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1

WaterPipe Smoking Among North American Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this analysis were to identify the socio- demographic characteristics of water-pipe users in a North American context and to describe concurrent psychoactive substance use. METHODS: Data on sociodemographic characteristics, water-pipe smoking, and use of other psychoactive substances were collected in 2007 through mailed self-report questionnaires completed by 871 young adults, 18 to 24 years of age,

Erika Dugas; Michele Tremblay; Nancy C. P. Low; Daniel Cournoyer; Jennifer O'Loughlin

2010-01-01

2

WaterPipe Smoking and Metabolic Syndrome: A Population-Based Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-pipe (WP) smoking has significantly increased in the last decade worldwide. Compelling evidence suggests that the toxicants in WP smoke are similar to that of cigarette smoke. The WP smoking in a single session could have acute harmful health effects even worse than cigarette smoking. However, there is no evidence as such on long term WP smoking and its impact

Kashif Shafique; Saira Saeed Mirza; Muhammad Kashif Mughal; Zain Islam Arain; Naveed Ahmed Khan; Muhammad Farooq Tareen; Ishtiaque Ahmad

2012-01-01

3

Comparison of Nicotine and Carcinogen Exposure with Water pipe and Cigarette Smoking  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking tobacco preparations in a water pipe (hookah) is widespread in many places of the world and is perceived by many as relatively safe. We investigated biomarkers of toxicant exposure with water pipe compared to cigarette smoking. Methods We conducted a cross-over study to assess daily nicotine and carcinogen exposure with water pipe and cigarette smoking in 13 people who were experienced in using both products. Results While smoking an average of 3 water pipe sessions compared to smoking 11 cigarettes per day, water pipe use was associated with a significantly lower intake of nicotine, greater exposure to carbon monoxide and a different pattern of carcinogen exposure compared to cigarette smoking, with greater exposure to benzene and high molecular weight PAHs, but less exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines, 1,3-butadiene and acrolein, acrylonitrile, propylene oxide, ethylene oxide, and low molecular weight PAHs. Conclusions A different pattern of carcinogen exposure might result in a different cancer risk profile between cigarette and water pipe smoking. Of particular concern is the risk of leukemia related to high levels of benzene exposure with water pipe use. Impact Smoking tobacco in water pipes has gained popularity in the United States and around the world. Many believe that water pipe smoking is not addictive and less harmful than cigarette smoking. We provide data on toxicant exposure that will help guide regulation and public education regarding water pipe health risk. PMID:23462922

Jacob, Peyton; Abu Raddaha, Ahmad H.; Dempsey, Delia; Havel, Christopher; Peng, Margaret; Yu, Lisa; Benowitz, Neal L.

2013-01-01

4

Water-Pipe Tobacco Smoking Among Middle and High School Students in Arizona  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Using a water pipe to smoke tobacco is increasing in prevalence among US college students, and it may also be common among younger adolescents. The purpose of this study of Arizona middle and high school students was to examine the prevalence of water-pipe tobacco smoking, compare water-pipe tobacco smoking with other forms of tobacco use, and determine associations between sociodemographic variables and water-pipe tobacco smoking in this population. METHODS We added items assessing water-pipe tobacco smoking to Arizona’s 2005 Youth Tobacco Survey and used them to estimate statewide water-pipe tobacco smoking prevalence among various demographic groups by using survey weights. We also used multiple logistic regression to determine which demographic characteristics had independent relationships with each of 2 outcomes: ever use of water-pipe to smoke tobacco and water-pipe tobacco smoking in the previous 30 days. RESULTS Median age of the sample was 14. Accounting for survey weights, among middle school students, 2.1% had ever smoked water-pipe tobacco and 1.4% had done so within the previous 30 days. Among those in high school, 10.3% had ever smoked from a water pipe and 5.4% had done so in the previous 30 days, making water-pipe tobacco smoking more common than use of smokeless tobacco, pipes, bidis, and kreteks (clove cigarettes). In multivariate analyses that controlled for covariates, ever smoking of water-pipe tobacco was associated with older age, Asian race, white race, charter school attendance, and lack of plans to attend college. CONCLUSIONS Among Arizona youth, water pipe is the third most common source of tobacco after cigarettes and cigars. Increased national surveillance and additional research will be important for addressing this threat to public health. PMID:19171581

Primack, Brian A.; Walsh, Michele; Bryce, Cindy; Eissenberg, Thomas

2010-01-01

5

The growing epidemic of water pipe smoking: health effects and future needs.  

PubMed

Water pipe smoking (WPS), an old method of tobacco smoking, is re-gaining widespread popularity all over the world and among various populations. Smoking machine studies have shown that the water pipe (WP) mainstream smoke (MSS) contains a wide array of chemical substances, many of which are highly toxic and carcinogenic for humans. The concentrations of some substances exceed those present in MSS of cigarettes. Despite being of low grade, current evidence indicates that WPS is associated with different adverse health effects, not only on the respiratory system but also on the cardiovascular, hematological, and reproductive systems, including pregnancy outcomes. In addition, association between WPS and malignancies, such as lung, oral and nasopharyngeal cancer, has been suggested in different studies and systematic reviews. Despite its long standing history, WPS research still harbors a lot of deficiencies. The magnitude of toxicants and carcinogen exposures, effects on human health, as well as the addiction and dependence potentials associated with WPS need to be studied in well-designed prospective trials. Unfortunately, many of the tobacco control and clean indoor policies have exempted water pipes. World wide awareness among the public, smokers, and policymakers about the potential health effects of WPS is urgently required. Furthermore, stringent policies and laws that control and ban WPS in public places, similar to those applied on cigarettes smoking need to be implemented. PMID:25130679

Bou Fakhreddine, Hisham M; Kanj, Amjad N; Kanj, Nadim A

2014-09-01

6

Cigarette, Water-pipe, and Medwakh Smoking Prevalence Among Applicants to Abu Dhabi's Pre-marital Screening Program, 2011  

PubMed Central

Background: This study assesses self-reported tobacco use prevalence (cigarette, water-pipe, and medwakh) among applicants to Abu Dhabi's Premarital Screening program during 2011. Methods: Premarital Screening data reported to the Health Authority – Abu Dhabi from April to December 2011 were utilized to estimate tobacco use prevalence among applicants. Smoking prevalence was examined by nationality, age group and gender. Results: Overall, 24.7% of Premarital Screening Program applicants were current smokers; 11.5% smoked cigarettes, 5.9% smoked medwakh (hand-held pipe), 4.8% smoked water-pipe and 2.5% smoked a combination (more than one type). Men (19.2%) were more likely than women (3.5%) to be current cigarette smokers. Women were much less likely to smoke medwakh (0.1%) than men (11.5%), with male UAE Nationals having the highest medwakh smoking prevalence (16.1%). The overall prevalence of water-pipe smoking was 6.8% among men and 2.8% for women with the highest water-pipe smoking prevalence (10.2%) among Arab expatriate men. Conclusions: Variations in tobacco use prevalence among Premarital Screening Program applicants reflect preferences for different modes of tobacco consumption by nationality, age group and gender. Enforcement of tobacco control laws, including implementation of clean indoor air laws and tobacco tax increases, and targeted health education programs are required to reduce tobacco consumption and concomitant tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:24404364

Aden, Bashir; Karrar, Sara; Shafey, Omar; Al Hosni, Farida

2013-01-01

7

Water-Pipe Smoking and Metabolic Syndrome: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Water-pipe (WP) smoking has significantly increased in the last decade worldwide. Compelling evidence suggests that the toxicants in WP smoke are similar to that of cigarette smoke. The WP smoking in a single session could have acute harmful health effects even worse than cigarette smoking. However, there is no evidence as such on long term WP smoking and its impact on chronic health conditions particularly cardiovascular and metabolic conditions. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate the relationship between WP smoking and metabolic syndrome (MetS). This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Punjab province of Pakistan using the baseline data of a population-based study – Urban Rural Chronic Diseases Study (URCDS). Information was collected by trained nurses regarding the socio-demographic profile, lifestyle factors including WP smoking, current and past illnesses. A blood sample was obtained for measurement of complete blood count, lipid profile and fasting glucose level. MetS was ascertained by using the International Diabetic Federation’s criteria. We carried out multiple logistic regressions to investigate the association between WP smoking and MetS. Final sample included 2,032 individuals – of those 325 (16.0%) were current WP smokers. Age adjusted-prevalence of MetS was significantly higher among current WP smokers (33.1%) compared with non-smokers (14.8%). Water-pipe smokers were three times more likely to have MetS (OR 3.21, 95% CI 2.38–4.33) compared with non-smokers after adjustment for age, sex and social class. WP smokers were significantly more likely to have hypertriglyceridemia (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.25–2.10), hyperglycaemia (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.37–2.41), Hypertension (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.51–2.51) and abdominal obesity (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.52–2.45). However, there were no significant differences in HDL level between WP smokers and non-smokers. This study suggests that WP smoking has a significant positive (harmful) relationship with MetS and its components. PMID:22848361

Shafique, Kashif; Mirza, Saira Saeed; Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Arain, Zain Islam; Khan, Naveed Ahmed; Tareen, Muhammad Farooq; Ahmad, Ishtiaque

2012-01-01

8

[Self-Assessment of Adolescents Regarding Water Pipe Consumption.  

PubMed

Objective: The use of water pipes is an alternative to cigarette smoking. Current studies show that water pipe smoking is as hazardous as smoking cigarettes. However, rates of water pipe consumption are still high. The consumption behaviour of students was investigated within the evaluation of the school-based prevention program Rauchzeichen. Methods: Data about the water pipe use of students was collected using a specially designed questionnaire. Results: Water pipe user rates among students of 8th to 10th grade are still high (7.5?-?21.2?%). 13.2?% of the students, who consume water pipe regularly, state to be non smokers. Discussion: It seems that many adolescents do not estimate water pipe use as smoking, which might lead to an underestimation of health risks or the use of the water pipe as an alternative addictive drug. PMID:25153176

Schwarzer, Mario; Thomas, Jule; Nedela-Morales, Michaela; Kaltenbach, Martin; Herrmann, Eva; Groneberg, David

2014-08-25

9

Prevalence of water pipe smoking in the city of Mashhad (North East of Iran) and its effect on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests  

PubMed Central

Background: The prevalence of water pipe (WP) smoking was studied using a standard questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests were also compared between WP smokers and non-smokers. Materials and Methods: The prevalence of WP smoking was studied using a standard questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximal expiratory flow at 75%, 50%, and 25% of the FVC (MEF75,50,25) were compared between WP smokers and non-smokers. Results: A total of 673 individuals including 372 males and 301 females were interviewed. The number of WP smokers was 58 (8.6%) including 24 males (6.5%) and 34 females (11.3%). All pulmonary functional test (PFT) values in WP smokers were lower as compared to the non-smokers (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). The prevalence and severity of respiratory symptoms (RS) in WP smokers were higher than non-smokers (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). There were negative correlations between PFT values and positive correlation between RS and duration, rate, as well as total smoking (duration X rate) (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). Conclusion: In this study the prevalence of WP smoking in Mashhad city was evaluated for the first time. The results also showed a significant effect of WP smoking on PFT values and respiratory symptoms. PMID:25125810

Boskabady, Mohammad Hossain; Farhang, Lila; Mahmoodinia, Mahbobeh; Boskabady, Morteza; Heydari, Gholam Reza

2014-01-01

10

When water does not clear the smut from the smoke.  

