) from October 2008 to January 2011. For the smaller lake, Laguna del Limon, we found a seasonal variation of 10-15 centimeters. This result was confirmed using two different satellite paths. For Lake Enriquillo we found a net decrease of about 20 centimeters in the water level from September 2009 to January 2011. This result agrees with an independent estimation based on lake hydrodynamics model predictions. In addition, our InSAR-based time series of lake level fluctuations revealed distinct behaviors of the two wetlands. For the Lake Enriquillo we found a continuous decrease in the water level throughout 2010 with a brief increase of the water level during the summer months, while for Laguna del Limon during the summer months the water level decreased and the lake presented a net increase in the water level. The decrease in water level for Lake Enriquillo can be explained by the reduce precipitation rate in 2010 compared to previous years. We demonstrate that InSAR is an effective way to measure water level fluctuations at wetlands in this region. The same method could be applied to other wetlands in the area to fully understand the complex hydrology of the connected wetland systems and the impacts of the hydrological changes on the environment and local human community.

  16. Predicting water consumption habits for seven arsenic-safe water options in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh, 20 million people are at the risk of developing arsenicosis because of excessive arsenic intake. Despite increased awareness, many of the implemented arsenic-safe water options are not being sufficiently used by the population. This study investigated the role of social-cognitive factors in explaining the habitual use of arsenic-safe water options. Methods Eight hundred seventy-two randomly selected households in six arsenic-affected districts of rural Bangladesh, which had access to an arsenic-safe water option, were interviewed using structured face-to-face interviews in November 2009. Habitual use of arsenic-safe water options, severity, vulnerability, affective and instrumental attitudes, injunctive and descriptive norms, self-efficacy, and coping planning were measured. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regressions. Results Linear regression revealed that self-efficacy (B?=?0.42, SE?=?.03, p?water option (B?=?0.24, SE?=?.04, p?water options (R2?=?0.688). This model proved highly generalizable to all seven arsenic-safe water options investigated, even though habitual use of single options were predicted on the basis of parameters estimated without these options. Conclusions This general model for the habitual use of arsenic-safe water options may prove useful to predict other water consumption habits. Behavior-change interventions are derived from the model to promote the habitual use of arsenic-safe water options. PMID:23634950

  17. Modeling water ages and thermal structure of Lake Mead under changing water levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiping Li; Kumud Acharya; Dong Chen; Mark Stone

    2010-01-01

    Water age and thermal structure of Lake Mead were modeled using the 3-dimensional hydrodynamic Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). The model was calibrated using observed data from 2005 and then applied to simulate 2 scenarios: high-stage with an initial water level of 370.0 m and low-stage with a projected initial water level of 320.0 m. The high-stage simulation described predrought

  18. Predicting Water Activity for Complex Wastes with Solvation Cluster Equilibria (SCE) - 12042

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, S.F. [Columbia Energy and Environmental Services, Inc., Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Reynolds, J.G. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Johnston, C.T. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47906 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Predicting an electrolyte mixture's water activity, i.e. the ratio of water vapor pressure over a solution with that of pure water, in principle reveals both boiling point and solubilities for that mixture. Better predictions of these properties helps support the ongoing missions to concentrate complex nuclear waste mixtures in order to conserve tank space and improved predictions of water activity will help. A new approach for predicting water activity, the solvation cluster equilibria (SCE) model, uses pure electrolyte water activities to predict water activity for a complex mixture of those electrolytes. An SCE function based on electrolyte hydration free energy and a standard Debye- Hueckel (DH) charge compression fits each pure electrolyte's water activity with three parameters. Given these pure electrolyte water activities, the SCE predicts any mixture water activity over a large range of concentration with an additional parameter for each mixture vector, the multinarity. In contrast to ionic strength, which scales with concentration, multinarity is related to the relative proportion of electrolytes in a mixture and can either increase or decrease the water activity prediction over a broad range of concentration for that mixture. The SCE model predicts water activity for complex electrolyte mixtures based on the water activities of pure electrolytes. Three parameter SCE functions fit the water activities of pure electrolytes and along with a single multinarity parameter for each mixture vector then predict the mixture water activity. Predictions of water activity can in principle predict solution electrolyte activity and this relationship will be explored in the future. Predicting electrolyte activities for complex mixtures provides a means of determining solubilities for each electrolyte. Although there are a number of reports [9, 10, 11] of water activity models for pure and binary mixtures of electrolytes, none of them compare measured versus calculated water activity for more complex mixtures. (authors)

  19. Striatal Volume Predicts Level of Video Game Skill Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Boot, Walter R.; Basak, Chandramallika; Neider, Mark B.; Prakash, Ruchika S.; Voss, Michelle W.; Simons, Daniel J.; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2010-01-01

    Video game skills transfer to other tasks, but individual differences in performance and in learning and transfer rates make it difficult to identify the source of transfer benefits. We asked whether variability in initial acquisition and of improvement in performance on a demanding video game, the Space Fortress game, could be predicted by variations in the pretraining volume of either of 2 key brain regions implicated in learning and memory: the striatum, implicated in procedural learning and cognitive flexibility, and the hippocampus, implicated in declarative memory. We found that hippocampal volumes did not predict learning improvement but that striatal volumes did. Moreover, for the striatum, the volumes of the dorsal striatum predicted improvement in performance but the volumes of the ventral striatum did not. Both ventral and dorsal striatal volumes predicted early acquisition rates. Furthermore, this early-stage correlation between striatal volumes and learning held regardless of the cognitive flexibility demands of the game versions, whereas the predictive power of the dorsal striatal volumes held selectively for performance improvements in a game version emphasizing cognitive flexibility. These findings suggest a neuroanatomical basis for the superiority of training strategies that promote cognitive flexibility and transfer to untrained tasks. PMID:20089946

  20. Subsidence at the Fairport Harbor Water Level Gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conner, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    SUBSIDENCE AT THE FAIRPORT HARBOR WATER LEVEL GAUGE I will provide information on methods being used to monitor Lake Erie water levels and earth movement at Fairport Harbor, Ohio. Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) is responsible for vertical movement throughout the Great Lakes region. Fairport Harbor is also experiencing vertical movement due to salt mining, so the nearby water level gauge operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is affected by both GIA and mining. NOAA's National Geodetic Survey (NGS) defines and maintains the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS). The NSRS includes a network of permanently marked points; a consistent, accurate, and up-to-date national shoreline; a network of Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) which supports three-dimensional positioning activities; and a set of accurate models describing dynamic, geophysical processes that affect spatial measurements. The NSRS provides the spatial reference foundation for transportation, mapping, charting and a multitude of scientific and engineering applications. Fundamental elements of geodetic infrastructure include GPS CORS (3-D), water level and tide gauges (height) and a system of vertical bench marks (height). When two or more of these elements converge they may provide an independent determination of position and vertical stability as is the case here at the Fairport Harbor water level gauge. Analysis of GPS, leveling and water level data reveal that this gauge is subsiding at about 2-3 mm/year, independent of the effects of GIA. Analysis of data from the nearby OHLA GPS CORS shows it subsiding at about 4 mm/yr, four times faster than expected due to GIA alone. A long history of salt mine activity in the area is known to geologists but it came as a surprise to other scientists.

  1. C-reactive protein levels predict postoperative septic complications.

    PubMed

    Mustard, R A; Bohnen, J M; Haseeb, S; Kasina, R

    1987-01-01

    We studied 108 patients undergoing clean-contaminated and dirty surgical procedures to determine whether daily C-reactive protein (CRP) measurements for 14 days postoperatively could predict the occurrence of septic complications prior to clinical diagnosis. Diagnostic criteria for septic complications and positive CRP response were defined in advance of the study. The CRP assays were carried out using an automated laser nephelometer system after the patient's discharge from the hospital. Forty-six septic complications were diagnosed in 40 patients. These complications consisted of wound infection (23), urinary tract infection (11), pneumonia (six), upper respiratory tract infection (three), intra-abdominal abscess (one), and other (two). The CRP testing was found to have a positive predictive value of 69% and a negative predictive value of 78%. We conclude that serial CRP measurements may be a valuable adjunct to surgical care in patients at high risk of postoperative septic complications. PMID:3800652

  2. Response in the trophic state of stratified lakes to changes in hydrology and water level: potential effects of climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.

    2011-01-01

    To determine how climate-induced changes in hydrology and water level may affect the trophic state (productivity) of stratified lakes, two relatively pristine dimictic temperate lakes in Wisconsin, USA, were examined. Both are closed-basin lakes that experience changes in water level and degradation in water quality during periods of high water. One, a seepage lake with no inlets or outlets, has a small drainage basin and hydrology dominated by precipitation and groundwater exchange causing small changes in water and phosphorus (P) loading, which resulted in small changes in water level, P concentrations, and productivity. The other, a terminal lake with inlets but no outlets, has a large drainage basin and hydrology dominated by runoff causing large changes in water and P loading, which resulted in large changes in water level, P concentrations, and productivity. Eutrophication models accurately predicted the effects of changes in hydrology, P loading, and water level on their trophic state. If climate changes, larger changes in hydrology and water levels than previously observed could occur. If this causes increased water and P loading, stratified (dimictic and monomictic) lakes are expected to experience higher water levels and become more eutrophic, especially those with large developed drainage basins.

  3. A Methylmercury Prediction Too For Surface Waters Across The Contiguous United States (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Booth, N.; Lutz, M.; Fienen, M. N.; Saltman, T.

    2009-12-01

    About 20 years ago, researchers at a few locations across the globe discovered high levels of mercury in fish from remote settings lacking any obvious mercury source. We now know that for most locations atmospheric deposition is the dominant mercury source, and that mercury methylation is the key process that translates low mercury loading rates into relatively high levels in top predators of aquatic food webs. Presently, almost all US states have advisories for elevated levels of mercury in sport fish, and as a result there is considerable public awareness and concern for this nearly ubiquitous contaminant issue. In some states, “statewide” advisories have been issued because elevated fish mercury levels are so common, or the state has no effective way to monitor thousands of lakes, reservoirs, wetlands, and streams. As such, resource managers and public health officials have limited options for informing the public on of where elevated mercury concentrations in sport fish are more likely to occur than others. This project provides, for the first time, a national map of predicted (modeled) methylmercury concentrations in surface waters, which is the most toxic and bioaccumulative form of mercury in the environment. The map is the result of over two decades of research that resulted in the formulation of conceptual models of the mercury methylation process, which is strongly governed by environmental conditions - specifically hydrologic landscapes and water quality. The resulting predictive map shows clear regional trends in the distribution of methylmercury concentrations in surface waters. East of the Mississippi, the Gulf and southeastern Atlantic coast, the northeast, the lower Mississippi valley, and Great Lakes area are predicted to have generally higher environmental methylmercury levels. Higher-elevation, well-drained areas of Appalachia are predicted to have relatively lower methylmercury abundance. Other than the prairie pothole region, in the western US incessant regional patterns are less clear. However, the full range of predicted methylmercury levels are predicted to occur in western US watersheds. Lastly, although this map is being presented at the continental US scale, the principles used to generate the modeled results can easily applied to data sets that represent a range of geographic scales.

  4. Predicted Transport Of Pyrethroid Insecticides From An Urban Landscape To Surface Water

    PubMed Central

    Jorgenson, Brant; Brown, Larry; Fleishman, Erica; Macneale, Kate; Schlenk, Daniel; Scholz, Nat; Spromberg, Julann; Werner, Inge; Weston, Don; Young, Thomas M.; Zhang, Minghua; Zhao, Qingfu

    2014-01-01

    We developed a simple screening-level model of exposure of aquatic species to pyrethroid insecticides for the lower American River watershed (California, USA). The model incorporated both empirically derived washoff functions based on existing, small-scale precipitation simulations and empirical data on pyrethroid insecticide use and watershed properties for Sacramento County, California. We calibrated the model to in-stream monitoring data and used it to predict daily river pyrethroid concentration from 1995 through 2010. The model predicted a marked increase in pyrethroid toxic units starting in 2000, coincident with an observed watershed-wide increase in pyrethroid use. After 2000, approximately 70% of the predicted total toxic unit exposure in the watershed was associated with the pyrethroids bifenthrin and cyfluthrin. Pyrethroid applications for above-ground structural pest control on the basis of suspension concentrate product formulations accounted for greater than 97% of the predicted total toxic unit exposure. Projected application of mitigation strategies, such as curtailment of structural perimeter band and barrier treatments as recently adopted by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation, reduced predicted total toxic unit exposure by 84%. The model also predicted that similar reductions in surface water concentrations of pyrethroids could be achieved through a switch from suspension concentrate categorized products to emulsifiable concentrate categorized products without restrictions on current use practice. Even with these mitigation actions, the predicted concentration of some pyrethroids would continue to exceed chronic aquatic life criteria. PMID:24115122

  5. Smoking Cessation: Social Comparison Level Predicts Success for Adult Smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meg Gerrard; Frederick X. Gibbons; Michelle L. Stock

    2005-01-01

    The affiliation preferences of 151 adult heavy smokers who joined smoking cessation groups were assessed at the 1st group session and were then used to predict their smoking status 6 and 12 months later. Those who preferred to be in groups with other smokers who were having relatively little trouble quitting were more likely to be successful than were those

  6. The effect of granularity level on software defect prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gul Calikli; Ayse Tosun; Ayse Basar Bener; Melih Celik

    2009-01-01

    Application of defect predictors in software development helps the managers to allocate their resources such as time and effort more efficiently and cost effectively to test certain sections of the code. In this research, we have used naive Bayes classifier (NBC) to construct our defect prediction framework. Our proposed framework uses the hierarchical structure information about the source code of

  7. Predicting Change in Eelgrass Distribution Due to Sea Level Rise

    EPA Science Inventory

    The eelgrass species Zostera marina is the dominant estuarine seagrass on the Pacific Northwest coast of North America and provides important ecosystem services and functions. The loss of eelgrass bed acreage due to environmental pressures is of world-wide concern, yet predicted ...

  8. Reduction in predicted survival times in cold water due to wind and waves.

    PubMed

    Power, Jonathan; Simões Ré, António; Barwood, Martin; Tikuisis, Peter; Tipton, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Recent marine accidents have called into question the level of protection provided by immersion suits in real (harsh) life situations. Two immersion suit studies, one dry and the other with 500 mL of water underneath the suit, were conducted in cold water with 10-12 males in each to test body heat loss under three environmental conditions: calm, as mandated for immersion suit certification, and two combinations of wind plus waves to simulate conditions typically found offshore. In both studies mean skin heat loss was higher in wind and waves vs. calm; deep body temperature and oxygen consumption were not different. Mean survival time predictions exceeded 36 h for all conditions in the first study but were markedly less in the second in both calm and wind and waves. Immersion suit protection and consequential predicted survival times under realistic environmental conditions and with leakage are reduced relative to calm conditions. PMID:25766418

  9. Return Levels of Northern Great Plains Snow Water Equivalents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundstein, Andrew J.; Lu, Qiqi; Lund, Robert

    2006-07-01

    This paper estimates return levels of extreme snow water equivalents (SWE) in the northern Great Plains region, containing North and South Dakota, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska. The return levels are estimated from extreme-value methods using a new hybrid SWE dataset that improves the spatial resolution of existing data in the area. A novel aspect of the methods is the use of standard error margins to spatially smooth the estimated SWE return levels computed on individual grid cells. The end product is a reliable return-level estimate that controls for uncertainties in the raw observations. The methods should prove useful in analyses of other geographical regions.

  10. Water Quality and pH Levels in Aquatic Ecosystems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    New Jersey

    2006-01-01

    In this fun and in depth hands-on experiment, learners test various liquid samples (distilled water, lemon juice, vinegar, and baking soda mixed with water) to determine their pH levels and identify each sample as either acid, base or neutral chemical. Then, over the course of several weeks, learners perform a number of tests and observe the affects of pH level on plants. The wrap up section of this activity discusses acid rain and its dramatic impact on aquatic animals, and tips for going further.

  11. Predicting FCAT Reading Scores Using the Reading-Level Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Nile; Stanley, Laurel

    2011-01-01

    Multiple regression analysis indicates that the Reading-Level Indicator, a paper-and-pencil test, is a moderately strong predictor for the high-stakes standardized test, the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test in Reading. Classroom teachers can administer the inexpensive Reading-Level Indicator in a short period of time and use the results as a…

  12. Effect of Increased Water Vapor Levels on TBC Lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Garner, George Walter [ORNL; Lowe, Tracie M [ORNL; Haynes, James A [ORNL; Zhang, Ying [Tennessee Technological University

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of increased water vapor levels on thermal barrier coating (TBC) lifetime, furnace cycle tests were performed at 1150 C in air with 10 vol.% water vapor (similar to natural gas combustion) and 90 vol.%. Either Pt diffusion or Pt-modified aluminide bond coatings were applied to specimens from the same batch of a commercial second-generation single-crystal superalloy and commercial vapor-deposited yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats were applied. Three coatings of each type were furnace cycled to failure to compare the average lifetimes obtained in dry O{sub 2}, using the same superalloy batch and coating types. Average lifetimes with Pt diffusion coatings were unaffected by the addition of water vapor. In contrast, the average lifetime of Pt-modified aluminide coatings was reduced by more than 50% with 10% water vapor but only slightly reduced by 90% water vapor. Based on roughness measurements from similar specimens without a YSZ coating, the addition of 10% water vapor increased the rate of coating roughening more than 90% water vapor. Qualitatively, the amount of {beta}-phase depletion in the coatings exposed in 10% water vapor did not appear to be accelerated.

  13. Effect of pumpage on ground-water levels as modeled in Laramie County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crist, Marvin A.

    1980-01-01

    Groundwater is being extensively developed for domestic, agricultural, and industrial use in a 2,320-square mile area in Laramie County, WY., bounded approximately by Horse Creek on the north, Nebraska on the east, Colorado on the south, and pre-Tertiary outcrops on the west. Currently (1977) about 47,300 acres of land are irrigated with groundwater. Groundwater levels are declining in some areas as much as 4 feet per year. The investigation was made to provide State water administrators with data on water-level changes resulting from present (1977) groundwater withdrawals and to provide a means of predicting the future effect of groundwater development. A digital model was developed of the hydrologic system in the post-Cretaceous rocks. The ability of the model to simulate the hydrologic system was determined by comparing the water-level changes measured at 37 observation wells located in areas of irrigation pumping with the water-level changes calculated by the model for 1971-77. Comparison of the measured and calculated changes showed agreement with a root-mean-square deviation of + or - 3.6 feet with 8 feet as the maximum deviation. It is concluded that the model adequately simulates present hydrologic conditions in the post-Cretaceous rocks and may be used to predict the effect of applied stress to the system. (USGS)

  14. Using silicates to lower lead levels in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    York is a small resort town on the coast of Maine, near the New Hampshire border. The town's population of 5,000 usually doubles during the summer tourist season. Like many small water systems in New England, its soft, moderately alkaline water corrodes its unlined, cast-iron pipe distribution system, picking up significant quantities of iron along the way. Customers served by these lines have complained about the red water. York Water District officials hoped that a new 4-mgd treatment facility brought into service in spring 1990 would alleviate the red water problems, but they were also considering ways to address the requirements of the Lead and Copper Rule from the EPA promulgated in 1991. With the assistance of their consulting engineering firm, York Water District officials evaluated treatment strategies and decided against using polyphosphates to control lead and copper because of their ability to complex with the metals, possibly causing an increase in concentration. The officials eventually chose sodium silicates to lower the iron, lead, and copper levels in the system. Several utilities in Maine had reported using sodium silicate as a common strategy for red water problems. In addition, sodium silicate was favored because it reacts with metal for form a barrier to corrosion. York Water District, with assistance from its consultant, designed an 18-month program to add sodium silicates to its system, track metal concentrations, and monitor red water complaints. The district prepared a report for the EPA, covering data collected over the first 12 months of the program -- essentially calendar year 1991. According to Michael R. Schock, research chemist with the EPA's Drinking Water Research Division in Cincinnati, the agency is anxious to obtain as much quantitative information as possible on using sodium silicate for pH and/or corrosion control. This article describes the monitoring system, water treatment and study results.

  15. Experiments on steam generator water level swell and shrinkage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. Moon; K. R. Kim; J. S. Moon; S. B. Kim

    1996-01-01

    Equipment that is one-tenth the size of the steam generators for the Westinghouse 900-MW(electric) nuclear power plants is used to study the swell and shrinkage of the water level. The cyclic aspect of level swell and shrinkage occurring during low-power operation of the nuclear power plants is realized by sequential steam dump valve control. Experimental results show that a simple

  16. Secular Global Changes in different Tidal High Water, Low Water and Range levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawdsley, Robert; Haigh, Ivan; Wells, Neil

    2015-04-01

    Tides exert a major control on the coastal zone by influencing high sea levels and coastal flooding, navigation, sediment dynamics and ecology. Therefore, any changes to tides have wide ranging and important implications. In this paper, we uniquely assess secular changes in 15 regularly used tidal levels (five high water, five low water and five tidal ranges), which have direct practical applications. Using sea level data from 220 tide gauge sites, we found changes have occurred in all analysed tidal levels in many parts of the world. For the tidal levels assessed, between 36% and 63% of sites had trends significantly different (at 95% confidence level) from zero. At certain locations, the magnitude of the trends in tidal levels were similar to trends in mean sea level over the last century, with observed changes in tidal range and high water levels of over 5mm/yr and 2mm/yr respectively. More positive than negative trends were observed in tidal ranges and high water levels, and vice versa for low water levels. However we found no significant correlation between trends in mean sea level and any tidal levels. Spatially coherent trends were observed in some regions, including the north-east Pacific, German Bight and Australasia, and we also found that differences in trends occur between different tidal levels. This implies that analysing different tidal levels is important. Because changes in the tide are widespread and of similar magnitude to mean sea level rise at a number sites, changes in tides should be considered in coastal risk assessments.

  17. Analysis of water level variations in Brazilian basins using GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, A.; Blitzkow, D.; Almeida, F.; Costa, S.; Campos, I.; Barbosa, A.

    2012-01-01

    A comparison between daily in-situ water level time series measured at ground-based hydrometric stations (HS - 1,899 stations located in twelve Brazilian basins) of the Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA) with vertically-integrated water height anomaly deduced from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) geoid is carried out in Brazil. The equivalent water height (EWH) of 10-day intervals of GRACE models were computed by GRGS/CNES. It is a 6-year analysis (July-2002 to May-2008). The coefficient of determination is computed between the ANA water level and GRACE EWH. Values higher than 0.6 were detected in the following basins: Amazon, north of Paraguay, Tocantins-Araguaia, Western North-East Atlantic and north of the Parnaíba. In the Uruguay (Pampas region) and the west of São Francisco basins, the coefficient of determination is around 0.5 and 0.6. These results were adjusted with a linear transfer function and two second degree polynomials (flood and ebb period) between GRACE EWH and ANA water level. The behavior of these two polynomials is related to the phase difference of the two time series and yielded four different types of responses. This paper shows seven ANA stations that represent these responses and relates them with their hydro-geological domain.

  18. K{sub d} in screening-level ground-water contaminant-transport model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Goyette; B. A. G. Lewis

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the use of system-specific and literature values for the distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) in a screening-level ground-water contaminant-transport model. A comparison of observed contaminant transport (Cd{sup 2+}) in a laboratory soil column with predicted contaminant transport using a computer model is described and discussed. The results indicate that measured K{sub d} values and K{sub d} values taken

  19. Research on fuzzy control for steam generator water level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Peng; Da-fa Zhang

    2010-01-01

    In order to overcome shortcomings of the traditional PID controller for nuclear steam generator water level, we proposed a fuzzy controller by using fuzzy reasoning. By summing up the experience of skilled operators, we gave a set of fuzzy control rules, and determined some important control parameters. To verify the effectiveness of fuzzy controller, a simulation for a steam generator

  20. A Receding Horizon Controller for the Steam Generator Water Level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Man Gyun Na; Yoon Joon Lee

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the receding horizon control method was used to control the water level of nuclear steam generators and applied to two linear models and also a nonlinear model of steam generators. A receding horizon control method is to solve an optimization problem for finite future steps at current time and to implement the first optimal control input as

  1. RTK GPS water level measurement on dynamic sea surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siti Hawa Mohd Ngagipar; Othman Mohd Yusof

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers have been placed on buoys to determine the height of sea surface. GPS buoy always have an advantages over traditional techniques in measuring water level, which is their ability to determine heights relative to an absolute reference frame. There are scenarios where it is not practical or difficult to install a conventional

  2. CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT WATER LEAD LEVELS AND LEAD NEUROTOXICITY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent reports have attempted to show that certain approaches to fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of nexafluo...

  3. Water level oscillations in Monterey Bay and Harbor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Sweet, W. V.; Heitsenrether, R.

    2015-06-01

    Seiches are normal modes of water bodies responding to geophysical forcings with potential to significantly impact ecology and maritime operations. Analysis of high-frequency (1 Hz) water level data in Monterey, California, identifies harbor modes between 10 and 120 s that are attributed to specific geographic features. It is found that modal amplitude modulation arises from cross-modal interaction and that offshore wave energy is a primary driver of these modes. Synchronous coupling between modes is observed to significantly impact dynamic water levels. At lower frequencies with periods between 15 and 60 min, modes are independent of offshore wave energy, yet are continuously present. This is unexpected since seiches normally dissipate after cessation of the driving force, indicating an unknown forcing. Spectral and kinematic estimates of these low-frequency oscillations support the idea that a persistent anticyclonic mesoscale gyre adjacent to the bay is a potential mode driver, while discounting other sources.

  4. Multidroplet Impact Model for Prediction of Residual Stresses in Water Jet Peening of Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Rajesh; N. Ramesh Babu

    2006-01-01

    In this article, a multidroplet impact model, proposed for predicting residual stresses induced on materials subjected to water jet peening, is presented. This approach considers the impact pressure distribution due to high-velocity droplets impinging on the material surface instead of stationary pressure distribution for prediction of residual stresses on water jet-peened surfaces. It makes use of Reichardt's theory for predicting

  5. Predicting energy requirement with pedometer-determined physical-activity level in women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Farooqi, Nighat; Slinde, Frode; Carlsson, Maine; Håglin, Lena; Sandström, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background In clinical practice, in the absence of objective measures, simple methods to predict energy requirement in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) needs to be evaluated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate predicted energy requirement in females with COPD using pedometer-determined physical activity level (PAL) multiplied by resting metabolic rate (RMR) equations. Methods Energy requirement was predicted in 18 women with COPD using pedometer-determined PAL multiplied by six different RMR equations (Harris–Benedict; Schofield; World Health Organization; Moore; Nordic Nutrition Recommendations; Nordenson). Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured by the criterion method: doubly labeled water. The predicted energy requirement was compared with measured TEE using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland–Altman analyses. Results The energy requirement predicted by pedometer-determined PAL multiplied by six different RMR equations was within a reasonable accuracy (±10%) of the measured TEE for all equations except one (Nordenson equation). The ICC values between the criterion method (TEE) and predicted energy requirement were: Harris–Benedict, ICC =0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23–0.89; Schofield, ICC =0.71, 95% CI 0.21–0.89; World Health Organization, ICC =0.74, 95% CI 0.33–0.90; Moore, ICC =0.69, 95% CI 0.21–0.88; Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, ICC =0.70, 95% CI 0.17–0.89; and Nordenson, ICC =0.40, 95% CI ?0.19 to 0.77. Bland–Altman plots revealed no systematic bias for predicted energy requirement except for Nordenson estimates. Conclusion For clinical purposes, in absence of objective methods such as doubly labeled water method and motion sensors, energy requirement can be predicted using pedometer-determined PAL and common RMR equations. However, for assessment of nutritional status and for the purpose of giving nutritional treatment, a clinical judgment is important regarding when to accept a predicted energy requirement both at individual and group levels.

  6. Water quality prediction for recreational use of Kranji Reservoir, Singapore

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yangyue

    2011-01-01

    Singapore has been making efforts in relieving its water shortage problems and has been making great progress through its holistic water management. Via the Active, Beautiful, Clean Waters (ABC Waters) Programme, Singapore's ...

  7. CALCULATION OF NONLINEAR CONFIDENCE AND PREDICTION INTERVALS FOR GROUND-WATER FLOW MODELS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Richard L.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    1987-01-01

    A method is derived to efficiently compute nonlinear confidence and prediction intervals on any function of parameters derived as output from a mathematical model of a physical system. The method is applied to the problem of obtaining confidence and prediction intervals for manually-calibrated ground-water flow models. To obtain confidence and prediction intervals resulting from uncertainties in parameters, the calibrated model and information on extreme ranges and ordering of the model parameters within one or more independent groups are required. If random errors in the dependent variable are present in addition to uncertainties in parameters, then calculation of prediction intervals also requires information on the extreme range of error expected. A simple Monte Carlo method is used to compute the quantiles necessary to establish probability levels for the confidence and prediction intervals. Application of the method to a hypothetical example showed that inclusion of random errors in the dependent variable in addition to uncertainties in parameters can considerably widen the prediction intervals.

  8. Movements of florida apple snails in relation to water levels and drying events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darby, P.C.; Bennetts, R.E.; Miller, S.J.; Percival, H.F.

    2002-01-01

    Florida apple snails (Pomacea Paludosa) apparently have only a limited tolerance to wetland drying events (although little direct evidence exists), but their populations routinely face dry downs under natural and managed water regimes. In this paper, we address speculation that apple snails respond to decreasing water levels and potential drying events by moving toward refugia that remain inundated. We monitored the movements of apple snails in central Florida, USA during drying events at the Blue Cypress Marsh (BC) and at Lake Kissimmee (LK). We monitored the weekly movements of 47 BC snails and 31 LK snails using radio-telemetry. Snails tended to stop moving when water depths were 10 cm. Snails moved along the greatest positive depth gradient (i.e., towards deeper water) when they encountered water depths between 10 and 20 cm. Snails tended to move toward shallower water in water depths ???50 cm, suggesting that snails were avoiding deep water areas such as canals and sloughs. Of the 11 BC snails originally located in the area that eventually went dry, three (27%) were found in deep water refugia by the end of the study. Only one of the 31 LK snails escaped the drying event by moving to deeper water. Our results indicate that some snails may opportunistically escape drying events through movement. The tendency to move toward deeper water was statistically significant and indicates that this behavioral trait might enhance survival when the spatial extent of a dry down is limited. However, as water level falls below 10 cm, snails stop moving and become stranded. As the spatial extent of a dry down increases, we predict that the number of snails stranded would increase proportionally. Stranded Pomacea paludosa must contend with dry marsh conditions, possibly by aestivation. Little more than anecdotal information has been published on P. paludosa aestivation, but it is a common adaptation among other apple snails (Caenogastropoda: Ampullaridae). ?? 2002, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  9. Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) –Development History, Model Capabilities and Future Enhancements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) was initiated in August 1985 to develop new generation water erosion prediction technology for use by federal agencies involved in soil and water conservation and environmental planning and assessment. Developed by USDA-ARS as a replacement for empirically...

  10. Rising water levels and the future of southeastern Louisiana swamp forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conner, W.H.; Brody, M.

    1989-01-01

    An important factor contributing to the deterioration of wetland forests in Louisiana is increasing water levels resulting from eustatic sea-level rise and subsidence. Analyses of long-term water level records from the Barataria and Verret watersheds in southeastern Louisiana indicate an apparent sea level rise of about 1-m per century, mainly the result of subsidence. Permanent study plots were established in cypress-tupelo stands in these two watersheds. The tree, water level, and subsidence data collected in these plots were entered into the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Servicea??s FORFLO bottomland hardwood succession model to determine the long-term effects of rising water levels on forest structure. Analyses were made of 50a??100 years for a cypress-tupelo swamp site in each basin and a bottomland hardwood ridge in the Verret watershed. As flooding increased, less flood tolerant species were replaced by cypress-tupelo within 50 years. As flooding continued, the sites start to become nonforested. From the test analyses, the FORFLO model seems to be an excellent tool for predicting long-term changes in the swamp habitat of south Louisiana.

  11. Fuzzy logic control of steam generator water level in pressurized water reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Kuan; C. Lin; C. C. Hsu

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a fuzzy logic controller is applied to control the steam generator water level in a pressurized water reactor. The method does not require a detailed mathematical mode of the object to be controlled. The design is based on a set of linguistic rules that were adopted from the human operator's experience. After off-line fuzzy computation, the controller

  12. Assimilation of spatially distributed water levels into a shallow-water flood model. Part

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and manage floods, which is one of the most important natural hazard in the world. To identify flood proneAssimilation of spatially distributed water levels into a shallow-water flood model. Part II: use With rapid flood extent mapping capabilities, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) im- ages of river inundation

  13. Predicting Radon levels in homes based on geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gayle Gleason

    By supplementing existing traditional labs on mineral and rock identification, and on interpreting geologic maps, and creating a lab time for analyzing data available on the web, the students will determine if indoor radon levels correlate best to bedrock geology or to glacial deposits in New York State.

  14. Predicting the Proficiency Level of Language Learners Using Lexical Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how second language (L2) texts written by learners at various proficiency levels can be classified using computational indices that characterize lexical competence. For this study, 100 writing samples taken from 100 L2 learners were analyzed using lexical indices reported by the computational tool Coh-Metrix. The L2 writing…

  15. Predicting potential COBOL performance on low level machine architectures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerome A. Otto

    1985-01-01

    As a COBOL host, a computer architecture should efficiently execute those language constructs that are most frequently used in actual programs. However, when the language's control and data structures are at a far higher level than the control and data structures of the underlying machine, the compiler designer is faced with a large number of potential choices for mapping these

  16. Effects of artificial-recharge experiments at Ship Creek alluvial fan on water levels at Spring Acres Subdivision, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, William; Patrick, Leslie

    1980-01-01

    The effect of the artificial recharge experiments on water levels at Spring Acres subdivision, Anchorage, Alaska, was evaluated using two digital models constructed to simulate groundwater movement and water-level rises induced by the artificial recharge. The models predicted that the artificial recharge would have caused water levels in the aquifer immediately underlying Spring Acres subdivision to rise 0.2 foot from May 20 to August 7, 1975. The models also predicted a total rise in groundwater levels of 1.1 feet at this location from July 16, 1973 to August 7, 1975, as a result of the artificial-recharge experiments. Water-level data collected from auger holes in March 1975 by a consulting firm for the contractor indicated a depth to water of 6-7 feet below land surface at Spring Acres subdivision at this time. Water levels measured in and near Spring Acres subdivision several years before and after the 1973-75 artificial-recharge experiments showed seasonal rises of 2 to 12.4 feet. A depth to water below land surface of 2.6 feet was measured 600 feet from the subdivision in 1971 and in the subdivision in 1977. Average measured depth to water in the area was 7.0 feet from early 1976 to September 1979. (USGS)

  17. Long-Term Prediction of Localized Corrosion of Alloy 825 in High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Dunn; N. S. Sridhar; G. A. Cragnolino

    1996-01-01

    Long-term prediction of localized corrosion of high-level nuclear waste container materials is a necessary step in the performance assessment of the engineered barrier system. Localized corrosion of corrosion-resistant materials may occur if the containers are exposed to chloride-containing ground water at elevated temperatures. Potentiostatic tests conducted on alloy 825 (UNS NO8825), a candidate container material, have shown that the potential

  18. Predictive value of serum parathyroid hormone levels for bone turnover in patients on chronic maintenance dialysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quanle Qi; Marie-Claude Monier-Faugere; Zhaopo Geng; Hartmut H. Malluche

    1995-01-01

    With the increasing occurrence of adynamic bone disease, it is essential to determine the level of bone turnover in chronically dialyzed patients before instituting vitamin D therapy. To assess the value of serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels for prediction of bone turnover, we determined sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value positive of serum PTH, alone or in combination with other variables,

  19. Predicting Group-Level Outcome Variables from Variables Measured at the Individual Level: A Latent Variable Multilevel Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croon, Marcel A.; van Veldhoven, Marc J. P. M.

    2007-01-01

    In multilevel modeling, one often distinguishes between macro-micro and micro-macro situations. In a macro-micro multilevel situation, a dependent variable measured at the lower level is predicted or explained by variables measured at that lower or a higher level. In a micro-macro multilevel situation, a dependent variable defined at the higher…

  20. Off-calibration effects on boiling water reactor water level instruments that tap into jet pump diffusers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Post; M. Opstad

    1989-01-01

    A number of water level instruments are included in boiling water reactor (BWR) plant design. These instruments measure reactor pressure vessel (RPV) water level by measuring the differential pressure (DP) between a fixed-height water column (the reference leg) and the RPV (the variable leg) and converting the DP to a height of water. Thus, plant conditions that affect the DP

  1. Blood Glucose Level Prediction using Physiological Models and Support Vector Regression

    E-print Network

    Bunescu, Razvan C.

    Blood Glucose Level Prediction using Physiological Models and Support Vector Regression Razvan continually monitor their blood glucose levels and adjust insulin doses, striving to keep blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible. Blood glucose levels that deviate from the normal range can lead to serious

  2. Prediction of protein disorder at the domain level.

    PubMed

    Dosztányi, Zsuzsanna; Sándor, Márk; Tompa, Peter; Simon, István

    2007-04-01

    Intrinsically disordered/unstructured proteins exist in a highly flexible conformational state largely devoid of secondary structural elements and tertiary contacts. Despite their lack of a well defined structure, these proteins often fulfill essential regulatory functions. The intrinsic lack of structure confers functional advantages on these proteins, allowing them to adopt multiple conformations and to bind to different binding partners. The structural flexibility of disordered regions hampers efforts solving structures at high resolution by X-ray crystallography and/or NMR. Removing such proteins/regions from high-throughput structural genomics pipelines would be of significant benefit in terms of cost and success rate. In this paper we outline the theoretical background of structural disorder, and review bioinformatic predictors that can be used to delineate regions most likely to be amenable for structure determination. The primary focus of our review is the interpretation of prediction results in a way that enables segmentation of proteins to separate ordered domains from disordered regions. PMID:17430197

  3. Multiple metals predict prolactin and thyrotropin (TSH) levels in men

    SciTech Connect

    Meeker, John D., E-mail: meekerj@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 6635 SPH Tower, 109 S. Observatory St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Rossano, Mary G. [Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)] [Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Protas, Bridget [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Diamond, Michael P.; Puscheck, Elizabeth [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Daly, Douglas [Grand Rapids Fertility and IVF, Grand Rapids, MI (United States)] [Grand Rapids Fertility and IVF, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Paneth, Nigel [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Wirth, Julia J. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States) [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Exposure to a number of metals can affect neuroendocrine and thyroid signaling, which can result in adverse effects on development, behavior, metabolism, reproduction, and other functions. The present study assessed the relationship between metal concentrations in blood and serum prolactin (PRL) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels, markers of dopaminergic, and thyroid function, respectively, among men participating in a study of environmental influences on male reproductive health. Blood samples from 219 men were analyzed for concentrations of 11 metals and serum levels of PRL and TSH. In multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, BMI and smoking, PRL was inversely associated with arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc, but positively associated with chromium. Several of these associations (Cd, Pb, Mo) are consistent with limited studies in humans or animals, and a number of the relationships (Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo) remained when additionally considering multiple metals in the model. Lead and copper were associated with non-monotonic decrease in TSH, while arsenic was associated with a dose-dependent increase in TSH. For arsenic these findings were consistent with recent experimental studies where arsenic inhibited enzymes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis and signaling. More research is needed for a better understanding of the role of metals in neuroendocrine and thyroid function and related health implications.

  4. Methods of measuring water levels in deep wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garber, M.S.; Koopman, F.C.

    1968-01-01

    Accurate measurement of water levels deeper than 1,000 feet in wells requires specialized equipment. Corrections for stretch and thermal expansion of measuring tapes must be considered, and other measuring devices must be calibrated periodically. Bore-hole deviation corrections also must be made. Devices for recording fluctuation of fluid level usually require mechanical modification for use at these depths. A multichannel recording device utilizing pressure transducers has been constructed. This device was originally designed to record aquifer response to nearby underground nuclear explosions but can also be used for recording data from multi-well pumping tests. Bottom-hole recording devices designed for oil-field use have been utilized in a limited manner. These devices were generally found to lack the precision required, in ground-water investigations at the Nevada Test Site but may be applicable in other areas. A newly developed bottom-hole recording pressure gauge of improved accuracy has been used with satisfactory results.

  5. Growth of Butomus umbellatus at a stable water level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zdenka Hroudová

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experiment with the cultivation ofButomus umbellatus at a stable water level of 0.8 m for 6 years. The plant growth, flowering and vegetative reproduction were measured and recorded\\u000a at the end of each growing season. The species showed a great ability to reproduce vegetatively by rhizome fragments. Cultured\\u000a plants ofButomus umbellatus did not

  6. Wii mote as hydrological sensor: observation of water level fluctuations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Luxemburg; R. Hut; S. Weijs; M. Hegnauer

    2009-01-01

    The input device of the Nintendo Wii, the Wii-mote offers scientist a multitude of cheap, high quality sensors; ideal for proof of concept testing. For a specific application, i.e. the water level fluctuation in a floating evaporation pan the Wii-mote was tested as the observing device. It is shown that the controller can observe movements with high enough temporal and

  7. Prediction of projectile ricochet behavior after water impact.

    PubMed

    Baillargeon, Yves; Bergeron, Guy

    2012-11-01

    Although not very common, forensic investigation related to projectile ricochet on water can be required when undesirable collateral damage occurs. Predicting the ricochet behavior of a projectile is challenging owing to numerous parameters involved: impact velocity, incident angle, projectile stability, angular velocity, etc. Ricochet characteristics of different projectiles (K50 BMG, 0.5-cal Ball M2, 0.5-cal AP-T C44, 7.62-mm Ball C21, and 5.56-mm Ball C77) were studied in a pool. The results are presented to assess projectile velocity after ricochet, ricochet angle, and projectile azimuth angle based on impact velocity or incident angle for each projectile type. The azimuth ranges show the highest variability at low postricochet velocity. The critical ricochet angles were ranging from 15 to 30°. The average ricochet angles for all projectiles were pretty close for all projectiles at 2.5 and 10° incident angles for the range of velocities studied. PMID:22536929

  8. Isoform-level microRNA-155 target prediction using RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Deng, Nan; Puetter, Adriane; Zhang, Kun; Johnson, Kristen; Zhao, Zhiyu; Taylor, Christopher; Flemington, Erik K; Zhu, Dongxiao

    2011-05-01

    Computational prediction of microRNA targets remains a challenging problem. The existing rule-based, data-driven and expression profiling approaches to target prediction are mostly approached from the gene-level. The increasing availability of RNA-seq data provides a new perspective for microRNA target prediction on the isoform-level. We hypothesize that the splicing isoform is the ultimate effector in microRNA targeting and that the proposed isoform-level approach is capable of predicting non-dominant isoform targets as well as their targeting regions that are otherwise invisible to many existing approaches. To test the hypothesis, we used an iterative expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to quantify transcriptomes at the isoform-level. The performance of the EM algorithm in transcriptome quantification was examined in simulation studies using FluxSimulator. We used joint evidence from isoform-level down-regulation and seed enrichment to predict microRNA-155 targets. We validated our computational approach using results from 149 in-house performed in vitro 3'-UTR assays. We also augmented the splicing database using exon-exon junction evidence, and applied the EM algorithm to predict and quantify 1572 cell line specific novel isoforms. Combined with seed enrichment analysis, we predicted 51 novel microRNA-155 isoform targets. Our work is among the first computational studies advocating the isoform-level microRNA target prediction. PMID:21317189

  9. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2002--Volume 1: Continuous water-level, streamflow, water-quality data, and periodic water-quality data, Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, Andrew C.; Kerestes, John F.; McCallum, Brian E.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2002, including: discharge records of 154 gaging stations; stage for 165 gaging stations; precipitation for 105 gaging stations; information for 20 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 27 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 72 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 50 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data recorded by the NAWQA program in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2002, including continuous water-level records of 155 ground-water wells and periodic records at 132 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia.

