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1

[Effects of simulated acid rain on water physiological characteristics of Myrica rubra seedlings].  

PubMed

Taking the seedlings of typical subtropical economic tree species Myrica rubra in Zhejiang Province as test materials, a pot experiment was conducted to study their water physiological characteristics under effects of simulated acid rain (pH 2.5 and pH 4.0), with water (pH 5.6) as the control. Season, year, and acid rain all had significant effects on the photosynthetic rate (Pn). Among the treatments, the Pn had a greater difference in summer than in spring and autumn, and was higher in treatment acid rain (pH 4.0). Season, year, acid rain, and the interactions of season and year and of the three factors had significant effects on the stomata conductance (Gs), and also, the Gs had a greater difference among the treatments in summer than in spring and autumn. Acid rain had inhibitory effect on Gs. Season, year, acid rain, and the interactions of season and year and of season and acid rain affected the transpiration rate (Tr) significantly. Same as Pn and Gs, the Tr had a greater difference among the treatments in summer than in spring and autumn. Acid rain (pH 2.5) had the strongest inhibitory effect on Tr. Acid rain and the interactions of season and year and of season and acid rain had significant effects on the water use efficiency (WUE), and acid rain (pH 2.5) had definitely positive effect on the WUE. PMID:22097355

Yaho, Zhao-bin; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shu-quan; Lu, Mei-juan

2011-08-01

2

[Effects of different K fertilizer and water level on growth and physiological characteristics of Isatis indigotica].  

PubMed

The experiment included three potassium levels (K0 0 g x kg(-1), K1 0.33 g x kg(-1), K2 0.67 g x kg(-1)) and two water gradients (well watered and drought stress), then measured growth indicators, SOD, POD, CAT activities and concents of osmotic regulation substances. To explore the effects of K fertilizer and water on growth and physiological characteristics of Isatis indigotica, providing reference for improving drought resistance of I. indigotica. The result showed drought stress inhibited the growth and decreased the biomass of I. indigotica but K fertilizer can alleviate the drought stress. Compared with K0 treatment, K1, K2 treatment increased the biomass of overground part of by 89. 13% ,60. 87% under drought stress. The corresponding increase in soluble sugar content was 16.67%, 5.00%, and in proline content was 42.41%, 65.62%, respectively. SOD,POD and CAT activities was significantly improved in K1, K2 treatment in comparison with K0 treatment under drought stress, but soluble protein content significantly reduced. The conclusion is that appropriate amount of K fertilizer can increase the activities of antioxidase and the content of osmoregulation substance under drought stress, and improve drought resistance of I. indigotica. PMID:25282880

Yang, Juan-Juan; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Chen, Su-Dan; Deng, Qiao-Hua

2014-05-01

3

The Effect of Water Stress on Some Morphological, Physiological, and Biochemical Characteristics and Bud Success on Apple and Quince Rootstocks  

PubMed Central

The effects of different water stress (control, medium, and severe) on some morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and bud success of M9 apple and MA quince rootstocks were determined. The results showed that water stress significantly affected most morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as budding success on the both rootstocks. The increasing water stress decreased the relative shoot length, diameter, and plant total fresh and dry weights. Leaf relative water content and chlorophyll index decreased while electrolyte leakage increased with the increase of water stress in both rootstocks. An increase in water stress also resulted in reduction in budding success in Vista Bella/M9 (79.33% and 46.67%) and Santa Maria/MA (70.33% and 15.33%) combinations. However, the water stress in Santa Maria/MA was more prominent. The increase in water stress resulted in higher peroxidase activities as well as phenol contents in both rootstocks. Although catalase activity, anthocyanin, and proline contents increased with the impact of stress, this was not statistically significant. The results suggest that the impact of stress increased with the increase of water stress; therefore, growers should be careful when using M9 and MA rootstocks in both nursery and orchards where water scarcity is present. PMID:24741357

Bolat, Ibrahim; Dikilitas, Murat; Ercisli, Sezai; Ikinci, Ali; Tonkaz, Tahsin

2014-01-01

4

The effect of water stress on some morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and bud success on apple and quince rootstocks.  

PubMed

The effects of different water stress (control, medium, and severe) on some morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and bud success of M9 apple and MA quince rootstocks were determined. The results showed that water stress significantly affected most morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as budding success on the both rootstocks. The increasing water stress decreased the relative shoot length, diameter, and plant total fresh and dry weights. Leaf relative water content and chlorophyll index decreased while electrolyte leakage increased with the increase of water stress in both rootstocks. An increase in water stress also resulted in reduction in budding success in Vista Bella/M9 (79.33% and 46.67%) and Santa Maria/MA (70.33% and 15.33%) combinations. However, the water stress in Santa Maria/MA was more prominent. The increase in water stress resulted in higher peroxidase activities as well as phenol contents in both rootstocks. Although catalase activity, anthocyanin, and proline contents increased with the impact of stress, this was not statistically significant. The results suggest that the impact of stress increased with the increase of water stress; therefore, growers should be careful when using M9 and MA rootstocks in both nursery and orchards where water scarcity is present. PMID:24741357

Bolat, Ibrahim; Dikilitas, Murat; Ercisli, Sezai; Ikinci, Ali; Tonkaz, Tahsin

2014-01-01

5

Physiological water model development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The water of the human body can be categorized as existing in two main compartments: intracellular water and extracellular water. The intracellular water consists of all the water within the cells and constitutes over half of the total body water. Since red blood cells are surrounded by plasma, and all other cells are surrounded by interstitial fluid, the intracellular compartment has been subdivided to represent these two cell types. The extracellular water, which includes all of the fluid outside of the cells, can be further subdivided into compartments which represent the interstitial fluid, circulating blood plasma, lymph, and transcellular water. The interstitial fluid surrounds cells outside of the vascular system whereas plasma is contained within the blood vessels. Avascular tissues such as dense connective tissue and cartilage contain interstitial water which slowly equilibrates with tracers used to determine extracellular fluid volume. For this reason, additional compartments are sometimes used to represent these avascular tissues. The average size of each compartment, in terms of percent body weight, has been determined for adult males and females. These compartments and the forces which cause flow between them are presented. The kidneys, a main compartment, receive about 25 percent of the cardiac output and filters out a fluid similar to plasma. The composition of this filtered fluid changes as it flows through the kidney tubules since compounds are continually being secreted and reabsorbed. Through this mechanism, the kidneys eliminate wastes while conserving body water, electrolytes, and metabolites. Since sodium accounts for over 90 percent of the cations in the extracellular fluid, and the number of cations is balanced by the number of anions, considering the renal handling sodium and water only should sufficiently describe the relationship between the plasma compartment and kidneys. A kidney function model is presented which has been adapted from a previous model of normal renal function in man. To test the validity of the proposed kidney model, results predicted by the model will be compared to actual data involving injected or ingested fluids and subsequent urine flow rates. Comparison of the model simulation to actual data following the ingestion of 1 liter of water is shown. The model simulation is also shown with actual data following the intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline.

Doty, Susan

1993-01-01

6

Impact of human emotions on physiological characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emotional states of humans and their impact on physiological and neurological characteristics are discussed in this paper. This problem is the goal of many teams who have dealt with this topic. Nowadays, it is necessary to increase the accuracy of methods for obtaining information about correlations between emotional state and physiological changes. To be able to record these changes, we focused on two majority emotional states. Studied subjects were psychologically stimulated to neutral - calm and then to the stress state. Electrocardiography, Electroencephalography and blood pressure represented neurological and physiological samples that were collected during patient's stimulated conditions. Speech activity was recording during the patient was reading selected text. Feature extraction was calculated by speech processing operations. Classifier based on Gaussian Mixture Model was trained and tested using Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients extracted from the patient's speech. All measurements were performed in a chamber with electromagnetic compatibility. The article discusses a method for determining the influence of stress emotional state on the human and his physiological and neurological changes.

Partila, P.; Voznak, M.; Peterek, T.; Penhaker, M.; Novak, V.; Tovarek, J.; Mehic, Miralem; Vojtech, L.

2014-05-01

7

FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Scientists from ten countries presented papers at the Fifth International Symposium on Fish Physiology, Toxicology, and Water Quality, which was held on the campus of the city University of Hong Kong on November 10-13, 1998. These Proceedings include 23 papers presented in sessi...

8

FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY:  

EPA Science Inventory

Twenty-one participants from Europe, North America and China convened in Chongqing, China, October 12-14, 2005, for the Eighth International Symposium in Fish Physiology, Toxicology and Water Quality. The subject of the meeting was "Hypoxia in vertebrates: Comparisons of terrestr...

9

Physiological Characteristics of Well-Trained Junior Sprint Kayak Athletes.  

PubMed

This study aimed to profile the physiological characteristics of junior Sprint Kayak athletes (n=21, VO2max - 4.1±0.7 L·min-1, training experience - 2.7±1.2 y), and to establish the relationship between physiological variables (VO2max, VO2kinetics, muscle oxygen kinetics, paddling efficiency) and Sprint Kayak performance. VO2max, power at VO2max (MAP), power:weight ratio, paddling efficiency and VO2 at lactate threshold (VO2LT) and whole body and muscle oxygen kinetics were determined on a kayak ergometer in the laboratory. Separately, on-water time trials (TT) were completed over 200-m and 1000-m. Large-to-nearly perfect (-0.5 to -0.9) inverse relationships were found between the physiological variables and on-water TT performance across both distances. Paddling efficiency and lactate threshold shared moderate-to-very large correlations (-0.4 to -0.7) with 200 and 1000-m performance. In addition, trivial-to-large correlations (0.11 to -0.5) were observed between muscle oxygenation parameters, muscle and whole body oxygen kinetics and performance. Multiple regression showed that 88% of the unadjusted variance for the 200-m TT performance was explained by VO2max, peripheral muscle de-oxygenation, and maximal aerobic power (p<0.001), whereas 85% of the unadjusted variance in 1000-m TT performance was explained by VO2max and HHb (p<0.001). The present findings showed that well-trained junior Sprint Kayak athletes possess a high level of relative aerobic fitness and highlights the importance of the peripheral muscle metabolism for Sprint Kayak performance, particularly in 200-m races where finalists and non-finalists are separated by very small margins. Such data highlights the relative aerobic fitness variables that can be used as benchmarks for talent identification programs or monitoring longitudinal athlete development. However, such approaches need further investigations. PMID:25473923

Oliveira Borges, Thiago; Dascombe, Ben; Bullock, Nicola; Coutts, Aaron J

2014-12-01

10

Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of junior elite volleyball players  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of junior elite volleyball players.Method: Twenty five national level volleyball players (mean (SD) age 17.5 (0.5) years) were assessed on a number of physiological and anthropometric variables. Somatotype was assessed using the Heath-Carter method, body composition (% body fat, % muscle mass) was assessed using surface anthropometry, leg strength was assessed using

M J Duncan; L Woodfield; Y al-Nakeeb

2006-01-01

11

Profiling in Basketball: Physical and Physiological Characteristics of Elite Players  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ostojic, S.M., S. Mazic, and N. Dikic. Profiling in basketball: Physical and physiological characteristics of elite players. J. Strength Cond. Res. 20(4)-.740-744. 2006.—The pur- pose of this study was to describe structural and functional char- acteristics of elite Serbian basketball players and to evaluate whether players in different positional roles have different phys- ical and physiological profiles. Five men's basketball

Sergej M. Ostojic; Sanja Mazic; Nenad Dikic

2006-01-01

12

The Clinical Physiology of Water Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Water balance is tightly regulated within a tolerance of less than 1 percent by a physiologic control system located in the hypothalamus. Body water homeostasis is achieved by balancing renal and nonrenal water losses with appropriate water intake. The major stimulus to thirst is increased osmolality of body fluids as perceived by osmoreceptors in the anteroventral hypothalamus. Hypovolemia also has an important effect on thirst which is mediated by arterial baroreceptors and by the renin-angiotensin system. Renal water loss is determined by the circulating level of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). AVP is synthesized in specialized neurosecretory cells located in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei in the hypothalamus and is transported in neurosecretory granules down elongated axons to the posterior pituitary. Depolarization of the neurosecretory neurons results in the exocytosis of the granules and the release of AVP and its carrier protein (neurophysin) into the circulation. AVP is secreted in response to a wide variety of stimuli. Change in body fluid osmolality is the most potent factor affecting AVP secretion, but hypovolemia, the renin-angiotensin system, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hyperthermia and pain also have important effects. Many drugs have been shown to stimulate the release of AVP as well. Small changes in plasma AVP concentration of from 0.5 to 4 ?U per ml have major effects on urine osmolality and renal water handling. ImagesFigure 5.Figure 12.Figure 15.Figure 16. PMID:394480

Weitzman, Richard E.; Kleeman, Charles R.

1979-01-01

13

Citation Characteristics of Physiology Literature, 1970-72  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To identify and describe selected characteristics of the research literature of the basic medical science area of physiology during the three-year period 1970-72, this literature was analyzed to determine where, when, by what subject area, and in what countries it was published. (Author/PF)

Hafner, A. W.

1976-01-01

14

Elite and Nonelite Soccer Players: Preseasonal Physical and Physiological Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to (a) describe physical and functional characteristics of elite Serbian soccer players, and (b) make comparisons with nonelite counterparts to identify any relationships between results from the physiological tests and competition level. One of the teams in the study (Squad A; nA = 30) competed in the professional First National League, and the other

SERGEJ M. OSTOJIC

2004-01-01

15

Physiological characteristics of top level off-road motorcyclists  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The study aims to analyse the physiological characteristics of top level off-road motocross, enduro, and desert rally motorcyclists to facilitate the design of a specific training program. Results: The physical demands of the various races appear to influence the development of distinct musculoskeletal characteristics, as well as aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Motocross riders have more muscle mass, higher isokinetic handgrip strength, and greater aerobic power than enduro and desert rally riders. However, there are no significant anthropometric and physiological differences between desert rally and enduro riders. Desert rally riders tend to be overweight with maximum aerobic power similar to that of healthy individuals. The mechanical characteristics of the motorcycle and the technical and tactical skills of the riders seem to be more important for race success than the metabolic capabilities of the rider. Conclusions: Desert rally and enduro riders present similar anthropometric and physiological characteristics. Both have a maximum aerobic power similar to that of healthy normal individuals, although desert rally riders tend to be overweight. Motocross riders on the other hand, have more muscle mass, more strength, and greater aerobic power. The differences observed suggest the need for a specific training program to address the requirements of different riders to reduce the possibility of injury. PMID:16306501

Gobbi, A; Francisco, R; Tuy, B; Kvitne, R; Nakamura, N

2005-01-01

16

A simulation model of vegetation temperature based on physiological characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To simulate vegetation temperature is an important part in the thermal infrared simulation. In previous physical models, the physiological characteristics of vegetation has only considered the influence of transpiration to temperature, but without respiration, and the aerodynamics model which has been used before needs more model parameters and they are difficult to obtain. In the present paper, a transpiration rate model has been used, in which the latent heat component of the vegetation has been optimized and the respiration component has been joined. Then the physiological model of vegetation temperature simulation has been established which improves the original vegetation energy budget theory. Experimental verification and comparison shows that the maximum simulation error of physiological model is within 2°, the average error is within 1°. It seems that the simulation accuracy is significantly better than the previous physical model that will improve the overall thermal infrared simulation accuracy.

Lin, Wei; Wang, Ji-yuan; Chen, Yu-hua; Wang, Ji-jun; Su, Rong-hua

2014-11-01

17

Water as an essential nutrient: the physiological basis of hydration  

Microsoft Academic Search

How much water we really need depends on water functions and the mechanisms of daily water balance regulation. The aim of this review is to describe the physiology of water balance and consequently to highlight the new recommendations with regard to water requirements. Water has numerous roles in the human body. It acts as a building material; as a solvent,

E Jéquier; F Constant

2010-01-01

18

Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of junior elite volleyball players  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of junior elite volleyball players. Method Twenty five national level volleyball players (mean (SD) age 17.5 (0.5) years) were assessed on a number of physiological and anthropometric variables. Somatotype was assessed using the Heath?Carter method, body composition (% body fat, % muscle mass) was assessed using surface anthropometry, leg strength was assessed using a leg and back dynamometer, low back and hamstring flexibility was assessed using the sit and reach test, and the vertical jump was used as a measure of lower body power. Maximal oxygen uptake was predicted using the 20?m multistage fitness test. Results Setters were more ectomorphic (p<0.05) and less mesomorphic (p<0.01) than centres. Mean (SD) of somatotype (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) for setters and centres was 2.6 (0.9), 1.9 (1.1), 5.3 (1.2) and 2.2 (0.8), 3.9 (1.1), 3.6 (0.7) respectively. Hitters had significantly greater low back and hamstring flexibility than opposites. Mean (SD) for sit and reach was 19.3 (8.3)?cm for opposites and 37 (10.7)?cm for hitters. There were no other significant differences in physiological and anthropometric variables across playing positions (all p>0.05). Conclusion Setters tend to be endomorphic ectomorphs, hitters and opposites tend to be balanced ectomorphs, whereas centres tend to be ectomorphic mesomorphs. These results indicate the need for sports scientists and conditioning professionals to take the body type of volleyball players into account when designing individualised position specific training programmes. PMID:16799112

Duncan, M J; Woodfield, L; al?Nakeeb, Y

2006-01-01

19

THE PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF WATER vs. GATORADE DURING PROLONGED EXERCISE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Danielson , A.R., Morris, L., Neiderhauser, L., Stanek, K., Wolter, J. The Physiological effects of water vs. Gatorade during prolonged exercise. J. Undergrad. Kin. Res. 2006; 1(1):15-22. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological effects of water vs. Gatorade during prolonged exercise. Subjects consisted of 10 recreationally active females between the ages 19 and 22. Each participant

Ashley Danielson; Lynn Morris; Lindi Neiderhauser; Kasey Stanek; Jennifer Wolter

20

Altered sleep patterns and physiologic characteristics in spontaneous dwarf rats.  

PubMed

Spontaneous dwarf rats are a useful experimental model for studying various biologic events associated with pituitary dwarfism. Dwarf rats occurred serendipitously in our colony of Wistar rats during experimental breeding. This study aimed to describe the sleep pattern and physiologic characteristics of these rats compared with normal-sized adult rats. Because growth hormone can attenuate the upregulation of ceruloplasmin expression caused by acute inflammation, we also assessed the basal levels of serum ceruloplasmin in these animals. At 90 d of age, body weight and length were significantly lower in dwarf rats relative to normal rats. Dwarves had lower concentrations of serum testosterone and growth hormone, but progesterone was unchanged. Corticosterone levels did not differ between groups. During the light period, the percentage of sleep time recorded and duration of slow-wave sleep did not differ between groups. However, compared with controls, dwarf rats had marked fragmentation of sleep and less paradoxical sleep. During the dark phase, sleep patterns in dwarf rats were within the normal range. Immunoblotting data showed that the levels of ceruloplasmin in serum were lower in dwarf rats. Our findings provide insight into pathologic processes related to growth hormone deficiency. PMID:19712574

Andersen, Monica L; Lee, Kil S; Guindalini, Camila; Leite, Waldemarks A; Bignotto, Magda; Tufik, Sergio

2009-08-01

21

SYMPOSIUM IN ITALY: FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Scientists from Europe, North America and South America convened in Capri, Italy, April 24-28, 2006 for the Ninth International Symposium on Fish Physiology, Toxicology, and Water Quality. The subject of the meeting was Eutrophication: The toxic effects of ammonia, nitrite and th...

22

Physiological Effects of Trace Elements and Chemicals in Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The physiological effects on humans and animals of trace amounts of organic and unorganic pollutants in natural and waste waters are examined. The sensitivity of particular organs and species is emphasized. Substances reviewed include mercury, arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, fluorides, nitrates and organics, including polychlounated biphenyls.…

Varma, M. M.; And Others

1976-01-01

23

Water and electrolyte homeostasis brings balance to physiology.  

PubMed

The American Physiological Society officially recognized the area of research in Water and Electrolyte Homeostasis (WEH) over 30 years ago when the Section of WEH was established. This minireview illuminates the importance of WEH research to the physiology community. By the narrowest definition, WEH research studies the regulation of body fluids; however, this research area is much broader and more relevant today than when this subdiscipline was first recognized because of the translational and systemic "point of view" of WEH research. This minireview highlights how WEH research serves as a balanced force between the full range of other more traditional organ-based physiological and pathophysiological concepts. The breadth of research in which WEH investigators engage is on full display with the publication of minireviews from the annual Data Diuresis session at Experimental Biology. PMID:25031231

Pollock, Jennifer S; Ryan, Michael J; Samson, Willis K; Brooks, David P

2014-09-01

24

Water as an essential nutrient: the physiological basis of hydration.  

PubMed

How much water we really need depends on water functions and the mechanisms of daily water balance regulation. The aim of this review is to describe the physiology of water balance and consequently to highlight the new recommendations with regard to water requirements. Water has numerous roles in the human body. It acts as a building material; as a solvent, reaction medium and reactant; as a carrier for nutrients and waste products; in thermoregulation; and as a lubricant and shock absorber. The regulation of water balance is very precise, as a loss of 1% of body water is usually compensated within 24 h. Both water intake and water losses are controlled to reach water balance. Minute changes in plasma osmolarity are the main factors that trigger these homeostatic mechanisms. Healthy adults regulate water balance with precision, but young infants and elderly people are at greater risk of dehydration. Dehydration can affect consciousness and can induce speech incoherence, extremity weakness, hypotonia of ocular globes, orthostatic hypotension and tachycardia. Human water requirements are not based on a minimal intake because it might lead to a water deficit due to numerous factors that modify water needs (climate, physical activity, diet and so on). Water needs are based on experimentally derived intake levels that are expected to meet the nutritional adequacy of a healthy population. The regulation of water balance is essential for the maintenance of health and life. On an average, a sedentary adult should drink 1.5 l of water per day, as water is the only liquid nutrient that is really essential for body hydration. PMID:19724292

Jéquier, E; Constant, F

2010-02-01

25

Physiological fitness characteristics of young advanced-level baton twirlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baton twirling is becoming an increasingly popular sport for girls at the youth level, both as an individual and team athletic activity. To date, no scientific data exists regarding the physiological fitness profile of regular participants in the sport. The purpose of this study is to describe aerobic and anaerobic power, body composition and flexibility of adolescent female advanced-level baton

Sheryl Zuroff Krohner

2007-01-01

26

Physiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the scope of physiology and activities undertaken by physiologists. Indicates that a better understanding of the basic actions of cells and organs is the objective of physiological research. (CC)

Widdas, W. F.

1973-01-01

27

Physiological characteristics of Malaysian national elite and subelite taekwondo athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to examine a selected physiological profile of Malaysian national elite and subelite taekwondo athletes. Subjects were 33 elite (16 males, 22±3 years; 17 females, 23±3 years) and 36 subelite (20 males, 18±2 years; 16 females, 18±2 years) taekwondo athletes. They were tested for vertical and broad jumps performance, maximal running speed, shuttle run performance and muscular strength

W J Tey; V K W Kwong; D Rassiah; C H Ooi

2010-01-01

28

Physiological characteristics of elite and sub-elite badminton players  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to establish the physical and physiological attributes of elite and sub-elite Malaysian male badminton players and to determine whether these attributes discriminate elite players from sub-elite players. Measurements and tests of basic anthropometry, explosive power, anaerobic recovery capacity, badminton-specific movement agility, maximum strength, and aerobic capacity were conducted on two occasions, separated by at

Cheong Hwa Ooi; Albert Tan; Azwari Ahmad; Kien Weng Kwong; Ruji Sompong; Khairul Aswadi Mohd Ghazali; Swee Lee Liew; Wen Jin Chai; Martin William Thompson

2009-01-01

29

Contrasting Physiological Responses of Six Eucalyptus Species to Water Deficit  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The genus Eucalyptus occupies a broad ecological range, forming the dominant canopy in many Australian ecosystems. Many Eucalyptus species are renowned for tolerance to aridity, yet inter-specific variation in physiological traits, particularly water relations parameters, contributing to this tolerance is weakly characterized only in a limited taxonomic range. The study tests the hypothesis that differences in the distribution of Eucalyptus species is related to cellular water relations. Method Six eucalypt species originating from (1) contrasting environments for aridity and (2) diverse taxonomic groups were grown in pots and subjected to the effects of water deficit over a 10-week period. Water potential, relative water content and osmotic parameters were analysed by using pressure–volume curves and related to gas exchange, photosynthesis and biomass. Key Results The six eucalypt species differed in response to water deficit. Most significantly, species from high rainfall environments (E. obliqua, E. rubida) and the phreatophyte (E. camaldulensis) had lower osmotic potential under water deficit via accumulation of cellular osmotica (osmotic adjustment). In contrast, species from low rainfall environments (E. cladocalyx, E. polyanthemos and E. tricarpa) had lower osmotic potential through a combination of both constitutive solutes and osmotic adjustment, combined with reductions in leaf water content. Conclusions It is demonstrated that osmotic adjustment is a common response to water deficit in six eucalypt species. In addition, significant inter-specific variation in osmotic potential correlates with species distribution in environments where water is scarce. This provides a physiological explanation for aridity tolerance and emphasizes the need to identify osmolytes that accumulate under stress in the genus Eucalyptus. PMID:17905722

Merchant, Andrew; Callister, Andrew; Arndt, Stefan; Tausz, Michael; Adams, Mark

2007-01-01

30

Physiological characteristics of mercury uptake by two estuarine species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rapid uptake and slow loss of Hg will result from short exposures of some organisms to this metal, due to the transformation of Hg to a slowly exchanging form within the organisms. The extent of the difference between exposure time and depuration time will depend upon the rate of transformation during uptake. For the polychaete worm Neanthes succinea and the shrimp Palaemon debilis such transformations are extremely rapid. The exchange of Hg from the slowly exchanging compartment is similar among a wide variety of species. Thus, interspecies differences in susceptibility to Hg may be determined by differences in biochemical transformation rates and physiological permeability to the metal. ?? 1977 Springer-Verlag.

Luoma, S.N.

1977-01-01

31

Physiological responses of Chinese longsnout catfish to water temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluated the effect of water temperature on the growth and physiology of the Chinese longsnout catfish ( Leiocassis longirostris Günther). The fish were reared at four temperatures (20, 25, 30, and 35°C) and sampled on days 7, 20, and 30. We measured plasma levels of insulin, free thyroxine (FT4), free 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (FT3), lysozyme and leukocyte phagocytic activity. The optimum water temperature for growth was 27.7°C. The plasma levels of insulin and FT4 declined significantly ( P<0.05) on day 30 at temperatures above 20°C. Lysozyme activity was significantly ( P<0.05) lower at 25°C than at other temperatures. We conclude that final weight, insulin, FT4, and lysozyme were significantly affected by water temperature.

Han, Dong; Xie, Shouqi; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia

2011-05-01

32

Is fishing selective for physiological and energetic characteristics in migratory adult sockeye salmon?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is extensive evidence that fishing is often selective for specific phenotypic characteristics, and that selective harvest can thus result in genotypic change. To date, however, there are no studies that evaluate whether fishing is selective for certain physiological or energetic characteristics that may influence fish behav- iour and thus vulnerability to capture. Here, adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were

Steven J. Cooke; Michael R. Donaldson; Scott G. Hinch; Glenn T. Crossin; David A. Patterson; Kyle C. Hanson; Karl K. English; J. Mark Shrimpton; Anthony P. Farrell

2009-01-01

33

Physiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

Kay, Ian

2008-01-01

34

Dosimetry of [0-15] water: A physiologic approach  

SciTech Connect

[O-15] water is a popular now based radiotracer (half life 2.03 m) used in measuring rCBF by PET. Previous dosimetry estimates assumed that [O-15] water instantaneously reached equilibrium with total body water. However, the biodistribution of this short-lived radiopharmaceutical is dependent upon blood flow to various organs. This assumption of instantaneous equilibrium leads to an underestimation of radiation dose to organs with high blood flows. More realistic dosimetry estimates were obtained by using a compartmental model approach. We have developed a whole body physiologically-based blood flow model using an icon driven mathematical simulation software package, STELLA (High Performance Systems, NH). The model uses multiple parallel compartments to represent various organs as well as heart chambers, injection site, and blood sampling sites. Input values to the model include organ blood flows, organ volumes, blood:tissue partition coefficients, injected activity and {triangle} and {phi} of O-15 (MIRD tables). The model is based on the same assumptions that are used in calculating rCBF using [O-15] water and simulates the human body closely in its physiologic response. The activity in each organ derived from the simulation is used to calculate the dose. Organs receiving high doses were gonads, heart, thyroid, kidneys and brain. The values obtained were approximately 2-3 fold higher than the estimates of Kearfott and consistent with the findings of Herscovitch. We believe this approach to be an easy and accurate dosimetry tool. The use of STELLA is applicable to any nuclide or tracer with appropriately designed models.

Narayana, S.; Boles, L.L.; Ponto, J.A. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)] [and others

1994-05-01

35

Growth, physiology, and [delta] 13C of loblolly and shortleaf pine as affected by ozone and soil water deficit  

E-print Network

was to determine the effects of ozone (0, ) and water stress on growth and physiological characteristics of loblolly (Pinus raeda L. ) and shortleaf pine (Pinus echinara Mill. ). In addition to the main study, an effort was made to determine the relationship... pine (Pinus raedu L. ) and shortleaf pine (Praus echinara MilL). In addition, an effort was made to determine the relationship between carbon isotope discrimination and long-term water- use efficiency in loblolly and shortleaf pine genotypes under...

Elsik, Christine Golemboski

1992-01-01

36

Physiological and biomechanical characteristics of the kick and goal techniques of football players.  

PubMed

Physiological and biomechanical characteristics of the kick and goal technique in football were studied in athletes of different qualification. The formation of technological skills of football players kicking the ball from the standard position requires coordinated movements and high differentiation of muscular activity. PMID:22816099

Koshelskaja, E V; Kapilevich, L V; Bajenov, V N; Andreev, V I; Buravel, O I

2012-06-01

37

Effects of potassium nutrition on physiological processes and derivative spectrum characteristics of corn plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of potassium nutrition on growth, development and various other physiological processes and the spectrum characteristics of corn. Corn seeds were shown in sand culture using 3.8L pots in SPAR chambers with day/night temperatures of 30/220C and Carbon Di...

38

Physiological state influences evaporative water loss and microclimate preference in the snake Vipera aspis.  

PubMed

Animals typically respond to environmental variation by adjusting their physiology, behavior, or both. Ectothermic animals are particularly sensitive to microclimatic conditions and behaviorally thermoregulate to optimize physiological performance. Yet, thermoregulation can be costly and may obligate a physiological tradeoff with water loss. Presumably, this tradeoff intensifies when animals undergo necessary life-history events (e.g., pregnancy or digestion) that impose significant behavioral and physiological changes, including shifts in behavioral thermoregulation and increased metabolic rate. Thus, behavioral responses, such as modified microclimatic preferences, may help mitigate the physiological tradeoff between thermoregulation and water loss. Herein, we examined the influence of major physiological states (specifically, pregnancy, ecdysis, and digestion) on evaporative water loss and on behavioral adjustments in a viviparous snake, Vipera aspis. First, we used open-flow respirometry to measure the effects of physiological states and microclimatic conditions (temperature and humidity) on the rate of total evaporative water loss (TEWL) and metabolic rate (rate of O2 consumption, V?O2). Then, we experimentally tested the influence of physiological state on microclimate selection. We found that energy-demanding physiological states were associated with i) an increased rate of TEWL and V?O2 compared to control states and ii) a slight preference (statistically marginal) for both warm and humid conditions compared to controls, suggesting a state-specificity in behavioral response. Overall our results underline the impact of physiological state on water loss and demonstrate the potential for behavior to mitigate the physiological tradeoff between thermoregulation and water balance. PMID:25725119

Dupoué, Andréaz; Stahlschmidt, Zachary R; Michaud, Bruno; Lourdais, Olivier

2015-05-15

39

Influence of Morphological Characteristics on Physical and Physiological Performances of Tunisian Elite Male Handball Players  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe the body structure and morphological characteristics of Tunisian elite handball players, and to determine the effect of these variables on functional and physical performance levels. Methods A sample of 42 male handball players (mean age 21.98±3.24 years; training duration 12 years) at international level was submitted to a test battery comprising morphological, physical and physiological assessments. Tests were yo-yo intermittent recovery test, squat jump test, countermovement jump test, vertical-jump test, and Repeated sprint Ability. Measures for assessment of anthropometric characteristics were age, size, weight, body mass index, body fat, fat mass and thin mass. Results Weight was negatively correlated to the squat jump and the countermovement jump performance. Age, weight, and body composition measures (fat and thin body mass) were additionally negatively related to the maximal oxygen uptake, and to the maximal velocity obtained in the Yo-Yo recovery test. No relationship was found between size, body mass index, body fat and the physical abilities considered. Concerning the effects of physical characteristics on the functional performances, we can note a positive relationship between squat jump, countermovement jump, and the yo-yo recovery test performance. No relationship was found between vertical jump, repeated sprint ability, and the physiological performances. Conclusions Study results point to the existence of strong correlation between morphological and physical characteristics with functional characteristics. In handball, it is possible to have a reliable estimate of anthropometric measurements, physical and physiological performances. PMID:22942992

Moncef, Cherif; Said, Mohamed; Olfa, Najlaoui; Dagbaji, Gomri

2012-01-01

40

Behaviour during elevated water temperatures: can physiology explain movement of juvenile Atlantic salmon to cool water?  

PubMed

1. Temperature governs most physiological processes in animals. Ectotherms behaviourally thermoregulate by selecting habitats with temperatures regulating their body temperature for optimal physiological functioning. However, ectotherms can experience temperature extremes forcing the organisms to seek temperature refuge. 2. Fish actively avoid potentially lethal temperatures by moving to cool-water sites created by inflowing tributaries and groundwater seeps. Juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) of different age classes exhibit different behavioural responses to elevated temperatures (>23 °C). Yearling (1+) and 2-year-old (2+) Atlantic salmon often cease feeding, abandon territorial behaviour and swim continuously in aggregations in cool-water sites; whereas young-of-the-year (0+) fish continue defending territories and foraging. 3. This study determined whether the behavioural shift in older individuals (2+) occurred when basal metabolic rate, driven by increasing water temperature, reached the maximum metabolic rate such that anaerobic pathways were recruited to provide energy to support vital processes. Behaviour (feeding and stress responses), oxygen consumption, muscle lactate and glycogen, and circulating blood lactate and glucose concentrations were measured in wild 0+ and 2+ Atlantic salmon acclimated to water temperatures between 16 and 28 °C. 4. Results indicate that oxygen consumption of the 2+ fish increased with temperature and reached a plateau at 24 °C, a temperature that corresponded to cessation of feeding and a significant increase in muscle and blood lactate levels. By contrast, oxygen consumption in 0+ fish did not reach a plateau, feeding continued and muscle lactate did not increase, even at the highest temperatures tested (28 °C). 5. To conclude, the experiment demonstrated that the 0+ and 2+ fish had different physiological responses to the elevated water temperatures. The results suggest that wild 2+ Atlantic salmon employ behavioural responses (e.g. movement to cool-water sites) at elevated temperatures in an effort to mitigate physiological imbalances associated with an inability to support basal metabolism through aerobic metabolic processes. PMID:21401593

Breau, Cindy; Cunjak, Richard A; Peake, Stephan J

2011-07-01

41

Water stress and recovery in the performance of two Eucalyptus globulus clones: physiological and biochemical profiles.  

PubMed

Eucalyptus plantations are among the most productive forest stands in Portugal and Spain, being mostly used for pulp production and, more recently, as an energy crop. However, the region's Mediterranean climate, with characteristic severe summer drought, negatively affects eucalypt growth and increases mortality. Although the physiological response to water shortage is well characterized for this species, evidence about the plants' recovery ability remains scarce. In order to assess the physiological and biochemical response of Eucalyptus globulus during the recovery phase, two genotypes (AL-18 and AL-10) were submitted to a 3-week water stress period at two different intensities (18 and 25% of field capacity), followed by 1 week of rewatering. Recovery was assessed 1 day and 1 week after rehydration. Drought reduced height, biomass, water potential, NPQ and gas exchange in both genotypes. Contrarily, the levels of pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (F(v) /F(m) and (?PSII)), MDA and ABA increased. During recovery, the physiological and biochemical profile of stressed plants showed a similar trend: they experienced reversion of altered traits (MDA, ABA, E, g(s), pigments), while other parameters did not recover ((?PSII), NPQ). Furthermore, an overcompensation of CO(2) assimilation was achieved 1 week after rehydration, which was accompanied by greater growth and re-establishment of oxidative balance. Both genotypes were tolerant to the tested conditions, although clonal differences were found. AL-10 was more productive and showed a more rapid and dynamic response to rehydration (namely in carotenoid content, (?PSII) and NPQ) compared to clone AL-18. PMID:24117924

Correia, Barbara; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Neves, Lucinda; Brossa, Ricard; Dias, Maria Celeste; Costa, Armando; Castro, Bruno B; Araújo, Clara; Santos, Conceição; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Pinto, Glória

2014-04-01

42

Effects of low-intensity microwave radiation on Tribolium castaneum physiological and biochemical characteristics and survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is a widespread pest that lives in, and feeds on, wheat flour. Here, we studied the effects of low-intensity microwave radiation (LIMR; ?2.0kW\\/kg) on physiological and biochemical characteristics of T. castaneum, and compared them to the effects of heat conduction treatment, to provide a theoretical basis for using LIMR for pest control.

Huanghua Lu; Jicheng Zhou; Shanbai Xiong; Siming Zhao

2010-01-01

43

Eco-physiological characteristics of Pistia stratiotes and its removal of pollutants from livestock wastewater.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of water lettuce in removing pollutants including organic pollutants, nitrogen (NH3-N) and total phosphorus (TP) from livestock wastewater along with the physiological effects and their correlations, was studied for the first time. The results showed that the water lettuce had higher removal efficiency with low concentrations of livestock wastewater. The removal efficiency of water lettuce for different initial concentrations of livestock wastewater within 8 d was as follows: chemical oxygen demand (CODcr) (68-82%) > NH3-N (57-69%) >TP (27-45%). The speed of purification of water lettuce for CODcr, NH3-N and TP conformed to first order kinetics equations. The water quality indices CODcr, NH3-N and TP had a higher linear correlation with peroxidase (POD) activity (R(2) > 0.9(2)) than with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity, which indicates that the main reacting enzyme of water lettuce under high CODcr stress is peroxidase. PMID:24960015

Chen, Jinfa; Nie, Qishan; Zhang, Yun; Hu, Jinzhao; Qing, Lin

2014-01-01

44

Linkage of within vineyard soil properties, grapevine physiology, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a premium wine grape vineyard.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of numerous vineyards has revealed a very high degree of variation exists at the within vineyard scale and may outweigh in some cases broader mesoclimatic and geological factors. For this reason, selective harvest of high quality wine grapes is often conducted and based on subjective field sensory analysis (taste). This is an established practice in many wine growing regions. But the relationships between these subjective judgments to principle soil and grapevine physiological characteristics are not well understood. To move toward greater understanding of the physiological factors related to field sensory evaluation, physiological data was collected over the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in a selectively harvested premium production Napa Valley estate vineyard, with a history of selective harvesting based on field sensory evaluation. Data vines were established and remained as individual study units throughout the data gathering and analysis phase, and geographic information systems science (GIS) was used to geographically scale physiological and other data at the vineyard level. Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality (subjective analysis) were characterized by vines with 1) statistically significantly lower (P < 0.05) leaf water potential (LWP) both pre-dawn (PD) and midday (MD), 2) smaller berry diameter and weight, 3) lower pruning weights, and 4) higher soluble solids (Brix). Strong positive correlations emerged between June ?PD and pre-harvest grape berry diameter (R2 = 0.616 in 2007 and 0.413 in 2008) and similar strong correlations existed for berry weight (R2 = 0.626 in 2007 and 0.554 in 2008). A trained sensory panel performed a sensory analysis and characterized fruit using and a multivariate, principal components, analysis (PCA). This approach indicated that grapes from vines with lowest midday leaf water potential at veraison (< -1.5 MPa) had sweeter and softer pulp, absence of vegetal characteristics, and browner and crunchier seeds, while grapes from vines of > -1.5 MPa were characterized by vegetal flavors and astringent and bitter seeds and skins. Data from vines were grouped into vines experiencing MD at veraison of < -1.5 MPa versus vines with MD > -1.5 MPa and subjected to single factor analysis of variance. This analysis revealed statistically significant differences (P less than 0.05) in many of the above properties - berry diameter, weight, pulp, and fruity versus vegetal characteristic. The groupings corresponded to the areas described as producing higher and lower quality fruit, respectively, based on field taste evaluation. Metabolomic analysis of grape skins from these two groups showed statistically significant differences in accumulation of amino acids and organic acids. Our results suggest there is not a continuous relationship between physiological water status (stress) and grape sensory characteristics, but rather the presence of an inflection point that may be related to early season PD in controlling grape development as well as composition. Soils analyses revealed the preferred fruit was on vines in areas where soils were shallower rather than any definitive characteristic related to particle size distribution or nutrient availability, suggesting that in this vineyard soil available water is the major controlling factor.

Smart, David; Hess, Sallie; Ebeler, Susan; Heymann, Hildegarde; Plant, Richard

2014-05-01

45

PHYSIOLOGICAL ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL PAPER Drinking water boosts food intake rate, body mass increase  

E-print Network

in which we tested the hypotheses that drinking water increases food use by easing limitations on the birdsPHYSIOLOGICAL ECOLOGY - ORIGINAL PAPER Drinking water boosts food intake rate, body mass increase of drinking water. Birds stag- ing in a fruit-rich Pistacia atlantica plantation that had access to water

Nathan, Ran

46

Comparison of the physiological characteristics of transgenic insect-resistant cotton and conventional lines  

PubMed Central

The introduction of transgenic insect-resistant cotton into agricultural ecosystems has raised concerns regarding its ecological effects. Many studies have been conducted to compare the differences in characteristics between transgenic cotton and conventional counterparts. However, few studies have focused on the different responses of transgenic cotton to stress conditions, especially to the challenges of pathogens. The aim of this work is to determine the extent of variation in physiological characteristics between transgenic insect-resistant cotton and the conventional counterpart infected by cotton soil-borne pathogens. The results showed that the difference in genetic backgrounds is the main factor responsible for the effects on biochemical characteristics of transgenic cotton when incubating with cotton Fusarium oxysporum. However, genetic modification had a significantly greater influence on the stomatal structure of transgenic cotton than the effects of cotton genotypes. Our results highlight that the differences in genetic background and/or genetic modifications may introduce variations in physiological characteristics and should be considered to explore the potential unexpected ecological effects of transgenic cotton. PMID:25737015

Li, Xiaogang; Ding, Changfeng; Wang, Xingxiang; Liu, Biao

2015-01-01

47

Is fishing selective for physiological and energetic characteristics in migratory adult sockeye salmon?  

PubMed Central

There is extensive evidence that fishing is often selective for specific phenotypic characteristics, and that selective harvest can thus result in genotypic change. To date, however, there are no studies that evaluate whether fishing is selective for certain physiological or energetic characteristics that may influence fish behaviour and thus vulnerability to capture. Here, adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were used as a model to test the null hypothesis that fishing is not selective for specific physiological or energetic traits. Fish were intercepted during their spawning migrations, implanted with a gastric radio transmitter, and biopsied (i.e., non-lethally sampled for blood, gill tissue and quantification of energetic status). In both 2003 and 2006, we tagged and biopsied 301 and 770 sockeye salmon, respectively, in the marine environment en route to their natal river system to spawn. In 2006 an additional 378 individuals were tagged and biopsied in freshwater. We found that 23 (7.6%) of the marine fish tagged in 2003, 78 (10.1%) of the marine fish tagged in 2006 and 57 (15.1%) of the freshwater fish tagged in 2006 were harvested by one of three fisheries sectors that operate in the coastal marine environment and the Fraser River (i.e. commercial, recreational or First Nations fisheries between the site of release and Hell's Gate in the Fraser River, approximately 250 km upriver and 465 km from the ocean tagging site). However, fisheries were not open continually or consistently in different locations and for different fisheries sectors necessitating a paired analytical approach. As such, for statistical analyses we paired individual fish that were harvested with another fish of the same genetic stock that was released on the same date and exhibited similar migration behaviour, except that they successfully evaded capture and reached natal spawning grounds. Using two-tailed Wilcoxon matched pairs signed-rank tests, we revealed that the physiological and energetic characteristics of harvested fish did not differ from those of the successful migrants despite evaluating a number of biochemical (e.g. plasma metabolites, cortisol, plasma ions, gill Na+/K+-ATPase) and energetic (e.g. gross somatic energy density) variables (P's all >0.10). However, for some analyses we suffered low statistical power and the study design had several shortcomings that could have made detection of differences difficult. We suggest that additional research explore the concept of fishing-induced selection for physiological characteristics because physiology is closely linked to three traits where fisheries-induced selection does occur (i.e. life-history, behaviour and morphology). PMID:25567882

Cooke, Steven J; Donaldson, Michael R; Hinch, Scott G; Crossin, Glenn T; Patterson, David A; Hanson, Kyle C; English, Karl K; Shrimpton, J Mark; Farrell, Anthony P

2009-01-01

48

Is fishing selective for physiological and energetic characteristics in migratory adult sockeye salmon?  

PubMed

There is extensive evidence that fishing is often selective for specific phenotypic characteristics, and that selective harvest can thus result in genotypic change. To date, however, there are no studies that evaluate whether fishing is selective for certain physiological or energetic characteristics that may influence fish behaviour and thus vulnerability to capture. Here, adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were used as a model to test the null hypothesis that fishing is not selective for specific physiological or energetic traits. Fish were intercepted during their spawning migrations, implanted with a gastric radio transmitter, and biopsied (i.e., non-lethally sampled for blood, gill tissue and quantification of energetic status). In both 2003 and 2006, we tagged and biopsied 301 and 770 sockeye salmon, respectively, in the marine environment en route to their natal river system to spawn. In 2006 an additional 378 individuals were tagged and biopsied in freshwater. We found that 23 (7.6%) of the marine fish tagged in 2003, 78 (10.1%) of the marine fish tagged in 2006 and 57 (15.1%) of the freshwater fish tagged in 2006 were harvested by one of three fisheries sectors that operate in the coastal marine environment and the Fraser River (i.e. commercial, recreational or First Nations fisheries between the site of release and Hell's Gate in the Fraser River, approximately 250 km upriver and 465 km from the ocean tagging site). However, fisheries were not open continually or consistently in different locations and for different fisheries sectors necessitating a paired analytical approach. As such, for statistical analyses we paired individual fish that were harvested with another fish of the same genetic stock that was released on the same date and exhibited similar migration behaviour, except that they successfully evaded capture and reached natal spawning grounds. Using two-tailed Wilcoxon matched pairs signed-rank tests, we revealed that the physiological and energetic characteristics of harvested fish did not differ from those of the successful migrants despite evaluating a number of biochemical (e.g. plasma metabolites, cortisol, plasma ions, gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase) and energetic (e.g. gross somatic energy density) variables (P's all >0.10). However, for some analyses we suffered low statistical power and the study design had several shortcomings that could have made detection of differences difficult. We suggest that additional research explore the concept of fishing-induced selection for physiological characteristics because physiology is closely linked to three traits where fisheries-induced selection does occur (i.e. life-history, behaviour and morphology). PMID:25567882

Cooke, Steven J; Donaldson, Michael R; Hinch, Scott G; Crossin, Glenn T; Patterson, David A; Hanson, Kyle C; English, Karl K; Shrimpton, J Mark; Farrell, Anthony P

2009-08-01

49

Hydrophysical correlation and water mass indication of optical physiological parameters of picophytoplankton in Prydz Bay during autumn 2008.  

PubMed

Flow cytometry (FCM) is efficient in detecting both abundance and optical physiological parameters including cell size and cellular carbon content-side scatter (SSC), carotenoids-green and orange fluorescence (FL1 and FL2), and red fluorescence-chlorophylls (FL3) can be obtained by FCM. The utilization of these physiological parameters in indicating water masses in Prydz Bay was investigated for the first time. Picophytoplankton were very sensitive to hydrophysical changes and present distinct characteristics of water masses: Picophytoplankton in water closer to the Amery Ice Shelf were more affected by salinity than by temperature, while temperature became more important than salinity the nearer the picophytoplankton were to the deep sea. The picophytoplankton dealt with declines in light by increasing the size of cells, which increase the fixation of carbon. This can also be increased by high temperature and salinity. Pure water masses can increase the content of chlorophylls and cellular carbon. Generally, the distributions of all the five parameters at upper water depths were less affected by temperature and salinity than by water masses; and these parameters can be as indicators to Summer Surface Water (SSW), Winter Water (WW) and Continental Shelf Water (CSW). PMID:23098920

Zhang, Fang; Ma, Yuxin; Lin, Ling; He, Jianfeng

2012-12-01

50

Modeling PCB transfer into hen eggs: influence of physiological characteristics of the animal.  

PubMed

Laying hens are likely to be exposed to a wide range of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). To improve the safety of poultry farming systems in terms of POPs, the present research focused on assessing the impact of physiological characteristics of the hen on the transfer of ingested PCBs to eggs. Modeling was used as a research tool to explore the impact of some physiological characteristics on the transfer of PCBs in the laying hen. The mathematical model simulates the dynamics of the size of the lipid compartments in the animal and the frequency of laying, with the PCB concentrations in egg yolk and adipose tissue being model outputs. Simulations were run to assess effects of animal characteristics on the transfer of PCBs to eggs. Laying rate proportionally influenced the PCB level of eggs and adipose tissue at steady state. Body fat diluted absorbed PCBs in the absence of laying and significantly influenced the decontamination rate of tissues during depuration after an exposure period. Application of the present model to actual exposure cases highlights its value in improving the support of risk management in livestock farming. PMID:25323569

Fournier, Agnès; Martin, Olivier; Travel, Angélique; Puillet, Laurence; Feidt, Cyril; Jondreville, Catherine

2015-01-01

51

Physiological responses and characteristics of table tennis matches determined in official tournaments.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to verify the physiological responses and the match characteristics of table tennis and also to compare these responses in 2 different performance-level athletes from official tournaments. Twenty male table tennis players (12 regional experience-RP and 8 national and international experience-NP) were participants in the study. Blood lactate concentration ([LAC]) and heart rate (HR) were measured as physiological parameters in 21 official table tennis matches, and other 12 matches had recorded the duration of rally (DR), rest time, effort and rest ratio (E:R), total playing time (TPT), effective playing time (EPT), and frequency of shots by video analyses. The [LAC] verified in all matches was 1.8 mmol.L (+/-0.8), whereas the [LAC] peak was 2.2 mmol.L (+/-0.8). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups (p > 0.05) in both parameters. The HR was 164 b.min (+/-14), corresponding to 81.2% (+/-7.4) of the predicted maximum HR. As characteristics of the matches, the DR corresponded to 3.4 seconds (+/-1.7), rest time to 8.1 seconds (+/-5.1), E:R to 0.4 (+/-0.2), TPT to 970.5 seconds (+/-336.1), EPT to 44.3% (+/-23.7), and frequency of shots to 35.3 balls.min (+/-7.7). Among groups, the rest time was lower in RP than in NP. Consistently, the E:R and EPT were higher in RP than in NP (p < 0.05). The results suggest that table tennis matches present the aerobic system as a principal output energy, the phosphagenic system being the most important during efforts. The information pertaining to the physiological profile and the characteristics of table tennis should be used by coaches planning physical training and specific exercise prescriptions aiming at achieving maximal sport performance. PMID:20300034

Zagatto, Alessandro M; Morel, Erika A; Gobatto, Claudio A

2010-04-01

52

FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY AND WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT: PROCEEDINGS OF 3RD BIENNIAL INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM, NANJING, PRC  

EPA Science Inventory

Scientists from four countries presented papers at the Third Biennial International Symposium on Fish Physiology, Toxicology and Water Quality Management, which was held on the campus of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China. his proceedings in...

53

Tolerance and physiological responses of Phragmites australis to water deficit  

E-print Network

in revised form 19 November 2004; accepted 3 January 2005 Abstract The water stress tolerance of Phragmites to water stress. Individual plants were grown under conditions of unrestricted water supply and compared mild water deficit. Osmolality in sap expressed from leaves and the concentration of proline in leaves

Brix, Hans

54

The Effects of Water Temperature Change on Goldfish Physiology and Behavior  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students determine the effects of temperature on physiological and behavioral changes in fish. Students design an experiment to measure the effects of changing water temperature on fish respiration and then an experiment examining the relationship between water temperature and another approved physiological or behavioral variable. In addition, students create a poster demonstration communicating the results and conduct an experiment demonstrating proper maintenance and care of live animals.

Melinda Pittis (Lexington School for the Deaf)

1999-12-01

55

Effects of age on the physiological and mechanical characteristics of human femoropopliteal arteries.  