PubMed

Water-pipe (shisha) smoking is increasingly popular among young people in Europe and North America. The proponents claim that smoking water-pipe is much 'cleaner' than cigarettes. Although, a recent analysis of toxicant yields during 1-2 h water-pipe smoking resulted comparable to 100-200 cigarettes. We report a case of a 25-year-old patient with elevated haemoglobin, impaired concentration and reduced physical performance. Molecular investigations for JAK2 mutations and BCR-ABL fusion transcripts were negative and the arterial blood gas analysis revealed an elevated carboxyhaemoglobin of 6.1%. In a follow-up visit, the patient disclosed excessive shisha smoking. Secondary polycythaemia was diagnosed caused by chronic carbon monoxide poisoning. After cessation of shisha smoking all blood values returned to normal ranges within 6 weeks. Owing to the increasing popularity of water-pipe smoking and the anticipated health risks, our report should help to enhance awareness and advocate more information in tobacco prevention programmes on its potential toxicities. PMID:24142566

Bonadies, Nicolas; Tichelli, André; Rovó, Alicia

2013-01-01

11

Hookah or water pipe smoking has been practiced for over 400 years, and is often a social activity. There are a variety of names for hookahs, including narghile, argileh,  

E-print Network

, heart disease and other health complications. Even after it has passed through water, the smoke that this habit is less harmful than smoking cigarettes, hookah smoke still contains nicotine and has at least as many toxins as cigarette smoke. Hookah smokers face the same health risks as cigarette smokers

Oregon, University of

12

Intermediate Temperature Water Heat Pipe Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. Water heat pipes are explored in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to above 500 K. The thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of water are reviewed in this temperature range. Test data are reported for a copper-water heat pipe. The heat pipe was tested under different orientations. Water heat pipes show promise in this temperature range. Fabrication and testing issues are being addressed.

Devarakonda, Angirasa; Xiong, Da-Xi; Beach, Duane E.

2005-01-01

13

Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... forms of tobacco — cigarettes, pipes, cigars, hookahs, and smokeless tobacco — are hazardous. It doesn't help to substitute ... Quit Smoking? Dealing With Addiction Smoking and Asthma Smokeless Tobacco Contact Us Print Additional resources Send to a ...

14

Insitu rehabilitation of raw water piping  

SciTech Connect

Insitu type rehabilitation processes are a method used to restore piping integrity for municipalities and commercial industries. In commercial applications this process is used to maintain pressure boundary/structural integrity and to provide a corrosion barrier. The liner consists of a flexible epoxy impregnated felt tube which is inverted and forced down the piping system using a head of water. After the host piping is lined the water is heated to 160 F and the epoxy is cured. This results in an epoxy tube which has many of the same structural capabilities of fiberglass piping and essentially creates a ``Pipe Within A Pipe``. The expected life expectancy in a raw water environment is 50 years. The use of this type system for rehabilitation of nuclear power plant service water systems provides significant cost savings, increases reliability and extends piping life. Northeast Utilities (NU) identified the potential benefits of this process in 1988, as part of their overall service water rehabilitation program at Millstone Unit 2. Specifically, NU was interested in ensuring the continued reliability of the buried service water piping. As this liner had never been used in a safety related system, NU initiated a program to qualify the process for use in a Safety Class 3 raw water systems. This qualification report evaluated the lining to ensure that the presence of the liner or its possible failure modes do not diminish the required flow to safety related components or affect the systems safety function. Based on the above report`s favorable conclusions and economic considerations, the process was utilized on the buried service water headers at Millstone Unit 2 during the 1992 refueling outage. As an end result of this process, 1,200 feet of 24 in. buried Service Water pipe was lined with a seamless .375 in. epoxy impregnated tube, which provides a significant corrosion barrier and enhances the structural and pressure boundary capacity of the system.

Charest, J.A. [Northeast Nuclear Energy Co., Waterford, CT (United States); Julius, E.P. [Proto Power Corp., Groton, CT (United States)

1995-12-31

15

Water driven turbine/brush pipe cleaner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assemblies are disclosed for cleaning the inside walls of pipes and tubes. A first embodiment includes a small turbine with angled blades axially mounted on one end of a standoff support. An O-ring for stabilizing the assembly within the pipe is mounted in a groove within the outer ring. A replaceable circular brush is fixedly mounted on the opposite end of the standoff support and can be used for cleaning tubes and pipes of various diameters, lengths and configurations. The turbine, standoff support, and brush spin in unison relative to a hub bearing that is fixedly attached to a wire upstream of the assembly. The nonrotating wire is for retaining the assembly in tension and enabling return of the assembly to the pipe entrance. The assembly is initially placed in the pipe or tube to be cleaned. A pressurized water or solution source is provided at a required flow-rate to propel the assembly through the pipe or tube. The upstream water pressure propels and spins the turbine, standoff support and brush. The rotating brush combined with the solution cleans the inside of the pipe. The solution flows out of the other end of the pipe with the brush rotation controlled by the flow-rate. A second embodiment is similar to the first embodiment but instead includes a circular shaped brush with ring backing mounted in the groove of the exterior ring of the turbine, and also reduces the size of the standoff support or eliminates the standoff support.

Werlink, Rudy J.

1995-04-01

16

132. MAP OF MUNICIPAL WATER PIPES SUPPLIED BY FAIRMOUNT WATER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

132. MAP OF MUNICIPAL WATER PIPES SUPPLIED BY FAIRMOUNT WATER WORKS, From Annual Report of 1851, Water Department of Philadelphia - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

17

Thermal Performance of High Temperature Titanium - Water Heat Pipes by Multiple Heat Pipe Manufacturers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium - water heat pipes are being investigated for use in heat rejection systems for lunar and Mars fission surface power systems. Heat pipes provide an efficient and reliable means to transfer heat to a radiator heat rejection system. NASA Glenn Research Center requisitioned nine titanium water heat pipes from three vendors. Each vendor supplied three heat pipes 1.25 cm diameter by 1.1 meter long with each vendor selecting a different wick design. Each of the three heat pipes is slightly different in construction. Additional specifications for the heat pipes included 500 K nominal operating temperature, light weight, and freeze tolerance. The heat pipes were performance tested gravity aided, in the horizontal position and elevations against gravity at 450 K and 500 K. Performance of the three heat pipes is compared. The heat pipe data will be used to verify models of heat pipe radiators that will be used in future space exploration missions.

Sanzi, James L.

2007-01-01

18

Thermal Performance of High Temperature Titanium-Water Heat Pipes by Multiple Heat Pipe Manufacturers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Titanium-water heat pipes are being investigated for use in heat rejection systems for lunar and Mars fission surface power systems. Heat pipes provide an efficient and reliable means to transfer heat to a radiator heat rejection system. NASA Glenn Research Center requisitioned nine titanium water heat pipes from three vendors. Each vendor supplied three heat pipes 1.25 cm diameter by 1.1 meter long with each vendor selecting a different wick design. Each of the three heat pipes is slightly different in construction. Additional specifications for the heat pipes included 500 K nominal operating temperature, light weight, and freeze tolerance. The heat pipes were performance tested gravity-aided, in the horizontal position and at elevations against gravity at 450 and 500 K. Performance of the three heat pipes is compared. The heat pipe data will be used to verify models of heat pipe radiators that will be used in future space exploration missions.

Sanzi, James L.

2007-01-01

19

Thermal Performance of High Temperature Titanium -- Water Heat Pipes by Multiple Heat Pipe Manufacturers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Titanium - water heat pipes are being investigated for use in heat rejection systems for lunar and Mars fission surface power systems. Heat pipes provide an efficient and reliable means to transfer heat to a radiator heat rejection system. NASA Glenn Research Center requisitioned nine titanium water heat pipes from three vendors. Each vendor supplied three heat pipes 1.25 cm diameter by 1.1 meter long with each vendor selecting a different wick design. Each of the three heat pipes is slightly different in construction. Additional specifications for the heat pipes included 500 K nominal operating temperature, light weight, and freeze tolerance. The heat pipes were performance tested gravity-aided, in the horizontal position and at elevations against gravity at 450 K and 500 K. Performance of the three heat pipes is compared. The heat pipe data will be used to verify models of heat pipe radiators that will be used in future space exploration missions.

Sanzi, James L.

2007-01-01

20

Effects of type of smoking (pipe, cigars or cigarettes) on biological indices of tobacco exposure and toxicity.  