  10. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2003, Volume 1: Continuous water-level, streamflow, water-quality data, and periodic water-quality data, Water Year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, Andrew C.; Kerestes, John F.; McCallum, Brian E.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2003, including: discharge records of 163 gaging stations; stage for 187 gaging stations; precipitation for 140 gaging stations; information for 19 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 40 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 65 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 36 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data at 162 stations in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2003, including continuous water-level records of 156 ground-water wells and periodic records at 130 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia.

  11. Linear parameter varying model predictive contr for steam generator level control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mayuresh V. Kothare; Bernard Mettler; Manfred Morari; Pascale Bendotti; Clément-Marc Falinower

    1997-01-01

    Poor control of the steam generator water level in the secondary circuit of a nuclear power plant can lead to frequent reactor shutdowns. Such shutdowns are caused by violation of safety limits on the water level and are common at low operating power where the plant exhibits strong non-minimum phase characteristics and flow measurements are unreliable. There is, therefore, a

  12. Prediction of water quality parameters from SAR images by using multivariate and texture analysis models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shareef, Muntadher A.; Toumi, Abdelmalek; Khenchaf, Ali

    2014-10-01

    Remote sensing is one of the most important tools for monitoring and assisting to estimate and predict Water Quality parameters (WQPs). The traditional methods used for monitoring pollutants are generally relied on optical images. In this paper, we present a new approach based on the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images which we used to map the region of interest and to estimate the WQPs. To achieve this estimation quality, the texture analysis is exploited to improve the regression models. These models are established and developed to estimate six common concerned water quality parameters from texture parameters extracted from Terra SAR-X data. In this purpose, the Gray Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) is used to estimate several regression models using six texture parameters such as contrast, correlation, energy, homogeneity, entropy and variance. For each predicted model, an accuracy value is computed from the probability value given by the regression analysis model of each parameter. In order to validate our approach, we have used tow dataset of water region for training and test process. To evaluate and validate the proposed model, we applied it on the training set. In the last stage, we used the fuzzy K-means clustering to generalize the water quality estimation on the whole of water region extracted from segmented Terra SAR-X image. Also, the obtained results showed that there are a good statistical correlation between the in situ water quality and Terra SAR-X data, and also demonstrated that the characteristics obtained by texture analysis are able to monitor and predicate the distribution of WQPs in large rivers with high accuracy.

  13. Development of predictive models for determining enterococci levels at Gulf Coast beaches.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zaihong; Deng, Zhiqiang; Rusch, Kelly A

    2012-02-01

    The US EPA BEACH Act requires beach managers to issue swimming advisories when water quality standards are exceeded. While a number of methods/models have been proposed to meet the BEACH Act requirement, no systematic comparisons of different methods against the same data series are available in terms of relative performance of existing methods. This study presents and compares three models for nowcasting and forecasting enterococci levels at Gulf Coast beaches in Louisiana, USA. One was developed using the artificial neural network (ANN) in MATLAB Toolbox and the other two were based on the US EPA Virtual Beach (VB) Program. A total of 944 sets of environmental and bacteriological data were utilized. The data were collected and analyzed weekly during the swimming season (May-October) at six sites of the Holly Beach by Louisiana Beach Monitoring Program in the six year period of May 2005-October 2010. The ANN model includes 15 readily available environmental variables such as salinity, water temperature, wind speed and direction, tide level and type, weather type, and various combinations of antecedent rainfalls. The ANN model was trained, validated, and tested using 308, 103, and 103 data sets (collected in 2007, 2008, and 2009) with an average linear correlation coefficient (LCC) of 0.857 and a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 0.336. The two VB models, including a linear transformation-based model and a nonlinear transformation-based model, were constructed using the same data sets. The linear VB model with 6 input variables achieved an LCC of 0.230 and an RMSE of 1.302 while the nonlinear VB model with 5 input variables produced an LCC of 0.337 and an RMSE of 1.205. In order to assess the predictive performance of the ANN and VB models, hindcasting was conducted using a total of 430 sets of independent environmental and bacteriological data collected at six Holly Beach sites in 2005, 2006, and 2010. The hindcasting results show that the ANN model is capable of predicting enterococci levels at the Holly Beach sites with an adjusted RMSE of 0.803 and LCC of 0.320 while the adjusted RMSE and LCC values are 1.815 and 0.354 for the linear VB model and 1.961 and 0.521 for the nonlinear VB model. The results indicate that the ANN model with 15 parameters performs better than the VB models with 6 or 5 parameters in terms of RMSE while VB models perform better than the ANN model in terms of LCC. The predictive models (especially the ANN and the nonlinear VB models) developed in this study in combination with readily available real-time environmental and weather forecast data can be utilized to nowcast and forecast beach water quality, greatly reducing the potential risk of contaminated beach waters to human health and improving beach management. While the models were developed specifically for the Holly Beach, Louisiana, the methods used in this paper are generally applicable to other coastal beaches. PMID:22130001

  14. Preconstruction and postconstruction ground-water levels, Lock and Dam 4, Red River Valley, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, A.H.; Reed, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Proposed construction of a series of locks and dams in the Red River in Louisiana will cause a permanent increase in average river stage. The potentiometric surface of the shallow alluvial aquifer and the water table in the fine-grained material confining the aquifer will be affected. The purpose of this study, using digital-modeling techniques, was to predict the average postconstruction potentiometric surface (steady state) and the water table (nonsteady state) so that potential effects of the water-level changes could be evaluated. Plans for lock and dam 4 at realined mile 154 (kilometer 250) above the mouth of the Red River call for a pool elevation of 115 feet (35 meters) and will cause an average increase in river stage ranging from 24 to 4.5 feet (7 to 1.4 meters). As a result, ground-water levels will be raised 1 foot (0.3 meter) or more between the Red River and Bayou Pierre from the dam to Coushatta , and below Campti, east of the river. The potentiometric surface may be at or near land surface in low areas between the Red River and Bayou Pierre, and above land surface locally upstream from the dam. The magnitude of ground-water-level fluctuations near the river will be reduced to less than half the present range.

  15. Preconstruction and postconstruction ground-water levels, Lock and Dam 2, Red River Valley, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, A.H.

    1979-01-01

    Proposed construction of a series of locks and dams in the Red River in Louisiana will cause a permanent increase in average river stage. The potentiometric surface of the shallow alluvial aquifer and the water table in the fine-grained material confining the aquifer will be affected. The purpose of this study, using digital-modeling techniques, was to predict the average postconstruction potentiometric surface (steady state) and the water table (nonsteady state) so that potential effects of the water-level changes could be evaluated. Plans for lock and dam 1 at mile 44 (kilometer 71) above the mouth of the Red River call for a pool elevation of 40 feet (12.2 meters) and will cause an average increase in river stage of 9 feet (2.7 meters). As a result, ground-water levels will be raised 1 foot (0.3 meter) or more within 4 miles (6.4 kilometers) of the river. The potentiometric surface may be near land surface in low-lying areas, and above land surface along the course of drainage features near the dam. The magnitude of ground-water-level fluctuations near the river will be reduced. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Preconstruction and postconstruction ground-water levels, Lock and Dam 2, Red River Valley, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, A.H.

    1979-01-01

    Proposed construction of a series of locks and dams in the Red River in Louisiana will cause a permanent increase in average river stage. The potentiometric surface of the shallow alluvial aquifer and the water table in the fine-grained material confining the aquifer will be affected. The purpose of this study using digital-modeling techniques, was to predict the average postconstruction potentiometric surface (steady state) and the water table (nonsteady state) so that potential effects of the water-level changes could be evaluated. Plans for lock and dam 2 at mile 87 (kilometer 140) above the mouth of the Red River call for a pool elevation of 58 feet (17.7 meters) and will cause an average increase in river stage of 12.5 feet (3.8 meters). As a result, ground-water levels will be raised 1 foot (0.3 meter) or more within 4 miles (6.4 kilometers) of the river and will be near land surface in low areas. The potentiometric surface may be as much as 1 to 2 feet (0.3 to 0.6 meter) above land surface south of Latanier along Chatlin Lake Canal and south of the Annandale area of Alexandria. The magnitude of ground-water-level fluctuations near the river will be reduced.

  17. Preconstruction and postconstruction ground-water levels, Lock and Dam 3, Red River Valley, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, A.H.; Terry, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Proposed construction of a series of locks and dams in the Red River in Louisiana will cause a permanent increase in average river stage. The potentiometric surface of the shallow alluvial aquifer and the water table in the fine-grained material confining the aquifer will be affected. The purpose of this study, using digital-modeling techniques, was to predict the average postconstruction potentiometric surface (steady state) and the water table (nonsteady state) so that potential effects of the water-level changes could be evaluated. Plans for lock and dam 3 at realined mile 111 (kilometer 179) above the mouth of the Red River call for a pool elevation of 87 feet (27 meters) and will cause an average increase in river stage ranging from 21 to 3.5 feet (l.4 to 1.1 meters). As a result, ground-water levels will be raised to near land surface in low areas east of the river from the damsite to Aloha and in a 0.5-mile (0.8-kilometer) strip along the west side extending 9 miles (14 kilometers) above the dam. The potentiometric surface may be above land surface locally near the dam. The magnitude of ground-water-level fluctuations near the river will be reduced to less than half the preconstruction range.

  18. Research on optimal control system of boiler drum water level based on LQR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juhua Wang; Qingjin Meng

    2011-01-01

    According to the stability of boiler drum water level, with reference to the dynamic characteristics of drum water level, the water level regulation state-space model is established in this paper. Linear-Quadratic Regulator (LQR) is designed to make the boiler drum water level control system closed loop stable based on the theory of Linear Quadratic Optimal Control (LQOC). Select the appropriate

  19. Remotely mapping river water quality using multivariate regression with prediction validation.

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, Christopher Lyle; Autry, Bradley C. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)

    2005-07-01

    Remote spectral sensing offers an attractive means of mapping river water quality over wide spatial regions. While previous research has focused on development of spectral indices and models to predict river water quality based on remote images, little attention has been paid to subsequent validation of these predictions. To address this oversight, we describe a retrospective analysis of remote, multispectral Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) images of the Ohio River and its Licking River and Little Miami River tributaries. In conjunction with the CASI acquisitions, ground truth measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity were made for a small set of locations in the Ohio River. Partial least squares regression models relating the remote river images to ground truth measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity for the Ohio River were developed. Employing these multivariate models, chlorophyll-a concentrations and turbidity levels were predicted in river pixels lacking ground truth measurements, generating detailed estimated water quality maps. An important but often neglected step in the regression process is to validate prediction results using a spectral residual statistic. For both the chlorophyll-a and turbidity regression models, a spectral residual value was calculated for each river pixel and compared to the associated statistical confidence limit for the model. These spectral residual statistic results revealed that while the chlorophyll-a and turbidity models could validly be applied to a vast majority of Ohio River and Licking River pixels, application of these models to Little Miami River pixels was inappropriate due to an unmodeled source of spectral variation.

  20. Understanding and predicting climate variations in the Middle East for sustainable water resource management and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, Rana

    Water issues are a source of tension between Israelis and Palestinians. In the and region of the Middle East, water supply is not just scarce but also uncertain: It is not uncommon for annual rainfall to be as little as 60% or as much as 125% of the multiannual average. This combination of scarcity and uncertainty exacerbates the already strained economy and the already tensed political situation. The uncertainty could be alleviated if it were possible to better forecast water availability. Such forecasting is key not only for water planning and management, but also for economic policy and for political decision making. Water forecasts at multiple time scales are necessary for crop choice, aquifer operation and investments in desalination infrastructure. The unequivocal warming of the climate system adds another level of uncertainty as global and regional water cycles change. This makes the prediction of water availability an even greater challenge. Understanding the impact of climate change on precipitation can provide the information necessary for appropriate risk assessment and water planning. Unfortunately, current global circulation models (GCMs) are only able to predict long term climatic evolution at large scales but not local rainfall. The statistics of local precipitation are traditionally predicted using historical rainfall data. Obviously these data cannot anticipate changes that result from climate change. It is therefore clear that integration of the global information about climate evolution and local historical data is needed to provide the much needed predictions of regional water availability. Currently, there is no theoretical or computational framework that enables such integration for this region. In this dissertation both a conceptual framework and a computational platform for such integration are introduced. In particular, suite of models that link forecasts of climatic evolution under different CO2 emissions scenarios to observed rainfall data from local stations are developed. These are used to develop scenarios for local rainfall statistics such as average annual amounts, dry spells, wet spells and drought persistence. This suite of models can provide information that is not attainable from existing tools in terms of its spatial and temporal resolution. Specifically, the goal is to project the impact of established global climate change scenarios in this region and, how much of the change might be mitigated by proposed CO2 reduction strategies. A major problem in this enterprise is to find the best way to integrate global climatic information with local rainfall data. From the climatologic perspective the problem is to find the right teleconnections. That is, non local or global measurable phenomena that influence local rainfall in a way that could be characterized and quantified statistically. From the computational perspective the challenge is to model these subtle, nonlinear relationships and to downscale the global effects into local predictions. Climate simulations to the year 2100 under selected climate change scenarios are used. Overall, the suite of models developed and presented can be applied to answer most questions from the different water users and planners. Farmers and the irrigation community can ask "What is the probability of rain over the next week?" Policy makers can ask "How much desalination capacity will I need to meet demand 90% of the time in the climate change scenario over the next 20 years?" Aquifer managers can ask "What is the expected recharge rate of the aquifers over the next decade?" The use of climate driven answers to these questions will help the region better prepare and adapt to future shifts in water resources and availability.

  1. Modelling wetland bird response to water level changes in the Lake Ontario - St. Lawrence River hydrosystem.

    PubMed

    Desgranges, Jean-Luc; Ingram, Joel; Drolet, Bruno; Morin, Jean; Savage, Caroline; Borcard, Daniel

    2006-02-01

    Lake Ontario and St. Lawrence River (LOSL) wetland bird abundance and diversity are greatly influenced by lake and river hydrology. Our study used an interdisciplinary ecosystem approach, blending avian and plant ecology, ecohydraulic, statistical ecology and modelling to evaluate potential impacts of water level fluctuations on indicator species representative of the wetland breeding bird assemblages in the entire LOSL freshwater system. Multi-year (2000-2003) bird surveys captured bird distribution and density in wetland habitats under varying degrees of water inandation, depth and fluctuation. Analyses revealed strong associations between estimated breeding pair densities and plant communities, water depth, and degree of water level fluctuation during the breeding season for a suite of wetland bird species using marsh, wet meadow, shrub swamp and treed swamp habitats. These quantitative associations were used to develop wetland bird performance indicators for use in a LOSL water regulation review study. Several bird species also nest at or near the water surface and are thus vulnerable to nest flooding or stranding. Changes to the seasonal hydrology of Lake Ontario and St. Lawrence River that result in an increased frequency or magnitude of these nest failure events may have a significant impact on regional population sustainability. Long term nest record databases were analyzed to create nesting flooding and stranding probability equations based on water level increases and decreases during the breeding season. These species-specific nesting relationships were incorporated into a reproduction index. Many breeding bird species were strongly associated with specific wetland plant communities. Predicted habitat suitability, as measured by estimated breeding pair density, can also change significantly within a specific wetland plant community based solely on changes in water depth during the breeding season. Three indicator species, Black Tern, Least Bittern and Virginia Rail were selected as key environmental performance indicators for alternate regulation plan comparisons. Water regulation criteria should be such that the long term diversity and abundance of wetland plant communities and frequency of spring flooding in marsh habitats during breeding are not reduced. Magnitude and frequency of water level change during the nesting season (May-July) can also adversely impact reproductive success of many wetland bird species. As such, regulation criteria that increase the seasonal magnitude and frequency of water level change may be detrimental to the long term viability of certain regional breeding bird populations. PMID:16518674

  2. Exploring predictions of safe operating spaces for human water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwakkel, J. H.; Timmermans, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    In the Nature article 'A safe operating space for humanity', Rockström et al. (2009) introduce the idea of a safe space for human activities that will not push the planet out of the 'Holocene state'. Rockström et al. have identified nine earth-system processes and associated thresholds which, if crossed, are expected to generate unacceptable environmental change. Rockström et al. (2009) focus on the scientific prediction of these thresholds. Concerning the use of these boundaries for public policy, these authors limit their efforts to concluding that the evidence so far suggests that, as long as the thresholds are not crossed, humanity has the freedom to pursue long-term social and economic development. The approach advocated by Rockström et al. (2009) is plagued by two related problems: uncertainty and dynamic complexity (Molden, 2009; Brewer, 2009). The latter problem addresses the reductionist approach of Rockström et al and argues, in opposition, that the limits on each of the nine earth-system processes are co-depended and thus the safe operating space constitutes a single multi-dimensional space that can only be identified holistically. The first problem is that our current scientific knowledge and understanding of the earth system is incomplete and partly contested. A majority of the authors reacting on the global limit concept do however emphasize their relevance as "targets for policy makers". However, the two problems imply that the establishment of predicted global limits as a substantive base for public policy is meaningless. Still, the presence of scientific uncertainty and dynamic complexity and thus the omnipresence of unpredictability need not be used as an excuse to ignore the importance of a substantive grounding of these policies. In this paper, we argue and show how despite dynamic complexity and irreducible uncertainty, policies can be designed, tested, and shown to be effective in reaching broad social goals related to social and economic development. To this end, we utilize ANEMI (Davies and Simonovic, 2011), a dynamic impact assessment model of the planetary fresh water cycle and related systems (e.g. economy, land use, population, and climate). We assess the dynamics of this model over a broad range of different uncertainties; we identify combinations of uncertainties that produce dynamics that threaten the flourishing of humanity, and use these insights to develop public policies that can counteract these undesirable dynamics.

  3. Average County-Level IQ Predicts County-Level Disadvantage and Several County-Level Mortality Risk Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, J. C.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Boutwell, Brian B.

    2013-01-01

    Research utilizing individual-level data has reported a link between intelligence (IQ) scores and health problems, including early mortality risk. A growing body of evidence has found similar associations at higher levels of aggregation such as the state- and national-level. At the same time, individual-level research has suggested the…

  4. The Effect of Different Test Sets on Quality Level Prediction: When is 80% better than 90%?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter C. Maxwell; Robert C. Aitken; Vic Johansen; Inshen Chiang

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of stuck-at fault coverage as a means of determining quality levels. Data from a part tested with both functional and scan tests is analyzed and compared to three existing theories. It is shown that reasonable predictions of quality level are possible for the functional tests, but that scan tests produce significantly worse quality levels than

  5. Multi-level learning: improving the prediction of protein, domain and residue interactions by allowing information flow between levels

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Kevin Y; Kim, Philip M; McDermott, Drew; Gerstein, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Background Proteins interact through specific binding interfaces that contain many residues in domains. Protein interactions thus occur on three different levels of a concept hierarchy: whole-proteins, domains, and residues. Each level offers a distinct and complementary set of features for computationally predicting interactions, including functional genomic features of whole proteins, evolutionary features of domain families and physical-chemical features of individual residues. The predictions at each level could benefit from using the features at all three levels. However, it is not trivial as the features are provided at different granularity. Results To link up the predictions at the three levels, we propose a multi-level machine-learning framework that allows for explicit information flow between the levels. We demonstrate, using representative yeast interaction networks, that our algorithm is able to utilize complementary feature sets to make more accurate predictions at the three levels than when the three problems are approached independently. To facilitate application of our multi-level learning framework, we discuss three key aspects of multi-level learning and the corresponding design choices that we have made in the implementation of a concrete learning algorithm. 1) Architecture of information flow: we show the greater flexibility of bidirectional flow over independent levels and unidirectional flow; 2) Coupling mechanism of the different levels: We show how this can be accomplished via augmenting the training sets at each level, and discuss the prevention of error propagation between different levels by means of soft coupling; 3) Sparseness of data: We show that the multi-level framework compounds data sparsity issues, and discuss how this can be dealt with by building local models in information-rich parts of the data. Our proof-of-concept learning algorithm demonstrates the advantage of combining levels, and opens up opportunities for further research. Availability The software and a readme file can be downloaded at . The programs are written in Java, and can be run on any platform with Java 1.4 or higher and Apache Ant 1.7.0 or higher installed. The software can be used without a license. PMID:19656385

  6. Predicting relative permeability from water retention: A direct approach based on fractal geometry

    E-print Network

    Perfect, Ed

    relative permeability by direct application of measured soil water retention data without any fitting] Because measurement of relative permeability is dif- ficult, attempts to predict this function from is an alternative approach to predict relative permeability from measured water retention data [Fischer and Celia

  7. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2001, Volume 1: Continuous water-level, streamflow, water-quality data, and periodic water-quality data, Water Year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCallum, Brian E.; Kerestes, John F.; Hickey, Andrew C.

    2001-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2001 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2001, including: discharge records of 133 gaging stations; stage for 144 gaging stations; precipitation for 58 gaging stations; information for 19 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 17 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 76 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 27 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data recorded by the NAWQA program in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2001, including continuous water-level records of 159 ground-water wells and periodic records at 138 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia. Note: Historically, this report was published as a paper report. For the 1999 and subsequent water-year reports, the Water Resources Data for Georgia changed to a new, more informative and functional format on CD-ROM. The format is based on a geographic information system (GIS) user interface that allows the user to view map locations of the hydrologic monitoring stations and networks within respective river basins.

  8. Self-affinity and surface area dependent fluctuations of lake water level time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Z.; Pelletier, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Variability in lake water level time series is commonly attributed to variability in climatic and hydrologic forcing. We present a spectral analysis of water level time series for 185 globally distributed lakes that suggests a previously unidentified source of internal variability within coupled lake-aquifer systems. Water level fluctuations universally follow a power law scaling of the power spectrum over the range of 30 days to 10 years indicating that lake levels are a 1/f type noise. The slope of the log transformed power spectrum is shown to be a linear function of the logarithm (base 10) of lake surface area. To understand the processes underlying these spectral characteristics, we develop a simple numerical model for lake fluctuations based on the governing equations for groundwater flow in an unconfined aquifer with stochastic forcing. The model robustly produces 1/f type power spectra across all lake sizes and predicts surface area dependence of the power spectrum. The close agreement between simulation and natural data suggests that spatial and temporal stochasticity of mass inputs and diffusion of the groundwater table are key processes for understanding lake level variability.

  9. Screening Experiments for Removal of Low-Level Tritiated Water

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yun Mi; Baney, Ronald; Powers, Kevin; Koopman, Ben; Tulenko, James [University of Florida (United States)

    2005-03-15

    Screening experiments for low levels of tritiated water (HTO) remediation based upon selective adsorption/desorption mechanisms utilizing equilibrium isotope effects have been carried out. Several organic and inorganic high surface area materials were investigated to assess their ability to selectively adsorb low concentrations of HTO. Ion-exchange resins with cation functionalities, chitosan, sodium alginate, and several inorganic media modified with metal cations exhibited promising results. Biomaterials, for example, chitosan and modified alginate, demonstrated positive results. Based on the literature and our preliminary testing, we postulate four possible mechanisms for selected tritium adsorption: hydrogen ion exchange, HTO coordination with surface cation sites, hydrogen bonding to surface basic sites, and secondary hydrogen bonding (structural water) in fine pores.

  10. Application-level Prediction of Battery Dissipation Chandra Krintz Ye Wen Rich Wolski

    E-print Network

    Krintz, Chandra

    prediction 1. INTRODUCTION While hand-held, battery-powered devices have emerged as new access pointsApplication-level Prediction of Battery Dissipation Chandra Krintz Ye Wen Rich Wolski Computer Mobile, battery-powered devices such as personal digital assis- tants and web-enabled mobile phones have

  11. Numerical Predictions of GIA Based on a New Generalized Sea-Level Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Kendall; J. X. Mitrovica; G. A. Milne

    2004-01-01

    The calculation of gravitationally self-consistent sea level changes driven by the melting of ice sheets is a classic problem in geophysics. Since the redistribution of ocean mass, together with the ice load, constitutes the total surface mass load in such applications, a robust prediction of any related observable (3-D crustal motions, rotational anomalies, etc.) requires an accurate prediction of the

  12. Fuzzy Model-Based Predictive Control applied to multivariable level control of multi tank system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sevil Ahmed; Michail Petrov; Alexandar Ichtev

    2010-01-01

    In this study issues related to applicability of Model-Based Predictive Control (MBPC) to nonlinear and complex processes are addressed. A tank system is taken as an exemplary process, and its prediction model is used for control purposes. Obtained results are applied for level control of a tank process. A Takagi-Sugeno type fuzzy neural network is used to model the nonlinear

  13. Modeling and nonlinear predictive functional control of liquid level in a coke fractionation tower

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ridong Zhang; Anke Xue; Shuqing Wang

    2011-01-01

    The level control of the fractionation tower in industrial coke unit is not very easy due to its complex characteristics and nonlinearity. Most are controlled by PID or linear predictive control methods without considering the complexity. This paper shows that a more comprehensive nonlinear-model-based predictive control method can further improve control performance. A verification of a nonlinear process model with

  14. Non Invasive Water Level Monitoring on Boiling Water Reactors Using Internal Gamma Radiation: Application of Soft Computing Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Fleischer; Rainer Hampel

    2006-01-01

    To provide best knowledge about safety-related water level values in boiling water reactors (BWR) is essentially for operational regime. For the water level determination hydrostatic level measurement systems are almost exclusively applied, because they stand the test over many decades in conventional and nuclear power plants (NPP). Due to the steam generation especially in BWR a specific phenomenon occurs which

  15. BIOASSAY PROCEDURES FOR PREDICTING COLIFORM BACTERIAL GROWTH IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality degradation due to the growth of microorganisms is an area of concern for many water utilities. o date, the procedures developed or determining the amount of biodegradable material present in potable water have utilized heterotrophic non-coliform bacteria as bioassa...

  16. Epidemiology can help predict urban water system failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palus, Shannon

    2014-11-01

    A broken water pipe can mean flooded streets, damaged property, disrupted traffic, and income loss for local businesses. In the summer of 2009, the water system of Los Angeles experienced an unprecedented 75 of these water main blowouts. Notably, two transmission mains burst just days apart.

  17. Equivalent radiation source extraction method for system level EMI and RFI prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Shi; Jiangqi He; Edward Chan; Kevin Slattery; Jin Zhao; Jeremy Fejfar; Fabrizio Zanella

    2008-01-01

    A novel IC component level radiation source extraction method is described in this paper. The extracted equivalent current source from the 2.5D full wave simulation is exported out for further 3D full wave system level EMI\\/RFI prediction. This approach solves high complexity computer systempsilas EMI\\/RFI prediction challenges. This methodology was demonstrated by using a commercial 2.5D solver to simulate board

  18. Prediction of tritium level in agricultural plants after short term exposure to HTO vapor and its comparison with experimental results.

    PubMed

    Keum, Dong-Kwon; Lee, Han-Soo; Kang, Hee-Seok; Jun, In; Choi, Young-Ho; Lee, Chang-Woo

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic compartment model for evaluating the tritium level in agricultural plants after a short-term exposure to HTO vapor and its comparison with experimental results to test the predictive accuracy of the model. The model uses a time-dependent growth equation of a plant so that it can predict the contamination level of tritium depending on the stage of the growth of the plant, which is a major difference from some other compartment models using a constant crop yield. The model is able to calculate the time variable concentrations of the compartments representing the atmosphere, soil, and plants of four categories including leafy vegetables, root vegetables, grains, and tuber plants. Experimental results include the tissue free water tritium (TFWT) and the organically bound tritium (OBT) concentration of rice, soybean, cabbage, and radish exposed to HTO vapor for 1 h in the daytime at different growth stages. The model predictions showed that the model could simulate well not only the time-dependent tritium concentration of the plants but also the effect of the growth stage of the plant at the exposure time. Comparison of the model predictions with the experimental results suggested that the model could predict reasonably well the observed TFWT and OBT concentrations of the plants considered. PMID:16340607

  19. Prediction of light aircraft interior sound pressure level using the room equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwal, M.; Bernhard, R.

    1984-01-01

    The room equation is investigated for predicting interior sound level. The method makes use of an acoustic power balance, by equating net power flow into the cabin volume to power dissipated within the cabin using the room equation. The sound power level transmitted through the panels was calculated by multiplying the measured space averaged transmitted intensity for each panel by its surface area. The sound pressure level was obtained by summing the mean square sound pressures radiated from each panel. The data obtained supported the room equation model in predicting the cabin interior sound pressure level.

  20. Water Reuse Technology Trains for Medium-level Water and Industrial Cooling Water in South Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Namjung Jang; Xianghao Ren; Jihee Moon; Kwang-Ho Choi; Jaeweon Cho; In S. Kim

    Wastewater is considered as stable and substantial amount of alternative water resource. In case of South Korea, it is known that 73.2 percents of supplied water discharge 16 million m3\\/day of treated effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants. Calculation simply tells that 0.58 billion m3\\/year can be available if only 10 percent of wastewater could be reused. In this study,

  1. Diurnal variation of low-level cloudiness over tropical waters

    E-print Network

    Peterson, Wayne Miller

    1968-01-01

    wind speed is given in meters per second, the above equation reduces to ~ 223 (T T ) U s ' " w a a -2 1 where the flux is in cal cm hr ~ Under conditions of neutral stability, the equation for -2 1 the transfer of latent heat, Q cal cm sec... averaged. A correlation analysis indicated the importance of wind speed~ sea-minus-air temperature difference, and sensible and latent heat fluxes on low-level cloud amount. Atmospheric pressure had little correlation with cloud amount. Air and water...

  2. Computation of water levels on the open boundary of tide-surge interaction hydrodynamic model based on LS-SVM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shijun He; Zhou Wenjun; Zhou Ruyan; Dongmei Huang

    2010-01-01

    To minimize the difference between the events of storm surges and model of tide-surge interaction hydrodynamic (navier-stoker equation) in shallow water, it's important to exactly confirm water level of the open boundary. In this study, according to historical record of tide-gage measurements during the storm events, a method based on least squares support vector machine was proposed to predict the

  3. On the interpretation of coastal aquifer water level trends and water balances: A precautionary note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, L.; Werner, A. D.; Simmons, C.

    2012-12-01

    It is common for seawater intrusion-induced interface movements and associated changes in seawater volume not to be considered in coastal aquifer management studies. However, it is not well understood when this simplified approach may result in erroneous estimates of freshwater volumes and flawed interpretations of water level trend analyses. This gap is addressed in this study using a simple steady-state, sharp-interface, analytic modelling approach (i.e., Strack, 1976) to generate idealised relationships between seawater volume, freshwater volume and water levels. For a number of case studies, water level trends were found to be increasingly insensitive to reductions in freshwater volume and, as such, changes in seawater volume need to be considered when using water level trends as a measure of sustainability (e.g., within trigger-level management approaches, as commonly applied in Australia). The conditions under which seawater volume changes have greatest impact on water level trends are also described. Changes in seawater volume (over an assumed timescale) were found to represent 10% to 30% of freshwater discharge under realistic water table decline scenarios. As such, it is shown that changes in seawater volume need to be included within water balance assessments for the case studies considered. These results have wide-sweeping implications for coastal aquifer management, demonstrating that seawater volume changes may, in many cases, need to be included to avoid over-allocation of groundwater. In view of the short-comings associated with using water level trends to assess coastal aquifer status, an approach involving the comparison of groundwater levels relative to the hydraulic head imposed by the ocean, accounting for density effects, is recommended. A representative head for the coastal boundary in freshwater-only representations of unconfined aquifers is proposed that produces reasonable fluxes of freshwater discharge to the sea. This new coastal head adds to the Post et al. (2007) discussion of freshwater head calculations. It provides a first-order estimate of the value that near-shoreline watertable levels should exceed to maintain a discharge to the sea and to avoid SWI issues. The analytic solution used for this study involves an assumption of quasi-equilibrium conditions between the water table and interface. This assumption was evaluated using a selection of transient simulations and was found to be a reasonable approximation in the majority of case studies. As such, the analytic methods presented here can, in many cases, be rapidly applied to assess the need to consider seawater volumes within specific cases. References Post, V., Kooi, H., Simmons, C., 2007. Using hydraulic head measurements in variable-density ground water flow analyses. Ground Water 45(6), 664-671. Strack, O.D.L., 1976. Single-potential solution for regional interface problems in coastal aquifers. Water Resources Research 12, 1165-1174.

  4. Fluctuations of Ground-Water Levels Caused by Dispersion of Salts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Kohout

    1961-01-01

    Certain wells tapping the zone of diffusion between fresh and salt water in the Miami, Florida, area showed anomalous residual waer-level drawdowns after being pumped. Graphs comparing fluctuations of water levels and chloride contents show that the anomalies are caused by dispersion-motivated changes in the density of the water in the casing. Dispersion produces fluctuations of water level under natural

  5. A numerical analysis on the applicability of the water level fluctuation method for quantifying groundwater recharge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Koo; D. Lee

    2002-01-01

    The water table fluctuation(WTF) method is a conventional method for quantifying groundwater recharge by multiplying the specific yield to the water level rise. Based on the van Genuchten model, an analytical relationship between groundwater recharge and the water level rise is derived. The equation is used to analyze the effects of the depth to water level and the soil properties

  6. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LEVELS OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA AND WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS IN A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conventional plating methods were used to quantify heterotrophic bacteria from a drinking water distribution system. Three media, plate count agar (PCA), R2A agar and sheep blood agar (TSA-SB) were used to determine heterotrophic plate count (HPC) levels. Grab samples were collec...

  7. West African Monsoon water cycle: 2. Assessment of numerical weather prediction water budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynadier, R.; Bock, O.; Gervois, S.; Guichard, F.; Redelsperger, J.-L.; Agustí-Panareda, A.; Beljaars, A.

    2010-10-01

    Water budgets from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA)-Interim and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Reanalysis I and II are intercompared and compared to GPS precipitable water and to the 6 year hybrid budget data set described in part 1 of this study. Deficiencies are evidenced in the reanalyses which are most pronounced over the Sahel. Results from operational models (ECMWF Integrated Forecast System, NCEP Global Forecast System, and ARPEGE-Tropiques) and the special ECMWF African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses reanalysis confirm and help understanding these findings. A bias (˜1-2 mm d-1) in precipitation and evapotranspiration leads to an unrealistic view of West Africa as a moisture source during the summer. North of the rainband (13°N-16°N), moisture flux convergence (MFC) shows a minimum in the NCEP models and divergence in the ECMWF models not consistent with the hybrid data set. This feature, added to presence of a deep layer of northerly dry air advected at midlevels (800-400 hPa), is thought to block the development of deep convection in the models and the northward propagation of the monsoonal rainband. The northerly flow is part of a shallow meridional circulation that is driven by the Saharan heat low. This circulation appears too strong in some of the models, a possible consequence of the too-approximate representation of physical processes and land surface properties over the Sahel. In most of the models, evapotranspiration shows poor connection with precipitation. This is linked with large analysis increments in precipitable water, soil moisture, and MFC. Despite the large biases affecting the water budget components in the models, temporal variations (seasonal and interannual) might nevertheless be recovered with reasonable accuracy.

  8. U.S. Water Resources on the Regional Scale Prediction, Change and Tools for Mitigation

    E-print Network

    and the world is an endea n contemplate." Senator Pete Domenici, NM lash ing of the U.S. water cycle? Please) and the lead for NCAR's Hydrometeorology Applications program as well as the Water Cycle Across Scales program, the goal of which is to improve predictions of the water cycle i R John Wilson is Professor of Hydrology

  9. Prediction of water quality in lakes and reservoirs. Part I — Model description

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David P. Hamilton; S. Geoffrey Schladow

    1997-01-01

    A one-dimensional water quality model (DYRESM Water Quality) is described which combines a process based hydrodynamic model (DYRESM) with numerical descriptions of phytoplankton production, nutrient cycling, the oxygen budget and particle dynamics. The hydrodynamic component is free from calibration, which ensures that it is readily transferable to other lakes and reservoirs. This improves water quality predictions derived for different hydrodynamic

  10. A Receding Horizon Controller for the Steam Generator Water Level

    SciTech Connect

    Na, Man Gyun [Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon Joon [Cheju National University (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-15

    In this work, the receding horizon control method was used to control the water level of nuclear steam generators and applied to two linear models and also a nonlinear model of steam generators. A receding horizon control method is to solve an optimization problem for finite future steps at current time and to implement the first optimal control input as the current control input. The procedure is then repeated at each subsequent instant. The dynamics of steam generators is very different according to power levels. The receding horizon controller is designed by using a reduced linear steam generator model fixed over a certain power range and applied to a Westinghouse-type (U-tube recirculating type) nuclear steam generator. The proposed controller designed at a fixed power level shows good performance for any other power level within this power range. The steam generator shows actually nonlinear characteristics. Therefore, the proposed algorithm is implemented for a nonlinear model of the nuclear steam generator to verify its real performance and also shows good responses.

  11. Roughness and discharge uncertainty propagation in water level calculations :

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goutal, Nicole; Arnaud, Aurelie; Goeury, Cedric; Ata, Riadh

    2015-04-01

    In hydraulics, water level simulations are necessary for variety of purposes, such as flood, hydraulic structures design etc. Knowledge of the uncertainty in flow depth estimation is crucial for risk assessment and hydraulic structures design. In hydraulics models, the sources of uncertainty are manifold : roughness coefficient, boundary conditions (discharge - geometry - data for calibration etc) . In the present study, we will investigate the effect of two key uncertainty sources on water level simulations in 1D - 2D hydraulic models : the roughness coefficient and the discharge quantile, i.e. the flow rate corresponding to a given return period. A Monte-Carlo method is used to propagate the input uncertainty through the model in case of a real case study on a 50 km reach of the Garonne river. The difficulty with the crude Monte-Carlo method is due to the convergence, for instance the approximation of quantile could be time consuming. It will be illustrated on a real case of river that we propose for a benchmark.

  12. A predictive coding framework for rapid neural dynamics during sentence-level language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ashley G; Bastiaansen, Marcel

    2015-07-01

    There is a growing literature investigating the relationship between oscillatory neural dynamics measured using electroencephalography (EEG) and/or magnetoencephalography (MEG), and sentence-level language comprehension. Recent proposals have suggested a strong link between predictive coding accounts of the hierarchical flow of information in the brain, and oscillatory neural dynamics in the beta and gamma frequency ranges. We propose that findings relating beta and gamma oscillations to sentence-level language comprehension might be unified under such a predictive coding account. Our suggestion is that oscillatory activity in the beta frequency range may reflect both the active maintenance of the current network configuration responsible for representing the sentence-level meaning under construction, and the top-down propagation of predictions to hierarchically lower processing levels based on that representation. In addition, we suggest that oscillatory activity in the low and middle gamma range reflect the matching of top-down predictions with bottom-up linguistic input, while evoked high gamma might reflect the propagation of bottom-up prediction errors to higher levels of the processing hierarchy. We also discuss some of the implications of this predictive coding framework, and we outline ideas for how these might be tested experimentally. PMID:25840879

  13. Theoretical Prediction of Thermal Diffusion in Water-Methanol, Water-Ethanol, and Water-Isopropanol Mixtures using the PC-SAFT Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Shu; Jiang, Charles; Yan, Yu; Kawaji, Masahiro; Saghir, M. Ziad

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, by combining the PC-SAFT equation of state (EOS) to the thermal diffusion models for non-associating mixtures, the theoretical prediction of thermal diffusion has been carried out for associating fluid mixtures including water-methanol, water-ethanol, and water-isopropanol. At first, the parameters of the PC-SAFT for water-methanol, water-ethanol, and water-isopropanol mixtures are optimized. Then, by comparing the predictive and experimental values of density and residual partial molar enthalpy in water-methanol, water-ethanol, and water-isopropanol mixtures, we demonstrate the capability of PC-SAFT EOS to reproduce reliable thermodynamic properties in these mixtures with a low to moderate water concentration. Finally, with the thermodynamic properties from the PC-SAFT, several thermal diffusion models available in the literature are extended to binary water-alcohol mixtures including water-methanol, water-ethanol, and water-isopropanol. The Firoozabadi model combined with the PC-SAFT EOS has shown an effective capability for predicting mixtures with a low to moderate water concentration.

  14. Ground-water levels near the top of the water-table mound, western Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2002-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Massey, Andrew J.; Carlson, Carl S.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2006-01-01

    In January 2002 the U.S. Geological Survey began continuous water-level monitoring in three wells in the vicinity of the Southeast Ranges of Camp Edwards, near the Impact Area of the Massachusetts Military Reservation on Cape Cod. The purpose of this effort was to examine how water levels at sites with different unsaturated-zone thicknesses near the top of the water-table mound beneath western Cape Cod are affected by temporally variable recharge from precipitation, which is the sole source of water to the sand and gravel aquifer. The depths to water at the well sites are about 18, 30, and 101 feet below land surface. This report presents the first 3 years of water-level records and an estimate of aquifer recharge calculated from climatological measurements by the Jensen and Haise method and the Thornthwaite method. The water levels in the three wells varied temporally by about 4.5 feet during the study period. A comparison of the water levels with those measured in a nearby monitoring well with about 42 years of monthly measurements indicates that the 3-year monitoring period included the lowest water levels on western Cape Cod since the drought of the 1960's. The response of water levels to recharge was related to the depth to water. Water levels in the two wells with shallow depths to water responded quickly (within hours or days) to recharge, whereas the water-level response in the well with the greatest depth to water often lagged the recharge event by a month or more. The variations in the water levels among the wells changed as the location of the top of the water-table mound moved with the changing water-table altitude.

  15. A novel encoding water level monitor system during and after LOCAs in a nuclear heating reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Wenran; Jiang Yueyuan; Lu Lin; Wei Yali

    1998-01-01

    The water level in a nuclear reactor vessel is an important parameter during and after LOCAs. Nuclear safety specifications can not be carried out when the water level is measured using a pressurizer which does show the level in the vessel. It is difficult to monitor the water level in the vessel of a Daqing 200MW Nuclear Heating Reactor (NHR-200)

  16. Application of the kohonen neural network in coastal water management: methodological development for the assessment and prediction of water quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A Aguilera; A. Garrido Frenich; J. A Torres; H Castro; J. L. Martinez Vidal; M Canton

    2001-01-01

    Kohonen neural network (KNN) was applied to nutrient data (ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and phosphate) taken from coastal waters in a Spanish tourist area. The activation maps obtained were not sufficient to evaluate and predict the trophic status of coastal waters. To achieve this aim, a new methodology is proposed which uses as its starting point the activation maps obtained from

  17. Evaluation of Rock Mass Responses Using High Resolution Water-level Tiltmeter Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J. S.; Wang, H. F.; Fratta, D.; Stetler, L. D.; Volk, J. T.; Geox^Tm

    2010-12-01

    External forces act on the surface of the earth and produce deformation across all spatial and temporal scales. This research study focuses on the deformation evaluation of the rock-mass subjected to tidal, earthquake and surface forces. The events are monitored over horizontal distances of over 100 meters with tilt measurement arrays with a resolution of 10-8 radians. These measurements are obtained from hydrostatic leveling system (HLS) arrays that have been installed in the LaFarge mine in North Aurora, IL by Fermilab. Each sensor in the array is equipped with a water-filled reservoir beneath a capacitor. The amount of water in the reservoir is calculated as a function of the measured capacitance. Individual sensors are connected in a closed system via a water and air line. As the host rock expands and contracts sensors are raised relative to another and water is displaced. The water level in each reservoir is sent to a computer in the mine and recorded. In order to measure the tilt of the rock between two points, the difference in water levels between adjacent sensors is computed. The difference between the end sensors is also calculated to determine the larger-scale tilt of the array. The tiltmeters in LaFarge mine are supported by concrete pedestals installed on the floor of the drift. In the Homestake mine the tiltmeters are placed on similar pedestals, as well as platforms made of artificial wood decking. These platforms are fixed to the wall of the drift with a rock bolt. Time and frequency domain analyses were performed on time series ranging from hours to six months to capture relevant time scales including the response to the 2010 Chile Earthquake (hour-long scale), the stages of the moon (month scale), Fox River floods (flooding week long scales and pressure dissipation month-long scales). By monitoring tiltmeter array responses to different forces, we aim at making predictions about the material properties of rock masses.