PubMed

Surgical and interventional therapies for peripheral artery disease (PAD) are notorious for high rates of failure. Interactions between the artery and repair materials play an important role, but comprehensive data describing the physiological and mechanical characteristics of human femoropopliteal arteries are not available. Fresh femoropopliteal arteries were obtained from 70 human subjects (13-79 years old), and in situ vs. excised arterial lengths were measured. Circumferential and longitudinal opening angles were determined for proximal superficial femoral, proximal popliteal and distal popliteal arteries. Mechanical properties were assessed by multi-ratio planar biaxial extension, and experimental data were used to calculate physiological stresses and stretches, in situ axial force and anisotropy. Verhoeff-Van Gieson-stained axial and transverse arterial sections were used for histological analysis. Most specimens demonstrated nonlinear deformations and were more compliant longitudinally than circumferentially. In situ axial pre-stretch decreased 0.088 per decade of life. In situ axial force and axial stress also decreased with age, but circumferential physiological stress remained constant. Physiological circumferential stretch decreased 55-75% after 45 years of age. Histology demonstrated a thickened external elastic lamina with longitudinally oriented elastin that was denser in smaller, younger arteries. Axial elastin likely regulates axial pre-stretch to help accommodate the complex deformations required of the artery wall during locomotion. Degradation and fragmentation of elastin as a consequence of age, cyclic mechanical stress and atherosclerotic arterial disease may contribute to decreased in situ axial pre-stretch, predisposing to more severe kinking of the artery during limb flexion and loss of energy-efficient arterial function. PMID:25301303

Kamenskiy, Alexey V; Pipinos, Iraklis I; Dzenis, Yuris A; Phillips, Nicholas Y; Desyatova, Anastasia S; Kitson, Justin; Bowen, Robert; MacTaggart, Jason N

2015-01-01

56

Physiological and genetic control of water stress tolerance in zoysiagrass  

E-print Network

potential (shallow soils) through passive flow. This was first observed by Richards 5 and Caldwell (1987), who showed that the water potential of surface soils under sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate Nutt.) increased at night due to water movement from...

Dewey, Daniel Wade

2006-04-12

57

Effect of Fresh Orange Juice Intake on Physiological Characteristics in Healthy Volunteers  

PubMed Central

Background. Impaired endothelial function is a predictor of cardiovascular events. Orange juice (OJ) is rich in dietary flavonoids and could inhibit oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. We examined the effects of commercial (COJ) and fresh orange juice (FOJ) on endothelial function and physiological characteristics in healthy humans. Materials and Methods. Twenty-two healthy volunteers years were enrolled in a single blind randomized crossover controlled trial. The two groups consumed either COJ for the first 4 weeks and then FOJ (CFOJ, 4 weeks), or FOJ for the first 4 weeks and then COJ (FCOJ, 4?weeks). We assessed endothelial function by measuring flow-mediated dilation, serum concentrations of lipids, apolipoproteins A and B (apo A-1 and apo B), and inflammatory markers such as vascular endothelial adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and interleukin-6. Results. Consumption of both juices decreased VCAM, hs-CRP, and E-selectin but increased apo A-1. A decline in LDL occurred in the FOJ group. There were no differences between the characteristics of two groups, with the exception of apo A-1 levels that were increased with both forms of OJ. The largest variations occurred with hs-CRP, VCAM in both groups. Conclusion. Consumption of COJ and FOJ produced beneficial effects on the physiological characteristics of healthy volunteers. Although these results could encourage the consumption of OJ, intervention studies are needed to determine the long-term effects of these types of OJ on metabolic and cardiovascular endpoints. PMID:24967267

Asgary, Sedigheh; Keshvari, Mahtab; Afshani, Mohammad Reza; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

2014-01-01

58

Water Landing Characteristics of a Reentry Capsule  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water Landing Characteristics of a Reentry Capsule. Experimental and theoretical investigations have been made to determine the water-landing characteristics of a conical-shaped reentry capsule having a segment of a sphere as the bottom. For the experimental portion of the investigation, a 1/12-scale model capsule and a full-scale capsule were tested for nominal flight paths of 65 deg and 90 deg (vertical), a range of contact attitudes from -30 deg to 30 deg, and a full-scale vertical velocity of 30 feet per second at contact. Accelerations were measured by accelerometers installed at the centers of gravity of the model and full-scale capsules. For the model test the accelerations were measured along the X-axis (roll) and Z-axis (yaw) and for the full-scale test they were measured along the X-axis (roll), Y-axis (pitch), and Z-axis (yaw). Motions and displacements of the capsules that occurred after contact were determined from high-speed motion pictures. The theoretical investigation was conducted to determine the accelerations that might occur along the X-axis when the capsule contacted the water from a 90 deg flight path at a 0 deg attitude. Assuming a rigid body, computations were made from equations obtained by utilizing the principle of the conservation of momentum. The agreement among data obtained from the model test, the full-scale test, and the theory was very good. The accelerations along the X-axis, for a vertical flight path and 0 deg attitude, were in the order of 40g. For a 65 deg flight path and 0 deg attitude, the accelerations along the X-axis were in the order of 50g. Changes in contact attitude, in either the positive or negative direction from 0 deg attitude, considerably reduced the magnitude of the accelerations measured along the X-axis. Accelerations measured along the Y- and Z-axes were relatively small at all test conditions. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030955. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

1958-01-01

59

Bioenergetics and thermal physiology of American water shrews ( Sorex palustris )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rates of O 2 consumption and CO 2 production, telemetered body temperature ( T b) and activity level were recorded from adult and subadult water shrews ( Sorex palustris) over an air temperature ( T a) range of 3–32°C. Digesta passage rate trials were conducted before metabolic testing to estimate the minimum fasting time required for water shrews to achieve

R. W. Gusztak; R. A. MacArthur; K. L. Campbell

2005-01-01

60

Plant physiology Role of awns in ear water-use efficiency  

E-print Network

Plant physiology Role of awns in ear water-use efficiency and grain weight in barley J Bort net photosynthesis and water-use efficiency (WUE: net photosynthesis/transpiration) of ears and flag photosynthesis of awned ears was markedly higher than that of awnless ears, until 3 weeks after anthesis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

61

Physiological responses to hyper-saline waters in sailfin mollies ( Poecilia latipinna)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the ionoregulatory physiology and biochemistry of the teleost sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna), an inhabitant of salt marshes along the gulf coast, during exposure to hyper-saline waters (salinity range 35–95 ppt). Mollies were able to tightly control plasma Na+ and Cl? concentrations and tissue water levels up to 65 ppt, but at higher salinities plasma ion levels began to

R. J. Gonzalez; J. Cooper; D. Head

2005-01-01

62

Effects of water supplementation on physiological jaundice in breast-fed babies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of water supplementation in normal, term, breast-fed babies with physiological jaundice was studied. Water supplementation was given to 120 babies and 55 received no extra fluids. There was no significant difference between the two groups when peak serum bilirubin levels and incidence of phototherapy were compared.

M de Carvalho; M Hall; D Harvey

1981-01-01

63

Physiological and functional characteristics of Propionibacterium strains of the poultry microbiota and relevance for the development of probiotic products.  

PubMed

The prevention and control of pathogens colonization through probiotics administration in poultry feeding is of increasing interest. The genus Propionibacterium is an attractive candidate for the development of probiotic cultures as they produce short chain fatty acids (SCFA) by carbohydrates fermentation. The presence of strains of this genus in hens of conventional production systems and backyard hens was investigated. Propionibacteria were isolated from the intestine and identified by physiological and biochemical tests. PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene of the isolates was performed and products were compared with sequences from databases. The presence of the genus Propionibacterium was demonstrated in 26% of hens and Propionibacterium acidipropionici and Propionibacterium avidum were the identified species. A comparative study of their physiological and functional characteristics was performed. P. acidipropionici strains were the most resistant to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, but the adhesion to intestinal tissue was strain dependent. Some differences were found between both species with respect to their growth and SCFA production in an in vitro cecal water model, but all the strains were metabolically active. The production of SCFA in cecal slurries inoculated with the strain P. acidipropionici LET 105 was 30% higher than in non-inoculated samples. SCFA concentrations obtained were high enough to inhibit Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis when assayed in a cecal water model. P. acidipropionici LET 105 was also able to compete with Salmonella for adhesion sites on the intestinal mucosa in ex vivo assays. Results contribute to the knowledge of the species diversity of the genus Propionibacterium in the intestine of poultry and provide evidence of their potential for probiotics products development. PMID:23973927

Argañaraz-Martínez, Eloy; Babot, Jaime D; Apella, María C; Perez Chaia, Adriana

2013-10-01

64

Anthropometric and physiological characteristics in young afro-Caribbean swimmers. A preliminary study.  

PubMed

The authors investigated the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of young Guadeloupian competitive swimmers in relation to swimming performance and compared the abilities of these children with those of the young white swimmers reported in the literature. All 2004 competitive swimmers between 10 and 14 y old (126 children, 61 boys and 65 girls, 12.0 ± 1.3 y) from Guadeloupe underwent anthropometric measurements and physiological and performance testing. Six boys on the French national swimming team are referred to hereafter as the 2011 elite subgroup. Anthropometric parameters, a jump-and-reach test, glide, and estimated aerobic power (eVO2max) were assessed in terms of swimming-performance analysis through a 400-m test. This study demonstrated that the Guadeloupian swimmers had more body fat than most age-matched white swimmers but had very poor hydrostatic lift; they had higher peak jump height and they swam as well as their white counterparts. The variability in 400-m performance between subjects was best described by glide, age, and eVO2max. Compared with the group of boys with the same age, the 2011 elite subgroup was significantly better for arm span, peak jump height, glide, and 400-m and 15-m performances. Further research is needed to investigate motor organization and energy cost of swimming in Afro-Caribbean swimmers. PMID:23006763

Hue, Olivier; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Galy, Olivier; Blonc, Stephen

2013-05-01

65

Physiological and biochemical characteristics of laboratory induced mutants of Botrytis cinerea with resistance to fluazinam.  

PubMed

Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic and filamentous fungus with a high risk of developing resistance to fungicides. The pyridinamine fungicide fluazinam has been reported to have excellent activity against B. cinerea and better effect on controlling gray mold. In this study, the physiological and biochemical characteristics of laboratory-induced mutants of B. cinerea with resistance to fluazinam has been investigated. Compared to the wild-type strains, the fluazinam-resistant mutants had a significant decrease in respiratory rate, glycerol, oxalate, and ATP contents, and an increase in ATPase activity and sensitivity to osmotic pressure, but did not differ in cell membrane permeability. Sequencing indicated that two parental strains and four resistant mutants were identical in the nucleotide sequence of F-ATPase gene. These results will enrich our understanding of the resistance mechanism of B. cinerea to fluazinam. PMID:25619907

Shao, Wenyong; Zhang, Yu; Ren, Weichao; Chen, Changjun

2015-01-01

66

Physiological characteristics of tropical rain forest tree species: a basis for the development of silvicultural technology.  

PubMed

The physiological characteristics of the dominant tree species in the tropical rain forest mainly belonging to dipterocarps as well as the environmental conditions especially for the light in the forest were studied to establish the silvicultural system for the forest regeneration in the tropical South Asia. The flowering patterns of the dipterocarp trees are usually irregular and unpredictable, which make difficult to collect sufficient seeds for raising the seedlings. The field survey revealed the diverged features of the so-called gregarious or simultaneous flowering of various species of this group. Appropriate conditions and methods for the storage of the seeds were established according to the detailed analyses of the morphological and physiological characteristics of the seeds such as the low temperature tolerance and the moisture contents. The intensity and spectra of the light in the forest primarily determine the growth and the morphological development of the seedlings under the canopy. Based on the measurements of the diffused light at the sites in the tropical forest in the varying sunlight, the parameters such as "the steady state of the diffuse light" and "the turning point" were defined, which were useful to evaluate the light conditions in the forest. To improve the survival of the transplanted seedlings, a planting method of "the bare-root seedlings", the seedlings easy to be handled by removal of all leaves, soil and pots, was developed. Its marked efficiency was proved with various dipterocarps and other tropical trees by the field trial in the practical scale. Tolerance of the various species to the extreme environmental conditions such as fires, acid soils and drought were examined by the experiments and the field survey, which revealed marked adaptability of Shorea roxburghii as a potential species for regeneration of the tropical forests. PMID:18941286

Sasaki, Satohiko

2008-01-01

67

Sympathetic neural activity to the cardiovascular system: integrator of systemic physiology and interindividual characteristics.  

PubMed

The sympathetic nervous system is a ubiquitous, integrating controller of myriad physiological functions. In the present article, we review the physiology of sympathetic neural control of cardiovascular function with a focus on integrative mechanisms in humans. Direct measurement of sympathetic neural activity (SNA) in humans can be accomplished using microneurography, most commonly performed in the peroneal (fibular) nerve. In humans, muscle SNA (MSNA) is composed of vasoconstrictor fibers; its best-recognized characteristic is its participation in transient, moment-to-moment control of arterial blood pressure via the arterial baroreflex. This property of MSNA contributes to its typical "bursting" pattern which is strongly linked to the cardiac cycle. Recent evidence suggests that sympathetic neural mechanisms and the baroreflex have important roles in the long term control of blood pressure as well. One of the striking characteristics of MSNA is its large interindividual variability. However, in young, normotensive humans, higher MSNA is not linked to higher blood pressure due to balancing influences of other cardiovascular variables. In men, an inverse relationship between MSNA and cardiac output is a major factor in this balance, whereas in women, beta-adrenergic vasodilation offsets the vasoconstrictor/pressor effects of higher MSNA. As people get older (and in people with hypertension) higher MSNA is more likely to be linked to higher blood pressure. Skin SNA (SSNA) can also be measured in humans, although interpretation of SSNA signals is complicated by multiple types of neurons involved (vasoconstrictor, vasodilator, sudomotor and pilomotor). In addition to blood pressure regulation, the sympathetic nervous system contributes to cardiovascular regulation during numerous other reflexes, including those involved in exercise, thermoregulation, chemoreflex regulation, and responses to mental stress. PMID:24715570

Charkoudian, N; Wallin, B G

2014-04-01

68

The science of badminton: game characteristics, anthropometry, physiology, visual fitness and biomechanics.  

PubMed

Badminton is a racket sport for two or four people, with a temporal structure characterized by actions of short duration and high intensity. This sport has five events: men's and women's singles, men's and women's doubles, and mixed doubles, each requiring specific preparation in terms of technique, control and physical fitness. Badminton is one of the most popular sports in the world, with 200 million adherents. The decision to include badminton in the 1992 Olympics Game increased participation in the game. This review focuses on the game characteristics, anthropometry, physiology, visual attributes and biomechanics of badminton. Players are generally tall and lean, with an ectomesomorphic body type suited to the high physiological demands of a match. Indeed, a typical match characteristic is a rally time of 7 s and a resting time of 15 s, with an effective playing time of 31 %. This sport is highly demanding, with an average heart rate (HR) of over 90 % of the player's maximal HR. The intermittent actions during a game are demanding on both the aerobic and anaerobic systems: 60-70 % on the aerobic system and approximately 30 % on the anaerobic system, with greater demand on the alactic metabolism with respect to the lactic anaerobic metabolism. The shuttlecock has an atypical trajectory, and the players perform specific movements such as lunging and jumping, and powerful strokes using a specific pattern of movement. Lastly, badminton players are visually fit, picking up accurate visual information in a short time. Knowledge of badminton can help to improve coaching and badminton skills. PMID:25549780

Phomsoupha, Michael; Laffaye, Guillaume

2015-04-01

69

An analysis of playing positions in elite men's volleyball: considerations for competition demands and physiologic characteristics.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiologic demands, physiologic characteristics, and jumping ability of different playing positions in elite male volleyball players. The first investigation involved an analysis of 16 international men's volleyball matches. The second investigation involved an analysis of the anthropometric and jump performance characteristics of 142 Development National Team (DNT) and Senior National Team (SNT) international volleyball players. Mean (+/-SD) frequency of block jumps for Middles (11.00 +/- 3.14) was significantly greater than for Setters (6.25 +/- 2.87, p < 0.001) and Outsides (6.50 +/- 3.16, p < 0.001). Attack jumps were performed more frequently by Middles (7.75 +/- 1.88), and this was found to be significantly more than for Setters (0.38 +/- 1.06, p < 0.001) and Outsides (5.75 +/- 3.25, p < 0.01). Middles were taller than Outsides and Setters (p < 0.001). Consequently, Middles had a significantly higher reach and greater body mass than Outsides (p < 0.001, p < 0.003) and Setters (p < 0.001, p < 0.001). Both Middles and Outsides had superior countermovement vertical jump (CMVJ) and spike jump (SPJ) scores compared with Setters (p < 0.001). Position-specific comparisons between DNT players and SNT players demonstrated that the SNT players were superior in relative CMVJ and SPJ scores (p < 0.05), with a large magnitude of effect (d > 0.99). The results of this study highlight the large jumping and landing demands placed on the taller and heavier players in the middle position. In addition to establishing the magnitude of difference in jumping ability between junior and senior national team players, the results also provide a comprehensive data set that may assist with talent identification and talent development for aspiring male volleyball players. PMID:19675472

Sheppard, Jeremy M; Gabbett, Tim J; Stanganelli, Luiz-Claudio Reeberg

2009-09-01

70

Physiological applications for determining water use efficiency among cotton genotypes  

E-print Network

Drought stress can substantially alter plant metabolism by decreasing plant growth and photosynthesis. The lack of rapid and reliable screening criteria and measurement techniques for determining water use efficiency (WUE) of crop plants has greatly...

Bynum, Joshua Brian

2009-05-15

71

Cold Water Fatalities: An Overview of Physiological Responses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cold water fatalities are described and defined, including drownings, trauma, hydrocution and hypothermia. The levels of hypothermia are outlined, and symptoms and steps to stop and reverse hypothermia are described. (DS)

Bernhartsen, J. C.; Schlenker, Richard

1981-01-01

72

Water Landing Characteristics of a Reentry Capsule  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental and theoretical investigations have been made to determine the water-landing characteristics of a conical-shaped reentry capsule having a segment of a sphere as the bottom. For the experimental portion of the investigation, a 1/12-scale model capsule and a full-scale capsule were tested for nominal flight paths of 65 deg and 90 deg (vertical), a range of contact attitudes from -30 deg to 30 deg, and a full-scale vertical velocity of 30 feet per second at contact. Accelerations were measured by accelerometers installed at the centers of gravity of the model and full-scale capsules. For the model test the accelerations were measured along the X-axis (roll) and Z-axis (yaw) and for the full-scale test they were measured along the X-axis (roll), Y-axis (pitch), and Z-axis (yaw). Motions and displacements of the capsules that occurred after contact were determined from high-speed motion pictures. The theoretical investigation was conducted to determine the accelerations that might occur along the X-axis when the capsule contacted the water from a 90 deg flight path at a 0 deg attitude. Assuming a rigid body, computations were made from equations obtained by utilizing the principle of the conservation of momentum. The agreement among data obtained from the model test, the full-scale test, and the theory was very good. The accelerations along the X-axis, for a vertical flight path and 0 deg attitude, were in the order of 40g. For a 65 deg flight path and 0 deg attitude, the accelerations along the X-axis were in the order of 50g. Changes in contact attitude, in either the positive or negative direction from 0 deg attitude, considerably reduced the magnitude of the accelerations measured along the X-axis. Accelerations measured along the Y- and Z-axes were relatively small at all test conditions.

1958-01-01

73

Bioenergetics and thermal physiology of American water shrews (Sorex palustris).  

PubMed

Rates of O(2) consumption and CO(2) production, telemetered body temperature (T(b)) and activity level were recorded from adult and subadult water shrews (Sorex palustris) over an air temperature (T(a)) range of 3-32 degrees C. Digesta passage rate trials were conducted before metabolic testing to estimate the minimum fasting time required for water shrews to achieve a postabsorptive state. Of the 228 metabolic trials conducted on 15 water shrews, 146 (64%) were discarded because the criteria for inactivity were not met. Abdominal T(b) of S. palustris was independent of T(a) and averaged 38.64 +/- 0.07 degrees C. The thermoneutral zone extended from 21.2 degrees C to at least 32 degrees C. Our estimate of the basal metabolic rate for resting, postabsorptive water shrews (96.88 +/- 2.93 J g(-1) h(-1) or 4.84 +/- 0.14 ml O(2) g(-1) h(-1)) was three times the mass-predicted value, while their minimum thermal conductance in air (0.282 +/- 0.013 ml O(2) g(-1) h(-1)) concurred with allometric predictions. The mean digesta throughput time of water shrews fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) or ground meat was 50-55 min. The digestibility coefficients for metabolizable energy (ME) of water shrews fed stickleback minnows (Culaea inconstans) and dragonfly nymphs (Anax spp. and Libellula spp.) were 85.4 +/- 1.3% and 82.8 +/- 1.1%, respectively. The average metabolic rate (AMR) calculated from the gas exchange of six water shrews at 19-22 degrees C (208.0 +/- 17.0 J g(-1) h(-1)) was nearly identical to the estimate of energy intake (202.9 +/- 12.9 J g(-1) h(-1)) measured for these same animals during digestibility trials (20 degrees C). Based on 24-h activity trials and our derived ME coefficients, the minimum daily energy requirement of an adult (14.4 g) water shrew at T(a) = 20 degrees C is 54.0 kJ, or the energetic equivalent of 14.7 stickleback minnows. PMID:15592850

Gusztak, R W; Macarthur, R A; Campbell, K L

2005-02-01

74

Stomatal structure and physiology do not explain differences in water use among montane eucalypts.  

PubMed

Understanding the regulation of water use at the whole-tree scale is critical to advancing the utility of physiological ecology, for example in its role in predictive hydrology of forested catchments. For three eucalypt species that dominate high-elevation catchments in south-eastern Australia, we examined if whole-tree water use could be related to three widely discussed regulators of water use: stomatal anatomy, sensitivity of stomata [i.e. stomatal conductance (g s)] to environmental influences, and sapwood area. While daily tree water use varied sixfold among species, sap velocity and sapwood area varied in parallel. Combined, stomatal structure and physiology could not explain differences in species-specific water use. Species which exhibited the fastest (Eucalyptus delegatensis) and slowest (Eucalyptus pauciflora) rates of water use both exhibited greater capacity for physiological control of g s [indicated by sensitivity to vapour pressure deficit (VPD)] and a reduced capacity to limit g s anatomically [indicated by greater potential g s (g max)]. Conversely, g s was insensitive to VPD and g max was lowest for Eucalyptus radiata, the species showing intermediate rates of water use. Improved knowledge of stomatal anatomy will help us to understand the capacity of species to regulate leaf-level water loss, but seems likely to remain of limited use for explaining rates of whole-tree water use in montane eucalypts at the catchment scale. PMID:25669453

Gharun, Mana; Turnbull, Tarryn L; Pfautsch, Sebastian; Adams, Mark A

2015-04-01

75

Water protein dynamic coupling and new opportunities for probing it at low to physiological temperatures in aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

Both the structure and dynamics of biomolecules are known to be essential for their biological function. In the dehydrated state, the function of biomolecules, such as proteins, is severely impeded, so hydration is required for bioactivity. The dynamics of the hydrated biomolecules and their hydration water are related - but how closely? The problem involves several layers of complexity. Even for water in the bulk state, the contribution from various dynamic components to the overall dynamics is not fully understood. In biological systems, the effects of confinement on the hydration water further complicate the picture. Even if the various components of the hydration water dynamics are properly understood, which of them are coupled to the protein dynamics, and how? The studies of protein dynamics over the wide temperature range, from physiological to low temperatures, provide some answers to these question. At low temperatures, both the protein and its hydration water behave as solids, with only vibrational degrees of freedom. As the temperature is increased, non-vibrational dynamic components start contributing to the measurable dynamics and eventually become dominant at physiological temperatures. Thus, the temperature dependence of the dynamics of protein and its hydration water may allow probing various dynamic components separately. In order to suppress the water freezing, the low-temperature studies of protein rely on either low-hydrated samples (essentially, hydrated protein powders), or cryo-protective solutions. Both approaches introduce the hydration environments not characteristic of the protein environments in living systems, which are typically aqueous protein solutions of various concentrations. In this paper, we discuss the coupling between the dynamic components of the protein and its hydration water by critical examining of the existing literature, and then propose that proteins can be studied in an aqueous solution that is remarkably similar in its dynamic properties to pure water, yet does not freeze down to about 200 K, even in the bulk form. The first experiment of this kind using quasielastic neutron scattering is discussed, and more experiments are proposed.

Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Chu, Xiang-Qiang [ORNL

2012-01-01

76

PHYSIOLOGY OF WATER MOTION DETECTION INTHE MEDICINAL LEECH  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Neuronal activity resulting from stimulation by water waves occurs in ventral nerve cord-body wall preparations of the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis. In segmental nerves, this activity consists of afferent compound action potentials with graded amplitudes resulting from simul- taneous action potentials in many small sensory axons. Afferent input impinging on one segmental ganglion activates neuronal activity along much

W. Otto Friesen

1981-01-01

77

Time-motion analysis, heart rate, and physiological characteristics of international canoe polo athletes.  

PubMed

To evaluate the time international canoe polo players spend performing various game activities, measure heart rate (HR) responses during games, and describe the physiological profile of elite players. Eight national canoe polo players were videotaped and wore HR monitors during 3 games at a World Championship and underwent fitness testing. The mean age, height, and weight were 25 ± 1 years, 1.82 ± 0.04 m, and 81.9 ± 10.9 kg, respectively. Time-motion analysis of 3 games indicated that the players spent 29 ± 3% of the game slow and moderate forward paddling, 28 ± 5% contesting, 27 ± 5% resting and gliding, 7 ± 1% turning, 5 ± 1% backward paddling, 2 ± 1% sprinting, and 2 ± 1% dribbling. Sixty-nine (±20)% of the game time was played at an HR intensity above the HR that corresponded to the ventilatory threshold (VT) that was determined during the peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2 test. Peak oxygen uptake and VT were 3.3 ± 0.3 and 2.2 ± 0.3 L·min, respectively, on a modified Monark arm crank ergometer. Arm crank peak 5-second anaerobic power was 379 W. The majority of the time spent during international canoe polo games involved slow-to-moderate forward paddling, contesting for the ball, and resting and gliding. Canoe polo games are played at a high intensity indicated by the HR responses, and the physiological characteristics suggest that these athletes had high levels of upper body aerobic and anaerobic fitness levels. PMID:23287835

Forbes, Scott C; Kennedy, Michael D; Bell, Gordon J

2013-10-01

78

PHYSIOLOGICAL ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL PAPER Patterns of Tamarix water use during a record drought  

E-print Network

regions of the wes- tern United States, river discharges have been reduced as a result of warming trendsPHYSIOLOGICAL ECOLOGY - ORIGINAL PAPER Patterns of Tamarix water use during a record drought Jesse- tuations indicated evapotranspirative consumption of groundwater by vegetation. During the summer drought

Nippert, Jesse

79

Salicylic acid-induced physiological and biochemical changes in lemongrass varieties under water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) treatment reduces the damaging action by water deficit on growth and accelerates a restoration of growth processes. The aim of the present work was to study the physiological and biochemical alteration induced by SA in lemongrass plants under stress conditions. Therefore, a pot culture experiment was conducted to test whether SA application at concentration of (10 M)

Mohd Idrees; M. Masroor A. Khan; Tariq Aftab; M. Naeem; Nadeem Hashmi

2010-01-01

80

Physiological Response of Rainbow Trout to Sediment Released during Open-Cut Pipeline Water Crossing Construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological response of rainbow trout exposed to elevated suspended sediment concentrations downstream of two open-cut pipeline water crossings was investigated. Trout held in cages downstream of construction had increased respiration rates and shorter times till loss of equilibrium during sealed jar bioassays. Differences in blood hematocrit levels between experiments and transects is attributed to sediment concentration and particle size.

SCOTT M. REID; GLENN ISAAC; SERGE METIKOSH; JIM EVANS

2003-01-01

81

Physiological stress response in white suckers from agricultural drain waters containing pesticides and selenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the effect of agriculture drain water, a complex mixture containing pesticides and selenium (Se), on the physiological stress response, white suckers were collected from irrigation return flows in the summer and the fall and subjected to a stress challenge. Water (0.40–26.71?g\\/L) and muscle Se (0.37–1.52?g\\/g ww) levels were elevated at two sites and plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity (a

L. L. Miller; J. B. Rasmussen; V. P. Palace; A. Hontela

2009-01-01

82

Evidence that elevated water temperature affects the reproductive physiology of the European bullhead Cottus gobio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is predicted to increase the average water temperature and alter the ecology and physiology of several organisms\\u000a including fish species. To examine the effects of increased water temperature on freshwater fish reproduction, adult European\\u000a bullhead Cottus gobio of both genders were maintained under three temperature regimes (T1: 6–10, T2: 10–14 and T3: 14–18°C) and assessed for gonad\\u000a development

Jennifer DortsGael; Gaël Grenouillet; Jessica Douxfils; Syaghalirwa N. M. Mandiki; Sylvain Milla; Frédéric Silvestre; Patrick Kestemont

83

Physiological characteristics of crab Portunus sanguinolentus egg mass extract from southeast coast of India.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the physiological characteristics of crab egg mass (Portunus sanguinolentus) crude extract. Methods: Assays were followed by standard methods. Results: A maximum of 256 hemolytic units (HU) and a minimum of 128 HU were found in chicken and goat erythrocytes. In an antimicrobial assay, Salmonella paratyphi and Aspergillus niger showed most susceptibility (8.0 mm and 13.0 mm) against n-butanol extracts. In the tail flick method, 5.33±0.19* AR the maximum analgesic response was recorded 30 min after the administration of crude extract (150 mg kg-1). In the hot plate method, 5.13±0.13* AR maximum paw licking was recorded 15 min after the administration of crude extract (150 mg kg-1). In an anti-inflammatory assay, 0.31±0.23* anti-inflammatory response and inhibition of paw edema 39.22% were observed 1 h after the administration of crude extract (250 mg kg-1). Primary structural groups gained through Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) analysis peaks were observed and assigned as amide groups I (1517.81-1633.12 cm-1), II (1446.58-1517.81 cm-1) and III (1342.47-1406.85 cm-1). Conclusions: The results indicate that crab egg masses have remarkable antimicrobial, hemolytic and cytotoxic activities. PMID:25423672

Bragadeeswaran, Subramanian; Kumaran, Nadarajah Sri; Pandimuthu, Lakshmanan; Prabahar, Rajagopal

2014-11-25

84

Physiological characteristics of the extreme thermophile Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus: an efficient hydrogen cell factory  

PubMed Central

Global concerns about climate changes and their association with the use of fossil fuels have accelerated research on biological fuel production. Biological hydrogen production from hemicellulose-containing waste is considered one of the promising avenues. A major economical issue for such a process, however, is the low substrate conversion efficiency. Interestingly, the extreme thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus can produce hydrogen from carbohydrate-rich substrates at yields close to the theoretical maximum of the dark fermentation process (i.e., 4 mol H2/mol hexose). The organism is able to ferment an array of mono-, di- and polysaccharides, and is relatively tolerant to high partial hydrogen pressures, making it a promising candidate for exploitation in a biohydrogen process. The behaviour of this Gram-positive bacterium bears all hallmarks of being adapted to an environment sparse in free sugars, which is further reflected in its low volumetric hydrogen productivity and low osmotolerance. These two properties need to be improved by at least a factor of 10 and 5, respectively, for a cost-effective industrial process. In this review, the physiological characteristics of C. saccharolyticus are analyzed in view of the requirements for an efficient hydrogen cell factory. A special emphasis is put on the tight regulation of hydrogen production in C. saccharolyticus by both redox and energy metabolism. Suggestions for strategies to overcome the current challenges facing the potential use of the organism in hydrogen production are also discussed. PMID:21092203

2010-01-01

85

Physiology and molecular characteristics of a pine wilt nematode-trapping fungus, Monacrosporium megalosporum.  

PubMed

We isolated the nematode-trapping fungus Monacrosporium megalosporum from nature and examined its morphology, physiology and molecular characteristics. The nematode-trapping device of this fungus is a three-dimensional network. This fungus captures the pine wilt nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus), but not a non-phytopathogenic nematode that is morphologically similar to B. xylophilus. The phylogenic relationship of the nucleotide sequence of the rDNA ITS region was close to those of M. thaumasium and Geniculifera eudermata, which also have nematode-trapping devices that are three-dimensional networks. Acidic pH inhibited both the liberation and regeneration of protoplasts. Moreover, cytoplasmic granulation of protoplasts was found below pH 6.0. Mycelial growth on agar media was also inhibited below pH 4, but not at pH 9. These results strongly suggest that the activity of this fungus is inhibited by acid rain in the field. Therefore, development of pine wilt disease might be a secondary effect of acid rain. PMID:15386097

Kano, Sanae; Aimi, Tadanori; Masumoto, Seita; Kitamoto, Yutaka; Morinaga, Tsutomu

2004-09-01

86

Physiological characteristics of the extreme thermophile Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus: an efficient hydrogen cell factory.  

PubMed

Global concerns about climate changes and their association with the use of fossil fuels have accelerated research on biological fuel production. Biological hydrogen production from hemicellulose-containing waste is considered one of the promising avenues. A major economical issue for such a process, however, is the low substrate conversion efficiency. Interestingly, the extreme thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus can produce hydrogen from carbohydrate-rich substrates at yields close to the theoretical maximum of the dark fermentation process (i.e., 4 mol H2/mol hexose). The organism is able to ferment an array of mono-, di- and polysaccharides, and is relatively tolerant to high partial hydrogen pressures, making it a promising candidate for exploitation in a biohydrogen process. The behaviour of this Gram-positive bacterium bears all hallmarks of being adapted to an environment sparse in free sugars, which is further reflected in its low volumetric hydrogen productivity and low osmotolerance. These two properties need to be improved by at least a factor of 10 and 5, respectively, for a cost-effective industrial process. In this review, the physiological characteristics of C. saccharolyticus are analyzed in view of the requirements for an efficient hydrogen cell factory. A special emphasis is put on the tight regulation of hydrogen production in C. saccharolyticus by both redox and energy metabolism. Suggestions for strategies to overcome the current challenges facing the potential use of the organism in hydrogen production are also discussed. PMID:21092203

Willquist, Karin; Zeidan, Ahmad A; van Niel, Ed W J

2010-01-01

87

Effects of Shade Treatments on Photosynthetic Characteristics, Chloroplast Ultrastructure, and Physiology of Anoectochilus roxburghii  

PubMed Central

Anoectochilus roxburghii was grown under different shade treatments–50%, 30%, 20%, and 5% of natural irradiance–to evaluate its photosynthetic characteristics, chloroplast ultrastructure, and physiology. The highest net photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance were observed under 30% irradiance, followed in descending order by 20%, 5%, and 50% treatments. As irradiance decreased from 50% to 30%, electron transport rate and photochemical quenching increased, while non-photochemical quenching indexes declined. Reductions in irradiance significantly increased Chl a and Chl b contents and decreased Chl a/b ratios. Chloroplast ultrastructure generally displayed the best development in leaves subjected to 30% irradiance. Under 50% irradiance, leaf protein content remained relatively stable during the first 20 days of treatment, and then increased rapidly. The highest peroxidase and superoxide dismutase levels, and the lowest catalase activities, were observed in plants subjected to the 50% irradiance treatment. Soluble sugar and malondialdehyde contents were positively correlated with irradiance levels. Modulation of chloroplast development, accomplished by increasing the number of thylakoids and grana containing photosynthetic pigments, is an important shade tolerance mechanism in A. roxburghii. PMID:24516523

Shao, Qingsong; Wang, Hongzhen; Guo, Haipeng; Zhou, Aicun; Huang, Yuqiu; Sun, Yulu; Li, Mingyan

2014-01-01

88

Soil-Water Characteristic Curve Modeling at Low Water Content: Empirical and Semi-Empirical Approaches  

E-print Network

Soil-Water Characteristic Curve Modeling at Low Water Content: Empirical and Semi model, the Modified Kovacs (MK) model for the determination of soil-water characteristic curve at the low water contents of two horizons of a soil from Burkina Faso. Combining terms from capillary state

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

89

Physiological Plasticity to Water Flow Habitat in the Damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus: Linking Phenotype to Performance.  

PubMed

The relationships among animal form, function and performance are complex, and vary across environments. Therefore, it can be difficult to identify morphological and/or physiological traits responsible for enhancing performance in a given habitat. In fishes, differences in swimming performance across water flow gradients are related to morphological variation among and within species. However, physiological traits related to performance have been less well studied. We experimentally reared juvenile damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, under different water flow regimes to test 1) whether aspects of swimming physiology and morphology show plastic responses to water flow, 2) whether trait divergence correlates with swimming performance and 3) whether flow environment relates to performance differences observed in wild fish. We found that maximum metabolic rate, aerobic scope and blood haematocrit were higher in wave-reared fish compared to fish reared in low water flow. However, pectoral fin shape, which tends to correlate with sustained swimming performance, did not differ between rearing treatments or collection sites. Maximum metabolic rate was the best overall predictor of individual swimming performance; fin shape and fish total length were 3.3 and 3.7 times less likely than maximum metabolic rate to explain differences in critical swimming speed. Performance differences induced in fish reared in different flow environments were less pronounced than in wild fish but similar in direction. Our results suggest that exposure to water motion induces plastic physiological changes which enhance swimming performance in A. polyacanthus. Thus, functional relationships between fish morphology and performance across flow habitats should also consider differences in physiology. PMID:25807560

Binning, Sandra A; Ros, Albert F H; Nusbaumer, David; Roche, Dominique G

2015-01-01

90

Physiological Plasticity to Water Flow Habitat in the Damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus: Linking Phenotype to Performance  

PubMed Central

The relationships among animal form, function and performance are complex, and vary across environments. Therefore, it can be difficult to identify morphological and/or physiological traits responsible for enhancing performance in a given habitat. In fishes, differences in swimming performance across water flow gradients are related to morphological variation among and within species. However, physiological traits related to performance have been less well studied. We experimentally reared juvenile damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, under different water flow regimes to test 1) whether aspects of swimming physiology and morphology show plastic responses to water flow, 2) whether trait divergence correlates with swimming performance and 3) whether flow environment relates to performance differences observed in wild fish. We found that maximum metabolic rate, aerobic scope and blood haematocrit were higher in wave-reared fish compared to fish reared in low water flow. However, pectoral fin shape, which tends to correlate with sustained swimming performance, did not differ between rearing treatments or collection sites. Maximum metabolic rate was the best overall predictor of individual swimming performance; fin shape and fish total length were 3.3 and 3.7 times less likely than maximum metabolic rate to explain differences in critical swimming speed. Performance differences induced in fish reared in different flow environments were less pronounced than in wild fish but similar in direction. Our results suggest that exposure to water motion induces plastic physiological changes which enhance swimming performance in A. polyacanthus. Thus, functional relationships between fish morphology and performance across flow habitats should also consider differences in physiology. PMID:25807560

Binning, Sandra A.; Ros, Albert F. H.; Nusbaumer, David; Roche, Dominique G.

2015-01-01

91

Physical and Physiological Characteristics of Elite Male Handball Players from Teams with a Different Ranking  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine possible discriminant physical and physiological characteristics between elite male handball players from elite teams with different league rankings. Players from three teams (A, B and C), which competed in the first league of the Greek championship during the season 2011–2012 participated in the study. Team A finished first, B came second and C came eighth out of eleven clubs. Teams A and B also participated in European Cups, and team A won the European Challenge Cup. The players (n=44) were examined for anthropometric characteristics and performed a series of physical fitness tests. Players from teams A and B were taller (6.2 cm (0.7;11.7), mean difference (95% CI) and 9.2 cm (4.0;14.5), respectively), and had a higher amount of fat free mass (6.4 kg (1.1;11.8) and 5.4 kg (0.2;10.5)) compared to those of team C. Players from team A performed better than players from team C in the squat jump (5.5 cm (1.0;10.0)), the countermovement jump without (5.5 cm (0.4;10.6)) and with arm-swing (6.0 cm (0.7;11.3)) and in the 30 s Bosco test (5.7 W·kg?1 (1.2;10.2)). Also, players from team A outperformed team B in mean power during the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT, 0.5 W·kg?1(0;0.9)) and in the Bosco test (7.8 W·kg?1 (3.4;12.2)). Overall, players from the best ranked team performed better than the lowest ranked team on WAnT, vertical jumps and the Bosco test. Stepwise discriminant analysis showed that stature and mean power during the Bosco test were the most important characteristics in TH players, accounting for 54.6% of the variance in team ranking. These findings indicate the contribution of particular physical fitness components (stature, fat free mass and anaerobic power) to excellence in TH. In addition, the use of the Bosco test as an assessment tool in talent identification and physical fitness monitoring in this sport is further recommended. PMID:24235989

Nikolaidis, Pantelis T.; Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen

2013-01-01

92

Physiological and growth responses to water deficit in the bioenergy crop Miscanthus x giganteus.  

PubMed

High yielding perennial biomass crops of the species Miscanthus are widely recognized as one of the most promising lignocellulosic feedstocks for the production of bioenergy and bioproducts. Miscanthus is a C4 grass and thus has relatively high water use efficiency. Cultivated Miscanthus comprises primarily of a single clone, Miscanthus x giganteus, a sterile hybrid between M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis. M. x giganteus is high yielding and expresses desirable combinations of many traits present in the two parental species types; however, it responds poorly to low water availability. To identify the physiological basis of the response to water stress in M. x giganteus and to identify potential targets for breeding improvements we characterized the physiological responses to water-deficit stress in a pot experiment. The experiment has provided valuable insights into the temporal aspects of drought-induced responses of M. x giganteus. Withholding water resulted in marked changes in plant physiology with growth-associated traits among the first affected, the most rapid response being a decline in the rate of stem elongation. A reduction in photosynthetic performance was among the second set of changes observed; indicated by a decrease in stomatal conductance followed by decreases in chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content. Measures reflecting the plant water status were among the last affected by the drought treatment. Metabolite analysis indicated that proline was a drought stress marker in M. x giganteus, metabolites in the proline synthesis pathway were more abundant when stomatal conductance decreased and dry weight accumulation ceased. The outcomes of this study in terms of drought-induced physiological changes, accompanied by a proof-of-concept metabolomics investigation, provide a platform for identifying targets for improved drought-tolerance of the Miscanthus bioenergy crop. PMID:24324474

Ings, Jennifer; Mur, Luis A J; Robson, Paul R H; Bosch, Maurice

2013-01-01

93

Physiological and growth responses to water deficit in the bioenergy crop Miscanthus x giganteus  

PubMed Central

High yielding perennial biomass crops of the species Miscanthus are widely recognized as one of the most promising lignocellulosic feedstocks for the production of bioenergy and bioproducts. Miscanthus is a C4 grass and thus has relatively high water use efficiency. Cultivated Miscanthus comprises primarily of a single clone, Miscanthus x giganteus, a sterile hybrid between M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis. M. x giganteus is high yielding and expresses desirable combinations of many traits present in the two parental species types; however, it responds poorly to low water availability. To identify the physiological basis of the response to water stress in M. x giganteus and to identify potential targets for breeding improvements we characterized the physiological responses to water-deficit stress in a pot experiment. The experiment has provided valuable insights into the temporal aspects of drought-induced responses of M. x giganteus. Withholding water resulted in marked changes in plant physiology with growth-associated traits among the first affected, the most rapid response being a decline in the rate of stem elongation. A reduction in photosynthetic performance was among the second set of changes observed; indicated by a decrease in stomatal conductance followed by decreases in chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content. Measures reflecting the plant water status were among the last affected by the drought treatment. Metabolite analysis indicated that proline was a drought stress marker in M. x giganteus, metabolites in the proline synthesis pathway were more abundant when stomatal conductance decreased and dry weight accumulation ceased. The outcomes of this study in terms of drought-induced physiological changes, accompanied by a proof-of-concept metabolomics investigation, provide a platform for identifying targets for improved drought-tolerance of the Miscanthus bioenergy crop. PMID:24324474

Ings, Jennifer; Mur, Luis A. J.; Robson, Paul R. H.; Bosch, Maurice

2013-01-01

94

Dynamic characteristics of gas-water interfacial plasma under water  

SciTech Connect

Gas-water interfacial plasmas under water were generated in a compact space in a tube with a sandglass-like structure, where two metal wires were employed as electrodes with an applied 35 kHz ac power source. The dynamic behaviors of voltage/current were investigated for the powered electrode with/without water cover to understand the effect of the gas-water interface. It is found that the discharge exhibits periodic pulsed currents after breakdown as the powered electrode is covered with water, whereas the electrical current reveals a damped oscillation with time with a frequency about 10{sup 6} Hz as the powered electrode is in a vapor bubble. By increasing water conductivity, a discharge current waveform transition from pulse to oscillation presents in the water covering case. These suggest that the gas-water interface has a significant influence on the discharge property.

Zheng, S. J.; Zhang, Y. C.; Ke, B.; Ding, F.; Tang, Z. L.; Yang, K.; Zhu, X. D. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

2012-06-15

95

Anatomical, physiological and transcriptional responses of two contrasting poplar genotypes to drought and re-watering.  

PubMed

Populus × euramericana (Pe) displays higher stable carbon isotope composition (?(13)C) and intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi) than Populus cathayana (Pc) under unlimited water conditions, rendering us to hypothesize that Pe is better acclimated to water deficiency than Pc. To examine this hypothesis, saplings of Pc and Pe were exposed to drought and subsequently re-watered. Pc and Pe exhibited distinct anatomical, physiological and transcriptional responses in acclimation to drought and re-watering, mainly due to stronger responsiveness of transcriptional regulation of genes encoding plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), higher starch accumulation, ?(13)C, stable nitrogen isotope composition (?(15)N) and WUEi , and lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and scavenging in Pe. In acclimation to drought, both poplar genotypes demonstrated altered anatomical properties, declined height growth, differential expression of PIPs, activation of ABA signaling pathway, decreased total soluble sugars and starch, increased ?(13)C, ?(15)N and WUEi , and shifted homeostasis of ROS production and scavenging, and these changes can be recovered upon re-watering. These data indicate that Pe is more tolerant to drought than Pc, and that anatomical, physiological and transcriptional acclimation to drought and re-watering is essential for poplars to survive and grow under projected dry climate scenarios in the future. PMID:24320774

Cao, Xu; Jia, Jingbo; Zhang, Chao; Li, Hong; Liu, Tongxian; Jiang, Xiangning; Polle, Andrea; Peng, Changhui; Luo, Zhi-Bin

2014-08-01

96

Study on the relationship between the winter wheat thermal infrared image characteristics and physiological indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arid directly affects crop growth and yield, such as reduces photosynthesis, weakens respiration rate, slows down the material transport, disorders stomatal switch, blocks the synthesis of chlorophyll, affects the cell wall and protein synthesis, etc., eventually leads to the reduction of output. How to solve this problem? This paper proposes a drought index based on thermal imaging technology. Canopy temperature distribution can reflect the growth of crops. And using thermal imaging technology can access to crop canopy temperature distribution quickly. Physiological indexes such as the changes of stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content is the important basis of crop drought resistance identification.So this paper studied the distribution of wheat canopy temperature with the change of stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content under drought conditions. The study was based on different drought resistant genotypes of winter wheat in Xinjiang with German JENOPTIK portable infrared thermal imager for canopy temperature information. The canopy leaf stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content was measured by SC-1 porosity meter and SPAD chlorophyll meter. Results prove that winter wheat canopy temperature decreases with the increase of stomatal conductance in dry conditions, which has a good linear relationship (r=-0.67). The correlation of canopy temperature and stomatal conductance of poor drought resistance(-0.93) is greater than that of good one(-0.46). There is significant difference between stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content of different drought resistance varieties(P<0.05). The variety of poor drought resistance is greater that of good one in morning-afternoon stomatal conductance change. And the chlorophyll content of the variety of good drought resistance is greater that of poor one. The conclusions above show that canopy temperature distribution has good correlation with the crop drought resistance indexes and can be used as an early indicator of drought resistance identification.This conclusion has important significance for drought resistance identification, the reasonable irrigation guidance and improving the water use efficiency.

Chen, Zi-long; Ren, Xiang-rong; Cong, Hua; Wang, Cheng; Zhu, Da-zhou

2014-11-01

97

PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF PACKAGE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was undertaken to collect reliable onsite information on the quality of treated water produced by package plants. Six plants in operation year around were selected to be representative of those serving small populations and were monitored to assess their performance. P...

98

Comparative reproductive and physiological responses of northern bobwhite and scaled quail to water deprivation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared reproductive and physiological responses of captive female northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) under control and water deprivation conditions. Scaled quail required less food and water to reproduce successfully under control conditions than northern bobwhite. Additionally, in scaled quail, serum osmolality levels and kidney mass were unaffected by water deprivation, whereas in northern bobwhite, serum osmolality levels increased and kidney mass declined. This finding indicates that scaled quail may have osmoregulatory abilities superior to those of northern bobwhite. Under control conditions, northern bobwhite gained more body mass and produced more but smaller eggs than scaled quail. Under water deprivation conditions, northern bobwhite lost more body mass but had more laying bens with a higher rate of egg production than scaled quail. Our data suggest that northern bobwhite allocated more resources to reproduction than to body maintenance, while scaled quail apparently forego reproduction in favor of body maintenance during water deprivation conditions.

Giuliano, W.M.; Patino, R.; Lutz, R.S.

1998-01-01

99

Response of the physiological parameters of mango fruit (transpiration, water relations and antioxidant system) to its light and temperature environment.  

PubMed

Depending on the position of the fruit in the tree, mango fruit may be exposed to high temperature and intense light conditions that may lead to metabolic and physiological disorders and affect yield and quality. The present study aimed to determine how mango fruit adapted its functioning in terms of fruit water relations, epicarp characteristics and the antioxidant defence system in peel, to environmental conditions. The effect of contrasted temperature and light conditions was evaluated under natural solar radiation and temperature by comparing well-exposed and shaded fruit at three stages of fruit development. The sun-exposed and shaded peels of the two sides of the well-exposed fruit were also compared. Depending on fruit position within the canopy and on the side of a well-exposed fruit, the temperature gradient over a day affected fruit characteristics such as transpiration, as revealed by the water potential gradient as a function of the treatments, and led to a significant decrease in water conductance for well-exposed fruits compared to fruits within the canopy. Changes in cuticle thickness according to fruit position were consistent with those of fruit water conductance. Osmotic potential was also affected by climatic environment and harvest stage. Environmental conditions that induced water stress and greater light exposure, like on the sunny side of well-exposed fruit, increased the hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde and total and reduced ascorbate contents, as well as SOD, APX and MDHAR activities, regardless of the maturity stage. The lowest values were measured in the peel of the shaded fruit, that of the shaded side of well-exposed fruit being intermediate. Mango fruits exposed to water-stress-induced conditions during growth adapt their functioning by reducing their transpiration. Moreover, oxidative stress was limited as a consequence of the increase in antioxidant content and enzyme activities. This adaptive response of mango fruit to its climatic environment during growth could affect postharvest behaviour and quality. PMID:23267462

Léchaudel, Mathieu; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Vidal, Véronique; Sallanon, Huguette; Joas, Jacques

2013-04-15

100

Morphological and physiological variation in western redcedar ( Thuja plicata ) populations under contrasting soil water conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation to precipitation conditions may induce genetic diversity that changes morphological and physiological traits. This\\u000a hypothesis was investigated in the seedlings of seven western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don) populations, which were collected along a precipitation transect from the Pacific coast to the southern interior\\u000a of British Columbia, Canada. The experimental seedlings were either well-watered or soil-droughted and

Shihe Fan; Steven C. Grossnickle; John H. Russell

2008-01-01

101

Physiological response of riparian plants to watering in hyper-arid areas of Tarim River, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological responses and adaptive strategies of Populus euphratica Oliv. (arbor species), Tamarix ramosissima Ldb. (bush species), and Apocynum venetum L. (herb species) to variations in water and salinity stress were studied in the hyper-arid environment of the Tarim River\\u000a in China. The groundwater table, the saline content of the groundwater, as well as the content of free proline, soluble

Xiao Ruan; Qiang Wang; Yaning Chen; Weihong Li

2007-01-01

102

Physiologic responses to water immersion in man: A compendium of research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A total of 221 reports published through December 1973 in the area of physiologic responses to water immersion in man were summarized. The author's abstract or summary was used whenever possible. Otherwise, a detailed annotation was provided under the subheadings: (1) purpose, (2) procedures and methods, (3) results, and (4) conclusions. The annotations are in alphabetical order by first author; author and subject indexes are included. Additional references are provided in the selected bibliography.

Kollias, J.; Vanderveer, D.; Dorchak, K. J.; Greenleaf, J. E.

1976-01-01

103

Coal-water slurry atomization characteristics  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this work was to fully characterize the CWS fuel sprays of a medium-speed diesel engine injection system. Specifically, the spray plume penetration as a function of time was determined for a positive-displacement fuel injection system. The penetration was determined as a function of orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the engine, and fuel line pressure. Preliminary droplet information also was obtained. The results of this study will assist CWS engine development by providing much needed insight about the fuel spray. In addition, the results will aid the development and use of CWS engine cycle simulations which require information on the fuel spray characteristics.

Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D.

1994-04-01

104

Assessing physiological responses of dune forest functional groups to changing water availability: from Tropics to Mediterranean.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alterations in water availability are important to vegetation as can produce dramatic changes in plant communities, on physiological performance or survival of plant species. Particularly, groundwater lowering and surface water diversions will affect vulnerable coastal dune forests, ecosystems particularly sensitive to groundwater limitation. Reduction of water tables can prevent the plants from having access to one of their key water sources and inevitably affect groundwater-dependent species. The additional impact of drought due to climatic change on groundwater-dependent ecosystems has become of increasing concern since it aggravates groundwater reduction impacts with consequent uncertainties about how vegetation will respond over the short and long term. Sand dune plant communities encompass a diverse number of species that differ widely in root depth, tolerance to drought and capacity to shift between seasonal varying water sources. Plant functional groups may be affected by water distribution and availability differently. The high ecological diversity of sand dune forests, characterized by sandy soils, well or poorly drained, poor in nutrients and with different levels of salinity, can occur in different climatic regions of the globe. Such is the case of Tropical, Meso-mediterranean and Mediterranean areas, where future climate change is predicted to change water availability. Analyses of the relative natural abundances of stable isotopes of carbon (13C/12C) and oxygen (18O/16O) have been used across a wide range of scales, contributing to our understanding of plant ecology and interactions. This approach can show important temporal and spatial changes in utilization of different water sources by vegetation. Accordingly, the core idea of this work is to evaluate, along a climatic gradient, the responses and capacity of different coastal plant communities to adapt to changing water availability. This large-climatic-scale study, covering Brazil, Portugal and Spain, provide an excellent experimental network to study the water dynamics and community functioning in natural ecosystems of high ecological value. To fulfill the main objective, a stable isotope approach (leaf ?13C and xylem+water sources ?18O) was used as a tool to assess physiological performance and water strategies integrated in spatio-temporal water dynamics. Plant functional groups' water use was characterized in a water changing situation (at different seasons) in a climatic gradient. We evaluated stress sensitivity of the functional groups to seasonal changes in water availability in different communities and tried to understand their water use strategy.