PubMed

Although all forms of smoking are harmful, smoking pipes or cigars is associated with lower exposure to the lethal products of tobacco products and lower levels of morbidity and mortality than smoking cigarettes. Cytochrome P-450-1A (CYP1A) is a major pathway activating carcinogens from tobacco smoke. Our primary aim was to compare CYP1A2 activity in individuals smoking pipes or cigars only, cigarettes only and in non-smokers. We studied 30 smokers of pipes or cigars only, 28 smokers of cigarettes only, and 30 non-smokers male subjects matched for age. CYP1A2 activity was assessed as the caffeine metabolic ratio in plasma. One-day urine collection was used for determining exposure to products of tobacco metabolism. Nitrosamine and benzo[a]pyrene DNA adducts were measured in lymphocytes. CYP1A2 activity was greater (p<0.0001) in cigarette smokers (median: 0.61; interquartile range: 0.52-0.76) than in pipe or cigar smokers (0.27; 0.21-0.37) and non-smokers (0.34; 0.25-0.42) who did not differ significantly. Urinary cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene levels were higher in cigarette smokers than in pipe or cigar smokers and higher in the later than in non-smokers. DNA adducts levels were significantly lower in pipe or cigar smokers than in cigarette smokers. In multivariate analysis, cigarette smoking was the only independent predictor of CYP1A2 activity (p<0.0001) and of 1-hydroxypyrene excretion in urine (p=0.0012). In this study, pipe or cigar smoking was associated with lower exposure to products of tobacco metabolism than cigarette smoking and to an absence of CYP1A2 induction. Cigarette smoking was the only independent predictor of CYP1A2 activity in smokers. However, inhalation behaviour, rather than the type of tobacco smoked, may be the key factor linked to the extent of tobacco exposure and CYP1A2 induction. Our results provide a reasonable explanation for the results of epidemiological studies showing pipe or cigar smoking to present fewer health hazards than cigarette smoking. PMID:16884817

Funck-Brentano, Christian; Raphaël, Mathilde; Lafontaine, Michel; Arnould, Jean-Pierre; Verstuyft, Céline; Lebot, Martine; Costagliola, Dominique; Roussel, Ronan

2006-10-01

21

Steam bubble collapse induced water hammer in draining pipes  

SciTech Connect

When hot steam replaces cold condensate in a horizontal or almost horizontal pipe, a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer often results. The effect of condensate drainage velocity and pipe declination on the incidence of steam bubble collapse induced water hammer is investigated experimentally. Declining the pipe more than 2.4{degrees} allows drainage velocities up to 3 ft/sec (1m/s) in a two inch (5 cm) pipe without water hammer. A semi-empirical theory allows extrapolation to other pressures, pipe sizes and inclinations. 4 refs.

Griffith, P.; Silva, R.J.

1991-08-01

22

Experimental investigation of transient operation of a water heat pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient operation of heat pipes is of interest to many space applications including thermal management and heat rejection radiators. Experiments were performed to investigate the trasient response of a water heat pipe to step changes in input power at different cooling rates. The copper heat pipe has a 393-mm long evaporator, 37-mm long adiabatic section, and 170-mm long condenser and

Lianmin Huang; Mohamed S. El-Genk

1993-01-01

23

Metallurgical investigation of material from chill-water piping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical properties and microstructures of two steel pipes that were removed from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) chill-water system have been studied. Concerns for low-stress failure of aging pipes prompted a metallurgical investigation to determine the risk of using a cryogenic freeze-plug technique to isolate a section of piping for repair. The two pipes, designated S and L,

1990-01-01

24

Modeling and analysis of water-hammer in coaxial pipes  

E-print Network

The fluid-structure interaction is studied for a system composed of two coaxial pipes in an annular geometry, for both homogeneous isotropic metal pipes and fiber-reinforced (anisotropic) pipes. Multiple waves, traveling at different speeds and amplitudes, result when a projectile impacts on the water filling the annular space between the pipes. In the case of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic thin pipes we compute the wavespeeds, the fluid pressure and mechanical strains as functions of the fiber winding angle. This generalizes the single-pipe analysis of J. H. You, and K. Inaba, Fluid-structure interaction in water-filled pipes of anisotropic composite materials, J. Fl. Str. 36 (2013). Comparison with a set of experimental measurements seems to validate our models and predictions.

Cesana, Pierluigi

2015-01-01

25

Steam bubble collapse induced water hammer in draining pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

When hot steam replaces cold condensate in a horizontal or almost horizontal pipe, a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer often results. The effect of condensate drainage velocity and pipe declination on the incidence of steam bubble collapse induced water hammer is investigated experimentally. Declining the pipe more than 2.4° allows drainage velocities up to 3 ft\\/sec (1m\\/s) in a

P. Griffith; R. J. Silva

1991-01-01

26

ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), HEADER BYPASS PIPE (AT RIGHT), AND PUMPHOUSE FOUNDATIONS. Looking northeast - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

27

Cigarette, cigar, and pipe smoking and the risk of head and neck cancers: pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium.  

PubMed

Cigar and pipe smoking are considered risk factors for head and neck cancers, but the magnitude of effect estimates for these products has been imprecisely estimated. By using pooled data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium (comprising 13,935 cases and 18,691 controls in 19 studies from 1981 to 2007), we applied hierarchical logistic regression to more precisely estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for cigarette, cigar, and pipe smoking separately, compared with reference groups of those who had never smoked each single product. Odds ratios for cigar and pipe smoking were stratified by ever cigarette smoking. We also considered effect estimates of smoking a single product exclusively versus never having smoked any product (reference group). Among never cigarette smokers, the odds ratio for ever cigar smoking was 2.54 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93, 3.34), and the odds ratio for ever pipe smoking was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.55, 2.81). These odds ratios increased with increasing frequency and duration of smoking (Ptrend ? 0.0001). Odds ratios for cigar and pipe smoking were not elevated among ever cigarette smokers. Head and neck cancer risk was elevated for those who reported exclusive cigar smoking (odds ratio = 3.49, 95% CI: 2.58, 4.73) or exclusive pipe smoking (odds ratio = 3.71, 95% CI: 2.59, 5.33). These results suggest that cigar and pipe smoking are independently associated with increased risk of head and neck cancers. PMID:23817919

Wyss, Annah; Hashibe, Mia; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Yu, Guo-Pei; Winn, Deborah M; Wei, Qingyi; Talamini, Renato; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Sturgis, Erich M; Smith, Elaine; Shangina, Oxana; Schwartz, Stephen M; Schantz, Stimson; Rudnai, Peter; Purdue, Mark P; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Muscat, Joshua; Morgenstern, Hal; Michaluart, Pedro; Menezes, Ana; Matos, Elena; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Lissowska, Jolanta; Levi, Fabio; Lazarus, Philip; La Vecchia, Carlo; Koifman, Sergio; Herrero, Rolando; Hayes, Richard B; Franceschi, Silvia; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Fernandez, Leticia; Fabianova, Eleonora; Daudt, Alexander W; Dal Maso, Luigino; Curado, Maria Paula; Chen, Chu; Castellsague, Xavier; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; Cadoni, Gabriella; Boccia, Stefania; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Olshan, Andrew F

2013-09-01

28

Cigarette, Cigar, and Pipe Smoking and the Risk of Head and Neck Cancers: Pooled Analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium  

PubMed Central

Cigar and pipe smoking are considered risk factors for head and neck cancers, but the magnitude of effect estimates for these products has been imprecisely estimated. By using pooled data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium (comprising 13,935 cases and 18,691 controls in 19 studies from 1981 to 2007), we applied hierarchical logistic regression to more precisely estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for cigarette, cigar, and pipe smoking separately, compared with reference groups of those who had never smoked each single product. Odds ratios for cigar and pipe smoking were stratified by ever cigarette smoking. We also considered effect estimates of smoking a single product exclusively versus never having smoked any product (reference group). Among never cigarette smokers, the odds ratio for ever cigar smoking was 2.54 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93, 3.34), and the odds ratio for ever pipe smoking was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.55, 2.81). These odds ratios increased with increasing frequency and duration of smoking (Ptrend ? 0.0001). Odds ratios for cigar and pipe smoking were not elevated among ever cigarette smokers. Head and neck cancer risk was elevated for those who reported exclusive cigar smoking (odds ratio = 3.49, 95% CI: 2.58, 4.73) or exclusive pipe smoking (odds ratio = 3.71, 95% CI: 2.59, 5.33). These results suggest that cigar and pipe smoking are independently associated with increased risk of head and neck cancers. PMID:23817919

Wyss, Annah; Hashibe, Mia; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Yu, Guo-Pei; Winn, Deborah M.; Wei, Qingyi; Talamini, Renato; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Sturgis, Erich M.; Smith, Elaine; Shangina, Oxana; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Schantz, Stimson; Rudnai, Peter; Purdue, Mark P.; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Muscat, Joshua; Morgenstern, Hal; Michaluart, Pedro; Menezes, Ana; Matos, Elena; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Lissowska, Jolanta; Levi, Fabio; Lazarus, Philip; La Vecchia, Carlo; Koifman, Sergio; Herrero, Rolando; Hayes, Richard B.; Franceschi, Silvia; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Fernandez, Leticia; Fabianova, Eleonora; Daudt, Alexander W.; Dal Maso, Luigino; Curado, Maria Paula; Chen, Chu; Castellsague, Xavier; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; Cadoni, Gabriella; Boccia, Stefania; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Olshan, Andrew F.

2013-01-01

29

Smoking and Tobacco Policy Effective Date: August 25, 2014  

E-print Network

also is prohibited. III. EXCEPTIONS Smoking Cessation Products and Electronic Cigarettes Smoking that contain tobacco or nicotine, including cigarettes, cigars, pipes, bidis, kreteks, hookahs, water pipes are permitted. Devices that simulate smoking through inhalation of vapor or aerosol from the device, including e-cigarettes

Ziurys, Lucy M.

30

Screening reactor steam/water piping systems for water hammer  

SciTech Connect

A steam/water system possessing a certain combination of thermal, hydraulic and operational states, can, in certain geometries, lead to a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer. These states, operations, and geometries are identified. A procedure that can be used for identifying whether an unbuilt reactor system is prone to water hammer is proposed. For the most common water hammer, steam bubble collapse induced water hammer, six conditions must be met in order for one to occur. These are: (1) the pipe must be almost horizontal; (2) the subcooling must be greater than 20 C; (3) the L/D must be greater than 24; (4) the velocity must be low enough so that the pipe does not run full, i.e., the Froude number must be less than one; (5) there should be void nearby; (6) the pressure must be high enough so that significant damage occurs, that is the pressure should be above 10 atmospheres. Recommendations on how to avoid this kind of water hammer in both the design and the operation of the reactor system are made.

Griffith, P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1997-09-01

31

Pulsating Viscoelastic Pipe Flow - Water-Hammer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This theoretical study of the effect of viscoelastic material properties of a pipe conveying one-dimensional, non-stationary flow shows that, in addition to exponential attenuation of wave fronts, the disturbance is transformed into a diffusion front whose thickness increases as ?t, and which propagates at a velocity corresponding to the retarded elasticity of the pipe material [E(?)]. The behaviour of pressure

E. Rieutord; A. Blanchard

1979-01-01

32

Steam bubble collapse, water hammer and piping network response  

E-print Network

Work on steam bubble collapse, water hammer and piping network response was carried out in two closely related but distinct sections. Volume I of ,,is report details the experiments and analyses carried out in conjunction ...