  18. Prediction models for tidal level including strong meteorologic effects using a neural network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. X. Liang; M. C. Li; Z. C. Sun

    2008-01-01

    Accurate prediction of tidal level including strong meteorologic effects is very important for human activities in oceanic and coastal areas. The contribution of non-astronomical components to tidal level may be as significant as that of astronomical components under the weather, such as typhoon and storm surge. The traditional harmonic analysis method and other models based on the analysis of astronomical

  19. A Machine Learning Approach to Predicting Blood Glucose Levels for Diabetes Management

    E-print Network

    Bunescu, Razvan C.

    A Machine Learning Approach to Predicting Blood Glucose Levels for Diabetes Management Kevin Plis The Diabetes Institute Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701, USA Abstract Patients with diabetes must continually monitor their blood glucose levels and adjust insulin

  20. Using Trust-Based Information Aggregation for Predicting Security Level of Systems

    E-print Network

    Ray, Indrakshi

    Using Trust-Based Information Aggregation for Predicting Security Level of Systems Siv Hilde Houmb1 level of a security solution using information sources who are trusted to varying degrees. We show how}@cs.colostate.edu Abstract. Sometimes developers must design innovative security solutions that have a rapid development

  1. Prediction of light aircraft interior sound pressure level using the room equation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Atwal; R. Bernhard

    1984-01-01

    The room equation is investigated for predicting interior sound level. The method makes use of an acoustic power balance, by equating net power flow into the cabin volume to power dissipated within the cabin using the room equation. The sound power level transmitted through the panels was calculated by multiplying the measured space averaged transmitted intensity for each panel by

  2. PREDICTING EQUATIONS OF N DUODENAL FLOW IN DAIRY CATTLE EFFECTS OF LEVEL OF FEEDING AND PROPORTION

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    take into account the needs of microorganisms for soluble nitrogen degrada- ble in ammonia. The two was to predict the Non Ammonia Nitrogen (NAN) duodenal flow for dairy cows (principally) at different levels prece- ding factors and the level of energy supply compared to energy needs were studied. Material

  3. Social Status Predicts How Sex Steroid Receptors Regulate Complex Behavior across Levels of

    E-print Network

    Hofmann, Hans A.

    Social Status Predicts How Sex Steroid Receptors Regulate Complex Behavior across Levels, in part mediated by gonadal hormones, although how each sex steroid acts across levels of biological organization is not well understood. We examine the role of sex steroids in modulating social behavior

  4. Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium Isotopic Fractionation of Water. How well can classical water models predict it?

    SciTech Connect

    Chialvo, Ariel A [ORNL; Horita, Juske [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The liquid-vapor equilibrium isotopic fractionation of water is determined by molecular-based simulation, via Gibbs Ensemble Monte Carlo and isothermal-isochoric molecular dynamics involving two radically different but realistic models, the extended simple point charge (SPC/E) and the Gaussian charge polarizable (GCP) models. The predicted temperature dependence of the liquid-vapor equilibrium isotopic fractionation factors for H 2 18O / H 2 16O, H 2 17O / H 2 16O, and 2H 1H 16O / 1H 2 16O are compared against the most accurate experimental datasets to assess the ability of these intermolecular potential models to describe quantum effects according to the Kirkwood-Wigner free energy perturbation ! 2 !expansion. Predictions of the vapor pressure isotopic effect for the H 2 18O / H 2 16O and H 2 17O / H 2 16O pairs are also presented in comparison with experimental data and two recently proposed thermodynamic modeling approaches. Finally, the simulation results are used to discuss some approximations behind the microscopic interpretation of isotopic fractionation based on the underlying roto-translational coupling.

  5. Model predictive control of water management in PEMFC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liyan Zhang; Mu Pan; Shuhai Quan

    2008-01-01

    Water management is critical for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC). An appropriate humidity condition not only can improve the performances and efficiency of the fuel cell, but can also prevent irreversible degradation of internal composition such as the catalyst or the membrane. In this paper we built the model of water management systems which consist of stack voltage model,

  6. On an economic prediction of the finer resolution level wavelet coefficients in electron structure calculations

    E-print Network

    Szilvia Nagy; János Pipek

    2015-02-28

    In wavelet based electron structure calculations introducing a new, finer resolution level is usually an expensive task, this is why often a two-level approximation is used with very fine starting resolution level. This process results in large matrices to calculate with and a large number of coefficients to be stored. In our previous work we have developed an adaptively refining solution scheme that determines the indices, where refined basis functions are to be included, and later a method for predicting the next, finer resolution coefficients in a very economic way. In the present contribution we would like to determine, whether the method can be applied for predicting not only the first, but also the other, higher resolution level coefficients. Also the energy expectation values of the predicted wave functions are studied, as well as the scaling behaviour of the coefficients in the fine resolution limit.

  7. On an economic prediction of the finer resolution level wavelet coefficients in electron structure calculations

    E-print Network

    Nagy, Szilvia

    2015-01-01

    In wavelet based electron structure calculations introducing a new, finer resolution level is usually an expensive task, this is why often a two-level approximation is used with very fine starting resolution level. This process results in large matrices to calculate with and a large number of coefficients to be stored. In our previous work we have developed an adaptively refining solution scheme that determines the indices, where refined basis functions are to be included, and later a method for predicting the next, finer resolution coefficients in a very economic way. In the present contribution we would like to determine, whether the method can be applied for predicting not only the first, but also the other, higher resolution level coefficients. Also the energy expectation values of the predicted wave functions are studied, as well as the scaling behaviour of the coefficients in the fine resolution limit.

  8. Project Water Science. General Science High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water Education Foundation, Sacramento, CA.

    This teacher's guide presents 12 hands-on laboratory activities for high school science classes that cover the environmental issue of water resources in California. The activities are separated into three sections. Five activities in the section on water quality address the topics of groundwater, water hardness, bottled water, water purity, and…

  9. Effects of sea-level rise on ground water flow in a coastal aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masterson, J.P.; Garabedian, S.P.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of sea-level rise on the depth to the fresh water/salt water interface were simulated by using a density-dependent, three-dimensional numerical ground water flow model for a simplified hypothetical fresh water lens that is similar to shallow, coastal aquifers found along the Atlantic coast of the United States. Simulations of sea-level rise of 2.65 mm/year from 1929 to 2050 resulted in an increase in water levels relative to a fixed datum, yet a net decrease in water levels relative to the increased sea-level position. The net decrease in water levels was much greater near a gaining stream than farther from the stream. The difference in the change in water levels is attributed to the dampening effect of the stream on water level changes in response to sea-level rise. In response to the decreased water level altitudes relative to local sea level, the depth to the fresh water/salt water interface decreased. This reduction in the thickness of the fresh water lens varied throughout the aquifer and was greatly affected by proximity to a ground water fed stream and whether the stream was tidally influenced. Away from the stream, the thickness of the fresh water lens decreased by about 2% from 1929 to 2050, whereas the fresh water lens thickness decreased by about 22% to 31% for the same period near the stream, depending on whether the stream was tidally influenced. The difference in the change in the fresh water/salt water interface position is controlled by the difference in the net decline in water levels relative to local sea level. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  10. Hydrogeology, ground-water use, and ground-water levels in the Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schalk, Charles; Schumann, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Withdrawals of ground water in the central Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio, caused water-level declines of more than 100 feet by the 1950s. Since the 1950s, management practices have changed to reduce the withdrawals of ground water, and recovery of water levels in long-term monitoring wells in the valley has been documented. Changing conditions such as these prompted a survey of water use, streamflow conditions, and water levels in several aquifers in the central Mill Creek Valley, Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio. Geohydrologic information, water use, and water levels were compiled from historical records and collected during the regional survey. Data collected during the survey are presented in terms of updated geohydrologic information, water use in the study area, water levels in the aquifers, and interactions between ground water and surface water. Some of the data are concentrated at former Air Force Plant 36 (AFP36), which is collocated with the General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE) plant, and these data are used to describe geohydrology and water levels on a more local scale at and near the plant. A comparison of past and current ground-water use and levels indicates that the demand for ground water is decreasing and water levels are rising. Before 1955, most of the major industrial ground-water users had their own wells, ground water was mined from a confined surficial (lower) aquifer, and water levels were more than 100 feet below their predevelopment level. Since 1955, however, these users have been purchasing their water from the city of Cincinnati or a private water purveyor. The cities of Reading and Lockland, both producers of municipal ground-water supplies in the area, shut down their well fields within their city limits. Because the demand for ground-water supplies in the valley has lessened greatly since the 1950s, withdrawals have decreased, and, consequently, water levels in the lower aquifer are 65 to 105 feet higher than they were in 1955. During the time of the water-level survey (November 2000), ground water was being pumped from four locations in the lower aquifer, including three municipalities and one remediation site. Effects of pumping in those four areas were evident from the regional water-level data. Overall, the direction of ground-water flow in the lower aquifer is from northeast to southwest along the primary orientation of the Mill Creek Valley in the study area. Water levels in shallower surficial aquifers were mapped at local scales centered on GEAE. Examination of well logs indicated that these aquifers (called shallow and water-table) are discontinuous and, on a regional scale, few wells were completed in these aquifers. Water levels in the shallow aquifer indicated that flow was from northeast to southwest except in areas where pumping in the lower aquifer or the proximity of Mill Creek may have been affecting water levels in the shallow aquifer. Water levels in the water-table aquifer indicated flow toward Mill Creek from GEAE.

  11. A biodynamic model predicting waterborne lead bioaccumulation in Gammarus pulex: Influence of water chemistry and in situ validation.

    PubMed

    Urien, N; Uher, E; Billoir, E; Geffard, O; Fechner, L C; Lebrun, J D

    2015-08-01

    Metals bioaccumulated in aquatic organisms are considered to be a good indicator of bioavailable metal contamination levels in freshwaters. However, bioaccumulation depends on the metal, the species, and the water chemistry that influences metal bioavailability. In the laboratory, a kinetic model was used to describe waterborne Pb bioaccumulated in Gammarus pulex. Uptake and elimination rate constants were successfully determined and the effect of Ca(2+) on Pb uptake was integrated into the model. Thereafter, accumulated Pb concentrations in organisms were predicted with the model and compared with those measured in native populations from the Seine watershed (France). The predictions had a good agreement with the bioaccumulation levels observed in native gammarids and particularly when the effect of calcium was considered. To conclude, kinetic parameters experimentally derived for Pb in G. pulex are applicable in environmental conditions. Moreover, the consideration of the water's chemistry is crucial for a reliable interpretation of bioaccumulation. PMID:25845358

  12. Water distribution under trickle irrigation predicted using artificial neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Lazarovitch; M. Poulton; A. Furman; A. W. Warrick

    2009-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) technology is presented as an alternative to physical-based modeling of subsurface water\\u000a distribution from trickle emitters. Three options are explored to prepare input–output functional relations from a database\\u000a created using a numerical model (HYDRUS-2D). From the database the feasibility and advantages of the three alternative options\\u000a are evaluated: water-content at defined coordinates, moment analysis describing

  13. Ray-Tracing prediction of noise levels in a nuclear power-generating station

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murray Hodgson

    1997-01-01

    This paper details the application of ray-tracing techniques to the prediction of noise levels inside power-generating stations. An existing nuclear powergenerating station was modelled as a test case. Measurements of sound propagation were made in the building before startup. Sound-propagation predictions were then made using ray tracing. These were fitted to the measurement data in order to characterize the acoustical

  14. Application of empirical predictive modeling using conventional and alternative fecal indicator bacteria in eastern North Carolina waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonzalez, Raul; Conn, Kathleen E.; Crosswell, Joey; Noble, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Coastal and estuarine waters are the site of intense anthropogenic influence with concomitant use for recreation and seafood harvesting. Therefore, coastal and estuarine water quality has a direct impact on human health. In eastern North Carolina (NC) there are over 240 recreational and 1025 shellfish harvesting water quality monitoring sites that are regularly assessed. Because of the large number of sites, sampling frequency is often only on a weekly basis. This frequency, along with an 18–24 h incubation time for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) enumeration via culture-based methods, reduces the efficiency of the public notification process. In states like NC where beach monitoring resources are limited but historical data are plentiful, predictive models may offer an improvement for monitoring and notification by providing real-time FIB estimates. In this study, water samples were collected during 12 dry (n = 88) and 13 wet (n = 66) weather events at up to 10 sites. Statistical predictive models for Escherichiacoli (EC), enterococci (ENT), and members of the Bacteroidales group were created and subsequently validated. Our results showed that models for EC and ENT (adjusted R2 were 0.61 and 0.64, respectively) incorporated a range of antecedent rainfall, climate, and environmental variables. The most important variables for EC and ENT models were 5-day antecedent rainfall, dissolved oxygen, and salinity. These models successfully predicted FIB levels over a wide range of conditions with a 3% (EC model) and 9% (ENT model) overall error rate for recreational threshold values and a 0% (EC model) overall error rate for shellfish threshold values. Though modeling of members of the Bacteroidales group had less predictive ability (adjusted R2 were 0.56 and 0.53 for fecal Bacteroides spp. and human Bacteroides spp., respectively), the modeling approach and testing provided information on Bacteroidales ecology. This is the first example of a set of successful statistical predictive models appropriate for assessment of both recreational and shellfish harvesting water quality in estuarine waters.

  15. The Water Level Fall of Lake Megali Prespa (N Greece): an Indicator of Regional Water Stress Driven by Climate Change and Amplified by Water Extraction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Schriek, Tim; Giannakopoulos, Christos

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean stands out globally due to its sensitivity to (future) climate change, with future projections predicting an increase in excessive drought events and declining rainfall. Regional freshwater ecosystems are particularly threatened: precipitation decreases, while extreme droughts increase and human impacts intensify (e.g. water extraction, drainage, pollution and dam-building). Many Mediterranean lake-wetland systems have shrunk or disappeared over the past two decades. Protecting the remaining systems is extremely important for supporting global biodiversity and for ensuring sustainable water availability. This protection should be based on a clear understanding of lake-wetland hydrological responses to natural and human-induced changes, which is currently lacking in many parts of the Mediterranean. The interconnected Prespa-Ohrid Lake system is a global hotspot of biodiversity and endemism. The unprecedented fall in water level (~8m) of Lake Megali Prespa threatens this system, but causes remain debated. Modelling suggests that the S Balkan will experience rainfall and runoff decreases of ~30% by 2050. However, projections revealing the potential impact of these changes on future lake level are unavailable as lake regime is not understood. A further drop in lake level may have serious consequences. The Prespa Lakes contribute ~25% of the total inflow into Lake Ohrid through underground karst channels; falling lake levels decrease this discharge. Lake Ohrid, in turn, feeds the Drim River. This entire catchment may therefore be affected by falling lake levels; its water resources are of great importance for Greece, Albania, FYROM and Montenegro (e.g. tourism, agriculture, hydro-energy, urban & industrial use). This new work proves that annual water level fluctuations of Lake Megali Prespa are predominantly related to precipitation during the first 7 months (Oct-Apr) of the hydrological year (Oct-Sep). Lake level is very sensitive to regional and Mediterranean wet-dry events during this period. There are robust indications for a link between lake level and the North Atlantic Oscillation, which is known to strongly influence Mediterranean winter precipitation. Hydro-climatic records show a complicated picture, but tentatively support the conclusion that the unprecedented lake level fall is principally related to climate change. The available fluvial discharge record and most existing snowfall records show statistically significant decreases in annual averages. Annual rainfall only shows a statistically significant decrease of the 25th percentile; 7-month rainfall (Oct-Apr) additionally shows a statistically significant but non-robust decrease of the mean. The modest amount of water extraction (annually: ~14*103m3, ~0.004% of total lake volume) exerts a progressive and significant impact on lake level over the longer term, accounting for ~25% of the observed fall. Lake level lowering ends when lake-surface area shrinkage has led to a decrease in lake-surface evaporation that is equivalent to the amount of water extracted. The adjustment of lake level to stable extraction rates requires two to three decades. This work aims to steer adaptation and mitigation strategies by informing on lake response under different climate change and extraction scenarios. Lake protection is a cost effective solution for supporting global biodiversity and for providing sustainable water resources.

  16. Ground-water levels in water year 1987 and estimated ground-water pumpage in water years 1986-87, Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Groundwater levels were measured at 58 wells during water year 1987 and a summary of estimated pumpage is given for water years 1986 and 1987 in Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada. The data were collected to provide a record of groundwater changes over the long-term and pumpage estimates that can be incorporated into an existing groundwater model. The estimated total pumpage in water year 1986 was 10,200 acre-ft and in water year 1987 was 13,400 acre-ft. Groundwater levels exhibited seasonal fluctuations but remained relatively stable over the reporting period throughout most of the valley. (USGS)

  17. Long-term prediction of localized corrosion of alloy 825 in high-level nuclear waste repository environments

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, D.S.; Sridhar, N.; Cragnolino, G.A. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Long-term prediction of localized corrosion of high-level nuclear waste container materials is a necessary step in the performance assessment of the engineered barrier system. Localized corrosion of corrosion-resistant materials may occur if the containers are exposed to chloride-containing ground water at elevated temperatures. Potentiostatic tests conducted on alloy 825 (UNS NO8825), a candidate container material, have shown that the potential at which localized corrosion can be initiated is a function of surface conditions and exposure time. The initiation potentials for localized corrosion measured in short-term tests with polished specimens overestimated the long-term initiation potentials by as much as 300 mV. On the other hand, the repassivation potential obtained from short-term tests on deep pits can be used to predict the initiation of localized corrosion in long-term tests.

  18. METHOD FOR QUANTIFYING THE PREDICTION UNCERTAINTIES ASSOCIATED WITH WATER QUALITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many environmental regulatory agencies depend on models to organize, understand, and utilize the information for regulatory decision-making. eneral analytical protocol was developed to quantify prediction rror associated with commonly used surface, water quality models. ts applic...

  19. Conservation of Energy Through The Use of a Predictive Performance Simulator of Operating Cooling Water Systems

    E-print Network

    Schell, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    chemical treatment program for the prevention of corrosion, scale and deposit accumulations. Calgon has made available a computerized performance simulator of operating cooling water systems which reliably predicts system corrosion rates, percent scale...

  20. Validity of predicted total body water and extracellular water using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance in an Ethiopian population.

    PubMed

    Deurenberg, P; Wolde-Gebriel, Z; Schouten, F J

    1995-01-01

    Total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) were measured by deuterium oxide dilution and bromide dilution, respectively, in a group of 24 male and 20 female healthy Ethiopians, living in the capital Addis Ababa. Body weight, body height, skinfolds and total body impedance at 1 and at 100 kHz were also measured. TBW and ECW were predicted from impedance values at 1 and 100 kHz, respectively, using prediction equations developed in a Dutch adult population. ECW was overestimated by 1.3 +/- 1.0 kg (p < 0.05) and 0.6 +/- 0.8 kg (p < 0.05) in males and females, respectively. TBW was accurately predicted in males (0.1 +/- 1.9 kg, n.s.), but overestimated in females (1.0 +/- 1.3 p < 0.05). TBW/height and ECW/height were substantially lower in the Ethiopians compared to values recently published in Dutch and Italian adult subjects, indicating a different, more slender body build of the Ethiopians. After correcting for these differences in body build and for the slight differences in body water distribution (ECW/TBW), the differences between measured and predicted TBW and ECW decreased and were no longer significant. The results indicate that the validity of predicted body water from impedance depends on the body build of the subjects, which should be taken into account to avoid systematic errors when applying prediction formulas from a reference population to another population under study. PMID:8546440

  1. GPS water level measurements for Indonesia's Tsunami Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöne, T.; Pandoe, W.; Mudita, I.; Roemer, S.; Illigner, J.; Zech, C.; Galas, R.

    2011-03-01

    On Boxing Day 2004, a severe tsunami was generated by a strong earthquake in Northern Sumatra causing a large number of casualties. At this time, neither an offshore buoy network was in place to measure tsunami waves, nor a system to disseminate tsunami warnings to local governmental entities. Since then, buoys have been developed by Indonesia and Germany, complemented by NOAA's Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) buoys, and have been moored offshore Sumatra and Java. The suite of sensors for offshore tsunami detection in Indonesia has been advanced by adding GPS technology for water level measurements. The usage of GPS buoys in tsunami warning systems is a relatively new approach. The concept of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) (Rudloff et al., 2009) combines GPS technology and ocean bottom pressure (OBP) measurements. Especially for near-field installations where the seismic noise may deteriorate the OBP data, GPS-derived sea level heights provide additional information. The GPS buoy technology is precise enough to detect medium to large tsunamis of amplitudes larger than 10 cm. The analysis presented here suggests that for about 68% of the time, tsunamis larger than 5 cm may be detectable.

  2. Spatial and temporal statistical analysis of a ground-water level network, Broward County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, E.D.; Sonenshein, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a method to evaluate the spatial and temporal statistics of a continuous ground-water level recorder network in Broward County, Florida. Because the Broward County network is sparse for most spatial statistics, a technique has been developed to define polygons for each well that represent the area monitored by the well within specified criteria. The boundaries of these "confidence polygons" are defined by the endpoints of radial lines oriented toward the other wells. The lengths of these lines are determined as the statistically estimated distances to the points at which ground-water levels can be predicted within specirfied criteria. The confidence polygons indicate: (1) the areal coverage of the network, (2) locations where data are unavailable, and (3) areas of redundant data collection. Comparison with data from a noncontinuous recorder well indicates that the confidence polygons are a good represen- tation of areal coverages. The temporal analysis utilizes statistical techniques similar to those used in the spatial method, defining variations in time rather than in space. Consequently, instead of defining radial distances to points, time intervals are defined over which water-level values can be predicted within a specified confidence. These "temporal confidence intervals" correspond to maximum allowable periods between field measure- ments. To combine all results from the analyses, a single coefficient reflecting the spatial and temporal results has been developed. The coefficient is referred to as the Spatial and Temporal Adequacy and Redundancy Evaluation (STARE) and is determined by three factors: the size of the confidence polygon, the number of times the well is part of a redundant pair, and the temporal confidence interval. This coefficient and the individual results of each analysis are used in evaluating the present network and determining future management decisions.

  3. A self-adjusting fuzzy control for the drum water level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yinong Zhang; Hongxing Li

    2010-01-01

    Based on the analysis of dynamic characteristics of the drum water level, a control strategy of self-adjusting PID fuzzy control of the drum water level in a CFB boiler is presented in this paper. Compared the effectiveness of self-adjusting PID fuzzy control with the general PID on the model of the drum water level in a CFB boiler and the

  4. Pollution studies of Nigerian rivers: trace metal levels of surface waters in the Niger delta area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel E. Kakulu; Oladele Osibanjot

    1992-01-01

    The Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, V and Zn levels of surface waters and industrial effluents in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria were determined. The concentrations of most metals in these surface waters were generally lower than international levels in freshwaters and international drinking water standards. With the exception of Pb, metal levels in petroleum effluents were within the

  5. Estimating Impaired Waters on a County Level for Public Health Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing the population-level impact of water quality on health can be difficult. Water quality data are measured at a watershed level and health data are organized at different levels of aggregation. To address this discrepancy and enable the consideration of water quality for ...

  6. Decadal predictability of soil water, vegetation, and wildfire frequency over North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikamoto, Yoshimitsu; Timmermann, Axel; Stevenson, Samantha; DiNezio, Pedro; Langford, Sally

    2015-01-01

    The potential decadal predictability of land hydrological and biogeochemical variables in North America is examined using a 900-year-long pre-industrial control simulation, conducted with the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM) version 1.0.3. The leading modes of simulated North American precipitation and soil water storage are characterized essentially by qualitatively similar meridional seesaw patterns associated with the activity of the westerly jet. Whereas the corresponding precipitation variability can be described as a white noise stochastic process, power spectra of vertically integrated soil water exhibit significant redness on timescales of years to decades, since the predictability of soil water storage arises mostly from the integration of precipitation variability. As a result, damped persistence hindcasts following a 1st order Markov process are skillful with lead times of up to several years. This potential multi-year skill estimate is consistent with ensemble hindcasts conducted with the CESM for various initial conditions. Our control simulation further suggests that decadal variations in soil water storage also affect vegetation and wildfire occurrences. The long-term potential predictability of soil water variations in combination with the slow regrowth of vegetation after major disruptions leads to enhanced predictability on decadal timescales for vegetation, terrestrial carbon stock, and fire frequency, in particular in the Southern United States (US)/Mexico region. By contrast, the prediction skill of fire frequency in the Northern US is limited to 1 year. Our results demonstrate that skillful decadal predictions of soil water storage, carbon stock, and fire frequency are feasible with proper initialization of soil conditions. Although the potential predictability in our idealized modeling framework would overestimate the real predictability of the coupled climate-land-vegetation system, the decadal climate prediction may become beneficial for water resource management, forestry, and agriculture.

  7. The prediction of root zone soil moisture with a water balance - microwave emission model 

    E-print Network

    Smith, Michael Robert

    1983-01-01

    THE PREDICTION OF ROOT ZONE SOIL MOISTURE WITH A WATER BALANCE - MICROWAVE EMISSION MODEL A Thesis by MICHAEL ROBERT SMITH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of Committee) A. J. Blanchard (Member) D. R. Smith (Member) H i man (Member) . Jones r. ead of Department) May 1983 ABSTRACT The Prediction of Root lone Soil Moisture with a Water Balance-Microwave Emission Model. (May 1983) Michael Robert Smith, B...

  8. A predictive theory of intentions to exit street-level prostitution.

    PubMed

    Cimino, Andrea N

    2012-10-01

    Street-level prostitution is notoriously difficult to escape and rarely do women exit prostitution on their first attempt or without experiencing serious negative consequences to their physical or mental health. Unfortunately, few theories exist that explain the exiting process and those that do exist are difficult to test quantitatively. This article applies the integrative model of behavioral prediction to examine intentions to exit prostitution through attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy beliefs that underlie a woman's intention to exit prostitution. Constructs unique prostitution--agency and societal context--enhance the model. This theory may explain and predict an exit from street-level prostitution. PMID:23136182

  9. Farm-level and district efforts to improve water management during drought

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis Wichelns; David Cone

    1992-01-01

    The fifth year of drought in California brought reductions in surface water deliveries to many water districts. In the central San Joaquin Valley, water deliveries to Broadview Water District were reduced by 50% in 1990 and by 75% in 1991. The district increased the level of service provided to farmers during these years by providing accurate water use data, increasing

  10. The effects of sea-level rise on water quality in coastal floodplain sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Vanessa; Johnston, Scott; Burton, Edward; Bush, Richard; Sullivan, Leigh; Slavich, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Sea level has risen approximately 1.2 mm/year over the last 100 years (Hennessy et al. 2004) and is predicted to rise up to 80 cm by 2100 relative to 1990 sea levels (IPCC 2007). The number of extreme events related to sea level such as higher sea levels and increased inter-annual variability have also increased in frequency in the same time period (Hennessy et al. 2004). Globally, large areas of coastal and estuarine floodplains are underlain by sulfidic sediments and acid sulfate soils (ASS). These sediments frequently contain high concentrations of acidity and trace metals. A significant portion of the stored acidity occurs in the form of exchangeable and hydrolysable acidic metal cations such as Al and Fe. Watertables in these environments are often close to the surface and intercepted by relatively shallow drains. Due to their low elevation and locations, these floodplains are highly susceptible to pulses of saline water caused by saltwater intrusion, storm surge and rising sea levels. Construction of extensive drainage systems has further increased the susceptibility of the floodplain to seawater inundation by increasing connectivity to the estuarine channel. This risk is likely to increase in the future with predicted increases in sea level and extreme events due to climate change. This study uses both batch experiments to determine the effects of increasing ionic strength on exchange processes and trace metal desorption in oxidised floodplain sediments and sulfidic drain sediments, and intact soil cores to determine the surface water-porewater interactions over the short term following seawater inundation in coastal floodplain sediments. We found that that saline inundation of oxidised ASS floodplain sediments, even by relatively brackish water may cause rapid, shorter-term water quality changes and a pulse release of acidity due to desorption of acidic metal cations (Wong et al. 2010). We also found that trace metals can be mobilised from sulfidic estuarine drain sediments at near-neutral pH values without oxidation as a result of increased ionic strength and competitive desorption of metal cations (Wong et al. in press). Rapid seawater incursion in CASS drainage networks is likely to adversely impact drain water quality by increasing trace metal mobilization. Drainage networks on ASS floodplains are highly susceptible to rapid seawater inundation through storm surge, seasonal salt wedge migration, floodgate failure or floodgate opening. The experimental results show that the initial addition of marine derived salts will result in a decrease in pH and increase in trace metals, even at low salt concentrations such as that found in brackish waters in estuarine environments. References Hennessy K, Page C, McInnes K, Jones R, Bathols J, Collins D, Jones D (2004) Climate Change in New South Wales. In. CSIRO, Canberra. IPCC (2007) Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. In: An Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Wong VNL, Johnston SG, Burton ED, Bush RT, Sullivan LA, Slavich PG (2010) Seawater causes rapid trace metal mobilisation in coastal lowland acid sulfate soils: Implications of sea level rise for water quality. Geoderma 160(2): 252-263 Wong VNL, Johnston SG, Burton ED, Bush RT, Sullivan LA, Slavich PG (in press) Seawater-induced mobilization of trace metals from mackinawite-rich estuarine sediments. Water Research

  11. Development of a New Model for Accurate Prediction of Cloud Water Deposition on Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katata, G.; Nagai, H.; Wrzesinsky, T.; Klemm, O.; Eugster, W.; Burkard, R.

    2006-12-01

    Scarcity of water resources in arid and semi-arid areas is of great concern in the light of population growth and food shortages. Several experiments focusing on cloud (fog) water deposition on the land surface suggest that cloud water plays an important role in water resource in such regions. A one-dimensional vegetation model including the process of cloud water deposition on vegetation has been developed to better predict cloud water deposition on the vegetation. New schemes to calculate capture efficiency of leaf, cloud droplet size distribution, and gravitational flux of cloud water were incorporated in the model. Model calculations were compared with the data acquired at the Norway spruce forest at the Waldstein site, Germany. High performance of the model was confirmed by comparisons of calculated net radiation, sensible and latent heat, and cloud water fluxes over the forest with measurements. The present model provided a better prediction of measured turbulent and gravitational fluxes of cloud water over the canopy than the Lovett model, which is a commonly used cloud water deposition model. Detailed calculations of evapotranspiration and of turbulent exchange of heat and water vapor within the canopy and the modifications are necessary for accurate prediction of cloud water deposition. Numerical experiments to examine the dependence of cloud water deposition on the vegetation species (coniferous and broad-leaved trees, flat and cylindrical grasses) and structures (Leaf Area Index (LAI) and canopy height) are performed using the presented model. The results indicate that the differences of leaf shape and size have a large impact on cloud water deposition. Cloud water deposition also varies with the growth of vegetation and seasonal change of LAI. We found that the coniferous trees whose height and LAI are 24 m and 2.0 m2m-2, respectively, produce the largest amount of cloud water deposition in all combinations of vegetation species and structures in the experiments.

  12. Water levels and water-level changes in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan and Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifers, Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1971-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoenberg, Michael

    1984-01-01

    The Mississippi, Minnesota, and St. Croix Rivers greatly influence flow patterns in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer. Water generally flows toward these streams from surrounding water-level highs. Heavy pumping has caused only localized cones of depression. In contrast, pumping in Minneapolis and St. Paul has greatly influenced ground-water flow in the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer, resulting in a large cone of depression. Between 1971 and 1980 average water levels in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer changed less than 5 feet in most of the study area, while average water levels in the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer rose as much as 60 feet in the center of the cone of depression. Water-level data suggest that (1) little variation of annual pumpage between 1971 and 1980 from the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer produced generally stable water levels in that aquifer, (2) decreased annual pumpage from 1971 to 1980 from the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer caused rising water levels in that aquifer, and (3) a greater seasonal component of pumpage for the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer than for the Prairie du Chien-Jordan produced larger and more widespread seasonal water-level declines in the Mount Simon-Hinckley than in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan, particularly during dry years. (USGS)

  13. POST-BETZE PIT LAKE WATER QUALITY PREDICTION, NEVADA1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William M. Schafer; Mark Logsdon; Guosheng Zhan; Ron Espell

    The Barrick Goldstrike Mine is located in the Carlin Trend, about 20 miles northwest of Carlin, Nevada. The majority of the ore mined at Goldstrike is from the Post-Betze open pit, the largest open pit operation in Nevada. Nevada law requires that the water quality of temporary or permanent reservoirs that may develop in open pits be periodically tested. Pit

  14. Acoustics 2000 1 Acoustic Propagation Prediction in Shallow Water

    E-print Network

    -water and the other moored to the seabed to explore the possibility of receiving head waves. The acoustic sources used metropolitan coast. The positions of the tracks were specified so that the seabed depth would be relatively constant along their lengths. The seabed properties along these tracks were not well known. In addition

  15. Predicting the breaking onset of surface water waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Babanin; Dmitry Chalikov; Ian Young; Ivan Savelyev

    2007-01-01

    Why do ocean waves break? Understanding this important and obvious property of the ocean surface has been elusive for decades. This paper investigates causes which lead deep-water two-dimensional initially monochromatic waves to break. Individual wave steepness is found to be the single parameter which determines whether the wave will break immediately, never break or take a finite number of wave

  16. A Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship for Predicting Drug Solubility in PEG 400\\/Water Cosolvent Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Rytting; Kimberley A. Lentz; Xue-Qing Chen; Feng Qian; Srini Venkatesh

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) was developed to predict drug solubility in binary mixtures of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 and water. The ability of the QSPR model to predict solubility was assessed and compared to the classic log-linear cosolvency model.

  17. Multiple Model Predictive Control for Water Management in PEMFC Based on Recurrent Neural Network Optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liyan Zhang; Mu Pan; Shuhai Quan

    2008-01-01

    Water management in proton exchange membrane fuel cells is a nonlinear dynamic system and hard to control. Based on recurrent neural network optimization, a multiple model predictive controller is presented to solve this problem. Moreover, the paper proposes a recurrent neural network optimization method to reduce computational burden of multiple model predictive control. Simulation results show that proposed approach can

  18. Predicting blood lead levels from current and past environmental data in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bierkens, J; Smolders, R; Van Holderbeke, M; Cornelis, C

    2011-11-01

    The present case study on lead in Europe illustrates the use of the Integrated Monitoring Framework Strategy to assess the health outcome of environmental pollution by evaluating the associations between lead in various environmental compartments (air, soil, dust, drinking water and diet) and lead concentrations in blood (B-Pb) for various age-related sub-populations. The case study was aimed to investigate whether environmental, exposure and biomonitoring data at general population level, covering all EU member states, could be integrated. Although blood lead has been monitored extensively in Europe, consistent datasets are not yet available. Data diverge with regard to objectives, regional scale, sampling years, gender, age groups and sample size. Significant correlations were found between B-Pb and the concentrations of Pb in air and diet. The significant decrease of the Pb in air over time from 0.31 ?g/m(3) (P95: 0.94; n=98) prior to 1990 to 0.045 ?g/m(3) (P95: 0.11; n=256) in 2007 (latest observations included) (?=-85%) corresponds to a decline in B-Pb by 48% and 57% in adult women and adult men, respectively. For pre-school children a more shallow decline in B-Pb of 16% was calculated over the same period. Similarly, the reduction in Pb-dietary intake from on average 68.7 ?g/d (P95: 161.6; n=19) in 1978 to 35.7 ?g/d (P95: 82.3; n=33) in the years post 2000 (?=-48%) is paralleled by a decline in B-Pb of 32, 33 and 19% in adult women, primary- and pre-school children, respectively. Insufficient data exist for other age groups to calculate statistically significant correlations. Although regression models have been derived to predict B-Pb for different sub-populations in Europe based on Pb concentrations in air and soil as well as dietary intake, it is concluded that the available data are insufficient to accurately predict actual and future simultaneous exposure to Pb from various environmental compartments, and as a consequence the health impact of Pb for various target populations at EU scale. At least due to data availability, air Pb remains the best predictor of B-Pb in the population. However, lead emission sources have largely been reduced and inhalation of lead in air is not causal to B-Pb levels. Therefore, there is a need of adequate data for Pb in soil and house dust, and in diet and drinking water as these are causal exposure sources with a longer Pb half-life than air. An extended and more harmonized surveillance system monitoring B-Pb, especially in children, is urgently required in order to identify, quantify and reduce still remaining sources of Pb exposure. PMID:21917298

  19. Day 4 Estradiol Levels Predict Pregnancy Success in Women Undergoing Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation for IVF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Y Phelps; Adam S Levine; Timothy N Hickman; Howard A Zacur; Edward E Wallach; Endrika L Hinton

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of serum estradiol levels obtained on the fourth day of gonadotropin stimulation in predicting the likelihood of pregnancy during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) using luteal phase leuprolide acetate (LA).Design: A 4-year retrospective analysis of day 4 estradiol levels and subsequent clinical pregnancy and delivery rates.Setting: A university hospital tertiary referral center.Patient(s): Couples undergoing IVF treatment.Main

  20. Numerical Predictions of GIA Based on a New Generalized Sea-Level Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, R.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Milne, G. A.

    2004-05-01

    The calculation of gravitationally self-consistent sea level changes driven by the melting of ice sheets is a classic problem in geophysics. Since the redistribution of ocean mass, together with the ice load, constitutes the total surface mass load in such applications, a robust prediction of any related observable (3-D crustal motions, rotational anomalies, etc.) requires an accurate prediction of the sea level (ocean load) change. Although the Farrell & Clark [1976] sea level equation remains a standard pillar of modern research in glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), their approach assumes a non-rotating Earth and shorelines that remain fixed as sea level rises and falls through the glacial cycle. Over the last decade, numerous efforts have been made to extend sea level predictions based on the Farrell & Clark [1976] theory to incorporate both rotation effects and an evolving shoreline geometry, where the latter arises from local ocean transgression/regression or from the growth/ablation of grounded marine-based ice. Recently, a generalized sea-level theory has been described which is based on an exact relationship between GIA-induced global sea level variations and ocean height changes [Mitrovica & Milne, 2003]. We outline this theory, which holds for arbitrary 3-D viscoelastic Earth models, and present a suite of results from its application to spherically symmetric Earth models. In particular, we present differences in predictions based on the old and new sea-level theory in order to highlight cases where the former is no longer sufficiently accurate for modern GIA analyses.

  1. PERFORMANCE PREDICTION OF A PROPOSED PHOTOVOLTAIC WATER PUMPING SYSTEM AT SOUTH SINAI, EGYPT CLIMATE CONDITIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helmy E. Gad

    2009-01-01

    The use of photovoltaic (PV) array for pumping water is one of the most promising techniques in solar energy applications. Due to the increased use of water pumping systems in urban areas, more attention has been paid to their design and performance prediction under different operating conditions. In this paper, a methodology is developed for performance perdition of a proposed

  2. Implementation of Channel-Routing Routines in the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model is a process-based, continuous-simulation, watershed hydrology and erosion model. It is an important tool for water erosion simulation owing to its unique functionality in representing diverse landuse and management conditions. Its applicability is l...

  3. A Catastrophe Model for Water Bloom Prediction: A Case Study of China's Lake Chaohu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Yun-Feng; Yin Fu-Cai; Lu Gen-Fa

    2007-01-01

    Using a case study of Lake Chaohu, the fifth largest lake in China, we constructed a cusp model for water bloom prediction that used TP (total phosphorus), T (temperature), Chla (chlorophyll-a), and DO (dissolved oxygen). These four parameters were assumed to be the most important factors in eutrophication and water bloom of the lake. The model was found to be

  4. Using hyperspectral imagery to predict post-wildfire soil water repellency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah A. Lewis; Peter R. Robichaud; Bruce E. Frazier; Joan Q. Wu; Denise Y. M. Laes

    2008-01-01

    A principal task of evaluating large wildfires is to assess fire's effect on the soil in order to predict the potential watershed response. Two types of soil water repellency tests, the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test and the mini-disk infiltrometer (MDI) test, were performed after the Hayman Fire in Colorado, in the summer of 2002 to assess the infiltration

  5. Passing from a Gas to an Electric Water Heater System: Adaptive PID Versus Smith Predictive Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Vieira; A. Mota

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the control results of an electric water heater system using two approaches: adaptive proportional integral derivative and Smith predictive control based on the physical internal model control structure. The electric water heater was modelled with two variable blocks connected in series: a first order system and a time delay. In fact, the gain, the tune constant and

  6. SWAT—A Semiempirical Model to Predict Concentrations of Pesticides Entering Surface Waters from Agricultural Land

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin D. Brown; John M. Hollis

    1996-01-01

    A semi-empirical model called SWAT has been developed to predict concentrations of agriculturall y applied pesticides moving to surface waters, an aspect which is not well described by current models for pesticide fate. The model is based upon a direct hydrological link established between soil type and the amount of water moving rapidly to streams in response to rainfall. Attenuation

  7. Re-conceptualizing the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model to predict runoff from variable

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    Re-conceptualizing the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model to predict runoff from variable generated in rural, humid regions. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was re content were defined; the new modeling approach is called SWAT-VSA. Both SWAT and SWAT-VSA were applied

  8. Water dimer vibrationrotation tunnelling levels from vibrationally averaged monomer wavefunctions

    E-print Network

    water and ice [1­5], to small water clusters [6,7] and spectroscopy. The latter is extremely important anharmonic oscillator (HCAO) methods of Kjaergaard et al. [19­24]. The latter studies provide evidence which

  9. Anomalous properties of water predicted by the BK3 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Péter T.; Baranyai, András

    2014-04-01

    Recently, we proposed a new model for water [P. T. Kiss and A. Baranyai, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 204507 (2013)]. We presented a detailed description of the development of this classical, polarizable model, and a large number of calculated properties. The model provided excellent estimates for ambient liquid properties and reasonably good results from high-pressure solids to gas-phase clusters. In this paper we present results of extensive calculations for temperature-dependent water anomalies in terms of the pressure. The calculated isobars of the temperature-density and the self-diffusion diagrams provide excellent estimates of the experimental values. The estimated compressibility isobars perfectly match the experimental ones if we shift our numbers by ˜10 K upwards. The calculated pressure-dependent viscosity values are excellent at higher temperatures and qualitatively correct at lower temperatures.