Antunes, Cristina; Lo Cascio, Mauro; Correia, Otília; Vieira, Simone; Cruz Diaz Barradas, Maria; Zunzunegui, Maria; Ramos, Margarida; João Pereira, Maria; Máguas, Cristina

2014-05-01

105

Physiological characteristics of cassava tolerance to prolonged drought in the tropics: implications for breeding cultivars adapted to seasonally dry and semiarid environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper summarizes research conducted at International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) on responses of cassava to extended water shortages in the field aided by modern gas-exchange and water-relation techniques as well as biochemical assays. The aim of the research was to coordinate basic and applied aspects of crop physiology into a breeding strategy with a multidisciplinary approach. Several physiological

Mabrouk A. El-Sharkawy

2007-01-01

106

Aerodynamic Characteristics of Water Rocket and Stabilization of Flight Trajectory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerodynamic characteristics of water rockets are analyzed experimentally by wind tunnel testing. Aerodynamic devices such as vortex generators and dimples are tested and their effectiveness to the flight performance of water rocket is discussed. Attaching vortex generators suppresses the unsteady body fluttering. Dimpling the nose reduces the drag coefficient in high angles of attack. Robust design approach is applied

Rikio Watanabe; Nobuyuki Tomita; Toshiaki Takemae

2004-01-01

107

Ion and water transport characteristics of Nafion membranes as electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport characteristics of Nafion membranes, that have been published earlier, are re-evaluated. It is found that the specific conductivity of the membranes is not only determined by the mobility of the ions, but largely also by the interaction of ions with water and with microscopic membrane channel structures. Similarly, the water transference coefficient, defined as the number of moles of

Tatsuhiro Okada; Gang Xie; Oddvar Gorseth; Signe Kjelstrup; Norito Nakamura; Tomoaki Arimura

1998-01-01

108

Water Vapor Characteristics over Northeast Brazil during Two Contrasting Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water vapor characteristics over northeast Brazil for two contrasting years are discussed. During the wet year 1974, the precipitation efficiencies were less than 20% over the interior dry region and during the dry year 1976, they were reduced to 10% or less. The reduction is mainly due to low precipitation in 1976. Calculation of water vapor flux showed that in

Vadlamudi Brahmananda Rao; Valdo da Silva Marques

1984-01-01

109

Genome duplication and the evolution of physiological responses to water stress.  

PubMed

Whole-genome multiplication, or polyploidy, is common in angiosperms and many species consist of multiple cytotypes that have different physiological tolerances. However, the relative importance of genome duplication vs post-duplication evolutionary change in causing differentiation between cytotypes is not known. We examined the water relations of Chamerion angustifolium, a herbaceous perennial in which diploid and tetraploid cytotypes occupy different niches. To differentiate between the effects of genome duplication and evolutionary changes that followed polyploidization, we compared extant diploids and tetraploids with experimentally synthesized neotetraploids. Tetraploids had 32% higher xylem hydraulic conductivity (K(H)) than neotetraploids and 87% higher K(H) than diploids, but vulnerability to water stress induced cavitation and gas exchange sensitivity to water potential did not differ among cytotypes. Nevertheless, tetraploids took 22% and 30% longer to wilt than neotetraploids and diploids. A simple hydraulic model suggested that tetraploids deplete soil moisture to a greater degree than neotetraploids and diploids before reaching leaf water potentials that cause stomatal closure. We conclude that the different physiological tolerances and distribution of diploid and tetraploid C. angustifolium are unlikely to be caused solely by genome duplication. The enhanced ability of tetraploids to survive water stress likely evolved after polyploidization. PMID:19703115

Maherali, Hafiz; Walden, Alison E; Husband, Brian C

2009-11-01

110

Water chemistry and its effects on the physiology and survival of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts.  

PubMed

The physiological effects of episodic pH fluctuations on Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in eastern Maine, U.S.A., were investigated. During this study, S. salar smolts were exposed to ambient stream-water chemistry conditions at nine sites in four catchments for 3 and 6 day intervals during the spring S. salar smolt migration period. Plasma chloride, plasma glucose, gill aluminium and gill Na(+)- and K(+)-ATPase levels in S. salar smolts were assessed in relation to ambient stream-water chemistry during this migration period. Changes in both plasma chloride and plasma glucose levels of S. salar smolts were strongly correlated with stream pH, and S. salar smolt mortality occurred in one study site with ambient stream pH between 5·6 and 5·8 during the study period. The findings from this study suggest that physiological effects on S. salar smolts are strongly correlated with stream pH and that in rivers and streams with low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations the threshold for physiological effects and mortality probably occurs at a higher pH and shorter exposure period than in rivers with higher DOC. Additionally, whenever an acidification event in which pH drops below 5·9 coincides with S. salar smolt migration in eastern Maine rivers, there is potential for a significant reduction in plasma ions of S. salar smolts. PMID:21781105

Liebich, T; McCormick, S D; Kircheis, D; Johnson, K; Regal, R; Hrabik, T

2011-08-01

111

Physiological and morphological characteristics of chickpea accessions under low temperature stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economically important crop chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is sensitive to chilling stress, and breeding for chilling tolerance is the economic option even in countries with a\\u000a high risk for drought and heat stresses. In this study, we have analyzed chilling-induced responses of ten chickpea accessions\\u000a under field and growth-chamber conditions in order to screen, using phenotypic and physiological methods, for

L. Heidarvand; R. Maali Amiri; M. R. Naghavi; Y. Farayedi; B. Sadeghzadeh; Kh. Alizadeh

2011-01-01

112

THE EFFECT OF ACTIVE LEARNING ON STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS IN A HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY COURSE FOR NONMAJORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

lomon four-group design on 141 students at a small west-Texas university. Treatment groups were taught using a continuum-based, active-learning model implemented over the course of a semester. Control groups were taught using traditional didactic lecture methods. To assess the effects of the continuum-based active learning strat- egies, students were administered a comprehensive physiology content exam, the Motivated Strategies for Learning

R. Russell Wilke

2003-01-01

113

Atomization characteristics of coal-water slurry. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dwindling supplies of oil have led to increasing interest in alternative fuels which can be used to replace petroleum-derived liquid fuels. One such fuel is coal-water slurry. This study presents the atomization behavior of coal-water slurries at conditions typical of a gas turbine combustor. Slurry spray characteristics were determined using five different types of atomizer. The five nozzle types included

A. H. Lefebvre; P. E. Sojka

1986-01-01

114

Patterns of water use and the tissue water relations in the dioecious shrub, Salix arctica: the physiological basis for habitat partitioning between the sexes.  

PubMed

Within the high arctic of Canada, Salix arctica, a dioecious, dwarf willow exhibits significant spatial segregation of the sexes. The overall sex ratio is female-biased and female plants are especially common in wet, higher nutrient, but lower soil temperature habitats. In contrast, male plants predominate in more xeric and lower nutrient habitats with higher soil temperatures that can be drought prone. Associated with the sex-specific habitat differences were differences in the seasonal and diurnal patterns of water use as measured by stomatal conductance to water vapor and the bulk tissue water relations of each gender. Within the wet habitats, female plants maintained higher rates of stomatal conductance (g) than males when soil and root temperatures were low (<4° C). In contrast, within the xeric habitats, male plants maintained higher g and had lower leaf water potentials ?leaf at low soil water potentials and a high leaf-to-air vapor pressure gradient (?w) when compared to females. Female plants had more positive carbon isotope ratios than males indicating a lower internal leaf carbon dioxide concentration and possibly higher water use efficiency relative to males. Tissue osmotic and elastic properties also differed between the sexes. Male plants demonstrated lower tissue osmotic potentials near full tissue hydration and at the turgor loss point and a lower bulk tissue elastic modulus (higher tissue elasticity) than female plants. Males also demonstrated a greater ability to osmotically adjust on a diurnal basis than females. These properties allowed male plants to maintain higher tissue turgor pressures at lower tissue water contents and ?soil over the course of the day. The sex-specific distributional and ecophysiological characteristics were also correlated with greater total plant growth and higher fecundity of females in wet habitats, and males in xeric habitats respectively. The intersexual differences in physiology persisted in all habitats. These results and those obtained from growth chamber studies suggest that sex-specific differences have an underlying genetic basis. From these data we conjecture that selection maintaining the intersexual differences may be related to different costs associated with reproduction that can be most easily met through physiological specialization and spatial segregation of the sexes among habitats of differing conditions. PMID:23921398

Dawson, T E; Bliss, L C

1989-05-01

115

He-Ne laser-induced improvement in biochemical, physiological, growth and yield characteristics in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).  

PubMed

The water-soaked seeds of sunflower were exposed to low power continuous wave He-Ne laser irradiation of energies 0, 100, 300 and 500 mJ to evaluate the effect on various biochemical, physiological, growth and yield parameters of sunflower. The experiments which consisted of four replicates arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) were carried out under the greenhouse conditions. The physiological attributes like, photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate (E), intrinsic CO(2) concentration (C(i) ), stomatal conductance (g(s)), chlorophyll a and b contents, relative membrane permeability and leaf water (?(w)), osmotic (?(s)) and turgor (?(p)) potentials, relative water contents and leaf area increased significantly as compared to control due to He-Ne treatment of seeds. The activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalases and contents of total soluble proteins, malondialdehyde, proline and leaf total phenolic also increased due to laser treatment. Significant increase in growth parameters of sunflower like shoot fresh and dry masses, root fresh and dry masses, root and shoot lengths, number of leaves per plant and stem diameter has also been observed. The contents of K, Ca and Mg in shoot and root were also increased and an overall increase of up to 28.12% was observed due to laser treatment. PMID:21790619

Perveen, Rashida; Jamil, Yasir; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ali, Qasim; Iqbal, Munawar; Ahmad, Muhammad Raza

2011-01-01

116

Stable isotopes in plant physiology: using water isotopes to study water fluxes in a temperate forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought has profound consequences on vegetation, including decreases in instantaneous carbon uptake; damage that limits future uptake for the life of the plant; mortality that can lead to large sources of carbon to the atmosphere; and shifts in biogeography that alter future potential for carbon uptake and capacitance. These processes are largely absent from global models, for lack of understanding in how co-occurring plants compete for water, weak understanding of how plant hydraulics is coordinated to minimize risk of drought, and few empirical data to constrain superior models of these processes. Here we present the results of a large-scale field experiment at Silas Little Experimental Forest (NJ), where rainwater was diverted from a 10m^2 area around selected trees from two different species (either oak or pine trees) and either re-injected (control plots), discarded (drought plots) or replaced by isotopically labeled water (isotope plots). We sampled heavily the drought plots and collected valuable information on tree hydraulics under drought conditions, such as water potentials of soil, leaf and stem, photosynthetic rate or sap flow. At the isotope plots, we followed the injected water within the injection trees and the surrounding ones. In particular, using an innovative setup for in-situ measurement paired with a laser spectrometer, we studied the isotopes effects within the tree xylem, which gave us a better understanding of water uptake by the roots and its transport to the leaves. By tracking the labeled water in the surrounding trees, we were also able to quantify the importance of plant competition for water availability below ground. We show here the importance of understanding all the phases of the water transport in the biosphere to help constraining climate models.

Gerlein, C.; Wolf, A.; Caylor, K. K.

2013-12-01

117

Green Roof Water Harvesting and Recycling Effects on Soil and Water Chemistry and Plant Physiology  

E-print Network

reduced transpiration rates and greater water use efficiency. Sedum and delosperma species are some of the most commonly used species on green roofs where low water moisture levels occur (Dvorak and Volder 2010; Oberndorfer et al. 2007a; Snodgrass... effective at retaining small rainfall events. During small rain events as much as 70% of the annual precipitation volume was retained by an extensive sedum roof in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, while during large rain events still as much as 20% of the runoff...

Laminack, Kirk Dickison

2014-04-17

118

Twenty-Four-Hour Urine Osmolality as a Physiological Index of Adequate Water Intake  

PubMed Central

While associations exist between water, hydration, and disease risk, research quantifying the dose-response effect of water on health is limited. Thus, the water intake necessary to maintain optimal hydration from a physiological and health standpoint remains unclear. The aim of this analysis was to derive a 24?h urine osmolality (UOsm) threshold that would provide an index of “optimal hydration,” sufficient to compensate water losses and also be biologically significant relative to the risk of disease. Ninety-five adults (31.5 ± 4.3 years, 23.2 ± 2.7?kg·m?2) collected 24?h urine, provided morning blood samples, and completed food and fluid intake diaries over 3 consecutive weekdays. A UOsm threshold was derived using 3 approaches, taking into account European dietary reference values for water; total fluid intake, and urine volumes associated with reduced risk for lithiasis and chronic kidney disease and plasma vasopressin concentration. The aggregate of these approaches suggest that a 24?h urine osmolality ?500?mOsm·kg?1 may be a simple indicator of optimal hydration, representing a total daily fluid intake adequate to compensate for daily losses, ensure urinary output sufficient to reduce the risk of urolithiasis and renal function decline, and avoid elevated plasma vasopressin concentrations mediating the increased antidiuretic effort. PMID:25866433

Perrier, Erica T.; Buendia-Jimenez, Inmaculada; Vecchio, Mariacristina; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Tack, Ivan; Klein, Alexis

2015-01-01

119

Physiological effects of sublethal levels of acid water on three species of fishes  

SciTech Connect

Static toxicity tests revealed the need to assess the effect of acid mine water using some procedure that would gradually increase the concentration of acidity over a period of time. A relatively long-term (2-5 days) experiment involving the devlopment of a sublethal acid treatment gradient was chosen as potentially being the most representative of natural environments which are periodically subjected to changing inputs from coal mine drainage. Since respiratory change is an indication of physiological stress, the measurement of oxygen consumption rate was chosen as the major variable representing the effect of acid waters on fishes. Bluegill sunfish Lepomes macrochirus Rafinesque, pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus), and brown bullhead, Ictalurus nebulosus (LeSueur) were collected from the Monongahela River and backwater areas in the region of Morgantown, West Virginia. The sublethal acid water treatments decreased the oxygen consumption rates for brown bullhead and bluegill sunfish, while increasing the oxygen consumption rate for pumpkinseed sunfish. Further, the rhythms of the oxygen consumption rates were generally modified in both frequency and amplitude as a result of exposure to acid water. Acid water treatments also caused negative phase shifts in oxygen consumption rate for brown bullhead sand bluegill sunfish, while positive phase shifts occurred for pumpkinseed sunfish.

Pegg, W.J.

1984-01-01

120

Pros and Cons of Using Water Immersion to Simulate Physiological Responses to Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Head-out water immersion (HOI) has been employed as a remedial treatment for various ills and ailments for many millennia, and total body immersion even longer as protective encapsulation for the mammalian fetus. Two discrete differences between stimuli induced by true microgravity (10(exp -4) g) and HOI are readily apparent. External water pressure on the skin and accompanying negative pressure breathing cause blood to shift headward. Secondly, the gravitational force is ever present during immersion and microgravity, but its effect is essentially neutralized during Earth orbital flight. Thus, the physiological responses to immersion should not be expected to match those during microgravity. Immersion has been used mainly to study and understand kidney function and associated cardiovascular responses for control of body fluid volume and osmotic content, with some application to and simulation of microgravity responses. There is a plethora of data from human HOI studies, but relatively few controlled data from microgravity studies. In general, it appears that physiological responses occur more quickly with water immersion than in microgravity, but this may be due to less rigorous control (voluntary and involuntary) of the preflight state of crew members. The central venous pressure-vasopressin (Gauer-Henry) reflex control for fluid balance may not be of prime importance in microgravity. Gross functions such as reduced body weight and water, level of hypovolemia, decreased isokinetic strength, and lower nitrogen balance found during immersion are qualitatively similar in microgravity, but the mechanisms controlling these and other functions are, for the most part, unclear. Only acquisition of data from well-controlled microgravity experiments will resolve this discrepancy.

Greenleaf, J. E.; Tomko, David L. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

121

The Effect of Active Learning on Student Characteristics in a Human Physiology Course for Nonmajors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study investigated the effect of active-learning strategies on college studentsÂ? achievement, motivation, and self-efficacy in a human physiology course for nonmajors. Variables were studied via a quasi-experimental, Solomon four-group design on 141 students at a small west-Texas university. Treatment groups were taught using a continuum-based, active-learning model implemented over the course of a semester. Control groups were taught using traditional didactic lecture methods. To assess the effects of the continuum-based active learning strategies, students were administered a comprehensive physiology content exam, the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, and attitude surveys. Factorial analyses indicated that the treatment groups acquired significantly more content knowledge and were significantly more self-efficacious than students in the control groups. There were no significant differences in motivation. Attitude surveys indicated that students in both the treatment and control groups demonstrated a positive attitude toward active learning, believed it helped (or would help) them to learn the material, and would choose an active learning course in the future.

PhD R. Russell Wilke (Angelo State University Department of Biology)

2003-12-01

122

The effect of active learning on student characteristics in a human physiology course for nonmajors.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of active-learning strategies on college students' achievement, motivation, and self-efficacy in a human physiology course for nonmajors. Variables were studied via a quasi-experimental, Solomon four-group design on 141 students at a small west-Texas university. Treatment groups were taught using a continuum-based, active-learning model implemented over the course of a semester. Control groups were taught using traditional didactic lecture methods. To assess the effects of the continuum-based active learning strategies, students were administered a comprehensive physiology content exam, the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, and attitude surveys. Factorial analyses indicated that the treatment groups acquired significantly more content knowledge and were significantly more self-efficacious than students in the control groups. There were no significant differences in motivation. Attitude surveys indicated that students in both the treatment and control groups demonstrated a positive attitude toward active learning, believed it helped (or would help) them to learn the material, and would choose an active learning course in the future. PMID:14627619

Wilke, R Russell

2003-12-01

123

GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RAINBOW TROUT REARED IN DIFFERENT CULTURE ENVIRONMENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

At the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture, a rainbow trout (RBT) breeding program for growth was initiated with populations domesticated in single pass or serial reuse culture systems. However, new facilities may require water reuse and recirculation technologies to reduce the volum...

124

Physiological characteristics of Thiomicrospira sp. strain L-12 isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents  

SciTech Connect

Growth of the obligately chemolithotrophic Thiomicrospira sp. strain L-12, isolated from a hydrothermal vent at a depth of 2,550 m in the Galapagos Rift region, was optimal at pH 8 and required 200 mM Na/sup +/ and divalent ions (Ca/sup 2 +/ and Mg/sup 2 +/). The organism was microaerophilic and tolerated 300 ..mu..M sulfide without a decrease in the rate of CO/sub 2/ incorporation. Growth and CO/sub 2/ incorporation occurred within the temperature range of 10 to 35/sup 0/C, with both optimal at 25/sup 0/C. At the in situ pressure of 250 atm, the rate of CO/sub 2/ incorporation was reduced by 25% relative to that measured at 1 atm; it was entirely suppressed at 500 atm. The results of this physiological characterization suggest that Thiomicrospira sp. strain L-12 can be an active autotroph in the hydrothermal environment.

Ruby, E.G.; Jannasch, H.W.

1982-01-01

125

[Effects of Ni2+ on physiological characteristics and submicroscopic structure of Salvinia natans leaves].  

PubMed

Influence of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 mg/L Ni2+ on growth, mineral nutrition, chlorophyll, carotenoid, soluble protein, soluble sugar, superoxide (O2*-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacolperoxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) were studied in the leaves of Salvinia natans plants on 10 days after treatment. With the increase of the Ni2+ concentrations, exposure of the plants revealed that, (1) the addition of Ni2+ affected the absorption of mineral nutrients, it mainly increased the absorption of Ca2+, Na+, Zn2+, Fe3+ and Mg2+, while reduced that of Mn2+, Mo2+, P and K+. (2) The content of chlorophyll, carotenoid, soluble protein and soluble sugar content as well as activities of SOD and CAT decreased gradually. That of O2*-, H2O2 and MDA content as well as POD activity increased, 383%, 168%, 207%, 131% of these controls, respectively. (3) In the leaves of Ni2+ -treated fronds, the polypeptide with apparent molecular weights 94000, was became visible in SDS-PAGE, and the nature of it remains to be determined. The amount and intensity of polypeptide band increased gradually with augment of Ni2+ was also observed, the polypeptide with apparent molecular weight 35,000 increased significantly in fronds. (4) Transmission electron microscope observation indicated that Ni2+ also imposed injury action on submicroscopic structure of leaf cells, disaggregation of nucleolus, agglutination and disappearance of chromatin of nucleus, disruption of nuclear membrane, swelling of thylakoids and breakage of chloroplast envelope, decreasing of cristae quantity and vacuolization of mitochondria. The conclusion could be reached that the plant death was resulted from destruction under structure foundation of physiological function, unbalance of ion equilibrium and disorder of physiological metabolism. PMID:18839591

Ji, Wang-dong; Shi, Guo-xin; Xu, Qin-song; Xu, Ye; Yang, Hai-yan; Du, Kai-he

2008-08-01

126

Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of Laminar Cells in the Central Nucleus of the Inferior Colliculus  

PubMed Central

The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) is organized into a series of fibro-dendritic laminae, orthogonal to the tonotopic progression. Many neurons have their dendrites confined to one lamina while others have dendrites that cross over a number of laminae. Here, we have used juxtacellular labeling in urethane anesthetized guinea pigs to visualize the cells with biocytin and have analyzed their response properties, in order to try and link their structure and function. Out of a sample of 38 filled cells, 15 had dendrites confined within the fibro-dendritic laminae and in 13 we were also able to reconstruct their local axonal tree. Based on dendritic morphology they were subdivided into flat or less flat; small, medium, or large; elongated or disk-shaped cells. Two of the elongated cells had many dendritic spines while the other cells had few or none. Twelve of the cells had their local axonal tree restricted to the same lamina as their dendrites while one cell had its dendrites in a separate lamina from the axon. The axonal plexus was more extensive (width 0.7–1.4?mm) within the lamina than the dendrites (width generally 0.07–0.53?mm). The intrinsic axons were largely confined to a single lamina within the central nucleus, but at least half the cells also had output axons with two heading for the commissure and five heading into the brachium. We were able to identify similarities in the physiological response profiles of small groups of our filled cells but none appeared to represent a homogeneous morphological cell type. The only common feature of our sample was one of exclusion in that the onset response, a response commonly recorded from IC cells, was never seen in laminar cells, but was in cells with a stellate morphology. Thus cells with laminar dendrites have a wide variety of physiological responses and morphological subtypes, but over 90% have an extensive local axonal tree within their local lamina. PMID:22933991

Wallace, Mark N.; Shackleton, Trevor M.; Palmer, Alan R.

2012-01-01

127

Water sensor ppk28 modulates Drosophila lifespan and physiology through AKH signaling  

PubMed Central

Sensory perception modulates lifespan across taxa, presumably due to alterations in physiological homeostasis after central nervous system integration. The coordinating circuitry of this control, however, remains unknown. Here, we used the Drosophila melanogaster gustatory system to dissect one component of sensory regulation of aging. We found that loss of the critical water sensor, pickpocket 28 (ppk28), altered metabolic homeostasis to promote internal lipid and water stores and extended healthy lifespan. Additionally, loss of ppk28 increased neuronal glucagon-like adipokinetic hormone (AKH) signaling, and the AKH receptor was necessary for ppk28 mutant effects. Furthermore, activation of AKH-producing cells alone was sufficient to enhance longevity, suggesting that a perceived lack of water availability triggers a metabolic shift that promotes the production of metabolic water and increases lifespan via AKH signaling. This work provides an example of how discrete gustatory signals recruit nutrient-dependent endocrine systems to coordinate metabolic homeostasis, thereby influencing long-term health and aging. PMID:24821805

Waterson, Michael J.; Chung, Brian Y.; Harvanek, Zachary M.; Ostojic, Ivan; Alcedo, Joy; Pletcher, Scott D.

2014-01-01

128

Integrative physiological and behavioural responses to sudden cold-water immersion are similar in skilled and less-skilled swimmers.  

PubMed

We examined the initial physiological responses and subsequent capacity to swim following cold-water immersion. An ecologically-valid model was used whereby immersion was sudden (<2s) and participants had to actively remain afloat. Participants (15 skilled swimmers, 17 less-skilled swimmers) undertook four experimental test sessions: a physiological test and a swimming test in both cold (10°C) water and temperate (27°C) water in a swimming flume (temperature order counter-balanced). For physiological testing, measures of brain perfusion [flow velocity (MCAv, Doppler) and oxygenation (NIRS)] and cardiorespiratory function [ventilation parameters and end-tidal PCO2 (PETCO2)] were recorded whilst treading water for 150s. The swimming test involved treading water (150s) before swimming at 60% (up to 120s) and 90% (to intolerance) of pre-determined maximum velocity. Multifactorial analysis revealed that swimming duration was influenced most heavily by water temperature, followed by respiratory variables and MCAv in the first 30s of immersion. The time course and severity of cold shock were similar in both groups (p=0.99), in terms of initial physiological changes (MCAv down ~20 ± 11%, respiratory frequency increased to 58 ± 18 breaths·min(-1), PETCO2 dropped to 12 ± 9 mmHg). Treading water following cold-water immersion increased MCAv by 30% above resting values despite maintained cold-shock-induced hyperventilation. In comparison to temperate water, swimming capacity was also reduced similarly between groups in the cold (i.e., distance decreased by 34 ± 26% skilled; 41 ± 33% less-skilled, p=0.99). These integrative findings verify that sudden cold-water immersion followed by physical activity leads to similar physiological responses in humans when contrasting between skilled and less-skilled swimmers. PMID:25447338

Button, Chris; Croft, James L; Cotter, James D; Graham, Matthew J; Lucas, Samuel J E

2015-01-01

129

Relation of Spectral and Physiological Properties to Leaf Structural Characteristics of Arsenic Treated Rice Plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Arsenic (As) is a widely spread soil contaminant which can cause toxicity in plants. Although many studies have investigated the spectral characteristics of affected plants, the extent to which different toxicities may result in correspondingly different spectral signatures has received little atte...

130

Physiological Effect Of Auxins On Growth Characteristics And Productive Potential Of Verbascum thapsus - A Medicinal Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to current revival of interest in herbal drugs and pharmaceuticals, demand for medicinal plants is increasing day by day leading to destructive harvesting which ultimately has resulted into reduction and even extinction of many rare medicinal plants. Plant growth regulators like auxins have proved to increase the productivity and growth characteristics of many plants. They have proved their importance

Snehlata Bhandari; Mamta Sajwan; N. S. Bisht

131

Physiological Responses of Water-Polo Players Under Different Tactical Strategie  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of defense tactical strategy on physiological responses characterizing playing intensity in water-polo game. In the first part of the study, fourteen players were assigned to defending (n = 7) and offending (n = 7) groups and participated in nine 4-min plays applying three different defending systems: press, static-zone and zone-press, in front of the defense court of one goalpost. In the second part, 18 players participated in nine different real full court water-polo games consisting of 3X15min of live-time playing periods. Both in defense court plays and real games, the three defense systems were played in a counterbalanced order and heart rate (HR) was continuously recorded. Additionally, in defense court plays, blood lactate concentration (La) was measured at the end of each 4-min period. Mean HR within defense court plays was higher in press (153 ± 10 beats.min-1) than in static-zone (140 ± 11 beats.min-1) and zone-press (143 ± 16 beats.min-1, p < 0.01). Furthermore, shorter amount of playing time was spent with HR ?85% of HR peak in press (46.3 ± 22.8%) than in static-zone (81.8 ± 20.5%) and zone-press (75.7 ± 32.0%, p < 0.01). Likewise, mean La was higher in press (6.5±2.9 mmol.l-1) than in static-zone (4.7 ± 2.5 mmol.l-1) and zone-press (4.6 ± 1.8 mmol.l-1, p < 0.01). In real games, however, mean HR was similar between tactical strategies (p > 0.05). Defenders and offenders showed similar HR and La responses across the tactical modes. In conclusion, defense tactical strategies affect physiological responses within a part of the game but do not affect the overall playing intensity of a real water-polo game. Tactical strategies similarly affect offenders and defenders. Key points Within defence court plays, exercise intensity in press is higher than zone-press and static zone tactical systems. In real game the physiological response is similar between defense systems. Tactical strategies similarly affect offenders and defenders. PMID:25729294

Botonis, Petros G.; Toubekis, Argyris G.; Platanou, Theodoros I.

2015-01-01

132

Physiological responses of water-polo players under different tactical strategie.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of defense tactical strategy on physiological responses characterizing playing intensity in water-polo game. In the first part of the study, fourteen players were assigned to defending (n = 7) and offending (n = 7) groups and participated in nine 4-min plays applying three different defending systems: press, static-zone and zone-press, in front of the defense court of one goalpost. In the second part, 18 players participated in nine different real full court water-polo games consisting of 3X15min of live-time playing periods. Both in defense court plays and real games, the three defense systems were played in a counterbalanced order and heart rate (HR) was continuously recorded. Additionally, in defense court plays, blood lactate concentration (La) was measured at the end of each 4-min period. Mean HR within defense court plays was higher in press (153 ± 10 beats(.)min(-1)) than in static-zone (140 ± 11 beats(.)min(-1)) and zone-press (143 ± 16 beats(.)min(-1), p < 0.01). Furthermore, shorter amount of playing time was spent with HR ?85% of HR peak in press (46.3 ± 22.8%) than in static-zone (81.8 ± 20.5%) and zone-press (75.7 ± 32.0%, p < 0.01). Likewise, mean La was higher in press (6.5±2.9 mmol(.)l(-1)) than in static-zone (4.7 ± 2.5 mmol(.)l(-1)) and zone-press (4.6 ± 1.8 mmol(.)l(-1), p < 0.01). In real games, however, mean HR was similar between tactical strategies (p > 0.05). Defenders and offenders showed similar HR and La responses across the tactical modes. In conclusion, defense tactical strategies affect physiological responses within a part of the game but do not affect the overall playing intensity of a real water-polo game. Tactical strategies similarly affect offenders and defenders. Key pointsWithin defence court plays, exercise intensity in press is higher than zone-press and static zone tactical systems.In real game the physiological response is similar between defense systems.Tactical strategies similarly affect offenders and defenders. PMID:25729294

Botonis, Petros G; Toubekis, Argyris G; Platanou, Theodoros I

2015-03-01

133

Physiological responses to hyper-saline waters in sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna).  

PubMed

We examined the ionoregulatory physiology and biochemistry of the teleost sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna), an inhabitant of salt marshes along the gulf coast, during exposure to hyper-saline waters (salinity range 35-95 ppt). Mollies were able to tightly control plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations and tissue water levels up to 65 ppt, but at higher salinities plasma ion levels began to rise and muscle water content dropped. Still, even at the highest salinity (90 ppt) plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) levels were only 32% and 39%, respectively, above levels at 35 ppt. Drinking rates at 60 ppt climbed 35%, while gut Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NAK) activity rose 70% and branchial NAK activity jumped 200%. The relatively small rise in drinking rate, in the face of a more than doubling of the osmotic gradient, suggests that a reduction in branchial water permeability significantly limited water loss and associated salt load. At 80 ppt, a salinity where plasma ion levels just begin to rise, drinking rate rose more rapidly, but gut and gill NAK activity did not, suggesting that mollies employed other pathways (perhaps renal) of salt excretion. At higher salinities, plasma ion levels continued to rise and muscle water content fell slightly indicating the beginnings of internal osmotic disturbances. To evaluate the energetic costs of hyper-salinity on mollies we measured the rate of O(2) consumption and found it rose with salinity, in sharp contrast to virtually all species previously examined. Interestingly, despite higher metabolism, growth was unaffected by hyper-salinity. PMID:16257552

Gonzalez, R J; Cooper, J; Head, D

2005-12-01

134

First evidence for zooplankton feeding sustaining key physiological processes in a scleractinian cold-water coral.  

PubMed

Scleractinian cold-water corals (CWC) represent key taxa controlling deep-sea reef ecosystem functioning by providing structurally complex habitats to a high associated biodiversity, and by fuelling biogeochemical cycles via the release of organic matter. Nevertheless, our current knowledge on basic CWC properties, such as feeding ecology and key physiological processes (i.e. respiration, calcification and organic matter release), is still very limited. Here, we show evidence for the trophic significance of zooplankton, essentially sustaining levels of the investigated key physiological processes in the cosmopolitan CWC Desmophyllum dianthus (Esper 1794). Our results from laboratory studies reveal that withdrawal (for up to 3 weeks) of zooplankton food (i.e. Artemia salina) caused a significant decline in respiration (51%) and calcification (69%) rates compared with zooplankton-fed specimens. Likewise, organic matter release, in terms of total organic carbon (TOC), decreased significantly and eventually indicated TOC net uptake after prolonged zooplankton exclusion. In fed corals, zooplankton provided 1.6 times the daily metabolic C demand, while TOC release represented 7% of zooplankton-derived organic C. These findings highlight zooplankton as a nutritional source for D. dianthus, importantly sustaining respiratory metabolism, growth and organic matter release, with further implications for the role of CWC as deep-sea reef ecosystem engineers. PMID:21993785

Naumann, Malik S; Orejas, Covadonga; Wild, Christian; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine

2011-11-01

135

Structural characteristics of thermosensitive chitosan glutamate hydrogels in variety of physiological environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the properties of thermosensitive chitosan hydrogels prepared with the use of chitosan glutamate and ?-glycerophosphate are presented. The study is focused on the determination of changes in the hydrogel structure in different environments: during conditioning in water and buffer at pH 7 and pH 2 respectively. The structure of gels was observed under the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and was investigated by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The crystallinity of gel structure was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). On the basis of structural changes during the conditioning in water a mechanism of their formation was proposed.

Modrzejewska, Z.; Nawrotek, K.; Maniukiewicz, W.; Douglas, T.

2014-09-01

136

Bioaccumulation and Subchronic Physiological Effects of Waterborne Iron Overload on Whitefish Exposed in Humic and Nonhumic Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   One-year-old whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus, were exposed to three types of iron-rich water, two dilutions for each, in a subchronic (30-day) experiment. In natural iron-rich\\u000a humic water, both the bioaccumulation and physiological effects of iron exposure were negligible. In humic-free water with\\u000a high amount of additional inorganic iron (nominally 8 mg Fe\\/L), Fe accumulated in gills, liver, and gut. This

J. Lappivaara; A. Kiviniemi; A. Oikari

1999-01-01

137

Hybrid Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Tetraploid Mice Show Apparently Normal Morphological, Physiological, and Neurological Characteristics  

PubMed Central

ES cell-tetraploid (ES) mice are completely derived from embryonic stem cells and can be obtained at high efficiency upon injection of hybrid ES cells into tetraploid blastocysts. This method allows the immediate generation of targeted mouse mutants from genetically modified ES cell clones, in contrast to the standard protocol, which involves the production of chimeras and several breeding steps. To provide a baseline for the analysis of ES mouse mutants, we performed a phenotypic characterization of wild-type B6129S6F1 ES mice in relation to controls of the same age, sex, and genotype raised from normal matings. The comparison of 90 morphological, physiological, and behavioral parameters revealed elevated body weight and hematocrit as the only major difference of ES mice, which exhibited an otherwise normal phenotype. We further demonstrate that ES mouse mutants can be produced from mutant hybrid ES cells and analyzed within a period of only 4 months. Thus, ES mouse technology is a valid research tool for rapidly elucidating gene function in vivo. PMID:12748299

Schwenk, Frieder; Zevnik, Branko; Brüning, Jens; Röhl, Mathias; Willuweit, Antje; Rode, Anja; Hennek, Thomas; Kauselmann, Gunther; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Kühn, Ralf

2003-01-01

138

Characteristics of water and carbon balance in moso bamboo forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water and carbon cycles in mountainous areas can have considerable impacts on our available nature resources such as water resources and timber production. Thus, it is indispensable to clarify the difference of water and carbon balances between different types of forested ecosystems. Recently, bamboo forests have been expanding by replacing surrounding vegetation such as coniferous and broad-leaved forests in eastern Asian countries. It has been speculated that the replacements by bamboo forests could alter the vegetation water and carbon cycles. However, our knowledge for the bamboo forests was still limited due to lack of applicable methodology based on a field measurement. To clarify the potential impacts of bamboo expansion on water and carbon cycles, our previous study established optimal and effective design for assessing bamboo forest water use (ie, transpiration) based on sap flux measurements. Using the method, we quantified stand-scale transpiration in bamboo forests and coniferous forests in Taiwan. Consequently, we found significantly larger transpiration in bamboo forests compared with those of surrounding vegetation due to larger canopy conductance in bamboo forests. The unique characteristics of the water use accompanied larger carbon assimilation and soil CO2 efflux in bamboo forests.

Kume, T.; Laplace, S.; Tseng, H.; Hsieh, Y.; Wey, T.; Komatsu, H.

2013-12-01

139

Physiology of Fluid and Electrolyte Responses During Inactivity: Water Immersion and Bed Rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This manuscript emphasizes the physiology of fluid-electrolyte-hormonal responses during the prolonged inactivity of bed rest and water immersion. An understanding of the total mechanism of adaptation (deconditioning) should provide more insight into the conditioning process. Findings that need to be confirmed during bed rest and immersion are: (1) the volume and tissues of origin of fluid shifted to the thorax and head; (2) interstitial fluid pressure changes in muscle and subcutaneous tissue, particularly during immersion; and (3) the composition of the incoming presumably interstitial fluid that contributes to the early hypervolemia. Better resolution of the time course and source of the diuretic fluid is needed. Important data will be forthcoming when hypotheses are tested involving the probable action of the emerging diuretic and natriuretic hormones, between themselves and among vasopressin and aldosterone, on diuresis and blood pressure control.

Greenleaf, John E.

1984-01-01

140

Flow characteristics past jellyfish and St. Vincent valves in the aortic position under physiological pulsatile flow conditions.  

PubMed

Thrombus formation and hemolysis have been linked to the dynamic flow characteristics of heart valve prostheses. To enhance our understanding of the flow characteristics past the aortic position of a Jellyfish (JF) valve in the left ventricle, in vitro laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) measurements were carried out under physiological pulsatile flow conditions. The hemodynamic performance of the JF valve was then compared with that of the St. Vincent (SV) valve. The comparison was given in terms of mean systolic pressure drop, back flow energy losses, flow velocity, and shear stresses at various locations downstream of both valves and at cardiac outputs of 3.5 L/min, 4.5 L/min, and 6.5 L/min respectively. The results indicated that both valves created disturbed flow fields with elevated levels of turbulent shear stress as well as higher levels of turbulence in the immediate vicinity of the valve and up to 1 diameter of the pipe (D) downstream of the valve. At a location further downstream, the JF valve showed better flow characteristics than the SV in terms of velocity profiles and turbulent shear stresses. The closure volume of the SV valve was found to be 2.5 times higher than that of the JF valve. Moreover, the total back flow losses and mean systolic pressure drop also were found to be higher in the SV than the JF valve. PMID:10916068

Morsi, Y S; Sakhaeimanesh, A A

2000-07-01

141

Foulant Characteristics Comparison in Recycling Cooling Water System Makeup by Municipal Reclaimed Water and Surface Water in Power Plant  

PubMed Central

Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water.

Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

2015-01-01

142

Morphological and physiological species-dependent characteristics of the rodent Grueneberg ganglion  

PubMed Central

In the mouse, the Grueneberg ganglion (GG) is an olfactory subsystem implicated both in chemo- and thermo-sensing. It is specifically involved in the recognition of volatile danger cues such as alarm pheromones and structurally-related predator scents. No evidence for these GG sensory functions has been reported yet in other rodent species. In this study, we used a combination of histological and physiological techniques to verify the presence of a GG and investigate its function in the rat, hamster, and gerbil comparing with the mouse. By scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmitted electron microscopy (TEM), we found isolated or groups of large GG cells of different shapes that in spite of their gross anatomical similarities, display important structural differences between species. We performed a comparative and morphological study focusing on the conserved olfactory features of these cells. We found fine ciliary processes, mostly wrapped in ensheating glial cells, in variable number of clusters deeply invaginated in the neuronal soma. Interestingly, the glial wrapping, the amount of microtubules and their distribution in the ciliary processes were different between rodents. Using immunohistochemistry, we were able to detect the expression of known GG proteins, such as the membrane guanylyl cyclase G and the cyclic nucleotide-gated channel A3. Both the expression and the subcellular localization of these signaling proteins were found to be species-dependent. Calcium imaging experiments on acute tissue slice preparations from rodent GG demonstrated that the chemo- and thermo-evoked neuronal responses were different between species. Thus, GG neurons from mice and rats displayed both chemo- and thermo-sensing, while hamsters and gerbils showed profound differences in their sensitivities. We suggest that the integrative comparison between the structural morphologies, the sensory properties, and the ethological contexts supports species-dependent GG features prompted by the environmental pressure. PMID:25221478

Brechbühl, Julien; Klaey, Magali; Moine, Fabian; Bovay, Esther; Hurni, Nicolas; Nenniger-Tosato, Monique; Broillet, Marie-Christine

2014-01-01

143

Well characteristics influencing arsenic concentrations in ground water.  

PubMed

Naturally occurring arsenic contamination is common in ground water in the upper Midwest. Arsenic is most likely to be present in glacial drift and shallow bedrock wells that lie within the footprint of northwest provenance Late Wisconsinan glacial drift. Elevated arsenic is more common in domestic wells and in monitoring wells than it is in public water system wells. Arsenic contamination is also more prevalent in domestic wells with short screens set in proximity to an upper confining unit, such as glacial till. Public water system wells have distinctly different well-construction practices and well characteristics when compared to domestic and monitoring wells. Construction practices such as exploiting a thick, coarse aquifer and installing a long well screen yield good water quantity for public water system wells. Coincidentally, these construction practices also often yield low arsenic water. Coarse aquifer materials have less surface area for adsorbing arsenic, and thus less arsenic available for potential mobilization. Wells with long screens set at a distance from an upper confining unit are at lower risk of exposure to geochemical conditions conducive to arsenic mobilization via reductive mechanisms such as reductive dissolution of metal hydroxides and reductive desorption of arsenic. PMID:16135378

Erickson, Melinda L; Barnes, Randal J

2005-10-01

144

Distribution and Physiological Characteristics of Hyperthermophiles in the Kubiki Oil Reservoir in Niigata, Japan  

PubMed Central

The distribution of culturable hyperthermophiles was studied in relation to environmental conditions in the Kubiki oil reservoir in Japan, where the temperature was between 50 and 58°C. Dominant hyperthermophilic cocci and rods were isolated and shown to belong to the genera Thermococcus and Thermotoga, respectively, by 16S rDNA analyses. Using the most-probable-number method, we found that hyperthermophilic cocci were widely distributed in several unconnected fault blocks in the Kubiki oil reservoir. In 1996 to 1997, their populations in the production waters from oil wells were 9.2 × 103 to 4.6 × 104 cells/ml, or 10 to 42% of total cocci. On the other hand, hyperthermophilic rods were found in only one fault block of the reservoir with populations less than 10 cells/ml. Dominant Thermococcus and Thermotoga spp. grew at reservoir temperatures and utilized amino acids and sugars, respectively, as sole carbon sources. While organic carbon was plentiful in the environment, these hyperthermophiles were unable to grow in the formation water due to lack of essential nutrients. Concentrations of some organic and inorganic substances differed among fault blocks, indicating that the movement of formation water between fault blocks was restricted. This finding suggests that the supply of nutrients via fluid current is limited in this subterranean environment and that the organisms are starved in the oil reservoir. Under starved conditions at 50°C, culturable cells of Thermococcus sp. remained around the initial cell density for about 200 days, while those of Thermotoga sp. decreased exponentially to 0.01% of the initial cell density after incubation for the same period. The difference in survivability between these two hyperthermophiles seems to reflect their populations in the fault blocks. These results indicate that hyperthermophilic cocci and rods adapt to the subterranean environment of the Kubiki oil reservoir by developing an ability to survive under starved conditions. PMID:10618205

Takahata, Yoh; Nishijima, Miyuki; Hoaki, Toshihiro; Maruyama, Tadashi

2000-01-01

145

Physiological indicators of stress and meat and carcass characteristics in tail bitten slaughter pigs  

PubMed Central

Background Tail biting is a common welfare problem in pig production and in addition to being a sign of underlying welfare problems, tail biting reduces welfare in itself. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tail biting on different pre and post mortem indicators of stress in slaughter pigs and on carcass and meat characteristics. A total of 12 tail bitten (TB) and 13 control (C) pigs from a farm with a long-term tail biting problem were selected for salivary cortisol analyses before and after transport to the slaughterhouse. After stunning, samples were taken for the analysis of serum cortisol, blood lactate, intestinal heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and meat quality characteristics. In addition, body temperature immediately after and muscle temperature 35 min after stunning were measured, as well as lean meat percentage and carcass weight. Results TB pigs showed a lower cortisol response to the transport-induced stress than C pigs and also had a lower serum cortisol concentration after stunning. HSP70 content in the small intestine was higher in the TB pigs than in C pigs. TB pigs had a considerably lower carcass weight therefore produced a lower total amount of lean meat per carcass than C pigs. Conclusions This study suggests that prolonged or repeated stress in the form of tail biting causes a blunted stress response, possibly a sign of hypocortisolism. In addition, it underlines the importance of reducing tail biting, both from an animal welfare and an economic point-of-view. PMID:24172255

2013-01-01

146

Liquid state DNP for water accessibility measurements on spin-labeled membrane proteins at physiological temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the application of continuous wave dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at 0.35 T for site-specific water accessibility studies on spin-labeled membrane proteins at concentrations in the 10-100 ?M range. The DNP effects at such low concentrations are weak and the experimentally achievable dynamic nuclear polarizations can be below the equilibrium polarization. This sensitivity problem is solved with an optimized home-built DNP probe head consisting of a dielectric microwave resonator and a saddle coil as close as possible to the sample. The performance of the probe head is demonstrated with both a modified pulsed EPR spectrometer and a dedicated CW EPR spectrometer equipped with a commercial NMR console. In comparison to a commercial pulsed ENDOR resonator, the home-built resonator has an FID detection sensitivity improvement of 2.15 and an electron spin excitation field improvement of 1.2. The reproducibility of the DNP results is tested on the water soluble maltose binding protein MalE of the ABC maltose importer, where we determine a net standard deviation of 9% in the primary DNP data in the concentration range between 10 and 100 ?M. DNP parameters are measured in a spin-labeled membrane protein, namely the vitamin B12 importer BtuCD in both detergent-solubilized and reconstituted states. The data obtained in different nucleotide states in the presence and absence of binding protein BtuF reveal the applicability of this technique to qualitatively extract water accessibility changes between different conformations by the ratio of primary DNP parameters ?. The ?-ratio unveils the physiologically relevant transmembrane communication in the transporter in terms of changes in water accessibility at the cytoplasmic gate of the protein induced by both BtuF binding at the periplasmic region of the transporter and ATP binding at the cytoplasmic nucleotide binding domains.

Doll, Andrin; Bordignon, Enrica; Joseph, Benesh; Tschaggelar, René; Jeschke, Gunnar

2012-09-01

147

Characteristics of Water Ingress in Norwegian Subsea Tunnels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water ingress represents one of the main challenges in subsea tunnelling, particularly when this occurs in sections with poor rock mass quality. This paper is discussing the main characteristics of water ingress in subsea hard rock tunnels based on the experience from almost 50 such tunnels that have been built in Norway. Following a brief description of the geological conditions and the basic design of the subsea tunnels, pre-construction investigations and investigations during excavation are discussed with particular emphasis on prediction of water ingress. Two cases with particularly difficult conditions; the Bjorøy tunnel and the Atlantic Ocean tunnel, are discussed in detail. In these cases, large water inflow with pressure of up to 2.4 MPa was encountered at major faults/weakness zones during excavation, and special procedures were required to cope with the problems. Based on the experience from the Norwegian projects, it is concluded that continuous follow-up by experienced engineering geologists, probe drilling with the drilling jumbo and pre-grouting where required are the most important factors for coping with water ingress and ensuring stability.

Nilsen, Bjørn

2014-05-01

148

Genetic and Physiological Characteristics of a Slow-Growing Circadian Clock Mutant of NEUROSPORA CRASSA  

PubMed Central

A circadian clock mutant of Neurospora crassa with a period length of about 25.8 hours (4 hr longer than wild type) has been isolated after mutagenesis of the band strain. This mutant, called frq-5, segregates as a single nuclear gene, maps near the centromere on linkage group III, and is unlinked to four previously described clock mutants clustered on linkage group VII R (Feldman and Hoyle 1973, 1976). frq-5 differs from the other clock mutants in at least two other respects: (1) it is recessive in heterokaryons, and (2) it grows at about 60% the rate of the parent band strain on both minimal and complete media. Double mutants between frq-5 and each of the other clock mutants show additivity of period length—two long period mutants produce a double mutant whose period length is longer than either of the two single mutants, while a long and a short period double mutant has an intermediate period length. Although slow growth and long periodicity of frq-5 have segregated together among more than 300 progeny, slow growth per se is not responsible for the long period, since all the double mutants have the slow growth characteristic of frq-5, but have period lengths both shorter and longer than wild type. PMID:147796

Feldman, Jerry F.; Atkinson, Cheryl A.

1978-01-01

149

Behavioral, attitudinal, and physiologic characteristics of smoking and nonsmoking asbestos-exposed shipyard workers  

SciTech Connect

The smoking characteristics of shipyard workers participating in an Asbestos Medical Surveillance Program (N=3991) were assessed. Sources of data were: 1) a self-assessment questionnaire on the smoking history and respiratory symptomatology of the 871 current smokers who participated in the smoking study, and 2) chest roentgenograms and pulmonary function test results and medical records for the entire population. The study population included 1711 current smokers, 988 former smokers and 1292 never smokers. The annual ''quit rate'' for former smokers had increased from less than 1% in 1961 to 4.2% in 1978. Of the 871 current smokers who participated in the smoking study, 19% had resumed smoking after having given up cigarettes for one year or longer. Men in the smoking study were reasonably well informed about the health consequences of smoking. While they perceived themselves to be susceptible to disease, and the disease to be serious, the benefits they saw in quitting were related more to economics and aesthetics than to health. When the results were age adjusted, no differences in rate of pulonary function abnormalities and chest film abnormalities were found betwen current smokers who voluntarily participated in the smoking study and those who did not. All pulmonary function testing abnormality and chest film abnormality rates were significantly lower for former smokers and never smokers.

Li, V.C.; Kim, Y.J.; Terry, P.B.; Cuthie, J.C.; Roter, D.; Emmett, E.A.; Harvey, A.; Permutt, S.

1983-12-01

150

Soil and water characteristics of a young surface mine wetland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal companies are reluctant to include wetland development in reclamation plans partly due to a lack of information on the resulting characteristics of such sites. It is easier for coal companies to recreate terrestrial habitats than to attempt experimental methods and possibly face significant regulatory disapproval. Therefore, we studied a young (10 years) wetland on a reclaimed surface coal mine in southern Illinois so as to ascertain soil and water characteristics such that the site might serve as a model for wetland development on surface mines. Water pH was not measured because of equipment problems, but evidence (plant life, fish, herpetofauna) suggests suitable pH levels. Other water parameters (conductivity, salinity, alkalinity, chloride, copper, total hardness, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, and sulfate) were measured, and only copper was seen in potentially high concentrations (but with no obvious toxic effects). Soil variables measured included pH, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, aluminum, iron, sulfate, chloride, and percent organic matter. Soils were slightly alkaline and most parameters fell within levels reported for other studies on both natural and manmade wetlands. Aluminum was high, but this might be indicative more of large amounts complexed with soils and therefore unavailable, than amounts actually accessible to plants. Organic matter was moderate, somewhat surprising given the age of the system.

Andrew Cole, C.; Lefebvre, Eugene A.

1991-05-01

151

Physiological strategies of co-occurring oaks in a water- and nutrient-limited ecosystem.  