Gruel, R.

33

68. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER PIPES FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

68. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER PIPES FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. INTERIOR OF CAST HOUSE LOOKING NORTH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

34

Section A, view of cooling water pipes and parking garage ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Section A, view of cooling water pipes and parking garage entrance/exit on west slurry wall, looking west. (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York, New York County, NY

35

Section A, detail view of cooling water pipe valve on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Section A, detail view of cooling water pipe valve on west slurry wall, looking west. (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York, New York County, NY

36

113. COOLING WATER PIPING INTO COMPRESSORS, NORTHEAST CORNER OF MECHANICAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

113. COOLING WATER PIPING INTO COMPRESSORS, NORTHEAST CORNER OF MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM (201), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

37

68. Water Delivery Pipes for Menzie Cone, date unknown Historic ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

68. Water Delivery Pipes for Menzie Cone, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

38

Design, Baseline Results of Irbid Longitudinal, School-Based Smoking Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare patterns of water pipe and cigarette smoking in an eastern Mediterranean country. Methods: In 2008, 1781 out of 1877 seventh graders enrolled in 19 randomly selected schools in Irbid, Jordan, were surveyed. Results: Experimentation with and current water pipe smoking were more prevalent than cigarette smoking (boys: 38.7% vs…

Mzayek, Fawaz; Khader, Yousef; Eissenberg, Thomas; Ward, Kenneth D.; Maziak, Wasim

2011-01-01

39

Acoustic imaging in a water filled metallic pipe  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for the imaging of the interior of a water filled metallic pipe using acoustical techniques. The apparatus consists of an array of 20 acoustic transducers mounted circumferentially around the pipe. Each transducer is pulsed in sequence, and the echos resulting from bubbles in the interior are digitized and processed by a computer to generate an image. The electronic control and digitizing system and the software processing of the echo signals are described. The performance of the apparatus is illustrated by the imaging of simulated bubbles consisting of thin walled glass spheres suspended in the pipe.

Kolbe, W.F.; Turko, B.T.; Leskovar, B.

1984-04-01

40

12. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes and pump ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes and pump in heater room. View to W - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

41

11. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes, stairs, and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes, stairs, and pump in pump room. View to SW - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

42

Slip ratio in dispersed viscous oil-water pipe flow  

SciTech Connect

In this article, dispersed flow of viscous oil and water is investigated. The experimental work was performed in a 26.2-mm-i.d. 12-m-long horizontal glass pipe using water and oil (viscosity of 100 mPa s and density of 860 kg/m{sup 3}) as test fluids. High-speed video recording and a new wire-mesh sensor based on capacitance (permittivity) measurements were used to characterize the flow. Furthermore, holdup data were obtained using quick-closing-valves technique (QCV). An interesting finding was the oil-water slip ratio greater than one for dispersed flow at high Reynolds number. Chordal phase fraction distribution diagrams and images of the holdup distribution over the pipe cross-section obtained via wire-mesh sensor indicated a significant amount of water near to the pipe wall for the three different dispersed flow patterns identified in this study: oil-in-water homogeneous dispersion (o/w H), oil-in-water non-homogeneous dispersion (o/w NH) and Dual continuous (Do/w and Dw/o). The phase slip might be explained by the existence of a water film surrounding the homogeneous mixture of oil-in-water in a hidrofilic-oilfobic pipe. (author)

Rodriguez, Iara H.; Yamaguti, Henrique K.B.; de Castro, Marcelo S.; Rodriguez, Oscar M.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering School of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av. Trabalhador Sao Carlense, 400, 13566-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Da Silva, Marco J. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e. V., Institute of Safety Research, PO Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

2011-01-15

43

High Temperature Titanium-Water Heat Pipe Radiator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space nuclear systems require large area radiators to reject the unconverted heat to space. System optimizations with Brayton cycles lead to radiators with radiator temperatures in the 400 to 550 K range. To date, nearly all space radiator systems have used aluminum/ammonia heat pipes but these components cannot function at the required temperatures. A Graphite Fiber Reinforced Composites (GFRC) radiator with high temperature water heat pipes is currently under development. High temperature GFRC materials have been selected, and will be tested for thermal conductivity and structural properties. Titanium/water and Titanium/Monel heat pipes have been successfully operated at temperatures up to 550 K. Titanium was selected as the baseline envelope material, due to its lower mass and previous experience with bonding titanium into honeycomb panels. Heat pipes were fabricated with a number of different wick designs, including slab and grooved wicks. Since titanium cannot be extruded, the grooves are being fabricated in sintered titanium powder. The paper reports on the radiator design, materials selection, heat pipe to fin bonding, heat pipe design, and experimental results.

Anderson, William G.; Bonner, Richard; Hartenstine, John; Barth, Jim

2006-01-01

44

Modeling MIC copper release from drinking water pipes.  

PubMed

Copper is used for household drinking water distribution systems given its physical and chemical properties that make it resistant to corrosion. However, there is evidence that, under certain conditions, it can corrode and release unsafe concentrations of copper to the water. Research on drinking water copper pipes has developed conceptual models that include several physical-chemical mechanisms. Nevertheless, there is still a necessity for the development of mathematical models of this phenomenon, which consider the interaction among physical-chemical processes at different spatial scales. We developed a conceptual and a mathematical model that reproduces the main processes in copper release from copper pipes subject to stagnation and flow cycles, and corrosion is associated with biofilm growth on the surface of the pipes. We discuss the influence of the reactive surface and the copper release curves observed. The modeling and experimental observations indicated that after 10h stagnation, the main concentration of copper is located close to the surface of the pipe. This copper is associated with the reactive surface, which acts as a reservoir of labile copper. Thus, for pipes with the presence of biofilm the complexation of copper with the biomass and the hydrodynamics are the main mechanisms for copper release. PMID:24398414

Pizarro, Gonzalo E; Vargas, Ignacio T; Pastén, Pablo A; Calle, Gustavo R

2014-06-01

45

34.05.99.M1 Smoking and Tobacco Use Page 1 of 3 UNIVERSITY RULE  

E-print Network

, cigars, pipes, water pipes (hookah), bidis, kreteks, electronic cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, snuff Policy 34.05 Smoking. Tobacco means all forms of tobacco products including but not limited to cigarettes

46

Lightweight concrete OTEC cold water pipe tests, phase 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A one third scale model of a cold water pipe (CWP) for a 40 MW/sub ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plantship was constructed of reinforced lightweight concrete and tested to destruction. Failure occurred at approximately 138 percent of the design load for the once in 100 year storm condition in the Atlantic-1 siting area. The concept of using Neoprene bearing pads to provide flexibility of the joint between pipe segments was also verified. Measured deflections and stresses generally agreed with computer generated predictions and validated the design methods used. It is indicated that a light weight concrete CWP can be built with conventional material, and processes.

Oconnor, J. S.

1981-03-01

47

Smoke-water improves shoot growth and indigo accumulation in shoots of Isatis indigotica seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although smoke treatments have successfully been used for promoting the germination of many seeds, there are no reports on the effect of smoke on secondary metabolite production in plants. This study highlights the effects of smoke-water on shoot growth and accumulation of indigo in shoots of Isatis indigotica Fort., a Chinese medicinal plant. Results showed that seedlings treated with smoke-water

J. Zhou; J. Van Staden; L. P. Guo; L. Q. Huang

2011-01-01

48

The Challenge of Providing Safe Water with an Intermittently Supplied Piped Water Distribution System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increasing number of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have access to piped water; however, this water is often not available continuously. 84% of reporting utilities in low-income countries provide piped water for fewer than 24 hours per day (van den Berg and Danilenko, 2010), while no major city in India has continuous piped water supply. Intermittent water supply leaves pipes vulnerable to contamination and forces households to store water or rely on alternative unsafe sources, posing a health threat to consumers. In these systems, pipes are empty for long periods of time and experience low or negative pressure even when water is being supplied, leaving them susceptible to intrusion from sewage, soil, or groundwater. Households with a non-continuous supply must collect and store water, presenting more opportunities for recontamination. Upgrading to a continuous water supply, while an obvious solution to these challenges, is currently out of reach for many resource-constrained utilities. Despite its widespread prevalence, there are few data on the mechanisms causing contamination in an intermittent supply and the frequency with which it occurs. Understanding the impact of intermittent operation on water quality can lead to strategies to improve access to safe piped water for the millions of people currently served by these systems. We collected over 100 hours of continuous measurements of pressure and physico-chemical water quality indicators and tested over 1,000 grab samples for indicator bacteria over 14 months throughout the distribution system in Hubli-Dharwad, India. This data set is used to explore and explain the mechanisms influencing water quality when piped water is provided for a few hours every 3-5 days. These data indicate that contamination occurs along the distribution system as water travels from the treatment plant to reservoirs and through intermittently supplied pipes to household storage containers, while real-time measurements document variability in water quality throughout the 2-8 hour supply period. Our results show that piped water is not always safe water, but that safe water can be achieved in an intermittent supply under certain physical and operational conditions. Intermittent piped water supply is an important constraint on access to safe water in towns and cities in low-income countries, and strategies that improve these existing systems can help urban residents gain access to safe water. References van den Berg, C., and Danilenko, A. (2010). "The IBNET Water Supply and Sanitation Performance Blue Book: The International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities Databook." World Bank Washington, DC.

Kumpel, E.; Nelson, K. L.

2012-12-01

49

Reactor process water (PW) piping inspections, 1984--1990  

SciTech Connect

In July 1983, the NRC ordered the shutdown of five boiling water reactors (BWR's) because of concerns about reliability of ultrasonic examination for detecting intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). These concerns arose because of leaking piping at Niagara Mohawk's Nine Mile Point which was attributed to IGSCC. The leaks were detected shortly after completion of ultrasonic examinations of the piping. At that time, the Dupont plant manager at Savannah River (SR) directed that investigations be performed to determine if similar problems could exist in SR reactors. Investigation determined that all conditions believed necessary for the initiation and propagation of IGSCC in austenitic stainless steel exist in SR reactor process water (PW) systems. Sensitized, high carbon, austenitic stainless steel, a high purity water system with high levels of dissolved oxygen, and the residual stresses associated with welding during construction combine to provide the necessary conditions. A periodic UT inspection program is now in place to monitor the condition of the reactor PW piping systems. The program is patterned after NRC NUREG 0313, i.e., welds are placed in categories based on their history. Welds in upgraded or replacement piping are examined on a standard schedule (at least every five years) while welds with evidence of IGSCC, evaluated as acceptable for service, are inspected at every extended outage (15 to 18 months). This includes all welds in PW systems three inches in diameter and above. Welds are replaced when MSCC exceeds the replacement criteria of more than twenty percent of pipe circumference of fifty percent of through-wall depth. In the future, we intend to perform flow sizing with automated UT techniques in addition to manual sizing to provide more information for comparison with future examinations.