  10. Supervised prediction of drug-induced nephrotoxicity based on interleukin-6 and -8 expression levels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug-induced nephrotoxicity causes acute kidney injury and chronic kidney diseases, and is a major reason for late-stage failures in the clinical trials of new drugs. Therefore, early, pre-clinical prediction of nephrotoxicity could help to prioritize drug candidates for further evaluations, and increase the success rates of clinical trials. Recently, an in vitro model for predicting renal-proximal-tubular-cell (PTC) toxicity based on the expression levels of two inflammatory markers, interleukin (IL)-6 and -8, has been described. However, this and other existing models usually use linear and manually determined thresholds to predict nephrotoxicity. Automated machine learning algorithms may improve these models, and produce more accurate and unbiased predictions. Results Here, we report a systematic comparison of the performances of four supervised classifiers, namely random forest, support vector machine, k-nearest-neighbor and naive Bayes classifiers, in predicting PTC toxicity based on IL-6 and -8 expression levels. Using a dataset of human primary PTCs treated with 41 well-characterized compounds that are toxic or not toxic to PTC, we found that random forest classifiers have the highest cross-validated classification performance (mean balanced accuracy = 87.8%, sensitivity = 89.4%, and specificity = 85.9%). Furthermore, we also found that IL-8 is more predictive than IL-6, but a combination of both markers gives higher classification accuracy. Finally, we also show that random forest classifiers trained automatically on the whole dataset have higher mean balanced accuracy than a previous threshold-based classifier constructed for the same dataset (99.3% vs. 80.7%). Conclusions Our results suggest that a random forest classifier can be used to automatically predict drug-induced PTC toxicity based on the expression levels of IL-6 and -8. PMID:25521947

  11. Behavioral Circadian Regularity at Age 1-Month Predicts Anxiety Levels During School-Age Years

    PubMed Central

    Monk, Timothy H.; Burk, Linnea R.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Kupfer, David J.; Soehner, Adriane M.; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2010-01-01

    Daily lifestyle regularity is measured using the Social Rhythm Metric (SRM). We developed a Baby SRM, with 59 babies followed for ~13 years. Baby SRM score at age 1-month significantly predicted the child's school (K-9, 5 timepoints) anxiety level (more regular = less anxious), and may be mediated through sociability and directed-attention pathways. PMID:20494458

  12. The Impact of Java Applications at Microarchitectural Level from Branch Prediction Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Florea; Arpad Gellert; Lucian Vintan; Marius Veltan

    The portability, the object-oriented and distributed programming mod- els, multithreading support and automatic garbage collection are features that make Java very attractive for application developers. The main goal of this paper consists in pointing out the impact of Java applications at microarchitectural level from two perspectives: unbiased branches and indirect jumps\\/calls, such branches limiting the ceiling of dynamic branch prediction

  13. Predicting county-level cancer incidence rates and counts in the USA.

    PubMed

    Yu, Binbing

    2013-09-30

    Many countries, including the USA, publish predicted numbers of cancer incidence and death in current and future years for the whole country. These predictions provide important information on the cancer burden for cancer control planners, policymakers and the general public. Based on evidence from several empirical studies, the joinpoint (segmented-line linear regression) model (JPM) has been adopted by the American Cancer Society to estimate the number of new cancer cases in the USA and in individual states since 2007. Recently, cancer incidence in smaller geographic regions such as counties, and local policy makers are increasingly interested with Federal Information Processing Standard code regions. The natural extension is to directly apply the JPM to county-level cancer incidence data. The direct application has several drawbacks and its performance has not been evaluated. To address the concerns, we developed a spatial random-effects JPM for county-level cancer incidence data. The proposed model was used to predict both cancer incidence rates and counts at the county level. The standard JPM and the proposed method were compared through a validation study. The proposed method outperformed the standard JPM for almost all cancer sites, especially for moderate or rare cancer sites and for counties with small population sizes. As an application, we predicted county-level prostate cancer incidence rates and counts for the year 2011 in Connecticut. PMID:23670947

  14. Using Trust-Based Information Aggregation for Predicting Security Level of Systems

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of Service (DoS) solutions. 1 Introduction Often times there is a need to build a security solution, that has2014 Author manuscript, published in "Data and Applications Security and Privacy XXIV Springer (EdUsing Trust-Based Information Aggregation for Predicting Security Level of Systems Siv Hilde Houmb1

  15. Mechanical Complications after Myocardial Infarction Reliably Predicted Using C-Reactive Protein Levels and Lymphocytopenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anouk Widmer; André Z. Linka; Christine H. Attenhofer Jost; Barbara Buergi; Hans Peter Brunner-La Rocca; Franco Salomon; Burkhardt Seifert; Rolf Jenni

    2003-01-01

    We assessed the accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and lymphocyte counts to predict a mechanical complication (MC) after myocardial infarction (MI). Within 10 years, we identified 36 patients with 39 echocardiographically confirmed MC within 30 days of MI: ventricular septal defect (17 cases), papillary muscle rupture (10 cases), and left ventricular free wall rupture (12 cases). They were compared

  16. Amygdala norepinephrine levels after training predict inhibitory avoidance retention performance in rats

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Amygdala norepinephrine levels after training predict inhibitory avoidance retention performance memory consolidation alter norepinephrine (noradrenaline) release in the amygdala, as assessed by in vivo in the amygdala may be critical for regulating memory consolidation. The present study was the ®rst to examine

  17. The Impact of Climate Change on Great Lakes Water Levels Region: Great Lakes

    E-print Network

    The Impact of Climate Change on Great Lakes Water Levels Region: Great Lakes Grade Level(s): 9 on the Great Lakes? Learning Objectives: · The students will construct and explain theories for the decline in water level of the Great Lakes. · The students will be able to describe the effects of global warming

  18. Nitrates in drinking water and methemoglobin levels in pregnancy: a longitudinal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deana M Manassaram; Lorraine C Backer; Rita Messing; Lora E Fleming; Barbara Luke; Carolyn P Monteilh

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Private water systems are more likely to have nitrate levels above the maximum contaminant level (MCL). Pregnant women are considered vulnerable to the effects of exposure to high levels of nitrates in drinking water due to their altered physiological states. The level of methemoglobin in the blood is the biomarker often used in research for assessing exposure to nitrates.

  19. Shallow ground-water flow, water levels, and quality of water, 1980-84, Cowles Unit, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, D.A.; Shedlock, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Cowles Unit of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in Porter County, northwest Indiana, contains a broad dune-beach complex along the southern shoreline of Lake Michigan and a large wetland, called the Great Marsh, that occupies the lowland between the shoreline dunes and an older dune-beach complex farther inland. These lacustrine sediments form a surficial aquifer that extends from the Lake Michigan shoreline to the northern edge of the Lake Border moraine. Water levels and water quality in the surficial aquifer were monitored from 1977 to 1984 near settling ponds on adjacent industrial property at the western end of the Cowles Unit. Seepage from the settling ponds from 1967 to 1980 created a water table mound that extended north into the shoreline dune complex and caused perennial flooding of several intradunal lowlands on National Lakeshore property. Since 1980, when the settling pond bottoms were sealed , these intradunal lowlands contained standing water only during periods of high snowmelt or rainfall. Water level declines following the cessation of seepage ranged from 6 feet at the eastern-most settling pond to nearly 14 feet at the westernmost pond. No general pattern of water table decline was observed in the Great Marsh or in the shoreline dune complex at distances > 3,000 ft east or north of the settling ponds. Since the settling ponds were sealed, the concentration of boron has decreased while concentrations of cadmium, arsenic, zinc, and molybdenum in shallow groundwater downgradient of the ponds show no definite trends in time. Arsenic, boron and molybdenum have remained at concentrations above those of shallow groundwater in areas unaffected by settling pond seepage. (Author 's abstract)

  20. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2002--Volume 2: Continuous ground-water-level data, and periodic surface-water- and ground-water-quality data, Calendar Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coffin, Robert; Grams, Susan C.; Leeth, David C.; Peck, Michael F.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2002, including: discharge records of 154 gaging stations; stage for 165 gaging stations; precipitation for 105 gaging stations; information for 20 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 27 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 72 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 50 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data recorded by the NAWQA program in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2002, including continuous water-level records of 155 ground-water wells and periodic records at 132 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia.

  1. Short-term water level forecasts for the Laurentian Great Lakes using coupled atmosphere, land-surface and lake models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Vincent; Mackay, Murray; Casas-Prat, Mercè; Seglenieks, Frank; Dyck, Sarah; Dupont, Frédéric; Roy, François; Smith, Gregory C.

    2015-04-01

    Over the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Environment Canada operates a very successful short-term (48-h) environmental prediction system which includes the GEM atmospheric model, the ISBA land-surface model and the NEMO-CICE ice-ocean model. The positive impact of two-way coupling between the atmosphere and ocean is most clearly seen in winter, due to the presence of a dynamic ice cover and large heat fluxes over the ocean. This system is now being tested over the Laurentian Great Lakes, with the same objective of improving forecasts both for the atmosphere and the water bodies. In order to account for the significant impact of streamflow on the water level and water temperature of the Great Lakes, routing models for river flow and for connecting channels between lakes were added to the system. Offline tests demonstrated the capacity of the system to accurately simulate seasonal and multi-annual fluctuations in water levels and ice cover, as well as the need for consistent heat flux calculations in the atmospheric and ocean models. In this presentation, we focus on the skill of short-term water level forecasts. Over a few days, water levels of the Great Lakes mainly respond to the wind stress, but also change with surface pressure, precipitation, evaporation and river flow. The approach taken to account for each of these factors is described, and the skill of the resulting water level forecast is assessed over the fall of 2014 and the winter of 2015. It is shown that the system can accurately predict storm surges and seiches at the hourly time scale, with a skill that decreases slowly over 48-h, suggesting that skillful forecasts with longer lead times are feasible. A plan for increasing the lead time up to one month is presented.

  2. Non-cholesterol sterol levels predict hyperglycemia and conversion to type 2 diabetes in Finnish men.

    PubMed

    Cederberg, Henna; Gylling, Helena; Miettinen, Tatu A; Paananen, Jussi; Vangipurapu, Jagadish; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Stan?áková, Alena; Smith, Ulf; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the levels of non-cholesterol sterols as predictors for the development of hyperglycemia (an increase in the glucose area under the curve in an oral glucose tolerance test) and incident type 2 diabetes in a 5-year follow-up study of a population-based cohort of Finnish men (METSIM Study, N?=?1,050) having non-cholesterol sterols measured at baseline. Additionally we determined the association of 538,265 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with non-cholesterol sterol levels in a cross-sectional cohort of non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetes (the Kuopio cohort of the EUGENE2 Study, N?=?273). We found that in a cross-sectional METSIM Study the levels of sterols indicating cholesterol absorption were reduced as a function of increasing fasting glucose levels, whereas the levels of sterols indicating cholesterol synthesis were increased as a function of increasing 2-hour glucose levels. A cholesterol synthesis marker desmosterol significantly predicted an increase, and two absorption markers (campesterol and avenasterol) a decrease in the risk of hyperglycemia and incident type 2 diabetes in a 5-year follow-up of the METSIM cohort, mainly attributable to insulin sensitivity. A SNP of ABCG8 was associated with fasting plasma glucose levels in a cross-sectional study but did not predict hyperglycemia or incident type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, the levels of some, but not all non-cholesterol sterols are markers of the worsening of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23840693

  3. Model analysis of effects on water levels at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore caused by construction dewatering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marie, James R.

    1976-01-01

    The computer models were developed to investigate possible hydrologic effects within the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore caused by planned dewatering at the adjacent Bailly Nuclear Generator construction site. The model analysis indicated that the planned dewatering would cause a drawdown of about 4 ft under the westernmost pond of the Lakeshore and that this drawdown would cause the pond to go almost dry--less than 0.5 ft of water remaining in about 1 percent of the pond--under average conditions during the 18-month dewatering period. When water levels are below average, as during late July and early August 1974, the pond would go dry in about 5.5 months. However, the pond may not have to go completely dry to damage the ecosystem. If the National Park Service 's independent study determines the minimum pond level at which ecosystem damage would be minimized, the models developed in this study could be used to predict the hydrologic conditions necessary to maintain that level. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Residue-Level Prediction of HIV-1 Antibody Epitopes Based on Neutralization of Diverse Viral Strains

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Acharya, Priyamvada; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Yang, Yongping; Louder, Mark K.; Zhou, Tongqing; Kwon, Young Do; Pancera, Marie; Bailer, Robert T.; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Delineation of antibody epitopes at the residue level is key to understanding antigen resistance mutations, designing epitope-specific probes for antibody isolation, and developing epitope-based vaccines. Ideally, epitope residues are determined in the context of the atomic-level structure of the antibody-antigen complex, though structure determination may in many cases be impractical. Here we describe an efficient computational method to predict antibody-specific HIV-1 envelope (Env) epitopes at the residue level, based on neutralization panels of diverse viral strains. The method primarily utilizes neutralization potency data over a set of diverse viral strains representing the antigen, and enhanced accuracy could be achieved by incorporating information from the unbound structure of the antigen. The method was evaluated on 19 HIV-1 Env antibodies with neutralization panels comprising 181 diverse viral strains and with available antibody-antigen complex structures. Prediction accuracy was shown to improve significantly over random selection, with an average of greater-than-8-fold enrichment of true positives at the 0.05 false-positive rate level. The method was used to prospectively predict epitope residues for two HIV-1 antibodies, 8ANC131 and 8ANC195, for which we experimentally validated the predictions. The method is inherently applicable to antigens that exhibit sequence diversity, and its accuracy was found to correlate inversely with sequence conservation of the epitope. Together the results show how knowledge inherent to a neutralization panel and unbound antigen structure can be utilized for residue-level prediction of antibody epitopes. PMID:23843642

  5. Multi-level machine learning prediction of protein–protein interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Zubek, Julian; Tatjewski, Marcin; Boniecki, Adam; Mnich, Maciej; Basu, Subhadip

    2015-01-01

    Accurate identification of protein–protein interactions (PPI) is the key step in understanding proteins’ biological functions, which are typically context-dependent. Many existing PPI predictors rely on aggregated features from protein sequences, however only a few methods exploit local information about specific residue contacts. In this work we present a two-stage machine learning approach for prediction of protein–protein interactions. We start with the carefully filtered data on protein complexes available for Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) database. First, we build linear descriptions of interacting and non-interacting sequence segment pairs based on their inter-residue distances. Secondly, we train machine learning classifiers to predict binary segment interactions for any two short sequence fragments. The final prediction of the protein–protein interaction is done using the 2D matrix representation of all-against-all possible interacting sequence segments of both analysed proteins. The level-I predictor achieves 0.88 AUC for micro-scale, i.e., residue-level prediction. The level-II predictor improves the results further by a more complex learning paradigm. We perform 30-fold macro-scale, i.e., protein-level cross-validation experiment. The level-II predictor using PSIPRED-predicted secondary structure reaches 0.70 precision, 0.68 recall, and 0.70 AUC, whereas other popular methods provide results below 0.6 threshold (recall, precision, AUC). Our results demonstrate that multi-scale sequence features aggregation procedure is able to improve the machine learning results by more than 10% as compared to other sequence representations. Prepared datasets and source code for our experimental pipeline are freely available for download from: http://zubekj.github.io/mlppi/ (open source Python implementation, OS independent). PMID:26157620

  6. Air sparging: Prediction of air-water mass transfer coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Braida, W.J.; Ong, S.K.

    1998-07-01

    One of the difficulties with the application of air sparging as a remedial technology is that not much is known about the physical-chemical processes during air sparging. This study presents information on the air-water mass transfer of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) under air sparged conditions. The mass transfer coefficients were estimated using a single air channel experimental setup, where a thin channel of air (approx. 1.5 mm) was allowed to flow over saturated VOC-contaminated soil. The experimental setup allowed VOC concentrations in both liquid and gas phases to be measured. Eleven VOCs and three different porous media with mean particle size 0.168 mm, 0.190 mm, and 0.305 mm were used in the experiments. Air velocities ranged between 0.2 cm/s and 2.5 cm/s. Air-water mass transfer coefficients were estimated by fitting experimental data with an advection-diffusion model. The model assumed the existence of an aqueous phase influence zone (called the mass transfer zone (MTZ)) surrounding the air channel in which VOCs present were directly impacted by the air flow. The size of the influence zone was found to be a function of the physical-chemical characteristics of the porous media and the VOCs. The estimated liquid side lumped air-water mass transfer coefficients (K{sub L}a) were found to range from 2.6 x 10{sup {minus}5} to 2.4 x 10{sup {minus}4} min{sup {minus}1}. An empirical model was developed by correlating the modified Sherwood number with the air phase Peclet number. Henry's law constant, normalized particle size, and uniformity coefficient of the porous media.

  7. Predicting soil and water acidification: proceedings of a workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W. (ed.)

    1985-01-01

    A three-day workshop was held at the Hilton Hotel in Knoxville, Tennessee on March 27-29, 1984, preceded by a one-day tour of sites at or near ORNL. Funding for the workshop was provided by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program by the US Environmental Protection Agency. One of the goals of this workshop was to develop a consensus among the participant as to sensitivity criteria for acid deposition effects on both soils and surface waters. As the meeting evolved, the workshop participants spent most of their time in a very productive discussion of important processes and hypotheses regarding soil and water acidification, primarily from the theoretical standpoint, using empirical data to illustrate specific points. Only in the afternoon of the last day were sensitivity criteria as such as discussed, but all of the preceding discussions clearly related to this issue as well. The workshop discussions, including sensitivity criteria, are summarized in this document. A major highlight of this workshop was a meeting of minds among aquatic and terrestrial scientists as to important mechanisms for surface water acidification. This paved the way for assessment activities, probably is association with modeling efforts. No such consensus or knowledge is available for forest effects, however, because the important mechanisms of forest effects are not known. A concensus was reached as to appropriate sensitivity criteria for soil acidification and aluminum mobilization but there was no consensus as to whether these processes in themselves are responsible for reported widespread forest dieback and decline. Thus, assigning forest effects sensitivity criteria at this time would be premature. Two major areas of research were identified as most in need of further research: nitrogen cycling and soil weathering.

  8. Construal Levels and Psychological Distance: Effects on Representation, Prediction, Evaluation, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Trope, Yaacov; Liberman, Nira; Wakslak, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Construal level theory (CLT) is an account of how psychological distance influences individuals’ thoughts and behavior. CLT assumes that people mentally construe objects that are psychologically near in terms of low-level, detailed, and contextualized features, whereas at a distance they construe the same objects or events in terms of high-level, abstract, and stable characteristics. Research has shown that different dimensions of psychological distance (time, space, social distance, and hypotheticality) affect mental construal and that these construals, in turn, guide prediction, evaluation, and behavior. The present paper reviews this research and its implications for consumer psychology. PMID:21822366

  9. Predicting Land-Ice Retreat and Sea-Level Rise with the Community Earth System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lipscomb, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-19

    Coastal stakeholders need defensible predictions of 21st century sea-level rise (SLR). IPCC assessments suggest 21st century SLR of {approx}0.5 m under aggressive emission scenarios. Semi-empirical models project SLR of {approx}1 m or more by 2100. Although some sea-level contributions are fairly well constrained by models, others are highly uncertain. Recent studies suggest a potential large contribution ({approx}0.5 m/century) from the marine-based West Antarctic Ice Sheet, linked to changes in Southern Ocean wind stress. To assess the likelihood of fast retreat of marine ice sheets, we need coupled ice-sheet/ocean models that do not yet exist (but are well under way). CESM is uniquely positioned to provide integrated, physics based sea-level predictions.

  10. Using land surface model and satellite observations to simulate lake water level and thermal variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Subin, Z. M.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, lakes are included in a coupled routing model and catchment-based land surface model (CHARMS), which is modified from the land-surface component (CLM4) of an Earth system model (CESM1). In the routing scheme, lakes are connected with rivers using upstream/downstream relationships in a lake basin. Evaporation, precipitation, and river runoff are modeled in order to close the lake water budget. However, the original lake model in CLM4 poorly predicts the lake temperature, which highly affects the evaporation and surface energy fluxes. Using an improved lake model (CLM4-LISSS) the lake water temperature and surface energy flux are better predicted. This new version of CHARMS is tested on several large lakes around the world (e.g., the Great Lakes, and Lake Victoria) to evaluate its performance in different climate zones. Modeled lake level time series are compared with satellite altimetry. In order to test the ability of CHARMS to simulating the variations of lake temperature, we compare the amount of thermal expansion calculated from modeled lake temperature with the amount of thermal expansion determined from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and satellite altimetry data.

  11. Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage volume changes. Ground-based data can, in some cases, test the remote sensing accuracy and precision. Data accuracy requirements vary for different applications: reservoir management for flood control, agriculture, or power generation may need more accurate and timely information than (for example) regional assessments of water and food security issues. Thus, the long-term goal for the hydrological sciences community should be to efficiently mesh both types of information and with as extensive geographic coverage as possible.

  12. A Noise Level Prediction Method Based on Electro-Mechanical Frequency Response Function for Capacitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible noise which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing noise level prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new noise level prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible noise is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The noise level under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the noise prediction method is effective. PMID:24349105

  13. A noise level prediction method based on electro-mechanical frequency response function for capacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible noise which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing noise level prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new noise level prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible noise is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The noise level under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the noise prediction method is effective. PMID:24349105

  14. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, H.; Wade, J.

    2014-04-01

    While it is important to make the equipment (or 'plant') in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10 to 30 percent of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Five houses near Syracuse NY were monitored. Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  15. Natural circulation steam generator model for optimal steam generator water level control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feeley

    1979-01-01

    Several authors have cited the control of steam generator water level as an important problem in the operation of pressurized water reactor plants. In this paper problems associated with steam generator water level control are identified, and advantages of modern estimation and control theory in dealing with these problems are discussed. A new state variable steam generator model and preliminary

  16. The research on the new boiler water level automatic control system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juyuan Jiang; Lijing Li

    2011-01-01

    The boiler's drum water level is a material balance indicator between which are the output of steam and water supply. It is a parameter of both the security and the quality. Some questions in the existing automatic control system of the boiler of water level are the low-control accuracy, the poor dynamic characteristics, the weak anti-interference ability and the high

  17. Arsenic levels in drinking water and the prevalence of skin lesions in West Bengal, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debendra N Guha; Reina Haque; Allan H Smith

    1998-01-01

    Background A cross-sectional survey was conducted between April 1995 and March 1996 to investigate arsenic-associated skin lesions of keratosis and hyperpigmentation in West Bengal, India, and to determine their relationship to arsenic water levels. Methods In all, 7683 participants were examined and interviewed, and the arsenic levels in their drinking water measured. Results Although water concentrations ranged up to 3400

  18. Neural networks internal model control for water level of boiler drum in power station

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Yang; Dao-Gang Peng; Yan-Hua Yang; Zhi-Ping Wang

    2004-01-01

    Water level of boiler drum in power station is one of the main control parameters for turbine-generator unit, which reflects the balance of boiler load and feed-water indirectly. Aiming at the water level control in power station, an internal model control based on neural networks is presented in this paper. It adopts the steam flux signal to the internal model

  19. Molecular-level engineering of protein physical hydrogels for predictive sol-gel phase behavior

    PubMed Central

    Mulyasasmita, Widya; Lee, Ji Seok; Heilshorn, Sarah C.

    2011-01-01

    Predictable tuning of bulk mechanics from the molecular level remains elusive in many physical hydrogel systems due to the reliance on non-specific and non-stoichiometric chain interactions for network formation. We describe a Mixing-Induced Two-Component Hydrogel (MITCH) system, in which network assembly is driven by specific and stoichiometric peptide-peptide binding interactions. By integrating protein science methodologies with simple polymer physics model, we manipulate the polypeptide binding interactions and demonstrate the direct ability to predict the resulting effects on network crosslinking density, sol-gel phase behavior, and gel mechanics. PMID:21861461

  20. Resting-state glutamate level in the anterior cingulate predicts blood-oxygen level-dependent response to cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Falkenberg, Liv E.; Westerhausen, René; Specht, Karsten; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is a core structure for the governing of cognitive control, and recent studies have shown that interindividual differences in dACC anatomy are associated with corresponding differences in the ability for cognitive control. However, individuals differ not only in anatomical features of dACC, but also exhibit substantial variability regarding the biochemical characteristics of the dACC. In this study, we combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), finding that interindividual differences of glutamate levels in the dACC during resting-state predict the strength of the blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to a task requiring cognitive control. This relationship was observed in the retrosplenial cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, the inferior parietal lobe, and the basal ganglia. More specifically, individuals with low resting-state glutamate levels in the dACC showed an increased BOLD response when the task demands were high, whereas high-glutamate individuals showed the opposite pattern of an increased BOLD response when the task demands were low. Thus, we show here that individual variability of glutamate levels is directly related to how the brain implements cognitive control. PMID:22411802

  1. Litter quality and its response to water level drawdown in boreal peatlands at plant species and community level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straková, Petra; Anttila, Jani; Spetz, Peter; Kitunen, Veikko; Tapanila, Tarja; Laiho, Raija

    2010-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that changes in the species composition and structure of plant communities induced by global change will have much more impact on plant-mediated carbon cycling than any phenotypic responses. These impacts are largely mediated by shifts in litter quality. There are few documentations of these changes so far, due to the relatively long time scale required for their direct observation. Here, we examine the changes in litter inputs induced by persistent water-level drawdown in boreal peatland sites. Peatlands contain a major proportion of the terrestrial carbon pool, and it is thus important to be able to predict their behaviour and role in the global C cycle under different global change factors. We studied the effects of short-term (ca. 4 years) and long-term (ca. 40 years) persistent water level (WL) drawdown on the quantity and chemical quality of above-ground plant litter inputs at three sites: bog, oligotrophic fen and mesotrophic fen. The parameters used to characterize litter quality included various extractable substances, cellulose, holocellulose, composition of hemicellulose (neutral sugars, uronic acids), lignin, CuO oxidation phenolic products, and concentrations of C, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium, magnesium, manganese and calcium. Four different groups of litter were clearly distinct based on their chemical quality: foliar litters, graminoids, mosses and woody litters. The pristine conditions were characterized by Sphagnum moss and graminoid litter. Following short-term WL drawdown, changes in the quality and quantity of litter inputs were small. Following long-term WL drawdown, total litter inputs dramatically increased, due to increased tree litter inputs, and the litter type composition greatly changed. These changes resulted in annual inputs of 1901-2010 kg•ha-1 C, 22-24 kg•ha-1 N, 1.5-2.2 kg•ha-1 P, 967-1235 kg•ha-1 lignin and lignin-like compounds and 254-300 kg•ha-1 water solubles after long-term WL drawdown, compared to respective values of 394-658, 5.6-9.3, 0.22-24.4, 161-293 and 44-81 for the pristine conditions. The direct effects of WL drawdown on litter quality were overruled by the indirect effects via changes in vegetation composition. The short-term (reflecting transient conditions) and long-term (reflecting longer-lasting situation of already adapted ecosystem) effects were very different. Our results imply that the long-term effects will strongly affect the soil properties and C cycle of peatlands.

  2. Effect of water level drawdown on decomposition in boreal peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straková, Petra; Penttilä, Timo; Laiho, Raija

    2010-05-01

    Plant litter production and decomposition are key processes in element cycling in most ecosystems. In peatlands, there has been a long-term imbalance between litter production and decay caused by high water levels (WL) and consequent anoxia. This has resulted in peatlands being a significant sink of carbon (C) from the atmosphere. However, peatlands are experiencing both "natural" (global climate change) and anthropogenic (ditching) changes that threaten their ability to retain this ecosystem identity and function. Many of these alterations can be traced back to WL drawdown, which can cause increased aeration, higher acidity, falling temperatures, and a greater probability of drought. Such changes are also associated with an increasing decomposition rate, and therefore a greater amount of C released back to the atmosphere. Yet studies about how the overall C balance of peatlands will be affected have come up with conflicting conclusions, demonstrating that the C store could increase, decrease, or remain static. A factor that has been largely overlooked is the change in litter type composition following persistent WL drawdown. It is the aim of our study, then, to help to resolve this issue. We studied the effects of short-term (ca. 4 years) and long-term (ca. 40 years) persistent WL drawdown on the decomposition of numerous types of above-ground and below-ground plant litters at three boreal peatland sites: bog, oligotrophic fen and mesotrophic fen. We thus believe that enough permutations have been created to obtain a good assessment of how each factor, site nutrient level, WL regime, and litter type composition, influences decomposition. We used the litter bag method to measure the decomposition rates: placed measured amounts of plant litter, or cellulose strips as a control, into closed mesh bags, and installed the bags in the natural environment for decomposition for each litter type for varying amounts of time. Following litter bag recovery, the litter was cleaned of excess debris and analyzed for changes in mass, enzyme activity, mesofauna presence, and microbial community composition, among other things. The experiment has a run-time of ten years, the results from the first two years are presented in the poster.

  3. Borehole sounding device with sealed depth and water level sensors

    DOEpatents

    Skalski, Joseph C.; Henke, Michael D.

    2005-08-02

    A borehole device having proximal and distal ends comprises an enclosure at the proximal end for accepting an aircraft cable containing a plurality of insulated conductors from a remote position. A water sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the enclosure and contains means for detecting water, and sending a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating water has been detected. A bottom sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the water sensing enclosure for determining when the borehole device encounters borehole bottom and sends a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating that borehole bottom has been encountered.

  4. Predicting sub-grid variability of soil water content from basic soil information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Wei; Bogena, Heye; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Vanderborght, Jan; Schuh, Max; Priesack, Eckart; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of unresolved soil water content variability within model grid cells (i.e. sub-grid variability) is important for accurate predictions of land-surface energy and hydrologic fluxes. Here, we derived a closed-form expression to describe how soil water content variability depends on mean soil water content using stochastic analysis of 1D unsaturated gravitational flow based on the van Genuchten-Mualem (VGM) model. A sensitivity analysis of this closed-form expression showed that the n parameter strongly influenced both the shape and magnitude of the maximum of this relationship. In a next step, the closed-form expression was used to predict soil water content variability for eight datasets with varying soil texture using VGM parameters obtained from pedotransfer functions that rely on readily available soil information. Generally, there was good agreement between observed and predicted soil water content variability despite the obvious simplifications that were used to derive the closed-form expression (e.g. gravity flow in dry soils). A simplified closed-form expression that neglected the effect of pressure head fluctuations showed that the good performance in the dry soil range is related to the dominant role of the variability in MVG parameters determining water retention as compared to the effect of water flow. Furthermore, the novel closed-form expression was successfully used to inversely estimate the variability of hydraulic properties from observed data on soil water content variability from several test sites in Germany, China and Australia.

  5. COPPER LEVELS IN DRINKING WATER FROM PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD WELLS IN MAJOR PROVINCES OF GEORGIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Sonon; D. Kissel; P. Vendrell; R. Hitchcock

    Copper is an essential element in human diet. However, too much copper in drinking water can cause flavor changes and health hazards. Thus, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set drinking water standards to regulate copper levels in the drinking water supply. Water test results obtained by the Agricultural and Environmental Services Laboratories (AESL) indicated that about 5.6% of

  6. Prediction of full-scale dewatering results of sewage sludges by the physical water distribution.

    PubMed

    Kopp, J; Dichtl, N

    2001-01-01

    The dewaterability of sewage sludge can be described by the total solids concentration of the sludge cake and the polymer-demand for conditioning. The total solids concentration of the sludge cake depends on the physical water distribution. The various types of water in sewage sludge are mainly distinguished by the type and the intensity of their physical bonding to the solids. In a sewage sludge suspension four different types of water can be distinguished. These are the free water, which is not bound to the particles, the interstitial water, which is bound by capillary forces between the sludge flocs, the surface water, which is bound by adhesive forces and intracellular water. Only the share of free water can be separated during mechanical dewatering. It can be shown, that by thermo-gravimeteric measurement of the free water content, an exact prediction of full-scale dewatering results is possible. By separation of all free water during centrifugation the maximum dewatering result is reached. Polymer conditioning increases the velocity of the sludge water release, but the free water content is not influenced by this process. Furthermore it is not possible, to replace the measuring of the water distribution by other individual parameters such as ignition loss. PMID:11443955

  7. Model Predictive Control application for real time operation of controlled structures for the Water Authority Noorderzijlvest, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heeringen, Klaas-Jan; Gooijer, Jan; Knot, Floris; Talsma, Jan

    2015-04-01

    In the Netherlands, flood protection has always been a key issue to protect settlements against storm surges and riverine floods. Whereas flood protection traditionally focused on structural measures, nowadays the availability of meteorological and hydrological forecasts enable the application of more advanced real-time control techniques for operating the existing hydraulic infrastructure in an anticipatory and more efficient way. Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a powerful technique to derive optimal control variables with the help of model based predictions evaluated against a control objective. In a project for the regional water authority Noorderzijlvest in the north of the Netherlands, it has been shown that MPC can increase the safety level of the system during flood events by an anticipatory pre-release of water. Furthermore, energy costs of pumps can be reduced by making tactical use of the water storage and shifting pump activities during normal operating conditions to off-peak hours. In this way cheap energy is used in combination of gravity flow through gates during low tide periods. MPC has now been implemented for daily operational use of the whole water system of the water authority Noorderzijlvest. The system developed to a real time decision support system which not only supports the daily operation but is able to directly implement the optimal control settings at the structures. We explain how we set-up and calibrated a prediction model (RTC-Tools) that is accurate and fast enough for optimization purposes, and how we integrated it in the operational flood early warning system (Delft-FEWS). Beside the prediction model, the weights and the factors of the objective function are an important element of MPC, since they shape the control objective. We developed special features in Delft-FEWS to allow the operators to adjust the objective function in order to meet changing requirements and to evaluate different control strategies.

  8. Predicting hemoglobin levels in whole blood donors using transition models and mixed effects models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To optimize the planning of blood donations but also to continue motivating the volunteers it is important to streamline the practical organization of the timing of donations. While donors are asked to return for donation after a suitable period, still a relevant proportion of blood donors is deferred from donation each year due to a too low hemoglobin level. Rejection of donation may demotivate the candidate donor and implies an inefficient planning of the donation process. Hence, it is important to predict the future hemoglobin level to improve the planning of donors’ visits to the blood bank. Methods The development of the hemoglobin prediction rule is based on longitudinal (panel) data from blood donations collected by Sanquin (the only blood product collecting and supplying organization in the Netherlands). We explored and contrasted two popular statistical models, i.e. the transition (autoregressive) model and the mixed effects model as plausible models to account for the dependence among subsequent hemoglobin levels within a donor. Results The predictors of the future hemoglobin level are age, season, hemoglobin levels at the previous visits, and a binary variable indicating whether a donation was made at the previous visit. Based on cross-validation, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) for male donors are 0.83 and 0.81 for the transition model and the mixed effects model, respectively; for female donors we obtained AUC values of 0.73 and 0.72 for the transition model and the mixed effects model, respectively. Conclusion We showed that the transition models and the mixed effects models provide a much better prediction compared to a multiple linear regression model. In general, the transition model provides a somewhat better prediction than the mixed effects model, especially at high visit numbers. In addition, the transition model offers a better trade-off between sensitivity and specificity when varying the cut-off values for eligibility in predicted values. Hence transition models make the prediction of hemoglobin level more precise and may lead to less deferral from donation in the future. PMID:23635008

  9. Predicting spike timing in highly synchronous auditory neurons at different sound levels

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Bertrand; Benichoux, Victor; Joris, Philip X.

    2013-01-01

    A challenge for sensory systems is to encode natural signals that vary in amplitude by orders of magnitude. The spike trains of neurons in the auditory system must represent the fine temporal structure of sounds despite a tremendous variation in sound level in natural environments. It has been shown in vitro that the transformation from dynamic signals into precise spike trains can be accurately captured by simple integrate-and-fire models. In this work, we show that the in vivo responses of cochlear nucleus bushy cells to sounds across a wide range of levels can be precisely predicted by deterministic integrate-and-fire models with adaptive spike threshold. Our model can predict both the spike timings and the firing rate in response to novel sounds, across a large input level range. A noisy version of the model accounts for the statistical structure of spike trains, including the reliability and temporal precision of responses. Spike threshold adaptation was critical to ensure that predictions remain accurate at different levels. These results confirm that simple integrate-and-fire models provide an accurate phenomenological account of spike train statistics and emphasize the functional relevance of spike threshold adaptation. PMID:23864375

  10. Comparative evaluation of set-level techniques in predictive classification of gene expression samples

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Analysis of gene expression data in terms of a priori-defined gene sets has recently received significant attention as this approach typically yields more compact and interpretable results than those produced by traditional methods that rely on individual genes. The set-level strategy can also be adopted with similar benefits in predictive classification tasks accomplished with machine learning algorithms. Initial studies into the predictive performance of set-level classifiers have yielded rather controversial results. The goal of this study is to provide a more conclusive evaluation by testing various components of the set-level framework within a large collection of machine learning experiments. Results Genuine curated gene sets constitute better features for classification than sets assembled without biological relevance. For identifying the best gene sets for classification, the Global test outperforms the gene-set methods GSEA and SAM-GS as well as two generic feature selection methods. To aggregate expressions of genes into a feature value, the singular value decomposition (SVD) method as well as the SetSig technique improve on simple arithmetic averaging. Set-level classifiers learned with 10 features constituted by the Global test slightly outperform baseline gene-level classifiers learned with all original data features although they are slightly less accurate than gene-level classifiers learned with a prior feature-selection step. Conclusion Set-level classifiers do not boost predictive accuracy, however, they do achieve competitive accuracy if learned with the right combination of ingredients. Availability Open-source, publicly available software was used for classifier learning and testing. The gene expression datasets and the gene set database used are also publicly available. The full tabulation of experimental results is available at http://ida.felk.cvut.cz/CESLT. PMID:22759420

  11. Corticosterone levels predict survival probabilities of Galápagos marine iguanas during El Niño events

    PubMed Central

    Romero, L. Michael; Wikelski, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Plasma levels of corticosterone are often used as a measure of “stress” in wild animal populations. However, we lack conclusive evidence that different stress levels reflect different survival probabilities between populations. Galápagos marine iguanas offer an ideal test case because island populations are affected differently by recurring El Niño famine events, and population-level survival can be quantified by counting iguanas locally. We surveyed corticosterone levels in six populations during the 1998 El Niño famine and the 1999 La Niña feast period. Iguanas had higher baseline and handling stress-induced corticosterone concentrations during famine than feast conditions. Corticosterone levels differed between islands and predicted survival through an El Niño period. However, among individuals, baseline corticosterone was only elevated when body condition dropped below a critical threshold. Thus, the population-level corticosterone response was variable but nevertheless predicted overall population health. Our results lend support to the use of corticosterone as a rapid quantitative predictor of survival in wild animal populations. PMID:11416210

  12. Basal salivary oxytocin level predicts extra- but not intra-personal dimensions of emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Koven, Nancy S; Max, Laura K

    2014-06-01

    A wealth of literature suggests that oxytocin is an important mediator of social cognition, but much of the research to date has relied on pharmaceutical administration methods that can raise oxytocin to artificially high levels. The present study builds upon previous work by examining whether basal oxytocin level predicts intra- and extra-personal (i.e., self- and other-focused) elements of emotional intelligence (EI), independent of shared variance with current mood. The sample included 71 healthy young adults (46 women). Assessment measures included the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test Version 2.0 (MSCEIT), the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, and the Profile of Mood States. Peripheral oxytocin levels were examined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from saliva after solid phase extraction. Oxytocin level was unrelated to TMMS scores but was positively associated with performance in the Experiential EI domain of the MSCEIT. However, total mood disturbance was positively related to MSCEIT scores. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that oxytocin level added unique variance to the prediction of MSCEIT performance beyond that of current mood. These results confirm an association between endogenous levels of oxytocin in healthy adults and a subset of EI abilities, including extra-personal emotion recognition and the channeling of emotions to enhance social proficiency. PMID:24767616

  13. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2001, Volume 2: Continuous ground-water level data, and periodic surface-water- and ground-water-quality data, Calendar Year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coffin, Robert; Grams, Susan C.; Cressler, Alan M.; Leeth, David C.

    2001-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2001 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2001, including: discharge records of 133 gaging stations; stage for 144 gaging stations; precipitation for 58 gaging stations; information for 19 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 17 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 76 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 27 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data recorded by the NAWQA program in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2001, including continuous water-level records of 159 ground-water wells and periodic records at 138 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia. Note: Historically, this report was published as a paper report. For the 1999 and subsequent water-year reports, the Water Resources Data for Georgia changed to a new, more informative and functional format on CD-ROM. The format is based on a geographic information system (GIS) user interface that allows the user to view map locations of the hydrologic monitoring stations and networks within respective river basins. To obtain a copy of the CD version of this report, you may call the U.S. Geological Survey office in Atlanta at (770) 903-9100, or send e-mail to request the publication. Please include your name and mailing address in your e-mail.

  14. U.S. Geological Survey Water science strategy--observing, understanding, predicting, and delivering water science to the nation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evenson, Eric J.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Blome, Charles D.; Böhlke, John Karl; Hershberger, Paul K.; Langenheim, Victoria E.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Morlock, Scott E.; Reeves, Howard W.; Verdin, James P.; Weyers, Holly S.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2013-01-01

    This report expands the Water Science Strategy that began with the USGS Science Strategy, “Facing Tomorrow’s Challenges—U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007–2017” (U.S. Geological Survey, 2007). This report looks at the relevant issues facing society and develops a strategy built around observing, understanding, predicting, and delivering water science for the next 5 to 10 years by building new capabilities, tools, and delivery systems to meet the Nation’s water-resource needs. This report begins by presenting the vision of water science for the USGS and the societal issues that are influenced by, and in turn influence, the water resources of our Nation. The essence of the Water Science Strategy is built on the concept of “water availability,” defined as spatial and temporal distribution of water quantity and quality, as related to human and ecosystem needs, as affected by human and natural influences. The report also describes the core capabilities of the USGS in water science—the strengths, partnerships, and science integrity that the USGS has built over its 134-year history. Nine priority actions are presented in the report, which combine and elevate the numerous specific strategic actions listed throughout the report. Priority actions were developed as a means of providing the audience of this report with a list for focused attention, even if resources and time limit the ability of managers to address all of the strategic actions in the report.

  15. Predicting inhomogeneous water absorption in an ionic diblock polymer membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Daniel; Witten, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Fuel cells convert fuel directly into electrical power. Their performance depends on a permeable (yet strong) membrane to allow ion conduction (while preventing combustion). Anion-exchange membrane fuel-cells are especially economical to produce, but technological hurdles currently limit durability and OH- conductivity of the membrane. One solution to these problems is a diblock morphology. Layers of stiff hydrophobic polymer provide structure, while interspersed layers of polyelectrolyte provide avenues for conduction. Previously, little was known about the structure within the conducting layer. We adapted Scheutjens-Fleer polymer-brush theory to a lamellar geometry. The calculation tells where the polyelectrolytes congregate within a lamella, and hence how conduction occurs. This talk focuses on a new diblock material, PMB-PVBTMA. We show how the features of the material determine the intra-lamellar structure. We conclude that at low humidity, the bulkiness of PVBTMA causes it to adopt a near-uniform distribution within the conducting block. At high humidity, however, a phase separation may induce abrupt water channels. Understanding the architecture within the conducting layer will help guide research into better anion-exchange membranes materials. Fuel cells convert fuel directly into electrical power. Their performance depends on a permeable (yet strong) membrane to allow ion conduction (while preventing combustion). Anion-exchange membrane fuel-cells are especially economical to produce, but technological hurdles currently limit durability and OH- conductivity of the membrane. One solution to these problems is a diblock morphology. Layers of stiff hydrophobic polymer provide structure, while interspersed layers of polyelectrolyte provide avenues for conduction. Previously, little was known about the structure within the conducting layer. We adapted Scheutjens-Fleer polymer-brush theory to a lamellar geometry. The calculation tells where the polyelectrolytes congregate within a lamella, and hence how conduction occurs. This talk focuses on a new diblock material, PMB-PVBTMA. We show how the features of the material determine the intra-lamellar structure. We conclude that at low humidity, the bulkiness of PVBTMA causes it to adopt a near-uniform distribution within the conducting block. At high humidity, however, a phase separation may induce abrupt water channels. Understanding the architecture within the conducting layer will help guide research into better anion-exchange membranes materials. The authors would like to thank the Army Research Office for support of this research under the MURI #W911NF-10-1-0520.