PubMed

Oak species are well suited to water-limited conditions by either avoiding water stress through deep rooting or tolerating water stress through tight stomatal control. In co-occurring species where resources are limited, species may either partition resources in space and/or time or exhibit differing efficiencies in the use of limited resources. Therefore, this study seeks to determine whether two co-occurring oak species (Quercus prinus L. and Quercus velutina Lam.) differ in physiological parameters including photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, water-use (WUE) and nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE), as well as to characterize transpiration and average canopy stomatal responses to climatic variables in a sandy, well-drained and nutrient-limited ecosystem. The study was conducted in the New Jersey Pinelands and we measured sap flux over a 3-year period, as well as leaf gas exchange, leaf nitrogen and carbon isotope concentrations. Both oak species showed relatively steep increases in leaf-specific transpiration at low vapor pressure deficit (VPD) values before maximum transpiration rates were achieved, which were sustained over a broad range in VPD. This suggests tight stomatal control over transpiration in both species, although Q. velutina showed significantly higher leaf-level and canopy-level stomatal conductance than Q. prinus. Average daytime stomatal conductance was positively correlated with soil moisture and both oak species maintained at least 75% of their maximum canopy stomatal conductance at soil moistures in the upper soil layer (0-0.3 m) as low as 0.03 m(3) m(3)(-3). Quercus velutina had significantly higher photosynthetic rates, maximum Rubisco-limited and electron-transport-limited carboxylation rates, dark respiration rates and nitrogen concentration per unit leaf area than Q. prinus. However, both species exhibited similar WUEs and NUEs. Therefore, Q. prinus has a more conservative resource-use strategy, while Q. velutina may need to exploit niches that are locally higher in nutrients and water. Likewise, both species appear to tap deep, stable water sources, highlighting the importance of rooting depth in modeling transpiration and stomatal conductance in many oak ecosystems. PMID:24488856

Renninger, Heidi J; Carlo, Nicholas; Clark, Kenneth L; Schäfer, Karina V R

2014-02-01

152

Molecular, Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Theobroma cacao L. Genotypes to Soil Water Deficit  

PubMed Central

Six months-old seminal plants of 36 cacao genotypes grown under greenhouse conditions were subjected to two soil water regimes (control and drought) to assess, the effects of water deficit on growth, chemical composition and oxidative stress. In the control, soil moisture was maintained near field capacity with leaf water potentials (?WL) ranging from ?0.1 to ?0.5 MPa. In the drought treatment, the soil moisture was reduced gradually by withholding additional water until ?WL reached values of between ?2.0 to ?2.5 MPa. The tolerant genotypes PS-1319, MO-20 and MA-15 recorded significant increases in guaiacol peroxidase activity reflecting a more efficient antioxidant metabolism. In relation to drought tolerance, the most important variables in the distinguishing contrasting groups were: total leaf area per plant; leaf, stem and total dry biomass; relative growth rate; plant shoot biomass and leaf content of N, Ca, and Mg. From the results of these analyses, six genotypes were selected with contrasting characteristics for tolerance to soil water deficit [CC-40, C. SUL-4 and SIC-2 (non-tolerant) and MA-15, MO-20, and PA-13 (tolerant)] for further assessment of the expression of genes NCED5, PP2C, psbA and psbO to water deficit. Increased expression of NCED5, PP2C, psbA and psbO genes were found for non-tolerant genotypes, while in the majority of tolerant genotypes there was repression of these genes, with the exception of PA-13 that showed an increased expression of psbA. Mutivariate analysis showed that growth variables, leaf and total dry biomass, relative growth rate as well as Mg content of the leaves were the most important factor in the classification of the genotypes as tolerant, moderately tolerant and sensitive to water deficit. Therefore these variables are reliable plant traits in the selection of plants tolerant to drought. PMID:25541723

dos Santos, Ivanildes C.; de Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado; Anhert, Dário; da Conceição, Alessandro S.; Pirovani, Carlos P.; Pires, José L.; Valle, Raúl René; Baligar, Virupax C.

2014-01-01

153

FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT: PROCEEDINGS OF AN INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM, SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA, USA, SEPTEMBER 18-20, 1993  

EPA Science Inventory

Scientists from five countries presented papers at the Second International Symposium on Fish Physiology, Toxicology, and Water Quality Management, which was held in Sacramento, California, on September 18-20, 1990. his proceedings includes 21 papers presented in sessions on the ...

154

Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic modeling of the temperature-dependent dermal absorption of chloroform by humans following bath water exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of chloroform in the exhaled breath of human volunteers exposed skin-only via bath water (concentrations < 100 ppb) were analyzed using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Significant increases in exhaled chloroform (and thus bioavailability) were observed as exposure temperatures were increased from 30 to 40?C. The blood flows to the skin and effective skin permeability coefficients (Kp)

Rick A. Corley; Syd M. Gordon; Lance A. Wallace

2000-01-01

155

Absorption characteristics of optically complex inland waters: Implications for water optical classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple bio-optical measurements were conducted in inland waters of China, including Lake Taihu [spring and autumn], Lake Chaohu, Lake Dianchi, and Three Gorges Reservoirs. The variations in the absorption characteristics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), phytoplankton, and non-algal particles (NAP) and their relative contributions to total absorption among these waters were analyzed. The obtained results indicated that these areas are representative of the optically complex inland waters characterized by strong regional variations of their absorption properties. By means of the relative contributions of NAP and phytoplankton to the total water absorption at 550 and 675 nm, these waters were classified into three optical water types, each one having specific biogeochemical and optical properties. Two of the types were distinct and corresponded to waters that are optically controlled by NAP (Type I) and dominated by phytoplankton (Type III). Type II was related to relatively optically mixed waters where the absorption properties are controlled by NAP and phytoplankton. Additionally, the differences in remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) spectra among the three classified water types were clarified to establish optical criteria for identifying these water types. On this basis, the classification criteria for MERIS images were developed, which allowed one to cluster every Rrs spectrum into one of the three water types by comparing the values from band 6, band 8, and band 9 of MERIS images. The proposed criteria were subsequently conducted to map the water types of Lake Taihu using MERIS images.

Shi, Kun; Li, Yunmei; Li, Lin; Lu, Heng

2013-06-01

156

The physiology and toxicology of salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to collate physiological knowledge on salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria. Salmonid genera reviewed include Coregonus, Thymallus, Salvelinus, Salmo, and Oncorhynchus spp. When physiological data for salmonids are lacking, the zebrafish and medaka models are included. The primary focus is on the underlying mechanisms involved in the hydro-mineral, thermal, and respiratory biology with an extended section on the xenobiotic toxicology of the early stages. Past and present data reveal that the eggs of salmonids are among the largest shed by any broadcast spawning teleost. Once ovulated, the physicochemical properties of the ovarian fluid provide temporary protection from external perturbations and maintain the eggs in good physiological condition until spawning. Following fertilisation and during early development the major structures protecting the embryo from poor water quality are the vitelline membrane, the enveloping layer and the chorion. The vitelline membrane is one of the least permeable membranes known, while the semi-permeable chorion provides both physical and chemical defense against metals, pathogens, and xenobiotic chemicals. In part these structures explain the lower sensitivity of the eggs to chemical imbalance compared to the larvae, however the lower metabolic rate and the chronology of gene expression and translational control suggest that developmental competence also plays a decisive role. In addition, maternal effect genes provide a defense potential until the mid-blastula transition. The transition between maternal effect genes and zygotic genes is a critical period for the embryo. The perivitelline fluids are an important trap for cations, but are also the major barrier to diffusion of gases and solutes. Acidic environmental pH interferes with acid-base and hydromineral balance but also increases the risk of aluminium and heavy metal intoxication. These risks are ameliorated somewhat by the presence of ambient humic acid. High temperatures during development may be teratogenic, cause sexual bias, or long-term effects on muscle cellularity. Xenobiotics cause inhibition of neural acetylcholine esterase and carboxylases and disrupt the normal signalling pathways of hormones by binding to relevant receptors and mimicking their actions. A complex suite of genes is activated in response to environmental or parentally transmitted xenobiotics. The primary defense mechanism in embryos involves resistance to uptake but later biotransformation via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-mediated activation of members of the cytochrome mixed-function mono-oxygenase superfamily (CYP1A, CYP2B, and CYP3A) and subsequent glucuronidation or glutathionation. Due to the number of duplicate or triplicate genes coding for intermediates in the signalling pathways, and cross-talk between nuclear orphan receptors and steroid hormone receptors, a large number of complications arise in response to xenobiotic intoxicaton. One such syndrome, known as blue-sac disease causes an anaphylactoid response in hatched larvae due to increased permeability in the vascular endothelium that coincides with AHR-mediated CYP induction. Early embryos also respond to such xenobiotic insults, but apparently have an immature translational control for expression of CYP proteins, which coincides with a lack of excretory organs necessary for the end-point of biotransformation. Other syndromes (M74 and Cayuga) are now associated with thiamine deficiency. Where possible guidelines for water quality criteria are suggested. PMID:17316838

Finn, Roderick Nigel

2007-03-30

157

Physiological effects of aluminum on rainbow trout in acidic soft water, with emphasis on the gill micro-environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examined the physiological and toxicological effects of Al (-100 ?g.L?¹) in acidic soft water (pH 4.0-6.5) on the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri = Oncorhynchus mykiss), and the mechanisms of Al deposition on the gills. Cannulated trout exposed for 66 h to Al in synthetic soft water (Ca²? = 45 or 410 ?equiv.L?¹) showed highest mortality at pH 5.2,

Richard Colin Playle

1989-01-01

158

Physiological effects of aluminum on rainbow trout in acidic soft water, with emphasis on the gill micro-environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examined the physiological and toxicological effects of AL ($\\\\sim$100 $\\\\mu$g.L$\\\\sp{-1}$) in acidic soft water (pH 4.0-6.5) on the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri = Oncorhynchus mykiss), and the mechanisms of Al deposition on the gills. Cannulated trout exposed for 66 h to Al in synthetic soft water (Ca$\\\\sp{2+}$ = 45 or 410 $\\\\mu$equiv.L$\\\\sp{-1}$) showed highest mortality at pH 5.2,

Richard Colin Playle

1990-01-01

159

Physiological characteristics of gastric contractions and circadian gastric motility in the free-moving conscious house musk shrew (Suncus murinus).  

PubMed

Although many studies have demonstrated the physiological action of motilin on the migrating motor complex, the precise mechanisms remain obscure. To obtain new insights into the mechanisms, we focused on the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus, suncus used as a laboratory name) as a small model animal for in vivo motilin study, and we studied the physiological characteristics of suncus gastrointestinal motility. Strain gauge transducers were implanted on the serosa of the gastric body and duodenum, and we recorded gastrointestinal contractions in the free-moving conscious suncus and also examined the effects of intravenous infusion of various agents on gastrointestinal motility. During the fasted state, the suncus stomach and duodenum showed clear migrating phase III contractions (intervals of 80-150 min) as found in humans and dogs. Motilin (bolus injection, 100-300 ng/kg; continuous infusion, 10-100 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and erythromycin (80 ?g·kg(-1)·min(-1)) induced gastric phase III contractions, and motilin injection also increased the gastric motility index in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05, vs. saline). Pretreatment with atropine completely abolished the motilin-induced gastric phase III contractions. On the other hand, in the free-feeding condition, the suncus showed a relatively long fasting period in the light phase followed by spontaneous gastric phase III contractions. The results suggest that the suncus has almost the same gastrointestinal motility and motilin response as those found in humans and dogs, and we propose the suncus as a new small model animal for studying gastrointestinal motility and motilin in vivo. PMID:20686171

Sakahara, Satoshi; Xie, Zuoyun; Koike, Kanako; Hoshino, Satoya; Sakata, Ichiro; Oda, Sen-ichi; Takahashi, Toku; Sakai, Takafumi

2010-10-01

160

Thrust Characteristics of Water/Liquid Nitrogen Rocket Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When liquid nitrogen and heated water are mixed in a chamber, pressure increase due to evaporation expansion inside the chamber becomes high enough to generate thrust force for rocket propulsion. This thrust system is safer and environment-friendly compared to conventional rocket engines utilizing combustion process. This new type of rocket engine system is called "Water-Liquid Nitrogen rocket engine system" and it can be used for small payload mission with expected altitude of several kilometers. In this paper, experimentally obtained thrust characteristics are shown and analyzed. As a result, relations between the thrust force and the mixing chamber pressure are clarified. Also, it is found that the present injector can attain only half of the theoretically expected specific impulse due to insufficient mixing efficiency.

Watanabe, Rikio; Hayashi, Kohei; Iwao, Masaki; Ikawa, Keita; Tomita, Nobuyuki

161

Measurement of "turbidity" and related characteristics of natural waters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division has adopted the following principles to be used in selecting methods for the measurement of light transmitting characteristics of natural waters: (1) standard instruments and methods are to be adopted to measure and report in optical units, avoiding ' turbidity ' as a quantitative measure; (2) reporting of ' turbidity ' in JTU 's, Hellige units, severity, or NTU 's will be phased out; (3) the basis for estimations of sediment concentrations based on light measurements must be documented adequately; and (4) use of transparency measurement by Secchi disk is not changed, although light transmittance may prove to be more precise means of obtaining the same information. A schedule has been established to implement new methods beginning October 1, 1976, and with the transition to be completed at all stations by October 1, 1977. Provisions are provided to meet requirements of cooperators who have legal requirements for ' turbidity ' data. (Woodard-USGS)

Pickering, R.J.

1976-01-01

162

Characteristic mega-basin water storage behavior using GRACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-standing challenge for hydrologists has been a lack of observational data on global-scale basin hydrological behavior. With observations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, hydrologists are now able to study terrestrial water storage for large river basins (>200,000 km2), with monthly time resolution. Here we provide results of a time series model of basin-averaged GRACE terrestrial water storage anomaly and Global Precipitation Climatology Project precipitation for the world's largest basins. We address the short (10 year) length of the GRACE record by adopting a parametric spectral method to calculate frequency-domain transfer functions of storage response to precipitation forcing and then generalize these transfer functions based on large-scale basin characteristics, such as percent forest cover and basin temperature. Among the parameters tested, results show that temperature, soil water-holding capacity, and percent forest cover are important controls on relative storage variability, while basin area and mean terrain slope are less important. The derived empirical relationships were accurate (0.54 ? Ef ? 0.84) in modeling global-scale water storage anomaly time series for the study basins using only precipitation, average basin temperature, and two land-surface variables, offering the potential for synthesis of basin storage time series beyond the GRACE observational period. Such an approach could be applied toward gap filling between current and future GRACE missions and for predicting basin storage given predictions of future precipitation.

Reager, J. T.; Famiglietti, James S.

2013-06-01

163

Characteristic mega-basin water storage behavior using GRACE.  

PubMed

[1]?A long-standing challenge for hydrologists has been a lack of observational data on global-scale basin hydrological behavior. With observations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, hydrologists are now able to study terrestrial water storage for large river basins (>200,000 km(2)), with monthly time resolution. Here we provide results of a time series model of basin-averaged GRACE terrestrial water storage anomaly and Global Precipitation Climatology Project precipitation for the world's largest basins. We address the short (10 year) length of the GRACE record by adopting a parametric spectral method to calculate frequency-domain transfer functions of storage response to precipitation forcing and then generalize these transfer functions based on large-scale basin characteristics, such as percent forest cover and basin temperature. Among the parameters tested, results show that temperature, soil water-holding capacity, and percent forest cover are important controls on relative storage variability, while basin area and mean terrain slope are less important. The derived empirical relationships were accurate (0.54???Ef ???0.84) in modeling global-scale water storage anomaly time series for the study basins using only precipitation, average basin temperature, and two land-surface variables, offering the potential for synthesis of basin storage time series beyond the GRACE observational period. Such an approach could be applied toward gap filling between current and future GRACE missions and for predicting basin storage given predictions of future precipitation. PMID:24563556

Reager, J T; Famiglietti, James S

2013-06-01

164

Physiological regulation of evaporative water loss in endotherms: is the little red kaluta (Dasykaluta rosamondae) an exception or the rule?  

PubMed

It is a central paradigm of comparative physiology that the effect of humidity on evaporative water loss (EWL) is determined for most mammals and birds, in and below thermoneutrality, essentially by physics and is not under physiological regulation. Fick's law predicts that EWL should be inversely proportional to ambient relative humidity (RH) and linearly proportional to the water vapour pressure deficit (?wvp) between animal and air. However, we show here for a small dasyurid marsupial, the little kaluta (Dasykaluta rosamondae), that EWL is essentially independent of RH (and ?wvp) at low RH (as are metabolic rate and thermal conductance). These results suggest regulation of a constant EWL independent of RH, a hitherto unappreciated capacity of endothermic vertebrates. Independence of EWL from RH conserves water and heat at low RH, and avoids physiological adjustments to changes in evaporative heat loss such as thermoregulation. Re-evaluation of previously published data for mammals and birds suggests that a lesser dependence of EWL on RH is observed more commonly than previously thought, suggesting that physiological independence of EWL of RH is not just an unusual capacity of a few species, such as the little kaluta, but a more general capability of many mammals and birds. PMID:24741015

Withers, Philip C; Cooper, Christine E

2014-06-01

165

Fluctuating water temperatures affect development, physiological responses and cause sex reversal in fathead minnows.  

PubMed

Natural and human activities can result in both high temporal and spatial variability in water temperature. Rapid temperature changes have the potential to dramatically affect physiological processes in aquatic organisms and, due to their limited mobility, fish early life stages are particularly vulnerable to ambient temperature fluctuations. In this study, we examined how the magnitude and frequency of temperature fluctuations affect survival, growth, development, expression of thermoresponsive genes, and gonadal differentiation in fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas. We exposed individuals (0 to 4 days post fertilization) of known genotypic sex to fluctuations of ?4 °C over 12-h, ?8 °C over 12- and 24-h, and three stable temperatures (21, 25, and 29 °C) for up to 45 d. Expression of hsp70 in fish exposed to the highest-magnitude, highest-frequency fluctuating treatment cycled in concert with temperature and was upregulated initially during exposure, and may have contributed to temperature fluctuations having little effect on time to and size at hatching (whole-organism responses). This treatment also caused fish to undergo nondirectional sex reversal. These results indicate that hsp70 may be involved in mediating thermal stress from subdaily temperature fluctuations and that sex determination in fathead minnows can be influenced by cycling temperatures. PMID:25587805

Coulter, David P; Höök, Tomas O; Mahapatra, Cecon T; Guffey, Samuel C; Sepúlveda, Maria S

2015-02-01

166

Effects of water sulfate concentration on performance, water intake, and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers.  

PubMed

Two hundred forty single-source, cross-bred steers (304 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of various water sulfate concentrations on performance, water intake, and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers. Cattle were stratified by weight and assigned within weight blocks to five water treatments. Averaged over time, actual water sulfate concentrations (+/- SEM) were 136.1 (+/- 6.3), 291.2 (+/- 15.3), 582.6 (+/- 16.9), 1,219.2 (+/- 23.7), and 2,360.4 (+/- 68.2) mg/L, respectively. Weather-related data were recorded. Increasing water sulfate concentration resulted in linear decreases in ADG (P < 0.01) and gain:feed ratio (P < 0.01) and a quadratic effect on water intake (P = 0.02) and tended to quadratically increase then decrease DMI (P = 0.13). Sulfate x period interactions were evident for DMI (P = 0.01), ADG (P < 0.01), and feed efficiency (P < 0.01). Time had quadratic effects on DMI, water intake, ADG, and feed efficiency (P < 0.01 for all models). Increasing water sulfate concentration resulted in linear decreases in final weight, hot carcass weight, and dressing percentage, a linear increase in longissimus muscle area, and a quadratic effect on fat thickness over the 12th rib and predicted yield grade (P < 0.05 for all dependent variables). Mean daily temperature explained 25.7% of the observed variation in water intake. Other factors that explained a significant (P < 0.01) amount of variation in water intake were BW, DMI, water sulfate concentration, barometric pressure, wind speed, and humidity. High water sulfate concentrations had a significant and deleterious effect on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers. Increasing the sulfate concentration in water may have resulted in a functional water restriction early in the trial when ambient temperatures were greatest. However, toward the latter stages of the trial, cattle supplied higher-sulfate water had higher ADG and FE. These improvements later in the trial may represent compensatory gain associated with decreased ambient temperature and water requirements. Averaged over time, a water sulfate concentration of greater than 583 mg/L, equivalent to 0.22% of the diet, decreased feedlot performance. PMID:11811445

Loneragan, G H; Wagner, J J; Gould, D H; Garry, F B; Thoren, M A

2001-12-01

167

Characteristic mega-basin water storage behavior using GRACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA GRACE mission now allows hydrologists to study terrestrial water storage variations for the world's largest river basins (>200,000 km2), with monthly time resolution. Because these mega-basins contribute the majority of global runoff, GRACE data are ideally suited for monitoring global water storage variability and classifying differences in basin water storage behavior that are relevant for global climate studies. Here we calculate frequency-domain transfer functions of storage response to precipitation forcing, and then parameterize these transfer functions based on large-scale basin characteristics, such as percent forest cover and basin temperature. This results in a basin-independent relationship between precipitation forcing and storage response as a function of temporal frequency and large-scale basin properties, quantifying fundamental global hydrology relationships that were previously unobservable. Results show that for very large basins, temperature, soil water-holding capacity and percent forest cover are the major controls on relative storage variability, while basin area and mean terrain slope are relatively unimportant. At annual timescales, temperature variability drives storage variability for basins with a mean temperature under 15 deg C, while land surface variables characterize storage variability for warmer basins. At interannual timescales, land surface variables are the largest influence on storage behavior in all basins, with more forested and deeper soiled basins showing reduced response to interannual variability in precipitation forcing. Our results demonstrate the critical importance of forest cover and soil capacity on basin residence times for global-scale studies, and imply that land-atmosphere processes such as precipitation recycling play a critical role in large-basin storage dynamics. The derived empirical relationships were accurate in modeling global-scale water storage anomaly time series for the study basins using only precipitation, average basin temperature, and two land-surface variables, offering the potential for synthesis of basin storage time series beyond the GRACE observational period.

Famiglietti, J. S.; Reager, J. T.

2012-12-01

168

Climate influences thermal balance and water use in African and Asian elephants: physiology can predict drivers of elephant distribution.  

PubMed

Elephant movement patterns in relation to surface water demonstrate that they are a water-dependent species. Thus, there has been interest in using surface water management to mitigate problems associated with localized elephant overabundance. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying the elephant's water dependence remain unclear. Although thermoregulation is likely an important driver, the relationship between thermoregulation, water use and climate has not been quantified. We measured skin surface temperature of and cutaneous water loss from 13 elephants (seven African, 3768±642 kg; six Asian, 3834±498 kg) and determined the contribution of evaporative cooling to their thermal and water budgets across a range of air temperatures (8-33°C). We also measured respiratory evaporative water loss and resting metabolic heat production on a subset of elephants (N=7). The rate of cutaneous evaporative water loss ranged between 0.31 and 8.9 g min(-1) m(-2) for Asian elephants and 0.26 and 6.5 g min(-1) m(-2) for African elephants. Simulated thermal and water budgets using climate data from Port Elizabeth, South Africa, and Okaukuejo, Namibia, suggested that the 24-h evaporative cooling water debt incurred in warm climates can be more than 4.5 times that incurred in mesic climates. This study confirms elephants are obligate evaporative coolers but suggests that classification of elephants as water dependent is insufficient given the importance of climate in determining the magnitude of this dependence. These data highlight the potential for a physiological modeling approach to predicting the utility of surface water management for specific populations. PMID:23842629

Dunkin, Robin C; Wilson, Dinah; Way, Nicolas; Johnson, Kari; Williams, Terrie M

2013-08-01

169

[Characteristics of water infiltration in urban soils of Nanjing City].  

PubMed

By using dual-ring method, this paper measured the water infiltration rate in urban soils under representative land use patterns in Nanjing City, and studied the characteristics of water infiltration in the soils with different compaction degree. The results showed that there was a great difference in the infiltration rate among the soils with different compactness. Soil infiltration rate decreased with increasing bulk density and decreasing porosity, and the water-transport-limiting layer existed in heavily compacted soils resulted in a dramatic decrease of final stabilized infiltration rate. There was a significant linear relationship between the initial and final infiltration rates in the same soil though their absolute values had a great difference. The urban soils in Nanjing City had a wide range of final infiltration rate varied from 1 mm X h(-1) to 679 mm X h(-1), which was highly related to the soil compactness, structural status, and skeleton grain contents. The decrease of urban soil infiltration rate could induce the increase of runoff and of the probability and intensity of flooding. PMID:18464644

Yang, Jin-Ling; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Yuan, Da-Gang

2008-02-01

170

Definition and characteristics of the water abundant season in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In contrast to the normal seasons that are classified by the distribution of temperature and precipitation, this study defines a new concept of the water abundant season (WAS) when water is more abundant than in other seasons. We investigated its characteristics on 60 stations in Korea, and compared it with Changma (the rainy season). In this study, Available Water Resources Index (AWRI), which is a summed daily precipitation accumulated for more than 365 days with a time-dependent reduction function and reflects the current water condition, was used to quantify the water amount. In addition, the median value of 30 year's daily AWRI was used as the criterion value dividing WAS from other seasons. The results show that the terminologies on water resources have changed from qualitative concepts such as abundance, deficit, and continuous rainfall, to quantitative values using AWRI. In detail, it was known that the WAS in Korea starts on 2 July and ends on 25 December, lasting for 176 days. The onset date of WAS in Korea is getting earlier, with a trend of 2.9 days/decade. The end date does later with a delay of 7.5 days/decade, and the duration is increasing at 10.4 days/decade. We looked at the WAS by stations and saw, on average, that 14 June was the earliest onset date in Seogwipo and 29 July was the latest one in Sokcho, representing a difference of 45 days. The earliest end date was in Tongyeong at 5 December and the latest one is in Uljin at 16 January of the following year, a difference of 41 days. Tongyeong had the shortest (166 days) WAS duration and Uljin had the longest (207 days) on average. The big spatial differences of the criterion values per station were detected and quantified. The largest criterion value for WAS were recorded in Seongsan with 270.7 mm, which is almost double of the smallest value, which was recorded in Uiseong (135.9 mm). Comparing WAS with the Changma (the rainy season in Korea) showed that the onset date of WAS is close to that of Changma, but the end date shows a big difference. It is also known that WAS was more useful than Changma in detecting and demonstrating both of the season's progress and the seasonal state of water climates.

Park, So-Ra; Oh, Su-Bin; Byun, Hi-Ryong

2014-05-01

171

Within-catchment variation in regulation of water use by eucalypts, and the roles of stomatal anatomy and physiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how environmental cues impact water use of forested catchments is crucial for accurate calculation of water balance and effective catchment management in terrestrial ecosystems. We characterised structural and physiological properties of leaves and canopies of Eucalyptus delegatensis, E. pauciflora and E. radiata, the most common species in high-country catchments in temperate Australia. These properties were related to whole-tree water transport to assess differences in water use strategies among the three species. Stomatal conductance, instantaneous transpiration efficiency, stomatal occlusion (through cuticular ledges) and leaf area index differed significantly among species. Whole-tree water use of all species was strongly coupled to changes in vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and photosynthetically active radiation (Q), yet stomatal closure reduced water transport at VPD > 1 kPa in all species, even when soil water was not limiting. The observed differences in leaf traits and related water use strategies reflect species-specific adaptations to dominant environmental conditions within the landscape matrix of catchments. The generalist E. radiata seems to follow an opportunistic, while the two more spatially restricted species have adopted a pessimistic water use strategy. Catchment-scale models of carbon and water fluxes will need to reflect such variation in structure and function, if they are to fully capture species effects on water balance and yield.

Gharun, Mana; Turnbull, Tarryn; Adams, Mark

2014-05-01

172

Physiological responses in swine treated with water containing sodium bicarbonate as a prophylactic for gastric ulcers1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintenance of gastric pH above 4.0 aids the prevention of bile acid-mediated ulcerative damage to the pars esophageal tissue in pigs. One means of doing so is the addition of buffering com- pounds, such as sodium bicarbonate, to the water sup- ply; however, any potential physiological effect of buffer consumption has yet to be determined. Experiment 1 tested the acute

J. T. Cole; R. A. Argenzio; J. H. Eisemann

173

Water clarity, maternal behavior, and physiology combine to eliminate UV radiation risk to  

E-print Network

of montane amphibians with contrasting physiological sensitivities, long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Cascades frog (Rana cascadae), at field sites spanning a gradient of UV-B attenuation

Palen, Wendy J.

174

Effects of ramp slope on physiological characteristic and performance time of healthy adults propelling and pushing wheelchairs  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study examined the effects of ramp slope (1:12, 1:10, 1:8, and 1:6) on physiological characteristics and performance times of wheelchair users and the performance times of caregivers to determine which slope would be the best for wheelchairs, in order to propose a ramp slope that incorporates a universal design. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Fifteen of these subjects also volunteered to participate as caregivers. A wooden ramp with an adjustable slope was constructed. As manual wheelchair users, the participants performed propulsion of a wheelchair up the ramp at a self-selected pace. Four ramp slopes (1:12, 1:10, 1:8, and 1:6) were used, and the participants sequentially ascended them in order from the gentlest to the steepest slope. The caregivers also pushed a wheelchair up the ramp at a self-selected pace. The blood pressure and pulse of participants after the ascent, as well as the performance times of the caregivers and manual wheelchair users, were measured on each of the different ramp slopes. The measured data, pulse, blood pressure, and performance time, were analyzed using repeated ANOVA. [Results] Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher after ascending the 1:6 slope than after ascending the 1:12 and 1:8 slopes. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher after ascending the 1:6 slope than after ascending the 1:12 and 1:8 slopes. The participants’ pulses tended to increase significantly with an increase in slope. An assessment of the propulsion performance times revealed significant differences among the slopes. [Conclusion] Considering the results of the wheelchair users and caregivers, the 1:12 and 1:10 slopes are suitable ramp slopes for wheelchairs. PMID:25642025

Choi, Young Oh; Lee, Ho Young; Lee, Myoung Hee; Kwon, Oh Hyun

2015-01-01

175

[Effects of exogenous nitric oxide on physiological characteristics of longan (Dimocarpus longana) seedlings under acid rain stress].  

PubMed

This paper studied the effects of exogenous nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on the chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme activities, and osmotic regulation substances of longan (Dimocarpus longana 'Fuyan') seedlings under acid rain (pH 3.0) stress. Under the acid rain stress, the seedling leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities and chlorophyll, soluble protein and soluble sugar contents decreased obviously, while the leaf malondialdedyde content had a remarkable increase, suggesting the toxic effect of the acid rain on the seedlings. Exogenous nitric oxide had dual nature on the physiological characteristics of longan seedlings under acid rain stress. Applying 0.1-0.5 mmol x L(-1) of SNP improved the SOD, POD and CAT activities and the chlorophyll, soluble protein and soluble sugar contents significantly, and decreased the malondialdedyde content. Low concentrations SNP reduced the oxidative damage caused by the acid rain stress, and 0.5 mmol x L(-1) of SNP had the best effect. Under the application of 0.5 mmol x L(-1) of SNP, the total chlorophyll, soluble protein, and soluble sugar contents and the SOD, POD and CAT activities increased by 76.0%, 107.0%, 216.1%, 150. 0%, 350.9% and 97.1%, respectively, and the malondialdedyde content decreased by 46.4%. It was suggested that low concentration (0.1-0.5 mmol x L(-1)) SNP could alleviate the toxic effect of acid rain stress on longan seedlings via activating the leaf antioxidant enzyme activities and reducing oxidative stress, while high concentration SNP (1.0 mmol x L(-1)) lowered the mitigation effect. PMID:24380343

Liu, Jian-fu; Wang, Ming-yuan; Yang, Chen; Zhu, Ai-jun

2013-08-01

176

Sensitivity of Terrestrial Water and Energy Budgets to CO2-Physiological Forcing: An Investigation Using an Offline Land Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) influence climate by suppressing canopy transpiration in addition to its well-known greenhouse gas effect. The decrease in plant transpiration is due to changes in plant physiology (reduced opening of plant stomata). Here, we quantify such changes in water flux for various levels of CO2 concentrations using the National Center for Atmospheric Research s (NCAR) Community Land Model. We find that photosynthesis saturates after 800 ppmv (parts per million, by volume) in this model. However, unlike photosynthesis, canopy transpiration continues to decline at about 5.1% per 100 ppmv increase in CO2 levels. We also find that the associated reduction in latent heat flux is primarily compensated by increased sensible heat flux. The continued decline in canopy transpiration and subsequent increase in sensible heat flux at elevated CO2 levels implies that incremental warming associated with the physiological effect of CO2 will not abate at higher CO2 concentrations, indicating important consequences for the global water and carbon cycles from anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Keywords: CO2-physiological effect, CO2-fertilization, canopy transpiration, water cycle, runoff, climate change 1.

Gopalakrishnan, Ranjith; Bala, Govindsamy; Jayaraman, Mathangi; Cao, Long; Nemani, Ramakrishna; Ravindranath, N. H.

2011-01-01

177

Water Quality Assessment Based on Chemical and Biological Characteristics: An Example of Classification of Characteristics for the Cheremushnyi Creek–Yenisey River Water System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A six-class scale for a complex classifier of water quality is applied to the Cheremushnyi Creek–Yenisey River water system. The classifier incorporates a chemical index of water pollution and biological characteristics with autotrophic and heterotrophic periphyton groups and macrozoobenthos used as biological indicators. The oligochaeta index and Woodiwiss biotic index are shown to have low indicator capacity. Bioassay studies were

Z. G. Gol'd; L. A. Glushchenko; I. I. Morozova; S. P. Shulepina; I. A. Shadrin

2003-01-01

178

Molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological responses of the cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus to ocean acidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold-water corals (CWCs) are thought to be particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA) due to increased atmospheric pCO2, because they inhabit deep and cold waters where the aragonite saturation state is naturally low. Several recent studies have evaluated the impact of OA on organism-level physiological processes such as calcification and respiration. However, no studies to date have looked at the impact at the molecular level of gene expression. Here, we report results of a long-term, 8-month experiment to compare the physiological responses of the CWC Desmophyllum dianthus to OA at both the organismal and gene expression levels under two pCO2/pH treatments: ambient pCO2 (460 ?atm, pHT = 8.01) and elevated pCO2 (997 ?atm, pHT = 7.70). At the organismal level, no significant differences were detected in the calcification and respiration rates of D. dianthus. Conversely, significant differences were recorded in gene expression profiles, which showed an up-regulation of genes involved in cellular stress (HSP70) and immune defence (mannose-binding c-type lectin). Expression of alpha-carbonic anhydrase, a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of coral skeleton, was also significantly up-regulated in corals under elevated pCO2, indicating that D. dianthus was under physiological reconditioning to calcify under these conditions. Thus, gene expression profiles revealed physiological impacts that were not evident at the organismal level. Consequently, understanding the molecular mechanisms behind the physiological processes involved in a coral's response to elevated pCO2 is critical to assess the ability of CWCs to acclimate or adapt to future OA conditions.

Carreiro-Silva, M.; Cerqueira, T.; Godinho, A.; Caetano, M.; Santos, R. S.; Bettencourt, R.

2014-06-01

179

Eco-physiological response of Populus euphratica Oliv. to water release of the lower reaches of the Tarim River, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eco-physiological and plant performance responses and acclimation of Populus euphratica Oliv. to water release of the lower reaches of Tarim River, China were investigated. Three representative areas and 15 transects were selected along the lower reaches of the Tarim River. The groundwater level and salt content as well as plant performance and the contents of proline, soluble sugar, and plant endogenous hormone (ABA, CTK) in leaves were monitored and analyzed before- and after-water release. The groundwater level was raised in different areas and transects by the water release program. The physiological stress to P. euphratica decreased after the water release. Our results suggested that the groundwater level in the studied region changed from -3.15 to -4.12 m, salt content of the groundwater from 67.15 to 72.65 mM, the proline content from 9.28 to 11.06 mM, the soluble sugar content from 224.71 to 252.16 mM, the ABA content from 3.59 to 5.01 ng/(g FW), and the CK content from 4.01 to 4.56 ng/(g FW)- for the optimum growth and recover of P. euphratica indicated by the plant performance parameters, and the efficiency of water release was the highest.

Wang, Q.; Ruan, X.; Chen, Y. N.; Li, W. H.

2007-10-01

180

Physiological responses of a rodent to heliox reveal constancy of evaporative water loss under perturbing environmental conditions.  

PubMed

Total evaporative water loss of endotherms is assumed to be determined essentially by biophysics, at least at temperatures below thermoneutrality, with evaporative water loss determined by the water vapor deficit between the animal and the ambient air. We present here evidence, based on the first measurements of evaporative water loss for a small mammal in heliox, that mammals may have a previously unappreciated ability to maintain acute constancy of total evaporative water loss under perturbing environmental conditions. Thermoregulatory responses of ash-grey mice (Pseudomys albocinereus) to heliox were as expected, with changes in metabolic rate, conductance, and respiratory ventilation consistent with maintaining constancy of body temperature under conditions of enhanced heat loss. However, evaporative water loss did not increase in heliox. This is despite our confirmation of the physical effect that heliox augments evaporation from nonliving surfaces, which should increase cutaneous water loss, and increases minute volume of live ash-grey mice in heliox to accommodate their elevated metabolic rate, which should increase respiratory water loss. Therefore, mice had not only a thermoregulatory but also a hygroregulatory response to heliox. We interpret these results as evidence that ash-grey mice can acutely control their evaporative water loss under perturbing environmental conditions and suggest that hygroregulation at and below thermoneutrality is an important aspect of the physiology of at least some small mammals. PMID:25163919

Cooper, Christine Elizabeth; Withers, Philip Carew

2014-10-15

181

Water-Landing Characteristics of a Reentry Capsule  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental and theoretical investigations have been made to determine the water-landing characteristics of a conical-shaped reentry capsule having a segment of a sphere as the bottom. For the experimental portion of the investigation, a 1/12-scale model capsule and a full-scale capsule were tested for nominal flight paths of 65 deg and 90 deg (vertical), a range of contact attitudes from -30 deg to 30 deg, and a full-scale vertical velocity of 30 feet per second at contact. Accelerations were measured by accelerometers installed at the centers of gravity of the model and full-scale capsules. For the model test the accelerations were measured along the X-axis (roll) and Z-axis (yaw) and for the full-scale test they were measured along the X-axis (roll), Y-axis (pitch), and Z-axis (yaw). Motions and displacements of the capsules that occurred after contact were determined from high-speed motion pictures. The theoretical investigation was conducted to determine the accelerations that might occur along the X-axis when the capsule contacted the water from a 90 deg flight path at a 0 deg attitude. Assuming a rigid body, computations were made from equations obtained by utilizing the principle of the conservation of momentum. The agreement among data obtained from the model test, the full-scale test, and the theory was very good. The accelerations along the X-axis, for a vertical flight path and 0 deg attitude, were in the order of 40g. For a 65 deg flight path and 0 deg attitude, the accelerations along the X-axis were in the order of 50g. Changes in contact attitude, in either the positive or negative direction from 0 deg attitude, considerably reduced the magnitude of the accelerations measured along the X-axis. Accelerations measured along the Y- and Z-axes were relatively small at all test conditions.

McGehee, John R.; Hathaway, Melvin E.; Vaughan, Victor L., Jr.

1959-01-01

182

The subject of water balance has been central to insect physiology for over a century. The high surface area:volume  

E-print Network

). We used these techniques to test whether interspecific differences in components of water balance areThe subject of water balance has been central to insect physiology for over a century. The high balance. For example, one might expect desert arthropods to be highly tolerant of water loss, relative

Ahmad, Sajjad

183

Effects of Drinking Water Temperature on Physiological Responses of Lactating Holstein Cows in Summer1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine Iactating Holstein cows were offered drinking water of 7.2, 15.6, and 23.9°C in a 3 x 3 Latin square design in Experiment 1. Water was offered for 10 min at 1300 h to simulate time in a milking parlor. Water consumption de- clined as drinking water temperature decreased. Respiration rates decreased as the drinking water temperature decreased. In Experiment

J. Ko LANHAM; C. E. Coppock; K. Z. Milam; J. M. Labore; D. H. Nave; R. A. Stermer; C. F. Brasington

1986-01-01

184

Saline water irrigation effects on soil salinity distribution and some physiological responses of field grown Chemlali olive.  

PubMed

The shortage of water resources of good quality is becoming an issue in arid and semi arid regions. Per consequent, the use of water resources of marginal quality is becoming an important consideration, particularly in arid regions in Tunisia, where large quantities of saline water are used for irrigation. Nevertheless, the use of these waters in irrigated lands requires the control of soil salinity and a comprehensive analysis even beyond the area where water is applied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of saline water irrigation on soil salinity distribution and some physiological traits of field-grown adult olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali) under contrasting environmental conditions of the arid region in the south of Tunisia. The plants were subjected, over two growing seasons, to two drip irrigated treatments: fresh water (ECe=1.2 dS m(-1), FW) and saline water (ECe=7.5 dS m(-1), SW). Saline water irrigation (SW) has led to a significant increase in soil salinity. Furthermore, these results showed that soil salinity and soil moisture variations are not only dependent on water salinity level but are also controlled by a multitude of factors particularly the soil texture, the distance from the irrigation source and climatic conditions (rainfall pattern, temperature average, …). On the other hand, salt treatment reduced leaf midday water potential (LMWP), relative water content and photosynthetic activity and increased the leaf proline content, and this increase was season-dependent. Indeed, LMWP in SW plants decreased to -3.71 MPa. Furthermore, the highest level of proline in SW plants was registered during summer period (2.19 ?mol/mg Fw). The proline accumulation recorded in stressed plants has allowed them to preserve appropriate leaf water status and photosynthetic activity. More to the point, this olive cultivar seems to be more sensible to soil salinity during the intense growth phase. Such tendencies would help to better manage water resources for irrigation, particularly under actual climatic conditions of water scarcity. For example, in the case of the availability of different water qualities, it would be better to preserve those of high quality for olive irrigation during the intense vegetative growth phase, in coincidence with high salt sensitive period, and those of low quality for irrigation during partial growth and plant rest phases. What's more, the urgent use of saline water for irrigation should not be applied without taking into consideration the different surroundings conditions where it is used, particularly the water salinity level, the soil type, the adopted irrigation system, the degree of the crop salt tolerance, the plant growth phase and the climatic conditions of the experimental site. PMID:22572465

Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Magdich, Salwa; Ben Rouina, Bechir; Boukhris, Makki; Ben Abdullah, Ferjani

2012-12-30

185

Water flow and hydraulic characteristics of Japanese red pine and oak trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the characteristics of water flow in a tree and the contribution of the stem water storage to transpiration, some field observations were carried out in two natural forests: a Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) forest and an oak (Quercus mongolica Fish) forest. Water potentials of leaf, stem, root and soil water, sap flow rate, volumetric

Yoshikazu Kobayashi; Tadashi Tanaka

2001-01-01

186

A comparative study of physico-chemical characteristics of river and lake water in Central India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper deals with a comparative study of the physico-chemical characteristics of river and lake waters in Central India. The surface water has been analysed for pH, turbidity, conductivity, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen and chlorides. The results of analyses of river water have been compared with those from lake water.

G. P. Mishra; A. K. Yadav

1978-01-01

187

Cold-water immersion and other forms of cryotherapy: physiological changes potentially affecting recovery from high-intensity exercise  

PubMed Central

High-intensity exercise is associated with mechanical and/or metabolic stresses that lead to reduced performance capacity of skeletal muscle, soreness and inflammation. Cold-water immersion and other forms of cryotherapy are commonly used following a high-intensity bout of exercise to speed recovery. Cryotherapy in its various forms has been used in this capacity for a number of years; however, the mechanisms underlying its recovery effects post-exercise remain elusive. The fundamental change induced by cold therapy is a reduction in tissue temperature, which subsequently exerts local effects on blood flow, cell swelling and metabolism and neural conductance velocity. Systemically, cold therapy causes core temperature reduction and cardiovascular and endocrine changes. A major hindrance to defining guidelines for best practice for the use of the various forms of cryotherapy is an incongruity between mechanistic studies investigating these physiological changes induced by cold and applied studies investigating the functional effects of cold for recovery from high-intensity exercise. When possible, studies investigating the functional recovery effects of cold therapy for recovery from exercise should concomitantly measure intramuscular temperature and relevant temperature-dependent physiological changes induced by this type of recovery strategy. This review will discuss the acute physiological changes induced by various cryotherapy modalities that may affect recovery in the hours to days (<5 days) that follow high-intensity exercise. PMID:24004719

2013-01-01

188

Comparison of Water Turbine Characteristics using Different Blades in Darrieus Water Turbines used for Tidal Current Generations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of renewable energies has been focused on for preserving environments and coping with the shortage of future energy supplies. In oceans, a tide reverses its current direction every six hours, and the current velocity changes into a sine wave after a period of time. Tidal current generation uses a generator to produce energy, changing the kinetic energy of current into a turning force by setting a water turbine in the tidal current. Therefore, it is considered to be very advantageous to use a water turbine that can always revolve in a fixed direction without any influence from tidal current directions. Water turbines with these characteristics are known as Darrieus water turbines. The Darrieus water turbines were modified for water from turbines originally developed for windmills. Darrieus water turbines have a difficulty in starting, but these days Darrieus water turbines have been developed with spiral blades, which make it easy to get the turbines started. However, there are very few reports regarding Darrieus water turbines with spiral blades, and therefore their characteristics are unknown. From the above points of view, this study devises and investigates spiral blade-Darrieus water turbines to clarify their characteristics through hydrographic experiments, and at the same time, it compares the characteristics of spiral-blade Darrieus water turbines with those of straight-blade ones.

Shiono, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Katsuyuki; Kiho, Seiji

189

The Clinical Application of Recent Advances in Salt and Water Physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulated excretion of water by the kidney requires a complex interplay of signaling-mediated changes in collecting duct water permeability and the generation and maintenance of a driving force for water reabsorption. The cornerstone for understanding this mechanism was established with the application of the principle of countercurrent multiplication to explain the marked osmolar gradient present in the medulla. Since

LICE M. SHERIDAN; Reza Abdi; Joseph V. Bonventre; Barry M. Brenner; Charles B. Carpenter; Anil Chandraker; Michael Clarkson; Gary C. Curhan; Bradley M. Denker; M. D. Markus Frank

190

Influence of different irrigation levels on the root water uptake and the physiology of root-chicory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of global warming and given recent heat waves observed in Western Europe, the relationship between the soil water status and the plant health has recently received more attention, especially for cash crops like chicory. In this study we particularly investigated the impact of soil water status on the chicory root water uptake and density and made a link with physiological and yield parameters. During five months, we imposed different irrigation levels to 10 plants of chicory (Cichorium intybus var. sativum) growing in greenhouses. Each seed, coming from an autogamous selection in this allogamous species, was sown in a column of 1.42m height and 0.4m diameter filled with yellow sand and irrigated from the bottom with Hoagland solution. On those 10 columns, we measured the distribution of soil moisture with TDR (8 columns) and ERT (2 columns) probes. Lateral windows also allowed us to follow the root growth. The column weights were also monitored in order to quantify the plant transpiration. During the experiment, several physiological indices were also followed like the gas exchange (CO2 and transpiration), the chlorophyll fluorescence, the stomatal conductance, the plastochron, and the Leaf Area Index (LAI). At the end of the experiment, the complete root length density and the water content profiles were measured. We had also a look to the osmotic potential, the pigments content and the isotopic discrimination of carbon in the leaves, which gives information about the level of stress. At a biochemical point of view, we measured the content in enzymes involves in inulin metabolism and sugars synthesis. We observed that the plants suffering from a slight water stress developed better. A simple1-D model was built which describes the root growth in function of the irrigation level and of the soil and atmospheric boundary conditions.

Vandoorne, B.; Dekoninck, N.; Lutts, S.; Capelle, B.; Javaux, M.

2009-04-01

191

The thermochemical characteristics of solution of phenol and benzoic acid in water-dimethylsulfoxide and water-acetonitrile mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solution of phenol and benzoic acid in water-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and water-acetonitrile (AN) mixtures was studied.\\u000a As distinct from benzoic acid, the thermodynamic characteristics of solution of phenol sharply change at concentrations corresponding\\u000a to a change in the character of cluster formation in water-DMSO and water-AN mixtures. Differences in the solvation of phenol\\u000a and benzoic acid are explained by different

A. G. Zakharov; M. I. Voronova; D. V. Batov; K. V. Smirnova

2011-01-01

192

Characteristic Analysis of Water Heater-Chiller Unit Driven by Natural-gas Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental researche was carried out on the installation, refit and running of a water heater-chiller unit of a water-to-water heat pump driven by a natural-gas engine to test the running characteristics of the engine, the performance characteristics of the heat pump, and the overall system. The results show that the heat pump unit driven by a natural-gas engine (GEHP) is

Zhao Yang; Haibo Zhao; Xihong Li

2005-01-01

193

A physiological, time–motion, and technical comparison of youth water polo and Acquagoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to provide a profile of young water polo players and to compare technical and tactical aspects, movement patterns, and cardiac loads of youth water polo and Acquagoal codes. Ten young (age 12.3 years, s = 0.6) male water polo players underwent anthropometric (stature, body mass, body mass index, chest circumference, hand breadth, and length), strength, and

Corrado Lupo; Antonio Tessitore; Cristina Cortis; Antonio Ammendolia; Franceso Figura; Laura Capranica

2009-01-01

194

Effect of Salinity on Biomass Yield and Physiological and Stem-Root Anatomical Characteristics of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) Accessions  

PubMed Central

13 selected purslane accessions were subjected to five salinity levels 0, 8, 16, 24, and 32?dS?m?1. Salinity effect was evaluated on the basis of biomass yield reduction, physiological attributes, and stem-root anatomical changes. Aggravated salinity stress caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction in all measured parameters and the highest salinity showed more detrimental effect compared to control as well as lower salinity levels. The fresh and dry matter production was found to increase in Ac1, Ac9, and Ac13 from lower to higher salinity levels but others were badly affected. Considering salinity effect on purslane physiology, increase in chlorophyll content was seen in Ac2, Ac4, Ac6, and Ac8 at 16?dS?m?1 salinity, whereas Ac4, Ac9, and Ac12 showed increased photosynthesis at the same salinity levels compared to control. Anatomically, stem cortical tissues of Ac5, Ac9, and Ac12 were unaffected at control and 8?dS?m?1 salinity but root cortical tissues did not show any significant damage except a bit enlargement in Ac12 and Ac13. A dendrogram was constructed by UPGMA based on biomass yield and physiological traits where all 13 accessions were grouped into 5 clusters proving greater diversity among them. The 3-dimensional principal component analysis (PCA) has also confirmed the output of grouping from cluster analysis. Overall, salinity stressed among all 13 purslane accessions considering biomass production, physiological growth, and anatomical development Ac9 was the best salt-tolerant purslane accession and Ac13 was the most affected accession. PMID:25802833

Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Rafii, M. Y.; Abdul Hamid, Azizah

2015-01-01

195

Assessing environmental and physiological controls over water relations in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand through analyses of stable isotope composition of water and organic matter.  

PubMed

This study investigated the influence of meteorological, pedospheric and physiological factors on the water relations of Scots pine, as characterized by the origin of water taken up, by xylem transport as well as by carbon isotope discrimination (Delta13C) and oxygen isotope enrichment (Delta18O) of newly assimilated organic matter. For more than 1 year, we quantified delta2H and delta18O of potential water sources and xylem water as well as Delta13C and Delta18O in twig and trunk phloem organic matter biweekly, and related these values to continuously measured or modelled meteorological parameters, soil water content, stand transpiration (ST) and canopy stomatal conductance (G(s)). During the growing season, delta18O and delta2H of xylem water were generally in a range comparable to soil water from a depth of 2-20 cm. Long residence time of water in the tracheids uncoupled the isotopic signals of xylem and soil water in winter. Delta18O but not Delta13C in phloem organic matter was directly indicative of recent environmental conditions during the whole year. Delta18O could be described applying a model that included 18O fractionation associated with water exchange between leaf and atmosphere, and with the production of organic matter as well as the influence of transpiration. Phloem Delta13C was assumed to be concertedly influenced by G(s) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (as a proxy for photosynthetic capacity). We conclude that isotope signatures can be used as effective tools (1) to characterize the seasonal dynamics in source and xylem water, and (2) to assess environmental effects on transpiration and G(s) of Scots pine, thus helping to understand and predict potential impacts of climate change on trees and forest ecosystems. PMID:17177880

Brandes, Elke; Wenninger, Jochen; Koeniger, Paul; Schindler, Dirk; Rennenberg, Heinz; Leibundgut, Christian; Mayer, Helmut; Gessler, Arthur

2007-01-01

196

Effect of Ar Ion Beam Implantation on Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch) Under Short-Term Artificial Drought Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ar+ ion beam with low energy of 30 keV was implanted into liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch) seeds at the doses of 0, 600, 900 and 1200 × (2.6 × 1013) ions/cm2, respectively. The seeds were sowed in pots and after one month the plants were subjected to different drought conditions for two months. Then the plants' morphological and physiological characteristics, anti-oxidation enzymes and levels of endogenous hormones were investigated. The results showed that ion implantation at a proper dose can greatly enhance the liquorice seedlings' resistance against drought stress.

Zhang, Xiangsheng; Wu, Lijun; Yu, Lixiang; Wei, Shenglin; Liu, Jingnan; Yu, Zengliang

2007-04-01

197

[The health, hygienic and toxicological characteristics of the natural water from the upper Volga].  

PubMed

The paper provides sanitary and toxicological water characteristics in the city of Yaroslavl on the Volga River in 1993-1996. The water was shown to contain high levels of petroleum products, COD, and toxic substances. The water concentrations of phenol were no greater than the acceptable values. Those of metals, pesticides, and detergents did not exceed the sanitary standards. PMID:10199068

Flerov, B A; Koroleva, E K

1999-01-01

198

Evaluation of a computer program used to estimate water characteristic curve  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The soil water characteristic curve, h(theta), can be used to estimate a variety of parameters in unsaturated soils. One practical application of h(theta) is its use by DRAINMOD, a drainage model that has been widely used in shallow water table regions, to determine the water table depth–drainage v...

199

Desert shrub water relations with respect to soil characteristics and plant functional type  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Soil characteristics influence plant communities in part through water relations. Hypothetically, finer textured soils in arid climates should be associated with more negative plant and soil water potentials during drought, greater resistance of xylem to cavitation, and shallower root systems than coarse soils. 2. These hypotheses were tested by comparing the water relations of Great Basin shrubs growing

J. S. Sperry; U. G. Hacke

2002-01-01

200

RESIDUE CHARACTERISTICS FOR WIND AND WATER EROSION CONTROL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Standing residue is an effective means of controlling erosion and preventing dust emission in areas prone to wind erosion. In northern climates, standing stubble retains snow deposits and enhances soil water, and in areas affected by water erosion, surface residue is an effective means of protecting...