Ehrhart, W.S.; Elder, J.B.; Sprayberry, R.E.; Vande Kamp, R.W.

1990-01-01

50

Steam bubble collapse, water hammer and piping network response. Volume II. Piping network response to steam generated water hammer. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional and nuclear power steam systems require the transport of high pressure, high temperature steam and water through complex piping networks. During transient phases of operation, steam and subcooled water can be present simultaneously in a variety of piping and reservoir configurations. Under certain conditions, instabilities in the two phase flows can give rise to water hammer events. Most notable

R. Gruel; W. Hurwitz; P. Huber; P. Griffith

1980-01-01

51

A kinetic scheme for pressurised flows in non uniform closed water pipes  

E-print Network

A kinetic scheme for pressurised flows in non uniform closed water pipes C. Bourdarias1 , M. Ersoy1- tions of transient pressurised flows in closed water pipe with non uniform sections. Firstly, we detail used equation for pressurised flows in pipe) by the method of characteristics, with those

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

52

Air entrainment in transient flows in closed water pipes: a two-layer Christian Bourdarias  

E-print Network

Air entrainment in transient flows in closed water pipes: a two-layer approach. Christian on closed uniforms water pipes are performed and discussed. Keywords: Two-layer model, pressurised air flows The hydraulic transients of flow in pipes have been investigated by Hamam and McCorquodale [12], Song et al. [19

53

Reactor Materials Program process water piping indirect failure frequency  

SciTech Connect

Following completion of the probabilistic analyses, the LOCA Definition Project has been subject to various external reviews, and as a result the need for several revisions has arisen. This report updates and summarizes the indirect failure frequency analysis for the process water piping. In this report, a conservatism of the earlier analysis is removed, supporting lower failure frequency estimates. The analysis results are also reinterpreted in light of subsequent review comments.

Daugherty, W.L.

1989-10-30

54

Initiation of water hammer in horizontal or nearly-horizontal pipes containing steam and subcooled water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water slug formation in a stratified countercurrent flow of steam and subcooled water in a horizontal or nearly horizontal pipe which traps a large steam bubble which then collapses rapidly and causes a water hammer is discussed. This water hammer initiating mechanism was studied.

1983-02-01

55

Safety considerations for condensation induced water hammer in steam piping system  

SciTech Connect

The phenomenon of condensation induced water hammer may occur when subcooled water and steam interact and form a water slug by rapid steam condensation, and the slug is accelerated through the piping by the full system pressure. The sudden deceleration of the slug by existing liquid in the system, or by any part of the piping system can produce large pressure pulses, that by themselves or in combination with other loads, can rupture the piping system. This paper describes the results of a study on condensation induced water hammer in a specific piping geometry, and lists recommendations that when implemented will prevent piping system failure.

McCall, T.B. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Squarer, D.; Roidt, R.M. [Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1994-06-01

56

Safety considerations for condensation-induced water hammer in steam piping systems  

SciTech Connect

The phenomenon of condensation-induced water hammer may occur when subcooled water and steam interact and form a water slug by rapid steam condensation, and the slug is accelerated through the piping by the full system pressure. The sudden deceleration of the slug by existing liquid in the system or any part of the piping system can produce large pressure pulses that can, by themselves or in combination with other loads, rupture the piping system. This paper describes the results of a study on condensation-induced water hammer in a specific piping geometry and lists recommendations that when implemented will prevent piping system failure.

Squarer, D.; Roidt, R.M.; McCall, T.B.

1994-12-31

57

Passive water hammer in pipes due to flashing  

SciTech Connect

Peak water hammer pressures arising from flashing flows passing through flow restrictions have been measured in a variety of experiments. Water hammer pressures up to 60 psig have been measured. A homogeneous, equilibrium theory has been developed and shown to be conservative by a factor three or more in predicting the peak pressures. The most likely reasons for the poor prediction of the peak pressure are two. (1) The pressure wave velocity (velocity of sound) is reduced due to small amounts of steam in the pipe probably due to flashing during the starting transient. (2) Thermal non-equilibrium in the flow restriction during flashing.

Wolf, A.R.; Sweeney, E.; Griffith, P.

1991-08-01

58

Reducing widespread pipe sharing and risky sex among crystal methamphetamine smokers in Toronto: do safer smoking kits have a potential role to play?  

PubMed Central

Background Crystal methamphetamine smoking is associated with many negative health consequences, including the potential for transmission of hepatitis. We examined whether or not a kit for crystal methamphetamine smoking might have some potential to reduce the negative health effects of crystal methamphetamine smoking. Methods Five focus groups were conducted with crystal methamphetamine smokers recruited by community health agencies and youth shelters in Toronto, Canada. Target groups included homeless/street-involved youth, sex workers, men who have sex with men, and youth in the party scene. Participants (n = 32) were asked questions about motivations for crystal methamphetamine use, the process of smoking, health problems experienced, sharing behaviour, risky sexual practices, and the ideal contents of a harm reduction kit. Results Pipe sharing was widespread among participants and was deemed integral to the social experience of smoking crystal methamphetamine. Heated pipes were unlikely to cause direct injuries, but participants mentioned having dry, cracked lips, which may be a vector for disease transmission. Many reported having sex with multiple partners and being less likely to use condoms while on the drug. Demand for harm reduction kits was mixed. Conclusions Changing pipe sharing behaviours may be difficult because many participants considered sharing to be integral to the social experience of smoking crystal methamphetamine. Within the context of a broader health promotion and prevention program, pilot testing of safer smoking kits to initiate discussion and education on the risks associated with sharing pipes and unprotected sex for some communities (e.g., homeless/street-involved youth) is worth pursuing. PMID:22339847

2012-01-01

59

Initiation of Water Hammer in a Steam\\/Water Pipe with a Non-Condensable Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a non-condensable gas on the initiation of water hammer in a condensing water-steam system has been investigated by extending Bjorge's work. Based on computational results, it is concluded that the pipe slope is the dominant parameter which affects the initiation of water hammer. The effective temperature difference in driving energy across the liquid interface was found to

Jiann-Lin Chen; Tzu-Chen Hung; S. Kong Wang; Bau-Shi Pei

60

Avoiding steam bubble collapse-induced water hammer in the auxiliary piping of steam power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms of steam bubble collapse-induced water hammer are identified for nominally horizontal or inclined pipes. On the basis of these observations, two methods of preventing steam bubble collapse-induced water hammer in nominally horizontal pipes are proposed. They are inclining them and injecting the water at a controlled rate at either the lowest point or injecting the water at several

C. A. O. C. Lobo; P. Griffith

1994-01-01

61

Water hammer with fluid-structure interaction in thick-walled pipes A.S. Tijsseling  

E-print Network

. Keywords: Water hammer; Fluid transients; Fluid-structure interaction (FSI); Pipe flow #12;2 1 at a convenient one-dimensional formulation. The motivation for the research lies in the fact that many pipes for the liquid Liquid pipe-flow is described by the following two-dimensional equations [4]: Continuity equation

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

62

Avoiding steam bubble collapse-induced water hammer in the auxiliary piping of steam power plants  

SciTech Connect

The mechanisms of steam bubble collapse-induced water hammer are identified for nominally horizontal or inclined pipes. On the basis of these observations, two methods of preventing steam bubble collapse-induced water hammer in nominally horizontal pipes are proposed. They are inclining them and injecting the water at a controlled rate at either the lowest point or injecting the water at several locations. The success of these methods is demonstrated for horizontal pipes and for pipes of other orientations. These ways of preventing steam bubble collapse-induced water hammer are then used to test filling strategies for L''-shaped pipes oriented in practically every way. Both methods are found to work though the application of multiple injection ports and has complications when applied to a complex piping system. The use of the recommended design guidelines for avoiding steam bubble collapse-induced water hammer is demonstrated in an example problem.

Lobo, C.A.O.C. (COPESP, Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Griffith, P. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1994-02-01

63

Screening reactor steam\\/water piping systems for water hammer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steam\\/water system possessing a certain combination of thermal, hydraulic and operational states, can, in certain geometries, lead to a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer. These states, operations, and geometries are identified. A procedure that can be used for identifying whether an unbuilt reactor system is prone to water hammer is proposed. For the most common water hammer, steam

1997-01-01

64

Safety considerations for condensation induced water hammer in steam piping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon of condensation induced water hammer may occur when subcooled water and steam interact and form a water slug by rapid steam condensation, and the slug is accelerated through the piping by the full system pressure. The sudden deceleration of the slug by existing liquid in the system, or by any part of the piping system can produce large

T. B. McCall; D. Squarer; R. M. Roidt

1994-01-01

65

Safety considerations for condensation-induced water hammer in steam piping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon of condensation-induced water hammer may occur when subcooled water and steam interact and form a water slug by rapid steam condensation, and the slug is accelerated through the piping by the full system pressure. The sudden deceleration of the slug by existing liquid in the system or any part of the piping system can produce large pressure pulses

D. Squarer; R. M. Roidt; T. B. McCall

1994-01-01

66

Drag reduction of Newtonian fluid in a circular pipe with a highly water-repellent wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drag reduction phenomena, in which 14% drag reduction of tap water flowing in a 16 mm-diameter pipe occurs in the laminar flow range, have been clarified. Experiments were carried out to measure the pressure drop and the velocity profile of tap water and an aqueous solution of glycerin flowing in pipes with highly water-repellent walls, by using a pressure transducer

Keizo Watanabe; Yanuar Udagawa; Hiroshi Udagawa

1999-01-01

67

Steam bubble collapse, water hammer and piping network response. Volume II. Piping network response to steam generated water hammer. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Conventional and nuclear power steam systems require the transport of high pressure, high temperature steam and water through complex piping networks. During transient phases of operation, steam and subcooled water can be present simultaneously in a variety of piping and reservoir configurations. Under certain conditions, instabilities in the two phase flows can give rise to water hammer events. Most notable are the water hammers experienced in the feed pipes to steam generator spargers in pressurized water nuclear reactors. This study combined with the work done by Gruel (1980) attempts to analyze the events which occur after the formation of an isolated steam vapor bubble. Experimental and theoretical models are developed to investigate the condensation process leading to steam bubble collapse, the mechanisms involved in the propagation of pressure waves through the pipes, and the resultant fluid-structure interactions.