  16. Understanding Variability in Beach Slope to Improve Forecasts of Storm-induced Water Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, K. S.; Stockdon, H. F.; Long, J.

    2014-12-01

    The National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards combines measurements of beach morphology with storm hydrodynamics to produce forecasts of coastal change during storms for the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastlines of the United States. Wave-induced water levels are estimated using modeled offshore wave height and period and measured beach slope (from dune toe to shoreline) through the empirical parameterization of Stockdon et al. (2006). Spatial and temporal variability in beach slope leads to corresponding variability in predicted wave setup and swash. Seasonal and storm-induced changes in beach slope can lead to differences on the order of a meter in wave runup elevation, making accurate specification of this parameter essential to skillful forecasts of coastal change. Spatial variation in beach slope is accounted for through alongshore averaging, but temporal variability in beach slope is not included in the final computation of the likelihood of coastal change. Additionally, input morphology may be years old and potentially very different than the conditions present during forecast storm. In order to improve our forecasts of hurricane-induced coastal erosion hazards, the temporal variability of beach slope must be included in the final uncertainty of modeled wave-induced water levels. Frequently collected field measurements of lidar-based beach morphology are examined for study sites in Duck, North Carolina, Treasure Island, Florida, Assateague Island, Virginia, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, with some records extending over a period of 15 years. Understanding the variability of slopes at these sites will help provide estimates of associated water level uncertainty which can then be applied to other areas where lidar observations are infrequent, and improve the overall skill of future forecasts of storm-induced coastal change. Stockdon, H. F., Holman, R. A., Howd, P. A., and Sallenger Jr, A. H. (2006). Empirical parameterization of setup,swash, and runup. Coastal engineering, 53(7), 573-588.

  17. Analysis of water levels in the Frenchman Flat area, Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bright, D.J.; Watkins, S.A.; Lisle, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of water levels in 21 wells in the Frenchman Flat area, Nevada Test Site, provides information on the accuracy of hydraulic-head calculations, temporal water-level trends, and potential causes of water-level fluctuations. Accurate hydraulic heads are particularly important in Frenchman Flat where the hydraulic gradients are relatively flat (less than 1 foot per mile) in the alluvial aquifer. Temporal water-level trends with magnitudes near or exceeding the regional hydraulic gradient may have a substantial effect on ground-water flow directions. Water-level measurements can be adjusted for the effects of barometric pressure, formation water density (from water-temperature measurements), borehole deviation, and land-surface altitude in selected wells in the Frenchman Flat area. Water levels in one well were adjusted for the effect of density; this adjustment was significantly greater (about 17 feet) than the adjustment of water levels for barometric pressure, borehole deviation, or land-surface altitude (less than about 4 feet). Water-level measurements from five wells exhibited trends that were statistically and hydrologically significant. Statistically significant water-level trends were observed for three wells completed in the alluvial aquifer (WW-5a, UE-5n, and PW-3), for one well completed in the carbonate aquifer (SM-23), and for one well completed in the quartzite confining unit (Army-6a). Potential causes of water-level fluctuations in wells in the Frenchman Flat area include changes in atmospheric conditions (precipitation and barometric pressure), Earth tides, seismic activity, past underground nuclear testing, and nearby pumping. Periodic water-level measurements in some wells completed in the carbonate aquifer indicate cyclic-type water-level fluctuations that generally correlate with longer term changes (more than 5 years) in precipitation. Ground-water pumping fromthe alluvial aquifer at well WW-5c and pumping and discharge from well RNM-2s appear to cause water-level fluctuations in nearby observation wells. The remaining known sources of water-level fluctuations do not appear to substantially affect water-level changes (seismic activity and underground nuclear testing) or do not affect changes over a period of more than 1 year (barometric pressure and Earth tides) in wells in the Frenchman Flat area.

  18. STATISTICAL PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINATION AND VERIFICATION OF MINIMUM REPORTING LEVELS FOR DRINKING WATER METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water (OGWDW) has developed a single-laboratory quantitation procedure: the lowest concentration minimum reporting level (LCMRL). The LCMRL is the lowest true concentration for which fu...

  19. 26. JUNCTION STRUCTURE. WATER LEVEL 1190FT, INNER RING MIXER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. JUNCTION STRUCTURE. WATER LEVEL 1190FT, INNER RING MIXER OF STATE AND COLORADO, WATER EXITS THROUGH OUTER RING. - F. E. Weymouth Filtration Plant, 700 North Moreno Avenue, La Verne, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. Irregular variations of Sea Level Anomaly data and their impact on prediction errors of these data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbylut-Górska, Maria; Kosek, Wieslaw; Niedzielski, Tomasz; Popi?ski, Waldemar; Wn?k, Agnieszka

    2015-04-01

    The movement of water around the oceans caused by density and a wind driven circulation plays a significant role in variation of sea surface heights which is now observed by satellite altimetry. Weekly SLA data thanks to courtesy of AVISO (Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic) service were analyzed to detect their irregular variations using the two time-frequency methods: Fourier Transform Band Pass Filter with Hilbert Transform (FTBPF+HT) and Complex demodulation with the Fourier Transform Low Pass Filter (CD+FTLPF). Using these two methods it is possible to compute time variable amplitudes and phases of oscillations as a function of geographic location. The global ocean maps of the standard deviations of amplitude differences and products of amplitude and phase differences for the annual oscillation and other shorter period oscillations with frequencies being an integer multiplicity of the annual frequency were computed to show the ocean areas with the greatest irregular variations. Such irregular amplitude and phase variations of the oscillations are the main causes of the SLA prediction errors. The predictions of the SLA time series were computed by a combination of the polynomial-harmonic model with the autoregressive prediction in the frame of PROGNOCEAN prediction service at the University of Wroclaw. The maps of these standard deviations are very similar to the maps of the mean prediction errors for a two weeks in the future of the SLA data. Thus, it's possible that the broadband annual oscillation is the main cause of the increase of the SLA data prediction errors.

  1. Modelling of hydrogen production from pore water radiolysis in cemented intermediate level waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foct, F.; Di Giandomenico, M.-V.; Bouniol, P.

    2013-07-01

    In France, some of the intermediate and low level wastes are embedded in hydraulic binder and put into concrete canisters. They contain ? and ? emitters which cause an irradiation of water present in the pores of the hydraulic binder. This is responsible for a dihydrogen (H2) production due to radiolysis. EDF R&D and CEA have collaborated since many years in order to understand this phenomenon and develop a model called DO-RE-MI which can predict such a production of dihydrogen in concrete waste packages. A parametric study, using the developed model, was implemented in order to determine the effects of each parameter on H2 production. The main results are presented in this paper.

  2. Nitrates in drinking water and methemoglobin levels in pregnancy: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Private water systems are more likely to have nitrate levels above the maximum contaminant level (MCL). Pregnant women are considered vulnerable to the effects of exposure to high levels of nitrates in drinking water due to their altered physiological states. The level of methemoglobin in the blood is the biomarker often used in research for assessing exposure to nitrates. The objective of this study was to assess methemoglobin levels and examine how various factors affected methemoglobin levels during pregnancy. We also examined whether differences in water use practices existed among pregnant women based on household drinking water source of private vs. public supply. Methods A longitudinal study of 357 pregnant women was conducted. Longitudinal regression models were used to examine changes and predictors of the change in methemoglobin levels over the period of gestation. Results Pregnant women showed a decrease in methemoglobin levels with increasing gestation although <1% had levels above the physiologic normal of 2% methemoglobin, regardless of the source of their drinking water. The multivariable analyses did not show a statistically significant association between methemoglobin levels and the estimated nitrate intake from tap water among pregnant women around 36 weeks gestation (? = 0.046, p = 0.986). Four women had tap water nitrate levels above the MCL of 10 mg/L. At enrollment, a greater proportion of women who reported using water treatment devices were private wells users (66%) compared to public system users (46%) (p < 0.0001). Also, a greater proportion of private well users (27%) compared to public system users (13%) were using devices capable of removing nitrate from water (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Pregnant women potentially exposed to nitrate levels primarily below the MCL for drinking water were unlikely to show methemoglobin levels above the physiologic normal. Water use practices such as the use of treatment devices to remove nitrates varied according to water source and should be considered in the assessment of exposure to nitrates in future studies. PMID:20946657

  3. Improving Neural Network Prediction Accuracy for PM10 Individual Air Quality Index Pollution Levels

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Qi; Wu, Shengjun; Du, Yun; Xue, Huaiping; Xiao, Fei; Ban, Xuan; Li, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Fugitive dust deriving from construction sites is a serious local source of particulate matter (PM) that leads to air pollution in cities undergoing rapid urbanization in China. In spite of this fact, no study has yet been published relating to prediction of high levels of PM with diameters <10??m (PM10) as adjudicated by the Individual Air Quality Index (IAQI) on fugitive dust from nearby construction sites. To combat this problem, the Construction Influence Index (Ci) is introduced in this article to improve forecasting models based on three neural network models (multilayer perceptron, Elman, and support vector machine) in predicting daily PM10 IAQI one day in advance. To obtain acceptable forecasting accuracy, measured time series data were decomposed into wavelet representations and wavelet coefficients were predicted. Effectiveness of these forecasters were tested using a time series recorded between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, at six monitoring stations situated within the urban area of the city of Wuhan, China. Experimental trials showed that the improved models provided low root mean square error values and mean absolute error values in comparison to the original models. In addition, these improved models resulted in higher values of coefficients of determination and AHPC (the accuracy rate of high PM10 IAQI caused by nearby construction activity) compared to the original models when predicting high PM10 IAQI levels attributable to fugitive dust from nearby construction sites. PMID:24381481

  4. Improving Neural Network Prediction Accuracy for PM10 Individual Air Quality Index Pollution Levels.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qi; Wu, Shengjun; Du, Yun; Xue, Huaiping; Xiao, Fei; Ban, Xuan; Li, Xiaodong

    2013-12-01

    Fugitive dust deriving from construction sites is a serious local source of particulate matter (PM) that leads to air pollution in cities undergoing rapid urbanization in China. In spite of this fact, no study has yet been published relating to prediction of high levels of PM with diameters <10??m (PM10) as adjudicated by the Individual Air Quality Index (IAQI) on fugitive dust from nearby construction sites. To combat this problem, the Construction Influence Index (Ci) is introduced in this article to improve forecasting models based on three neural network models (multilayer perceptron, Elman, and support vector machine) in predicting daily PM10 IAQI one day in advance. To obtain acceptable forecasting accuracy, measured time series data were decomposed into wavelet representations and wavelet coefficients were predicted. Effectiveness of these forecasters were tested using a time series recorded between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, at six monitoring stations situated within the urban area of the city of Wuhan, China. Experimental trials showed that the improved models provided low root mean square error values and mean absolute error values in comparison to the original models. In addition, these improved models resulted in higher values of coefficients of determination and AHPC (the accuracy rate of high PM10 IAQI caused by nearby construction activity) compared to the original models when predicting high PM10 IAQI levels attributable to fugitive dust from nearby construction sites. PMID:24381481

  5. Predicting subgrid variability of soil water content from basic soil information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, W.; Bogena, H. R.; Huisman, J. A.; Vanderborght, J.; Schuh, M.; Priesack, E.; Vereecken, H.

    2015-02-01

    Knowledge of unresolved soil water content variability within model grid cells (i.e., subgrid variability) is important for accurate predictions of land-surface energy and hydrologic fluxes. Here we derived a closed-form expression to describe how soil water content variability depends on mean soil water content (??()) using stochastic analysis of 1-D unsaturated gravitational flow based on the van Genuchten-Mualem (VGM) model. A sensitivity analysis showed that the n parameter strongly influenced both the shape and magnitude of the maximum of ??(). The closed-form expression was used to predict ??() for eight data sets with varying soil texture using VGM parameters obtained from pedotransfer functions that rely on available soil information. Generally, there was good agreement between observed and predicted ??() despite the obvious simplifications that were used to derive the closed-form expression. Furthermore, the novel closed-form expression was successfully used to inversely estimate the variability of hydraulic properties from observed ??() data.

  6. Operational Internet-based System For Prediction of The Pollution In Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotenko, K. A.

    An operational integrated system linking observing PORTS (Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System, NOAA) and Coastal Ocean Forecasting System (COFS, NOAA) based on a coupled atmospheric-ocean model is developed for real-time diagnostic and forecasting transport of pollution in coastal waters. Both, sensor and modeled at- mosphere and ocean data are accessible via Internet and utilized by a numerical trans- port model based on the random walk particle technique. PORTS data: water level, current (ADCP), conductivity, temperature, and atmospheric data files contain most recent observation. These files are overwritten every 6 min. COFS data: 3-D ocean circulation model produces 24-hour simulations of temperature, salinity, surface el- evation, and currents for region off the U.S. East Coast from ~30 to 47 N and out to 50W. The model is driven at ocean surface boundary by heat, moisture, and mo- mentum fluxes provided by NCEPSs Eta-32 mesoscale atmospheric forecast model. Transport Model: the model was developed for transport of oil spills and divided into three major modules: input, trajectory and fate prediction algorithms, and output; the latter, in turn, is subdivided into the oil data output and environmental data output. The oil spill prediction procedure is split into two parts: (1) assimilation and utilization of the environmental data; and (2) oil spill modeling to predict the three-dimensional motion and fate of individual particles (oil droplets), the sum of which constitutes an oil spill. Among the processes affecting the fate of oil, advection, turbulent diffusion, evaporation, and decay are included; the decay is modeled as the combined effect of all the biochemical and physical mechanisms that decompose oil. Initially, oil con- sists of eight hydrocarbon fractions. The distribution of the number of particles within each fraction is also initially assigned and distributed randomly. Within each fraction, each droplet has randomly assigned its own half-life; the latter is chosen according to known empirical exponential laws. Numerical simulations are compared with histori- cal records of accidents has happened in the considered region.

  7. Ground Water Level Measurements in Selected Boreholes Near the Site of the Proposed Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Page, H. Scott

    2007-11-29

    The Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies (HRC) at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) acquired quarterly and continuous data on water levels from approximately 26 boreholes that comprise a periodic monitoring network (Table 1) between October 2003 and September 2007. During this period we continued to observe and analyze short and long-term ground water level trends in periodically monitored boreholes. In this report we summarize and discuss four key findings derived from analysis of water level data acquired during this period: 1. Rapid ground water level rise after storm events in Forty Mile Canyon; 2. Seismically-induced ground water level fluctuations; 3. A sample of synoptic observations and barometric influences on short term fluctuations; and 4. Long term ground water level trends observed from mid-2001 through late-2005.

  8. A Cellular Level Approach to Predicting Resting Energy Expenditure: Evaluation of Applicability in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    WANG, ZIMIAN; HEYMSFIELD, STEVEN B.; YING, ZHILIANG; PIERSON, RICHARD N.; GALLAGHER, DYMPNA; GIDWANI, SONIA

    2010-01-01

    We previously derived a cellular level approach for a whole-body resting energy expenditure (REE) prediction model by using organ and tissue mass measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with their individual cellularity and assumed stable-specific resting metabolic rates. Although this approach predicts REE well in both young and elderly adults, there were no studies in adolescents that specifically evaluated REE in relation to organ–tissue mass. It is unclear whether the approach can be applied to rapidly growing adolescents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the applicability of the previous developed REE prediction model in adolescents, and to compare its applicability in young and elderly adults. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that measured REE can be predicted from a combination of individual organ and tissue mass and their related cellularity. This was a 2-year longitudinal investigation. Twenty healthy male subjects with a mean age of 14.7 years had REE, organ and tissue mass, body cell mass, and fat-free mass (FFM) measured by indirect calorimetry, whole-body MRI, whole-body 40K counting and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, respectively. The predicted REE (REEp; mean ± SD, 1,487 ± 238 kcal/day) was correlated with the measured REE (REEm, 1,606 ± 237 kcal/day, r = 0.76, P < 0.001). The mean difference (118 ± 165 kcal/day) between REEm and REEp was significant (P = 0.0047), accounting for 7.3% of REEm for the entire group. The present study, the first of its type in adolescents, does not support the applicability of the organ–tissue-based REE prediction model during rapid adolescent growth. A modified general REE prediction model is thus suggested which may account for the higher REE/FFM ratio observed in adolescents. PMID:20058259

  9. Increased Plasma Methylmalonic Acid Level Does Not Predict Clinical Manifestations of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Mette Hvas; Jørgen Ellegaard; Ebba Nexø

    2001-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of vitamin B12 defi- ciency, defined as an elevated concentration of plasma methylmalonic acid (P-MMA), has been estimated to be 15% to 44% in the elderly. However, we do not know whether an increased P-MMA level actually indicates or predicts a clinical condition in need of treatment. Participants and Methods: In a follow-up study, 432 individuals not

  10. Predicting Microstructural-Level Residual Stresses and Crack Paths in Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Cater, W.C.; Glass, S.J.; Rohrer, G.S.; Saylor, D.M.; Vedula, V.R.

    1999-05-19

    Microstructural-level residual stresses arise in ceramics due to thermal expansion anisotropy. The magnitude of these stresses can be very high and may cause spontaneous microcracking during the processing of these materials. The orientation data obtained by backscattered electron diffraction and grain boundary energies obtained by AFM were used in conjunction with an object oriented finite element analysis package (OOF) to predict the magnitude of residual stresses in alumina. Crack initiation and propagation were also simulated based on the Griffith fracture criterion.

  11. CD4 memory T cell levels predict life span in genetically heterogeneous mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICHARD A. MILLER; CLARENCE CHRISP; ANDRZEJ GALECKV

    Aging leads to changes in the relative proportions of several functionally distinct T cell sub- sets, including increases in the proportions of mem- ory cells in the CD4 and CD8 subsets and in the proportion of T cells expressing the multiple-drug resistance pump P-glycoprotein. To see whether in- dividual differences in T cell subset levels predict life span, we measured

  12. Analysis of water-level data in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1985--95

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, R.P.; Tucci, P.; O`Brien, G.M.

    1997-12-31

    From 1985 through 1995, a water-level network that consists of 28 wells for monitoring 36 depth intervals has been maintained in the Yucca Mountain area. The network includes wells that were measured manually, approximately monthly, and/or measured hourly with a transducer/data logger system. Manual water-level measurements were made with either calibrated steel tapes or single or multiconductor-cable units. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks, except one that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Annual mean water-level altitudes for all wells for the period 1985-95 ranged from 727.93 to 1,034.60 meters. The maximum range in water-level change between monthly measurements and/or monthly mean values was 12.22 meters in well USW H-3 lower interval, and the minimum range was 0.31 meter in wells UE-25 b-1 upper interval, and J-11. In 31 of the 36 depth intervals monitored, the range of water-level change was less than 1 meter. The range of standard deviation of all depth interval measurements for all wells that were monitored was 0.053 to 3.098 meters. No seasonal water-level trends were detected in any of the wells, and regional ground-water withdrawals did not appear to cause water-level changes. Most annual water-level fluctuations can be attributed to barometric and Earth-tide changes. Regional earthquakes, which occurred on June 28--29, 1992, might have simultaneously affected the water level in seven wells. Periods of rising and declining water levels were observed in most wells. However, 11 years of record were not sufficient to determine if these periods were cyclic. Because a goal of monitoring water levels at Yucca Mountain is to determine if there are water-level trends that could affect the potential repository, observed water-level changes over the period of this report may not be representative of the overall long-term trends in water levels.

  13. Predicting Gene Expression Level from Relative Codon Usage Bias: An Application to Escherichia coli Genome

    PubMed Central

    Roymondal, Uttam; Das, Shibsankar; Sahoo, Satyabrata

    2009-01-01

    We present an expression measure of a gene, devised to predict the level of gene expression from relative codon bias (RCB). There are a number of measures currently in use that quantify codon usage in genes. Based on the hypothesis that gene expressivity and codon composition is strongly correlated, RCB has been defined to provide an intuitively meaningful measure of an extent of the codon preference in a gene. We outline a simple approach to assess the strength of RCB (RCBS) in genes as a guide to their likely expression levels and illustrate this with an analysis of Escherichia coli (E. coli) genome. Our efforts to quantitatively predict gene expression levels in E. coli met with a high level of success. Surprisingly, we observe a strong correlation between RCBS and protein length indicating natural selection in favour of the shorter genes to be expressed at higher level. The agreement of our result with high protein abundances, microarray data and radioactive data demonstrates that the genomic expression profile available in our method can be applied in a meaningful way to the study of cell physiology and also for more detailed studies of particular genes of interest. PMID:19131380

  14. Stathmin Protein Level, a Potential Predictive Marker for Taxane Treatment Response in Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Henrica M. J.; Trovik, Jone; Halle, Mari K.; Wik, Elisabeth; Akslen, Lars A.; Birkeland, Even; Bredholt, Therese; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Krakstad, Camilla; Salvesen, Helga B.

    2014-01-01

    Stathmin is a prognostic marker in many cancers, including endometrial cancer. Preclinical studies, predominantly in breast cancer, have suggested that stathmin may additionally be a predictive marker for response to paclitaxel. We first evaluated the response to paclitaxel in endometrial cancer cell lines before and after stathmin knock-down. Subsequently we investigated the clinical response to paclitaxel containing chemotherapy in metastatic endometrial cancer in relation to stathmin protein level in tumors. Stathmin level was also determined in metastatic lesions, analyzing changes in biomarker status on disease progression. Knock-down of stathmin improved sensitivity to paclitaxel in endometrial carcinoma cell lines with both naturally higher and lower sensitivity to paclitaxel. In clinical samples, high stathmin level was demonstrated to be associated with poor response to paclitaxel containing chemotherapy and to reduced disease specific survival only in patients treated with such combination. Stathmin level increased significantly from primary to metastatic lesions. This study suggests, supported by both preclinical and clinical data, that stathmin could be a predictive biomarker for response to paclitaxel treatment in endometrial cancer. Re-assessment of stathmin level in metastatic lesions prior to treatment start may be relevant. Also, validation in a randomized clinical trial will be important. PMID:24587245

  15. Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels in the Prediction of Complicated Crohn's Disease Behavior – A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Florian; Paul, Gisela; Schnoy, Elisabeth; Schleder, Stephan; Wolf, Alexandra; Kamm, Florian; Dirmeier, Andrea; Strauch, Ulrike; Obermeier, Florian; Lopez, Rocio; Achkar, Jean-Paul; Rogler, Gerhard; Klebl, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background Markers that predict the occurrence of a complicated disease behavior in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) can permit a more aggressive therapeutic regimen for patients at risk. The aim of this cohort study was to test the blood levels of hemoglobin (Hgb) and hematocrit (Hct) for the prediction of complicated CD behavior and CD related surgery in an adult patient population. Methods Blood samples of 62 CD patients of the German Inflammatory Bowel Disease-network “Kompetenznetz CED” were tested for the levels of Hgb and Hct prior to the occurrence of complicated disease behavior or CD related surgery. The relation of these markers and clinical events was studied using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and adjusted COX-proportional hazard regression models. Results The median follow-up time was 55.8 months. Of the 62 CD patients without any previous complication or surgery 34% developed a complication and/or underwent CD related surgery. Low Hgb or Hct levels were independent predictors of a shorter time to occurrence of the first complication or CD related surgery. This was true for early as well as late occurring complications. Stable low Hgb or Hct during serial follow-up measurements had a higher frequency of complications compared to patients with a stable normal Hgb or Hct, respectively. Conclusions Determination of Hgb or Hct in complication and surgery naïve CD patients might serve as an additional tool for the prediction of complicated disease behavior. PMID:25116048

  16. Effect of seasonal water level decrease on a sensitive bird assemblage in a Mediterranean wetland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesca Causarano; Corrado Battisti

    2009-01-01

    In wetlands embedded in reclaimed lands, water level in channels is actively managed. Here, we evaluated the effect of a seasonal\\u000a water level decrease on an assemblage of five water-obligated bird species (Tachybaptus\\u000a ruficollis, Anas platyrhynchos, Rallus aquaticus, Gallinula chloropus, Fulica atra), at the level of their density, diversity index and consuming biomass in a Mediterranean remnant wetland during two

  17. Tide gauge records, water level rise, and subsidence in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Eugene Turner

    1991-01-01

    Long-term water level changes in the northern Gulf of Mexico were examined using tide gauge records for this century. Strong\\u000a coherence exists between the annual mean water changes at Galveston, Texas, and (1) the relatively geologically-stable west\\u000a coast of Florida, (2) global mean sea level, and 93) the subsiding Louisiana coast. Water levels at the Galveston gauge, one\\u000a of the

  18. Ground-water levels in water years 1984-86 and estimated ground-water pumpage in water years 1984-85, Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    Tabulations of groundwater level measurements made during the water years 1984-86 and summaries of estimated pumpage for water years 1984 and 1985 in Carson valley, Douglas County, Nevada, are included in this report. The data are being collected to provide a record of long-term groundwater changes and pumpage estimates that can be incorporated in a groundwater model change at a later date. (USGS)

  19. Reservoir Water Level Impacts on Recreation, Property, and Nonuser Values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terrill R. Hanson; Luther Upton Hatch; Howard C. Clonts

    2002-01-01

    Wise interbasin management of Southeastern U.S. water resources is important for future development. AlabamaCoosa-Tallapoosa and Apalachicola-Flint-Chattahoochee River basins' water usage has evolved from power generation to multiple uses. Recreation and housing have become increasingly valuable components. Changing use patterns imply changing resource values. This study focused on six Alabama reservoirs, using contingent valuation questions in on-site, telephone, and mail surveys

  20. Evaluating changes to reservoir rule curves using historical water-level data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mower, Ethan; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2013-01-01

    Flood control reservoirs are typically managed through rule curves (i.e. target water levels) which control the storage and release timing of flood waters. Changes to rule curves are often contemplated and requested by various user groups and management agencies with no information available about the actual flood risk of such requests. Methods of estimating flood risk in reservoirs are not easily available to those unfamiliar with hydrological models that track water movement through a river basin. We developed a quantile regression model that uses readily available daily water-level data to estimate risk of spilling. Our model provided a relatively simple process for estimating the maximum applicable water level under a specific flood risk for any day of the year. This water level represents an upper-limit umbrella under which water levels can be operated in a variety of ways. Our model allows the visualization of water-level management under a user-specified flood risk and provides a framework for incorporating the effect of a changing environment on water-level management in reservoirs, but is not designed to replace existing hydrological models. The model can improve communication and collaboration among agencies responsible for managing natural resources dependent on reservoir water levels.

  1. Analysis on the characteristics of parameters in groundwater table fluctuation model for predicting groundwater levels in Hancheon watershed, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Nam Won; Kim, Youn Jung; Chung, Il-Moon; Lee, Jeongwoo

    2014-05-01

    A novel application of groundwater table fluctuation method is suggested to predict groundwater level by means of groundwater table variation due to recharge and discharge under unsteady condition. This model analyzes transient groundwater characteristics by using reaction factor related with groundwater flow and specific yield related with recharge. The groundwater level varies according to the characteristics and composite materials of aquifer. In this study, specific yield and reaction factor which are the major two hydrogeological parameters in the WTF(Water Table Fluctuation) method were estimated and analyzed their spatial characteristics. 8 groundwater level stations which have enough measuring period and high correlation with rainfall in the Hancheon watershed were used. The results showed that specific yield was randomly distributed and reaction factor showed inverse trend with altitude. If the enough data were collected, reaction factor according to altitude in ungauged points could be estimated by using these parameter characteristics. keywords: Key words : Groundwater level, parameters, reaction factor, specific yield Acknowledgements This research was supported by the Regional Innovative Technology Project 2B from KICTTEP.

  2. Techniques for monitoring and predicting water vulnerability with an application in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J.; Senay, G.

    2005-12-01

    A lack of water will be one of the great challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. UN projections for 2050 suggest that between 2 and 7 billion people will face chronic water insecurity. Improved information tools for assessing, monitoring and predicting water insecurity will become increasingly important. This study combines rainfall estimates with surface runoff estimates and population density information to create a Water Vulnerability Index. The WVI is a standardized index that expresses the relative availability of surface water. A WVI of 100 denotes sufficient water to support typical agro-pastoral livelihoods. We apply the WVI in Ethiopia, which has a large, growing, and increasingly food and water insecure population. Recent research performed for the USAID Famine Early Warning System Network has identified large water insecure populations threatened by a recent decrease in rainfall, probably associated with warming in the southwest Indian Ocean. We use a 40-year time-series of WVI values to explore trends, seasonal and intra-seasonal predictability, with particular attention paid to climate forcing in the Indian Ocean. An early warning tool combining satellite rainfall observations and climate-based projections will be described and evaluated.

  3. Rapidly Measured Indicators of Recreational Water Quality Are Predictive of Swimming-Associated Gastrointestinal Illness

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Timothy J.; Calderon, Rebecca L.; Sams, Elizabeth; Beach, Michael; Brenner, Kristen P.; Williams, Ann H.; Dufour, Alfred P.

    2006-01-01

    Standard methods to measure recreational water quality require at least 24 hr to obtain results, making it impossible to assess the quality of water within a single day. Methods to measure recreational water quality in ? 2 hr have been developed. Application of rapid methods could give considerably more accurate and timely assessments of recreational water quality. We conducted a prospective study of beachgoers at two Great Lakes beaches to examine the association between recreational water quality, obtained using rapid methods, and gastrointestinal (GI) illness after swimming. Beachgoers were asked about swimming and other beach activities and 10–12 days later were asked about the occurrence of GI symptoms. We tested water samples for Enterococcus and Bacteroides species using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. We observed significant trends between increased GI illness and Enterococcus at the Lake Michigan beach and a positive trend for Enterococcus at the Lake Erie beach. The association remained significant for Enterococcus when the two beaches were combined. We observed a positive trend for Bacteroides at the Lake Erie beach, but no trend was observed at the Lake Michigan beach. Enterococcus samples collected at 0800 hr were predictive of GI illness that day. The association between Enterococcus and illness strengthened as time spent swimming in the water increased. This is the first study to show that water quality measured by rapid methods can predict swimming-associated health effects. PMID:16393653

  4. Prediction of haloperidol steady-state levels in plasma after a single test dose.

    PubMed

    Javaid, J I; Janicak, P G; Sharma, R P; Leach, A M; Davis, J M; Wang, Z

    1996-02-01

    Because of large interindividual variabilities in the pharmacokinetics of haloperidol (HPDL), empirically adjusting the dose to achieve steady-state levels in plasma (Css) is a time-consuming process. We report a method to individualize dose to achieve a desired Css from an observed drug level 24 hours after a single 15-mg test dose of HPDL. Drug-free schizophrenic and schizo-affective patients were blindly and randomly assigned to achieve a low (< 5 ng/ml), medium (10-18 ng/ml), or high (> 25 ng/ml) Css range of HPDL. On day 1 of the study, each patient received an oral "test" dose of HPDL (15 mg), and blood was drawn 24 hours later to determine drug levels in plasma (C24h). The first 34 patients (group I) were then maintained empirically on 2, 5 to 8, or 10 to 15 mg twice daily of oral HPDL concentrate for 5 days to achieve a low, medium, or high Css range, respectively. For the next 58 patients (group II), the dose of HPDL to achieve the assigned Css range was computed by using C24h in a prediction formula. Application of the C24h correctly predicted the maintenance dose required to achieve the Css in 73.2% of the cases. Further, there was a highly significant correlation (R2 = 0.877, p < 0.0001) between the predicted dose and the actual dose required to achieve the targeted Css range. On the basis of these results, we have formulated a nomogram to help predict the maintenance dose required to achieve low, medium, or high HPDL targeted ranges at various C24h values. PMID:8834418

  5. Total and High Molecular Weight Adiponectin Levels and Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Horáková, Dagmar; Azeem, Kate?ina; Benešová, Radka; Pastucha, Dalibor; Horák, Vladimír; Dumbrovská, Lenka; Martínek, Arnošt; Novotný, Dalibor; Hobzová, Milada; Galuszková, Dana; Janout, Vladimír; Don?vská, Sandra; Vrbková, Jana; Kollárová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at assessing the potential use of lower total and HMW adiponectin levels for predicting cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Concentrations of total adiponectin or high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin decrease in association with the development of metabolic dysfunction such as obesity, insulin resistance, or T2DM. Increased adiponectin levels are associated with a lower risk for coronary heart disease. A total of 551 individuals were assessed. The first group comprised metabolically healthy participants (143 females, and 126 males) and the second group were T2DM patients (164 females, and 118 males). Both total adiponectin and HMW adiponectin in diabetic patients were significantly lower when compared with the group of metabolically healthy individuals. There was a weak monotonic correlation between HMW adiponectin levels and triglycerides levels. Binary logistic regression analysis, gender adjusted, showed a higher cardiovascular risk in diabetic persons when both total adiponectin (OR = 1.700) and HMW adiponectin (OR = 2.785) levels were decreased. A decrease in total adiponectin levels as well as a decrease in its HMW adiponectin is associated with a higher cardiovascular risk in individuals with T2DM. This association suggests that adiponectin levels may be potentially used as an epidemiological marker for cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients.

  6. The Predictive Validity of the Florida College Level Academic Skills Test (CLAST) for Predicting Grade Point Average with University Seniors and Recent Graduates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Camp; Robert Drummond; Travis Carter; W. M. Parker

    1988-01-01

    This study was concerned with a determination of the predictive validity of the College Level Academic Skills Test (CLAST) for predicting grade point average among university seniors, and recent graduates. The criterion variable was grade point average (GPA); subjects were 732 seniors, and recent graduates enrolled 1984-1987 at a regional university. It was determined that the moderate correlations with GPA,

  7. The European Policy on Water Use at the Urban Level in the Context of the Water Framework Directive. Effectiveness, Appropriateness and Efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kostas Bithas

    2008-01-01

    The current European policy on water resources use in cities is undergoing radical reform in an attempt to confront the water quality problems and the dramatically intensified water scarcity. Among the most elaborate documents concerning current water policy is the Water Framework Directive (WFD), which spells out the targets of water policy at the European level. The confrontation of water

  8. Toward a predictive model for water and carbon fluxes of non-native trees in urban habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, H. R.; Jenerette, G. D.; Pataki, D. E.

    2008-12-01

    There is considerable interest in estimating uptake of water and carbon by urban trees, in order to assess some of the major costs and benefits associated with maintaining or expanding urban tree cover. However, making large-scale estimates of water and carbon fluxes is challenging in urban ecosystems, where community composition and environmental conditions are highly altered and experimental data is sparse. This is particularly true in regions such as southern California, where few trees are native, yet many species can flourish given supplemental irrigation. In such scenarios one practical way to scale water and carbon fluxes may be to identify reliable traits which can be used to predict gas exchange when trees are transplanted to a new environment. To test this approach, leaf level gas exchange measurements were conducted on eight common urban tree species within the Los Angeles basin. The objective was to determine how well gas exchange parameters, including maximum photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, sensitivity of stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and water use efficiency (WUE), can be predicted based on the native habitat and climate (temperature and precipitation) of each study species. All of the species studied naturally occur in humid tropical or subtropical climate zones where precipitation varies widely from ~400 - 3000 mm per year. We found Jacaranda (Jacaranda chelonia) and honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos) to have the highest photosynthesis and reference (at VPD=1 kPa) conductance, and to be most sensitive to VPD. WUE was found to be greatest in Indian laurel fig (Ficus microcarpa), rose gum (Eucalyptus grandis) and Queensland lacebark (Brachychiton discolor). The relative ordering of maximum photosynthesis and conductance across species was not entirely predictable based on our current knowledge of the native habitats of each species: several other species had similar native climates to Jacaranda and honey locust, yet had lower photosynthesis and conductance. However, WUE generally followed the expected trends, with species predicted to have low conductance showing higher WUE. This implies that WUE is strongly genetically controlled and may be predictable with knowledge of imported species' native habitat. Other traits, such as leaf nitrogen and isotopes, are also being investigated as proxies for detailed gas exchange measurements in this ecosystem. Further refinement of predictive factors will facilitate conceptual and quantitative models that can be used for robust scaling of water and carbon fluxes from trees to urban regions.

  9. Water uptake and tensile properties of carboxylated styrene butadiene rubber based water born paints: Models for water uptake prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Jubete; Christopher M. Liauw; Norman S. Allen

    2007-01-01

    Despite significant advances in water based surface coating technology, the presence of surfactants in emulsion polymer binders leads to loss of performance after prolonged immersion in water, relative to solvent based coatings that are free of surfactant impurities. This study begins with water uptake evaluation of a range of emulsion polymer binders. A carboxylated styrene butadiene rubber latex (c-SBR) performed

  10. Predicting Trigger Level for Ice Jam Flooding of the lower Mohawk River using LiDAR and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J.; Marsellos, A.; Garver, J.

    2011-12-01

    Ice jams are an annual occurrence along the Mohawk River in upstate New York. The jams commonly result in significant flooding especially when the progress of the ice is impeded by obstructions to the channel and flood plain. To minimize flooding hazards it is critical to know the trigger level of flooding so that we can better understand chronic jam points and simulate flooding events as jams occur as the lower Mohawk. A better understanding of jamming and trigger points may facilitate measures to reduce flooding and avoid the costly damage associated with these hazards. To determine the flood trigger level for one segment of the lower Mohawk we used Air-LiDAR elevation data to construct a digital elevation model to simulate a flooding event. The water flood simulation using a LiDAR elevation model allows accurate water level measurements for determining trigger levels of ice dam flooding. The study area comprises three sections of the lower Mohawk River from the (Before location) to the (After location), which are constrained by lock stations centered at the New York State Canal System Lock 9 (E9 Lock) and the B&M Rail Bridge at the Schenectady International (SI) Plant. This area is notorious for ice jams including one that resulted in a major flooding event on January 25th, 2010 which resulted in flood levels at 74.4 m in the upper portion of the second section of the study area (Lock 9) and at 73.4 m in the lower portion (SI plant). Minimum and maximum elevation levels were found to determine the values at which up stream water builds up and when flooding occurs. From these values, we are able to predict the flooding as the ice jam builds up and breaks as it progresses downstream. Similar methodology is applied to find the trigger points for flooding along other sections of the Mohawk River constrained by lock stations, and it may provide critical knowledge as to how to better manage the hazard of flooding due to ice jams.