201

Optimization of Floc Characteristics for Treatment of Highly Turbid Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addressed the size and fractal dimensions of flocs coagulated from highly turbid raw water using polyaluminum chloride (PACl) as the coagulant. Large flocs with loose interior structures are preferred for removing turbidity and humic acid from water. The response surface method, with the Box–Behnken design of experiments, was used to elucidate the effects of pH, turbidity, alkalinity of

Gurusamy Annadurai; S. S. Sung; D. J. Lee

2005-01-01

202

The Influence Of Water Tracks And Hillslope Position On The Physiology Of The Dominant Plant Species In The Imnavait Creek Watershed, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within a small arctic tundra watershed located on the north slope of Alaska, we asked if plant abundance and physiological performance are linked to hillslope position by the hydrologic processes controlling nutrient availability. Our prediction was that down slope sites and within water track sites should have the greatest nutrient availability resulting in the highest photosynthetic capacity and productivity. To examine these relationships, two transects were established in the Imnavait Creek watershed, running from the northern ridge crest to a beaded stream. In total, 16 sites, one water track (WT) and one non water track (NWT), from 8 locations, each 100 m apart were examined. At each site, soil moisture, thaw depth, canopy water status (from spectral reflectance) and species diversity were recorded. Chlorophyll fluorescence was used assess the maximum capacity of each species to transport electrons within the photosynthetic membranes of individual leaves (ETRMAX), a variable we expect to reflect both leaf N and general photosynthetic capacity. Significant differences were found within and among the major functional groups of plants growing in the watershed. In the two deciduous shrubs, Betula nana and Salix pulchra, ETRMAX generally decreased down slope but no significant difference were found between the WT and NWT sites. By contrast, ETRMAX in Rubus chamaemors, also a deciduous species, showed an initial decrease at the first two locations, but then remained constant further down slope and between WT and NWT sites. In the evergreen plants, Ledum palustre differed in that the maximum ETRMAX was found at the mid-slope locations while Vaccinium vitis-idaea had a characteristic decrease in ETRMAX down slope, with a large difference between WT and NWT at the first location. The forb Petasites frigidus displayed a unique pattern, with large difference in ETRMAX between WT and NWT at sites 4 and 5, the last two locations at which this species could be found. Finally, the only graminoid species studied, Eriophorum vaginatu, ETRMAX decrease down slope in a linear fashion and had the highest absolute ETRMAX. Additionally leaf gas-exchange was measured in Salix pulchra and leaf N and canopy reflectance was measured at each site. Together, our results demonstrate that while hillsope position has a significant effect on the physiology, growth and diversity of species, the relationships were not as hypothesized. Clearly other ecological, morphological or environmental factors are contributing to the productivity of the watershed and ultimately impacting the biogeochemistry of this important ecosystem.

Griffin, K. L.; Epstein, D. J.; Shapiro, J. B.; Boelman, N. T.; Stieglitz, M.

2003-12-01

203

Characteristics of dissolved carbon change in irrigation water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is necessary to estimate carbon emission from soil for understanding carbon cycle processes in cultivated fields. Since irrigation water is introduced into a typical rice paddy field, one part of emitted carbon content from soil were trapped by water and dissolved in it, and dissolved carbon content outflows from the field at the drainage moment. In this study, we continuously and regularly analyzed dissolved carbon content of irrigation water and investigated seasonal variation of efflux of carbon from a paddy field. Experimental site is located reclaimed land in the southern part of Okayama Prefecture, Japan. And rice cropping cultivation has continued in a similar method every year. Intermittent irrigation water managements, or 3 days flooded and 4 days drained condition, were carried out during almost all the period of rice cultivated term. Irrigation water was sampled every flooding and drainage days. Inorganic carbon (IC) concentration was measured with total carbon (TC) analyzer (TOC-V/CSH, SHIMAZU). Amount of dissolved carbon in irrigation water was calculated from product of the carbon concentration and water levels. The experimental paddy field was divided into two areas, and two bottle of water were sampled from each area. In order to investigate what impact is brought on the annual carbon cycle by the difference of disposal management of residual biomass after the harvest, residual biomass was burned and plowed into soil at the one area on 29th Nov., 2011, and residue was not burned and directly plowed into soil at the other area as usual. IC during cultivated term in 2011 and 2012 in both area gradually increased day by day for every flooded periods. And IC showed distinct diurnal variations with lower value in the daytime than at night, it is because of photosynthetic activities by aquatic algae in the irrigation water.

Akaike, Y.; Kunishio, A.; Kawamoto, Y.; Murakami, H.; Iwata, T.

2012-12-01

204

Anatomical and physiological regulation of post-fire carbon and water exchange in canopies of two resprouting Eucalyptus species.  

PubMed

The great majority of Eucalyptus spp. are facultative resprouters, and they dominate the eucalypt forests of Australia. Despite this numeric and geographic dominance, there is a general lack of knowledge of their capacity for carbon capture and water loss during canopy reinstation. After a crown-removing fire, we measured leaf-level determinants of carbon and water flux in resprouting canopies of Eucalyptus dives and E. radiata over the 3 years that followed. Leaf anatomy and physiology changed markedly during canopy reinstation, and leaves produced in the second year (2010) were distinct from those produced later. Leaves produced in 2010 were thicker (all measures of leaf anatomy), yet more porous (increased intercellular airspace), causing specific leaf area also to be greater. Indicators of heterotrophic activity, leaf respiration rate and light compensation point, were twofold greater in 2010, whereas all measures of photosynthetic capacity were greatest in leaves produced in 2011 and 2012. Whilst stomatal density, vein density and leaf hydraulic conductance all progressively decreased with time, neither leaf water status nor carbon isotope discrimination were affected. We conclude that canopy reinstation is primarily limited by pre-fire carbon stores, rather than by post-fire edaphic conditions (e.g., water availability), and thus argue that capacity for recovery is directly linked to pre-fire forest health. PMID:25108550

Turnbull, Tarryn L; Buckley, Thomas N; Barlow, Alexandra M; Adams, Mark A

2014-10-01

205

Physiological and behavioral consequences in rats of water recycling during lactation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports that radioactive water injected into 10-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats could be recovered the following day from their mothers' blood. This transfer of water was nearly eliminated by ligating the injected pups' urethras, a result indicating that mother rats consume their offspring's urine. Preventing urine consumption by ligating urethras of all pups in a litter doubled the plasma volume deficit in

Mark I. Friedman; John P. Bruno; Jeffrey R. Alberts

1981-01-01

206

Water-repellent Treatment on Military Uniform Fabrics: Physiological and Comfort Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost-effective nanotechnology-based water-repellent treatments for clothing fabrics are now commercially available. The effectiveness of these durable water repellent (DWR) fabric treatments are evaluated for application to military uniforms. The addition of a non-wicking finish to clothing fabric negatively impacts comfort in hot and humid environments. Clothing comfort may be improved by refining the DWR fabric treatment process to retain wicking

Phil Gibson

2008-01-01

207

WATER TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTICS OF LAKES SUBJECTED TO CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

A deterministic, one dimensional, unsteady lake water temperature model was modified and validated to simulate the seasonal (spring to fall) temperature stratification structure over a wide range of lake morphometries, trophic and meteorological conditions. odel coefficients rela...

208

VIRULENCE CHARACTERISTICS OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA COMMONLY ISOLATED FROM POTABLE WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Heterotrophic bacteria isolated from drinking water distribution systems were examined to determine if they possessed putative virulence factors such as hemolysins, proteases, or cytotoxins. Representative samples of colonies from several different distribution systems indicated ...

209

OCCURRENCE OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA WITH VIRULENCE CHARACTERISTICS IN POTABLE WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Treated potable water contains a variety of heterotrophic bacteria that survive current treatment processes. There is evidence that these bacteria are not hazardous to the healthy population, however, the possibility exists that some of them may be opportunistic pathogens capabl...

210

DEVELOPING JOINT PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS OF SOIL WATER RETENTION CHARACTERISTICS  

EPA Science Inventory

A method is presented for developing probability density functions for parameters of soil moisture relationships of capillary head and hydraulic conductivity. These soil moisture parameters are required for the assessment of water flow and solute transport in unsaturated media. T...

211

Physiology and pathophysiology of the vasopressin-regulated renal water reabsorption  

PubMed Central

To prevent dehydration, terrestrial animals and humans have developed a sensitive and versatile system to maintain their water homeostasis. In states of hypernatremia or hypovolemia, the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (AVP) is released from the pituitary and binds its type-2 receptor in renal principal cells. This triggers an intracellular cAMP signaling cascade, which phosphorylates aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and targets the channel to the apical plasma membrane. Driven by an osmotic gradient, pro-urinary water then passes the membrane through AQP2 and leaves the cell on the basolateral side via AQP3 and AQP4 water channels. When water homeostasis is restored, AVP levels decline, and AQP2 is internalized from the plasma membrane, leaving the plasma membrane watertight again. The action of AVP is counterbalanced by several hormones like prostaglandin E2, bradykinin, dopamine, endothelin-1, acetylcholine, epidermal growth factor, and purines. Moreover, AQP2 is strongly involved in the pathophysiology of disorders characterized by renal concentrating defects, as well as conditions associated with severe water retention. This review focuses on our recent increase in understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying AVP-regulated renal water transport in both health and disease. PMID:18431594

Boone, Michelle

2008-01-01

212

Optical characteristics of natural waters protect amphibians from UV-B in the U.S. Pacific Northwest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increased exposure to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation has been proposed as a major environmental stressor leading to global amphibian declines. Prior experimental evidence from the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) indicating the acute embryonic sensitivity of at least four amphibian species to UV-B has been central to the literature about amphibian decline. However, these results have not been expanded to address population-scale effects and natural landscape variation in UV-B transparency of water at amphibian breeding sites: both necessary links to assess the importance of UV-B for amphibian declines. We quantified the UV-B transparency of 136 potential amphibian breeding sites to establish the pattern of UV-B exposure across two montane regions in the PNW. Our data suggest that 85% of sites are naturally protected by dissolved organic matter in pond water, and that only a fraction of breeding sites are expected to experience UV-B intensities exceeding levels associated with elevated egg mortality. Thus, the spectral characteristics of natural waters likely mediate the physiological effects of UV-B on amphibian eggs in all but the clearest waters. These data imply that UV-B is unlikely to cause broad amphibian declines across the landscape of the American Northwest.

Palen, Wendy J.; Schindler, David E.; Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Bury, R. Bruce; Diamond, S.A.

2002-01-01

213

Polyols in grape berry: transport and metabolic adjustments as a physiological strategy for water-deficit stress tolerance in grapevine.  

PubMed

Polyols are important metabolites that often function as carbon and energy sources and/or osmoprotective solutes in some plants. In grapevine, and in the grape berry in particular, the molecular aspects of polyol transport and metabolism and their physiological relevance are virtually unknown to date. Here, the biochemical function of a grapevine fruit mesocarp polyol transporter (VvPLT1) was characterized after its heterologous expression in yeast. This H(+)-dependent plasma membrane carrier transports mannitol (K m=5.4mM) and sorbitol (K m=9.5mM) over a broad range of polyols and monosaccharides. Water-deficit stress triggered an increase in the expression of VvPLT1 at the fully mature stage, allowing increased polyol uptake into pulp cells. Plant polyol dehydrogenases are oxireductases that reversibly oxidize polyols into monosaccharides. Mannitol catabolism in grape cells (K m=30.1mM mannitol) and mature berry mesocarps (K m=79mM) was, like sorbitol dehydrogenase activity, strongly inhibited (50-75%) by water-deficit stress. Simultaneously, fructose reduction into polyols via mannitol and sorbitol dehydrogenases was stimulated, contributing to their higher intracellular concentrations in water-deficit stress. Accordingly, the concentrations of mannitol, sorbitol, galactinol, myo-inositol, and dulcitol were significantly higher in berry mesocarps from water-deficit-stressed Tempranillo grapevines. Metabolomic profiling of the berry pulp by GC-TOF-MS also revealed many other changes in its composition induced by water deficit. The impact of polyols on grape berry composition and plant response to water deficit stress, via modifications in polyol transport and metabolism, was analysed by integrating metabolomics with transcriptional analysis and biochemical approaches. PMID:25433029

Conde, Artur; Regalado, Ana; Rodrigues, Diana; Costa, J Miguel; Blumwald, Eduardo; Chaves, M Manuela; Gerós, Hernâni

2015-02-01

214

WATER ADSORPTION AND DRYING CHARACTERISTICS OF OKRA Hibiscus Esculentus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moisture adsorption characteristics of okra were evaluated at 10, 20, 30° C. Isotherms were found to be of type III. Monolayer moisture contents were evaluated with GAB model. Drying was carried out at 60, 70, 80° C and drying data were analysed to obtain diffusivity values from the period of first felling drying rate. Effective diffusivity increased with increasing temperature.

FAHRETTIN GÖGUS; MEDENI MASKAN

1999-01-01

215

Effects of Diesel Engine Speed and Water Content on Emission Characteristics of Three-Phase Emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of water content of three-phase emulsions and engine speed on the combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engines were investigated in this study. The results show that a larger water content of water-in oil (W\\/O) and oil-in-water-in-oil (O\\/W\\/O) emulsion caused a higher brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) value and a lower O2, as well as a lower NOx

Cherng-Yuan Lin; Kuo-Hua Wang

2004-01-01

216

Oxygen flux as an indicator of physiological stress in aquatic organisms: a real-time biomonitoring system of water quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of harmful chemicals and biological agents in real time is a critical need for protecting water quality. We studied the real-time effects of five environmental contaminants with differing modes of action (atrazine, pentachlorophenol, cadmium chloride, malathion, and potassium cyanide) on respiratory oxygen consumption in 2-day post-fertilization fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) eggs. Our objective was to assess the sensitivity of fathead minnow eggs using the self-referencing micro-optrode technique to detect instantaneous changes in oxygen consumption after brief exposures to low concentrations of contaminants. Oxygen consumption data indicated that the technique is indeed sensitive enough to reliably detect physiological alterations induced by all contaminants. After 2 h of exposure, we identified significant increases in oxygen consumption upon exposure to pentachlorophenol (100 and 1000 ?g/L), cadmium chloride (0.0002 and 0.002 ?g/L), and atrazine (150 ?g/L). In contrast, we observed a significant decrease in oxygen flux after exposures to potassium cyanide (5.2, 22, and 44 ?g/L) and atrazine (1500 ?g/L). No effects were detected after exposures to malathion (200 and 340 ?g/L). We have also tested the sensitivity of Daphnia magna embryos as another animal model for real-time environmental biomonitoring. Our results are so far encouraging and support further development of this technology as a physiologically coupled biomonitoring tool for the detection of environmental toxicants.

Sanchez, Brian C.; Yale, Gowri; Chatni, Rameez; Ochoa-Acuña, Hugo G.; Porterfield, D. Marshall; Mclamore, Eric S.; Sepúlveda, María S.

2009-05-01

217

Alcohol and dilution water characteristics in distilled anis (ouzo).  

PubMed

The authenticity of some mixed drinks such as vodka or rum was correlated to the conductivity of the dilution water. Authentic drinks demonstrated low conductivity, suggesting the use of treated water, whereas fraud drinks were mixed with regular tap water. The objective of the present study was to test if this criterion is valid for distilled anis, also known as ouzo. Several Greek distilled anis samples, mostly ouzo samples, were tested for different parameters including conductivity, pH, and percentage of different alcohol constituents. Because ouzo in Greece is commonly produced by small enterprises, no correlation between conductivity and the size of the producer was possible. Neither was it possible to correlate the price or high consumption with conductivity and, thus, prior water treatment. Alcohol quality in terms of undesirable constituents, such as methanol content, was good and comparable among samples. In ouzo, water is related to the producer quality goal for the final product and, thus, it is treated and used accordingly. PMID:24816147

Karapanagioti, Hrissi K; Bekatorou, Argyro

2014-05-28

218

Physiological Effects of Kaolin Applications in Well-irrigated and Water-stressed Walnut and Almond Trees  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Kaolin applications have been used to mitigate the negative effects of water and heat stress on plant physiology and productivity with variable results, ranging from increased to decreased yields and photosynthetic rates. The mechanisms of action of kaolin applications are not clear: although the increased albedo reduces leaf temperature and the consequent heat stress, it also reduces the light available for photosynthesis, possibly offsetting benefits of lower temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate which of these effects are prevalent and under which conditions. • Methods A 6?% kaolin suspension was applied on well-irrigated and water-stressed walnut (Juglans regia) and almond (Prunus dulcis) trees. Water status (i.e. stem water potential, ?s), gas exchange (i.e. light-saturated CO2 assimilation rate, Amax; stomatal conductance, gs), leaf temperature (Tl) and physiological relationships in treated and control trees were then measured and compared. • Key Results In both species, kaolin did not affect the daily course of ?s whereas it reduced Amax by 1–4 ?mol CO2 m–2 s–1 throughout the day in all combinations of species and irrigation treatments. Kaolin did not reduce gs in any situation. Consequently, intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) was always greater in treated trees than in controls, suggesting that the reduction of Amax with kaolin was not due to stomatal limitations. Kaolin reduced leaf temperature (Tl) by about 1–3?°C and leaf-to-air vapour pressure difference (VPDl) by about 0·1–0·7 kPa. Amax was lower at all values of gs, Tl and VPDl in kaolin-treated trees. Kaolin affected the photosynthetic response to the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in almond leaves: kaolin-coated leaves had similar dark respiration rates and light-saturated photosynthesis, but a higher light compensation point and lower apparent quantum yield, while the photosynthetic light-response curve saturated at higher PAR. When these parameters were used to model the photosynthetic response curve to PAR, it was estimated that the kaolin film allowed 63?% of the incident PAR to reach the leaf. • Conclusions The main effect of kaolin application was the reduction, albeit minor, of photosynthesis, which appeared to be related to the shading of the leaves. The reduction in Tl and VPDl with kaolin did not suffice to mitigate the adverse effects of heat and water stress on Amax. PMID:16735404

ROSATI, A.; METCALF, S. G.; BUCHNER, R. P.; FULTON, A. E.; LAMPINEN, B. D.

2006-01-01

219

Characteristics of thermal conductivity in classical water models.  

PubMed

The thermal conductivities of common water models are compared using equilibrium (EMD) and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulation. A complete accounting for electrostatic contributions to the heat flux was found to resolve the previously reported differing results of NEMD and EMD Green-Kubo measurements for the extended simple point-charge (SPC/E) model. Accordingly, we demonstrate the influence of long-range electrostatics on the thermal conductivity with a simple coulomb cutoff, Ewald summation, and by an extended particle-particle particle-mesh method. For each water model, the thermal conductivity is computed and decomposed in terms of frequency-dependent thermodynamic and topological contributions. The rigid, three-site SPC, SPC/E, and transferable intermolecular potential (TIP3P-Ew) water models are shown to have similar thermal conductivity values at standard conditions, whereas models that include bond stretching and angle bending have higher thermal conductivities. PMID:23425477

Sirk, Timothy W; Moore, Stan; Brown, Eugene F

2013-02-14

220

Characteristics of thermal conductivity in classical water models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal conductivities of common water models are compared using equilibrium (EMD) and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulation. A complete accounting for electrostatic contributions to the heat flux was found to resolve the previously reported differing results of NEMD and EMD Green-Kubo measurements for the extended simple point-charge (SPC/E) model. Accordingly, we demonstrate the influence of long-range electrostatics on the thermal conductivity with a simple coulomb cutoff, Ewald summation, and by an extended particle-particle particle-mesh method. For each water model, the thermal conductivity is computed and decomposed in terms of frequency-dependent thermodynamic and topological contributions. The rigid, three-site SPC, SPC/E, and transferable intermolecular potential (TIP3P-Ew) water models are shown to have similar thermal conductivity values at standard conditions, whereas models that include bond stretching and angle bending have higher thermal conductivities.

Sirk, Timothy W.; Moore, Stan; Brown, Eugene F.

2013-02-01

221

Effects of temperature and light intensity on growth and physiology in purple root water hyacinth and common water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes).  

PubMed

In this study, the interaction between temperature and light intensity was investigated in common water hyacinth (CWH) and purple root water hyacinth (PRWH). Effects of different temperatures (11/5, 18/11, 25/18, and 32/25 °C day/night) simultaneously applied at various light intensities (100, 300, and 600 ?mol m(-2) s(-1)) to the plants were detected by measuring changes in the root lengths, protein content, sugar content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, photosynthesis, and dissolved oxygen (DO). Temperature and light intensity significantly influence the growth of water hyacinths, and there was significant interaction among these environmental factors. The results suggest that several environmental factors act synergistically on the growth and physiology of water hyacinths. The higher new root length (NRL) in PRWH indicated that its root growth capacity is higher than in CWH. The soluble sugar content in leaves of CWH was higher than PRWH, indicating that relatively higher sugar content in CWH to low-temperature stress may support its tolerant nature. Lower temperature and light intensity can stimulate the accumulation of MDA content. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn) in leaves of CWH was higher than PRWH. In low temperature, increase light intensity can stimulate the Pn of PRWH and CWH. In CWH and PRWH, Pn showed a similar trend as noted for stomatal conductance (Cond) and transpiration rate (Tr). The capacity of PRWH in adding oxygen to the water column is better than those of CWH. PMID:24994106

Shu, Xiao; Zhang, QuanFa; Wang, WeiBo

2014-11-01

222

Environmental impact of leachate characteristics on water quality.  

PubMed

Improper urbanization and industrialization are causing a critical stress on groundwater quality in urban areas of the developing countries. The present study under investigation describes the pollution caused by leachate from a waste management site in southwestern Bangalore city causing pollution of the surface water and groundwater reserves. The characterization of 20 groundwater samples and Haralukunte lake sample indicated high pollution of these water reserves by leachate entry into the groundwater and surface water sources. The study area focuses around the solid waste management site, carrying out bio-composting and vermi-composting of municipal solid waste. Further investigations on the severe health problems faced by the public in the study area has revealed a clear pointer towards the usage of polluted water for rearing live-stock, farming, and domestic activities. The characterization of the leachate with high values of BOD at 1,450 mg/l, TDS at 17,200 mg/l, nitrates at 240 mg/l, and MPN at 545/100 ml indicates a clear nuisance potential, which has been substantiated by the characterization of lake water sample with chlorides at 3,400 mg/l, TDS at 8,020 mg/l, and lead and cadmium at 0.18 and 0.08 mg/l, respectively. Analysis of groundwater samples shows alarming physicochemical values closer to the waste disposal site and relatively reduced values away from the source of the waste management site. Bureau of Indian Standards have been adapted as the benchmark for the analysis and validation of observed water quality criteria. PMID:20859680

Cumar, Sampath Kumar Mandyam; Nagaraja, Balasubramanya

2011-07-01

223

MUTAGENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RIVER WATERS FLOWING THROUGH LARGE METROPOLITAN AREAS IN NORTH AMERICA  

EPA Science Inventory

Mutagenic characteristics of river waters flowing through large metropolitan areas in North America The hanging technique using blue rayon, which specifically adsorbs mutagens with multicyclic planar structures, has the advantages over most conventional methods of not havi...

224

Using physiologically based pharmacokinetic models to estimate the health risk of mixtures of trihalomethanes from reclaimed water.  

PubMed

To estimate the health risk of mixture of trihalomethanes (THMs) from reclaimed water during toilet flushing, the interaction-based Hazard Index (HI(interaction-based)) and the mixture carcinogenic risk (CRM) according to tissue dose were conducted through the integrated use of both the exposure concentrations model and the physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of THMs. Monte Carlo simulations were employed to implement the probabilistic risk analysis and sensitivity analysis. Nine samples were analyzed, which were collected from J Water Reclamation Plant (JWRP) in Tianjin of China. The results indicated that the mean HI(interaction-based) (=0.85) was lower than the acceptable risk level (=1). The probability that the HI(interaction-based) exceeded the acceptable risk level is 22.97%. For carcinogenic risk, the CRM ranges from 9.41×10(-7) to 3.54×10(-5), with a mean of 5.49×10(-6). Moreover, the probability of exceeding the acceptable risk level (1×10(-6)) is near 100%. And the values of HI(interaction-based) from sample no. 1, 5, and 7 exceeded 1, while the values of CRM for all samples exceeded 1×10(-6). Consequently, the reclaimed water used for flushing toilets should be paid more attention, though non-carcinogenic effect is relatively small. Furthermore, the concentrations of DBCM had greater impact on both the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk based on sensitivity analysis. PMID:25497033

Niu, Zhiguang; Zang, Xue; Zhang, Ying

2015-03-21

225

Genome duplication and the evolution of physiological responses to water stress  

E-print Network

-8137.2009.02997.x Key words: adaptation, Chamerion angustifolium, gas exchange, hydraulic conductance, polyploidy differentiation between cytotypes is not known. · We examined the water relations of Chamerion angustifolium C. angustifolium are unlikely to be caused solely by genome duplication. The enhanced ability

Maherali, Hafiz

226

WATER STRESS ON PUNA CHICORY AND LANCELOT PLANTAIN - MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Summer growth of cool-season species in the NE USA is reduced due to a combination of high temperature and drought. A two year experiment near State College, PA was designed to compare the effect of soil water availability conditions on chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and plantain (Plantago lanceolat...

227

Physiological Effects of Saline Water on Two Economically Important Horticultural Crops in South Texas  

E-print Network

million (United States Department of Agriculture, 2008) to $200 million (Sauls, 2008). The LRGV is the 3rd fastest growing 9 metropolitan area in the US. Currently, 90% of the water used from the Rio Grande River is used for agricultural purposes...

Simpson, Catherine Ross

2013-12-02

228

Impact of water and feed deprivation on physiological parameters in steers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A report in rats demonstrated that dehydration as the result of 8 d of water deprivation increased leakage of endotoxin from the intestine (Zurovsky and Barbiro, 2000 Experimental and toxicologic pathology 52:37-42). Given the large number of gram negative bacteria in the rumen of cattle, a much sho...

229

Influence of water vapor pressure on the apparent capacity for physiological thermoregulation in reptiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of body temperature change was determined as lizards,Dipsosaurus dorsalis, were heated and cooled between 20 and 40 ° C, at various ambient water vapor pressures (WVP). While changes in WVP did not affect the rate of cooling, the rate of temperature change during heating increased exponentially with increasing WVP (Fig. 4). The ratio of the rate of body

Wesley W. Weathers

1972-01-01

230

The physiological resilience of fern sporophytes and gametophytes: advances in water relations offer new insights into an old lineage.  

PubMed

Ferns are some of the oldest vascular plants in existence and they are the second most diverse lineage of tracheophytes next to angiosperms. Recent efforts to understand fern success have focused on the physiological capacity and stress tolerance of both the sporophyte and the gametophyte generations. In this review, we examine these insights through the lens of plant water relations, focusing primarily on the form and function of xylem tissue in the sporophyte, as well as the tolerance to and recovery from drought and desiccation stress in both stages of the fern life cycle. The absence of secondary xylem in ferns is compensated by selection for efficient primary xylem composed of large, closely arranged tracheids with permeable pit membranes. Protection from drought-induced hydraulic failure appears to arise from a combination of pit membrane traits and the arrangement of vascular bundles. Features such as tracheid-based xylem and variously sized megaphylls are shared between ferns and more derived lineages, and offer an opportunity to compare convergent and divergent hydraulic strategies critical to the success of xylem-bearing plants. Fern gametophytes show a high degree of desiccation tolerance but new evidence shows that morphological attributes in the gametophytes may facilitate water retention, though little work has addressed the ecological significance of this variation. We conclude with an emergent hypothesis that selection acted on the physiology of both the sporophyte and gametophyte generations in a synchronous manner that is consistent with selection for drought tolerance in the epiphytic niche, and the increasingly diverse habitats of the mid to late Cenozoic. PMID:23935601

Pittermann, Jarmila; Brodersen, Craig; Watkins, James E

2013-01-01

231

Characteristics of Large Volume Discharges in Water using Pulsed Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of industrial applications using pulsed power technologies is water treatment by streamer discharges. Streamer discharges in liquid generate high electric fields at the tip of streamers, as well as high-energy electrons, ozone, chemically active species, ultraviolet rays and shock waves. All of these may be utilized to sterilize microorganisms and to decompose molecules and materials. Large volume streamer discharges

Hiroshi Nakashi; Tatsuya Hirooka; Sunao Katsuki; Hidenori Akiyama

2003-01-01

232

[Study on characteristics of fluorescence spectra of dissolved organic matter with different water quality].  

PubMed

The fluorescence spectra of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in several types of water samples in combination with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements were measured in the laboratory, and the spectral characteristics of DOM were analysed. The curve of normalized fluorescence intensity against corresponding concentration of humic acid is showed. The results demonstrate the possibilities of water quality monitoring based upon fluorescence spectral characteristics of DOM by means of LIF method. PMID:16241059

Zhao, Nan-jing; Liu, Wen-qing; Liu, Jian-guo; Zhang, Yu-jun; Li, Hong-bin; Ding, Zhi-qun; Li, Wei-hua; Zhou, Meng-ran; Yang, Li-shu

2005-07-01

233

Physiology Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physiology Online, the electronic information service of the Physiological Society, provides information about its three journals: Journal of Physiology, Proceedings of the Physiological Society, and Experimental Physiology. Also included are selected abstracts, as well as information about recent monographs, job listings (mostly in the U.K.), information about Society grants, a physiology file and software archive for both PC and Mac platforms, pointers to other physiology resources on the Internet, and a listing of upcoming meetings and conferences within the field.

234

Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A 127 (2000) 8187 Effects of acute fresh water exposure on water flux rates  

E-print Network

in adrenocorticoids to acute fresh water exposure suggests that adrenal responsiveness to an hypo-osmotic environment rights reserved. Keywords: Adrenal; Aldosterone; Corticosterone; Deuterium; Electrolytes; Osmoregulation and Evans, 1976; Marshall and Cooper, 1988). Salt glands present in marine reptiles allow these animals

Ortiz, Rudy M.

235

Physical characteristics of GE (General Electric) BWR (boiling-water reactor) fuel assemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical characteristics of fuel assemblies manufactured by the General Electric Company for boiling-water reactors are classified and described. The classification into assembly types is based on the GE reactor product line, the Characteristics Data Base (CDB) assembly class, and the GE fuel design. Thirty production assembly types are identified. Detailed physical data are presented for each assembly type in

R. S. Moore; K. J. Notz

1989-01-01

236

Effect of Sweet Wormwood Artemisia annua Crude Leaf Extracts on Some Biological and Physiological Characteristics of the Lesser Mulberry Pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis  

PubMed Central

The lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a monophagous and dangerous pest of mulberry that has been recently observed in Guilan province, northern Iran. In this study, the crude methanol extract of sweet wormwood Artemisia annua L. (Asterales: Asteracaea) was investigated on toxicity, biological and physiological characteristics of this pest under controlled conditions (24 ± 1 °C, 75 ± 5% RH, and 16:8 L:D photoperiod). The effect of acute toxicity and sublethal doses on physiological characteristics was performed by topical application. The LC50 and LC20 values on fourth instar larvae were calculated as 0.33 and 0.22 gram leaf equivalent/ mL, respectively. The larval duration of fifth instar larvae in LC50 treatment was prolonged (5.8 ± 0.52 days) compared with the control group (4.26 ± 0.29 days). However larval duration was reduced in the LC20 treatment. The female adult longevity in the LC50 dose was the least (4.53 ± 0.3 days), while longevity among controls was the highest (9.2 ± 0.29 days). The mean fecundity of adults after larval treatment with LC50 was recorded as 105.6 ± 16.84 eggs/female, while the control was 392.74 ± 22.52 eggs/female. The percent hatchability was reduced in all treatments compared with the control. The effect of extract in 0.107, 0.053, 0.026 and 0.013 gle/mL on biochemical characteristics of this pest was also studied. The activity of ?-amylase and protease 48 hours post—treatment was significantly reduced compared with the control. Similarly lipase, esterase, and glutathione S-transferase activity were significantly affected by A. annua extract. PMID:22239100

Khosravi, Roya; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Yezdani, Elham

2011-01-01

237

Comparison of the physiological responses and time-motion characteristics of young soccer players in small-sided games: the effect of goalkeeper.  

PubMed

Köklü, Y, Sert, Ö, Alemdaro?lu, U, and Arslan, Y. Comparison of the physiological responses and time-motion characteristics of young soccer players in small-sided games: The effect of goalkeeper. J Strength Cond Res 29(4): 964-971, 2015-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of "with goalkeeper" (SSGwith) and "without goalkeeper" (SSGwithout) conditions on players' physiological responses and time-motion characteristics in small-sided games. Sixteen young soccer players (age: 16.5 ± 1.5 years; height: 175.5 ± 5.2 cm; body mass: 63.0 ± 6.9 kg; training experience: 6.3 ± 1.3 years) participated in 2 different 2-a-side, 3-a-side, and 4-a-side games: SSGwith and SSGwithout. The players underwent anthropometric measurements (height and body mass) followed by the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1). Then they played 2-a-side, 3-a-side, and 4-a-side SSGwith and SSGwithout soccer-specific SSGs in random order at 2-day intervals. Heart rate (HR) responses and distance covered in different speed zones (walking [WLK, 0-6.9 km·h], low-intensity running [LIR, 7.0-12.9 km·h], moderate-intensity running [MIR, 13.0-17.9 km·h], and high-intensity running [HIR, >18 km·h]) were measured during the SSGs, whereas the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate (La) were determined at the end of the last bout of each SSG. During the SSGwithout players showed higher %HR, La, and RPE (p ? 0.05), greater distance covered in LIR, MIR, HIR, and total distance (p ? 0.05) compared with the SSGwith during the 2-a-side, 3-a-side, and 4-a-side games. The results of this study suggest that both SSGwith and SSGwithout could be used for the physiological adaptations required for soccer-specific aerobic endurance. However, if coaches want both higher physiological responses and greater distance covered in the intensity running zone from their teams, SSGwithout should be organized. In addition, this study also suggests that smaller format games (i.e., 2-a-side) may promote some anaerobic adaptations for youth soccer players. PMID:23942169

Köklü, Yusuf; Sert, Özcan; Alemdaro?lu, Utku; Arslan, Yunus

2015-04-01

238

Survey of receiving-water environmental impacts associated with discharges from pulp mills; 1: Mill characteristics, receiving-water chemical profiles and lab toxicity tests  

SciTech Connect

This survey examined the relationship between environmental responses at pulp mill sites and the pulping process, effluent treatment, and bleaching technology used by pulp mills. This manuscript is the first in a series of four; it reviews the location and operating characteristics of mills included in the survey and provides background information on water chemistry that is relevant to the other components of the survey. In addition, lab 7-d toxicity tests of receiving water were conducted using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia with water samples collected upstream and downstream of effluent discharges at 11 Canadian pulp and paper mills; these samples were collected at the same time as fish surveys were conducted. Survival of fathead minnow larvae was significantly reduced at four of the 11 downstream sites. Ceriodaphnia reproduction was significantly higher at six of the 11 downstream sites and significantly lower at two downstream sites. There were no significant effects on fathead minnow larva growth or adult Ceriodaphnia survival at any of the examined downstream sites. Negative effects in the toxicity tests were generally associated with the low dilution discharge of primary treated effluent with a previous history of acute toxicity. Fathead minnow and Ceriodaphnia tests were generally correlated with historical data on benthic macroinvertebrate community responses. Neither toxicity test predicted the physiological changes in wild fish that are presented in accompanying papers.

Robinson, R.D. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Environmental Biology); Carey, J.H. (National Water Research Inst., Burlington, Ontario (Canada). Rivers Research Branch); Solomon, K.R. (Centre for Toxicology, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)); Smith, I.R. (Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Water Resources Branch); Servos, M.R.; Munkittrick, K.R. (Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Burlington, Ontario (Canada). Great Lakes Lab. for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences)

1994-07-01

239

Developing joint probability distributions of soil water retention characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for developing probability density functions for parameters of soil moisture relationships of capillary head (h(Phi)) and hydraulic conductivity (K(Phi)). These soil moisture parameters are required for the assessment of water flow and solute transport in unsaturated media. The method employs a statistical multiple regression equations proposed in the literature for estimating (h(Phi)) or (K(Phi)) relationships using

Robert F. Carsel; Rudolph S. Parrish

1988-01-01

240

Effects of larval growth condition and water availability on desiccation resistance and its physiological basis in adult Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto  

PubMed Central

Background Natural populations of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s. are exposed to large seasonal and daily fluctuations in relative humidity and temperature, which makes coping with drought a crucial aspect of their ecology. Methods To better understand natural variation in desiccation resistance in this species, the effects of variation in larval food availability and access to water as an adult on subsequent phenotypic quality and desiccation resistance of adult females of the Mopti chromosomal form were tested experimentally. Results It was found that, under normal conditions, larval food availability and adult access to water had only small direct effects on female wet mass, dry mass, and water, glycogen and body lipid contents corrected for body size. In contrast, when females subsequently faced a strong desiccation challenge, larval food availability and adult access to water had strong carry-over effects on most measured physiological and metabolic parameters, and affected female survival. Glycogen and water content were the most used physiological reserves in relative terms, but their usage significantly depended on female phenotypic quality. Adult access to water significantly influenced the use of water and body lipid reserves, which subsequently affected desiccation resistance. Conclusions These results demonstrate the importance of growth conditions and water availability on adult physiological status and subsequent resistance to desiccation. PMID:20691104

2010-01-01

241

Effects of in ovo injection of electrolyte solutions on the pre- and posthatch physiological characteristics of broilers.  

PubMed

Effects of the automated in ovo injection of various concentrations and volumes of physiological electrolyte solutions and a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CEN) on broiler embryo development and posthatch chick performance were investigated in 5 individual consecutive trials to test potential diluents for commercial injection. A 200-µL saline solution (117 mM) injection treatment and a noninjected control were included in all trials. For the first 4 trials, solutions were injected into the amnion of embryos on d 16 of incubation, and subsequent percentage incubational egg weight loss, embryo mortality, proportional embryo BW, embryo moisture content, proportional yolk sac weight, and yolk moisture content were evaluated on d 18. In trial 5, solutions were injected into the amnion on d 18, and subsequent hatchability and posthatch performance were investigated. In trial 1, a 200-?L injection of 5 mM tripotassium citrate (C(6)H(5)K(3)O(7)) and a 200-?L injection of CEN at 1:400 and 1:8,000 concentrations had no detrimental effect on proportional embryo BW. However, embryo moisture content was increased by the injection of either solution at all concentrations. In trial 2, 200-?L injections of saline, potassium chloride (KCl), or sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH(2)PO(4)) solution at various physiological concentrations did not affect any of the parameters examined. In trial 3, the injection of 2,000 µL of 117 mM saline reduced 0 to 18 d percentage egg weight loss. In trial 4, percentage egg weight loss was reduced and embryo moisture was increased by a 200-?L saline (117 mM) injection, but not by 200 ?L of solutions of CEN (1:400), C(6)H(5)K(3)O(7) (5.0 mM), or NaH(2)PO(4) (1.0 mM) in 5.5 mM KCl. Compared with controls in trial 5, plasma refractive index was increased by CEN-KCl (1:400-5.5 mM) and saline (117 mM) injections, but not by C(6)H(5)K(3)O(7)-KCl (5 mM-5.5 mM). The current study indicated that 5.5 mM KCl and 5 mM C(6)H(5)K(3)O(7) have the greatest potential for use individually or in combination for the commercial injection of broiler hatching eggs. PMID:21489955

McGruder, B M; Zhai, W; Keralapurath, M M; Bennett, L W; Gerard, P D; Peebles, E D

2011-05-01

242

The fate of glyphosate in water hyacinth and its physiological and biochemical influences on growth of algae  

SciTech Connect

Absorption, translocation, distribution, exudation, and guttation of {sup 14}C-glyphosate in water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) were studied. Glyphosphate entered the plant by foliage and solution treatment. Plants were harvested and separated into the following parts: treated leaf blade, treated leaf petiole, young leaf blade, young leaf petiole, old leak blade, old leaf petiole, and root. Each part was extracted with methanol. Treated leaves, which exist only in foliage treatment, were washed with water and chloroform to remove the glyphosate residues. All {sup 14}C counting was made by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Autoradiography was used to locate {sup 14}C-glyphosate after foliage treatment. Results indicated that glyphosate can be absorbed from the leaf surface and translocated rapidly through phloem tissues into the whole plant body. The roots of water hyacinth absorbed glyphosate without vertical transport. Guttation of glyphosate occurred in treated leaf tips. Exudation of glyphosate from roots of water hyacinth occurred within 8 hr after foliage treatment. Chlorella vulgaris, Chlamydomonas reihardii, Anabaena cylindrica, and Chroococcus turgidus were used to explore the physiological and biochemical effects of glyphosate on algae. Spectrophotometric assays were performed for algal growth, chlorophyll, carotenoids, phycobiliprotein, carbohydrate, and protein. TLC procedures and an image analyzer were used to detect the metabolites of glyphosate inside algal cells. The common visible symptom of glyphosate toxicity in all algal cells were bleaching effect and reduction of contents of carbohydrate, protein, and pigments. The results highly suggested that glyphosate injured the algal cells by destruction of photosynthetic pigments and resulted in lowering the contents of carbohydrate and protein in algal cells.

Tsai, Baolong.

1989-01-01

243

Characteristic of surface water resources and response to climate change in northwest of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the variability characteristic and response to climate change of surface water resources, such as glacier, snow, lake and runoff of rivers in northwest China are analyzed by meteorological, hydrological and remote sensing data. The results show that the melting water has been increasing while glacier has been thinning and deteriorating along with global warming. The runoff of

Jianying Feng; Landong Sun; Hui Guo

2007-01-01

244

Experimental study on the effects of ambient pressure conditions on spray characteristics of water mist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on incomplete statistics, China has about 3,000 historical buildings, and most of them were built in the west plateau areas. Study on fire protection of these historical buildings with water mist has been received a considerable attention currently. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of ambient pressure conditions on characteristics of water mist system, such

Changfa Tao; Xin Cai; Xinshi Wang

2011-01-01

245

The function of 7D-cadherins: a mathematical model predicts physiological importance for water transport through simple epithelia  

PubMed Central

Background 7D-cadherins like LI-cadherin are cell adhesion molecules and represent exceptional members of the cadherin superfamily. Although LI-cadherin was shown to act as a functional Ca2+-dependent adhesion molecule, linking neighboring cells together, and to be dysregulated in a variety of diseases, the physiological role is still enigmatic. Interestingly 7D-cadherins occur only in the lateral plasma membranes of cells from epithelia of water transporting tissues like the gut, the liver or the kidney. Furthermore LI-cadherin was shown to exhibit a highly cooperative Ca2+-dependency of the binding activity. Thus it is tempting to assume that LI-cadherin regulates the water transport through the epithelium in a passive fashion by changing its binding activity in dependence on the extracellular Ca2+. Results We developed a simple mathematical model describing the epithelial lining of a lumen with a content of variable osmolarity covering an interstitium of constant osmolarity. The width of the lateral intercellular cleft was found to influence the water transport significantly. In the case of hypertonic luminal content a narrow cleft is necessary to further increase concentration of the luminal content. If the cleft is too wide, the water flux will change direction and water is transported into the lumen. Electron microscopic images show that in fact areas of the gut can be found where the lateral intercellular cleft is narrow throughout the lateral cell border whereas in other areas the lateral intercellular cleft is widened. Conclusions Our simple model clearly predicts that changes of the width of the lateral intercellular cleft can regulate the direction and efficiency of water transport through a simple epithelium. In a narrow cleft the cells can increase the concentration of osmotic active substances easily by active transport whereas if the cleft is wide, friction is reduced but the cells can hardly build up high osmotic gradients. It is now tempting to speculate that 7D-cadherins, owing to their location and their Ca2+-dependence, will adapt their binding activity and thereby the width of the lateral intercellular cleft automatically as the Ca2+-concentration is coupled to the overall electrolyte concentration in the lateral intercellular cleft. This could provide a way to regulate the water resorption in a passive manner adapting to different osmotic conditions. PMID:21663598

2011-01-01

246

Water-Soluble Triazabutadienes that Release Diazonium Species upon Protonation under Physiologically Relevant Conditions.  

PubMed

Triazabutadienes are an understudied structural motif that have remarkable reactivity once rendered water-soluble. It is shown that these molecules readily release diazonium species in a pH-dependent manner in a series of buffer solutions with pH?ranges similar to those found in cells. Upon further development, we expect that this process will be well suited to cargo-release strategies and organelle-specific bioconjugation reactions. These compounds offer one of the mildest ways of generating diazonium species in aqueous solutions. PMID:25663253

Kimani, Flora W; Jewett, John C

2015-03-23

247

Effects of Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria on Yield, Growth, and Some Physiological Characteristics of Wheat and Barley Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2009 a greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effects of boron (B) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) treatments, applied either alone or in combination, on yield, plant growth, leaf total chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, membrane leakage, and leaf relative water content of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Bezostiya) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Tokak) plants. Results showed

Metin Turan; Medine Gulluce; Fikrettin ?ahin

2012-01-01

248

Geospatial variation of grapevine water status, soil water availability, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a spatially heterogeneous premium wine grape vineyard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geoscience component of terroir in wine grape production continues to be criticized for its quasi-mystical nature, and lack of testable hypotheses. Nonetheless, recent relational investigations are emerging and most involve water availability as captured by available water capacity (AWC, texture) or plant available water (PAW) in the root zone of soil as being a key factor. The second finding emerging may be that the degree of microscale variability in PAW and other soil factors at the vineyard scale renders larger regional characterizations questionable. Cimatic variables like temperature are well mixed, and its influence on wine characteristic is fairly well established. The influence of mesogeology on mesoclimate factors has also been characterized to some extent. To test the hypothesis that vine water status mirrors soil water availability, and controls fruit sensory and chemical properties at the vineyard scale we examined such variables in a iconic, selectively harvested premium winegrape vineyard in the Napa Valley of California during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. Geo-referenced data vines remained as individual study units throughout data gathering and analysis. Cartographic exercises using geographic information systems (GIS) were used to vizualize geospatial variation in soil and vine properties. Highly significant correlations (P < 0.01) emerged for pre-dawn leaf water potential (ΨPD), mid-day leaf water potential (ΨL) and PAW, with berry size, berry weight, pruning weights (canopy size) and soluble solids content (°Brix). Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality had vines with (1) lower leaf water potential (LWP) both pre-dawn and mid-day, (2) smaller berry diameter and weight, (3) lower pruning weights, and (4) higher °Brix. A trained sensory panel found grapes from the more water-stressed vines had significantly sweeter and softer pulp, absence of vegetal character, and browner and crunchier seeds. Metabolomic analysis of the grape skins showed significant differences in accumulation of amino acids and organic acids. Data vines were categorized as non-stressed (ΨPD ? -7.9 bars and ΨL ? -14.9 bars) and stressed (ΨPD ? -8.0 bars and ΨL ? -15.0 bars) and subjected to analysis of variance. Significant separation emerged for vines categorized as non-stressed versus stressed at véraison, which correlated to the areas described as producing higher and lower quality fruit. This report does not advocate the use of stress levels herein reported. The vineyard was planted to a vigorous, deep rooted rootstock (V. rupestris cv. St. George), and from years of management is known to be able to withstand stress levels of the magnitude we observed. Nonetheless, the results may suggest there is not a linear relationship between physiological water stress and grape sensory characteristics, but rather the presence of an inflection point controlling grape composition as well as physiological development.

Smart, D. R.; Cosby Hess, S.; Plant, R.; Feihn, O.; Heymann, H.; Ebeler, S.

2014-11-01

249

Agrichemicals in ground water of the midwestern USA: Relations to soil characteristics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A comprehensive set of soil characteristics were examined to determine the effect of soil on the transport of agrichemicals to ground water. This paper examines the relation of local soil characteristics to concentrations and occurrence of nitrate, atrazine (2-chloro-4 ethylamino-6-isopropylamino- s-trazine), and atrazine residue [atrazine + deethylatrazine (2-amino-4- chloro-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) + deisopropylatrazine (2-amino-4-chloro- 6-ethylamino-s-triazine)] from 99 wells completed in unconsolidated aquifers across the midwestern USA. The occurrence and concentrations of nitrate and atrazine in ground water were directly related to soil characteristics that determine the rate of water movement. The substantial differences in the relations found among soil characteristics and nitrate and atrazine in ground water suggest that different processes affect the transformation, adsorption, and transport of these contaminants. A multivariate analysis determined that the soil characteristics examined explained the amount of variability in concentrations for nitrate (19.0%), atrazine (33.4%), and atrazine residue (28.6%). These results document that, although soils do affect the transport of agrichemicals to ground water, other factors such as hydrology, land use, and climate must also be considered to understand the occurrence of agrichemicals in ground water.

Burkart, M.R.; Kolpin, D.W.; Jaquis, R.J.; Cole, K.J.

1999-01-01

250

Hydrogeologic characteristics of four public drinking-water supply springs in northern Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In October 2000, a study was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Arkansas Department of Health to determine the hydrogeologic characteristics, including the extent of the recharge areas, for Hughes Spring, Stark Spring, Evening Shade Spring, and Roaring Spring, which are used for public-water supply in northern Arkansas. Information pertaining to each spring can be used to enable development of effective management plans to protect these water resources and public health. An integrated approach to determine the ground-water characteristics and the extent of the local recharge areas of the four springs incorporated tools and methods of hydrology, structural geology, geomorphology, geophysics, and geochemistry. Analyses of discharge, temperature, and water quality were completed to describe ground-water flow characteristics, source-water characteristics, and connectivity of the ground-water system with surface runoff. Water-level contour maps were constructed to determine ground-water flow directions and ground-water tracer tests were conducted to determine the extent of the recharge areas and ground-water flow velocities. Hughes Spring supplies water for the city of Marshall, Arkansas, and the surrounding area. The mean annual discharge for Hughes Spring was 2.9 and 5.2 cubic feet per second for water years 2001 and 2002, respectively. Recharge to the spring occurs mainly from the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). Ground-water tracer tests indicate the recharge area for Hughes Spring generally coincides with the surface drainage area (15.8 square miles) and that Hughes Spring is connected directly to the surface flow in Brush Creek. The geochemistry of Hughes Spring demonstrated variations with flow conditions and the influence of surface-runoff in the recharge area. Calcite saturation indices, total dissolved solids concentrations, and hardness demonstrate noticeable differences with flow conditions reflecting the reduced residence time and interaction of water with the source rock within the ground-water system at higher discharges for Hughes Spring. Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria also demonstrated a substantial increase during high-flow conditions, suggesting that a non-point source of bacteria possibly from livestock may enter the system. Conversely, nutrient concentrations did not vary with flow and were similar to concentrations reported for undeveloped sites in the Springfield Plateau and Ozark aquifers in northern Arkansas and southern Missouri. Deuterium and oxygen-18 data show that the Hughes Spring discharge is representative of direct precipitation and not influenced by water enriched in oxygen-18 through evaporation. Discharge data show that Hughes Spring is dominated by conduit type ground-water flow, but a considerable component of diffuse flow also exists in the ground-water system. Carbon-13 data indicate a substantial component of the recharge water interacts with the surface material (soil and regolith) in the recharge area before entering the ground-water system for Hughes Spring. Tritium data for Hughes Spring indicate that the discharge water is a mixture of recent recharge and sub-modern water (recharged prior to 1952). Stark Spring supplies water for the city of Cushman, Arkansas, and the surrounding area. 2 Hydrogeologic Characteristics of Four Public Drinking-Water Supply Springs in Northern Arkansas The mean annual discharge for Stark Spring was 0.5 and 1.5 cubic feet per second for water years 2001 and 2002, respectively. The discharge and water-quality data show the ground-water system for Stark Spring is dominated by rapid recharge from surface runoff and mainly consists of a conduit- type flow system with little diffuse-type flow. Analyses of discharge data show that the estimated recharge area (0.79 square mile) is larger than the surface drainage area (0.34 square mile). Ground-water tracer tests and the outcrop of the

Galloway, Joel M.

2004-01-01

251

Still too hot: Examination of water temperature and water heater characteristics 24 years after manufacturers adopt voluntary temperature setting  

PubMed Central

Objective Although water heater manufacturers adopted a voluntary standard in the 1980’s to pre-set thermostats on new water heaters to 120°F, tap water scald burns cause an estimated 1,500 hospital admissions and 100 deaths per year in the United States. This study reports on water temperatures in 976 urban homes and identifies water heater and household characteristics associated with having safe temperatures. Methods The temperature of the hot water, type and size of water heater, date of manufacture and the setting of the temperature gauge were recorded. Demographic data including number of people living in the home and home ownership were also recorded. Results Hot water temperature was unsafe in 41% of homes. Homeowners were more likely to have safer hot water temperature (? 120°F) than renters (63% vs. 54%; p<0.01). For 11% of gas water heaters, the water temperature was ? 130°F, although the gauge was set at less than 75% of its maximum setting. In a multivariate logistic regression, electric water heaters were more likely to have safe hot water temperatures than gas water heaters (OR=4.99; p<0.01). Water heaters with more gallons per person in the household were more likely to be at or below the recommended 120°F. Conclusions Our results suggest that hot water temperatures remain dangerously high for a substantial proportion of urban homes despite the adoption of voluntary standards to preset temperature settings by manufacturers. This research highlights the need for improved prevention strategies such as installing thermostatic mixing valves to ensure a safer temperature. PMID:23514986

Shields, Wendy C.; McDonald, Eileen; Frattaroli, Shannon; Zhu, Jeffrey; Perry, Elise C.; Gielen, Andrea C.

2013-01-01

252

Climate variability and deep water mass characteristics in the Aegean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this study is to investigate the variability of the thermohaline characteristics of the deep-water masses in the Aegean Sea and the possible impact of the regional atmospheric forcing variability by analyzing the available oceanographic and atmospheric datasets for the period of 1960-2012. During this period the variability of the deep water characteristics of the Aegean sub-basins is found to be very large as well as the diversity of the deep water characteristics among the sub-basins. The Central Aegean seems to play the key role in the Aegean deep water formation processes. Due to its small size, the Aegean Sea surface responds rapidly to the meteorological changes and/or the variability of the lateral fluxes and this variability propagates in the thermohaline characteristics of the deep water masses of the basin through deep water formation processes. There are many episodes characterized by a tight coupling of the atmosphere and the ocean during the examined period, with the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) being the most prominent case. We suggest that deep water formation is triggered mostly by the combination of preconditioning during early winter and/or previous winters together with the number of subsequent extreme events during present winter and not only by the total amount of the extreme heat loss winter days.