Gruel, R.; Hurwitz, W.; Huber, P.; Griffith, P.

1980-06-01

68

A trial on performance test method for Cu-water heat pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the increase demand for heat pipes, the establishment of standard methods for the performance test and the performance expression of the heat pipe was requested. Generally, the measurement method for the heat transfer rate of heat pipes is divided into two categories. That is, the heat transfer rate of heat pipe is measured by heat input to the evaporator surface or the quantity of heat removed from the condenser zone. The heat loss to each method described must be determined by circulating some kind of fluid such as water in same size pipe located in the heating unit instead of the heat pipe under actual operating condition before use. The heat transfer rate of Cu-Water heat pipe is measured by means of the measurement method based on the principle of bomb calorimeter. The obtained measuring accuracy may be lower.

Tanaka, Y.; Yamamoto, T.

69

Cool-down and frozen start-up behavior of a grooved water heat pipe  

SciTech Connect

A grooved water heat pipe was tested to study its characteristics during the cool-down and start-up periods. The water heat pipe was cooled down from the ambient temperature to below the freezing temperature of water. During the cool-down, isothermal conditions were maintained at the evaporator and adiabatic sections until the working fluid was frozen. When water was frozen along the entire heat pipe, the heat pipe was rendered inactive. The start-up of the heat pipe from this state was investigated under several different operating conditions. The results show the existence of large temperature gradients between the evaporator and the condenser, and the moving of the melting front of the working fluid along the heat pipe. Successful start-up was achieved for some test cases using partial gravity assist. The start-up behavior depended largely on the operating conditions.

Jang, J.H.

1990-12-01

70

Correlation between nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual (water pipe) smokers among Arab Americans  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence suggests that dual cigarette and water pipe use is growing among minority groups, particularly among Arab Americans. Differences in nicotine dependence and barriers to smoking cessation among such dual smokers have not been previously examined in this population. We examined potential differences that might exist between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual smokers (cigarette and water pipe) pertaining to nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation among Arab Americans. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of self-identified Arab immigrant smokers (n=131) living in the Richmond, VA metropolitan area. Data were collected using four questionnaires: Demographic and Cultural Information questionnaire, Tobacco Use questionnaire, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) questionnaire, and Barriers to Cessation questionnaire. We examined differences in nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual smokers of cigarettes and water pipe. Furthermore, we explored the correlations of these measures with select variables. Results There was a significant difference in the FTND scores between the exclusive cigarette smokers (mean M=2.55, standard deviation [SD] =2.10) and dual smokers (M=3.71, SD =2.42); t(129) = (2.51), P=0.0066. There was also a significant difference in the Barriers to Cessation scores between exclusive cigarette smokers (M=38.47, SD =13.07) and dual smokers (M=45.21, SD =9.27); t(129) = (2.56), P=0.0058. Furthermore, there was a highly significant correlation among FTND scores, Barriers to Cessation scores, and past quit attempts among dual smokers. Conclusion Water pipe tobacco smoking seems to be both adding to the dependence potential of cigarette smoking and enhancing barriers to cessation in our study sample. However, the high correlation between quit attempts, FTND, and barriers to cessation needs further investigation to ascertain the possible reasons behind it. This preliminary study utilized a cross-sectional survey among participants of a rather small convenience sample, especially in the dual smokers group. Thus, there is a need to examine these differences via a longitudinal design in a larger sample. PMID:25674035

El-Shahawy, Omar; Haddad, Linda

2015-01-01

71

``HPTAM'' heat-pipe transient analysis model: an analysis of water heat pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space application of heat pipes in power systems, radiators and thermal management necessitates the understanding of their transient response to changes in input power or sink temperature. ``HPTAM,'' a two-dimensional model, is developed for simulating transient performance of fully thawed liquid-metal and non liquid-metal heat pipes. The model divides the heat pipe into three radial regions: wall, liquid\\/wick, and vapor

Jean-Michel Tournier; Mohamed S. El-Genk

1992-01-01

72

[Study on the automatic parameters identification of water pipe network model].  

PubMed

Based on the problems analysis on development and application of water pipe network model, the model parameters automatic identification is regarded as a kernel bottleneck of model's application in water supply enterprise. The methodology of water pipe network model parameters automatic identification based on GIS and SCADA database is proposed. Then the kernel algorithm of model parameters automatic identification is studied, RSA (Regionalized Sensitivity Analysis) is used for automatic recognition of sensitive parameters, and MCS (Monte-Carlo Sampling) is used for automatic identification of parameters, the detail technical route based on RSA and MCS is presented. The module of water pipe network model parameters automatic identification is developed. At last, selected a typical water pipe network as a case, the case study on water pipe network model parameters automatic identification is conducted and the satisfied results are achieved. PMID:20329520

Jia, Hai-Feng; Zhao, Qi-Feng

2010-01-01

73

Water, Water Everywhere, but What's in the Pipes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Waterborne diseases like cholera, typhoid, and dysentery are not problematic in the United States. Most industrial and agricultural chemicals are neutralized by existing treatment technology, but cryptosporidium contamination can occur in dysfunctional treatment/filtration systems. Bottled water is no better than tap water. Awareness is better…

Hoober, Scott

1997-01-01

74

WATER QUALITY AND TREATMENT CONSIDERATIONS FOR CEMENT-LINED AND A-C PIPE  

EPA Science Inventory

Both cement mortar lined (CML) and asbestos-cement pipes (A-C) are widely used in many water systems. Cement linings are also commonly applied in-situ after pipe cleaning, usually to prevent the recurrence of red water or tuberculation problems. Unfortunately, little consideratio...

75

Experimental investigation on the slip between oil and water in horizontal pipes  

SciTech Connect

This work is devoted to study of the slip phenomenon between phases in water-oil two-phase flow in horizontal pipes. The emphasis is placed on the effects of input fluids flow rates, pipe diameter and viscosities of oil phase on the slip. Experiments were conducted to measure the holdup in two horizontal pipes with 0.05 m diameter and 0.025 m diameter, respectively, using two different viscosities of white oil and tap water as liquid phases. Results showed that the ratios of in situ oil to water velocity at the pipe of small diameter are higher than those at the pipe of big diameter when having same input flow rates. At low input water flow rate, there is a large deviation on the holdup between two flow systems with different oil viscosities and the deviation becomes gradually smaller with further increased input water flow rate. (author)

Xu, Jing-yu; Wu, Ying-xiang; Feng, Fei-fei; Chang, Ying; Li, Dong-hui [Division of Engineering Sciences, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2008-10-15

76

Cold Start of a Radiator Equipped with Titanium-Water Heat Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiator panels utilizing titanium-water heat pipes are being considered for lunar applications. A traditional sandwich structure is envisioned where heat pipes are embedded between two high thermal conductivity face sheets. The heat pipe evaporators are to be thermally connected to the heat source through one or more manifolds containing coolant. Initial radiator operation on the lunar surface would likely follow a cold soak where the water in the heat pipes is purposely frozen. To achieve heat pipe operation, it will be necessary to thaw the heat pipes. One option is to allow the sunlight impinging on the surface at sunrise to achieve this goal. Testing was conducted in a thermal vacuum chamber to simulate the lunar sunrise and additional modeling was conducted to identify steady-state and transient response. It was found that sunlight impinging on the radiator surface at sunrise was insufficient to solely achieve the goal of thawing the water in the heat pipes. However, starting from a frozen condition was accomplished successfully by applying power to the evaporators. Start up in this fashion was demonstrated without evaporator dryout. Concern is raised over thawing thermosyphons, vertical heat pipes operating in a gravity field, with no wick in the condenser section. This paper presents the results of the simulated cold start study and identifies future work to support radiator panels equipped with titanium-water heat pipes.

Jaworske, Donald A.; Sanzi, James L.; Siamidis, John

2008-01-01

77

Scientific-Chemical Viewpoints regarding Smoking: A Science Laboratory for All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes laboratory activity that examines the chemical process of smoking and the components of smoke, of both cigarettes and water pipes (narghiles also known as "hookah"). The aim of this activity is to expose adolescents to the scientific aspects of smoking; and to present the relevance of chemistry in everyday life. (Contains 3…

Blonder, Ron

2008-01-01

78

Fluid-structure interaction in water-filled thin pipes of anisotropic composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of elastic anisotropy in piping materials on fluid-structure interaction are studied for water-filled carbon-fiber reinforced thin plastic pipes. When an impact is introduced to water in a pipe, there are two waves traveling at different speeds. A primary wave corresponding to a breathing mode of pipe travels slowly and a precursor wave corresponding to a longitudinal mode of pipe travels fast. An anisotropic stress-strain relationship of piping materials has been taken into account to describe the propagation of primary and precursor waves in the carbon-fiber reinforced thin plastic pipes. The wave speeds and strains in the axial and hoop directions are calculated as a function of carbon-fiber winding angles and compared with the experimental data. As the winding angle increases, the primary wave speed increases due to the increased stiffness in the hoop direction, while the precursor wave speed decreases. The magnitudes of precursor waves are much smaller than those of primary waves so that the effect of precursor waves on the deformation of pipe is not significant. The primary wave generates the hoop strain accompanying the opposite-signed axial strain through the coupling compliance of pipe. The magnitude of hoop strain induced by the primary waves decreases with increasing the winding angle due to the increased hoop stiffness of pipe. The magnitude of axial strain is small at low and high winding angles where the coupling compliance is small.

You, Jeong Ho; Inaba, K.

2013-01-01

79

Heat-pipe enhanced solar-assisted heat pump water heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat-pipe enhanced solar-assisted heat pump water heater (HPSAHP) is studied. HPSAHP is a heat pump with dual heat sources that combines the performance of conventional heat pump and solar heat pipe collector. HPSAHP operates in heat-pump mode when solar radiation is low and in heat-pipe mode without electricity consumption when solar radiation is high. HPSAHP can thus achieve high

B. J. Huang; J. P. Lee; J. P. Chyng

2005-01-01

80

Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study on Helical Pipe Oil-Water Separator For Deoiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation principle of helical separator is introduced. RNG k-epsiv turbulence model is used to numerically simulate oil-water separation in helical pipe by computation fluid dynamics (CFD). By observing the oil distribution of non-holed helical pipes, holes are opened at the locations that oil aggregated. Oil sprays out of the helical pipe through the holes, which has a good separation

Lixin Zhao; Lei Xu; Zhengrong Hua; Zhanzhao Ma; Huaiyu Cao

2009-01-01

81

Investigation of organic matter migrating from polymeric pipes into drinking water under different flow manners.  