  11. Ferritin levels in the cerebrospinal fluid predict Alzheimer's disease outcomes and are regulated by APOE

    PubMed Central

    Ayton, Scott; Faux, Noel G.; Bush, Ashley I.; Weiner, Michael W.; Aisen, Paul; Petersen, Ronald; Jack Jr., Clifford R.; Jagust, William; Trojanowki, John Q.; Toga, Arthur W.; Beckett, Laurel; Green, Robert C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Morris, John; Shaw, Leslie M.; Khachaturian, Zaven; Sorensen, Greg; Kuller, Lew; Raichle, Marc; Paul, Steven; Davies, Peter; Fillit, Howard; Hefti, Franz; Holtzman, Davie; Marcel Mesulam, M.; Potter, William; Snyder, Peter; Schwartz, Adam; Montine, Tom; Thomas, Ronald G.; Donohue, Michael; Walter, Sarah; Gessert, Devon; Sather, Tamie; Jiminez, Gus; Harvey, Danielle; Bernstein, Matthew; Fox, Nick; Thompson, Paul; Schuff, Norbert; Borowski, Bret; Gunter, Jeff; Senjem, Matt; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Jones, David; Kantarci, Kejal; Ward, Chad; Koeppe, Robert A.; Foster, Norm; Reiman, Eric M.; Chen, Kewei; Mathis, Chet; Landau, Susan; Cairns, Nigel J.; Householder, Erin; Taylor-Reinwald, Lisa; Lee, Virginia; Korecka, Magdalena; Figurski, Michal; Crawford, Karen; Neu, Scott; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Potkin, Steven; Shen, Li; Faber, Kelley; Kim, Sungeun; Nho, Kwangsik; Thal, Leon; Buckholtz, Neil; Albert, Marylyn; Frank, Richard; Hsiao, John; Kaye, Jeffrey; Quinn, Joseph; Lind, Betty; Carter, Raina; Dolen, Sara; Schneider, Lon S.; Pawluczyk, Sonia; Beccera, Mauricio; Teodoro, Liberty; Spann, Bryan M.; Brewer, James; Vanderswag, Helen; Fleisher, Adam; Heidebrink, Judith L.; Lord, Joanne L.; Mason, Sara S.; Albers, Colleen S.; Knopman, David; Johnson, Kris; Doody, Rachelle S.; Villanueva-Meyer, Javier; Chowdhury, Munir; Rountree, Susan; Dang, Mimi; Stern, Yaakov; Honig, Lawrence S.; Bell, Karen L.; Ances, Beau; Carroll, Maria; Leon, Sue; Mintun, Mark A.; Schneider, Stacy; Oliver, Angela; Marson, Daniel; Griffith, Randall; Clark, David; Geldmacher, David; Brockington, John; Roberson, Erik; Grossman, Hillel; Mitsis, Effie; deToledo-Morrell, Leyla; Shah, Raj C.; Duara, Ranjan; Varon, Daniel; Greig, Maria T.; Roberts, Peggy; Albert, Marilyn; Onyike, Chiadi; D'Agostino II, Daniel; Kielb, Stephanie; Galvin, James E.; Cerbone, Brittany; Michel, Christina A.; Rusinek, Henry; de Leon, Mony J; Glodzik, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Murali Doraiswamy, P.; Petrella, Jeffrey R.; Wong, Terence Z.; Arnold, Steven E.; Karlawish, Jason H.; Wolk, David; Smith, Charles D.; Jicha, Greg; Hardy, Peter; Sinha, Partha; Oates, Elizabeth; Conrad, Gary; Lopez, Oscar L.; Oakley, MaryAnn; Simpson, Donna M.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Goldstein, Bonnie S.; Martin, Kim; Makino, Kelly M.; Saleem Ismail, M.; Brand, Connie; Mulnard, Ruth A.; Thai, Gaby; Mc-Adams-Ortiz, Catherine; Womack, Kyle; Mathews, Dana; Quiceno, Mary; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; King, Richard; Weiner, Myron; Martin-Cook, Kristen; DeVous, Michael; Levey, Allan I.; Lah, James J.; Cellar, Janet S.; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Anderson, Heather S.; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Apostolova, Liana; Tingus, Kathleen; Woo, Ellen; Silverman, Daniel H.S.; Lu, Po H.; Bartzokis, George; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Parfitt, Francine; Kendall, Tracy; Johnson, Heather; Farlow, Martin R.; Hake, Ann Marie; Matthews, Brandy R.; Herring, Scott; Hunt, Cynthia; van Dyck, Christopher H.; Carson, Richard E.; MacAvoy, Martha G.; Chertkow, Howard; Bergman, Howard; Hosein, Chris; Black, Sandra; Stefanovic, Bojana; Caldwell, Curtis; Robin Hsiung, Ging-Yuek; Feldman, Howard; Mudge, Benita; Assaly, Michele; Kertesz, Andrew; Rogers, John; Bernick, Charles; Munic, Donna; Kerwin, Diana; Mesulam, Marek-Marsel; Lipowski, Kristine; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Johnson, Nancy; Sadowsky, Carl; Martinez, Walter; Villena, Teresa; Scott Turner, Raymond; Johnson, Kathleen; Reynolds, Brigid; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Marshall, Gad; Frey, Meghan; Lane, Barton; Rosen, Allyson; Tinklenberg, Jared; Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Belden, Christine M.; Jacobson, Sandra A.; Sirrel, Sherye A.; Kowall, Neil; Killiany, Ronald; Budson, Andrew E.; Norbash, Alexander; Johnson, Patricia Lynn; Allard, Joanne; Lerner, Alan; Ogrocki, Paula; Hudson, Leon; Fletcher, Evan; Carmichael, Owen; Olichney, John; DeCarli, Charles; Kittur, Smita; Borrie, Michael; Lee, T-Y; Bartha, Rob; Johnson, Sterling; Asthana, Sanjay; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Potkin, Steven G.; Preda, Adrian; Nguyen, Dana; Tariot, Pierre; Reeder, Stephanie; Bates, Vernice; Capote, Horacio; Rainka, Michelle; Scharre, Douglas W.; Kataki, Maria; Adeli, Anahita; Zimmerman, Earl A.; Celmins, Dzintra; Brown, Alice D.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Blank, Karen; Anderson, Karen; Santulli, Robert B.; Kitzmiller, Tamar J.; Schwartz, Eben S.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Garg, Pradeep; Watkins, Franklin; Ott, Brian R.; Querfurth, Henry; Tremont, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Brain iron elevation is implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, but the impact of iron on disease outcomes has not been previously explored in a longitudinal study. Ferritin is the major iron storage protein of the body; by using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of ferritin as an index, we explored whether brain iron status impacts longitudinal outcomes in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort. We show that baseline CSF ferritin levels were negatively associated with cognitive performance over 7 years in 91 cognitively normal, 144 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 67 AD subjects, and predicted MCI conversion to AD. Ferritin was strongly associated with CSF apolipoprotein E levels and was elevated by the Alzheimer's risk allele, APOE-?4. These findings reveal that elevated brain iron adversely impacts on AD progression, and introduce brain iron elevation as a possible mechanism for APOE-?4 being the major genetic risk factor for AD. PMID:25988319

  12. Ferritin levels in the cerebrospinal fluid predict Alzheimer's disease outcomes and are regulated by APOE.

    PubMed

    Ayton, Scott; Faux, Noel G; Bush, Ashley I

    2015-01-01

    Brain iron elevation is implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, but the impact of iron on disease outcomes has not been previously explored in a longitudinal study. Ferritin is the major iron storage protein of the body; by using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of ferritin as an index, we explored whether brain iron status impacts longitudinal outcomes in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort. We show that baseline CSF ferritin levels were negatively associated with cognitive performance over 7 years in 91 cognitively normal, 144 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 67 AD subjects, and predicted MCI conversion to AD. Ferritin was strongly associated with CSF apolipoprotein E levels and was elevated by the Alzheimer's risk allele, APOE-?4. These findings reveal that elevated brain iron adversely impacts on AD progression, and introduce brain iron elevation as a possible mechanism for APOE-?4 being the major genetic risk factor for AD. PMID:25988319

  13. First-Trimester Serum Acylcarnitine Levels to Predict Preeclampsia: A Metabolomics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Koster, Maria P. H.; Vreeken, Rob J.; Harms, Amy C.; Dane, Adrie D.; Kuc, Sylwia; Schielen, Peter C. J. I.; Hankemeier, Thomas; Berger, Ruud; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Pennings, Jeroen L. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To expand the search for preeclampsia (PE) metabolomics biomarkers through the analysis of acylcarnitines in first-trimester maternal serum. Methods. This was a nested case-control study using serum from pregnant women, drawn between 8 and 14 weeks of gestational age. Metabolites were measured using an UPLC-MS/MS based method. Concentrations were compared between controls (n = 500) and early-onset- (EO-) PE (n = 68) or late-onset- (LO-) PE (n = 99) women. Metabolites with a false discovery rate <10% for both EO-PE and LO-PE were selected and added to prediction models based on maternal characteristics (MC), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and previously established biomarkers (PAPPA, PLGF, and taurine). Results. Twelve metabolites were significantly different between EO-PE women and controls, with effect levels between ?18% and 29%. For LO-PE, 11 metabolites were significantly different with effect sizes between ?8% and 24%. Nine metabolites were significantly different for both comparisons. The best prediction model for EO-PE consisted of MC, MAP, PAPPA, PLGF, taurine, and stearoylcarnitine (AUC = 0.784). The best prediction model for LO-PE consisted of MC, MAP, PAPPA, PLGF, and stearoylcarnitine (AUC = 0.700). Conclusion. This study identified stearoylcarnitine as a novel metabolomics biomarker for EO-PE and LO-PE. Nevertheless, metabolomics-based assays for predicting PE are not yet suitable for clinical implementation. PMID:26146448

  14. Preoperative plasma leptin levels predict delirium in elderly patients after hip fracture surgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue-Wu; Shi, Jun-Wu; Yang, Ping-Shan; Wu, Zhu-Qi

    2014-07-01

    Leptin is considered to be a modulator of the immune response. Hypoleptinemia increases the risk for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of plasma leptin level to predict delirium in elderly patients after hip fracture surgery. Postoperative delirium (pod) was evaluated using the Confusion Assessment Method. Prolonged postoperative delirium (ppod) was defined as delirium lasting more than 4 weeks. Plasma leptin levels of 186 elderly patients and 186 elderly controls were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma leptin level was substantially lower in patients than in controls (4.6±2.2ng/ml vs. 7.5±1.8ng/ml, P<0.001). It was identified as an independent predictor for pod [odds ratio, 0.385; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.286-0.517; P<0.001] and ppod (odds ratio, 0.283; 95% CI, 0.152-0.527; P<0.001) using a multivariate analysis, and had high area under receiver operating characteristic curve for pod [area under curve (AUC), 0.850; 95% CI, 0.790-0.898] and ppod (AUC, 0.890; 95% CI, 0.836-0.931). The predictive value of leptin was markedly bigger than that of age for pod (AUC, 0.705; 95% CI, 0.634-0.770; P=0.002) and ppod (AUC, 0.713; 95% CI, 0.642-0.777; P=0.019). In a combined logistic-regression model, leptin improved the AUC of age to 0.890 (95% CI, 0.836-0.931) (P<0.001) for pod and 0.910 (95% CI, 0.860-0.947) (P=0.005) for ppod. Thus, preoperative plasma leptin level may be a useful, complementary tool to predict delirium and also prolonged delirium in elderly patients after hip fracture surgery. PMID:24787655

  15. Predicting water quality at Santa Monica Beach: evaluation of five different models for public notification of unsafe swimming conditions.

    PubMed

    Thoe, W; Gold, M; Griesbach, A; Grimmer, M; Taggart, M L; Boehm, A B

    2014-12-15

    Bathing beaches are monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) to protect swimmers from unsafe conditions. However, FIB assays take ?24 h and water quality conditions can change dramatically in that time, so unsafe conditions cannot presently be identified in a timely manner. Statistical, data-driven predictive models use information on environmental conditions (i.e., rainfall, turbidity) to provide nowcasts of FIB concentrations. Their ability to predict real time FIB concentrations can make them more accurate at identifying unsafe conditions than the current method of using day or older FIB measurements. Predictive models are used in the Great Lakes, Hong Kong, and Scotland for beach management, but they are presently not used in California - the location of some of the world's most popular beaches. California beaches are unique as point source pollution has generally been mitigated, the summer bathing season receives little to no rainfall, and in situ measurements of turbidity and salinity are not readily available. These characteristics may make modeling FIB difficult, as many current FIB models rely heavily on rainfall or salinity. The current study investigates the potential for FIB models to predict water quality at a quintessential California Beach: Santa Monica Beach. This study compares the performance of five predictive models, multiple linear regression model, binary logistic regression model, partial least square regression model, artificial neural network, and classification tree, to predict concentrations of summertime fecal coliform and enterococci concentrations. Past measurements of bacterial concentration, storm drain condition, and tide level are found to be critical factors in the predictive models. The models perform better than the current beach management method. The classification tree models perform the best; for example they correctly predict 42% of beach postings due to fecal coliform exceedances during model validation, as compared to 28% by the current method. Artificial neural network is the second best model which minimizes the number of incorrect beach postings. The binary logistic regression model also gives promising results, comparable to classification tree, by adjusting the posting decision thresholds to maximize correct beach postings. This study indicates that predictive models hold promise as a beach management tool at Santa Monica Beach. However, there are opportunities to further refine predictive models. PMID:25262555

  16. Conventional and simplified canopy temperature indices predict water stress in sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two indicators based on remotely-sensed canopy temperature were used in northern Colorado to monitor water stress in sunflower under six levels of regulated deficit irrigation. The two indicators included the widely-used Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) and the new Degrees Above Non-stressed Canopy at...

  17. Use of artificial neural networks for predicting optimal alum doses and treated water quality parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holger R. Maier; Nicolas Morgan; Christopher W. K. Chow

    2004-01-01

    Coagulation is an important component of water treatment. Determination of optimal coagulant doses is vital, as insufficient dosing will result in undesirable treated water quality. On the other hand, doses that are too high can result in high cost and health problems related to high levels of residual aluminium (if alum is used as the coagulant). Traditionally, jar tests are

  18. Programmable logic controller applied in steam generators water levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhao Futao; Du Wei; Xu Yiheng; Hu Zhiren

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a programmable logic controller (PLC) control system that is applied to the main feedwater process of a pressurized water reactor, construct a structure that the alternative system is a hot backup to the operating system between PLC and the original analog instrument control system, overcome the draw backs of TI545 type PLC

  19. NOAA Water Level and Meteorological Data Report HURRICANE IRENE

    E-print Network

    Administration David Kennedy Gary Locke Dr. Jane Lubchenco Assistant Administrator Secretary Administrator Center in Figures 1 & 2a-2d and Appendices 1 & 2. Tidal stations are referenced to the standard chart datum of Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW), based on the National Tidal Datum Epoch 1983-2001 (Appendix 3). In addition

  20. Chemometric evaluation of surface water quality at regional level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Librando

    1991-01-01

    To reduce the volume of information needed for the evaluation of the quality of some surface waters designated for purification, data gathered in a previous study on three rivers (Simeto, Alcantara and Oreto) in Sicily have been subjected to statistical multivariate analysis. The data base comprised twentyfive variables from eight sampling points at monthly intervals for one year. Such a

  1. LEVEL III: RECEIVING WATER QUALITY MODELING FOR URBAN STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simplified continuous receiving water quality model has been developed as a planning guide to permit preliminary screening of areawide wastewater treatment strategies. The model simulates the hypothetical response of the stream or tidal river system to the separate and combined...

  2. An investigation of the origin of large water level oscillations during storms at Banneg Island, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staples, T.; TIAN, M.; Ardhuin, F.; Sheremet, A.; Suanez, S.; Fichaut, B.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the generation mechanism for unusually high water levels observed at Banneg Island, France, where loose boulders have been reportedly transported during storms over distances exceeding 100m (Fichaut and Suanez, 2011). The site is characterized by steep cliffs with slopes from 0.3 to 3 and composed of fractured rock and boulders. The lowest points along Banneg Island cliff crest are at 5m above the highest predicted tide, which is 10m above mean sea level. Wave and tide levels were observed using pressure gauges over a period of approximately 7 months. Two gauges (P3 and P4) were deployed offshore near the 4m isobath, and were submerged for the entire duration of the experiment. A third gauge (P2), located on the island just above the maximum predicted tide, and approximately cross-shore with respect to P3, was intermittently submerged during storms, for periods of the order of 2-3 min. On milder slopes (Sheremet et al. 2011), nonlinear shoaling of wind waves is typically associated with the generation of infragavity (IG) waves. We investigate the relationship between the water level oscillations observed at Banneg Island, and wave set-up and infragravity waves generated during swell shoaling. To circumvent the difficulty posed by the intermittent P2 signal, wavelet cross-correlation and cross-bispectral analysis is used to study the phase correlation between the swell envelope and IG waves at P3 and P4. A uni-directional deterministic wave model (Agnon and Sheremet, 1997) is used to investigate the generation mechanism, and assess the magnitude of the infragravity waves. REFERENCES Agnon, Y and A. Sheremet. Stochastic nonlinear shoaling of directional spectra. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 345, p. 79-99, 1997. Fichaut, B and S. Suanez. Quarrying, transport and deposition of cliff-top storm deposits during extreme events: Banneg island. Marine Geology, pages 36-55, 2011. Sheremet, A, J. Kaihatu, S. Su, E. Smith, and J. Smith. Modeling of nonlinear wave propagation over fringing reefs. Coastal Engineering. 58(12). 1125-1137, 2011.

  3. Five Years Later: Predicting Student Use of Journals in a New Water Resources Graduate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, Andrea A.; Mellinger, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Using citation analysis, the authors examined the journals cited in theses and dissertations over the first five years of the Water Resources Graduate Program at Oregon State University. These journal titles were compared to the titles predicted as being important in the 2003 Oregon State University Libraries new program (Category I) review. A…

  4. Activated carbon filtration in drinking water production: model prediction and new concepts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. J. Heijman; R. Hopman

    1999-01-01

    For drinking water companies, it is important to predict the lifetime of granular activated carbon (GAC) for the removal of pesticides. Full-scale experiments in pilot GAC filters are expensive and time-consuming, but fast laboratory experiments do not have the accuracy necessary for a realistic prediciton of the breakthrough curves of pesticides. The problems with these experiments and the models used

  5. WATER EROSION PREDICTION PROJECT (WEPP) TECHNOLOGY FOR ASSESSMENT OF RUNOFF, SOIL LOSS AND SEDIMENT YIELD POTENTIAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model is a process-based, distributed parameter, continuous simulation computer program for estimation of runoff, soil loss and sediment yield from fields and small watersheds. In addition to having large databases for application to a multitude of U.S. s...

  6. Model predictive control of drinking water networks: A hierarchical and decentralized approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Ocampo-Martinez; Valentina Fambrini; Davide Barcelli; V. Puig

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a decentralized model predictive control (DMPC) strategy for drinking water networks (DWN) is proposed. The DWN is partitioned in a set of subnetworks using a partitioning algorithm that makes use of the topology of the network, the information about the actuator usage and heuristics. A suboptimal DMPC strategy was derived that allows the hierarchical solution of the

  7. Model predictive control of combined irrigation and water supply systems: Application to the Guadiana river

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Puig; C. Ocampo-Martinez; J. Romera; J. Quevedo; Rudy Negenborn; P. Rodriguez; S. de Campos

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a methodology for the optimal management of a combined irrigation and water supply system based on model predictive control (MPC) is proposed. A control-oriented modelling methodology for this type of systems is presented as well. MPC is used to generate flow control strategies from the sources to the consumer and irrigation areas to meet future demands with

  8. Using the Southern Oscillation Index for improving rainfall prediction and agricultural water management in Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. K. Adiku; R. C. Stone

    1995-01-01

    The use of the Southern Oscillation Index (Sol) for rainfall prediction and subsequent management of water for rainfed crop production in Ghana was explored. Five sites were selected to represent the major vegetation zones in Ghana, three of which were located in the south and two in the north. For most sites, the occurrence of severe drought coincided with negative

  9. PREDICTION OF OCTANOL/WATER PARTITION COEFFICIENT (KOW) WITH ALGORITHMICALLY DERIVED VARIABLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A statistical model was developed with algorithmically derived independent variables based on chemical structure for prediction of octanol/water partition coefficients (Kow) measured for more than 4,000 chemicals. he procedure first classified the chemicals into 14 groups based o...

  10. Predicting total organic halide formation from drinking water chlorination using quantitative structure–property relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. B. Luilo; S. E. Cabaniss

    2011-01-01

    Chlorinating water which contains dissolved organic matter (DOM) produces disinfection byproducts, the majority of unknown structure. Hence, the total organic halide (TOX) measurement is used as a surrogate for toxic disinfection byproducts. This work derives a robust quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR) for predicting the TOX formation potential of model compounds. Literature data for 49 compounds were used to train the

  11. A new model for predicting relative nonwetting phase permeability from soil water retention curves

    E-print Network

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    relative air permeability and the measured data. Citation: Kuang, X., and J. J. Jiao (2011), A new model a comprehensive review on laboratory measurement of air permeability. [4] There are basically two categoriesA new model for predicting relative nonwetting phase permeability from soil water retention curves

  12. Predicting Plausible Impacts of Sets of Climate and Land Use Change Scenarios on Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global changes in climate and land use can alTect the quantity and quality of water resources. Hence, we need a methodology to predict these ramifications. Using the Little Miami River (LMR) watershed as a case study, this paper describes a spatial analytical approach integrating...

  13. Verifying Predictions of Water and Current Distributions in a Serpentine Flow Field Polymer Electrolyte Membrane

    E-print Network

    Van Zee, John W.

    Verifying Predictions of Water and Current Distributions in a Serpentine Flow Field Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell with a serpentine flow path. The model includes the gas diffusion layer In this study, the previously reported 3D model of Ref. 15 was exercised for a serpentine channel flow

  14. Combining ARS Process-Based Water and Wind Erosion Prediction Technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Erosion process research in the United States has long been separated by location, experimental data collection, and prediction technologies. Erosion experiment stations were established in the l930’s throughout the country, however most examined erosion by water while a few in the Plains states we...

  15. Improvements to the prediction of boiling transition during boiling water reactor transients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Phillips; R. W. Shumway; K. H. Chu

    1981-01-01

    The ability to accurately predict the time required to reach a boiling transition in postulated BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) loss of coolant accidents is an important step in analyzing the system response to these transients. As part of the effort to develop an advanced BWR system analysis computer code capable of simulating these postulated transients, a study has been undertaken

  16. Optical Properties of Three Beach Waters: Implications for Predictive Modeling of Enterococci

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sunlight plays an important role in the inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria in recreational waters. Solar radiation can explain temporal trends in bacterial counts and is commonly used as an explanatory variable in predictive models. Broadband surface radiation provides a ba...

  17. Estimation of missing water-level data for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), 2013 update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network is an integrated network of real-time water-level gaging stations, a ground-elevation model, and a water-surface elevation model designed to provide scientists, engineers, and water-resource managers with water-level and water-depth information (1991-2013) for the entire freshwater portion of the Greater Everglades. The U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science provides support for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network in order for the Network to provide quality-assured monitoring data for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. In a previous study, water-level estimation equations were developed to fill in missing data to increase the accuracy of the daily water-surface elevation model. During this study, those equations were updated because of the addition and removal of water-level gaging stations, the consistent use of water-level data relative to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988, and availability of recent data (March 1, 2006, to September 30, 2011). Up to three linear regression equations were developed for each station by using three different input stations to minimize the occurrences of missing data for an input station. Of the 667 water-level estimation equations developed to fill missing data at 223 stations, more than 72 percent of the equations have coefficients of determination greater than 0.90, and 97 percent have coefficients of determination greater than 0.70.

  18. Myeloperoxidase levels predicts angiographic severity of coronary artery disease in patients with chronic stable angina

    PubMed Central

    Baseri, Mehdi; Heidari, Ramin; Mahaki, Behzad; Hajizadeh, Yaghoub; Momenizadeh, Amir; Sadeghi, Masoumeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Myeloperoxidase (MPO) has an important role in the both processes of inflammation and oxidative stress. It plays proatherogenic role via low-density lipoprotein oxidation, functional inactivation of the high-density lipoprotein and endothelial dysfunction, and seems to be involved in the atherogenesis of coronary arteries. This study designed to evaluate the association between the plasma MPO levels and angiographic severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with the stable CAD. Materials and Methods: Sixty-eight patients who had documented CAD with angiography and 66 subjects who had normal angiography were selected as case and the control groups for this study, respectively. Gensini scoring system was used for evaluation of severity of coronary artery stenosis. Plasma MPO and C-reactiveprotein (CRP) levels of both case and control groups were determined. Results: Plasma MPO levels and CRP levels were significantly higher in CAD patients (P < 0.001), and plasma levels of MPO and CRP were correlated with Genssini scores. Conclusions: Our findings indicated that the plasma MPO levels increase in patients with stable CAD and hence that, it can be used as adiagnostic factor to predict the coronary artery atherosclerosis severity in stable CAD patients; However, it needs further widespread investigations to achieve an accurate cut point. PMID:25161986

  19. Age and motor score predict osteoprotegerin level in chronic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Morse, L.R.; Nguyen, H.P.; Jain, N.; Williams, S.; Tun, C.G.; Battaglino, R.A.; Stashenko, P.; Garshick, E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) develop a severe form of osteoporosis below the level of injury that is poorly understood. We conducted a preliminary investigation to assess whether circulating markers of bone turnover and circulating RANKL/OPG levels are related to the severity of SCI, aging, or to differences in mobility (i.e., walking or using a wheelchair). Methods Sixty-four caucasian men ?1.6 years since injury selected based on locomotive mode provided blood samples and completed a health questionnaire at the VA Boston Healthcare System from 10/2003 to 6/2005. Plasma sRANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteocalcin and carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx) levels were determined. Results Increasing age was significantly associated with increased OPG and CTx. Injury severity was predictive of OPG levels, and adjusting for age, participants with cervical motor complete and ASIA C SCI (n=11) had significantly lower mean OPG (46.1 pg/ml) levels than others (63.4 pg/ml). Locomotive mode was not associated with differences in bone markers. Conclusions Severe cervical spinal cord injury is associated with decreased circulating OPG levels placing these patients at risk for accelerated bone loss that appears unrelated to locomotive mode. PMID:18398265

  20. Elevated pretreatment plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts predict poor prognosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Zhu, Yuan; Liu, Luying

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of the preoperative plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. A total of 168 consecutive locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients who underwent intensity modulated radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. Plasma D-dimer levels were measured by a latex-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. Of the 168 patients enrolled, 106 patients were males and 62 patients were females. There was significant difference between plasma D-dimer levels and clinical responses (P=0.001). The 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year cumulative overall survival rates were 50.6%, 15.0%, and 4.9%, respectively. Plasma D-dimer levels (P<0.001) and platelet counts (P=0.010) were significantly related with overall survival in univariate analysis. The Cox proportional hazards regression indicated that plasma D-dimer levels (P=0.028), platelet counts (P=0.004), and treatment response (P<0.001) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Elevated pretreatment plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts predict poor prognosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:26082650

  1. Improved prediction of octanol-water partition coefficients from liquid-solute water solubilities and molar volumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, C.T.; Schmedding, D.W.; Manes, M.

    2005-01-01

    A volume-fraction-based solvent-water partition model for dilute solutes, in which the partition coefficient shows a dependence on solute molar volume (V??), is adapted to predict the octanol-water partition coefficient (K ow) from the liquid or supercooled-liquid solute water solubility (Sw), or vice versa. The established correlation is tested for a wide range of industrial compounds and pesticides (e.g., halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons, alkylbenzenes, halogenated benzenes, ethers, esters, PAHs, PCBs, organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates, and amidesureas-triazines), which comprise a total of 215 test compounds spanning about 10 orders of magnitude in Sw and 8.5 orders of magnitude in Kow. Except for phenols and alcohols, which require special considerations of the Kow data, the correlation predicts the Kow within 0.1 log units for most compounds, much independent of the compound type or the magnitude in K ow. With reliable Sw and V data for compounds of interest, the correlation provides an effective means for either predicting the unavailable log Kow values or verifying the reliability of the reported log Kow data. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  2. Simplified combustion noise theory yielding a prediction of fluctuating pressure level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    The first order equations for the conservation of mass and momentum in differential form are combined for an ideal gas to yield a single second order partial differential equation in one dimension and time. Small perturbation analysis is applied. A Fourier transformation is performed that results in a second order, constant coefficient, nonhomogeneous equation. The driving function is taken to be the source of combustion noise. A simplified model describing the energy addition via the combustion process gives the required source information for substitution in the driving function. This enables the particular integral solution of the nonhomogeneous equation to be found. This solution multiplied by the acoustic pressure efficiency predicts the acoustic pressure spectrum measured in turbine engine combustors. The prediction was compared with the overall sound pressure levels measured in a CF6-50 turbofan engine combustor and found to be in excellent agreement.

  3. Predicting CO2-water interfacial tension under pressure and temperature conditions of geologic CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Laura C.; Bourg, Ian C.; Sposito, Garrison

    2012-03-01

    Storage in subsurface geologic formations, principally saline aquifers, is currently under development as a major approach to counter anthropogenic CO2 emissions. To ensure the stability and long-term viability of geologic carbon storage, injected CO2 must be kept in place by an overlying cap rock of very low permeability. Capillary forces in the cap rock act to prevent upward migration and escape of the stored supercritical fluid, with interfacial tension (IFT) between the aqueous brine phase and the CO2 phase being the primary control. However, published experimental CO2-water IFT data vary widely, mainly because of inadequate experimental protocols or inappropriate use of bulk-fluid properties in computing IFT from experimental observations. Only two published data sets were found to meet all criteria of merit for an accurate measurement of IFT over the entire range of pressure (5-45 MPa) and temperature (298-383 K) pertinent to geologic carbon storage. In such circumstances, molecular simulations can enhance the utility of limited data when used to validate assumptions made in their interpretation, resolve discrepancies among data, and fill gaps where data are lacking. Simulations may also be used to provide insight into the relationship between IFT and fundamental properties, such as the strength of the CO2-H2O interaction. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we compared the quality of three CO2 models and two H2O models (SPC/E and TIP4P2005) in predicting IFT under the pressure and temperature conditions relevant to geologic CO2 sequestration. Interfacial tension at fixed temperature simulated via molecular dynamics decreased strongly with increasing pressure below the critical CO2 pressure of 7 MPa, then leveled off, in agreement with experiment, whereas increasing temperature from 300 to 383 K at fixed pressure had little effect on IFT, which is also consistent with experimental data. Our results demonstrated that the strength of the short-range portion of the CO2-H2O interaction exerts a major influence on IFT. The CO2 model that best represented the attractive part of this interaction for randomly-oriented water molecules also best captures the experimental pressure dependence of IFT when combined with either water model. When combined with the SPC/E water model, this CO2 model underestimated IFT by ˜10 mN/m, which approximately equals the amount by which the SPC/E water model underestimates the surface tension of pure water. When combined with the TIP4P2005 water model, this model accurately captured the pressure dependence of the CO2-H2O IFT at 383 K over the entire pressure range examined. These pressure variations will have the dominant effect on IFT—especially at pressures lower than the CO2 critical pressure (˜7 MPa)—and, therefore, on the CO2 storage capacity and sealing integrity of a subsurface reservoir.

  4. Predicting effects of global climate change on reservoir water quality and fish habitat

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, L H; Railsback, S F [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA). School of Forestry and Environmental Studies

    1989-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of general circulation models (GCMs) for assessing global climate change effects on reservoir water quality and illustrates that general conclusions about the effects of increased carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations on water resources can be made by using GCMs. These conclusions are based on GCM predictions of the climatic effects of doubling CO{sub 2} concentrations (the 2 {times} CO{sub 2} scenario). We also point out inadequacies in using information from GCM output alone to simulate reservoir water quality effects of climate change. Our investigation used Douglas Lake, a large multipurpose reservoir in eastern Tennessee, as an example. We studied water temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO), important water quality parameters that are expected to respond to a changed climate. Finally, we used the temperature and DO requirements of striped bass as an indicator of biological effects of combined changes in temperature and DO. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Hydrologic and climatologic factors affecting water levels of Devils Lake, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiche, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    High water levels of Devils Lake, North Dakota, and other terminal lakes, have, in recent years, threatened highways, agricultural land, recreational cabins, and communities located near these lakes. This study was undertaken to describe the hydrology of the Devils Lake basin and to determine how to estimate future water level probabilities. Analysis of the available hydrologic and climatologic data indicates the water level of Devils Lake fluctuates largely in response to climatic variability. Average annual net storage gain has varied from 70 ,000 acre-feet for 1969-83 to as little as 4,530 acre-feet for 1931-40. In addition to the influence of climatic variability on the inflow to Devils Lake, an interconnected chain of lakes upstream of Devils Lake retains runoff and acts as an evaporation basin for runoff from the Devils Lake basin. During 1965-67, at least 112,000 acre-feet of water was stored in this upstream chain of lakes. A review of research conducted on other terminal lakes indicated that the water level in these lakes fluctuated primarily in response to climate variability. There is agreement between water level fluctuations of terminal lakes in Western North America and water level fluctuations of Devils lake during times of climatic extremes. No standardized methods are available for computing water level probabilities of terminal lakes. Most of the development of a method for determining future water level probabilities has been focused on Great Salt Lake, Utah. A number of techniques have been used to estimate the future water-level probabilities for Great Salt Lake; however, they provide a wide range in probability of occurrence for any given water level. (Author 's abstract)

  6. Hepcidin levels predict nonresponsiveness to oral iron therapy in patients with iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Bregman, David B; Morris, David; Koch, Todd A; He, Andy; Goodnough, Lawrence T

    2013-02-01

    Levels of hepcidin, a major regulator of iron homeostasis, may identify patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) who will not respond to oral iron therapy. In this study, IDA patients underwent a 14-day trial (run-in) course of ferrous sulfate therapy. Nonresponders (Hgb increase <1 g/dL with 67% compliance rate) were randomized to IV ferric carboxymaltose (FCM; two injections of 750 mg) or further oral iron for 14 days. Screening hepcidin levels were 38.4 versus 11.3 ng/mL, P = 0.0002 in nonresponders versus responders to a trial of oral iron. Hepcidin of > 20 ng/mL, showed sensitivity of 41.3%, specificity of 84.4%, and positive predictive value of 81.6% for predicting nonresponsiveness to oral iron. PPVs for ferritin> 30 ng/mL or transferrin saturation (TSAT)>15% were 59.2 and 55%, respectively. Negative predictive values for hepcidin, ferritin, and TSAT were 46.3, 22.7, and 19.7, respectively. FCM versus oral iron showed Hgb increases of ? 1 gm/dL in 65.3% versus 20.8% (P < 0.0001) and Hgb increases of 1.7 ± 1.3 versus 0.6 ± 0.9 g/dL (P = 0.0025), respectively. We conclude that hepcidin predicts nonresponsiveness to oral iron in patients with IDA and is superior to TSAT or ferritin for this purpose. Nonresponse to oral iron therapy does not rule out IDA, since two-thirds of patients subsequently responded to intravenous iron. PMID:23335357

  7. The status of streamflow and ground-water-level monitoring networks in Maryland, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerhart, James M.; Cleaves, Emery T.

    2005-01-01

    The monitoring of streamflow and ground-water levels in Maryland is vitally important to the effective management and protection of the State?s water resources. Streamflow and ground-water-level monitoring networks have been operated for many years in Maryland, and in recent years, these networks have been redesigned to improve their efficiency. Unfortunately, these networks are increasingly at risk due to reduced and fluctuating funding from Federal, State, and local agencies. Stable, long-term funding is necessary to ensure that these networks will continue to provide valuable water data for use by State and local water-resources managers.

  8. Research on water level forecasting associated with global climate for the Kahayan River in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsugawa, M.

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to analyze the characteristics of the Kahayan River watershed in Indonesia and to forecast the water level of that river. Carbon is accumulated in tropical peat land in huge quantities. In recent years, however, peat land has been drying due to groundwater drawdown associated with agricultural development, and such drying has contributed to large-scale peat fires. In Central Kalimantan alone, huge quantities of carbon dioxide roughly approximating Japan's annual emissions are released into the atmosphere, and this has become an international problem. Toward preventing peat fires, peat land drying must be curbed by properly controlling the groundwater level. To do this, it is necessary that countermeasures be based on an understanding of the hydrological environment and its variation in the basin. Studies on the hydrological environment of the Kahayan River, the Sebangau River and the Kalampangan area in Central Kalimantan have been conducted by several researchers. However, most of the research has not addressed the factors affecting groundwater-surface water, in particular. In the present study, the factors affecting river water level variation were determined with a focus on the dry season, when there is a high risk of peat fires. In addition, we analyzed the relationship between river water level and canal water level in order to apply the information on river water level to control of the canal water level. Finally, we tried to forecast the river water level so that the watershed could be managed to prevent groundwater drawdown by the preliminary installation of weirs to head up the canal water. When analysis was conducted, it had to be considered that information in relation to geography and hydrology is scarce on the Kahayan River basin. The factors affecting water level variation were analyzed and the water level was forecast by the following procedure. 1) Factors affecting the amount of rainfall in the basin in the dry season were analyzed, based on global climate and relational analysis between weather condition and river water level was conducted, with a focus on the low-water level. In addition, the relationship between river water level and canal water level was determined, in order to apply the information of river water level to control of the canal water level. 2) The Nearest-Neighbor Method (NNM) was adopted in order to forecast the water level for the basin, for which some data is missing. Sufficiently accurate water level was forecast by using basin hydrological data. In addition, we attempted to improve the accuracy of water level forecasting by incorporating into the NNM the sea surface temperature (SST), which is affected by the El Niño event. 3) A runoff model was constructed that can calculate the runoff in the Kahayan River, and SST data were used to forecast rainfall. Finally, a method was proposed for forecasting the water level even when portions of data are missing.

  9. A boosting approach for adapting the sparsity of risk prediction signatures based on different molecular levels.

    PubMed

    Sariyar, Murat; Schumacher, Martin; Binder, Harald

    2014-06-01

    Risk prediction models can link high-dimensional molecular measurements, such as DNA methylation, to clinical endpoints. For biological interpretation, often a sparse fit is desirable. Different molecular aggregation levels, such as considering DNA methylation at the CpG, gene, or chromosome level, might demand different degrees of sparsity. Hence, model building and estimation techniques should be able to adapt their sparsity according to the setting. Additionally, underestimation of coefficients, which is a typical problem of sparse techniques, should also be addressed. We propose a comprehensive approach, based on a boosting technique that allows a flexible adaptation of model sparsity and addresses these problems in an integrative way. The main motivation is to have an automatic sparsity adaptation. In a simulation study, we show that this approach reduces underestimation in sparse settings and selects more adequate model sizes than the corresponding non-adaptive boosting technique in non-sparse settings. Using different aggregation levels of DNA methylation data from a study in kidney carcinoma patients, we illustrate how automatically selected values of the sparsity tuning parameter can reflect the underlying structure of the data. In addition to that, prediction performance and variable selection stability is compared to the non-adaptive boosting approach. PMID:24633754

  10. Predicting river water quality across North West England using catchment characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothwell, J. J.; Dise, N. B.; Taylor, K. G.; Allott, T. E. H.; Scholefield, P.; Davies, H.; Neal, C.

    2010-12-01

    SummaryLinear relationships between regional water quality and catchment characteristics (terrain, land cover, geology, base flow index and rainfall) are examined for rivers in North West England using a GIS-based approach and an extensive Environment Agency water quality database. The study considers the role of diffuse and distal point sources on river water quality. The results show that base cation concentrations are strongly linked to catchment terrain and land cover, while pH is linked to bedrock geology and land cover. Mean nitrate concentrations are most strongly related to arable cover, although distal point sources in urban and rural catchments appear to have a significant effect on river nitrate concentrations in the region. Orthophosphate and suspended sediment concentrations are most closely related to the percentage urban development. Linear models are tested on a large independent water quality dataset, resulting in maps showing predicted water quality across the region. The approach works well for the prediction of nitrate concentrations and other constituents which have predominantly diffuse sources. In contrast, the linear approach to predicting orthophosphate concentrations in North West rivers using catchment characteristics is problematic. The major influence of point sources may mask the effect of wider basin attributes on orthophosphate concentrations. Within-river processing of phosphorus may also explain why the relationship breaks down. Further work is needed to explain phosphorus contributions and variability in North West rivers, especially in the context of effective catchment management.

  11. Design of a steam generator water level controller via the estimation of the flow errors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Man Gyun Na

    1995-01-01

    The problem of the water level control of the steam generator makes the plant more vulnerable to high and low level trips. Particularly, the swell and shrink phenomena and the flow errors at low power levels make the level control of steam generators difficult. At this work, the flow errors are regarded as the time-varying parameters and estimated by the

  12. Preliminary validation of the NIES Level 2 water vapour product from GOSAT SWIR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, E.; Morino, I.; Yoshida, Y.; Uchino, O.; Matsunaga, T.; Yokota, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) has been providing continuous measurements of tropospheric greenhouse gases for more than four years. Aside from the main target gases: carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), water vapour (H2O) is also retrieved in the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) spectral range. Along with CO2 and CH4, H2O is a major greenhouse gas. Therefore, in order to use the GOSAT water vapour data in reliable climate model predictions, it is crucial to assess the quality of the SWIR H2O retrievals. This work presents preliminary results of the validation of the H2O column amount retrieved from SWIR spectra by the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES, Tsukuba, Japan). We show and discuss initial comparisons for version 02.11 of the NIES Level 2 H2O product. The correlative datasets include ground-based measurements from high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) instruments participating in the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON), as well as radiosonde measurements.

  13. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System PID controller for SG water level of nuclear power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xue-Kui Wang; Xu-Hong Yang; Gang Liu; Hong Qian

    2009-01-01

    In a nuclear power plant, the water level in the steam generator (SG) is one of main causes that shutdown the reactor, this problem has been of great concern for many years as the SG is a highly nonlinear system showing inverse response dynamics. For controlling the SG water level at a certain range, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) PID

  14. The Quality of Our Nation's Waters Mercury in the Nation's Streams--Levels, Trends, and Implications

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    the Earth, its natural and living resources, natural hazards, and the environment, visit httpThe Quality of Our Nation's Waters Mercury in the Nation's Streams--Levels, Trends. Wentz). #12;The Quality of Our Nation's Waters Mercury in the Nation's Streams--Levels, Trends

  15. Guaranteed cost control of the water level of steam generator based on TS model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhuo xiujuan; Wang junling; Feng zhangjun

    2008-01-01

    In the operation of nuclear steam generator, the reverse thermal-dynamic effects make steam generator water level process dynamics characteristic difficult to control. In order to improve the control effect, a guaranteed cost controller method based on T-S model for the water level control of a nuclear steam generator is proposed and investigated in this paper. The proposed controller guarantees both

  16. Model-Free Adaptive Control Method for Nuclear Steam Generator Water Level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Mingmei; Cheng Qiming; Cheng Yinman; Wang Yingfei

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear steam generator is a highly complex, nonlinear, non-minimum phase and time-varying system, which is caused by the swell and shrink effects. So the control of the steam generator water level is very difficult. Conventional double PI control method can not reach a good performance. There are many methodologies applied to water level controller design. But many methodologies are model

  17. A weighted algorithm of fuzzy logic strategy on water level control of steam generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangjie Liu; Tianyou Chai

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the newly developed water level control system for drum boiler using the fuzzy control strategy. The major dynamics of boiler water level include nonlinearities, nonminimum phase behavior, instabilities, time delays, and load disturbances. A weighted algorithm of fuzzy logic strategy is applied to control the steam boiler using the GPE (Gaussian partition with evenly spaced midpoints) system.

  18. P controller with partial feed forward compensation and decoupling control for the steam generator water level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng Liu; Fu Yu Zhao; Ping Hu; Suxia Hou; Chong Li

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a P controller with partial feed forward compensation and decoupling control for the steam generator water level is presented. While taking the steam flowrate as a disturbance to water level, the controller design can be completed in three stages. (1) Main circuit controller is designed without regard to disturbance. Since the transfer function of the steam generator

  19. Performance assessment for the water level control system in steam generator of the nuclear power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi Zhang; Lisheng Hu

    2011-01-01

    Steam generator water level control system is the most important components of the nuclear power plant. The operating steam generator water level controller is increasingly recognized as a capital asset that should be maintained and monitored routinely. However, this issue as the control loop performance assessment problem is still open. Considering this issue, a major contribution of this paper is

  20. Persistent water level changes in a well near Parkfield, California, due to local and distant earthquakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evelyn A. Roelofts

    1998-01-01

    Coseismic water level rises in the 30-m deep Bourdieu Valley (BV) well near Parkfield, California, have occurred in response to three local and five distant earthquakes. Coseismic changes in static strain cannot explain these water level rises because (1) the well is insensitive to strain at tidal periods; (2) for the distant earthquakes, the expected coseismic static strain is extremely

  1. DOWNSTREAM-WATER-LEVEL CONTROL TEST RESULTS ON THE WM LATERAL CANAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On steep canals, distant downstream water-level control can be challenging. SacMan (Software for Automated Canal Management) was developed, in part, to test various distant downstream water level controllers. It was implemented on the WM canal of the Maricopa Stanfield Irrigation and Drainage Distri...

  2. The role of ethnicity in predicting diabetes risk at the population level

    PubMed Central

    Rosella, Laura C.; Mustard, Cameron A.; Stukel, Therese A.; Corey, Paul; Hux, Jan; Roos, Les; Manuel, Douglas G.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The current form of the Diabetes Population Risk Tool (DPoRT) includes a non-specific category of ethnicity in concordance with publicly data available. Given the importance of ethnicity in influencing diabetes risk and its significance in a multi-ethnic population, it is prudent to determine its influence on a population-based risk prediction tool. Objective. To apply and compare the DPoRT with a modified version that includes detailed ethnic information in Canada's largest and most ethnically diverse province. Methods. Two additional diabetes prediction models were created: a model that contained predictors specific to the following ethnic groups – White, Black, Asian, south Asian, and First Nation; and a reference model which did not include a term for ethnicity. In addition to discrimination and calibration, 10-year diabetes incidence was compared. The algorithms were developed in Ontario using the 1996–1997 National Population Health Survey (N = 19,861) and validated in the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (N = 26,465). Results. All non-white ethnicities were associated with higher risk for developing diabetes with south Asians having the highest risk. Discrimination was similar (0.75–0.77) and sufficient calibration was maintained for all models except the detailed ethnicity models for males. DPoRT produced the lowest overall ratio between observed and predicted diabetes risk. DPoRT identified more high risk cases than the other algorithms in males, whereas in females both DPoRT and the full ethnicity model identified more high risk cases. Overall DPoRT and full ethnicity algorithms were very similar in terms of predictive accuracy and population risk. Conclusion. Although from the individual risk perspective, incorporating information on ethnicity is important, when predicting new cases of diabetes at the population level and accounting for other risk factors, detailed ethnic information did not improve the discrimination and accuracy of the model or identify significantly more diabetes cases in the population. PMID:22292745

  3. Measured and predicted effects of gravity level on directional dendritic solidification of NH4Cl-H2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccay, T. D.; Mccay, Mary H.

    1993-01-01

    Dendritic growth front rates during vertical directional solidification are predicted for gravity levels of 10 exp 0 g sub e (where e is earth gravity), 10 exp -1 g sub e, 10 exp -2 g sub e, 10 exp -3 g sub e, 10 exp -4 g sub e, and 10 exp -5 g sub e (microgravity) for the physical conditions used for a recent ammonium chloride-water solidification experiment on the International Microgravity Laboratory I (IMLI). The growth front rates at 10 exp 0 g sub e and 10 exp -5 g sub e are validated using ground based laboratory and IMLI experimental data. As the gravity decreases, the growth rates increase until they approach a maximum at approximately 10 exp -4 g sub e. The 10 exp -4 and 10 exp -5 levels are equivalent. Liquid concentration and volume fraction, temperature profiles and fluid flow velocities are also calculated. Kinetic energy calculations for each of the six gravity levels indicate that the threshold for fluid flow to affect the growth front rate is in the range of 10 exp -8 ergs.