Georgiou, S.; Mantziafou, A.; Sofianos, S.; Gertman, I.; Özsoy, E.; Somot, S.; Vervatis, V.

2015-01-01

253

Polarization characteristics of coastal waters and their impact on in-water visibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarization characteristics of coastal waters were recently measured during a cruise on the R/V "Connecticut" in the areas of New York Harbor - Sandy Hook, NJ region using a new Stokes vector instrument developed by the Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory at CCNY. The instrument has three hyperspectral Satlantic radiance sensors each with a polarizer positioned in front of it, with polarization axes aligned at 0, 90 and 45°. The measured degrees of polarization (DOPs) and normalized radiances as a function of angle and wavelength match very well with simulated ones obtained with a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code for the atmosphere-ocean system. In order to numerically reproduce the polarized images for underwater horizontal imaging system the measured typical underwater polarized radiance was used to estimate the polarized components of the background veiling light and the blurring effects were modeled by point spread functions obtained from the measured volume scattering functions from this cruise and other typical oceanic environments. It is shown that the visibility can be improved for unpolarized target by placing a polarizer oriented orthogonally to the partially polarized direction of the veiling light before camera. The blurring effects strongly depend on the small angle scattering in the forward directions. For polarized targets the Monte Carlo simulation of slab geometry for polarized pencil light shows that the scattering medium with high g value has a very strong ability to retain the polarization status of the incident light, which can be utilized to improve the image contrasts for targets with very different polarized reflection properties.

Zhou, Jing; Tonizzo, Alberto; Gilerson, Alex; Twardowski, Michael; Gray, Deric; Weidemann, Alan; Arnone, Robert; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred; Ahmed, Sam

2009-05-01

254

Effect of temperature and chlorination of pre-washing water on shelf-life and physiological properties of ready-to-use iceberg lettuce  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cold and warm, chlorinated water as well as warm water without chlorination for pre-washing trimmed, cored iceberg lettuce heads was assessed regarding the shelf-life and physiological properties of the resulting ready-to-use (RTU) produce. On a pilot-plant scale, lettuce heads were shredded with or without pre-washing (50 °C, no chlorine; 4 and 50 °C, 200 mg\\/l free chlorine;

Sascha Baur; Ralph Klaiber; Hua Wei; Walter Peter Hammes; Reinhold Carle

2005-01-01

255

Water and sodium balances and metabolic physiology of house mice ( Mus domesticus ) and short-tailed mice ( Leggadina lakedownensis ) under laboratory conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study investigated the metabolic physiology, and response to variable periods of water and sodium supply, of\\u000a two arid-zone rodents, the house mouse (Mus domesticus) and the Lakeland Downs short-tailed mouse (Leggadina lakedownensis) under controlled conditions. Fractional water fluxes for M. domesticus (24?±?0.8%) were significantly higher than those of L. lakedownensis (17?±?0.7%) when provided with food ad libitum. In

D. Moro; S. D. Bradshaw

1999-01-01

256

Hydrolysis kinetics characteristic of recycled fiber in subcritical water.  

PubMed

Recycled fiber hydrolysis was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of reducing sugar accumulation for biofuel products during hydrolysis in subcritical water. The hydrolysis conversion of recycled fiber was reaching to approximate 90% within 3 min at 280-320 °C, while the glucose decomposed simultaneously within 0.5 min. The FTIR wave variation and the crystalline index of hydrolysis residue indicated that the intermolecular, intramolecular hydrogen bond and the crystalline was a constraint for recycled fiber hydrolysis. The kinetics analysis demonstrated the cylindrical shape model is proper at low temperature for recycled fiber hydrolysis, while sphere shape model is suitable at high temperature. The apparent activation energies of recycled fiber on both kinetics models were 58.19 kJ mol(-1) and 53.18 kJ mol(-1), which were lower than that the glucose with 79.59 kJ mol(-1). Therefore, the conclusion is drawn that the high yield of glucose during recycled fiber hydrolysis is achievable by reducing the cellulose crystalline through proper indispensible pretreatments. PMID:22178492

Wang, Yan; Wan, Jinquan; Ma, Yongwen; Huang, Mingzhi

2012-02-01

257

Rapid toxicity screening of sediment pore waters using physiological and biochemical biomarkers of Daphnia magna  

SciTech Connect

Two new rapid toxicity tests, based on ingestion activity and digestive enzyme activity of D. magna, were developed and evaluated. The ingestion activity was measured using fluorescent latex micro-beads and an automated microplate fluorimeter allowing a sensitive quantification of the feeding activity of the organisms. The activity of the digestive enzymes, 6-galactosidase, esterase and trypsin, was determined in test organism homogenates using the following fluorogenic{sup 1} and chromogenic{sup 2} substrates: 4-methylumbelliferyl-{beta}-D galactoside{sup 1}, fluorescin diacetate{sup 1} and N-Benzoyl-L-arginine-4-nitroanilide{sup 2}. Both biomarker techniques were developed to allow rapid toxicity screening on a routine basis. The toxicity of the pore waters of eight contaminated samples was assessed with the aid of the developed biomarker assays. Comparison of the conventional 24h EC50 values with the EC50 values obtained with the 1.5h ingestion test and the threshold concentrations of the 2h digestive enzyme tests revealed a positive correlation between the different effect concentrations. A similar correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.87) between the conventional 24h EC50 values and 1.5h EC50 values was observed in toxicity tests with pure compounds. Correlation coefficients for the relationships between the 3 enzyme effect concentrations and the 24h EC50 values ranged from 0.95 to 0.98, The positive correlations between the conventional and biomarker effect criteria, observed for both environmental samples and pure compounds, demonstrate the potential use of the developed methods as rapid toxicity screening tools.

Coen, W.M. De; Janssen, C.R.; Persoone, G. [Univ. of Ghent (Belgium). Lab. for Biological Research in Aquatic Pollution

1995-12-31

258

Hydrochemical characteristics and water quality assessment of surface water and groundwater in Songnen plain, Northeast China.  

PubMed

Water quality is the critical factor that influence on human health and quantity and quality of grain production in semi-humid and semi-arid area. Songnen plain is one of the grain bases in China, as well as one of the three major distribution regions of soda saline-alkali soil in the world. To assess the water quality, surface water and groundwater were sampled and analyzed by fuzzy membership analysis and multivariate statistics. The surface water were gather into class I, IV and V, while groundwater were grouped as class I, II, III and V by fuzzy membership analysis. The water samples were grouped into four categories according to irrigation water quality assessment diagrams of USDA. Most water samples distributed in category C1-S1, C2-S2 and C3-S3. Three groups were generated from hierarchical cluster analysis. Four principal components were extracted from principal component analysis. The indicators to water quality assessment were Na, HCO(3), NO(3), Fe, Mn and EC from principal component analysis. We conclude that surface water and shallow groundwater are suitable for irrigation, the reservoir and deep groundwater in upstream are the resources for drinking. The water for drinking should remove of the naturally occurring ions of Fe and Mn. The control of sodium and salinity hazard is required for irrigation. The integrated management of surface water and groundwater for drinking and irrigation is to solve the water issues. PMID:22417739

Zhang, Bing; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Yinghua; Han, Dongmei; Tang, Changyuan; Yu, Yilei; Ma, Ying

2012-05-15

259

Cold Water Patches in Warm Streams: Physicochemical Characteristics and the Influence of Shading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discrete cold water patches within the surface waters of summer warm streams afford potential thermal refuge for cold water fishes during periods of heat stress. This analysis focused on reach scale heterogeneity in water temperatures as influenced by local influx of cooler subsurface waters. Using field thermal probes and recording thermistors, we identified and characterized cold water patches (at least 3°C colder than ambient streamflow temperatures) potentially serving as thermal refugia for cold water fishes. Among 37 study sites within alluvial valleys of the Grande Ronde basin in northeastern Oregon, we identified cold water patches associated with side channels, alcoves, lateral seeps, and floodplain spring brooks. These types differed with regard to within floodplain position, area, spatial thermal range, substrate, and availability of cover for fish. Experimental shading cooled daily maximum temperatures of surface waters within cold water patches 2 to 4°C, indicating a strong influence of riparian vegetation on the expression of cold water patch thermal characteristics. Strong vertical temperature gradients associated with heating of surface layers of cold water patches exposed to solar radiation, superimposed upon vertical gradients in dissolved oxygen, can partially restrict suitable refuge volumes for stream salmonids within cold water patches.

Ebersole, Joseph L.; Liss, William J.; Frissell, Christopher A.

2003-04-01

260

[Hydrochemical characteristic analysis of melting water flow in Keqikaer Glacier, Tianshan (west) Mountains].  

PubMed

In order to study the melting water chemical characteristics in the Keqikaer Glacier, Tianshan(west)Mountains, the samples were collected from June to September in 2003. The result is found that: (1) The pH value is between 7.35-8.52, the order of which is:river water > glacier melting water > lake water on glacier > precipitation. (2) The various ionic concentrations of melting water are lower than other three kinds of samples, and average is 24% of river water. (3) Comparing and analyzing hydrochemical difference among various precipitation forms, the author found that inhomogeneous ionic concentration of rainwater is higher than the others. (4) Next, the water samples at different altitude have been analyzed, which shows that inhomogeneous ionic concentration of altitude effect is very remarkable. It is expected that if altitude is lower, the eluviation is led by glacier melting can influence the enviro-information record of ice layer. PMID:16881299

Wang, Jian; Ding, Yong-jian; Xu, Jun-li; Han, Hai-dong

2006-07-01

261

Insect Physiology Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A large database dedicated to research articles about various topics of insect physiology. Topics range from excretion to diapause to temperature and water regulation. There are also extensive listings of resources (academic units, funding, journals) and course data on insect physiology.

0000-00-00

262

Variation in water potential, hydraulic characteristics and water source use in montane Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine trees in southwestern Alberta and consequences for seasonal changes in photosynthetic capacity.  

PubMed

Tree species response to climate change-induced shifts in the hydrological cycle depends on many physiological traits, particularly variation in water relations characteristics. We evaluated differences in shoot water potential, vulnerability of branches to reductions in hydraulic conductivity, and water source use between Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. (lodgepole pine) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco (interior Douglas-fir), and determined the consequences for seasonal changes in photosynthetic capacity. The Douglas-fir site had soil with greater depth, finer texture and higher organic matter content than soil at the lodgepole pine site, all factors that increased the storage of soil moisture. While the measured xylem vulnerability curves were quite similar for the two species, Douglas-fir had lower average midday shoot water potentials than did lodgepole pine. This implied that lodgepole pine exhibited stronger stomatal control of transpiration than Douglas-fir, which helped to reduce the magnitude of the water potential gradient required to access water from drying soil. Stable hydrogen isotope measurements indicated that Douglas-fir increased the use of groundwater during mid-summer when precipitation inputs were low, while lodgepole pine did not. There was a greater reduction of photosynthetic carbon gain in lodgepole pine compared with Douglas-fir when the two tree species were exposed to seasonal declines in soil water content. The contrasting patterns of seasonal variation in photosynthetic capacity observed for the two species were a combined result of differences in soil characteristics at the separate sites and the inherent physiological differences between the species. PMID:22318220

Andrews, Shilo F; Flanagan, Lawrence B; Sharp, Eric J; Cai, Tiebo

2012-02-01

263

[The medium chain fat acids. Content in food. Physiology, characteristics of metabolism and application in clinical practice].  

PubMed

It is rational, according to biology laws and purposes for which cells use fatty acids, to distinguish between saturated (without double bonds in chain), monoene (with one bond), unsaturated (with 2 and 3 double bonds) and polyene (with 4, 5 and 6 double bonds) acids. The saturated and monoene fatty acids are mainly the substratum for oxygenation and working out of energy by cells. The unsaturated fatty acids are the substratum for formation of membranes. The polyene fatty acids are the predecessors of synthesis of eicosanoids and aminophosphotides. With subject to characteristics of metabolism and transfer in vivo, the fatty acids are subdivided into short chain C4 - C8 and medium chain C-10 - C-14 fatty acids. The etherification occurs with glycerin into "short" triglycerides which are not bounded with apoproteins. The long chain fatty acids form "long" triglycerides which in enterocytes are structured by apoprotein B-48 into composition of chylomicrons. It is possible to validly consider that difference in outflow from enterocytes to veins of portal system (which includes veins of omentum) of medium chain fatty acids in the form of short triglycerides can directly input into pathogenesis of syndrome of isolated omental obesity and metabolic syndrome. The another input into the mentioned conditions is the secretion through ductus thoracicus into large veins of greater systemic circulation of long chain fatty acids in the form of triglycerides in the content of chylomicrons. The omental obesity is the only specific symptom of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24340938

Arkhipovski?, A V; Titov, V N

2013-06-01

264

Determination of characteristics and drinking water quality index in Mzuzu City, Northern Malawi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An assessment of characteristics and chemical water quality index (WQI) of water supplied by the Northern Region water Board (NRWB) in Mzuzu City was carried out in order to ascertain the quality of water for domestic purposes. The WQI offers a single number that expresses overall water quality for a water sample based on several water quality parameters. In this study raw water and 72 tap water samples were collected monthly between March and September, 2011 and analyzed for major ions, pH, total dissolved solids (TDSs), electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity, total hardness (TH), suspended solids (SSs) and alkalinity using standard methods. The quality and accuracy of the chemical data was assessed by checking electrical balances. The calculated electrical balance errors were found to be less than ±10%, which meant the results were reliable. Based on the Sawyer and McCarty TH classification, 100% of the samples were soft waters (TH < 150 mg/L). Nitrates, which registered medium or average WQ-rating of 69.77 and WQ-rating range of 52.06-86.94, were observed to have significantly affected the overall water quality index of the treated water since the rest of the parameters registered good-excellent WQ-ratings (average WQ-rating: 80.21-97.87). The pH, which is used to determine suitability of water for various purposes, ranged between 6.40 and 6.90 and registered a good water quality rating (WQ rating range: 72.73-87.02) for both raw and treated water. Raw water registered an overall medium water quality rating of 62.67%. Overall, 91.67% of the samples registered a good water quality rating (WQI range: 80.28-88.80%) and 8.33% registered a very good water quality rating (WQI = 90.07%). The results suggested substantial water treatment by the NRWB since the treated water is protected with some negligible degree of impairment that rarely departs from desirable levels of domestic water quality. It is recommended that the WQI should be adopted as a tool to monitor and establish trends in quality of water supplied by the NRWB since it is a composite index that turns complex water quality data into an aggregate rating that reflects the combined influence on the overall water quality as opposed to the univariate water quality assessment approaches such as the Malawi Bureau of Standards.

Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Gulula, Lewis C.; Phiri, Gift

265

Morphological and physicochemical characteristics of iron corrosion scales formed under different water source histories in a drinking water distribution system.  

PubMed

The corrosion scales on iron pipes could have great impact on the water quality in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS). Unstable and less protective corrosion scale is one of the main factors causing "discolored water" issues when quality of water entering into distribution system changed significantly. The morphological and physicochemical characteristics of corrosion scales formed under different source water histories in duration of about two decades were systematically investigated in this work. Thick corrosion scales or densely distributed corrosion tubercles were mostly found in pipes transporting surface water, but thin corrosion scales and hollow tubercles were mostly discovered in pipes transporting groundwater. Magnetite and goethite were main constituents of iron corrosion products, but the mass ratio of magnetite/goethite (M/G) was significantly different depending on the corrosion scale structure and water source conditions. Thick corrosion scales and hard shell of tubercles had much higher M/G ratio (>1.0), while the thin corrosion scales had no magnetite detected or with much lower M/G ratio. The M/G ratio could be used to identify the characteristics and evaluate the performances of corrosion scales formed under different water conditions. Compared with the pipes transporting ground water, the pipes transporting surface water were more seriously corroded and could be in a relatively more active corrosion status all the time, which was implicated by relatively higher siderite, green rust and total iron contents in their corrosion scales. Higher content of unstable ferric components such as ?-FeOOH, ?-FeOOH and amorphous iron oxide existed in corrosion scales of pipes receiving groundwater which was less corroded. Corrosion scales on groundwater pipes with low magnetite content had higher surface area and thus possibly higher sorption capacity. The primary trace inorganic elements in corrosion products were Br and heavy metals. Corrosion products obtained from pipes transporting groundwater had higher levels of Br, Ti, Ba, Cu, Sr, V, Cr, La, Pb and As. PMID:22882957

Yang, Fan; Shi, Baoyou; Gu, Junnong; Wang, Dongsheng; Yang, Min

2012-10-15

266

A comparison of physiological and transcriptome responses to water deprivation and salt loading in the rat supraoptic nucleus.  

PubMed

Salt loading (SL) and water deprivation (WD) are experimental challenges that are often used to study the osmotic circuitry of the brain. Central to this circuit is the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus, which is responsible for the biosynthesis of the hormones, arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT), and their transport to terminals that reside in the posterior lobe of the pituitary. On osmotic challenge evoked by a change in blood volume or osmolality, the SON undergoes a function-related plasticity that creates an environment that allows for an appropriate hormone response. Here, we have described the impact of SL and WD compared with euhydrated (EU) controls in terms of drinking and eating behavior, body weight, and recorded physiological data including circulating hormone data and plasma and urine osmolality. We have also used microarrays to profile the transcriptome of the SON following SL and remined data from the SON that describes the transcriptome response to WD. From a list of 2,783 commonly regulated transcripts, we selected 20 genes for validation by qPCR. All of the 9 genes that have already been described as expressed or regulated in the SON by osmotic stimuli were confirmed in our models. Of the 11 novel genes, 5 were successfully validated while 6 were false discoveries. PMID:25632023

Greenwood, Michael P; Mecawi, Andre S; Hoe, See Ziau; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Johnson, Kory R; Al-Mahmoud, Ghada A; Elias, Lucila L K; Paton, Julian F R; Antunes-Rodrigues, Jose; Gainer, Harold; Murphy, David; Hindmarch, Charles C T

2015-04-01

267

Genotype–environment interactions affecting preflowering physiological and morphological traits of Brassica rapa grown in two watering regimes  

PubMed Central

Plant growth and productivity are greatly affected by drought, which is likely to become more threatening with the predicted global temperature increase. Understanding the genetic architecture of complex quantitative traits and their interaction with water availability may lead to improved crop adaptation to a wide range of environments. Here, the genetic basis of 20 physiological and morphological traits is explored by describing plant performance and growth in a Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line (RIL) population grown on a sandy substrate supplemented with nutrient solution, under control and drought conditions. Altogether, 54 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified, of which many colocated in 11 QTL clusters. Seventeen QTL showed significant QTL–environment interaction (Q×E), indicating genetic variation for phenotypic plasticity. Of the measured traits, only hypocotyl length did not show significant genotype–environment interaction (G×E) in both environments in all experiments. Correlation analysis showed that, in the control environment, stomatal conductance was positively correlated with total leaf dry weight (DW) and aboveground DW, whereas in the drought environment, stomatal conductance showed a significant negative correlation with total leaf DW and aboveground DW. This correlation was explained by antagonistic fitness effects in the drought environment, controlled by a QTL cluster on chromosome A7. These results demonstrate that Q×E is an important component of the genetic variance and can play a great role in improving drought tolerance in future breeding programmes. PMID:24474811

Aarts, Mark G. M.

2014-01-01

268

The daily evaporation characteristics of deeply buried phreatic water in an extremely arid region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the daily evaporation characteristics of deeply buried phreatic water in an extremely arid area are reported. The results are used to analyze the mechanism responsible for water movement in the groundwater-soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. A closed PVC greenhouse was set up on Gobi land at the top of the Mogao Grottoes where phreatic water is more than 200 m deep. An air-conditioning unit and an automatic weighing scale were placed inside the greenhouse to condense and monitor phreatic evaporation and soil water changes in this extremely arid region. Soil temperature and humidity at various depths (0-40 cm) and other meteorological factors were also recorded on a sub-hourly basis. The relationship between evaporated water and soil water movement was analyzed by observing changes in soil weight, the condensate from the air-conditioning unit, and air moisture. The results show that phreatic water evaporation occurs from this deeply buried source in this extremely arid zone. The daily characteristics are consistent with the variation in the Sun’s radiation intensity (i.e. both show a sinusoidal behavior). In the daytime, most of the soil water does not evaporate but moves to cooler sub-layers. In the afternoon, the shallow soil layer absorbs moisture as the temperature decreases. At night, an abundance of water vapor moves upwards from the sub-layers and supplements the evaporated and downward-moving moisture of the superstratum in the daytime, but there is no evaporation. The stable, upwardly migrating vapor and film water is supported by geothermy and comes from phreatic water, the daily evaporation characteristics of which changes according to soil temperature when it reaches the ground.

Li, Hongshou; Wang, Wanfu; Liu, Benli

2014-06-01

269

Effect of Bedrock infiltration on water balance and rainfall-runoff characteristics in forested headwater catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water flowing through bedrock plays an important role in stream water runoff generation and the variability in stream water runoff responses in headwater catchments. However, quantification of the contribution of bedrock infiltration to the water balance and runoff generation has been hindered by the difficulty of directly observing bedrock infiltration. To examine the role of bedrock infiltration in the water balance and runoff characteristics in forested headwater catchments, we quantified bedrock infiltration rates using the chloride mass balance method based on rigorous observations of catchment precipitation, discharge, and stream water chemistry in three forested catchments (second- to third-order catchments) underlain by uniform bedrock. We found that bedrock infiltration in forested headwater catchments can be estimated by the chloride mass balance method and that the three catchments differed greatly in terms of bedrock infiltration/recharge and runoff characteristics. In smaller catchments, bedrock recharge/infiltration varied widely, while small bedrock recharge/infiltration was observed in the largest catchment. Although runoff responses differed among the three catchments during base flow, no significant differences were observed in direct runoff ratio and peak flow during large storm events. These results suggest that variability in bedrock infiltration causes spatial variation in water balance and runoff characteristics during low flow, and has a small influence on during high flow in second- to third-order headwater catchments.

Oda, T.; Egusa, T.; Suzuki, M.

2011-12-01

270

Water clarity, maternal behavior, and physiology combine to eliminate UV radiation risk to amphibians in a montane landscape  

PubMed Central

Increasing UV-B radiation (UV-B; 290–320 nm) due to stratospheric ozone depletion has been a leading explanation for the decline in amphibians for nearly 2 decades. Yet, the likelihood that UV-B can influence amphibians at the large spatial scales relevant to population declines has not yet been evaluated. A key limitation has been in relating results from individual sites to the effect of UV-B for populations distributed across heterogeneous landscapes. We measured critical embryonic exposures to UV-B for two species of montane amphibians with contrasting physiological sensitivities, long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Cascades frog (Rana cascadae), at field sites spanning a gradient of UV-B attenuation in water. We then used these experimental results to estimate the proportion of embryos exposed to harmful UV-B across a large number of breeding sites. By combining surveys of the incubation timing, incident UV-B, optical transparency of water, and oviposition depth and light exposure of embryos at each site, we present a comprehensive assessment of the risk posed by UV-B for montane amphibians of the Pacific Northwest. We found that only 1.1% of A. macrodactylum and no R. cascadae embryos across a landscape of breeding sites are exposed to UV-B exceeding lethal levels. These results emphasize that accurately estimating the risk posed by environmental stressors requires placing experimental results in a broader ecological context that accounts for the heterogeneity experienced by populations distributed across natural landscapes. PMID:20479221

Palen, Wendy J.; Schindler, Daniel E.

2010-01-01

271

Water clarity, maternal behavior, and physiology combine to eliminate UV radiation risk to amphibians in a montane landscape.  

PubMed

Increasing UV-B radiation (UV-B; 290-320 nm) due to stratospheric ozone depletion has been a leading explanation for the decline in amphibians for nearly 2 decades. Yet, the likelihood that UV-B can influence amphibians at the large spatial scales relevant to population declines has not yet been evaluated. A key limitation has been in relating results from individual sites to the effect of UV-B for populations distributed across heterogeneous landscapes. We measured critical embryonic exposures to UV-B for two species of montane amphibians with contrasting physiological sensitivities, long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Cascades frog (Rana cascadae), at field sites spanning a gradient of UV-B attenuation in water. We then used these experimental results to estimate the proportion of embryos exposed to harmful UV-B across a large number of breeding sites. By combining surveys of the incubation timing, incident UV-B, optical transparency of water, and oviposition depth and light exposure of embryos at each site, we present a comprehensive assessment of the risk posed by UV-B for montane amphibians of the Pacific Northwest. We found that only 1.1% of A. macrodactylum and no R. cascadae embryos across a landscape of breeding sites are exposed to UV-B exceeding lethal levels. These results emphasize that accurately estimating the risk posed by environmental stressors requires placing experimental results in a broader ecological context that accounts for the heterogeneity experienced by populations distributed across natural landscapes. PMID:20479221

Palen, Wendy J; Schindler, Daniel E

2010-05-25

272

Leaf anatomy and photosynthetic carbon metabolic characteristics in Phragmites communis in different soil water availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the variations of anatomical and photosynthetic carbon metabolic characteristics within one species in response\\u000a to increasing soil water stress, leaf anatomical characteristics, gas exchange and the activity of key enzymes in photosynthesis\\u000a and photorespiration were compared in different ecotypes of Phragmites\\u000a communis growing in an oasis-desert transitional zone (ODTZ) from swamp habitat (plot 1–3) via heavy salt meadow

Chun-Mei GongJuan; Juan Bai; Jian-Ming Deng; Gen-Xuan Wang; Xi-Ping Liu

2011-01-01

273

Physical characteristics of GE (General Electric) BWR (boiling-water reactor) fuel assemblies  

SciTech Connect

The physical characteristics of fuel assemblies manufactured by the General Electric Company for boiling-water reactors are classified and described. The classification into assembly types is based on the GE reactor product line, the Characteristics Data Base (CDB) assembly class, and the GE fuel design. Thirty production assembly types are identified. Detailed physical data are presented for each assembly type in an appendix. Descriptions of special (nonstandard) fuels are also reported. 52 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

Moore, R.S.; Notz, K.J.

1989-06-01

274

Tropine Forming Tropinone Reductase Gene from Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha): Biochemical Characteristics of the Recombinant Enzyme and Novel Physiological Overtones of Tissue-Wide Gene Expression Patterns  

PubMed Central

Withania somnifera is one of the most reputed medicinal plants of Indian systems of medicine synthesizing diverse types of secondary metabolites such as withanolides, alkaloids, withanamides etc. Present study comprises cloning and E. coli over-expression of a tropinone reductase gene (WsTR-I) from W. somnifera, and elucidation of biochemical characteristics and physiological role of tropinone reductase enzyme in tropane alkaloid biosynthesis in aerial tissues of the plant. The recombinant enzyme was demonstrated to catalyze NADPH-dependent tropinone to tropine conversion step in tropane metabolism, through TLC, GC and GC-MS-MS analyses of the reaction product. The functionally active homodimeric ?60 kDa enzyme catalyzed the reaction in reversible manner at optimum pH 6.7. Catalytic kinetics of the enzyme favoured its forward reaction (tropine formation). Comparative 3-D models of landscape of the enzyme active site contours and tropinone binding site were also developed. Tissue-wide and ontogenic stage-wise assessment of WsTR-I transcript levels revealed constitutive expression of the gene with relatively lower abundance in berries and young leaves. The tissue profiles of WsTR-I expression matched those of tropine levels. The data suggest that, in W. somnifera, aerial tissues as well possess tropane alkaloid biosynthetic competence. In vivo feeding of U-[14C]-sucrose to orphan shoot (twigs) and [14C]-chasing revealed substantial radiolabel incorporation in tropinone and tropine, confirming the de novo synthesizing ability of the aerial tissues. This inherent independent ability heralds a conceptual novelty in the backdrop of classical view that these tissues acquire the alkaloids through transportation from roots rather than synthesis. The TR-I gene expression was found to be up-regulated on exposure to signal molecules (methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid) and on mechanical injury. The enzyme's catalytic and structural properties as well as gene expression profiles are discussed with respect to their physiological overtones. PMID:24086372

Kushwaha, Amit Kumar; Sangwan, Neelam Singh; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Negi, Arvind Singh; Misra, Laxminarain; Sangwan, Rajender Singh

2013-01-01

275

Numerical study on heat transfer and resistance characteristics of supercritical water inside internally-ribbed tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of structural parameters for internally-ribbed tube on heat transfer and flow characteristics of supercritical water were studied numerically. The results show that the heat transfer and pressure loss increases with the increase of mass flow or heat flux. The Heat transfer and resistance coefficients of supercritical water increase with the spiral rising angle decrease or rib height increase, while rib width has a weak influence on heat transfer and pressure drop.

Zhao, Zhenxing; Wang, Xiangyu; Che, Defu

2014-04-01

276

Phosphorus Adsorption Characteristics of Alum and Iron Sludge from Drinking-Water Treatment Works  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lot of alum sludge (AS) and iron sludge (IS) produce in China from the drinking-water treatment works everyday. In this study, a series of batch experiments were conducted to investigate the phosphorus adsorption characteristics of alum sludge and iron sludge collected from two drinking-water treatment works in Zhengzhou, Henan, China using artificial P-rich wastewater. The results indicated that the

Tie Jingxi; Chen Dong; Li Xiaowei; Zhu Xiaoguang; Liu Yilin; Liu Youliang

2010-01-01

277

Chemical and physical characteristics of natural ground waters in Michigan; a preliminary report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wide variations occur in the chemical and physical characteristics of natural groundwaters in Michigan. Dissolved-solids concentrations range from 23 to 2,100 milligrams per liter. Waters having low dissolved-solids concentrations are calcium bicarbonate waters. Sodium, sulfate, and chloride increase as mineralization increases. Iron, aluminum, and titanium are higher at some locations than is common in most natural waters. Lead concentrations exceed those desirable in drinking water at some locations in the northern part of the Lower Peninsula. Generalized areal patterns of water quality variation suggest that geology is a primary cause of differences across the State. Examples of chemical associations in water suggest that chemical analyses may be valuable in tracing and identifying mineral deposits. (USGS)

Cummings, T. Ray

1980-01-01

278

Analysis of drought characteristics for improved understanding of a water resource system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Droughts are a reoccurring feature of the UK climate; recent drought events (2004-2006 and 2010-2012) have highlighted the UK's continued vulnerability to this hazard. There is a need for further understanding of extreme events, particularly from a water resource perspective. A number of drought indices are available, which can help to improve our understanding of drought characteristics such as frequency, severity and duration. However, at present little of this is applied to water resource management in the water supply sector. Improved understanding of drought characteristics using indices can inform water resource management plans and enhance future drought resilience. This study applies the standardised precipitation index (SPI) to a series of rainfall records (1962-2012) across the water supply region of a single utility provider. Key droughts within this period are analysed to develop an understanding of the meteorological characteristics that lead to, exist during and terminate drought events. The results of this analysis highlight how drought severity and duration can vary across a small-scale water supply region, indicating that the spatial coherence of drought events cannot be assumed.

Lennard, A. T.; Macdonald, N.; Hooke, J.

2014-09-01

279

Sprectroradiometric characteristics of inland water bodies infestated by Oscillatoria rubescens algae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In December 2006 blooms of Oscillatoria rubescens were found in the reservoir Prizzi in Sicily. Oscillatoria is a genus of filamentous alga comprising approximately 6 species, between these the O. rubescens is sadly famous since this organism produces microcystins which are powerful hepatotoxins. Firstly found in Europe in 1825 on Geneva lake, recently (2006) those algae has been find out in Pozzillo, Nicoletti e Ancipa reservoirs (Enna Province), as well as in Prizzi (Palermo Province) and Garcia reservoirs (Trapani Province). Toxins produced by those bacteria (usually called microcystine LR-1 and LR-2) are highly toxic since they can activate oncogenes cells causing cancer pathologies on liver and gastrointestinal tract. Even if water treatment plants should ensure the provision of safe drinking water from surface waters contaminated with those toxic algae blooms, the contamination of reservoirs used for civil and agricultural supply highlights human health risks. International literature suggests a threshold value of 0.01 ?gl-1 to avoid liver cancer using water coming from contaminated water bodies for a long period. Since O. rubescens activities is strongly related to phosphate and nitrogen compounds as well as to temperature and light transmission within water, the paper presents the comparison between optical properties of the water of an infested reservoir and those of a reservoir characterized by clear water. Field campaigns were carried out in February-March 2008 in order to quantify the spectral transparencies of two water bodies through the calculation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient, measuring underwater downwelling irradiance at different depths as well as water spectral reflectance. Results show that diffuse attenuation coefficient is reduced by approximately 15% reducing light penetration in the water column; coherently reflectance spectral signature generally decreases, exhibiting a characteristic peak around 703 nm not present in uncontaminated waters. Latter findings highlight the possibility to detect O. rubescens infestations using their spectral characteristics by means of multitemporal remote sensing techniques.

Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo; Maltese, Antonino

2010-10-01

280

Selected water-quality characteristics in the upper Mississippi River Basin, Royalton to Hastings, Minnesota. Water resources investigation  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, great emphasis has been placed on protection and conservation of water resources. In response to these needs, the U.S. Geological Survey established a monitoring network called NASQAN (National Stream Quality Accounting Network) in 1973. One of the objectives of NASQAN is to describe the areal variability in the quality of water in the nation's streams through analysis of data from this and other programs. With computerized statistical-analysis techniques available today, it is possible to analyze large quantities of data to aid in interpreting and in making decisions. The report has the following primary objectives: describe, on both a spatial and temporal basis, the stream-water quality throughout the study area upstream from the NASQAN site, Mississippi River at Nininger, Minnestoa; relate water-quality variability to general causes, such as selected basin characteristics, including land and water use; and assess how well water-quality data collected at Nininger represent the quality of water throughout the study area. In addressing the above objectives, the report first discusses the water quality in each subbasin, then examines the differences between subbasins, and then evaluates the representativeness of data collected at Nininger.

Have, M.R.

1991-01-01

281

WATER PROPERTIES IN FERN SPORES: SORPTION CHARACTERISTICS RELATING TO WATER AFFINITY, GLASSY STATES AND STORAGE STABILITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ex situ conservation of ferns may be accomplished by maintaining the viability of stored spores for many years. Storage conditions that maximize spore longevity can be inferred from an understanding of the behaviour of water within fern spores. Water sorption properties were measured in spores of ...

282

The water mass characteristics of the Northeast Water Polynya: Polar Sea data 1992–1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrographic cruises in the summers of 1992 and 1993 were carried out in the North-East Water (NEW) Polynya. For both years, CTD casts on the NEW Polynya shelf area yielded a signature of a highly homogeneous, cold (? = ?1.74°C) and relatively fresh (S = 32.40 ppt) water just below the surface pycnocline, which we refer to as the Northeast

F. Bignami; T. S. Hopkins

1997-01-01

283

The determination of physiological and DNA changes in seedlings of maize (Zea mays L.) seeds exposed to the waters of the Gediz River and copper heavy metal stress.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of the heavy metal-polluted waters of the Gediz River, which flow into the Aegean Sea, and different concentrations of copper (Cu) solutions on maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings are investigated with physiological parameters and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay. Results displayed physiologically a significant difference in root and stem length between the control seedlings and the seedlings grown with the waters of the Gediz River. Also, the certain ascending concentrations of copper solution (80, 160, 320, 640, and 1280 ppm) caused a significant decrease in root and stem length of seedlings compared to the control seedlings. As a result of the waters of the Gediz River and copper solution treatment, the changes occurred in RAPD profiles of seedlings observed as variations like increment and/or loss of bands compared with the control seedlings. And these changes were reflected as a decrease in genomic template stability (GTS, changes in RAPD profile) derived by genotoxicity. RAPD band profiles and GTS values showed consistent results with physiological parameter. In conclusion, the study revealed the environmental risk and negative effect of waters of the Gediz River on maize seedlings and the suitability of RAPD assay for the detection of environmental toxicology. PMID:25750069

Batir, Muhammet Burak; Candan, Feyza; Buyuk, Ilker; Aras, Sumer

2015-04-01

284

Association of drinking-water source and use characteristics with urinary antimony concentrations.  

PubMed

Environmental factors, such as storage time, frequency of bottle reuse and temperature, have been shown to facilitate antimony (Sb) leaching from water- and food-packaging materials. The globally escalating consumption of water packaged in Sb-containing bottles, such as that of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), could increase human daily Sb doses. This study set out to investigate the relationship between drinking-water source, use characteristics, and urinary Sb concentrations (U-Sb) accompanied with survey responses of a healthy (n=35) Cypriot participant pool. One spot urine sample was collected during administration of questionnaire, while a second spot urine sample was collected from the same individual about 7 days later. Urinary and water Sb concentrations were measured with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Survey responses showed that bottled water summed over various volumes and plastic types, such as polycarbonate and PET contributed to an average 61% of daily water consumption. Water sources such as tap, mobile stations (explained in a following section), and well water contributed to 24%, 14%, and 2% of an individual's daily water consumption pattern, respectively. Average daily potable water use of both bottled and tap water by individuals consisted of 65% drinking-water, while the remaining 35% was water used for preparing cold and hot beverages, such as, tea, coffee, and juices. A significant (P=0.02) association between per capita water consumption from PET bottles and urinary creatinine-unadjusted concentrations was observed, but this relationship did not remain after inclusion of covariates in a multivariate regression model. In the creatinine-adjusted regression model, only gender (female) was a significant (P<0.01) predictor of U-Sb, after adjusting for several covariates. It is proposed that consumption data collection on various water uses and sources among individuals could perhaps decrease the uncertainty associated with derivations of acceptable daily Sb intakes. PMID:23188481

Makris, Konstantinos C; Andra, Syam S; Herrick, Lisa; Christophi, Costas A; Snyder, Shane A; Hauser, Russ

2013-03-01

285

Hydrologic characteristics of the main aquifer in the Los Alamos area: development of ground water supplies  

SciTech Connect

Deep wells completed into the main aquifer have furnished 40.5 x 10/sup 9/ gal of water for the Los Alamos National Laboratory and for the communities of Los Alamos and White Rock from 1947 through 1982. The main aquifer is within the siltstones and sandstones of the Tesuque Formation along the Rio Grande, and it rises westward into the lower part of the Puye Conglomerate beneath the central and western part of the Pajarito Plateau. The Laboratory and communities of Los Alamos and White Rock are located on the Pajarito Plateau. Supply, test, and stock wells have been used to collect hydrologic data from the aquifer beneath the Pajarito Plateau and to the east along the Rio Grande. Hydrologic characteristics of springs along the Rio Grande, which are in the discharge area from the main aquifer, are included to supplement the data from the wells. Hydrologic characteristics of the aquifer determined from tests and observations are the saturated thickness, pumping or production rates of the wells, drawdown, specific capacity, field coefficient of permeability, transmissivity, rate of water movement in the aquifer, production from wells and fields, water-level trends of the aquifer, rates of water-level decline, and production per foot of water-level decline. Chemical quality of water in the aquifer varies according to the formations yielding water to the wells. Based on hydrologic characteristics of existing wells, suggested locations for four additional wells were made in areas to develop high-yield low-drawdown (1000-gpm/100-ft) supply wells. These locations are recommended in long-range planning for future water supply as the demand for water increases at the Laboratory and in the communities. A well to replace well G-4 in the Guaje Field is recommended to offset declining production in the field. 39 references, 13 figures, 6 tables.

Purtymun, W.D.

1984-01-01

286

Analysis of internal flow characteristics of a smooth-disk water-brake dynamometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principal of absorbing power with an enclosed partially submerged rotating disk through the turbulent viscous shearing of water is discussed. Reference information is used to develop a flow model of the water brake. A method is then presented that uses vector diagrams to relate the effects of rotational flow, through flow, and secondary flow to power absorption. The method is used to describe the operating characteristics of an example 111-cm (43.7-in.) diameter water brake. Correlating performance parameters are developed in a dimensional analysis.

Evans, D. G.

1973-01-01

287

Water relation characteristics and photosynthesis of saline-stressed seedlings of non-halophyte species  

E-print Network

Water relation characteristics and photosynthesis of saline-stressed seedlings of non of the present study was to ex- amine the distribution of salts and its effect on photosynthesis for non as relative values against 0% treatment. Photosynthesis by O. asiaticus var. aurantiacus decreased

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

288

Aquifer characteristics and water quality of Miocene–Pleistocene sediments, Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al-Atraf is one of the water well fields of Kuwait supplying Kuwait City with the brackish groundwater obtained from the Kuwait Group aquifer of Miocene–Pleistocene age. The study determined the hydrogeological and hydrochemical characteristics of the groundwater in order to identify the major chemical processes that influence the groundwater quality of the study area. The results of the aquifer test

F. M. Al-Ruwaih; H. A. Qabazard

2005-01-01

289

Infrared characteristic radiation of water condensation and freezing in connection with atmospheric phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the emission of infrared characteristic radiation during the first order phase transitions of water (condensation and crystallization). Experimental results are analyzed in terms of their correspondence to the theoretical models. These models are based on the assumption that the particle's (atom, molecule, or cluster) transition from the higher energetic level (vapor or liquid) to a lower one

Vitali A. Tatartchenko

2010-01-01

290

CONNECTING WATERSHED CHARACTERISTICS TO NUTRIENT REGIME FROM HEADWATERS TO RECEIVING WATERS IN THE LAURENTIAL GREAT LAKES  

EPA Science Inventory

We are evaluating the influence of position along the tributary-coastal wetland-lake continuum on the expression of watershed characteristics in the water quality of Great Lakes (GL) coastal ecosystems as part of an EPA study focused on determining stressor-response relationships...

291

Fouling characteristics and cleaning strategies in a coagulation-microfiltration combination process for water purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The membrane fouling characteristics and cleaning strategies in a coagulation-microfiltration combination process for purification of micro-polluted raw water were investigated. The microcosmic observation on the exterior and inner surfaces of the fouled membrane by Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM) combined. with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) revealed that the fouling on the exterior surface was an integrated effect of microorganisms, organic and

Li Mo; Xia Huanga

2003-01-01

292

Electrochimica Acta 52 (2007) 48254835 Characteristics of subzero startup and water/ice formation on the  

E-print Network

on the catalyst layer in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell Shanhai Ge, Chao-Yang Wang Electrochemical Engine Center the fundamental characteristics of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) during subzero startup, which Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Polymer electrolyte fuel cell; Cold start; Water transport

2007-01-01

293

Analysis of filtration characteristics in submerged microfiltration for drinking water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hollow fiber membranes have been widely employed for water and wastewater treatments. Nevertheless, understanding the filtration characteristics of hollow fiber membranes is complicated by the axial distributions of transmembrane pressure (TMP) and flux, which are key factors for both fouling control and module design. In this study, model equations to account for different fouling mechanisms were derived to analyze the

Sangho Lee; Pyung-Kyu Park; Jae-Hyuk Kim; Kyung-Min Yeon; Chung-Hak Lee

2008-01-01

294

Interactive effect of Brevibacillus brevis and Glomus mosseae, both isolated from Cd contaminated soil, on plant growth, physiological mycorrhizal fungal characteristics and soil enzymatic activities in Cd polluted soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between two autochthonous microorganisms (Brevibacillus brevis and Glomus mosseae) isolated from Cd amended soil increased plant growth, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and physiological characteristics of the AM infection (measured as SDH or ALP activities). The enhanced plant Cd tolerance after coinoculation with native microorganisms seemed to be a consequence of increased P and K acquisition and, simultaneously, of

A. Vivas; J. M. Barea; R. Azcón

2005-01-01

295

Comparison of selected cultural, physical, and water-quality characteristics of lakes in Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The report presents comparisons and a graphical overview of the relative magnitude and regional and statewide distribution of 19 selected cultural, physical, and water-quality characteristics measured in a reconnaissance study of several hundred lakes in Washington. Statewide, mean depth of almost one-fourth of the lakes is shallow (2.0 meters or less), and only 7 percent of the lakes have mean depths greater than 20 meters. About one-third of the lakes had Secchi-disc readings of 2.0 meters or less, a value often considered characteristic of eutrophic lakes. The poorest water clarity was observed in the Columbia Plateau, where 68 percent of the lakes had Secchi-disc readings of less than 2.0 meters. More than one-third of the lakes in the State had total phosphorus concentrations that exceeded 30 micrograms per liter, a concentration that is often considered characteristic of eutrophic lakes. (Woodard-USGS)

Bortleson, Gilbert Carl; Dion, N.P.

1979-01-01

296

Influence of multiple water-quality characteristics on copper toxicity to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water quality influences the bioavailability and toxicity of copper to aquatic organisms. Understanding the relationships between water-quality parameters and copper toxicity may facilitate the development of site-specific criteria for water quality and result in better protection of aquatic biota. Many studies have examined the influence of a single water-quality parameter on copper toxicity, but the interactions of several characteristics have not been well studied in low-hardness water. The goal of the present research was to examine the interactions among water-quality characteristics and their effects on copper toxicity to larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). The effects of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, DOC source, pH, and hardness on acute copper toxicity were determined using a complete factorially designed experiment. Hardness, pH, DOC, and interaction of pH and DOC all significantly affected copper toxicity. A predictive model based on these data described 88% of the variability in copper toxicity. This model also explained 58% of the variability in copper toxicity for an independent dataset of South Carolina (USA) waters. The biotic ligand model underpredicted the acute copper toxicity to fathead minnows when compared with observed values.

Sciera, K.L.; Isely, J.J.; Tomasso, J.R., Jr.; Klaine, S.J.

2004-01-01

297

Formation and characteristion of surfactantless oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid–liquid interface in the form of a surfactantless oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsion has been created and characterised. The emulsions, composed of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) and D2O were created using a condensation method and this technique has been optimised to give the conditions needed to produce reproducible emulsions with comparable drop volumes and number densities. These have been measured using optical

Katherine M. Knight; Daren J. Caruana

2007-01-01

298

A study of ignition and combustion characteristics of isolated coal water slurry droplet using digital image processing technique  

E-print Network

A digital image processing technique is used to investigate the ignition and combustion characteristics of an isolated coal water slurry droplet in low Re flow. Coal water slurry droplet study is useful for dilute coal suspensions based...

Bhadra, Tanmoy

1998-01-01

299

Hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned mining sites in Serbia and their impact on surface water quality.  

PubMed

Upon completion of exploration and extraction of mineral resources, many mining sites have been abandoned without previously putting environmental protection measures in place. As a consequence, mine waters originating from such sites are discharged freely into surface water. Regional scale analyses were conducted to determine the hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned sites featuring metal (Cu, Pb-Zn, Au, Fe, Sb, Mo, Bi, Hg) deposits, non-metallic minerals (coal, Mg, F, B) and uranium. The study included 80 mine water samples from 59 abandoned mining sites. Their cation composition was dominated by Ca2+, while the most common anions were found to be SO4(2-) and HCO3-. Strong correlations were established between the pH level and metal (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) concentrations in the mine waters. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to parameters generally indicative of pollution, such as pH, TDS, SO4(2-), Fe total, and As total. Following this approach, mine water samples were grouped into three main clusters and six subclusters, depending on their potential environmental impact. Principal component analysis was used to group together variables that share the same variance. The extracted principal components indicated that sulfide oxidation and weathering of silicate and carbonate rocks were the primary processes, while pH buffering, adsorption and ion exchange were secondary drivers of the chemical composition of the analyzed mine waters. Surface waters, which received the mine waters, were examined. Analysis showed increases of sulfate and metal concentrations and general degradation of surface water quality. PMID:23872888

Atanackovi?, Nebojša; Dragiši?, Veselin; Stojkovi?, Jana; Papi?, Petar; Zivanovi?, Vladimir

2013-11-01

300

Variation in water relations characteristics of terminal shoots of Port-Orford-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) seedlings.  

PubMed

We measured water relations attributes of the terminal shoots of 3-year-old Port-Orford-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murr.) Parl.) seedlings that represented its geographic range. Pressure-volume curves were developed and osmotic potentials at full (psi(sf)) and zero turgor (psi(sz)), relative water content at zero turgor, and an index of tissue elasticity (IE) were calculated for 38 families during early, mid- and late summer at an inland nursery, and for 12 of these families during mid- and late summer at a coastal nursery. Compared with other conifer species, psi(sz) was high (-1.4 to -1.5 MPa) and declined in seedlings at both nurseries as the season progressed. Both IE and osmotic amplitude (psi(sf)-psi(sz)) increased during the season. Osmotic potential at zero turgor was lower and osmotic amplitude greater in seedlings at the inland nursery than at the coastal nursery. Correlations of water relations attributes with geographic location of the seed sources were weak and usually not significant. High elevation southern sources exhibited smaller differences in psi(sz) between nurseries than low elevation northern sources. The small differences in water relations attributes among sources and between nurseries suggest that some may be of marginal physiological importance; however, sources that produced larger seedlings appeared to be less desiccation tolerant. We conclude that, when moving genotypes during reforestation, decisions based on patterns in tree size and timing of growth will account for these small differences in water relations. PMID:11470660

Zobel, D B; Riley, L; Kitzmiller, J H; Sniezko, R A

2001-07-01

301

[Retrieve of red tide distributions from MODIS data based on the characteristics of water spectrum].  

PubMed

After comparing the spectral differences between red tide water and normal water, we developed a method to retrieve red tide distributions from MODIS data based on the characteristics of red tide water spectrum. The authors used the 119 series of in situ observations to validate the method and found that only one observation has not been detected correctly. The authors then applied this method to MODIS data on April 4, 2005. In the research areas three locations of red tide water were apparently detected with the total areas about 2 000 km2. The retrieved red tide distributions are in good agreement with the distributions of high chlorophyll a concentrations. The research suggests that the method is available to eliminating the influence of suspended sediments and can be used to retrieve the locations and areas of red tide water. PMID:22007423

Qiu, Zhong-Feng; Cui, Ting-Wei; He, Yi-Jun

2011-08-01

302

Compressive characteristics of single walled carbon nanotube with water interactions investigated by using molecular dynamics simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elastic properties of single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) with surrounding water interactions are studied using molecular dynamics simulation technique. The compressive loading characteristic of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a fluidic medium such as water is critical for its role in determining the lifetime and stability of CNT based nano-fluidic devices. In this paper, we conducted a comprehensive analysis on the effect of geometry, chirality and density of encapsulated water on the elastic properties of SWCNT. Our studies show that defect density and distribution can strongly impact the compressive resistance of SWCNTs in water. Further studies were conducted on capped SWCNTs with varying densities of encapsulated water, which is necessary to understand the strength of CNT as a potential drug carrier. The results obtained from this paper will help determining the potential applications of CNTs in the field of nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) such as nano-biological and nano-fluidic devices.

Wong, C. H.; Vijayaraghavan, V.

2014-01-01

303

The vitiation effects of water vapor and carbon dioxide on the autoignition characteristics of kerosene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In ground tests of hypersonic scramjet, the high-enthalpy airstream produced by burning hydrocarbon fuels often contains contaminants of water vapor and carbon dioxide. The contaminants may change the ignition characteristics of fuels between ground tests and real flights. In order to properly assess the influence of the contaminants on ignition characteristics of hydrocarbon fuels, the effect of water vapor and carbon dioxide on the ignition delay times of China RP-3 kerosene was studied behind reflected shock waves in a preheated shock tube. Experiments were conducted over a wider temperature range of 800-1 500K, at a pressure of 0.3 MPa, equivalence ratios of 0.5 and 1, and oxygen concentration of 20%. Ignition delay times were determined from the onset of the excited radical OH emission together with the pressure profile. Ignition delay times were measured for four cases: (1) clean gas, (2) gas vitiated with 10% and 20% water vapor in mole, (3) gas vitiated with 10% carbon dioxide in mole, and (4) gas vitiated with 10% water vapor and 10% carbon dioxide, 20% water vapor and 10% carbon dioxide in mole. The results show that carbon dioxide produces an inhibiting effect at temperatures below 1 300 K when ? = 0.5, whereas water vapor appears to accelerate the ignition process below a critical temperature of about 1 000 K when ? = 0.5. When both water vapor and carbon dioxide exist together, a minor inhibiting effect is observed at ? = 0.5, while no effect is found at ? = 1.0. The results are also discussed preliminary by considering both the combustion reaction mechanism and the thermophysics properties of the fuel mixtures. The current measurements demonstrate vitiation effects of water vapor and carbon dioxide on the autoignition characteristics of China RP-3 kerosene at air-like O2 concentration. It is important to account for such effects when data are extrapolated from ground testing to real flight conditions.

Liang, Jin-Hu; Wang, Su; Zhang, Sheng-Tao; Yue, Lian-Jie; Fan, Bing-Cheng; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Cui, Ji-Ping

2014-08-01

304

Pervaporative dehydration characteristics of an ethanol/water azeotrope through various chitosan membranes.  