PubMed

Polymeric pipes, such as unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) pipes, polypropylene random (PPR) pipes and polyethylene (PE) pipes are increasingly used for drinking water distribution lines. Plastic pipes may include some additives like metallic stabilizers and other antioxidants for the protection of the material during its production and use. Thus, some compounds can be released from those plastic pipes and cast a shadow on drinking water quality. This work develops a new procedure to investigate three types of polymer pipes (uPVC, PE and PPR) with respect to the migration of total organic carbon (TOC) into drinking water. The migration test was carried out in stagnant conditions with two types of migration processes, a continuous migration process and a successive migration process. These two types of migration processes are specially designed to mimic the conditions of different flow manners in drinking water pipelines, i.e., the situation of continuous stagnation with long hydraulic retention times and normal flow status with regular water renewing in drinking water networks. The experimental results showed that TOC release differed significantly with different plastic materials and under different flow manners. The order of materials with respect to the total amount of TOC migrating into drinking water was observed as PE > PPR > uPVC under both successive and continuous migration conditions. A higher amount of organic migration from PE and PPR pipes was likely to occur due to more organic antioxidants being used in pipe production. The results from the successive migration tests indicated the trend of the migration intensity of different pipe materials over time, while the results obtained from the continuous migration tests implied that under long stagnant conditions, the drinking water quality could deteriorate quickly with the consistent migration of organic compounds and the dramatic consumption of chlorine to a very low level. Higher amounts of TOC were released under the continuous migration tests. PMID:24352374

Zhang, Ling; Liu, Shuming; Liu, Wenjun

2014-02-01

82

Freebase cocaine smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six healthy male, paid subjects smoked 50 mg of free-base cocaine in a specially designed glass pipe under a rigidly controlled smoking protocol. The method of heating the pipe and the temperature that produced the most efficient and consistent vaporization of the drug had been determined experimentally. The psychological and cardiovascular effects of smoking free-base cocaine were recorded. Approximately 26%

M Perez-Reyes; S Di Guiseppi; G Ondrusek; A R Jeffcoat; C E Cook

1982-01-01

83

Transient formation characteristics of temperature stratified flow in a horizontal water pipe with an injection of hot water from a hole of a pipe  

SciTech Connect

Temperature stratified flow was numerically analyzed in a horizontal pipe. Initially cold water is running and developed in a pipe. From a part of a pipe wall, hot water is injected. Subsequent transient velocity and temperature stratification process was numerically analyzed. This process is a model for such transfer phenomena as follows, i.e., blowing of fresh air into a long tunnel, replacing process of hazardous fluids from a pipeline of an industrial plant with safer fluids, ventilation of a large construction house or ducts, transient combustion process in a tunnel or huge duct, transient flow and temperature characteristics in a canal or river with multiple sub channels. These various cases become more complicated and more serious for the larger scale systems. Temperature stratified flow is everywhere established which makes the prediction difficult. This paper presents transient three-dimensional numerical analyses for a horizontal pipe in which laminar cold water runs steadily. Hot water is injected from a lower side corner of a pipe. Model equations consist of fully three-dimensional balance equations in a cylindrical coordinate. Total tube length computed is 10 times of a pipe diameter d{sub 0}. Hot water inlet hole is 0.4d{sub 0} long in an axial direction and {pi}d{sub 0}/8 in a circumferential direction near the entrance of the system. Reynolds number in a pipe is 1000. Reynolds number of the hot water at the injection hole is 447. Grashof number based on the temperature difference is 5 x 10{sup 7} and Pr = 5.41. Transient three-dimensional velocity profiles and isotherms are presented. The instantaneous water temperature represents oscillatory fluctuation depending on the level in a pipe and on the axial distance from the injection hole. For the tube diameter 0.1m, an average temperature arrived a quasi-steady state after 5 minutes with strong temperature stratification even at 1m from an injection hole. Near the injection hole, hot water makes circumferential convection with oscillatory up and down vortex flow in an axial direction. Warmer water makes stratified flow with faster axial velocity near the top of the tube with much slower axial velocity near the bottom of the tube. These fully three-dimensionally complicated flow and temperature stratification characteristics are presented in various ends view and side views of a long pipe. The importance to note the temperature stratified flow is discussed.

Okinotani, Takeshi; Ozoe, Hiroyuki

1999-07-01

84

Effect of Microstructure on Failure Behavior of Light Water Reactor Coolant Piping under Severe Accident Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a severe accident of light water reactors, the reactor coolant system (RCS) piping might be subjected to thermal loads caused by the decay heat of the deposited fission products and the heat transfer from the hot gases, with an internal pressure in some accident sequences. Tests on the RCS piping failure were performed along with high temperature tensile and

Yuhei HARADA; Yu MARUYAMA; Akio MAEDA; Hiroaki SHIBAZAKI; Tamotsu KUDO; Akihide HIDAKA; Kazuichiro HASHIMOTO; Jun SUGIMOTO

1999-01-01

85

Design, Fabrication, and Testing of High Capacity High-Temperature Monel\\/Water Heat Pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A development program was completed to demonstrate key technologies required for the JIMO Heat Pipe Radiator. Part of this work included the design, assembly, and performance testing of two favorable wick designs in full length water heat pipes. A parametric study identified CP-2 titanium and Monel K-500 alloys as favorable envelope materials. The design effort also identified two promising wick

John H. Rosenfeld; Bruce L. Drolen; Cheng-Yi Lu

2006-01-01

86

Avoiding steam-bubble-collapse-induced water hammers in piping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In terms of the frequency of occurrence, steam bubble collapse in subcooled water is the dominant initiating mechanism for water hammer events in nuclear power plants. Water hammer due to steam bubble collapse occurs when water slug forms in stratified horizontal flow, or when steam bubble is trapped at the end of the pipe. These types of water hammer events

Y. Chou; P. Griffith

1989-01-01

87

Smart Pipes—Instrumented Water Pipes, Can This Be Made a Reality?  

PubMed Central

Several millions of kilometres of pipes and cables are buried beneath our streets in the UK. As they are not visible and easily accessible, the monitoring of their integrity as well as the quality of their contents is a challenge. Any information of these properties aids the utility owners in their planning and management of their maintenance regime. Traditionally, expensive and very localised sensors are used to provide irregular measurements of these properties. In order to have a complete picture of the utility network, cheaper sensors need to be investigated which would allow large numbers of small sensors to be incorporated into (or near to) the pipe leading to so-called smart pipes. This paper focuses on a novel trial where a short section of a prototype smart pipe was buried using mainly off-the-shelf sensors and communication elements. The challenges of such a burial are presented together with the limitations of the sensor system. Results from the sensors were obtained during and after burial indicating that off-the-shelf sensors can be used in a smart pipes system although further refinements are necessary in order to miniaturise these sensors. The key challenges identified were the powering of these sensors and the communication of the data to the operator using a range of different methods. PMID:22164027

Metje, Nicole; Chapman, David N.; Cheneler, David; Ward, Michael; Thomas, Andrew M.

2011-01-01

88

Steam bubble collapse, water hammer and piping network response. Volume I. Steam bubble collapse and water hammer in piping systems: experiments and analysis. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water hammer incidents in conventional and nuclear steam systems are an important problem of broad general interest in piping network design and transient operation. Water hammer in PWR steam generator sparger feed lines has, for example, been a recurrent problem when the sparger becomes uncovered during certain operational transients (Creare 1977). The central goal of this research has been to

R. Gruel; W. Hurwitz; P. Huber; P. Griffith

1980-01-01

89

A model for unsteady mixed flows in non uniform closed water pipes and a well-balanced finite  

E-print Network

A model for unsteady mixed flows in non uniform closed water pipes and a well-balanced finite unidirectional model for unsteady mixed flows in non uniform closed water pipes. We introduce a local reference in a more general framework: the modelling of unsteady mixed flows in any kind of closed pipe taking

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

90

Avoiding steam-bubble-collapse-induced water hammers in piping systems  

SciTech Connect

In terms of the frequency of occurrence, steam bubble collapse in subcooled water is the dominant initiating mechanism for water hammer events in nuclear power plants. Water hammer due to steam bubble collapse occurs when water slug forms in stratified horizontal flow, or when steam bubble is trapped at the end of the pipe. These types of water hammer events have been studied experimentally and analytically in order to develop stability maps showing those combinations of filling velocities and liquid subcooling that cause water hammer and those which don't. In developing the stability maps, experiments with different piping orientations were performed in a low pressure laboratory apparatus. Details of these experiments are described, including piping arrangement, test procedures, and test results. Visual tests using a transparent Lexan pipe are also performed to study the flow regimes accompanying the water hammer events. All analytical models were tested by comparison with the corresponding experimental results. Based on these models, and step-by-step approach for each flow geometry is presented for plant designers and engineers to follow in avoiding water hammer induced by steam bubble collapse when admitting cold water into pipes filled with steam. 37 refs., 54 figs., 2 tabs.

Chou, Y.; Griffith, P. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))

1989-10-01

91

OTEC Advanced Composite Cold Water Pipe: Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion can exploit natural temperature gradients in the oceans to generate usable forms of energy (for example, cost-competitive baseload electricity in tropical regions such as Hawaii) free from fossil fuel consumption and global warming emissions.The No.1 acknowledged challenge of constructing an OTEC plant is the Cold Water Pipe (CWP), which draws cold water from 1000m depths up to the surface, to serve as the coolant for the OTEC Rankine cycle. For a commercial-scale plant, the CWP is on the order of 10m in diameter.This report describes work done by LMSSC developing the CWP for LM MS2 New Ventures emerging OTEC business. The work started in early 2008 deciding on the minimum-cost CWP architecture, materials, and fabrication process. In order to eliminate what in previous OTEC work had been a very large assembly/deployment risk, we took the innovative approach of building an integral CWP directly from theOTEC platform and down into the water. During the latter half of 2008, we proceeded to a successful small-scale Proof-of-Principles validation of the new fabrication process, at the Engineering Development Lab in Sunnyvale. During 2009-10, under the Cooperative Agreement with the US Dept. of Energy, we have now successfully validated key elements of the process and apparatus at a 4m diameter scale suitable for a future OTEC Pilot Plant. The validations include: (1) Assembly of sandwich core rings from pre-pultruded hollow 'planks,' holding final dimensions accurately; (2) Machine-based dispensing of overlapping strips of thick fiberglass fabric to form the lengthwise-continuous face sheets, holding accurate overlap dimensions; (3) Initial testing of the fabric architecture, showing that the overlap splices develop adequate mechanical strength (work done under a parallel US Naval Facilities Command program); and (4) Successful resin infusion/cure of 4m diameter workpieces, obtaining full wet-out and a non-discernable knitline between successive stepwise infusions.