  4. Natural radioactivity levels in bottled water in Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Fernández; E. Liger; J. Carretero

    1997-01-01

    Spain is a country rich in mineral springs. A nationwide study on the natural radioactivity has been made to determine the gross-? and gross-? activities in bottled water. These measurements are important for extracting radiological information of the activity present in a sample. Of all samples collected, only 26.2% have an ?-activity higher than 100 mBq\\/l, and none of them

  5. Improving and testing geochemical speciation predictions of metal ions in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Imad A M; Hamilton-Taylor, John; Bieroza, Magdalena; Zhang, Hao; Davison, William

    2014-12-15

    The ability of WHAM VII and NICA-Donnan models to predict free-ion activities of Cu in natural waters was examined from two perspectives, (i) the presence of EDTA and NTA contaminants, (ii) the need to improve estimates of HA and FA concentrations. Potentiometric responses of a Cu(II) ion-selective electrode were investigated in five assays containing dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolated from a series of polluted (urban) and relatively unpolluted (upland) streams in northern England. The [Cu]/[DOC] ratio in these assays spanned an environmentally realistic range of ?1-500 ?mol/g. Reasonably good agreement between measured and predicted Cu(2+) activities was obtained with both WHAM VII and NICA-Donnan models, assuming 65% of DOM as fulvic acid and including the measured EDTA and NTA concentrations, but generally the models overestimated the activities by a factor of ?2. In contrast, the models over-predicted the Cu(2+) activities by up to 2 orders of magnitude at low [Cu]/[DOC] ratios in urban waters if anthropogenic ligands were not included in the model simulations. Three-dimensional fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy was used to measure the functional properties of the isolated DOM and to estimate the fractions of FA and HA present. Using these fractions in the models gave improvements in predictions compared to the 65% FA assumption, as shown by higher correlations, reduced error and reduced bias. These results highlight various issues with the use of the available speciation models for predicting free ion concentrations in natural waters, such as the use of the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) for the derivation of environmental standards. It is clearly necessary to measure EDTA and NTA in waters with urban influences, while fluorescence measurements offer the possibility of appreciably improving the accuracy of predictions. PMID:25286438

  6. Strength and Comprehensiveness of District School Wellness Policies Predict Policy Implementation at the School Level

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Kathryn E; Falbe, Jennifer; Novak, Sarah A.; Wharton, Christopher; Long, Michael; O'Connell, Meghan L.; Fiore, Susan S.

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2006, all local education agencies in the United States participating in federal school meal programs were required to establish school wellness policies. The aim of this study was to document the strength and comprehensiveness of one state's written district policies using a quantitative coding tool, and test whether the strength and comprehensiveness of the written policy predicted school level implementation and practices. Methods School wellness policies from 151 Connecticut districts were evaluated using a quantitative coding system. In each district, school principal surveys were collected before and after the writing and expected implementation of wellness policies. Socio-demographic variables were assessed for each district, including enrollment, population density, political climate, racial composition and socio-economic status. Changes in school-level policy implementation before and after the federal wellness policy requirement were compared across districts by wellness policy strength, and policies were compared based on district-level demographic factors. Results Statewide, fuller implementation of nutrition and physical activity policies at the school level was reported after adoption of written policies in 2006. Districts with stronger, more comprehensive policies were more successful in implementing those policies at the school level. Some socio-demographic characteristics predicted the strength of wellness policies; larger, urban districts and districts with a greater ratio of registered Democrats to Republicans wrote stronger policies. Conclusions Written school wellness policies have the potential to promote significant improvements in the school environment. Future regulation of school wellness policies should focus on the importance of writing strong and comprehensive policies. PMID:22568461

  7. Cyclic water level oscillations of the KaraBogazGol–Caspian Sea system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Giralt; R. Julià; S. Leroy; F. Gasse

    2003-01-01

    The KaraBogazGol (KBG) water level oscillations were reconstructed in the last 200 years using the geochemical evolution of the uppermost meter of its sedimentary infill. High-resolution studies of the mineralogical composition of the KBG sediments show alternating periods of high concentration brines followed by periods of more dilute waters. The relative water level reconstruction was based on statistical models (factor

  8. System engineering for water pollution control at the watershed level in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Meng

    2009-01-01

    The present water pollution situation at watershed level in China has been systematically analyzed. The causes of water pollution\\u000a are attributed to the extensive economic developmental pattern, poor wastewater treatment, and a lack of nonpoint pollution\\u000a control. The problems of water pollution control at watershed level include a lack of thought and approach, developmental\\u000a delay in the environmental standard system,

  9. Simultaneous prediction of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inactivation and bromate formation during ozonation of synthetic waters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Von Gunten, Urs; Mariñas, Benito J

    2004-04-01

    A model was developed to simultaneously assess Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inactivation and bromate formation during ozonation of synthetic solutions in batch and flow-through reactors. The model incorporated 65 elementary chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of ozone and the oxidation of bromine species and their corresponding rate or equilibrium constants reported in the literature. Ozonation experiments were performed with a laboratory-scale batch reactor to evaluate the model with respect to the rate of ozone decomposition and bromate formation. The model was found to provide a good representation of experimental results when the ozone decomposition initiation reaction with hydroxide ion was assumed to produce superoxide radical instead of the alternatively proposed product hydrogen peroxide. The model was further developed to simulate the performance of a flow-through bubble-diffuser reactor with an external recirculation line. Each compartment of the reactor (bubble column and recirculation line) was assumed to behave as a plug flow reactor as supported by tracer test results, and an empirical correlation was used to represent the rate of ozone gas transfer in the bubble column. Model predictions of the performance of the flow-through ozone bubble-diffuser contactor were in good agreement with experimental results obtained for bromate formation and C. parvum oocyst inactivation under all conditions investigated. Additional model simulations revealed that hydrodynamic conditions had a more pronounced effect on C. parvum oocyst inactivation than on bromate formation. In contrast, pH had a strong effect on bromate formation without affecting the inactivation efficiency of C. parvum oocysts for a given level of exposure to ozone. These findings suggested that bromate formation could be minimized while achieving target inactivation levels for C. parvum oocysts by designing ozone reactors with hydrodynamic conditions approaching that of an ideal plug flow reactor and by lowering the pH of the target water. PMID:15112829

  10. Water pollution risk simulation and prediction in the main canal of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Cheng, Xi

    2014-11-01

    The middle route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (MRP) will divert water to Beijing Tuancheng Lake from Taocha in the Danjiangkou reservoir located in the Hubei province of China. The MRP is composed of a long canal and complex hydraulic structures and will transfer water in open channel areas to provide drinking water for Beijing, Shijiazhuang and other cities under extremely strict water quality requirements. A large number of vehicular accidents, occurred on the many highway bridges across the main canal would cause significant water pollution in the main canal. To ensure that water quality is maintained during the diversion process, the effects of pollutants on water quality due to sudden pollution accidents were simulated and analyzed in this paper. The MIKE11 HD module was used to calculate the hydraulic characteristics of the 42-km Xishi-to-Beijuma River channel of the MRP. Six types of hydraulic structures, including inverted siphons, gates, highway bridges, culverts and tunnels, were included in this model. Based on the hydrodynamic model, the MIKE11 AD module, which is one-dimensional advection dispersion model, was built for TP, NH3-N, CODMn and F. The validated results showed that the computed values agreed well with the measured values. In accordance with transportation data across the Dianbei Highway Bridge, the effects of traffic accidents on the bridge on water quality were analyzed. Based on simulated scenarios with three discharge rates (ranged from 12 m3/s to 17 m3/s, 40 m3/s, and 60 m3/s) and three pollution loading concentration levels (5 t, 10 t and 20 t) when trucks spill their contents (i.e., phosphate fertilizer, cyanide, oil and chromium solution) into the channel, emergency measures were proposed. Reasonable solutions to ensure the water quality with regard to the various types of pollutants were proposed, including treating polluted water, maintaining materials, and personnel reserves.

  11. Generalized water-level contours, September-October 2000 and March-April 2001, and long-term water-level changes, at the U.S. Air Force Plant 42 and vicinity, Palmdale, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Allen H.

    2005-01-01

    Historically, the U.S. Air Force Plant 42 has relied on ground water as the primary source of water owing, in large part, to the scarcity of surface water in the region. Groundwater withdrawal for municipal, industrial, and agricultural use has affected ground-water levels at U.S. Air Force Plant 42, and vicinity. A study to document changes in groundwater gradients and to present historical water-level data was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force. This report presents historical water-level data, hydrographs, and generalized seasonal water-level and water-level contours for September?October 2000 and March?April 2001. The collection and interpretation of ground-water data helps local water districts, military bases, and private citizens gain a better understanding of the ground-water flow systems, and consequently water availability. During September?October 2000 and March?April 2001 the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made a total of 102 water-level measurements, 46 during September?October 2000 and 56 during March?April 2001. These data document recent conditions and, when compared with historical data, document changes in ground-water levels. Two water-level contour maps were drawn: the first depicts water-level conditions for September?October 2000 map and the second depicts water-level conditions for March?April 2001 map. In general, the water-level contour maps show water-level depressions formed as result of ground-water withdrawal. One hundred sixteen long-term hydrographs, using water-level data from 1915 through 2000, were constructed to show water-level trends in the area. The hydrographs indicate that water-level decline occurred throughout the study area, with the greatest declines south of U.S. Air Force Plant 42.

  12. Prediction of infarct severity from triiodothyronine levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Seo-Won; Kim, Bo-Bae; Chung, Joong-Wha; Koh, Young-Youp; Chang, Kyong-Sig; Hong, Soon-Pyo

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between thyroid hormone levels and infarct severity in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods We retrospectively reviewed thyroid hormone levels, infarct severity, and the extent of transmurality in 40 STEMI patients evaluated via contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Results The high triiodothyronine (T3) group (? 68.3 ng/dL) exhibited a significantly higher extent of transmural involvement (late transmural enhancement > 75% after administration of gadolinium contrast agent) than did the low T3 group (60% vs. 15%; p = 0.003). However, no significant difference was evident between the high- and low-thyroid-stimulating hormone/free thyroxine (FT4) groups. When the T3 cutoff level was set to 68.3 ng/dL using a receiver operating characteristic curve, the sensitivity was 80% and the specificity 68% in terms of differentiating between those with and without transmural involvement. Upon logistic regression analysis, high T3 level was an independent predictor of transmural involvement after adjustment for the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and the use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (odds ratio, 40.62; 95% confidence interval, 3.29 to 502; p = 0.004). Conclusions The T3 level predicted transmural involvement that was independent of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor use and DM positivity. PMID:25045293

  13. Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2009-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.6 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with ground water in the aquifer area. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (before about 1950) to 2007 and serves as a companion product to a USGS report that presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2009).

  14. Effects of Water Level on Three Wetlands Soil Seed Banks on the Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Miaojun; Ma, Zhen; Du, Guozhen

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the effect of water level on germination in soil seed banks has been documented in many ecosystems, the mechanism is not fully understood, and to date no empirical studies on this subject exist. Further, no work has been done on the effect of water level on seed banks of drying and saline-alkaline wetlands in alpine areas on the Tibetan Plateau. Methodology We examined the effects of water level (0 cm, 5 cm and 10 cm) on seed germination and seedling establishment from soil seed banks at 0–5 cm and 5–10 cm depths in typical, drying, and saline-alkaline wetlands. We also explore the potential role of soil seed bank in restoration of drying and saline-alkaline wetlands. Principal Findings Species richness decreased with increase in water level, but there almost no change in seed density. A huge difference exists in species composition of the seed bank among different water levels in all three wetlands, especially between 0 cm and 5 cm and 0 cm and 10 cm. Similarity of species composition between seed bank and plant community was higher in 0 cm water level in drying wetland than in the other two wetlands. The similarity was much higher in 0 cm water level than in 5 cm and 10 cm water levels in all three wetlands. Species composition of the alpine wetland plant community changed significantly after drying and salinization, however, species composition of the seed bank was unchanged regardless of the environment change. Conclusions/Significance Water level greatly affects seed bank recruitment and plant community establishment. Further, different water levels in restored habitats are likely to determine its species composition of the plant community. The seed bank is important in restoration of degraded wetlands. Successful restoration of drying and salinization wetlands could depend on the seed bank. PMID:24984070

  15. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1990--91

    SciTech Connect

    Tucci, P.; O`Brien, G.M.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1996-07-01

    Water levels were monitored in 27 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada during 1990--91. Twelve wells were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, and 15 wells representing 24 intervals were monitored hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks, except one that monitors levels in paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes and pressure transducers; steel-tape measurements were corrected for mechanical stretch, thermal expansion, and borehole deviation to obtain precise water-level altitudes. Water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 meters above sea level east of Yucca Mountain to about 1,035 meters above sea level north of Yucca Mountain. Water-level altitudes in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks varied between 752 and 753 meters above sea level during 1990--91. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data.

  16. Changes in water levels and storage in the High Plains Aquifer, predevelopment to 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2011-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the onset of substantial irrigation with groundwater from the aquifer (about 1950 and termed "predevelopment" in this fact sheet). By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (ft) (Luckey and others, 1981). In 1987, in response to declining water levels, Congress directed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources entities, to assess and track water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment to 2009. Drainable water in storage is the fraction of water in the aquifer that will drain by gravity and can be withdrawn by wells. The remaining water in the aquifer is held to the aquifer material by capillary forces and generally cannot be withdrawn by wells. Drainable water in storage is termed "water in storage" in this report. A companion USGS report presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2011).

  17. Prediction of SG Tube Support Plate Flow Area Blockage Rate Using SG Wide Range Level Measurements and Hydrodynamic Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae Yong LEE; Hong Deok KIM; Duk Joo YOON

    2009-01-01

    Some nuclear power plants have recently experienced hydrodynamic instability in steam generators (SGs). Instability, if present in the SG of a pressurized water reactor, results in the periodic oscillation of the water level, steam flow, feedwater flow, and the flow through the circulation loop. In this instability analysis, the major parameters are the power level and flow area of the

  18. The penetration barrier of water through graphynes' pores: first-principles predictions and force field optimization

    E-print Network

    Bartolomei, Massimiliano; Hernández, Marta I; Campos-Martínez, José; Pirani, Fernando; Giorgi, Giacomo; Yamashita, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Graphynes are novel two-dimensional carbon-based materials that -due to their nanoweb-like structure- have been proposed as molecular filters, especially for water purification technologies. In this work we carry out first principles electronic structure calculations at the MP2C level of theory to assess the interaction between water and graphyne, graphdiyne and graphtriyne pores. The computed penetration barriers suggest that water transport is unfeasible through graphyne while being unimpeded for graphtriyne. Nevertheless, for graphdiyne, which presents a pore size almost matching that of water, a low barrier is found which in turn disappears if an active hydrogen bond with an additional water molecule on the opposite side of the opening is taken into account. These results support the possibility of using graphtriyne as an efficient membrane for water filtration but, in contrast with previous determinations, they do not exclude graphdiyne. In fact, the related first principles penetration barrier leads to ...

  19. A SCREENING ASSESSMENT OF THE RELATIVE VULNERABILITY OF COASTAL WATER SUPPLIES TO SALT WATER INTRUSION CAUSED BY SEA LEVEL RISE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sea levels have risen from four to eight inches in the 20th century, and model projections suggest an additional rise of 8 to 15 inches is possible during the 21st century. Rising sea levels can increase the upstream extent of salt water influence in coastal aquifers. In coasta...

  20. Bio-predictive tablet disintegration: effect of water diffusivity, fluid flow, food composition and test conditions.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Asma; Wagner, Manfred; Amidon, Gordon L; Langguth, Peter

    2014-06-16

    Food intake may delay tablet disintegration. Current in vitro methods have little predictive potential to account for such effects. The effect of a variety of factors on the disintegration of immediate release tablets in the gastrointestinal tract has been identified. They include viscosity of the media, precipitation of food constituents on the surface of the tablet and reduction of water diffusivity in the media as well as changes in the hydrodynamics in the surrounding media of the solid dosage form. In order to improve the predictability of food affecting the disintegration of a dosage form, tablet disintegration in various types of a liquefied meal has been studied under static vs. dynamic (agitative) conditions. Viscosity, water diffusivity, osmolality and Reynolds numbers for the different media were characterized. A quantitative model is introduced which predicts the influence of the Reynolds number in the tablet disintegration apparatus on the disintegration time. Viscosity, water diffusivity and media flow velocity are shown to be important factors affecting dosage form disintegration. The results suggest the necessity of considering these parameters when designing a predictive model for simulating the in vivo conditions. Based on these experiments and knowledge on in vivo hydrodynamics in the GI tract, it is concluded that the disintegration tester under current pharmacopoeial conditions is operated in an unphysiological mode and no bioprediction may be derived. Recommendations regarding alternative mode of operation are made. PMID:24036239

  1. Research on Steam Generator Water Level Control System Based on Nuclear Power Plant Simulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianghua Guo

    \\u000a Steam generator (SG) is one of the most important equipments in nuclear power plants. The water level of SG must be kept in\\u000a a certain range to ensure the plants operate safely, reliably and economically. Nowadays, most SG water levels are controlled\\u000a by PID in PWR plants. In this paper, the mathematical models of SG level control system are built

  2. Pulsating potentiometric titration technique for assay of dissolved oxygen in water at trace level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Sahoo; R. Ananthanarayanan; N. Malathi; M. P. Rajiniganth; N. Murali; P. Swaminathan

    2010-01-01

    A simple but high performance potentiometric titration technique using pulsating sensors has been developed for assay of dissolved oxygen (DO) in water samples down to 10.0?gL?1 levels. The technique involves Winkler titration chemistry, commonly used for determination of dissolved oxygen in water at mgL?1 levels, with modification in methodology for accurate detection of end point even at 10.0?gL?1 levels DO

  3. Spatial variability of sea level rise due to water impoundment behind dams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia W. Fiedler; Clinton P. Conrad

    2010-01-01

    Dams have impounded ?10,800 km3 of water since 1900, reducing global sea level by ?30.0 mm and decreasing the rate of sea level rise. The load from impounded water depresses the earth's surface near dams and elevates the geoid, which locally increases relative sea level (RSL). We computed patterns of dam-induced RSL change globally, and estimated that tide gauges, which

  4. Developing methods to assess and predict the population level effects of environmental contaminants.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emlen, J.M.; Springman, K.R.

    2007-01-01

    The field of ecological toxicity seems largely to have drifted away from what its title implies--assessing and predicting the ecological consequences of environmental contaminants--moving instead toward an emphasis on individual effects and physiologic case studies. This paper elucidates how a relatively new ecological methodology, interaction assessment (INTASS), could be useful in addressing the field's initial goals. Specifically, INTASS is a model platform and methodology, applicable across a broad array of taxa and habitat types, that can be used to construct population dynamics models from field data. Information on environmental contaminants and multiple stressors can be incorporated into these models in a form that bypasses the problems inherent in assessing uptake, chemical interactions in the environment, and synergistic effects in the organism. INTASS can, therefore, be used to evaluate the effects of contaminants and other stressors at the population level and to predict how changes in stressor levels or composition of contaminant mixtures, as well as various mitigation measures, might affect population dynamics.

  5. Protein pheromone expression levels predict and respond to the formation of social dominance networks.

    PubMed

    Nelson, A C; Cunningham, C B; Ruff, J S; Potts, W K

    2015-06-01

    Communication signals are key regulators of social networks and are thought to be under selective pressure to honestly reflect social status, including dominance status. The odours of dominants and nondominants differentially influence behaviour, and identification of the specific pheromones associated with, and predictive of, dominance status is essential for understanding the mechanisms of network formation and maintenance. In mice, major urinary proteins (MUPs) are excreted in extraordinary large quantities and expression level has been hypothesized to provide an honest signal of dominance status. Here, we evaluate whether MUPs are associated with dominance in wild-derived mice by analysing expression levels before, during and after competition for reproductive resources over 3 days. During competition, dominant males have 24% greater urinary MUP expression than nondominants. The MUP darcin, a pheromone that stimulates female attraction, is predictive of dominance status: dominant males have higher darcin expression before competition. Dominants also have a higher ratio of darcin to other MUPs before and during competition. These differences appear transient, because there are no differences in MUPs or darcin after competition. We also find MUP expression is affected by sire dominance status: socially naive sons of dominant males have lower MUP expression, but this apparent repression is released during competition. A requisite condition for the evolution of communication signals is honesty, and we provide novel insight into pheromones and social networks by showing that MUP and darcin expression is a reliable signal of dominance status, a primary determinant of male fitness in many species. PMID:25867293

  6. An objective method for 3D quality prediction using visual annoyance and acceptability level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaustova, Darya; Fournier, Jérôme; Wyckens, Emmanuel; Le Meur, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    This study proposes a new objective metric for video quality assessment. It predicts the impact of technical quality parameters relevant to visual discomfort on human perception. The proposed metric is based on a 3-level color scale: (1) Green - not annoying, (2) Orange - annoying but acceptable, (3) Red - not acceptable. Therefore, each color category reflects viewers' judgment based on stimulus acceptability and induced visual annoyance. The boundary between the "Green" and "Orange" categories defines the visual annoyance threshold, while the boundary between the "Orange" and "Red" categories defines the acceptability threshold. Once the technical quality parameters are measured, they are compared to perceptual thresholds. Such comparison allows estimating the quality of the 3D video sequence. Besides, the proposed metric is adjustable to service or production requirements by changing the percentage of acceptability and/or visual annoyance. The performance of the metric is evaluated in a subjective experiment that uses three stereoscopic scenes. Five view asymmetries with four degradation levels were introduced into initial test content. The results demonstrate high correlations between subjective scores and objective predictions for all view asymmetries.

  7. Application of Method of Variation to Analyze and Predict Human Induced Modifications of Water Resource Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessu, S. B.; Melesse, A. M.; Mahadev, B.; McClain, M.

    2010-12-01

    Water resource systems have often used gravitational surface and subsurface flows because of their practicality in hydrological modeling and prediction. Activities such as inter/intra-basin water transfer, the use of small pumps and the construction of micro-ponds challenge the tradition of natural rivers as water resource management unit. On the contrary, precipitation is barely affected by topography and plot harvesting in wet regions can be more manageable than diverting from rivers. Therefore, it is indicative to attend to systems where precipitation drives the dynamics while the internal mechanics constitutes spectrum of human activity and decision in a network of plots. The trade-in volume and path of harvested precipitation depends on water balance, energy balance and the kinematics of supply and demand. Method of variation can be used to understand and predict the implication of local excess precipitation harvest and exchange on the natural water system. A system model was developed using the variational form of Euler-Bernoulli’s equation for the Kenyan Mara River basin. Satellite derived digital elevation models, precipitation estimates, and surface properties such as fractional impervious surface area, are used to estimate the available water resource. Four management conditions are imposed in the model: gravitational flow, open water extraction and high water use investment at upstream and downstream respectively. According to the model, the first management maintains the basin status quo while the open source management could induce externality. The high water market at the upstream in the third management offers more than 50% of the basin-wide total revenue to the upper third section of the basin thus may promote more harvesting. The open source and upstream exploitation suggest potential drop of water availability to downstream. The model exposed the latent potential of economic gradient to reconfigure the flow network along the direction where the marginal benefit is maximized. Therefore, the variation model can help to predict the possible human induced modification of natural water system in order to gain the maximum productivity and benefit.

  8. Relation of water level and fish availability to wood stork reproduction in the southern Everglades, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kushlan, James A.; Ogden, John C.; Higer, Aaron L.

    1975-01-01

    The wood stork is a species of colonial wading bird in the Everglades that is most sensitive to changes in the availability of food. Previous studies have shown that the initiation and success of wood stork nesting depends on high densities of fish concentrated in ponds and other catchment basins during the dry season. The extreme dependence of the wood stork on the cyclic hydrologic regime of the southern Florida wetlands makes it an indicator of the well-being and ecological stability of the Everglades. The wood stork has declined in numbers over the last 25 years. One reason for the decline in wood stork population was the change in the hydrologic regimen of the Everglades which affected the feeding habitat and the food production. The fish on which the wood stork feeds increase in density during the dry season as water levels fall. In the Everglades marsh, densities were highest in front of the drying edge of surface water at a depth of about 0.3 m. Dry-season densities were greatest when a drought occurred the previous year. Historically wood stork nesting success was associated with high summer water levels, high rates of surface-water discharge and high rates of drying. Before the closure of the south side of Conservation Area 3 in 1962, years of successful and unsuccessful nesting were characterized by different patterns of drying. These patterns changed after 1962 and generally the predictability of successful nesting breaks down thereafter. Only two nesting years after 1962 were successful and in only one of these was the drying rate similar to years of successful nesting before 1962. Two other potentially successful years failed after 1962. This suggests that further changes in the hydrobiological relations occurred within the Everglades after 1962. Lack of successful nesting after 1962 can be attributed in large part to late colony formation and the interruption of nesting by winter rainfall. In this period (1962-72), colonies formed earlier in years of high early drying rates than in years of low early drying rates. Delay of colony formation is ultimately the result of inability to attain a suitable nutritional state since food supply is the primary factor in the initiation of nesting. Many of the complex food associations of the wood stork remain to be explained.

  9. Machine learning and hurdle models for improving regional predictions of stream water acid neutralizing capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povak, Nicholas A.; Hessburg, Paul F.; Reynolds, Keith M.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; McDonnell, Todd C.; Salter, R. Brion

    2013-06-01

    In many industrialized regions of the world, atmospherically deposited sulfur derived from industrial, nonpoint air pollution sources reduces stream water quality and results in acidic conditions that threaten aquatic resources. Accurate maps of predicted stream water acidity are an essential aid to managers who must identify acid-sensitive streams, potentially affected biota, and create resource protection strategies. In this study, we developed correlative models to predict the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of streams across the southern Appalachian Mountain region, USA. Models were developed using stream water chemistry data from 933 sampled locations and continuous maps of pertinent environmental and climatic predictors. Environmental predictors were averaged across the upslope contributing area for each sampled stream location and submitted to both statistical and machine-learning regression models. Predictor variables represented key aspects of the contributing geology, soils, climate, topography, and acidic deposition. To reduce model error rates, we employed hurdle modeling to screen out well-buffered sites and predict continuous ANC for the remainder of the stream network. Models predicted acid-sensitive streams in forested watersheds with small contributing areas, siliceous lithologies, cool and moist environments, low clay content soils, and moderate or higher dry sulfur deposition. Our results confirmed findings from other studies and further identified several influential climatic variables and variable interactions. Model predictions indicated that one quarter of the total stream network was sensitive to additional sulfur inputs (i.e., ANC < 100 µeq L-1), while <10% displayed much lower ANC (<50 µeq L-1). These methods may be readily adapted in other regions to assess stream water quality and potential biotic sensitivity to acidic inputs.

  10. Effect of Water Invasion on Outburst Predictive Index of Low Rank Coals in Dalong Mine

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jingyu; Cheng, Yuanping; Mou, Junhui; Jin, Kan; Cui, Jie

    2015-01-01

    To improve the coal permeability and outburst prevention, coal seam water injection and a series of outburst prevention measures were tested in outburst coal mines. These methods have become important technologies used for coal and gas outburst prevention and control by increasing the external moisture of coal or decreasing the stress of coal seam and changing the coal pore structure and gas desorption speed. In addition, techniques have had a significant impact on the gas extraction and outburst prevention indicators of coal seams. Globally, low rank coals reservoirs account for nearly half of hidden coal reserves and the most obvious feature of low rank coal is the high natural moisture content. Moisture will restrain the gas desorption and will affect the gas extraction and accuracy of the outburst prediction of coals. To study the influence of injected water on methane desorption dynamic characteristics and the outburst predictive index of coal, coal samples were collected from the Dalong Mine. The methane adsorption/desorption test was conducted on coal samples under conditions of different injected water contents. Selective analysis assessed the variations of the gas desorption quantities and the outburst prediction index (coal cutting desorption index). Adsorption tests indicated that the Langmuir volume of the Dalong coal sample is ~40.26 m3/t, indicating a strong gas adsorption ability. With the increase of injected water content, the gas desorption amount of the coal samples decreased under the same pressure and temperature. Higher moisture content lowered the accumulation desorption quantity after 120 minutes. The gas desorption volumes and moisture content conformed to a logarithmic relationship. After moisture correction, we obtained the long-flame coal outburst prediction (cutting desorption) index critical value. This value can provide a theoretical basis for outburst prediction and prevention of low rank coal mines and similar occurrence conditions of coal seams. PMID:26161959

  11. Effect of Water Invasion on Outburst Predictive Index of Low Rank Coals in Dalong Mine.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingyu; Cheng, Yuanping; Mou, Junhui; Jin, Kan; Cui, Jie

    2015-01-01

    To improve the coal permeability and outburst prevention, coal seam water injection and a series of outburst prevention measures were tested in outburst coal mines. These methods have become important technologies used for coal and gas outburst prevention and control by increasing the external moisture of coal or decreasing the stress of coal seam and changing the coal pore structure and gas desorption speed. In addition, techniques have had a significant impact on the gas extraction and outburst prevention indicators of coal seams. Globally, low rank coals reservoirs account for nearly half of hidden coal reserves and the most obvious feature of low rank coal is the high natural moisture content. Moisture will restrain the gas desorption and will affect the gas extraction and accuracy of the outburst prediction of coals. To study the influence of injected water on methane desorption dynamic characteristics and the outburst predictive index of coal, coal samples were collected from the Dalong Mine. The methane adsorption/desorption test was conducted on coal samples under conditions of different injected water contents. Selective analysis assessed the variations of the gas desorption quantities and the outburst prediction index (coal cutting desorption index). Adsorption tests indicated that the Langmuir volume of the Dalong coal sample is ~40.26 m3/t, indicating a strong gas adsorption ability. With the increase of injected water content, the gas desorption amount of the coal samples decreased under the same pressure and temperature. Higher moisture content lowered the accumulation desorption quantity after 120 minutes. The gas desorption volumes and moisture content conformed to a logarithmic relationship. After moisture correction, we obtained the long-flame coal outburst prediction (cutting desorption) index critical value. This value can provide a theoretical basis for outburst prediction and prevention of low rank coal mines and similar occurrence conditions of coal seams. PMID:26161959

  12. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for crop water footprint accounting at a basin level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, L.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Water footprint has been recognized as a comprehensive indicator in water management to evaluate the human pressure on water resources from either production or consumption perspectives. The agricultural sector in particular crop production takes the largest share of the global water footprint. Water footprint of producing unit mass of a crop (m3/ ton) is normally expressed by single volumetric numbers referring to an average value for certain areas and periods. However, the divergence in crop water footprint accounts from different studies, primarily due to the input data quality, may confuse water users and managers. The study investigates the output sensitivity and uncertainty of the green (rainfall) and blue (irrigation water) crop water footprint to key input variables (reference evapotranspiration (ETo), precipitation (PR), crop coefficient (Kc) and crop calendar (D)) at a basin level. A grid-based daily water balance model was applied to compute water footprints of four major crops - maize, rice, soybean and wheat - in the Yellow River basin for 1996-2005 at a 5 by 5 arc minute resolution. Sensitivities of the yearly crop water footprints to individual input variability were assessed by the one-at-a-time (';sensitivity curve') method. Uncertainty in crop water footprint to input uncertainties were quantified through Monte Carlo simulations for selected years 1996 (wet), 2000 (dry) and 2005 (average). Results show that the crop water footprint is most sensitive to ETo and Kc, followed by D and PR. Blue water footprints were more sensitive than green water footprints to input variability. Interestingly, the smaller the annual blue water footprint, the higher its sensitivity to PR, ETo and Kc variability. The uncertainties in total crop water footprints to combined uncertainties in four key input variables was less than × 30% for total water footprints at 95% confidence level. The sensitivity and uncertainty level of crop water footprints also differs with crop types. In the current study, soybean had the highest sensitivity and the largest uncertainty in water footprints. The study provides the first detailed estimate of the output sensitivity and uncertainty in crop water footprint accounting to input variability and uncertainties. Providing the uncertainty ranges in combination with the estimated crop water footprint can undoubtedly increase the output reliability and adaptability in water management.

  13. Earthquake-induced water-level fluctuations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, G.M.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents earthquake-induced water-level and fluid-pressure data for wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during June 1992. Three earthquakes occurred which caused significant water-level and fluid-pressure responses in wells. Wells USW H-5 and USW H-6 are continuously monitored to detect short-term responses caused by earthquakes. Two wells, monitored hourly, had significant, longer-term responses in water level following the earthquakes. On June 28, 1992, a 7.5-magnitude earthquake occurred near Landers, California causing an estimated maximum water-level change of 90 centimeters in well USW H-5. Three hours later a 6.6-magnitude earthquake occurred near Big Bear Lake, California; the maximum water-level fluctuation was 20 centimeters in well USW H-5. A 5.6-magnitude earthquake occurred at Little Skull Mountain, Nevada, on June 29, approximately 23 kilometers from Yucca Mountain. The maximum estimated short-term water-level fluctuation from the Little Skull Mountain earthquake was 40 centimeters in well USW H-5. The water level in well UE-25p {number_sign}1, monitored hourly, decreased approximately 50 centimeters over 3 days following the Little Skull Mountain earthquake. The water level in UE-25p {number_sign}1 returned to pre-earthquake levels in approximately 6 months. The water level in the lower interval of well USW H-3 increased 28 centimeters following the Little Skull Mountain earthquake. The Landers and Little Skull Mountain earthquakes caused responses in 17 intervals of 14 hourly monitored wells, however, most responses were small and of short duration. For several days following the major earthquakes, many smaller magnitude aftershocks occurred causing measurable responses in the continuously monitored wells.

  14. TDR application for automated water level measurement from Mariotte reservoirs in tension disc infiltrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moret, D.; López, M. V.; Arrúe, J. L.

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the use of an automated method of measuring water level changes in Mariotte-type reservoirs via time domain reflectometry (TDR) and demonstrates its field application for measurements of soil hydraulic properties. The method is based on the assumption that the travel time of a TDR pulse propagating along a transmission line immersed in an air-water medium is the summation of the pulse travel times in the air and water phases. A TDR cable tester generates a pulse that propagates through a three-rod probe traversing the centre of the Mariotte reservoir from top to bottom. The reflection of the pulse is automatically transferred to a computer for waveform analysis with the water level being a simple function of probe length and the air, water, and air-water medium dielectric constants as measured by the cable tester. Water level measurements obtained with the TDR technique showed close agreement with those obtained using visual and pressure transducer procedures. The application of this TDR method as an alternative to more traditional methods was demonstrated in a field experiment using a tension disc infiltrometer. The TDR approach allows for automated water level measurements and is simple, accurate and easy to implement. Moreover, it allows for simultaneous TDR measurements of both water flow and volumetric water content of soil below the infiltrometer disc.

  15. Inflammatory Protein Levels and Depression Screening After Coronary Stenting Predict Major Adverse Coronary Events

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Lorraine; Vaughn, William K.; Willerson, James T.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Background Traditional risk factors cannot account for the majority of future major adverse coronary events (MACE) in patients diagnosed with heart disease. We examined levels of inflammatory proteins to be possible predictors of future MACE and physiological and psychological factors that initiate temporal increases in inflammatory protein levels. Methods Peripheral blood samples and depression data were collected 4 to 12 hr after elective coronary stent insertion in 490 patients. Depression screening was assessed by a single-question screening tool. Predictive modeling for future MACE was performed by using survival analysis, with time from the index event (placement of the stent) to future MACE as the dependent variable. Results Patients with high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hsCRP) in the second and third quartiles were 3 and 2.5 times more likely to have a MACE than patients with hsCRP in the first quartile, respectively. As levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 increased, so did the risk of future MACE. Patients who screened positive for depression were approximately 2 times more likely to have a MACE within 24 months after stent placement than were patients who did not screen positive. Conclusions Our results suggest that hsCRP, vascular cell adhesion molecule, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels, measured after coronary stent insertion in patients with coronary heart disease, are prognostic of future MACE. Furthermore, positive depression screening is an independent predictor of future MACE. PMID:19251718

  16. Evaluation of multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks in prediction of water quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Zare Abyaneh, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This paper examined the efficiency of multivariate linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) models in prediction of two major water quality parameters in a wastewater treatment plant. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) as well as indirect indicators of organic matters are representative parameters for sewer water quality. Performance of the ANN models was evaluated using coefficient of correlation (r), root mean square error (RMSE) and bias values. The computed values of BOD and COD by model, ANN method and regression analysis were in close agreement with their respective measured values. Results showed that the ANN performance model was better than the MLR model. Comparative indices of the optimized ANN with input values of temperature (T), pH, total suspended solid (TSS) and total suspended (TS) for prediction of BOD was RMSE?=?25.1 mg/L, r?=?0.83 and for prediction of COD was RMSE?=?49.4 mg/L, r?=?0.81. It was found that the ANN model could be employed successfully in estimating the BOD and COD in the inlet of wastewater biochemical treatment plants. Moreover, sensitive examination results showed that pH parameter have more effect on BOD and COD predicting to another parameters. Also, both implemented models have predicted BOD better than COD. PMID:24456676

  17. Experiment and prediction of fire extinguishment with water mist in an enclosed room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianbo; Yang, Lijun

    2013-02-01

    The correlation between oxygen concentration and fire temperature when fire was extinguished with water mist was theoretically studied. The Semenov theory was applied to analyze the critical condition when fire was extinguished with water mist, from which the correlation could be obtained. The water mist experiments were carried out by varying the fire size, atomizer number, ceiling height, system pressure, and pre-burn time in an enclosed room. The oxygen concentration near the edge of the liquid pool and the fire temperature above the center of the liquid pool were measured. A comparison of the experimental data with the correlation was made under different conditions. The results showed that fire extinguishment was a stochastic process which could be affected by many factors. This theoretical model could predict the correlation between fire temperature and oxygen concentration when fire was extinguished with water mist in an enclosed room and it can also be treated as a critical condition for fire extinguishment.

  18. Observation-well network for collection of ground-water level data in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Socolow, Roy S.

    1994-01-01

    Aquifers--water-bearing deposits of sand and gravel, glacial till, and fractured bedrock--provide an extensive and readily accessible ground-water supply in Massachusetts. Ground water affects our everyday lives, not just in terms of how much water is available, but also in terms of the position of ground-water levels in relation to land surface. Knowledge of ground-water levels is needed by Federal, State, and local agencies to help plan, manage, and protect ground-water supplies, and by private construction companies for site planning and evaluation. A primary part of the mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Water Resources Division, is the systematic collection of ground-water, surface-water, and water-quality data. These data are needed to manage and protect the nation's water resources. The Massachusetts-Rhode Island District of the USGS, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management (DEM), Office of Water Resources, and county and town environmental agencies, has maintained a network of observation wells throughout the Commonwealth since the mid 1930's. The purpose of this network is to monitor seasonal and long-term changes in groundwater storage in different lithologic, topographic, and geographic settings. These data are analyzed to provide a monthly index of ground-water conditions to aid in water-resources management and planning, and to define long-term changes in water levels resulting from manmade stresses (such as pumping and construction-site drainage) and natural stresses (such as floods and droughts).

  19. Accelerometry predicts daily energy expenditure in a bird with high activity levels

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Kyle H.; Le Vaillant, Maryline; Kato, Akiko; Speakman, John R.; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Animal ecology is shaped by energy costs, yet it is difficult to measure fine-scale energy expenditure in the wild. Because metabolism is often closely correlated with mechanical work, accelerometers have the potential to provide detailed information on energy expenditure of wild animals over fine temporal scales. Nonetheless, accelerometry needs to be validated on wild animals, especially across different locomotory modes. We merged data collected on 20 thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) from miniature accelerometers with measurements of daily energy expenditure over 24 h using doubly labelled water. Across three different locomotory modes (swimming, flying and movement on land), dynamic body acceleration was a good predictor of daily energy expenditure as measured independently by doubly labelled water (R2 = 0.73). The most parsimonious model suggested that different equations were needed to predict energy expenditure from accelerometry for flying than for surface swimming or activity on land (R2 = 0.81). Our results demonstrate that accelerometers can provide an accurate integrated measure of energy expenditure in wild animals using many different locomotory modes. PMID:23256182

  20. Monitoring Everglades freshwater marsh water level using L-band synthetic aperture radar backscatter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, Jin-Woo; Lu, Zhong; Jones, John W.; Shum, C.K.; Lee, Hyongki; Jia, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    The Florida Everglades plays a significant role in controlling floods, improving water quality, supporting ecosystems, and maintaining biodiversity in south Florida. Adaptive restoration and management of the Everglades requires the best information possible regarding wetland hydrology. We developed a new and innovative approach to quantify spatial and temporal variations in wetland water levels within the Everglades, Florida. We observed high correlations between water level measured at in situ gages and L-band SAR backscatter coefficients in the freshwater marsh, though C-band SAR backscatter has no close relationship with water level. Here we illustrate the complementarity of SAR backscatter coefficient differencing and interferometry (InSAR) for improved estimation of high spatial resolution water level variations in the Everglades. This technique has a certain limitation in applying to swamp forests with dense vegetation cover, but we conclude that this new method is promising in future applications to wetland hydrology research.

  1. Simulated water-level responses, ground-water fluxes, and storage changes for recharge scenarios along Rillito Creek, Tucson, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffmann, John P.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2005-01-01

    A local ground-water flow model is used to simulate four recharge scenarios along Rillito Creek in northern Tucson to evaluate mitigating effects on ground-water deficits and water-level declines in Tucson's Central Well Field. The local model, which derives boundary conditions from a basin-scale model, spans the 12-mile reach of Rillito Creek and extends 9 miles south into the Central Well Field. Recharge scenarios along Rillito Creek range from 5,000 to 60,000 acre-feet per year and are simulated to begin in 2005 and extend through 2225 to estimate long-term changes in ground-water level, ground-water storage, ground-water flux, and evapotranspiration. The base case for comparison of simulated water levels and flows, referred to as scenario A, uses a long-term recharge rate of 5,000 acre-feet per year to 2225. Scenario B, which increases the recharge along Rillito Creek by 9,500 acre-feet per year, has simulated water-level rises beneath Rillito Creek that range from about 53 feet to 86 feet. Water-level rises within the Central Well Field range from about 60 feet to 80 feet. More than half of these rises occur by 2050, and more than 95 percent occur by 2188. Scenario C, which increases the recharge along Rillito Creek by 16,700 acre-feet per year relative to scenario A, has simulated water-level rises beneath Rillito Creek that range from about 71 feet to 102 feet. Water-level rises within the Central Well Field range from about 80 feet to 95 feet. More than half of the rises occur by 2036, and more than 95 percent occur by 2100. Scenario D, which initially increases the recharge rate by about 55,000 acre-feet per year relative to scenario A, resulted in simulated water levels that rise to land surface along Rillito Creek. This rise in water level resulted in rejected recharge. As the water table continued to rise, the area of stream-channel surface intersected by the water table increased causing continual decline in the recharge rate until a long-term recharge rate of about 34,000 acre-feet per year was sustained. The long-term recharge rate for scenario D is about 29,000 acre-feet per year greater than the long-term recharge rate for scenario A. Simulated long-term water-level rises beneath Rillito Creek range from about 97 feet to 131 feet, resulting in water levels near or at the land surface. Shallow depths to water associated with this scenario have implications for contamination owing to the presence of landfills within or adjacent to Rillito Creek. Water-level rises for cells within the Central Well Field range from about 96 feet to 109 feet. More than half of the water-level rises occur by 2018 and more than 95 percent occur by 2041. Almost all the increased water added to the ground-water system in the recharge scenarios can be accounted for by a combination of increased storage near Rillito Creek, ground-water flux to the south, ground-water flux to the northwest, and increased discharge as evapotranspiration along Rillito Creek. The percentage of newly added water accounted for by storage changes is large relative to the percentage accounted for by changes in flux and evapotranspiration at the onset of each scenario; however, the changes in storage become smaller throughout the simulation, and the long-term component accounted for by storage is minimal. Long-term ground-water fluxes to the south increase by about 3,300, 4,840, and 7,500 acre-feet per year for scenarios B, C, and D, respectively. The percentage of increased recharge that flows south toward the Central Well Field, therefore, is 35, 29, and 26 percent for scenarios B, C, and D, respectively. Long-term ground-water fluxes to the northwest increase by about 3,100, 3,900, and 6,980 acre-feet per year for scenarios B, C, and D, respectively. The long-term percentage of increased recharge flowing northwestward is about 31, 25, and 21 percent for scenarios B, C, and D, respectively. Shallow ground-water evapotranspiration along Rillito Creek incr

  2. Map of the Carpinteria area and vicinity, Santa Barbara County, California, showing water-level contours for March 1983, and net change in water level between March 1982 and March 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyle, W.R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A water-level contour map of the Carpinteria area, California, was constructed using 34 water-level measurements made by the Carpinteria County Water District in March 1983. Also shown on the map are five hydrographs that show water-level fluctuations in each well between 1978 and 1983. In addition, a water-level net-change map for March 1982 to March 1983 is shown. (USGS)

  3. A Simple Water Balance Approach to Monitor Lake Water Level Changes: Validation using TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason Altimetry Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velpuri, N.; Senay, G. B.; Alemu, H.; Asante, K. O.