PubMed

The permeation and separation characteristics of an ethanol/water azeotrope through chitosan membranes of different molecular weights and degrees of deacetylation during pervaporation were investigated. The normalized permeation rate decreased with increasing molecular weight up to 90 kDa, but at over 90 kDa, the rate increased. On the other hand, the water/ethanol selectivity increased with increasing molecular weight up to 90 kDa but decreased at over 90 kDa. With increasing degree of deacetylation, the water/ethanol permselectivity increased significantly, but the normalized permeation rate decreased. The characteristics of chitosan membranes are discussed based on their chemical and physical structures such as the contact angle, density, degree of swelling, and glass transition temperature. PMID:25662680

Uragami, Tadashi; Saito, Tomoyuki; Miyata, Takashi

2015-04-20

305

Methods of rating unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics of public water supplies in North Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Overlay and index methods were derived for rating the unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics for use by the State of North Carolina in assessing more than 11,000 public water-supply wells and approximately 245 public surface-water intakes. The rating of the unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics represents a practical and effective means of assessing part of the inherent vulnerability of water supplies to potential contamination. Factors that influence the inherent vulnerability of the drinking water supply to potential contamination were selected and assigned ratings (on a scale of 1 to 10) to cover the possible range of values in North Carolina. These factors were assigned weights of 1, 2, or 3 to reflect their relative influence on the inherent vulnerability of the drinking water supply. The factor values were obtained from Geographic Information System data layers, and were transformed into grids having 60-meter by 60-meter cells, with each cell being assigned a value. Identification of factors, the development of ratings for each, and assignment of weights were based on (1) a literature search, which included examination of potential factors and their effects on the drinking water; and (2) consultation with experts in the science and engineering of hydrology, geology, forestry, agriculture, and water management. Factors selected for rating the inherent vulnerability of the unsaturated zone are vertical hydraulic conductance, land-surface slope, land cover, and land use. Vertical hydraulic conductance is a measure of the capacity of unsaturated material to transmit water. Land-surface slope influences whether precipitation runs off land surfaces or infiltrates into the subsurface. Land cover, the physical overlay of the land surface, influences the amount of precipitation that becomes overland flow or infiltrates into the subsurface. Land use describes activities that occur on the land surface and influence the potential generation of nonpoint-source contamination. Factors selected for rating the watershed characteristics upstream from surface-water intakes are average annual precipitation, land-surface slope, land cover, land use, and ground-water contribution. The average annual precipitation represents the mass of water that becomes available for transport in a watershed. Land-surface slope, land cover, and land use have similar influences in watersheds as those identified for the unsaturated zone. Ground-water contribution represents the part of streamflow that is derived from ground-water discharge.

Eimers, Jo Leslie; Weaver, J.C.; Terziotti, Silvia; Midgette, R.W.

2000-01-01

306

Influence of carvacrol and thymol on the physiological attributes, enterotoxin production and surface characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from foods  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the influence of the phenolic compounds carvacrol (CAR) and thymol (THY) on some physiological characteristics and on the modulation of the secretion of some staphylococcal virulence factors, that is, coagulase and enterotoxin. This study also investigated possible mechanisms for the establishment of the anti-staphylococcal activity of these compounds. Sublethal concentrations (0.3 and 0.15 ?L/mL) of CAR and THY inhibited the activity of the enzymes coagulase and lipase and led to a decrease in salt tolerance. At the tested sublethal concentrations, both CAR and THY led to a total suppression of enterotoxin production. The loss of a 260-nm-absorbing material and an efflux of potassium ions occurred immediately after the addition of CAR and THY at 0.6 and 1.2 ?L/mL and increased up to 120 min of exposure. Electron microscopy of cells exposed to CAR and THY (0.6 ?L/mL) revealed that individual cells appeared to be deformed, with projections of cellular material. The observations of leakage of cellular material and an altered cell surface suggest that gross damage to a cell’s cytoplasmic membrane, which results in a disruption in protein secretion, could be responsible for the anti-staphylococcal properties of CAR and THY. PMID:24159280

Souza, E.L.; Oliveira, C.E.V.; Stamford, T.L.M.; Conceição, M.L.; Neto, N.J. Gomes

2013-01-01

307

Physiologic load-bearing characteristics of autografts, allografts, and polymer-based scaffolds in a critical sized segmental defect of long bone: an experimental study  

PubMed Central

Background To address the challenge of treating critical sized intercalary defects, we hypothesized that under physiologic cyclic loading, autografts, allografts, and scaffolds loaded with and without human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) would have different biomechanical characteristics. Methods Using a rat femoral defect model, 46 rats were assigned to four groups, ie, autograft (n = 12), allograft (n = 10), scaffold (n = 13), and scaffold with hMSCs (n = 11). The scaffold groups used a 5 mm segment of scaffold composed of 80% poly-?-caprolactone and 20% hydroxyapatite. Rats were sacrificed 4 months postoperatively, and the repairs were assessed radiographically and biomechanically. Results Autograft and allograft groups exhibited the most bridging callus, while the scaffold/hMSCs group had more callus than the scaffold repairs. Although signs of radiographic healing did not accurately reflect restoration of mechanical properties, addition of hMSCs on the scaffold enhanced bone formation. The scaffold alone group had significantly lower elastic and viscous stiffness and higher phase angles than other repairs and the contralateral controls. Addition of hMSCs increased the elastic and viscous stiffness of the repair, while decreasing the phase angle. Conclusion Further comparative analysis is needed to optimize clinical use of scaffolds and hMSCs for critical sized defect repairs. However, our results suggest that addition of hMSCs to scaffolds enhances mechanical simulation of native host bone. PMID:23637532

Amorosa, LF; Lee, CH; Aydemir, AB; Nizami, S; Hsu, A; Patel, NR; Gardner, TR; Navalgund, A; Kim, D-G; Park, SH; Mao, JJ; Lee, FY

2013-01-01

308

Quantitative analysis of water dispersion conditions and pressure transmission characteristics of a wet kneaded mass.  

PubMed

In our previous paper [Watano S. et al., J. Powder Technology Japan, 37, 362-370 (2000)], a novel compaction tester was developed to quantitatively evaluate the water dispersion condition of a wet kneaded mass prepared by a paddle type kneader. It has been demonstrated that the physical properties of pellets prepared by extrusion granulation after the kneading can be well predicted by the pressure transmission obtained through the compaction tester. This paper describes a more detailed investigation of the water dispersion, its mechanism and pressure transmission characteristics of wet kneaded masses prepared under various operating conditions. First, kneading by a paddle type kneader was conducted to prepare wet masses under various binder contents using different additional methods and different starting materials. Secondly, water dispersion and pressure transmission characteristics of wet masses were investigated. After the wet kneading, the wet kneaded masses were extruded through a dome type extruder and were dried by a fluidized bed to prepare dry pellets. The relationship between water dispersion and pressure transmission can be expressed by a single line, regardless of binder content or methods of addition. This implies that these parameters have no effect on the water dispersion condition of the wet kneaded mass prepared by a high shear paddle type kneader. Different water dispersion characteristics and the mechanism obtained by different starting materials can also be evaluated by the pressure transmission data. Properties of dry pellets can also be predicted by the pressure transmission. It can be concluded that the developed compaction tester can quantitatively evaluate the water dispersion condition of a wet kneaded mass and also predict properties of the final extruded products. PMID:11201227

Watano, S; Furukawa, J; Osako, Y; Yasutomo, T

2001-01-01

309

Work Capability and physiological effects predictive studies. 4: In He-O2 excursions to pressures of 400- 800- 1200- and 1600 feet of sea water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments which exposed men in chambers, breathing helium with oxygen, to progressive increases of pressure equivalent to 400-800-1200-1600 feet of sea water (fsw) were conducted. Rates of compression and exposure to stable high pressure. Goals included: 1) determination of the specific character and time course of onset of physiological and performance decrements during the intentionally rapid compressions, and determination of rates of adaptation on reaching stable elevated pressure; 2) investigation of accelerated methods for decompression in deep saturation excursion diving; and 3) determination of competence in practical work performed in water at pressures equivalent to the extreme diving depths of 1200 and 1600 fsw.

Lambertsen, C. J. (editor); Gelfand, R. (editor); Clark, J. M. (editor); Fletcher, M. E. (editor)

1978-01-01

310

[Distribution characteristics of organochlorine pesticides in surface water and sediments from the Mengjin wetland].  

PubMed

The surface water and sediments from the Mengjin wetland were collected. After seperated and concentrated by solid phase extraction and Soxhlet extraction, twenty kinds of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the samples from the Mengjin wetland were analyzed by gas chromatography. In the surface water, 7 kinds of OCPs (incluing alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, 4,4-DDT, heptachor and aldrin) were detected, with the detected ratio of 4.2% -62.5% and the content range of ND-12.21 ng/L. In the sediments, 4,4-DDE and 4,4-DDT were detected, with the detected ratio of 50%-75% and the content range of ND-64.58 ng/g. HCHs and DDTs in the surface water were both lower than the limited value defined by Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water in China, while the surface sediments in the Mengjin wetland pose a bit high risk comparing with ERL and ERM value of risk evaluation. Distribution characteristics of OCPs components showed that HCHs usually had higher residue levels in surface water, while sediment was the fate of DDTs in the transfer process of materials from water to sediment. OCPs content in the surface water and sediments both decreased in the order of high water period > level water period > low water period. OCPs in the low water seasons were mainly the early residue, but OCPs in the high seasons had some new input in near term in the surface water and sediments. The results suggested that non-point source was one of the important sources of OCPs entering Mengjin wetland. PMID:19662839

Xiao, Chun-Yan; Tai, Chao; Zhao, Tong-Qian; Wu, Li; Zhou, Tian-Jian; Dong, Jing-Jing

2009-06-15

311

Preliminary assessment of chemical characteristics of DOC in surface waters of the Hulugou watershed, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate warming induced permafrost melting has begun to exert considerable impact on watershed hydrology, including water quality. Study field is a low latitude alpine watershed with an area of 25 km2 in the northeastern part of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Water samples were collected from streams, seepage, and thermokarst ponds in July, 2012 (n=22) and July 2013 (n=35). For samples collected within the boundary of the watershed, the mean concentrations of DOC are 14.2, 0.6 and 0.14 mg/L for thermokarst water, seepage and stream waters, respectively. The FI (fluorescence index) provides information on organic matter source, with a value of 1.8~1.9 for microbially derived fulvic acids and a value of 1.2~1.4 for terrestrially derived fulvic acids. SUVA determined at 254nm is strongly correlated with percent aromaticity determined by 13C NMR. The thermokarst water with high DOC content and SUVA value displayed the lowest FI values with a mean close to 1.40. These characteristics are expected for terrestrial sourced DOC. The increasing FI values of the stream water collected within the watershed suggests increasing degree of influence of DOC from microbial processing. The pH, SUVA, DOC levels are comparable for seepage and stream waters, suggesting that they are of similar sources. However, seepage water had higher FI, suggesting that microbial processing of DOC that influenced stream and seepage water may have occurred subsurface. That the DOC in the stream and seepage waters are influenced by the subsurface biogeochemical processes is supported by high RI values, because hyporheic exchange has likely brought reduced fulvic acids from the hyporheic zone into the stream. The data suggest the permafrost melt water not only has high concentrations of DOC but also displays a unique chemical signature. Further work combined with stable isotope analysis will help to illuminate the processes and to resolve the contribution of water and DOC from permafrost melting to streams.

Zhou, M.; Zheng, Y.

2013-12-01

312

[Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses].  

PubMed

For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 ) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt-alkali stresses. Its leaf CAT activity had less change, MDA content increased significantly, Chl content had significant decrease, and LWC decreased slightly. It was suggested that P. densi-flora var. zhangwuensis had a greater salinity-alkalinity tolerance than P. sylvestris var. mongolica. The higher iron concentration in P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis needles enhanced the CAT activity and Chl content, whereas the higher concentrations of zinc and copper were associated with the stronger salinity-alkalinity tolerance. PMID:23705379

Meng, Peng; Li, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Bai-xi

2013-02-01

313

The Relationship between Phytoplankton Distribution and Water Column Characteristics in North West European Shelf Sea Waters  

PubMed Central

Phytoplankton underpin the marine food web in shelf seas, with some species having properties that are harmful to human health and coastal aquaculture. Pressures such as climate change and anthropogenic nutrient input are hypothesized to influence phytoplankton community composition and distribution. Yet the primary environmental drivers in shelf seas are poorly understood. To begin to address this in North Western European waters, the phytoplankton community composition was assessed in light of measured physical and chemical drivers during the “Ellett Line” cruise of autumn 2001 across the Scottish Continental shelf and into adjacent open Atlantic waters. Spatial variability existed in both phytoplankton and environmental conditions, with clear differences not only between on and off shelf stations but also between different on shelf locations. Temperature/salinity plots demonstrated different water masses existed in the region. In turn, principal component analysis (PCA), of the measured environmental conditions (temperature, salinity, water density and inorganic nutrient concentrations) clearly discriminated between shelf and oceanic stations on the basis of DIN?DSi ratio that was correlated with both salinity and temperature. Discrimination between shelf stations was also related to this ratio, but also the concentration of DIN and DSi. The phytoplankton community was diatom dominated, with multidimensional scaling (MDS) demonstrating spatial variability in its composition. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to investigate the link between environment and the phytoplankton community. This demonstrated a significant relationship between community composition and water mass as indexed by salinity (whole community), and both salinity and DIN?DSi (diatoms alone). Diatoms of the Pseudo-nitzschia seriata group occurred at densities potentially harmful to shellfish aquaculture, with the potential for toxicity being elevated by the likelihood of DSi limitation of growth at most stations and depths. PMID:22479533

Davidson, Keith; Bolch, Christopher J. S.; Brand, Tim D.; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.

2012-01-01

314

Monitoring water stress and fruit quality in an orange orchard under regulated deficit irrigation using narrow-band structural and physiological remote sensing indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the monitoring of water status and the assessment of the effect of stress on citrus fruit quality using structural and physiological remote sensing indices. Four flights were conducted over a citrus orchard in 2009 using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) carrying a multispectral camera with six narrow spectral bands in the visible and near infrared. Physiological indices such as the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI570), a new structurally robust PRI formulation that uses the 515 nm as the reference band (PRI515), and a chlorophyll ratio (R700/R670) were compared against the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Renormalized Difference Vegetation Index (RDVI) and Modified Triangular Vegetation Index (MTVI) canopy structural indices for their performance in tracking water status and the effects of sustained water stress on fruit quality at harvest. The irrigation setup in the commercial orchard was compared against a treatment scheduled to satisfy full requirements (based on estimated crop evapotranspiration) using two regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) strategies. The water status of the trees throughout the experiment was monitored with frequent field measurements of stem water potential (?x), while titratable acidity (TA) and total soluble solids (TSS) were measured at harvest on selected trees from each irrigation treatment. The high spatial resolution of the multispectral imagery (30 cm pixel size) enabled identification of pure tree crown components, extracting the tree reflectance from shaded, sunlit and aggregated pixels. The physiological and structural indices were then calculated from each tree at the following levels: (i) pure sunlit tree crown, (ii) entire crown, aggregating the within-crown shadows, and (iii) simulating a lower resolution pixel, including tree crown, sunlit and shaded soil pixels. The resulting analysis demonstrated that both PRI formulations were able to track water status, except when water stress altered canopy structure. In such cases, PRI570 was more affected than PRI515 by the structural changes caused by sustained water stress throughout the season. Both PRI formulations were proven to serve as pre-visual water stress indicators linked to fruit quality TSS and TA parameters (r2 = 0.69 for PRI515 vs TSS; r2 = 0.58 vs TA). In contrast, the chlorophyll (R700/R670) and structural indices (NDVI, RDVI, MTVI) showed poor relationships with fruit quality and water status levels (r2 = 0.04 for NDVI vs TSS; r2 = 0.19 vs TA). The two PRI formulations showed strong relationships with the field-measured fruit quality parameters in September, the beginning of stage III, which appeared to be the period most sensitive to water stress and the most critical for assessing fruit quality in citrus. Both PRI515 and PRI570 showed similar performance for the two scales assessed (sunlit crown and entire crown), demonstrating that within-crown component separation is not needed in citrus tree crowns where the shaded vegetation component is small. However, the simulation conducted through spatial resampling on tree + soil aggregated pixels revealed that the physiological indices were highly affected by soil reflectance and between-tree shadows, showing that for TSS vs PRI515 the relationship dropped from r2 = 0.69 to r2 = 0.38 when aggregating soil + crown components. This work confirms a previous study that demonstrated the link between PRI570, water stress, and fruit quality, while also making progress in assessing the new PRI formulation (PRI515), the within-crown shadow effects on the physiological indices, and the need for high resolution imagery to target individual tree crowns for the purpose of evaluating the effects of water stress on fruit quality in citrus.

Stagakis, S.; González-Dugo, V.; Cid, P.; Guillén-Climent, M. L.; Zarco-Tejada, P. J.

2012-07-01

315

Determination of virtual water content of rice and spatial characteristics analysis in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China is a water-stressed country, and agriculture consumes the bulk of its water resources. Assessing the virtual water content (VWC) of crops is one important way to develop efficient water management measures to alleviate water resource conflicts among different sectors. In this research, the VWC of rice, a major crop in China, is taken as the research object. China covers a vast land area, and the VWC of rice varies widely between different regions. The VWC of rice in China is assessed and the spatial characteristics are also analysed. The total VWC is the total volume of freshwater both consumed and affected by pollution during the crop production process, including both direct and indirect water use. Prior calculation frameworks of the VWC of crops did not contain all of the virtual water content of crops. In addition to the calculation of green, blue and grey water - the direct water in VWC - the indirect water use of rice was also calculated, using an input-output model. The percentages of direct green, blue, grey and indirect water in the total VWC of rice in China were found to be 43.8, 28.2, 27.6, and 0.4%. The total VWC of rice generally showed a roughly three-tiered distribution, and decreased from southeast to northwest. The higher values of direct green water usage were mainly concentrated in Southeast and Southwest China, while the values were relatively low in Northwest China and Inner Mongolia. The higher direct blue water values were mainly concentrated in the eastern and southern coastal regions and Northwest China, and low values were mainly concentrated in Southwest China. Grey water values were relatively high in Shanxi and Guangxi provinces and low in Northeast and Northwest China. The regions with high values for indirect water were randomly distributed but the regions with low values were mainly concentrated in Northwest and Southwest China. For the regions with relatively high total VWC the high values of blue water made the largest contribution, although for the country as a whole the direct green water is the most important contributor.

Zhang, L. J.; Yin, X. A.; Zhi, Y.; Yang, Z. F.

2014-06-01

316

Understanding how the leaf physiology of mangrove plants differs from fresh water plants: a fundamental step to use cellulose as a proxy for sea level rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the leaf water isotopic enrichment pattern of mangrove (halophytes) and hammock (glycophytes) plants as an attempt to explain why the ?18O of stem cellulose from mangrove and hammock species have no relationship with the ?18O of source water. A better understanding of leaf physiology of mangroves and its effect on the ?18O of stem cellulose is the first step in the process of developing an isotopic proxy for sea-level rise. Seawater is enriched in 18O relative to freshwater and this difference should be recorded in stem cellulose during its synthesis. Therefore, an enrichment in the oxygen isotope ratios of cellulose would reflect an increase in sea water levels. However, only ~40% of the 18O signal of stem cellulose comes from source water, the other ~60% comes from leaf water. Mangrove and hammock plants respond to environment conditions differently, which calls for a better understanding of leaf physiology and the ability to tease leaf physiolocal effects apart from the source water signal. We hypothesized that it’s likely that mangrove plants, having a greater proportion of water traveling simplastically, would have a longer water pathway from the xylem to the stomatal pore than hammock plants. According to the Peclet effect, this would cause lower isotopic enrichment of leaf water in mangroves compared to those of hammock species. This would explain previous measurements where ?18O of stem cellulose of mangrove was not as enriched as the expected. To test our hypothesis, a transect was selected across the 2 vegetation types (mangroves and hammocks). The parameters measured where: transpiration, temperature of the leaf, ambient temperature, relative humidity, ?18O of vapor, ?18O of stem water and ?18O of leaf water. With those parameters we calculated the effective length of the water pathway from the xylem to the stomatal pore. The results confirmed our hypothesis that mangrove leaves have a longer water pathway from the xylem to the stomatal pore compared to hammock leaves. The next step is to study how we could incorporate this knowledge of different length of water pathway between halophytes and glycophytes to better correlate the oxygen isotopic signature of stem cellulose and its source water. The ultimate goal is to make possible the use of the ?18O of stem cellulose as a tool to proxy sea level rise.

Ellsworth, P.; Sternberg, L. O.

2010-12-01

317

Research on the characteristics of the water quality of rainwater runoff from green roofs.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the water quality characteristics of rainwater runoff from dual-substrate-layer green roofs in Tianjin, China. The data were collected from four different assemblies and three types of simulated rains. The storm-water runoff quality was monitored from early June through late October 2012 and from July through late November 2013. The results revealed that the runoff water quality would be improved to some extent with the ageing of green roofs and that the quality retention rate better reflected the pollutant retention capacity of the green roof than the pollutant concentration in the runoff water. The investigation clearly demonstrated that green roofs also effectively reduced the chemical oxygen demand and turbidity value and neutralised acid rain to stabilise the pH of the runoff. PMID:25325545

Gong, Kena; Wu, Qing; Peng, Sen; Zhao, Xinhua; Wang, Xiaochen

2014-01-01

318

Environmental characteristics and water quality of hydrologic benchmark network stations in the western United States, 1963-95  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the environmental characteristics and water-quality characteristics of 12 hydrologic benchmark network streams in the Western United States. This information was compiled to aide in the interpretation and application of water-quality data collected as part of the Hydrologic Benchmark Network Program.

Mast, M. Alisa; Clow, David W.

2000-01-01

319

Identification of characteristic regions and representative stations: a study of water quality variables in the Kattegat.  

PubMed

Gradients in nutrient distributions and the effects of eutrophication are common features in most coastal marine areas. These structures occur in aquatic systems due to spatial differences in hydrography, nutrient loading and key biogeochemical processes. Two statistical methods, cluster analysis and probability mapping, have been used in the present study to determine characteristics and patterns in water quality variables. Combined, these two methods provide a useful tool to statistically determine spatial homogeneity and representativity of areas and stations. A case study is presented here in which water quality variables (salinity, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, dissolved inorganic phosphorus and chlorophyll) in surface waters of the Kattegat are analysed for the time period 1993-1997. It was found that morphology, the proximity to sources of nutrient loading from land, nutrient uptake and the infrequent water exchange between the Baltic Sea in the south and the Skagerrak in the north all contribute to create distinct regions of water quality. Regions with concentrations significantly different from the overall mean are identified. In addition to identification of regions with similar characteristics, representative stations (as well as not representative stations) for the respective regions were made. This type of information can be used to design new or revise old monitoring programs. PMID:15887373

Danielsson, A; Rahm, L; Conley, D J; Carstensen, J

2004-01-01

320

A characteristic function to estimate the longitudinal dispersion coefficient in surface water flows over porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One-dimensional modelling of solute transport in shallow water flows relies on an accurate approximation of the longitudinal dispersion coefficient, E, especially under transient conditions of the water flow during the solute residence time. Previous approaches have used expressions (e.g., the Rutherford equation) that allow the inclusion of spatiotemporal variability of E during the transport process, but their accuracy is reduced in marked transient regimes since the data were obtained from experimental work in rivers. This work proposes a different approach from experimental work with slow, shallow flows over porous media in fertigation essays, and provides us with a simple, parametric sigmoid function to estimate a priori effective values of E from simple measurements of flow characteristics and variables. The results have been successfully validated and compared to the Rutherford equation approach. Furthermore, the methodology to develop this characteristic function can be easily adapted for application in other practical cases.

Nofuentes, M.; Polo, M. J.

2012-04-01

321

The effect of dose and type of cloprostenol on the luteolytic response of dairy cattle during the Ovsynch protocol under different oestrous cycle and physiological characteristics.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of dose and type of cloprostenol (CLO) on the luteolytic response of dairy cattle during the Ovsynch protocol under different oestrus cycle and physiological characteristics. Twelve non-lactating dairy cows and 111 lactating dairy cows were used in three experiments. In Experiment I, cows were synchronized so that they had only a 5.5- to 6-day-old corpus luteum (CL) at the time of the prostaglandin F2? (PGF2? ) treatment of Ovsynch. In Experiment II, cows were synchronized so that they had at least a CL of approximately 14 days old at the time of PGF2? treatment and an accessory CL if they had responded to the first GnRH of Ovsynch. Furthermore, in each experiment, cows received either a standard or a double dose of d-CLO as the luteolytic treatment. In Experiment III, lactating cows were blocked by parity and assigned to one of three luteolytic treatments during Ovsynch: 500 ?g d,l-CLO, 150 or 300 ?g of d-CLO. In Experiment I, the dose of d-CLO had an effect (p = 0.08) on the percentage of cows with full luteolysis, but not in Experiment II (p > 0.1). More cows in Experiment II had full luteolysis than did cows of Experiment I (87% vs 58%, respectively; p = 0.007). In Experiment III, 87.1%, 84.4% and 86.2% lactating dairy cows had full luteolysis and 37.8%, 36.8% and 36.1% of cows became pregnant after treatment with 500 ?g d,l-CLO, 150 or 300 ?g of d-CLO, respectively (p > 0.05). PMID:23691976

Valldecabres-Torres, X; Larrosa-Morales, P; Cuervo-Arango, J

2013-10-01

322

Microgravity Alters the Physiological Characteristics of Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 35150, ATCC 43889, and ATCC 43895 under Different Nutrient Conditions  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to provide understanding of microgravity effects on important food-borne bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 35150, ATCC 43889, and ATCC 43895, cultured in nutrient-rich or minimal medium. Physiological characteristics, such as growth (measured by optical density and plating), cell morphology, and pH, were monitored under low-shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG; space conditions) and normal gravity (NG; Earth conditions). In nutrient-rich medium, all strains except ATCC 35150 showed significantly higher optical density after 6 h of culture under LSMMG conditions than under NG conditions (P < 0.05). LSMMG-cultured cells were approximately 1.8 times larger than NG-cultured cells at 24 h; therefore, it was assumed that the increase in optical density was due to the size of individual cells rather than an increase in the cell population. The higher pH of the NG cultures relative to that of the LSMMG cultures suggests that nitrogen metabolism was slower in the latter. After 24 h of culturing in minimal media, LSMMG-cultured cells had an optical density 1.3 times higher than that of NG-cultured cells; thus, the higher optical density in the LSMMG cultures may be due to an increase in both cell size and number. Since bacteria actively grew under LSMMG conditions in minimal medium despite the lower pH, it is of some concern that LSMMG-cultured E. coli O157:H7 may be able to adapt well to acidic environments. These changes may be caused by changes in nutrient metabolism under LSMMG conditions, although this needs to be demonstrated in future studies. PMID:24487539

Kim, H. W.; Matin, A.

2014-01-01

323

Physiological and isotopic characteristics of nitrogen fixation by hyperthermophilic methanogens: Key insights into nitrogen anabolism of the microbial communities in Archean hydrothermal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperthermophilic hydrogenotrophic methanogens are considered to be one of the most predominant primary producers in hydrogen (H2)-abundant hydrothermal environments in the present-day ocean and throughout the history of the Earth. However, the nitrogen sources supporting the development of microbial communities in hydrothermal environments remain poorly understood. We have investigated, for the first time, methanogenic archaea commonly found in deep-sea hydrothermal environments to understand their physiological properties (growth kinetics, energetics, and metal requirements) and isotopic characteristics during the fixation of dinitrogen (N2), which is an abundant but less-bioavailable compound in hydrothermal fluids. Culture experiments showed that Methanocaldococcus strain (Mc 1-85N) (Topt = 85 °C) and Methanothermococcus strain (Mt 5-55N) (Topt = 55 °C) assimilated N2 and ammonium, but not nitrate. Previous phylogenetic studies have predicted that the Methanocaldococcus and Methanothermococcus lineages have nitrogenases, key enzymes for N2 fixation, with biochemically uncharacterised active site metal cofactors. We showed that Mt 5-55N required molybdenum for the nitrogenase to function, implying a molybdenum-bearing cofactor in the strain. Molybdenum also stimulated diazotrophic (i.e., N2-fixing) growth of Mc 1-85N, though further experiments are required to test whether the strain contains a molybdenum-dependent nitrogenase. Importantly, Mc 1-85N exhibited an apparently lower requirement of and higher tolerance to molybdenum and iron than Mt 5-55N. Furthermore, both strains produced more 15N-depleted biomass (-4‰ relative to N2) than that previously reported for diazotrophic photosynthetic prokaryotes. These results demonstrate that diazotrophic hyperthermophilic methanogens can be broadly distributed in seafloor and subseafloor hydrothermal environments, where the availability of transition metals is variable and where organic carbon, organic nitrogen, and ammonium are generally scarce. The emergence and function of diazotrophy, coupled with methanogenesis, in the early Earth is also consistent with the nitrogen isotopic records of 3.5 billion-year-old hydrothermal deposits.

Nishizawa, Manabu; Miyazaki, Junichi; Makabe, Akiko; Koba, Keisuke; Takai, Ken

2014-08-01

324

Chemical and physical characteristics of water in estuaries of Texas, October 1976-September 1978  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents basic data on the chemical and physical characteristics of water in the estuaries of Texas for the period October 1976-September 1978. The properties or constituents that are measured in the field are dissolved oxygen (DO), specific conductance, temperature, pH, and transparency by Secchi disk. Analyses conducted in the laboratory include the principal inorganic ions, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total organic carbon (TOC), ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, and total phosphate. (USGS)

Fisher, J.C.

1982-01-01

325

The Effect of Topography on Water Wetting and Micro\\/Nano Tribological Characteristics of Polymeric Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of surface topography on the water-wetting nature and micro\\/nano tribological characteristics of polymer surfaces was experimentally studied. A plasma-treated thin polymer film and ion-beam-treated PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) were used as flat specimens. Thin polymer films were deposited on Si-wafer (100) by the parallel-plate plasma technique. The ion-beam-roughening treatment was performed to change the PTFE surface topography using a hollow

Eui-Sung Yoon; Seung Ho Yang; Hosung Kong; Ki-Hwan Kim

2003-01-01

326

Dynamic characteristics of an air-to-water heat pump under frosting\\/defrosting conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic characteristics of a medium air-to-water heat pump with multi-circuit evaporator controlled by the thermostatic expansion valve (TEV) under the frosting\\/defrosting conditions were investigated experimentally. The airflow maldistribution often occurs if the fin-and-tube heat exchangers in a medium heat pump are arranged in V-type or W-type position with the fan at the top. The experimental results show that the

D. Huang; Z. L. He; X. L. Yuan

2007-01-01

327

Effect of structural heterogeneity water-coal fuel conditions and characteristics of ignition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of the particle ignition of coal-water fuel (CWF) with a joint course of the main processes of a thermal (thermal conductivity, evaporation, filtration heat and mass transfer, thermal decomposition of the organic part) has been solved. According to the results of numerical simulation ways of describing the extent of the influence of the thermophysical properties on the characteristics and conditions of ignition WCF have been set.

Syrodoy, S. V.; Salomatov, V. V.; Gutareva, N. Y.

2015-01-01

328

Application of the characteristic CIP method to a shallow water model on the sphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semi-implicit algorithms are popularly used to deal with the gravitational term in numerical models. In this paper, we adopt\\u000a the method of characteristics to compute the solutions for gravity waves on a sphere directly using a semi-Lagrangian advection\\u000a scheme instead of the semi-implicit method in a shallow water model, to avoid expensive matrix inversions. Adoption of the\\u000a semi-Lagrangian scheme renders

Xindong Peng; Yan Chang; Xingliang Li; Feng Xiao

2010-01-01

329

Mercury levels in walleyes from Wisconsin lakes of different water and sediment chemistry characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-three lakes throughout Wisconsin were sampled in 1985-86 to determine the water and sediment chemistry characteristics that were associated with elevated concentrations of mercury in walleyes. Mean mercury concentrations for each of three different length classes of walleyes increased as the parameters lake pH, alkalinity, calcium, conductivity, or chlorophyll-a decreased. Low values for these parameters characterized most lakes in northern

R. C. Lathrop; K. C. Noonan; P. M. Guenther; T. L. Brasino; P. W. Rasmussen

1989-01-01

330

Performance and heat transfer characteristics of HFC134a and CFC12 in a water chiller  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water chiller with an open reciprocating compressor has been used to comparatively assess the performance of HFC-134a with reference to CFC-12 under as close to identical conditions as possible. Performance characteristics of the chiller under retrofit conditions show that HFC-134a offers better cooling load and coefficients of performance vis-a-vis CFC-12 for identical operating conditions. Further heat transfer analysis of

S. Devotta; M. G. Parande; V. R. Patwardhan

1998-01-01

331

Preparation and characteristic of triolein-embedded composite sorbents for water purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The novel triolein-embedded composite sorbents for removing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in water were developed. Comprehensive structural characteristics of the composite sorbents were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS). It is suggested that triolein\\/cellulose acetate (CA) viscous syrup can be deposited on the surface of silica gel granules, because the

Jinxian Huo; Huijuan Liu; Jiuhui Qu; Zijian Wang; Jiantuan Ge; Haining Liu

2005-01-01

332

Water use and physiology of the riparian tree species Eucalyptus victrix in the semi-arid Pilbara region of Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined the water use and physiology of trees growing in a riparian community within the seasonally arid Pilbara region of north-western Australia. This region is arid during the winter months, but monsoonal during summer (November to April). Maximum monthly mean temperatures in summer exceed 40 °C and are c. 25 °C during the winter months. The Millstream study site is located on a section of the Fortescue River system along the base of the Chichester Range c. 100km south of Karratha. This system creates a unique landscape in the Pilbara as it forms several large permanent pools. These pools are maintained by springs from an aquifer beneath the alluvial plain. The groundwater from this aquifer is used as a public water supply for towns in the west Pilbara but industrial development and a growing population will place greater demand on this aquifer. Changes to the local hydrology may have dramatic effects on the local plant community, dominated variously by stands of Eucalyptus victrix (Coolibah) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (River red gum). This study seeks to understand the dependence of the Millstream riparian ecosystem on the height of the aquifer and to characterise the water use and physiology of Eucalyptus victrix. We used a number of techniques to determine the hydraulic and photosynthetic status of the tree canopy, including isotope, sap flow, water-potential and gas exchange measurements. Initial results from this study show: a) Soil water d18O and d2H is strongly enriched towards the surface, which coincides with a strong increase in salinity. The water source accessed by these trees has been identified by d18O and d2H analysis of xylem water. d18O and d2H were additionally analysed in atmospheric and leaf water pools. b) Sap flow in Coolibah trees shows a unique pattern of sharp early morning rise to a plateau maintained throughout the hottest part of the day, followed by a sharp decline in flow late in the afternoon. c) Leaf water potential follows a similar pattern to sap flow with changes of c. 1 MPa (from c. 0.5 MPa to 1.5 MPa) within 45 min at the beginning and the end of the light period. d) Stomatal conductance appears to be disconnected from this pattern and shows a slower opening phase in the morning, no discernible midday-afternoon depression and a slower closure in the evening, well after night-fall. Combining isotopic, sap flow, physiological and meteorologic information will help to understand how these riparian ecosystems function and how they respond to rapid environmental changes, both natural and introduced by human activities.

Pfautsch, S.; Keitel, C.; Adams, M. A.; Turnbull, T.

2009-04-01

333

The main characteristics of the high water registered in the River Basin Bega in February 1999  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The year 1999 was characterized by high water events with a rare rate of occurrence. The events were produced in different months of the year, in different river basins in the Banat Region (area situated in the south - western part of Romania). In the River Basin Bega the most important high water appeared in mid February and was generated by both rain and the melting of the snow layer. The cold period of 1999 was characterized by relatively high quantities of precipitation (module coefficients from 1.17 to 2.15), the most part of those being liquid (rainfall). At altitudes higher than 1,000 m, the snow layer was relatively continuous. Weather warming appeared in the middle of February, in the same year, generating the melting of an important layer of snow (10 - 15 cm in the plain and around 20 cm in the hilly area), and the water layer generated by this had an important effect, overlaid on the water layer generated by rainfall. The high water (flood) event, which is the topic of this study, occurred between 20th -27th February 1999 and after analyzing the data we initiated a comparative analysis between the main element of the event (specific discharge, high water duration, increasing time, shape coefficient) and the mean element of high waters from 10 gauging stations from the river basin. After the analysis we observed that some elements, like high water duration and the increasing time, are bigger than the mean values - which is a characteristic of high waters generated both by rainfall and snow melting, while other elements are smaller (a, overrun layer) - this as a consequence of river basin response to the generating elements. This analysis has enriched our database for hydrologic prognosis, as it is known that in this part of the country warm periods have a frequent occurrence in winter. They produce snow melting and, sometimes generate important high water.

Iulian Teodorescu, Niculae

2008-11-01

334

Effects of site characteristics on cumulative frequency distribution of water table depth in peatlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies demonstrated strong dependency of vegetation development and GHG emissions from peatlands on annual mean water table depth. It is also proposed that the duration of ponding and low water level periods are important indicators for CH4 emissions and the presence of specific plant species. Better understanding of the annual water table dynamics and the influence of site characteristics helps to explain variability of vegetation and emissions at the plot scale. It also provides essential information for a nation-wide upscaling of local gas flux measurements and for estimating the impact of regional adaption strategies. In this study, we analyze the influence of site characteristics on the cumulative frequency distribution of water table depth in a peatland. On the basis of data from about 100 sites we evaluate how distribution functions, e.g. the beta distribution function, are a tool for the systematic analysis of the site-specific frequency distribution of water table depth. Our analysis shows that it is possible to differentiate different shape types of frequency distributions, in particular left-skewed (bias towards the water table minimum), right-skewed (bias towards the water table maximum), and 'S'-shaped distributions (bias towards the mid of min and max). The shape is primarily dependent on the annual mean water table depth, but also shows dependencies on land use, peatland type, catchment size and soil properties. Forest soils are for example all characterized by a 'S'-shaped distribution. Preliminary results indicate that data sets that do not show a beta distribution are mostly from observation wells that are located close to drainage courses and/or are from sites characterized by strong water management (e.g. abruptly changing weir levels). The beta distribution might thus be a tool to identify sites with a 'non-natural' frequency distribution or erroneous data sets. Because the parameters of the beta distribution show a dependency on site characteristics, they can be used for the regionalization of threshold exceedance probabilities.

Bechtold, Michel; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Frahm, Enrico; Roßkopf, Niko

2013-04-01

335

[Analysis on characteristics of red tide in Fujian coastal waters during the last 10 years].  

PubMed

There were 161 red tide events collected during the last 10 years from 2001 to 2010 in Fujian coastal waters. Comprehensive analysis was performed using statistical methods and the results indicated the following characteristics of the temporal and spatial distribution of red tide in Fujian coastal waters: (1) Outbreaks of red tide often occurred between April and September, and the peak period was in May and June. Most red tide events lasted for 2 to 4 days, and the affected area was below 50 square kilometers. The first outbreak of red tide tended to occur earlier in recent years, and the lasting time became longer. (2) There were 20 species of organisms causing the red tides in Fujian coastal waters, among which 10 species were Bacillariophyta, 9 species were Dinophyta and 1 species was Protozoa. Prorocentrum donghaiense was the most frequent cause of red tides, followed by Noctiluca scintillans, Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros sp.. The species caused red tides obeyed the succession law and there were always new species involved. (2) In terms of spatial distribution, outbreaks of red tides mainly occurred in the coastal waters of Ningde, Fuzhou and Xiamen. The species causing red tides were Prorocentrum donghaiense and Noctiluca in the coastal waters in the north of Pingtan, Fujian Province, Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros in the coastal waters in the south of Pingtan, Fujian Province. The comprehensive analysis of the characteristics of red tides during the last 10 years is expected to provide scientific and reasonable basis for the prevention, reduction and forecast of red tides in Fujian coastal waters. PMID:23002593

Li, Xue-Ding

2012-07-01

336

Performance Evaluation of Four-Parameter Models of the Soil-Water Characteristic Curve  

PubMed Central

Soil-water characteristic curves (SWCCs) are important in terms of groundwater recharge, agriculture, and soil chemistry. These relationships are also of considerable value in geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering. Their measurement, however, is difficult, expensive, and time-consuming. Many empirical models have been developed to describe the SWCC. Statistical assessment of soil-water characteristic curve models found that exponential-based model equations were the most difficult to fit and generally provided the poorest fit to the soil-water characteristic data. In this paper, an exponential-based model is devised to describe the SWCC. The modified equation is similar to those previously reported by Gardner (1956) but includes exponential variable. Verification was performed with 24 independent data sets for a wide range of soil textures. Prediction results were compared with the most widely used models to assess the model's performance. It was proven that the exponential-based equation of the modified model provided greater flexibility and a better fit to data on various types of soil. PMID:24971384

Taha, Mohd Raihan

2014-01-01

337

Physiological Waterfalls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information, defining areas within organ systems where physiological waterfalls exist. Describes pressure-flow relationships of elastic tubes (blood vessels, airways, renal tubules, various ducts). (CS)

Leith, David E.

1976-01-01

338

Growth characteristics of aquatic macrophytes cultured in nutrient-enriched water. I. Water hyacinth, water lettuce, and pennywort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal growth characteristics and biomass yield potential of 3 floating aquatic macrophytes cultured in nutrient nonlimiting conditions were evaluated in central Florida's climatic conditions. Growth cycle (growth curve) of the plants was found to be complete when maximum plant density was reached and no additional increase in growth was recorded. Biomass yield per unit area and time was found to

K. R. Reddy; W. F. DeBusk

2009-01-01

339

Physiological performance of an Alaskan shrub (Alnus fruticosa) in response to disease (Valsa melanodiscus) and water stress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

At northern latitudes, plants are being exposed to multiple climate-related stresses as warming temperatures push plants beyond the physiological limits of their current range. Our study focused on two stresses related to the warming and drying of the Alaskan boreal forest: drought and disease. We e...

340

Influence of nine antibiotics on key secondary metabolites and physiological characteristics in Triticum aestivum: leaf volatiles as a promising new tool to assess toxicity.  

PubMed

Extensive worldwide use of antibiotics has resulted in significant diffuse pollution of antibiotics in environment, but understanding the effects of many important antibiotics on plant physiological activity is still limited, especially at realistic environmental concentrations of antibiotics. To gain insight into influences of different antibiotics on plant performance and identify the most promising traits for fast assessment of toxicity, we studied impacts of nine antibiotics (amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin G, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, tetracycline, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin and erythromycin) on foliage photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigment content and emissions of secondary volatile metabolites in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. "Lovrin"). The antibiotics were applied at concentrations of 0.5 mg L?¹ or 1.5 mg L?¹ either by watering for one week (0.5 L solution) or for two weeks (1 L solution) with given solution. Net assimilation rate was inhibited most strongly by ciprofloxacin and cephalosporins, but the inhibition was mainly due to reductions in stomatal conductance. Photosynthetic electron transport rate was affected by penicillins, cephalosporins and tetracyclines. Contents of photosynthetic pigments, chlorophylls and carotenoids, were most strongly reduced in treatments with tetracyclines, ciprofloxacin and erythromycin. The magnitude of plant photosynthetic and pigment responses generally increased with increasing the antibiotics' dose, but the overall effects were moderate, 10-20 percent in most cases. Emissions of the lipoxygenase pathway products (LOX, green leaf volatiles) were most sensitive indicators of antibiotic treatments. LOX emissions were increased by five to six fold in response to antibiotic treatments and the emissions were quantitatively associated with the treatment dose. Monoterpene emissions were also strongly enhanced by antibiotic treatments, but the dose dependence was weaker. These data collectively suggest that analysis of leaf volatiles can provide a novel sensitive assay to gauge the toxicity of different antibiotics. PMID:23084040

Opri?, Ocsana; Copaciu, Florina; Loredana Soran, Maria; Ristoiu, Dumitru; Niinemets, Ulo; Copolovici, Lucian

2013-01-01

341

Characteristic of Local Boiling Heat Transfer of Ammonia / Water Binary Mixture on the Plate Type Evaporator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) and discharged thermal energy conversion (DTEC) are expected to be the next generation energy production systems. Both systems use a plate type evaporator, and ammonia or ammonia/water mixture as a working fluid. It is important to clarify heat transfer characteristic for designing efficient power generation systems. Measurements of local boiling heat transfer coefficients and visualization were performed for ammonia /water mixture (z = 0.9) on a vertical flat plate heat exchanger in a range of mass flux (7.5 - 15 kg/m2s), heat flux (15 - 23 kW/m2), and pressure (0.7 - 0.9 MPa). The result shows that in the case of ammonia /water mixture, the local heat transfer coefficients increase with an increase of vapor quality and mass flux, and decrease with an increase of heat flux, and the influence of the flow pattern on the local heat transfer coefficient is observed.

Okamoto, Akio; Arima, Hirofumi; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Akiyama, Hirokuni; Ikegami, Yasuyuki; Monde, Masanori

342

TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF DRINKING WATER FOR HYDRATION IN THE ELDERLY.  

PubMed

Abstract The role of hydration in the maintenance of health is increasingly recognized. Hydration requirements vary for each person, depending on physical activity, environmental conditions, dietary patterns, alcohol intake, health problems and age. Elderly individuals have higher risk of developing dehydration than adults. Diminution of liquid intake and increase in liquid losses are both involved in causing dehydration in the elderly. The water used for drinking is provided through regular public water supply and the official sanitary controls ensure their quality and hygiene, granting a range of variation for most of its physical and chemical characteristics, being sometimes these differences, though apparently small, responsible for some disorders in sensitive individuals. Hence the advantages of using bottled water, either natural mineral water or spring water, which are required by law to specify their composition, their major components and other specific parameters. It is essential to take this into account to understand the diversity of indications and favourable effects on health that certain waters can offer. PMID:24915336

Casado, Angela; Ramos, Primitivo; Rodríguez, Jaime; Moreno, Norberto; Gil, Pedro

2013-10-01

343

Drinking water quality in Nepal's Kathmandu Valley: a survey and assessment of selected controlling site characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water was sampled from over 100 sources in Nepal’s Kathmandu Valley, including municipal taps, dug wells, shallow-aquifer tube wells, deep-aquifer tube wells, and dhunge dharas (or stone spouts, public water sources that capture groundwater or surface water). Information was gathered on user preference and site and well characteristics, and water was examined for indicators of contamination from sewage, agriculture, or industry. Most problematic were total coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria, which were present in 94 and 72% of all the water samples, respectively. Contamination by nitrate, ammonia and heavy metals was more limited; nitrate and ammonia exceeded Nepali guidelines in 11 and 45% of the samples, respectively. Arsenic and mercury exceeded WHO guidelines in 7 and 10% of the samples, respectively, but arsenic never exceeded the less strict Nepali guideline. Significant differences existed in contamination levels between types of sources; dug wells and dhunge dharas, being the shallowest, were the most contaminated by bacteria and nitrate; deep-aquifer tube wells were the most contaminated by arsenic. Whereas E. coli concentrations decreased with depth, iron and ammonia concentrations increased with depth. These relationships account for people choosing to drink water with higher levels of bacterial contamination based on its superior (non-metallic) taste and appearance.

Warner, Nathaniel R.; Levy, Jonathan; Harpp, Karen; Farruggia, Frank

2008-03-01

344

Benthic invertebrate population characteristics as affected by water quality in coal-bearing regions of Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Benthic invertebrate and water quality data collected during previous U.S. Geological Survey studies to provide background hydrologic information on streams draining Tennessee coal reserves, were evaluated to identify possible relations between stream biota and water quality. Linear regressions produced low correlation coefficients relating the number of taxa/sample, total number of organisms/sample, sample diversity, and percentage composition of selected orders of invertebrates, with average water quality parameter values available at sampling stations (r is < 0.62 at p=0.05). Analyses of these data by linear regressions explained little of the variability in benthic invertebrate samples primarily because the distributions of benthic organisms along environmental gradients are nonlinear. Variability in substrate characteristics in the study area and seasonal insect emergence patterns also complicated interpretation of these data. However, analysis of variance tests did indicate significant trends towards reduced number of taxa, number of organisms, and sample diversity at stations with relatively poor water quality conditions. Decreasing percentage composition of Ephemeroptera was generally accompanied by an increase in percent Diptera at stations with higher water quality constituent concentrations and acidic pH ( > than 0.6 units). These trends indicate significant differences in benthic communities at sites with evidence of more severe land use impacts. Additional data on benthic invertebrates, water quality , and physical habitat conditions, along with analyses of data using multivariate statistical methods are needed to define ecological relations between specific groups of invertebrates and environmental conditions. (Author 's abstract)

Bradfield, A.D.

1986-01-01

345

Morphological and physiological indicators of water stress in Rosa multiflora and its effect on T-bud grafting procedure  

E-print Network

, Turner et al. , 1984 observed that leaf water potential measurements taken with a psychrometer varied with species when compared to the pressure chamber. At low water potentials using Helianfhus annuus, the pressure chamber gave lower estimates... of water potential than did the thermocouple psychrometer. Turner and co-workers suggest that there are regions of the leaf in which the water is more readily removed under pressure and that in as large a leaf as that of H. annuus the water potential...

Palacios Gilliland, Miguel Angel

1989-01-01

346

Macrophytes in shallow lakes: relationships with water, sediment and watershed characteristics.  

PubMed

We examined macrophyte-environment relationships in shallow lakes located within the Prairie Parkland and Laurentian Mixed Forest provinces of Minnesota. Environmental variables included land cover within lake watersheds, and within-lake, water and sediment characteristics. CCA indicated that sediment fraction smaller than 63 ?m (f<63), open water area, turbidity, and percent woodland and agricultural cover in watersheds were significant environmental variables explaining 36.6% of variation in macrophyte cover. When Province was added to the analysis as a spatial covariate, these environmental variables explained 30.8% of the variation in macrophyte cover. CCA also indicated that pH, f<63, percent woodland cover in watersheds, open water area, emergent vegetation area, and organic matter content were significant environmental variables explaining 43.5% of the variation in macrophyte biomass. When Province was added to the analysis as a spatial covariate, these environmental variables explained 39.1% of the variation in macrophyte biomass. The f<63 was the most important environmental variable explaining variation for both measures of macrophyte abundance (cover and biomass) when Province was added as a spatial covariate to the models. Percent woodland in watersheds, turbidity, open water area, and Ca+Mg explained 34.5% of the variation in macrophyte community composition. Most species showed a negative relationship with turbidity and open water area except for Potamogeton richardsonii, Stuckenia pectinata, and filamentous algae. Our study further demonstrates the extent to which macrophyte abundance and community composition are related to site- and watershed-scale variables including lake morphology, water and sediment characteristics, and percent land cover of adjacent uplands. PMID:23997402

Kissoon, La Toya T; Jacob, Donna L; Hanson, Mark A; Herwig, Brian R; Bowe, Shane E; Otte, Marinus L

2013-08-01

347

Macrophytes in shallow lakes: relationships with water, sediment and watershed characteristics  

PubMed Central

We examined macrophyte-environment relationships in shallow lakes located within the Prairie Parkland and Laurentian Mixed Forest provinces of Minnesota. Environmental variables included land cover within lake watersheds, and within-lake, water and sediment characteristics. CCA indicated that sediment fraction smaller than 63 ?m (f<63), open water area, turbidity, and percent woodland and agricultural cover in watersheds were significant environmental variables explaining 36.6% of variation in macrophyte cover. When Province was added to the analysis as a spatial covariate, these environmental variables explained 30.8% of the variation in macrophyte cover. CCA also indicated that pH, f<63, percent woodland cover in watersheds, open water area, emergent vegetation area, and organic matter content were significant environmental variables explaining 43.5% of the variation in macrophyte biomass. When Province was added to the analysis as a spatial covariate, these environmental variables explained 39.1% of the variation in macrophyte biomass. The f<63 was the most important environmental variable explaining variation for both measures of macrophyte abundance (cover and biomass) when Province was added as a spatial covariate to the models. Percent woodland in watersheds, turbidity, open water area, and Ca+Mg explained 34.5% of the variation in macrophyte community composition. Most species showed a negative relationship with turbidity and open water area except for Potamogeton richardsonii, Stuckenia pectinata, and filamentous algae. Our study further demonstrates the extent to which macrophyte abundance and community composition are related to site- and watershed-scale variables including lake morphology, water and sediment characteristics, and percent land cover of adjacent uplands. PMID:23997402

Kissoon, La Toya T; Jacob, Donna L; Hanson, Mark A; Herwig, Brian R; Bowe, Shane E; Otte, Marinus L

2013-01-01

348

Growth characteristics of aquatic macrophytes cultured in nutrient-enriched water: I. Water hyacinth, water lettuce, and pennywort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal growth characteristics and biomass yield potential of 3 floating aquatic macrophytes cultured in nutrient nonlimiting\\u000a conditions were evaluated in central Florida’s climatic conditions. Growth cycle (growth curve) of the plants was found to\\u000a be complete when maximum plant density was reached and no additional increase in growth was recorded. Biomass yield per unit\\u000a area and time was found to

K. R. Reddy; W. F. Debusk

1984-01-01

349

Physiological Genomics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five journals with free (or recently extended) online trial periods were recently announced; online content includes full text, figures, and tables. The American Physiological Society has announced free, online access to Physiological Genomics through December 31, 2001; full text and abstracts are available from 1999. The journal is published in conjunction with Stanford University's HighWire Press.

1969-12-31

350

Conservation physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation biologists increasingly face the need to provide legislators, courts and conservation managers with data on causal mechanisms underlying conservation problems such as species decline. To develop and monitor solutions, conservation biologists are progressively using more techniques that are physiological. Here, we review the emerging discipline of conservation physiology and suggest that, for conservation strategies to be successful, it is

Martin Wikelski; Steven J. Cooke

2006-01-01

351

The function of 7D-cadherins: a mathematical model predicts physiological importance for water transport through simple epithelia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  7D-cadherins like LI-cadherin are cell adhesion molecules and represent exceptional members of the cadherin superfamily. Although\\u000a LI-cadherin was shown to act as a functional Ca2+-dependent adhesion molecule, linking neighboring cells together, and to be dysregulated in a variety of diseases, the physiological\\u000a role is still enigmatic. Interestingly 7D-cadherins occur only in the lateral plasma membranes of cells from epithelia of

Mareike Ahl; Agnes Weth; Sebastian Walcher; Werner Baumgartner

2011-01-01

352

Stress induced by hooking, net towing, elevated sea water temperature and air in sablefish: Lack of concordance between mortality and physiological measures of stress  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In a series of laboratory studies designed to simulate bycatch processes, sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria were either hooked for up to 24 h or towed in a net for 4 h and then subjected to an abrupt transfer to elevated sea water temperature and air. Mortality did not result from hooking or net towing followed by exposure to air, but increased for both capture methods as fish were exposed to elevated temperatures, reflecting the magnifying effect of elevated temperature on mortality. Hooking and exposure to air resulted in increased plasma cortisol and lactate concentrations, while the combination of hooking and exposure to elevated temperature and air resulted in increased lactate and potassium concentrations. In fish that were towed in a net and exposed to air, cortisol, lactate, potassium and sodium concentrations increased, but when subjected to elevated temperature and air, no further increases occurred above the concentrations induced by net towing and air, suggesting a possible maximum of the physiological stress response. The results suggest that caution should be exercised when using physiological measures to quantify stress induced by capture and exposure to elevated temperature and air, that ultimately result in mortality, since the connections between physiological stress and mortality in bycatch processes remain to be fully understood.