    2008-12-01

    A simple water balance approach is adapted to monitor water resources in semi-arid region of east Africa by integrating coarse and dynamic datasets such as rainfall with fine and static elevation datasets. The model takes in Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall data, modeled runoff and reference evapotranspiration (ET) data to monitor changes in lake water heights. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Digital Elevation Model (SRTM DEM) was used to delineate lake Turkana watershed. A simple water balance modeling approach was applied on Turkana basin to estimate lake water level heights for ten years (1997- 2008) and the results were compared with TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason satellite altimeter data. It was observed that simple water balance approach could capture the trend and seasonal variations of lake water fluctuations as measured by the satellite. The El Nino year of 1998 and the following consecutive dry years until 2002 are captured well on both. A mean deviation up to 30 cm of lake water height was found when compared to the satellite measurements. The satellite measurements made since 2004 showed that the lake water height gradually reduced, whereas simulations made using the water balance model showed an increasing trend. This could be reasoned by the fact that, on the Omo river, which contributes to over 80% of the lake inflows, a dam was commissioned in 2004. Knowledge of such processes occurring upstream or downstream is often required while analyzing satellite altimetry data to avoid misinterpretation. Although the absolute accuracy is low, the advantage of the simple water balance method lies in its ability to: (i) capture the trend and seasonal variations of water level fluctuations of small to large lakes around the world; (ii) when coupled with ground measurements or satellite altimetry data for lake water heights, the simple water balance method can identify the presence and absence of upstream and downstream processes; (iii) since water balance approach gives water level variations assuming no flow regulating mechanisms, the simulations can be used to study the impact of climate change on the hydrology of the basin.

  4. Cumulative Depression Episodes Predicts Later C-Reactive Protein Levels: A Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, William E.; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Angold, Adrian; Costello, E. Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is associated with elevated levels of the inflammation marker C -reactive protein (CRP), yet the direction of this association remains unclear. This study tested bi-directional longitudinal associations between CRP and depression in a sample of adolescent and young adults. The study compared the effects of current depression to the cumulative episodes of depression over time. Methods Nine waves of data from the prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (N = 1,420) were used, covering children in the community aged 9–16, 19, and 21 years old. Structured interviews were used to assess depressive symptoms, depression diagnosis, and cumulative depressive episodes. Bloodspots were collected at each observation and assayed for CRP levels. Results CRP levels were not associated with later depression status. In contrast, all depression-related variables displayed evidence of association with later CRP levels. The associations with depressive symptoms and diagnostic status were attenuated after controlling for covariates particularly body mass index, smoking, and medication use. The effect of cumulative depressive episodes, however, continued to be significant after accounting for a range of covariates. Body mass index, smoking behavior and recent infections may mediate a portion of the effect of cumulative episodes on later CRP, but cumulative depressive episodes continued to predict CRP levels independently. Conclusions The occurrence of multiple depressive episodes exerted the greatest effect on later CRP levels. This suggests that risk for the diseases of middle age - cardiovascular and metabolic disease – may begin in childhood and depend, in part, upon long-term emotional functioning. PMID:22047718

  5. Prediction of metabolisable energy value of broiler diets and water excretion from dietary chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Carré, B; Lessire, M; Juin, H

    2013-08-01

    Thirty various pelleted diets were given to broilers (8/diet) for in vivo measurements of dietary metabolisable energy (ME) value and digestibilities of proteins, lipids, starch and sugars from day 27 to day 31, with ad libitum feeding and total collection of excreta. Water excretion was also measured. Amino acid formulation of diets was done on the basis of ratios to crude proteins. Mean in vivo apparent ME values corrected to zero nitrogen retention (AMEn) were always lower than the AMEn values calculated for adult cockerels using predicting equations from literature based on the chemical analyses of diets. The difference between mean in vivo AMEn values and these calculated AMEn values increased linearly with increasing amount of wheat in diets (P = 0.0001). Mean digestibilities of proteins, lipids and starch were negatively related to wheat introduction (P = 0.0001). The correlations between mean in vivo AMEn values and diet analytical parameters were the highest with fibre-related parameters, such as water-insoluble cell-walls (WICW) (r = -0.91) or Real Applied Viscosity (RAV) (r = -0.77). Thirteen multiple regression equations relating mean in vivo AMEn values to dietary analytical data were calculated, with R² values ranging from 0.859 to 0.966 (P = 0.0001). The highest R² values were obtained when the RAV parameter was included in independent variables. The direct regression equations obtained with available components (proteins, lipids, starch, sucrose and oligosaccharides) and the indirect regression equations obtained with WICW and ash parameters showed similar R² values. Direct or indirect theoretical equations predicting AMEn values were established using the overall mean in vivo digestibility values. The principle of indirect equations was based on the assumption that WICW and ashes act as diluters. Addition of RAV or wheat content in variables improved the accuracy of theoretical equations. Efficiencies of theoretical equations for predicting AMEn values were almost the same as those of multiple regression equations. Water excretion was expressed either as the water content of excreta (EWC), the ratio of water excretion to feed intake (WIR) or the residual value from the regression equation relating water excretion to feed intake (RWE). The best regression predicting EWC was based on sucrose, fermentable sugars (lactose + oligosaccharides) and chloride variables, with positive coefficients. The best equations predicting WIR or RWE contained the sugar and chloride variables, with positive coefficients. Other variables appearing in these equations were AMEn or starch with negative coefficients, WICW, 'cell-wall-retained water', RAV or potassium with positive coefficients. PMID:23527560

  6. Links between type E botulism outbreaks, lake levels, and surface water temperatures in Lake Michigan, 1963-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafrancois, Brenda Moraska; Riley, Stephen C.; Blehert, David S.; Ballmann, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    Relationships between large-scale environmental factors and the incidence of type E avian botulism outbreaks in Lake Michigan were examined from 1963 to 2008. Avian botulism outbreaks most frequently occurred in years with low mean annual water levels, and lake levels were significantly lower in outbreak years than in non-outbreak years. Mean surface water temperatures in northern Lake Michigan during the period when type E outbreaks tend to occur (July through September) were significantly higher in outbreak years than in non-outbreak years. Trends in fish populations did not strongly correlate with botulism outbreaks, although botulism outbreaks in the 1960s coincided with high alewife abundance, and recent botulism outbreaks coincided with rapidly increasing round goby abundance. Botulism outbreaks occurred cyclically, and the frequency of outbreaks did not increase over the period of record. Climate change scenarios for the Great Lakes predict lower water levels and warmer water temperatures. As a consequence, the frequency and magnitude of type E botulism outbreaks in the Great Lakes may increase.

  7. Preconstruction and postconstruction ground-water levels, Lock and Dam 5 and 6, Red River Valley, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, A.H.; Terry, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Proposed construction of a series of locks and dams in the Red River in Louisiana will cause a permanent increase in average river stage. The potentiometric surface of the shallow alluvial aquifer and the water table in the fine-grained material confining the aquifer will be affected. The purpose of this study, using digital-modeling techniques, was to predict the average postconstruction potentiometric surface (steady state) and the water table (nonsteady state) so that potential effects of the water-level changes could be evaluated. Plans for lock and dam 5 at mile 243 (kilometer 390) above the mouth of the Red River call for a pool elevation of 145 feet (44 meters) and will cause an average increase in river stage of 23 feet (7.0 meters). As a result, ground-water levels in the pool area will be raised to near land surface in much of the area between the river and Bayou Pierre and as much as 2 miles (3.2 kilometers) east of the river from the dam upstream to realined mile 220 (kilometer 350). Areas of Barksdale Air Force Base where levels are now near land surface would be enlarged and extend downstream along Flat River to near Curtis. The potentiometric surface may be above land surface near Howard, Anderson Island, and Dixie Gardens. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Hydrologic record extension of water-level data in the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), 1991-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conrads, Paul A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Telis, Pamela A.

    2015-01-01

    To hindcast and fill data records, 214 empirical models were developed—189 are linear regression models and 25 are artificial neural network models. The coefficient of determination (R2) for 163 of the models is greater than 0.80 and the median percent model error (root mean square error divided by the range of the measured data) is 5 percent. To evaluate the performance of the hindcast models as a group, contour maps of modeled water-level surfaces at 2-centimeter (cm) intervals were generated using the hindcasted data. The 2-cm contour maps were examined for selected days to verify that water surfaces from the EDEN model are consistent with the input data. The biweekly 2-cm contour maps did show a higher number of issues during days in 1990 as compared to days after 1990. May 1990 had the lowest water levels in the Everglades of the 21-year dataset used for the hindcasting study. To hindcast these record low conditions in 1990, many of the hindcast models would require large extrapolations beyond the range of the predictive quality of the models. For these reasons, it was decided to limit the hindcasted data to the period January 1, 1991, to December 31, 1999. Overall, the hindcasted and gap-filled data are assumed to provide reasonable estimates of station-specific water-level data for an extended historical period to inform research and natural resource management in the Everglades.

  9. Evaluation of the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) flowsheet for decontamination of high-activity-level water at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D. O.; Collins, E. D.; King, L. J.; Knauer, J. B.

    1980-07-01

    This report discusses the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) flowsheet for decontamination of the high-activity-level water at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Station was evaluated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a study that included filtration tests, ion exchange column tests, and ion exchange distribution tests. The contaminated waters, the SDS flowsheet, and the experiments made are described. The experimental results were used to predict the SDS performance and to indicate potential improvements.

  10. Low-grazing angle laser scans of foreshore topography, swash and inner surf-zone wave heights, and mean water level: validation and storm response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Brodie; J. E. McNinch; M. Forte; R. Slocum

    2010-01-01

    Accurately predicting beach evolution during storms requires models that correctly parameterize wave runup and inner surf-zone processes, the principle drivers of sediment exchange between the beach and surf-zone. Previous studies that aimed at measuring wave runup and swash zone water levels have been restricted to analyzing water-elevation time series of (1) the shoreward-most swash excursion using video imaging or near-bed

  11. Monitoring of Ground Water Level of Industrial and Civil Centers Using of High-performance Technology of Electromagnetic Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seleznev, V. S.; Soloviev, V. M.; Emanov, A. F.; Babushkin, S. M.

    The materials of longstanding theoretical and experimental researches of a Geophys- ical Survey SB RAS on study of geophysical condition in large industrial centers of Siberia, evaluation of seismic risk of territories and prediction of origin of emergency situation of a natural and man-caused character, connected to seismic actions from earthquakes, processes of water logging of territories, etc. are presented in the paper. A rise of a ground water level in cities results in flooding of basements and engineering locations, swamping of territory, etc. As a result a seismicity of territory is increased, soil bearing capacity (including subsidence of a ground) and, as consequence, a pre- mature strain of buildings and underground communications is observed, the corro- sion processes in underground constructions intensify, ecological conditions become worse. Regional underflooding of cities is observed, when the feed of ground waters is increased owing to leakages from water services lines (water pipes and sewer systems, heat supplying), filtration from ponds and building foundation pits, watering of green plantings, etc. A monitoring of the engineering communications and geodynamic pro- cesses for large industrial centers of Siberia is carried out by the Geophysical Survey SB RAS during a series of years using the modern high-performance technology of electromagnetic scanning. This technology, based on study of a high-frequency space- time induction and use of intermediate frequency band, where the distribution of an electromagnetic wave has a diffusing-wave character, is rather effective at study of watering zones, determination of a level of ground and man-caused waters. Using higher density of space-time recording of a field and frequency, beginning from sev- eral megahertz, the offered mode has incomparably higher resolving capacity, than other modern electrometric methods of study of a section top.

  12. Environmental Factors Predicting Blood Lead Levels in Pregnant Women in the UK: The ALSPAC Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Caroline M.; Golding, Jean; Hibbeln, Joseph; Emond, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lead is a widespread environmental toxin. The behaviour and academic performance of children can be adversely affected even at low blood lead levels (BLL) of 5–10 µg/dl. An important contribution to the infant's lead load is provided by maternal transfer during pregnancy. Objectives Our aim was to determine BLL in a large cohort of pregnant women in the UK and to identify the factors that contribute to BLL in pregnant women. Methods Pregnant women resident in the Avon area of the UK were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in 1991–1992. Whole blood samples were collected at median gestational age of 11 weeks and analysed by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (n?=?4285). Self-completion postal questionnaires were used to collect data during pregnancy on lifestyle, diet and other environmental exposures. Statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS v19. Results The mean±SD BLL was 3.67±1.47 (median 3.41, range 0.41–19.14) µg/dl. Higher educational qualification was found to be one of the strongest independent predictor of BLL in an adjusted backwards stepwise logistic regression to predict maternal BLL <5 or ?5 µg/dl (odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.12–1.42; p<0.001). Other predictive factors included cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee drinking, and heating the home with a coal fire, with some evidence for iron and calcium intake having protective effects. Conclusion The mean BLL in this group of pregnant women is higher than has been found in similar populations in developed countries. The finding that high education attainment was independently associated with higher BLL was unexpected and currently unexplained. Reduction in maternal lead levels can best be undertaken by reducing intake of the social drugs cigarettes, alcohol and caffeine, although further investigation of the effect of calcium on lead levels is needed. PMID:24039753

  13. Groundwater Age in Multi-Level Water Quality Monitor Wells on California Central Valley Dairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, B. K.; Visser, A.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Singleton, M. J.; Moran, J. E.; Harter, T.

    2011-12-01

    Dairy farming in California's Central Valley is a significant source of nitrate to underlying aquifers. One approach to mitigation is to implement farm-scale management plans that reduce nutrient loading to groundwater while sustaining crop yield. While the effect of different management practices on crop yield is easily measured, their effect on groundwater quality has only infrequently been evaluated. Documenting and predicting the impact of management on water quality requires a quantitative assessment of transport (including timescale and mixing) through the vadose and saturated zones. In this study, we measured tritium, helium isotopic composition, and noble gas concentrations in groundwater drawn from monitor wells on several dairies in the Lower San Joaquin Valley and Tulare Lake Basin of California's Central Valley in order to predict the timescales on which changes in management may produce observable changes in groundwater quality. These dairies differ in age (from <10 to >100 years old), thickness of the vadose zone (from <10 to 60 m), hydrogeologic setting, and primary source of irrigation water (surface or groundwater). All of the dairies use manure wastewater for irrigation and fertilization. Three of the dairies have implemented management changes designed to reduce nutrient loading and/or water usage. Monitor wells in the southern Tulare Lake Basin dairies were installed by UC-Davis as multi-level nested wells allowing depth profiling of tritium and noble gases at these sites. Tritium/helium-3 groundwater ages, calculated using a simple piston-flow model, range from <2 to >50 years. Initial tritium (the sum of measured tritium and tritiogenic helium-3) is close to or slightly above precipitation in the calculated recharge year for young samples; and significantly above the precipitation curve for older samples. This pattern is consistent with the use of 20-30 year old groundwater recharged before 1980 for irrigation, and illustrates how irrigation with groundwater can complicate the use of tritium alone for age dating. The presence of radiogenic helium-4 in several samples with measurable tritium provides evidence of mixing between pre-modern and younger groundwater. Groundwater age-depth relationships are complicated, consistent with transient flow patterns in shallow agricultural groundwaters affected by irrigation pumping and recharge. For the multi-level installations in the southern dairies, both depth profiles and re-sampling after significant changes in groundwater elevation emphasize the need to sample groundwater within 3 meters of the water table to obtain "first-encounter" groundwater with a tritium/helium-3 age of less than 5 years, and to use age tracers to identify wells and groundwater conditions suitable for monitoring and assessment of best management practice impacts on underlying groundwater quality. This work was carried out with funding from Sustainable Conservation and the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with UC-Davis, and was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Spatial variation in water loss predicts terrestrial salamander distribution and population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Peterman, W E; Semlitsch, R D

    2014-10-01

    Many patterns observed in ecology, such as species richness, life history variation, habitat use, and distribution, have physiological underpinnings. For many ectothermic organisms, temperature relationships shape these patterns, but for terrestrial amphibians, water balance may supersede temperature as the most critical physiologically limiting factor. Many amphibian species have little resistance to water loss, which restricts them to moist microhabitats, and may significantly affect foraging, dispersal, and courtship. Using plaster models as surrogates for terrestrial plethodontid salamanders (Plethodon albagula), we measured water loss under ecologically relevant field conditions to estimate the duration of surface activity time across the landscape. Surface activity time was significantly affected by topography, solar exposure, canopy cover, maximum air temperature, and time since rain. Spatially, surface activity times were highest in ravine habitats and lowest on ridges. Surface activity time was a significant predictor of salamander abundance, as well as a predictor of successful recruitment; the probability of a juvenile salamander occupying an area with high surface activity time was two times greater than an area with limited predicted surface activity. Our results suggest that survival, recruitment, or both are demographic processes that are affected by water loss and the ability of salamanders to be surface-active. Results from our study extend our understanding of plethodontid salamander ecology, emphasize the limitations imposed by their unique physiology, and highlight the importance of water loss to spatial population dynamics. These findings are timely for understanding the effects that fluctuating temperature and moisture conditions predicted for future climates will have on plethodontid salamanders. PMID:25154754

  15. Coral reef growth in an era of rapidly rising sea level: predictions and suggestions for long-term research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Buddemeier; S. V. Smith

    1988-01-01

    Coral reef growth is intimately linked to sea level. It has been postulated that over the next century, sea level will rise at a probable average rate of 15 mm\\/year, in response to fossil fuel emissions, heating, and melting of the Antarctic ice cap. This predicted rate of sea level rise is five times the present modal rate of vertical

  16. Map of the Carpinteria area and vicinity, Santa Barbara County, California, showing water-level contours for March 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maltby, Dorothy

    1984-01-01

    A water-level contour map of the Carpinteria area, California, has been completed by the U.S. Geological Survey using 34 water-level measurements made by the Carpinteria County Water District in March 1982. Also shown are 5 hydrographs that show water-level fluctuations in each well between 1977 and 1982. (USGS)

  17. Estimation of water table level and nitrate pollution based on geostatistical and multiple mass transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matiatos, Ioannis; Varouhakis, Emmanouil A.; Papadopoulou, Maria P.

    2015-04-01

    As the sustainable use of groundwater resources is a great challenge for many countries in the world, groundwater modeling has become a very useful and well established tool for studying groundwater management problems. Based on various methods used to numerically solve algebraic equations representing groundwater flow and contaminant mass transport, numerical models are mainly divided into Finite Difference-based and Finite Element-based models. The present study aims at evaluating the performance of a finite difference-based (MODFLOW-MT3DMS), a finite element-based (FEFLOW) and a hybrid finite element and finite difference (Princeton Transport Code-PTC) groundwater numerical models simulating groundwater flow and nitrate mass transport in the alluvial aquifer of Trizina region in NE Peloponnese, Greece. The calibration of groundwater flow in all models was performed using groundwater hydraulic head data from seven stress periods and the validation was based on a series of hydraulic head data for two stress periods in sufficient numbers of observation locations. The same periods were used for the calibration of nitrate mass transport. The calibration and validation of the three models revealed that the simulated values of hydraulic heads and nitrate mass concentrations coincide well with the observed ones. The models' performance was assessed by performing a statistical analysis of these different types of numerical algorithms. A number of metrics, such as Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Bias, Nash Sutcliffe Model Efficiency (NSE) and Reliability Index (RI) were used allowing the direct comparison of models' performance. Spatiotemporal Kriging (STRK) was also applied using separable and non-separable spatiotemporal variograms to predict water table level and nitrate concentration at each sampling station for two selected hydrological stress periods. The predictions were validated using the respective measured values. Maps of water table level and nitrate concentrations were produced and compared with those obtained from groundwater and mass transport numerical models. Preliminary results showed similar efficiency of the spatiotemporal geostatistical method with the numerical models. However data requirements of the former model were significantly less. Advantages and disadvantages of the methods performance were analysed and discussed indicating the characteristics of the different approaches.

  18. Design of intrinsically safe intelligent water-level monitor used in coal mine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu Yanrong

    2009-01-01

    In order to master the dynamic change law of groundwater, understand the groundwater level condition and avoid the mine flooding accidents, an intrinsically safe intelligent water-level monitor used in mine is presented in this paper. The monitor can display and store the date in real-time. The groundwater level in certain time span is analyzed by computer analysis software to master

  19. A new approach to energy consumption prediction of domestic heat pump water heater based on grey system theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Guo; J. Y. Wu; R. Z. Wang

    2011-01-01

    This paper presented a new approach to energy consumption prediction from a domestic air source heat pump water heater (ASHPWH) based on grey system theory. An improved GM (1, 1) (i.e. a single-variable first-order grey model) applied in domestic hot water system was developed and its prediction accuracy was tested. Comparison of the measured and predicted values of heat from

  20. PREDICTION OF PESTICIDE RISKS TO HUMAN HEALTH BY DRINKING WATER EXTRACTED FROM UNDERGROUND SOURCES.

    PubMed

    Antonenko, A; Vavrinevych, O; Omelchuk, S; Korshun, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our work was to develop the method of prediction of the risk of contamination of groundwater with different classes' fungicides in soil and climatic conditions of Ukraine and other European countries, as well as hygienic assessment of their impact on public health. The calculation and comparative evaluation of various indices of pesticides migration into groundwater were conducted. It was established that the most optimal and complete is an LEACN index according to which in soil and climatic conditions of Ukraine the risk of contamination of ground and surface water by all studied fungicides is low, except penconazole and tebuconazole for which there is medium contamination risk. We have developed a method of integrated assessment of the potential hazard of pesticide exposure on the human organism when it enters ground and surface waters, which are intensive used for drinking water supplying. Integral index of this method - IGCHI - is obtained by adding of scores assigned to main indicators characterizing the danger to humans in pesticides gets into the water: index of leaching (LEAC?), half life period in water (DT50) and the allowable daily intake (ADI). According developed method all studied fungicides are low hazard for human, except benalaxy-M and tebuconazole which are hazard and highly hazard, respectively. It was established that, benalaxy-M is hazard when it leached into groundwater and surface water, tebuconazole is highly hazard, which is primarily due to their high stability in water (in both cases) and significant potential for leaching (in the latter case). PMID:26177143

  1. Estimation of Recharge to the Middle Trinity Aquifer of Central Texas Using Water-Level Fluctuations

    E-print Network

    Jennings, Marshall; Chad, Thomas; Burch, John; Creutzburg, Brian; Lambert, Lance

    , 57-41-403, 1999-2000 ...38 Figure 16. Water Level and Rainfall, Hays County, 57-45-401, 1999-2000..........39 Figure 17. Water Level and Rainfall, Hays County, 57-63-703, 1999-2000..........40 Figure 18. Water Level and Rainfall, Kendall County, 57... of dry years followed by normal or even wet years, e.g. 1999-2000, cause baseflow in rivers and creeks to be irregular and cease in some years. In wet years, baseflow representing aquifer discharge can continue for months. This irregular nature...

  2. Predicting the Reactivity of Hydride Donors in Water: Thermodynamic Constants for Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Connelly, Samantha J.; Wiedner, Eric S.; Appel, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical reactivity of hydride complexes can be predicted by comparing bond strengths for homolytic and heterolytic cleavage of bonds to hydrogen. To determine these bond strengths, thermodynamic constants for H+, H•, H–, and H2 are essential and need to be used uniformly to enable the prediction of reactivity and equilibria. One of the largest challenges is quantifying the stability of solvated H– in water, which is discussed. Due to discrepancies in the literature for the constants used in water, we propose the use of a set of self-consistent constants with convenient standard states. The work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences.

  3. Recent reduction in the water level of Lake Victoria has created more habitats for Anopheles funestus

    PubMed Central

    Minakawa, Noboru; Sonye, Gorge; Dida, Gabriel O; Futami, Kyoko; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    Background The water level of Lake Victoria has fallen more than 1.5 m since 1998, revealing a narrow strip of land along the shore. This study determined whether the recent drop in the water level has created additional breeding grounds for malaria vectors. Methods The recent and past shorelines were estimated using landmarks and a satellite image. The locations of breeding habitats were recorded using a GPS unit during the high and low lake water periods. GIS was used to determine whether the breeding habitats were located on newly emerged land between the new and old shorelines. Results Over half of the breeding habitats existed on newly emerged land. Fewer habitats for the Anopheles gambiae complex were found during the low water level period compared to the high water period. However, more habitats for Anopheles funestus were found during the high water level period, and they were all located on the newly emerged land. Conclusion The recent reduction in water level of Lake Victoria has increased the amount of available habitat for A. funestus. The results suggest that the water drop has substantially affected the population of this malaria vector in the Lake Victoria basin, particularly because the lake has a long shoreline that may harbour many new breeding habitats. PMID:18598355

  4. Use of inexpensive pressure transducers for measuring water levels in wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeland, B.D.; Dowd, J.F.; Hardegree, W.S.

    1997-01-01

    Frequent measurement of below ground water levels at multiple locations is an important component of many wetland ecosystem studies. These measurements, however, are usually time consuming, labor intensive, and expensive. This paper describes a water-level sensor that is inexpensive and easy to construct. The sensor is placed below the expected low water level in a shallow well and, when connected to a datalogger, uses a pressure transducer to detect groundwater or surface water elevations. Details of pressure transducer theory, sensor construction, calibration, and examples of field installations are presented. Although the transducers must be individually calibrated, the sensors have a linear response to changing water levels (r2 ??? .999). Measurement errors resulting from temperature fluctuations are shown to be about 4 cm over a 35??C temperature range, but are minimal when the sensors are installed in groundwater wells where temperatures are less variable. Greater accuracy may be obtained by incorporating water temperature data into the initial calibration (0.14 cm error over a 35??C temperature range). Examples of the utility of these sensors in studies of groundwater/surface water interactions and the effects of water level fluctuations on tree growth are provided. ?? 1997 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  5. Uric acid levels predict survival in men with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Paganoni, Sabrina; Zhang, May; Quiroz Zárate, Alejandro; Jaffa, Matthew; Yu, Hong; Cudkowicz, Merit E; Wills, Anne-Marie

    2012-09-01

    Elevated uric acid levels have recently been found to be associated with slower disease progression in Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple system atrophy, and mild cognitive impairment. The aim of this study is to determine whether serum uric acid levels predict survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A total of 251 people with ALS enrolled in two multicenter clinical trials were included in our analysis. The main outcome measure was survival time, which was calculated as time to death, tracheostomy, or permanent assistive ventilation, with any event considered a survival endpoint. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of reaching a survival endpoint according to baseline uric acid levels after adjusting for markers of disease severity (FVC, total ALSFRS-R score, time since symptom onset, diagnostic delay, BMI, bulbar vs. spinal onset, age, and riluzole use). There was a dose-dependent survival advantage in men, but not women, with higher baseline uric acid levels (logrank test: p = 0.018 for men, p = 0.81 for women). There was a 39% reduction in risk of death during the study for men with each 1 mg/dl increase in uric acid levels (adjusted HR: 0.61, 95% CI 0.39-0.96, p = 0.03). This is the first study to demonstrate that serum uric acid is associated with prolonged survival in ALS, after adjusting for markers of disease severity. Similar to previous reports in Parkinson's disease, this association was seen in male subjects only. PMID:22323210

  6. Aircraft Structural Mass Property Prediction Using Conceptual-Level Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexstone, Matthew G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology that extends the use of the Equivalent LAminated Plate Solution (ELAPS) structural analysis code from conceptual-level aircraft structural analysis to conceptual-level aircraft mass property analysis. Mass property analysis in aircraft structures has historically depended upon parametric weight equations at the conceptual design level and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) at the detailed design level ELAPS allows for the modeling of detailed geometry, metallic and composite materials, and non-structural mass coupled with analytical structural sizing to produce high-fidelity mass property analyses representing fully configured vehicles early in the design process. This capability is especially valuable for unusual configuration and advanced concept development where existing parametric weight equations are inapplicable and FEA is too time consuming for conceptual design. This paper contrasts the use of ELAPS relative to empirical weight equations and FEA. ELAPS modeling techniques are described and the ELAPS-based mass property analysis process is detailed Examples of mass property stochastic calculations produced during a recent systems study are provided This study involved the analysis of three remotely piloted aircraft required to carry scientific payloads to very high altitudes at subsonic speeds. Due to the extreme nature of this high-altitude flight regime,few existing vehicle designs are available for use in performance and weight prediction. ELAPS was employed within a concurrent engineering analysis process that simultaneously produces aerodynamic, structural, and static aeroelastic results for input to aircraft performance analyses. The ELAPS models produced for each concept were also used to provide stochastic analyses of wing structural mass properties. The results of this effort indicate that ELAPS is an efficient means to conduct multidisciplinary trade studies at the conceptual design level.

  7. Aircraft Structural Mass Property Prediction Using Conceptual-Level Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexstone, Matthew G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology that extends the use of the Equivalent LAminated Plate Solution (ELAPS) structural analysis code from conceptual-level aircraft structural analysis to conceptual-level aircraft mass property analysis. Mass property analysis in aircraft structures has historically depended upon parametric weight equations at the conceptual design level and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) at the detailed design level. ELAPS allows for the modeling of detailed geometry, metallic and composite materials, and non-structural mass coupled with analytical structural sizing to produce high-fidelity mass property analyses representing fully configured vehicles early in the design process. This capability is especially valuable for unusual configuration and advanced concept development where existing parametric weight equations are inapplicable and FEA is too time consuming for conceptual design. This paper contrasts the use of ELAPS relative to empirical weight equations and FEA. ELAPS modeling techniques are described and the ELAPS-based mass property analysis process is detailed. Examples of mass property stochastic calculations produced during a recent systems study are provided. This study involved the analysis of three remotely piloted aircraft required to carry scientific payloads to very high altitudes at subsonic speeds. Due to the extreme nature of this high-altitude flight regime, few existing vehicle designs are available for use in performance and weight prediction. ELAPS was employed within a concurrent engineering analysis process that simultaneously produces aerodynamic, structural, and static aeroelastic results for input to aircraft performance analyses. The ELAPS models produced for each concept were also used to provide stochastic analyses of wing structural mass properties. The results of this effort indicate that ELAPS is an efficient means to conduct multidisciplinary trade studies at the conceptual design level.

  8. Water-level fluctuation and its implication on the hydrologic cycle in the Gwangneung Supersite, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Woo, N.; Hong, T.; Kim, J.

    2007-12-01

    For effective assessment and management of water resources, it is important to understand and quantify each component of the hydrologic cycle. A careful and detailed analysis of spatio-temporal variations in water levels in aquifers could reveal useful information on the groundwater system. This study is objected to understand the reasons and mechanisms of fluctuations. As a part of an interdisciplinary research project, HydroKorea, to ascertain the water cycle quantitatively, water levels have been monitored from shallow monitoring wells(G1, G4) with less than 1-m in depths and a deep well enclosing three monitoring wells (ft1, ft2 and ft3 screened at depths of 102m, 45m and 6m below ground surface, respectively). Monitoring wells are located in the Gwangneung Supersite, Korea. Water levels used in this study were monitored by 10-min interval from February to May in 2007. Water levels compensated for air pressure were analyzed using a Fast Fourier Transform(FFT) technique for power spectral analysis. Results show periodic variations in 11.38, 12.19, 21.33, 24.38, and 28.44 hours, indicating strong influence of diurnal and semidiurnal tidal components. The diurnal components of the water levels from G1 and G4 in summer had greater power than those in winter, implying that the water table is affected by not only earth tides but evapotranspiration. However, those of the water levels from ft1, ft2 and ft3 do not show seasonal characteristics indicating that evapotranspiration has no influence in water levels of deep monitoring wells.

  9. Responses of aerobic microbial communities and soil respiration to water-level drawdown in a northern boreal fen.

    PubMed

    Jaatinen, Krista; Laiho, Raija; Vuorenmaa, Anita; del Castillo, Urko; Minkkinen, Kari; Pennanen, Taina; Penttilä, Timo; Fritze, Hannu

    2008-02-01

    On a global basis, peatlands are a major reserve of carbon (C). Hydrological changes can affect the decomposition processes in peatlands and in turn can alter their C balance. Since 1959, a groundwater extraction plant has generated a water-level gradient at our study site that has gradually changed part of the wet fen into a dry peatland forest. The average water-level drawdown of the gradient (from a pristine 9 cm to 26 cm in the dry end) is close to an estimate predicted by an increase in mean global temperature of 3 degrees C. We studied the total microbial community of the aerobic surface peat in four locations along the gradient through phospholipid fatty acid and PCR-DGGE methods. Additionally, field measurements of soil respiration showed a threefold increase in the C-emission rate at the driest location compared with the wettest one, indicating enhanced decomposition. Also, both fungal and bacterial biomass increased in the drier locations. At the species level, the fungal community changed due to water-level drawdown whereas actinobacteria were less sensitive to drying. The majority of fungal sequences were similar to ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, which dominated throughout the gradient. Our results indicate that ECM fungi might act as important facultative decomposers in organic-rich environments such as peatlands. PMID:17903215

  10. Predicting soil-water and soil-air transport properties and their effects on soil-vapor extraction efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tjalfe G. Poulsen; Per Moldrup; Toshiko Yamaguchi; P. Schjoenning; Jens Aage Hansen

    1999-01-01

    Accurate prediction of water and air transport parameters in variably saturated soil is necessary for modeling of soil-vapor extraction (SVE) at soil sites contaminated with volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). An expression for predicting saturated water permeability (k{sub 1,s}) in undisturbed soils from the soil total porosity and the field capacity soil-water content was developed by fitting a tortuous-tube fluid flow

  11. Thermodynamic Modeling of Atmospheric Aerosols: Predicting Water Content and Solute Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutcher, C. S.; Ge, X.; Wexler, A. S.; Clegg, S.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate predictions of water and solute activities in atmospheric aerosols to very low equilibrium relative humidities (RH) are central to predications of aerosol size, optical properties and cloud formation. A powerful method has been recently developed (Dutcher et al. JPC C, 2011, 2012) for capturing the thermodynamic properties of multicomponent aerosols at low and intermediate levels of RH (< 90%RH) by applying the principles of multilayer adsorption to ion hydration found in solutions. In these works, statistical mechanics is used to model adsorption of a solvent on to n energetically distinct layers in the hydration shell surrounding the solute molecule in aqueous mixtures. Here, we extend the model to the 100% RH limit and reduce the number of adjustable model parameters, allowing for a unified thermodynamic treatment for a wider range of atmospheric systems. The long-range interactions due to electrostatic screenings of ions in solution are included through a mole fraction based Pitzer-Debye-Hückel (PDH) term. Equations for the Gibbs free energy, solvent and solute activity, and solute concentration are derived, yielding remarkable agreement of the solute concentration and osmotic coefficients for solutions over the entire 0 to 100% RH range. The number of adjustable model parameters is reduced by relating the values of the energy of adsorption to each hydration layer to known short-range Coulombic electrostatic relationships. The effect of the PDH long-range and Coulombic short-range electrostatics on the mixing relationship is explored and new insights into the molecular relationships within atmospheric aerosols is discussed. Fields beyond atmospheric aerosol science, including geological and ocean solution thermodynamics, may benefit from the models developed in this work.

  12. Diurnal Fluctuations in Borehole Water Levels: Configuration of the Drainage System Beneath Bench Glacier, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, N. F.; Harper, J. T.; Pfeffer, W. T.

    2006-12-01

    Water levels were measured in boreholes spaced along the entire length of Bench Glacier, Alaska for a period in excess of two years. Instrumented boreholes were arranged as 9 pairs along the centerline of the glacier and an orthogonal grid of 16 boreholes at the center of the ablation area. Diurnal fluctuations of the water levels were found to be unique to the melt season. Pairs of boreholes along the length of the ablation area regularly had similar water levels and fluctuations. In the grid of boreholes, three independent types of diurnal fluctuations in water were observed - the magnitudes and base levels of the fluctuations were distinct with each type. Therefore, water was not flowing between boreholes of separate sets and a single tunnel connecting the boreholes could not explain the observed diurnal water level fluctuations. A drainage configuration whereby boreholes are connected to a low-pressure tunnel by drainage pipes of differing lengths was shown with a numerical test to be a plausible alternative. The cross glacier width of influence of a borehole was determined to be no greater than 70 meters in a cross glacier direction. The grid water level records also showed that no uniform basal pressure exists during summer over even a small area of the bed.

  13. Assessing the Impacts of Nutrient Load Uncertainties on Predicted Truckee River Water Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Bartlett; J. J. Warwick

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the effects of model boundary condition uncertainty on dissolved oxygen (DO) predictions for the Truckee River, Nevada, using an augmented version of the USEPA's Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program, Version 5 (WASP5). DO values are the focal point because observed data indicate that the minimum DO standard of 5 mg\\/L during the low-flow season is sometimes exceeded.

  14. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic model for prediction of falling cylinder through water column

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter C. Chu; Chenwu Fan; A. Evans; A. F. Gilles; P. Fleischer

    2003-01-01

    A three dimensional hydrodynamic model based on triple coordinate systems is developed to predict translation and orientation of falling rigid cylinder through the water column: earth-fixed coordinate (E-coordinate), cylinder's main-axis following coordinate (M-coordinate), and hydrodynamic force following coordinate (F-coordinate). Use of the triple coordinate systems and the transforms among them leads to the simplification of the dynamical system. The body

  15. Predicting air-balloon and water-filled infant catheter frequency responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. G. Hartford; J. M. van Schalkwyk; G. G. Rogers; M. J. Turner

    1997-01-01

    The authors test the validity of the assumption that fluid-filled catheters fit a second-order system. They conclude that air-balloon catheter (A-BC) and water-filled catheter (W-FC) frequency responses do not adequately fit second-order systems. This finding casts doubt on the validity of defining and applying second-order system mathematical models to predict such catheter-manometers' frequency responses. Second-order fitted curve:original recorded curve deviations

  16. Modelling blackwater: Predicting water quality during flooding of lowland river forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia A. Howitt; Darren S. Baldwin; Gavin N. Rees; Janice L. Williams

    2007-01-01

    The blackwater model was developed to predict adverse water quality associated with flooding of the Barmah-Millewa Forests on the River Murray. Specifically, the model examines the likelihood and severity of blackwater events—high dissolved organic carbon associated with low dissolved oxygen. The Barmah-Millewa Forests are dominated by an overstorey of River Red Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) and the litter from these trees

  17. Predicted thermal response of a cryogenic fuel tank exposed to simulated aerodynamic heating profiles with different cryogens and fill levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory J. Hanna; Craig A. Stephens

    1991-01-01

    A two dimensional finite difference thermal model was developed to predict the effects of heating profile, fill level, and cryogen type prior to experimental testing the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank (GRCT). These numerical predictions will assist in defining test scenarios, sensor locations, and venting requirements for the GRCT experimental tests. Boiloff rates, tank-wall and fluid temperatures, and wall heat fluxes

  18. X JORNADAS DE PARALELISMO, LA MANGA DEL MAR MENOR -MURCIA, SEPTIEMBRE, 1999 Two-Level Address Storage and Address Prediction

    E-print Network

    Morancho, Enric

    X JORNADAS DE PARALELISMO, LA MANGA DEL MAR MENOR - MURCIA, SEPTIEMBRE, 1999 Two-Level Address Storage and Address Prediction Enric Morancho, José María Llabería and Àngel Olivé AbstractThe amount of information recorded in the prediction tables of the proposed address predictors turns out to be comparable

  19. Levels of perfluorochemicals in water samples from Catalonia, Spain: is drinking water a significant contribution to human exposure?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingrid Ericson; Martí Nadal; Bert van Bavel; Gunilla Lindström; José L. Domingo

    2008-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope  In recent years, due to a high persistence, biomagnification in food webs, presence in remote regions, and potential toxicity,\\u000a perfluorochemicals (PFCs) have generated a considerable interest. The present study was aimed to determine the levels of perfluorooctane\\u000a sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and other PFCs in drinking water (tap and bottled) and river water samples\\u000a from Tarragona

  20. Air-water temperature relationships in rivers and their prediction from environmental parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M.; Wilby, R. L.; Toone, J.

    2012-12-01

    Water temperature is critical to aquatic life and, therefore, rising temperatures due to climate or environmental change could have major consequences for river biota. As such, it is important to understand the environmental controls of the thermal regime of rivers. In particular, it is necessary to understand water temperature dynamics to inform the management of fluvial systems, for example, by creating or maintaining shade through the provision of riparian woodland. The Loughborough University TEmperature Network (LUTEN) was established with the aim of improving understanding of the spatial and temporal variations in relationships between air and water temperature. Air and water temperature are continuously monitored at 33 sites distributed along approximately 40 km of two rivers in the English Peak District, from their source to confluence. As a result, the network covers a range of hydrological, sedimentary, geomorphic and land-use conditions. Daily mean and maximum temperature statistics have been calculated from the first year of data (March 2011 to February 2012) to provide a broad understanding of the spatial and temporal gradients within the network. Sub-hourly data have also been analysed using hysteresis plots to ascertain lag times between air and water temperature change and the spatial and temporal variability of this phenomenon. Inter-site correlations reveal the spatial heterogeneity of air and water temperature relationships within the watershed. Finally, regression analysis was performed between air and water temperature at all sites using a three-parameter, S-shaped logistic function. The relationship between air and water temperature is strong across all sites, with between 81 to 94% explained variance. The weakest relationships occur in Dovedale, an area of groundwater dominance where there is strong buffering of the water temperature. Here, the annual range in daily-averaged water temperature is 8°C in comparison to 16°C at sites upstream. The warmest sites on the rivers occur upstream of Dovedale and are affected by advected heat. Whilst there are strong relationships between air and water temperature, the regression models are site specific and differ substantially between sites across the network. In order to build a generic model, applicable at any site along the rivers, regression parameters were predicted from the environmental conditions along river reaches. Initial findings suggest a correlation between regression parameters and the percentage of vegetative and valley shade in upstream reaches. Our long-term aim is to use this technique to develop a generalised statistical model to help predict regions of river that are particularly susceptible to warming and areas that could be benefited from active management, such as the planting of riparian shade.