Davis, M.W.; Olla, B.L.; Schreck, C.B.

2001-01-01

353

Are flowers physiological sinks or faucets? Costs and correlates of water use by flowers of Polemonium viscosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water loss through inflorescences may place extreme demands on plant water status in arid environments. Here we examine how\\u000a corolla size, a trait known to influence pollination success, affects the water cost of flowering in the alpine skypilot, Polemonium viscosum. In a potometry experiment, water uptake rates of inflorescences were monitored during bud expansion and anthesis. Corolla\\u000a volume of fully

Candace Galen; Rabecca A. Sherry; Amy B. Carroll

1999-01-01

354

Study of Cold Heat Energy Release Characteristics of Flowing Ice Water Slurry in a Pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper has dealt with melting heat transfer characteristics of ice water slurry in an inside tube of horizontal double tube heat exchanger in which a hot water circulated in an annular gap between the inside and outside tubes. Two kinds of heat exchangers were used; one is made of acrylic resin tube for flow visualization and the other is made of stainless steel tube for melting heat transfer measurement. The result of flow visualization revealed that ice particles flowed along the top of inside tube in the ranges of small ice packing factor and low ice water slurry velocity, while ice particles diffused into the whole of tube and flowed like a plug built up by ice particles for large ice packing factor and high velocity. Moreover, it was found that the flowing ice plug was separated into numbers of small ice clusters by melting phenomenon. Experiments of melting heat transfer were carried out under some parameters of ice packing factor, ice water slurry flow rate and hot water temperature. Consequently, the correlation equation of melting heat transfer was derived as a function of those experimental parameters.

Inaba, Hideo; Horibe, Akihiko; Ozaki, Koichi; Yokota, Maki

355

Water landing characteristics of a model of a winged reentry vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed manned space shuttle vehicles are expected to land on airport runways. In an emergency situation, however, the vehicle may be required to land on water. A 1/10-scale dynamic model of a winged reentry vehicle was investigated to determine the water landing characteristics. Two configurations of the proposed vehicle were studied. Configuration 1 had a 30 deg negative dihedral of the stabilizer-elevon surface whereas configuration 2 had a 30 deg positive dihedral. Results indicate that the maximum normal accelerations for configurations 1 and 2 when landing in calm water were approximately 8g and 6g, respectively, and the maximum longitudinal accelerations were approximately 5g and 3g, respectively. A small hydroflap was needed to obtain satisfactory calm-water landings with configuration 2, whereas configuration 1 gave good landings without a hydroflap. All landings made in rough water resulted in unsatisfactory motions. For landings made in three different wave sizes, both configurations dived. The maximum normal accelerations for configurations 1 and 2 when landing in waves were -10.1g and -18.7g, respectively, and the maximum longitudinal accelerations for both configurations were approximately 13g.

Stubbs, S. M.

1972-01-01

356

Residues and Characteristics of Organochlorine Pesticides in the Surface Water in the Suburb of Beijing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT and HCH, have stable chemical properties and less biodegradability. As a kind of persistent organic pollutants, they have high risk to the environment and human health. Although DDT and HCH have been prohibited in China since 1983, they are still found in some soil and water nowadays. Water resource is very important in natural environment and essential for agriculture. The existence of OCPs in some surface water in Beijing has been detected with different levels according to previous investigations. In recent years, many measures have been taken to control the pollution and to monitor the environment, and more attention has been paid to the status of surface water today. In this study, the water samples were collected from the Wenyu, Beiyun, Yanqing, Fangshan, Changping, and Shunyi Rivers in the suburb of Beijing, and the residues and characteristics of DDT and HCH were studied. The results showed that the contents of DDTs and HCHs were ND-13.98 ng/L and 3.87-146.42 ng/L, respectively. According to the indicators of the ratio values of (DDD+DDE)/DDT and ?-HCH/?-HCH, the source of pollution and its potential risk are also discussed in this article.

CHEN, Jiawei; LIU, Chen; YANG, Zhongfang; WANG, Jiyuan

357

Nutrient characteristics of the water masses and their seasonal variability in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

Nutrient characteristics of four water masses in the light of their thermohaline properties are examined in the eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean during winter, spring and summer monsoon. The presence of low salinity water mass with "Surface enrichments" of inorganic nutrients was observed relative to 20 m in the mixed layer. Lowest oxygen levels of 19 microM at 3 degrees N in the euphotic zone indicate mixing of low oxygen high salinity Arabian Sea waters with the equatorial Indian Ocean. The seasonal variability of nutrients was regulated by seasonally varying physical processes like thermocline elevation, meridional and zonal transport, the equatorial undercurrent and biological processes of uptake and remineralization. Circulation of Arabian Sea high salinity waters with nitrate deficit could also be seen from low N/P ratio with a minimum of 8.9 in spring and a maximum of 13.6 in winter. This large deviation from Redfield N/P ratio indicates the presence of denitrified high salinity waters with a seasonal nitrate deficit ranging from -4.85 to 1.52 in the Eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean. PMID:20547419

Sardessai, S; Shetye, Suhas; Maya, M V; Mangala, K R; Prasanna Kumar, S

2010-01-01

358

Dynamic Model Investigation of the Rough-Water Landing Characteristics of a Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dynamic Model Investigation of the Rough-Water Landing Characteristics of a Spacecraft. The investigation was made to study the rough-water landing characteristics of a Gemini type of spacecraft. The investigations were made with a 1/6-scale dynamic model in a simulated sea state 4 rough water. Parachute letdown landings were simulated with the model at various yaw angles and horizontal velocities. The vertical velocity and landing attitude remained constant. The range of maximum lateral and longitudinal acceleration was from about 3-1/2g to 16g while that for the maximum normal acceleration was from lg to 15g. The range of maximum angular acceleration was from about 0 to 190 radians per second(exp 2). The smoothest behavior and the lowest angular acceleration occurred at the 90 degree yaw angle. The normal acceleration was near minimum at this condition. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070031004. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

1966-01-01

359

Drinking water quality in Nepal’s Kathmandu Valley: a survey and assessment of selected controlling site characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water was sampled from over 100 sources in Nepal’s Kathmandu Valley, including municipal taps, dug wells, shallow-aquifer\\u000a tube wells, deep-aquifer tube wells, and dhunge dharas (or stone spouts, public water sources that capture groundwater or surface water). Information was gathered on user preference\\u000a and site and well characteristics, and water was examined for indicators of contamination from sewage, agriculture, or

Nathaniel R. Warner; Jonathan Levy; Karen Harpp; Frank Farruggia

2008-01-01

360

Pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of boiling water in sub-hundred micron channel  

SciTech Connect

The current work focuses on the pressure drop, heat transfer and stability in two phase flow in microchannels with hydraulic diameter of less than one hundred microns. Experiments were conducted in smooth microchannels of hydraulic diameter of 45, 65 {mu}m, and a rough microchannel of hydraulic diameter of 70 {mu}m, with deionised water as the working fluid. The local saturation pressure and temperature vary substantially over the length of the channel. In order to correctly predict the local saturation temperature and subsequently the heat transfer characteristics, numerical techniques have been used in conjunction with the conventional two phase pressure drop models. The Lockhart-Martinelli (liquid-laminar, vapour-laminar) model is found to predict the two phase pressure drop data within 20%. The instability in two phase flow is quantified; it is found that microchannels of smaller hydraulic diameter have lesser instabilities as compared to their larger counterparts. The experiments also suggest that surface characteristics strongly affect flow stability in the two phase flow regime. The effect of hydraulic diameter and surface characteristics on the flow characteristics and stability in two phase flow is seldom reported, and is of considerable practical relevance. (author)

Bhide, R.R.; Singh, S.G.; Sridharan, Arunkumar; Duttagupta, S.P.; Agrawal, Amit [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

2009-09-15

361

Experimental determination of water droplet "strain cycles" characteristic in the gas area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental investigation of deformation regularities of widely used in industry liquid (water, kerosene, ethanol) droplets during the motion through the gas area under the action of gravitational forces has been conducted. Droplet characteristic sizes were varied in the range from 3 mm to 6 mm. Droplet motion velocities were come up to 5 m/s. Cross-correlation video recording system with optical methods of droplet size and velocity measurement was used. More than 10 characteristic droplets "strain cycles" have been established during they pass the distances up to 1 m through the gas area. The characteristic droplet forms, times, extents and amplitudes have been determined for each "strain cycle". The expression has been formulated which describes the characteristic "strain cycles" time dependencies on droplet velocities and sizes, also on the fundamental properties (viscosity, density, surface tension) of liquid and gas area in a first approximation. The conditions of droplet deformation intensification and this process in industry gas-vapor-droplet setups stabilization have been determined.

Kuznetsov, Genii V.; Strizhak, Pavel A.; Volkov, Roman S.; Zabelin, Maxim V.

2015-01-01

362

Characteristics of melt water discharge in the Glacier No. 1 basin, headwater of Urumqi River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characteristics of the daily melt water discharge cycle and the relation between melt water discharge, air temperature, and precipitation are analyzed based on observation data during 2001-2005 in the Glacier No. 1 basin at the headwater of the Urumqi River, Tianshan Mountains (hereafter, Glacier No. 1). The results indicate that the daytime and nighttime discharges were less during the preliminary stage of melting in May, and became strong following the ablation period (July-August). The daytime and nighttime discharges in the same month varied year-over-year, and the daily discharge cycles in different months of the summer were dissimilar. The mean daytime/nighttime discharges were somewhat related to the mean nighttime air temperature (Tn), but were not significantly related to the amount of precipitation. In the daily cycle of average discharges in the summer months during 2001-2005, the maximum discharges occurred in the afternoons and evenings, and the minimum discharges occurred in the mornings. The daily discharge peaks lagged behind the time of maximum melting (maximum air temperature) on selected clear-weather days in different months in different years. This was related to the melt water flow distance inside and underneath the glacier and the structure of the internal drainage net, and may also have been influenced by the weather prior to and after the observed consecutive clear-weather days. The monthly mean daytime discharge was generally greater than the nighttime discharge, primarily because cloudy and rainy weather and lower air temperatures led to less melt water, and precipitation could not make up the loss of discharge from melt water. Daytime melt water contributed only slightly to nighttime discharge due to the short time lag caused by melt water flow distance.

Mingjie, Gao; Tianding, Han; Baisheng, Ye; Keqin, Jiao

2013-05-01

363

Nasal Physiology  

MedlinePLUS

... Introduction The physiologic function of the nose includes respiration, conditioning inspired air, vocal resonance, olfaction, nasal resistance, protection of the lower airway, and ventilation and drainage of the sinuses. RESPIRATION The nose ...

364

Synthetic Physiology  

E-print Network

Optogenetic tools are DNA-encoded molecules that, when genetically targeted to cells, enable the control of specific physiological processes within those cells through exposure to light. These tools can pinpoint how these ...

Boyden, Edward Stuart

365

No tillage effect on water retention characteristics of soil aggregates in rainfed semiarid conditions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evaluation of changes in soil moisture retention characteristics associated to alterations in soil structure is of great interest in tillage studies. Most of these studies have evaluated soil properties in samples of total soil but not in individual aggregates. However, soil behavior at a macroscale level depends on the aggregate properties. A better knowledge of aggregate characteristics, as the water retention properties, will help to explain, for example, the response of soil to tillage, compaction and crop growth, and hence, to plan adequate soil management practices. In this study we determine the water retention curve of soil aggregates of different sizes from a soil under two tillage systems (conventional and no tillage). The study was carried out in a silty clay loam soil of semiarid Aragon (NE Spain). Two tillage systems were compared: no tillage (NT) and conventional tillage with mouldboard plough (CT). Water retention curves (WRC) were determined for soil surface aggregates (0-5 cm) of three different sizes (8-4, 4-2 and 2-1 mm in diameter) by using the TDR-pressure cell (Moret et al. 2008. Soil Till. Res, 100, 114-119). The TDR-pressure cell is a non-destructive method which permits determining WRC with the only one and same soil sample. Thus, the pressure cell was filled with aggregates up to 4 cm height, weighted and wetted to saturation from the bottom. Pressure steps were sequentially applied at -0.5, -1.5, -3, -5, -10, -33, -100, -300 kPa, and water content of each aggregate sample was measured gravimetrically and by TDR 24 h after starting each pressure head step. The volume of the sample within the cell was also determined at this moment in order to obtain the bulk density and thus calculate the volumetric water content. A good relationship was obtained between the volumetric water content calculated from the gravimetric water content and the corresponding values measured by TDR (r2=0.907; p?0.05). Within the same tillage treatment, no significant differences in WRC were found among soil aggregate sizes. Soil aggregates under CT retained more water at lower pressure heads in all aggregate sizes; in contrast the retention was more effective in those from NT at high pressure level. The extensive structural degradation of the CT aggregates observed during wetting with the consequent decrease in the soil volume within the transparent cell, can help to explain the different behaviour of both soils. The CT aggregates were probably disintegrated by slaking, causing a reduction in water drainage and, therefore, an increase in soil water content at low pressure heads. This idea was also confirmed with the application of the double exponential function proposed by Dexter et al. (2008. Geoderma 173, 243-253). The WRC curves measured by TDR were successfully fitted to the theoretical model proposed by Dexter (r2=0.986; p?0.05). Thus, the model estimated that the large porosity between aggregates retain slightly more water under CT (0.36-0.39 m3 m-3) than under NT (0.31-0.35 m3 m-3). On the contrary, pores inside the aggregates tend to storage more water in NT (0.16-0.20 m3 m-3vs. 0.13-0.17 m3 m-3 in CT). These results show the suitability of NT to reduce the risk of soil crusting and compaction in agricultural lands of Aragón.

Blanco-Moure, Nuria; López, M. Victoria; Moret, David

2010-05-01

366

Response of soybean rhizosphere communities to human hygiene water addition as determined by community level physiological profiling (CLPP) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this report, we describe an experiment conducted at Kennedy Space Center in the biomass production chamber (BPC) using soybean plants for purification and processing of human hygiene water. Specifically, we tested whether it was possible to detect changes in the root-associated bacterial assemblage of the plants and ultimately to identify the specific microorganism(s) which differed when plants were exposed to hygiene water and other hydroponic media. Plants were grown in hydroponics media corresponding to four different treatments: control (Hoagland's solution), artificial gray water (Hoagland's+surfactant), filtered gray water collected from human subjects on site, and unfiltered gray water. Differences in rhizosphere microbial populations in all experimental treatments were observed when compared to the control treatment using both community level physiological profiles (BIOLOG) and molecular fingerprinting of 16S rRNA genes by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (TRFLP). Furthermore, screening of a clonal library of 16S rRNA genes by TRFLP yielded nearly full length SSU genes associated with the various treatments. Most 16S rRNA genes were affiliated with the Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Variovorax, Burkholderia, Bordetella and Isosphaera groups. This molecular approach demonstrated the ability to rapidly detect and identify microorganisms unique to experimental treatments and provides a means to fingerprint microbial communities in the biosystems being developed at NASA for optimizing advanced life support operations.

Kerkhof, L.; Santoro, M.; Garland, J.

2000-01-01

367

Study on the Generation Characteristics of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasmas on Water Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new contact glow discharge electrode on the surface of water was designed and employed in this study. Because of the strong field strength in the small air gap formed by the electrode and the water surface, glow discharge plasmas were generated and used to treat waste water. The electric field distribution of the designed electrode model was simulated by MAXWELL 3D® simulation software, and the discharge parameters were measured. Through a series of experiments, we investigated the impact of optimal designs, such as the dielectric of the electrode, immersion depths, and curvature radii of the electrode on the generation characteristics of plasmas. In addition, we designed an equipotential multi-electrode configuration to treat a Methyl Violet solution and observe the discoloration effect. The experimental and simulation results indicate that the designed electrodes can realize glow discharge with a relative low voltage, and the generated plasmas covered a large area and were in stable state. The efficiency of water treatment is improved and optimized with the designed electrodes.

Liu, Wenzheng; Li, Chuanhui

2014-01-01

368

Effects of the water extract of Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC on physiological and immune responses to Vibrio alginolyticus infection in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

PubMed

Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC is widely distributed in certain areas of Asia and is very popular in vegetarian cuisine in Taiwan. To investigate the regulatory roles of G. bicolor in various functions in crustaceans, we examined innate non-specific immune responses (including total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase activity (PO), respiratory bursts (RBs), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity), physiological responses (including haemolymph glucose, lactate, and lipids), and gene expressions (including prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide- and b-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), and peroxinectin (PE) mRNA transcripts) to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) that were individually injected with the water extract from G. bicolor at 2, 4, and 8 ?g g(-1). Results indicated that PO, RBs, SOD activity, proPO, LGBP, and PE mRNA transcripts of shrimps receiving the water extract of G. bicolor at 2, 4, and 8 ?g g(-1) significantly increased after challenge with V. alginolyticus for 96 h. However, no significant difference in the THC was seen at any dose. L. vannamei injected with the water extract of G. bicolor at all doses respectively maintained lower glucose, lactate, and lipid levels in response to V. alginolyticus challenge at 12-36, 24-36, and 24-48 h. Survival rates at 24-72 h of L. vannamei that received G. bicolor at any dose was significantly higher than those of shrimp that received saline. It was concluded that the water extract of G. bicolor can maintain physiological homeostasis and enhance immunity against V. alginolyticus infection in L. vannamei. PMID:23603309

Hsieh, Shu-Ling; Wu, Chih-Chung; Liu, Chun-Hung; Lian, Juang-Lin

2013-07-01

369

Have we been ignoring physiological plasticity and genetic variation in stomatal function as a significant source of error in models of water and carbon fluxes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurately predicting plant and ecosystem function across climatic and ecological gradients requires properly parameterized models of both net photosynthetic assimilation of CO2 and stomatal conductance. Photosynthesis models have been parameterized to account for physiological plasticity and genetic variation for decades. However, models describing physiological plasticity or genetic variation in the sensitivity of stomatal conductance to net photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (A), relative humidity (RH), and atmospheric [CO2] have rarely, if ever, been applied. There is no mechanistic basis for the prevailing assumption that models of stomatal conductance can share a universal parameterization for all C3 species. Twelve species of temperate trees were grown in a common garden to test species-specific sensitivity of stomatal conductance to A, RH and [CO2]. Additionally, a Salix and a Populus genotype, grown at three locations throughout the Eastern US in biofuels trails, were measured at three times during the growing season to test for temporal and spatial effects. Soybean was also grown at eight ozone concentrations to test for physiological plasticity in stomatal function. Laboratory-based gas exchange measurements were used to parameterize the widely used Ball et al. (1987) model of stomatal conductance and the Farquhar et al. (1980) model of photosynthesis. These models were coupled to each other and a leaf energy balance model in order to predict in situ leaf CO2 and water fluxes which were compared against field measurements. There was significant physiological plasticity and genetic variation in the sensitivity of stomatal conductance to A, RH and [CO2]. This was reflected in significant variation in parameters of the Ball et al. (1987) model, with the key slope parameter (m) ranging from more than 4-fold. Context-specific parameterization of this widely used stomatal conductance model reduced error in predictions of in situ leaf A and gs by up to 59%, compared to the commonly used generic parameterization (m = 10, g0 = 0). This suggests that parameterization of stomatal conductance models to reflect physiological plasticity and genetic variation in function would be an effective method to improve the accuracy of plant and ecosystem models that are key tools in the study of global environmental change and sustainable agriculture.

Wertin, T. M.; Wolz, K.; Richter, K.; Adorbo, M.; Betzelberger, A. M.; Leakey, A.

2013-12-01

370

Red spruce physiology and growth in response to elevated CO[sub 2], water stress and nutrient limitations  

SciTech Connect

Spruce-fir ecosystems of the eastern United States interest scientists because of reported changes in population growth. This research examined the growth and physical responses of red spruce seedlings (Picea rubens Sarg.) to change in atmospheric CO[sub 2], water and nutrient availability to determine the response of this species to potential climatic changes. Red spruce seedlings were grown from seed for 1 year in ambient (374 ppm) or elevated (713 ppm) CO[sub 2] in combination with low or high soil fertility treatment, and well-watered or water-stressed conditions. Red spruce seedlings grown with limited nutrient and water availability increased growth in elevated CO[sub 2] as did seedlings grown with high soil fertility treatment and ample water. At 12 months of age, elevated CO[sub 2]-grown seedlings had greater dry weight, height, diameter and specific leaf weight than ambient CO[sub 2[minus

Samuelson, L.J.

1992-01-01

371

Applied physiology of diving.  

PubMed

Recreational diving is a popular sport, although human ability to stay in and under water is severely limited physiologically. An understanding of these limitations enhances safety and enjoyment of sports diving. Breath-hold diving involves head-out water immersion, apnoea and submersion, exercise, cold stress, and pressure exposure. Each of these components, by itself, elicits prominent and specific physiological effects. Combination of these factors produces a unique and interesting physiological response generally known as diving reflex. Humans display weak diving responses, but exhibit no oxygen conservation function. Nevertheless, application of diving-induced physiological changes is now finding its way into clinical practice. Apnoea, face immersion, and head-out water immersion all show promise of clinical application. There are several spin-offs from diving research worth noting. Diuresis, enhancement of cardiac performance, and redistribution of blood flow, all produced by head-out water immersion, have been shown to be clinically useful, besides providing physiological data useful to space travel. Results from investigations on apnoea have been shown to be relevant to the following: treating some forms of cardiac arrhythmias; understanding drowning, sudden infant death syndrome and sleep apnoea; and confirming hyperventilation as the major cause of drowning. In comparison to marine mammals, humans are poor divers because of severe physiological constraints which limit their breath-hold time, diving depth, and ability to conserve body heat. Although under special circumstances humans can achieve unusually long breath-hold time and reach exceptional depth with a single breath, the sustainable working time and depth are only about 1 minute and 5 metres, respectively. Hypothermia inevitably results in divers working in the ocean. Without thermal protection, the intolerable limit of 35 degrees C is reached within 30 minutes in winter (10 degrees C) water and within 60 to 90 minutes in summer. Nevertheless, effective harvest work can be performed by humans in the ocean, and recreational benefits enhanced when these physiological limitations are respected. An unusual circulatory state exists during head-out water immersion in that there is a sustained increase of stroke volume. This results in 30% increase in cardiac output when the subject is resting in thermal neutral water, indicating a substantial overperfusion for the oxygen requirement. Furthermore, animal experiments showed that the elevated blood flow is preferentially channeled to the liver, fat, and the organs in the splanchnic region.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3278355

Lin, Y C

1988-01-01

372

Modeling gravity effects on water retention and gas transport characteristics in plant growth substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growing plants to facilitate life in outer space, for example on the International Space Station (ISS) or at planned deep-space human outposts on the Moon or Mars, has received much attention with regard to NASA’s advanced life support system research. With the objective of in situ resource utilization to conserve energy and to limit transport costs, native materials mined on Moon or Mars are of primary interest for plant growth media in a future outpost, while terrestrial porous substrates with optimal growth media characteristics will be useful for onboard plant growth during space missions. Due to limited experimental opportunities and prohibitive costs, liquid and gas behavior in porous substrates under reduced gravity conditions has been less studied and hence remains poorly understood. Based on ground-based measurements, this study examined water retention, oxygen diffusivity and air permeability characteristics of six plant growth substrates for potential applications in space, including two terrestrial analogs for lunar and Martian soils and four particulate substrates widely used in reduced gravity experiments. To simulate reduced gravity water characteristics, the predictions for ground-based measurements (1 - g) were scaled to two reduced gravity conditions, Martian gravity (0.38 - g) and lunar gravity (0.16 - g), following the observations in previous reduced gravity studies. We described the observed gas diffusivity with a recently developed model combined with a new approach that estimates the gas percolation threshold based on the pore size distribution. The model successfully captured measured data for all investigated media and demonstrated the implications of the poorly-understood shift in gas percolation threshold with improved gas percolation in reduced gravity. Finally, using a substrate-structure parameter related to the gaseous phase, we adequately described the air permeability under reduced gravity conditions.

Chamindu Deepagoda, T. K. K.; Jones, Scott B.; Tuller, Markus; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; Kawamoto, Ken; Komatsu, Toshiko; Moldrup, Per

2014-08-01

373

Field-Obtained Soil Water Characteristic Curves and Hydraulic Conductivity Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compacted clay liner (test pad) was constructed and instrumented with volumetric water content and soil matric potential sensors to determine soil water characteristic curves (SWCC) and hydraulic conductivity (k) functions. Specifically, the compacted clay liner was subjected to an infiltration cycle during a sealed double ring infiltrometer (SDRI) test followed by a drying cycle. After the drying cycle, Shelby tube samples were collected from the compacted clay liner and flexible wall permeability (FWP) tests were conducted on sub-samples to determine the saturated hydraulic conductivity. Moreover, two computer programs (RETC and UNSAT-H) were utilized to model the SWCCs and k-functions of the soil based on obtained measurements including the volumetric water content, the soil matric potential, and the saturated hudraulic conductivity (ks). Results obtained from the RETC program (s, r, ?, n and ks) were ingested into UNSAT-H program to calculate the movement of water (rate and location) through the compacted clay liner. Although a linear wetting front (location of water infiltration as a function of time) is typically utilized for SDRI calculations, the use of a hyperbolic wetting front is recommended as a hyperbolic wetting front was modeled from the testing results. The suggested shape of the wetting front is associated with utilization of the desorption SWCC instead of the sorption SWCC and with relatively high values of ks (average value of 7.2E-7 cm/sec) were measured in the FWP tests while relatively low values of ks (average value of 1.2E-7 cm/sec) were measured in the SDRI test.

Elvis, Ishimwe

374

Characteristics of sound propagation in shallow water over an elastic seabed with a thin cap-rock layer  

E-print Network

Characteristics of sound propagation in shallow water over an elastic seabed with a thin cap 2012; revised 15 March 2013; accepted 7 May 2013) Measurements of low-frequency sound propagation over over a lay- ered elastic seabed with a shear wave speed comparable to but lower than the water

375

Influence of selected water quality characteristics on the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin and gamma-cyhalothrin to Hyalella azteca  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to assess the influence of suspended solids, dissolved organic carbon, and phytoplankton (as chlorophyll a) water quality characteristics on lambda-cyhalothrin and gamma-cyhalothrin aqueous toxicity to Hyalella azteca using natural water from 12 ponds and lakes in Mississipp...

376

Laminar heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of carbon nano tube/water nanofluids.  

PubMed

This paper presents an experimental investigation on the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of CNT/water nanofluid through a circular tube fitted with helical screw tape inserts with constant heat flux under laminar flow condition. Nanofluids of 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions are prepared by two step method. Thermo-physical properties like thermal conductivity and viscosity are measured by using KD2 thermal property analyzer and Brooke field cone and plate viscometer respectively. From the measurements, it is found that the viscosity increase is substantially higher than the increase in the thermal conductivity. The helical screw tape insets with twist ratios Y = 3, 2.44 and 1.78 are used to study the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics under laminar flow in the Reynolds number range of 520-2500. It is observed that, in a plain tube, maximum enhancement in Nusselt number for 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions of nanofluids compared to pure water is 15% and 32% respectively. With the use of inserts, maximum enhancement in Nusselt number corresponding to twist ratios of 1.78, 2.44 and 3 are obtained as 8%, 16% and 4.6% for 0.1% volume fraction of nanofluid and 5%, 4% and 12% for 0.2% volume fraction of nanofluid when compared with water in plain tube. Thermal performance factor evaluation revealed that the values at all Reynolds number for all twist ratios and both concentration of CNT nanofluid are greater than unity which indicates that helical screw tape inserts with twist ratios considered are feasible in terms of energy saving in laminar flow. PMID:24745238

Rathnakumar, P; Mayilsamy, K; Suresh, S; Murugesan, P

2014-03-01

377

Prediction of micro-bubble dissolution characteristics in water and seawater  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with the prediction of micro-bubble dissolution characteristics in water and seawater when microbubbles are generated by a Sadatomi-type micro-bubble generator (2003) with a spherical body in a flowing liquid tube. In the experiments, in order to know the effects of the salinity on the characteristics, tap water and an artificial seawater with different salt concentrations of 1 and 3 wt% were used as the test liquids. Parameters measured were the Sauter mean diameter of bubbles, d{sub BS}, the void fraction, {alpha}, the rising velocity of bubbles, u{sub G}, the interfacial area concentration, a, the volumetric mass transfer coefficient, K{sub L}a, and the liquid-side mass transfer coefficient, K{sub L}. In the analysis, for predicting {alpha}, K{sub L}a and K{sub L}, some correlations in the literatures were tested against the present data. Furthermore, in order to improve the predictability, new correlations were developed based on the present data. The prediction of K{sub L}a with the new correlation agreed well with Nishino et al.'s [T. Nishino, K. Terasaka, M. Ishida, Application for several micro-bubble generators for gas absorber, in: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Multiphase Flow, 2006, pp. 276-277 (in Japanese)] and Li and Tsuge's [P. Li, H. Tsuge, Water treatment by induced air flotation using microbubbles, Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan 39 (2006) 896-903; P. Li, H. Tsuge, Ozone transfer in a new gas-induced contactor with microbubbles, Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan 39 (2006) 1213-1220] data for different aeration systems using several different micro-bubble generators. (author)

Kawahara, Akimaro; Sadatomi, Michio; Matsuura, Hidetoshi; Tominaga, Mayo; Noguchi, Masanori [Department of Mechanical System Engineering, Kumamoto University, Kurokami 2-39-1, Kumamoto City 860-8555 (Japan); Matsuyama, Fuminori [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sasebo National College of Technology (Japan)

2009-07-15

378

The physiological response of Populus tremula x alba leaves to the down-regulation of PIP1 aquaporin gene expression under no water stress  

PubMed Central

In order to study the role of PIP1 aquaporins in leaf water and CO2 transport, several lines of PIP1-deficient transgenic Populus tremula x alba were generated using a reverse genetic approach. These transgenic lines displayed no visible developmental or morphological phenotypes when grown under conditions of no water stress. Major photosynthetic parameters were also not affected by PIP1 down regulation. However, low levels of PIP1 expression resulted in greater leaf hydraulic resistance (an increase of 27%), which effectively implicated PIP1 role in water transport. Additionally, the expression level of PIP1 genes in the various transgenic lines was correlated with reductions in mesophyll conductance to CO2 (gm), suggesting that in poplar, these aquaporins influenced membrane permeability to CO2. Overall, although analysis showed that PIP1 genes contributed to the mass transfer of water and CO2 in poplar leaves, their down-regulation did not dramatically impair the physiological needs of this fast growing tree when cultivated under conditions of no stress. PMID:24379822

Secchi, Francesca; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.

2013-01-01

379

The physiological response of Populus tremula x alba leaves to the down-regulation of PIP1 aquaporin gene expression under no water stress.  

PubMed

In order to study the role of PIP1 aquaporins in leaf water and CO2 transport, several lines of PIP1-deficient transgenic Populus tremula x alba were generated using a reverse genetic approach. These transgenic lines displayed no visible developmental or morphological phenotypes when grown under conditions of no water stress. Major photosynthetic parameters were also not affected by PIP1 down regulation. However, low levels of PIP1 expression resulted in greater leaf hydraulic resistance (an increase of 27%), which effectively implicated PIP1 role in water transport. Additionally, the expression level of PIP1 genes in the various transgenic lines was correlated with reductions in mesophyll conductance to CO2 (gm), suggesting that in poplar, these aquaporins influenced membrane permeability to CO2. Overall, although analysis showed that PIP1 genes contributed to the mass transfer of water and CO2 in poplar leaves, their down-regulation did not dramatically impair the physiological needs of this fast growing tree when cultivated under conditions of no stress. PMID:24379822

Secchi, Francesca; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

2013-01-01

380

Soil water repellency characteristic curves for soil profiles with natural organic carbon gradients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water repellency (SWR) is a phenomenon that influences many soil hydrologic processes such as reduction of infiltration, increase in overland flow, and enhanced preferential flow. SWR has been observed in various soil types and textures, and the degree of SWR is greatly controlled by soil moisture content and levels of organic matter and clay. One of the key topics in SWR research is how to describe accurately the seasonal and temporal variation of SWR with the controlling factors such as soil moisture, organic matter, and clay contents for soil profiles with natural organic carbon gradients. In the present study, we summarize measured SWR data for soil profiles under different land uses and vegetation in Japan and New Zealand, and compared these with literature data. We introduce the contact angle-based evaluation of SWR and predictive models for soil water repellency characteristic curves, in which the contact angle is a function of the moisture content. We also discuss a number of novel concepts, including i) the reduction in the contact angle with soil-water contact time to describe the time dependence of SWR, ii) the relationship between the contact angles from the measured scanning curves under controlled wetting and drying cycles, and iii) the initial contact angles measured by the sessile drop method.

Kawamoto, Ken; Müller, Karin; Moldrup, Per; de Jonge, Lis; Clothier, Brent; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Komatsu, Toshiko

2014-05-01

381

Impact of catchment geophysical characteristics and climate on the regional variability of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface water.  

PubMed

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a recognized indicator of natural organic matter (NOM) in surface waters. The aim of this paper is twofold: to evaluate the impact of geophysical characteristics, climate and ecological zones on DOC concentrations in surface waters and, to develop a statistical model to estimate the regional variability of these concentrations. In this study, multilevel statistical analysis was used to achieve three specific objectives: (1) evaluate the influence of climate and geophysical characteristics on DOC concentrations in surface waters; (2) compare the influence of geophysical characteristics and ecological zones on DOC concentrations in surface waters; and (3) develop a model to estimate the most accurate DOC concentrations in surface waters. The case study involved 115 catchments from surface waters in the Province of Quebec, Canada. Results showed that mean temperatures recorded 60 days prior to sampling, total precipitation 10 days prior to sampling and percentages of wetlands, coniferous forests and mixed forests have a significant positive influence on DOC concentrations in surface waters. The catchment mean slope had a significant negative influence on DOC concentrations in surface waters. Water type (lake or river) and deciduous forest variables were not significant. The ecological zones had a significant influence on DOC concentrations. However, geophysical characteristics (wetlands, forests and slope) estimated DOC concentrations more accurately. A model describing the variability of DOC concentrations was developed and can be used, in future research, for estimating DBPs in drinking water as well evaluating the impact of climate change on the quality of surface waters and drinking water. PMID:24911773

Cool, Geneviève; Lebel, Alexandre; Sadiq, Rehan; Rodriguez, Manuel J

2014-08-15

382

Regulatory Physiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

1999-01-01

383

Concentrations and characteristics of organic carbon in surface water in Arizona: Influence of urbanization  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dissolved (DOC) and total (TOC) organic carbon concentrations and compositions were studied for several river systems in Arizona, USA. DOC composition was characterized by ultraviolet and visible absorption and fluorescence emission (excitation wavelength of 370 nm) spectra characteristics. Ephemeral sites had the highest DOC concentrations, and unregulated perennial sites had lower concentrations than unregulated intermittent sites, regulated sites, and sites downstream from wastewater-treatment plants (p < 0.05). Reservoir outflows and wastewater-treatment plant effluent were higher in DOC concentration (p < 0.05) and exhibited less variability in concentration than inflows to the reservoirs. Specific ultraviolet absorbance values at 254 nm were typically less than 2 m-1(milligram DOC per liter)-1 and lower than values found in most temperate-region rivers, but specific ultraviolet absorbance values increased during runoff events. Fluorescence measurements indicated that DOC in desert streams typically exhibit characteristics of autochthonous sources; however, DOC in unregulated upland rivers and desert streams experienced sudden shifts from autochthonous to allochthonous sources during runoff events. The urban water system (reservoir systems and wastewater-treatment plants) was found to affect temporal variability in DOC concentration and composition. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.Dissolved (DOC) and total (TOC) organic carbon concentrations and compositions were studied for several river systems in Arizona, USA. DOC composition was characterized by ultraviolet and visible absorption and fluorescence emission (excitation wavelength of 370 nm) spectra characteristics. Ephemeral sites had the highest DOC concentrations, and unregulated perennial sites had lower concentrations than unregulated intermittent sites, regulated sites, and sites downstream from wastewater-treatment plants (p<0.05). Reservoir outflows and wastewater-treatment plant effluent were higher in DOC concentration (p<0.05) and exhibited less variability in concentration than inflows to the reservoirs. Specific ultraviolet absorbance values at 254 nm were typically less than 2 m-1(milligram DOC per liter)-1 and lower than values found in most temperate-region rivers, but specific ultraviolet absorbance values increased during runoff events. Fluorescence measurements indicated that DOC in desert streams typically exhibit characteristics of autochthonous sources; however, DOC in unregulated upland rivers and desert streams experienced sudden shifts from autochthonous to allochthonous sources during runoff events. The urban water system (reservoir systems and wastewater-treatment plants) was found to affect temporal variability in DOC concentration and composition.The influence of urbanization, becoming increasingly common in arid regions, on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in surface water resources was studied. DOC concentration and composition, seasonal watershed runoff events, streamflow variations, water management practices, and urban infrastructure in several Arizona watersheds were monitored. Ephemeral sites had the highest DOC levels, and unregulated perennial sites and lower concentrations than unregulated intermittent sites, regulated sites, and sites downstream from wastewater treatment plants. Reservoir outflows and wastewater treatment plant effluent had higher and less variable DOC concentrations than inflows to reservoirs. UV absorbance values, fluorescence measurements, and other indicators suggest that urban water systems (reservoirs and wastewater treatment plants) affect temporal variability in DOC concentration and composition.

Westerhoff, P.; Anning, D.

2000-01-01

384

Improving water stress tolerance of the biocontrol yeast Candida sake grown in molasses-based media by physiological manipulation.  

PubMed

The biocontrol agent Candida sake was cultured on either an unmodified molasses-based medium (water activity, a(w) 0.996) or on water stressed media produced by the addition of glycerol, glucose, NaCl, sorbitol, or proline to 0.98, and 0.96 a(w) for 24, 48, and 72 h, to study their impact on subsequent cell viability, and on concentrations of endogenous sugars (trehalose and glucose) and polyols (glycerol, erythritol, arabitol, and mannitol). The viability of cells of different ages cultured on these media was evaluated on NYDA medium with freely available water (a(w) 0.995), and on medium modified with polyethylene glycol to a(w) 0.95. Regardless of solute used, viable counts of cells grown on molasses-based medium (a(w) 0.98) were equal to or higher than those obtained from the medium with water freely available. The amino acid proline stimulated growth at 10% concentration. In contrast, water stress induced by addition of NaCl, glucose, or sorbitol at a(w) 0.96 caused a significant reduction in viable counts. Older cultures were more resistant to water stress. Glycerol and arabitol were the main solutes accumulated by C. sake cells in response to lowered a(w). Intracellular concentration of these polyols depended more on the solute used to adjust the a(w) than on the a(w) itself. Candida sake was more resistant to water stress with higher intracellular concentration of glycerol and erythritol. PMID:11261491

Abadias, M; Teixidó, N; Usall, J; Viñas, I; Magan, N

2001-02-01

385

Investigating onychophoran gas exchange and water balance as a means to inform current controversies in arthropod physiology.  

PubMed

Several controversies currently dominate the fields of arthropod metabolic rate, gas exchange and water balance, including the extent to which modulation of gas exchange reduces water loss, the origins of discontinuous gas exchange, the relationship between metabolic rate and life-history strategies, and the causes of Palaeozoic gigantism. In all of these areas, repeated calls have been made for the investigation of groups that might most inform the debates, especially of taxa in key phylogenetic positions. Here we respond to this call by investigating metabolic rate, respiratory water loss and critical oxygen partial pressure (Pc) in the onychophoran Peripatopsis capensis, a member of a group basal to the arthropods, and by synthesizing the available data on the Onychophora. The rate of carbon dioxide release (VCO2) at 20 degrees C in P. capensis is 0.043 ml CO2 h(-1), in keeping with other onychophoran species; suggesting that low metabolic rates in some arthropod groups are derived. Continuous gas exchange suggests that more complex gas exchange patterns are also derived. Total water loss in P. capensis is 57 mg H2O h(-1) at 20 degrees C, similar to modern estimates for another onychophoran species. High relative respiratory water loss rates ( approximately 34%; estimated using a regression technique) suggest that the basal condition in arthropods may be a high respiratory water loss rate. Relatively high Pc values (5-10% O2) suggest that substantial safety margins in insects are also a derived condition. Curling behaviour in P. capensis appears to be a strategy to lower energetic costs when resting, and the concomitant depression of water loss is a proximate consequence of this behaviour. PMID:18805813

Clusella-Trullas, Susana; Chown, Steven L

2008-10-01

386

Effect of surplus glucose on physiological and biochemical characteristics of sugar beet leaves in relation to the age of the leaf and the whole plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of surplus glucose on physiological and biochemical parameters of leaves of different age was investigated in sugar\\u000a beet (Beta vulgaris L., subsp. saccharifera) plants in the stages of vegetative growth (SVG). Early and late SVG were differentiated by the ratio between the weights\\u000a of roots and aboveground organs (0.10 and 0.35, respectively). The excess of Glu was produced by

N. S. Novichkova; A. K. Romanova; A. R. Ignat’ev; V. A. Mudrik; S. E. Permyakov; B. N. Ivanov

2008-01-01

387

Mercury levels in walleyes from Wisconsin lakes of different water and sediment chemistry characteristics  

SciTech Connect

Forty-three lakes throughout Wisconsin were sampled in 1985-86 to determine the water and sediment chemistry characteristics that were associated with elevated concentrations of mercury in walleyes. Mean mercury concentrations for each of three different length classes of walleyes increased as the parameters lake pH, alkalinity, calcium, conductivity, or chlorophyll-a decreased. Low values for these parameters characterized most lakes in northern Wisconsin. Mean mercury concentrations exceeded the Wisconsin health standard of 0.5 micrograms (ug) Hg/g wet weight of fish for all walleye length classes in lakes with pH values < 6.0, for walleyes > or = to 15.0 inches in lakes with pH 6.0-6.9, and for walleyes > or = 20.0 in. in all lake pH categories. Apparently the older, larger walleyes in hard water as well as soft water lakes can accumulate enough mercury to warrant concern. Sediment mercury concentrations were generally < or = 0.02 ug/g dry weight for all study lakes, but sediment mercury and organic matter were higher in lakes with pH values < 7.0 than in lakes with pH > or = 7.0. Models were developed and tested to predict mercury concentrations in a 17-in. walleye for each lake. The best model derived from the study and tested on an independent dataset used alkalinity and calcium as independent variables. Clearly, walleyes from soft water, poorly buffered, low pH lakes have the highest concentrations of mercury, but the reasons for these higher concentrations require further study. 67 refs., 5 figs., 27 tabs.

Lathrop, R.C.; Noonan, K.C.; Guenther, P.M.; Brasino, T.L.; Rasmussen, P.W.

1989-01-01

388

Analysis of rabbit intervertebral disc physiology based on water metabolism. II. Changes in normal intervertebral discs under axial vibratory load  

SciTech Connect

Metabolic changes induced by axial vibratory load to the spine were investigated based on water metabolism in normal intervertebral discs of rabbits with or without pentobarbital anesthesia. Tritiated water concentration in the intervertebral discs of unanesthetized rabbits was reduced remarkably by axial vibration for 30 minutes using the vibration machine developed for this study. Repeated vibratory load for 18 and 42 hours duration showed the recovery of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O concentration of the intervertebral disc without anesthesia. Computer simulation suggested a reduction of blood flow surrounding the intervertebral disc following the vibration stress. However, no reduction of the /sup 3/H/sub 2/O concentration in the intervertebral disc was noted under anesthesia. Emotional stress cannot be excluded as a factor in water metabolism in the intervertebral disc.

Hirano, N.; Tsuji, H.; Ohshima, H.; Kitano, S.; Itoh, T.; Sano, A.

1988-11-01

389

Sensitivity of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) seedling physiology to elevation, warming, and water availability across a timberline ecotone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Treelines occur where environmental gradients such as temperature become limiting to tree establishment, and are thus likely to respond to changes in climate. We collected gas exchange, water potential, and fluorescence measurements from limber pine (Pinus flexilis) seedlings planted into experimental plots at three elevations at Niwot Ridge, Colorado, ranging from within forest to alpine. At each site seeds from local high- and low-elevation populations were sewn into replicated and controlled watering and infrared heating treatment plots. Heating led to earlier snowmelt, germination, and soil moisture availability in spring; higher soil surface temperatures throughout the growing season; and drier soils in late summer. Assimilation rates in all plots were most strongly associated with soil moisture availability following germination, and decreased as soils dried over the growing season. Intrinsic water use efficiency was consistent for the two source populations, but there was evidence that individuals germinating from high-elevation seeds respired more per unit carbon assimilated under our experimental conditions. Chlorophyll fluorescence showed no evidence of photoinhibition in any elevation or treatment category. Earlier soil moisture depletion in heated plots was associated with lower midday stem water potentials and reduced stomatal conductance in August. Our watering treatments did not substantially reduce apparent midsummer water stress. Seedlings in ambient temperature plots had higher assimilation rates in August than those in heated plots, but also greater carbon loss via photorespiration. Moisture limitation in heated plots in summer interacted with variability in afternoon sun exposure within plots, and qualitative observations suggested that many seedlings were killed by desiccation and heat girdling at all elevations. While early snowmelt and moisture availability in heated plots provided a longer growing season, earlier reduction of soil moisture availability in summer offset this advantage for limber pine seedling carbon gain.

Moyes, A. B.; Castanha, C.; Ferrenberg, S.; Germino, M. J.; Kueppers, L. M.

2010-12-01

390

Physiological changes in cultured Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench cells in response to induced water stress: osmotic potential, relative water content, carbohydrates, organic acids, potassium, and amino acids  

E-print Network

UUZEZCLUUZCRL CIIEUEE IE CULTURED ~8OR ICE RICCICR IL ) MOBMCH CELLS IE RESPONSE TO INDUCED WATER STRESS OSMOTIC POTEMTZAL E RELATIVE WATER CONTENT E CARBOHYDRATES U ORGANIC ACIDS@ POTASSIUM E AED AMINO ACIDS A Thesis by RICARDO DIQUEZ... ZN RESPONSB TO IHDUCBD WATBR STRESS'- OSMOTIC POTENTIAL~ RELATIVE WATER CONTENT~ CARBOHYDRATES, ORGANIC ACIDS, POTASSIUM, AND AMINO ACIDS A Thesis by RICARDO DIQUEZ Approved as to style and content by: Roberta H. Smith (Chair of Committee...

Diquez, Ricardo

1987-01-01

391

Characteristics of water reuse and its effects on paddy irrigation system water balance and the riceland ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid industrial development in the rice-growing regions has increased competition for the scarce water resources. Water reuse (surface and subsurface agriculture drainage water, storm runoff, sewerage effluent and industrial wastewater recycling) is in widespread use as a method of supplementing the paddy water supply, therefore, there is a need to clarify its effects on the paddy system water balance and

Giveson Zulu; Masaru Toyota; Shin-ichi Misawa

1996-01-01

392

Fractal physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of fractals and the use of fractals instead of classical scaling concepts to describe the irregular surfaces, structures, and processes exhibited by physiological systems are described. The mathematical development of fractals is reviewed, and examples of natural fractals are cited. Relationships among power laws, noise, and fractal time signals are examined

William Deering; Bruce J. West

1992-01-01

393

A new cadmium reduction device for the microplate determination of nitrate in water, soil, plant tissue, and physiological fluids.  

PubMed

A reusable catalytic reductor consisting of 96 copperized-cadmium pins attached to a microplate lid was developed to simultaneously reduce nitrate (NO3-) to nitrite (NO2-) in all wells of a standard microplate. The resulting NO2- is analyzed colorimetrically by the Griess reaction using a microplate reader. Nitrate data from groundwater samples analyzed using the new device correlated well with data obtained by ion chromatography (r2 = 0.9959). Soil and plant tissue samples previously analyzed for NO3- in an interlaboratory validation study sponsored by the Soil Science Society of America were also analyzed using the new technique. For the soil sample set, the data are shown to correlate well with the other methods used (r2 = 0.9976). Plant data correlated less well, especially for samples containing low concentrations of NO3-. Reasons for these discrepancies are discussed, and new techniques to increase the accuracy of the analysis are explored. In addition, a method is presented for analyzing NO3- in physiological fluids (blood serum and urine) after matrix modification with Somogyi's reagent. A protocol for statistical validation of data when analyzing samples with complex matrixes is also established. The simplicity, adaptability, and low cost of the device indicate its potential for widespread application. PMID:22320098

Crutchfield, James D; Grove, John H

2011-01-01

394

The chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics of typical bath and laundry waste waters. [waste water reclamation during manned space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics are studied of typical bath and laundry waters collected during a 12 day test in which the untreated waste waters were reused for toilet flush. Most significant changes were found for ammonia, color, methylene blue active substances, phosphates, sodium, sulfates, total organic carbon, total solids, and turbidity in comparison with tap water baseline. The mean total number of microorganisms detected in the waste waters ranged from 1 million to 10 to the 7th power cells/m1 and the mean number of possible coliforms ranged from 10 to the 5th power to 1 million. An accumulation of particulates and an objectible odor were detected in the tankage used during the 12 day reuse of the untreated waste waters. The combined bath and laundry waste waters from a family of four provided 91 percent of the toilet flush water for the same family.

Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

1974-01-01

395

Effect of pH on the rheological and structural properties of gels of water-washed chicken-breast muscle at physiological ionic strength.  

PubMed

Adjustment of pH from 6.4 to neutrality improved gelling ability and water-holding capacity of twice water-washed, minced chicken-breast muscle significantly at physiological ionic strength, at which the majority of the myofibrillar proteins, including myosin, are not soluble. A strain value of 2.2 was obtained at neutral pH. Myofibrils were the main components of the gel network at both pH 6.4 and 7.0; however, the myofibrillar distribution varied with the pH value. At pH 6.4, myofibrils formed a network of localized aggregates leaving large voids between, whereas at neutral pH, an evenly distributed network of myofibrils was formed. In addition, at neutral pH, a network of fine strands was found within the network of myofibrils. The network was much less developed at pH 6.4. The thin and thick filaments within each myofibrillar structure were disorganized at both pH values. The intramyofibrillar spaces were larger at neutral pH than at pH 6.4. It was proposed that adjustment of pH to neutrality increased electrostatic repulsion leading to a more even distribution of the myofibrillar proteins, a key factor responsible for the improved gel strength and water-holding capacity. PMID:11513691

Feng, Y; Hultin, H O

2001-08-01

396

Survival and physiological responses of hatchling blanding's turtles (Emydoidea blandingii) to submergence in normoxic and hypoxic water under simulated winter conditions.  

PubMed

Overwintering habits of hatchling Blanding's turtles (Emydoidea blandingii) are unknown. To determine whether these turtles are able to survive winter in aquatic habitats, we submerged hatchlings in normoxic (155 mmHg Po2) and hypoxic (6 mmHg Po2) water at 4 degrees C, recording survival times and measuring changes in key physiological variables. For comparison, we simultaneously studied hatchling softshell (Apalone spinifera) and snapping (Chelydra serpentina) turtles, which are known to overwinter in aquatic habitats. In normoxic water, C. serpentina and A. spinifera survived to the termination of the experiment (76 and 77 d, respectively). Approximately one-third of the E. blandingii died during 75 d of normoxic submergence, but the cause of mortality was unclear. In hypoxic water, average survival times were 6 d for A. spinifera, 13 d for E. blandingii, and 19 d for C. serpentina. Mortality during hypoxic submergence was probably caused by metabolic acidosis, which resulted from accumulated lactate. Unlike the case with adult turtles, our hatchlings did not increase plasma calcium and magnesium, nor did they sequester lactate within the shell. Our results suggest that hatchling E. blandingii are not particularly well suited to hibernation in hypoxic aquatic habitats. PMID:15887082

Dinkelacker, Stephen A; Costanzo, Jon P; Iverson, John B; Lee, Richard E

2005-01-01

397

Land and water use characteristics in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Routine operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in the release of small amounts of radionuclides to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. The resulting radiological doses to the offsite maximum individual and the offsite population within 50 miles of the SRS are estimated on a yearly basis. These estimates are generated using dose models prescribed for the commercial nuclear power industry by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC provides default values for dose model parameters for facilities not having enough data to develop site-specific values. A survey of land and water use characteristics for the Savannah River area has been conducted to determine as many site-specific values as possible for inclusion in the dose models used at the SRS. These site parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk, and vegetable production; river recreational activities; and meat, milk, and vegetable consumption rates. The report that follows describes the origin of the NRC default values, the methodology for deriving regional data, the results of the study, and the derivations of region-specific usage and consumption rates. 33 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

Hamby, D.M.

1991-03-01

398

Seasonal and influent characteristic effects on hydrogen sulfide generation at a water reclamation plant.  

PubMed

Correlations between sulfide generation and seasonal influent wastewater characteristics were identified based on a long-term monitoring program in summer and winter at a water reclamation plant. During summer, the emission rates of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from the liquid treatment processes increased substantially compared to those during winter due to the increased wastewater temperature. The open tanks/clarifiers were the least significant H2S emission contributors throughout the year. For solids-handling processes, the H2S emission rates did not change during the year due to similar sludge characteristics in the different seasons. The fate of sulfide in liquid treatment processes was investigated as an alternative to estimation of H2S emissions. H2S emission from the wet well and screens was proven to be robustly associated with the wastewater temperature, flow rate, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand and total Kjeldahl nitrogen levels. However, the correlation between influent parameters and H2S emission from aerated gri