Dr. Alan Miller; Matthew Ascari

2011-09-12

92

OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) Cold Water Pipe At-Sea Test Program. Phase 2: Suspended pipe test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important step in the development of technology for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) cold water pipes (CWP) is the at-sea testing and subsequent evaluation of a large diameter fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) pipe. Focus was on the CWP since it is the most critical element in any OTEC design. The results of the second phase of the CWP At-Sea Test Program are given. During this phase an 8 foot diameter, 400 foot long sandwich wall FRP syntactic foam configuration CWP test article was developed, constructed, deployed and used for data acquisition in the open ocean near Honolulu, Hawaii. This instrumented CWP as suspended from a moored platform for a three week experiment in April-May, 1983. The CWP represented a scaled version of a 40 megawatt size structure, nominally 30 feet in diameter and 3000 feet long.

McHale, F. A.

1984-08-01

93

Clad piping - a novel approach for solving nuclear plant service water and erosion-corrosion problems  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the application of clad piping components to solve various nuclear plant corrosion problems, such as service water system corrosion and feedwater/condensate/steam erosion-corrosion. This approach uses a carbon steel piping component which has a metallurgically bonded alloy cladding on the ID. Different alloys are available as cladding, from stainless steels to Inconel 625, so that a specific alloy can be selected based on the service requirements. Clad piping components represent a novel approach, as they provide a mechanism to utilize resistant alloys to solve corrosion problems without affecting the plant design. Clad piping products are designed such that the carbon steel backing acts as the pressure boundary and the cladding the corrosion allowance. By selecting the proper carbon steel backing, the clad product can be engineered to allow {open_quotes}like-for-like{close_quotes} component replacement. The wall thickness, weight and stiffness of the piping would remain essentially the same. The thermal expansion coefficient of the bulk piping also remains the same. Thus, the piping design and layout is wholly unaffected, with no structural reanalysis being required. This paper discusses two applications where clad piping products are being applied for solving nuclear power plant corrosion problems. The first is in solving steam/condensate/feedwater erosion-corrosion. The second application is the utilization of Inconel 625 clad piping products for solving service water system corrosion. Clad piping products solve these problems while improving plant operation and performance by basically providing the benefits of the alloy without any of the accompanying disadvantages of redesign.

Chakravarti, B. [NUTECH Engineers, Inc., Westmont, IL (United States)

1992-12-31

94

CONTROLLING ASBESTOS LOSS FROM ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPE IN AGGRESSIVE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A project was conducted to evaluate measures for controlling loss of asbestos fibers from asbestos-cement (A/C) water distribution pipe under aggressive water conditions. During Phase 1, water quality data were analyzed for the distribution system of Bellevue, Washington, which r...

95

Psychosocial determinants of cigarette smoking among university students in Jordan.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of cigarette use and water pipe smoking in Jordanian university students and to analyze differences in determinants between cigarette smokers and non-smokers. A cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 400 students (18-24 years, 51% males). Smokers were compared with non-smokers on several smoking-related determinants. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ? 2 test and binary logistic regression analysis. The prevalence rates of cigarette use and water pipe smoking were 25.9% and 23.3%, respectively. Cigarette smokers differed significantly from non-smokers on almost all of the assessed determinants. The I-Change model explained 85% of the total variance of cigarette-smoking behavior. Cigarette smoking was determined by being male and older, having more depressive symptoms, having less Muslim identity, being more emancipated, perceiving more pros of smoking, having more modeling from peers and having lower self-efficacy. The popularity of cigarette use and water pipe smoking among Jordanian students necessitates health promotion interventions that motivate students not to engage in smoking behaviors by clearly outlining the outcomes of smoking and the healthier alternatives, how to cope with social influences and difficult situations in order to increase self-efficacy. PMID:25141040

Farajat, M; Hoving, C; De Vries, H

2011-06-01

96

Assimilable organic carbon release, chemical migration, and drinking water impacts of multiple brands of plastic pipes available in the USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased installation of polymer potable water pipes in United States plumbing systems has created a need to thoroughly evaluate their water quality impacts. Eleven brands of new polymer drinking water pipe were evaluated for assimilable organic carbon (AOC) release at room temperature for 28 days. They included polyvinyl chloride (PVC), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), and cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipes. Three of eight PEX pipe brands exceeded a 100 microg/L AOC threshold for microbial regrowth for the first exposure period and no brands exceeded this value on day 28. No detectable increase in AOC was found for PP and PEX-a1 pipes; the remaining pipe brands contributed marginal AOC levels. Water quality impacts were more fully evaluated for two brands of PEX-b and one brand of PP pipe. PEX pipes released more total organic carbon (TOC), volatile organic compounds (VOC), and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) and caused greater odor than the PP pipe. All three materials showed reductions in these water quality parameters over 30 days. Three PEX pipe field studies revealed that aged systems did not display more intense odors than distribution systems. However, the organic releases from polymer pipes may still alter water quality and contribute to rapid microbial growth, even though the aesthetic impacts are temporary.

Connell, Matthew

97

Evaluation of High Temperature Tensile and Creep Properties of Light Water Reactor Coolant Piping Materials for Severe Accident Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been pointed out that the reactor coolant system piping could fail prior to the meltthrough of the reactor pressure vessel in a high pressure sequence of pressurized water reactor severe accidents. In order to apply to the evaluation of the piping failure which influences the subsequent accident progression, models for the strength of piping materials at high temperatures

Yuhei HARADA; Yu MARUYAMA; Akio MAEDA; Eiichi CHINO; Hiroaki SHIBAZAKI; Tamotsu KUDO; Akihide HIDAKA; Kazuichiro HASHIMOTO; Jun SUGIMOTO

2000-01-01

98

Piping flow erosion in water retaining structures: inferring erosion rates from hole erosion tests and quantifying the failure time  

E-print Network

Piping flow erosion in water retaining structures: inferring erosion rates from hole erosion tests-en-Provence Cedex 5, France E-mail: stephane.bonelli@cemagref.fr Abstract The piping flow erosion process, involving structures. Such a pipe can be imputed to roots or burrows. The coefficient of erosion must be known in order

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

99

Water hammer with fluid–structure interaction in thick-walled pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one-dimensional mathematical model is presented which describes the acoustic behaviour of thick-walled liquid-filled pipes. The model is based on conventional water-hammer and beam theories. Fluid–structure interaction (FSI) is taken into account. The equations governing straight pipes are derived by the cross-sectional integration of axisymmetric two-dimensional basic equations. The resulting FSI four-equation model has small correction terms and factors accounting

A. S. Tijsseling

2007-01-01

100

The structural performance of thin-walled polyethylene pipe linings for the renovation of water mains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renovation of deteriorating metal pipe with a close-fitting polyethylene lining is now standard practice in the U.K. water industry. Usually a full-thickness pressure pipe is used for the lining. However, here it is argued that capacity to span relatively small gaps and corrosion voids is often the major structural requirement of the lining. Under these circumstances an appropriate thin-walled lining

J. C. Boot; Z. W. Guan; I. Toropova

1996-01-01

101

Drag reduction of Newtonian fluid in a circular pipe with a highly water-repellent wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drag reduction phenomena, in which 14% drag reduction of tap water flowing in a 16 mm-diameter pipe occurs in the laminar flow range, have been clarified. Experiments were carried out to measure the pressure drop and the velocity profile of tap water and an aqueous solution of glycerin flowing in pipes with highly water-repellent walls, by using a pressure transducer and a hot-film anemometer, respectively. The same drag reduction phenomena also occurred in degassed tap water when using a vacuum tank. The velocity profile measured in this experiment gives the slip velocity at the pipe wall, and it was shown that the shear stress is directly proportional to the slip velocity.

Watanabe, Keizo; Udagawa, Yanuar; Udagawa, Hiroshi

1999-02-01

102

Unscreened Water-Diversion Pipes Pose an Entrainment Risk to the Threatened Green Sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris  

PubMed Central

Over 3,300 unscreened agricultural water diversion pipes line the levees and riverbanks of the Sacramento River (California) watershed, where the threatened Southern Distinct Population Segment of green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris, spawn. The number of sturgeon drawn into (entrained) and killed by these pipes is greatly unknown. We examined avoidance behaviors and entrainment susceptibility of juvenile green sturgeon (35±0.6 cm mean fork length) to entrainment in a large (>500-kl) outdoor flume with a 0.46-m-diameter water-diversion pipe. Fish entrainment was generally high (range: 26–61%), likely due to a lack of avoidance behavior prior to entering inescapable inflow conditions. We estimated that up to 52% of green sturgeon could be entrained after passing within 1.5 m of an active water-diversion pipe three times. These data suggest that green sturgeon are vulnerable to unscreened water-diversion pipes, and that additional research is needed to determine the potential impacts of entrainment mortality on declining sturgeon populations. Data under various hydraulic conditions also suggest that entrainment-related mortality could be decreased by extracting water at lower diversion rates over longer periods of time, balancing agricultural needs with green sturgeon conservation. PMID:24454967

Mussen, Timothy D.; Cocherell, Dennis; Poletto, Jamilynn B.; Reardon, Jon S.; Hockett, Zachary; Ercan, Ali; Bandeh, Hossein; Kavvas, M. Levent; Cech, Joseph J.; Fangue, Nann A.

2014-01-01

103

CHRYSOTILE ASBESTOS FIBERS IN DRINKING WATER FROM ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPE  

EPA Science Inventory

Chrysotile asbestos fiber counts were compared in drinking water samples taken before and after flow through asbestos-cement pipes in the San Francisco Bay area. The drinking water supplies in that area are chemically nonaggressive by the standard measures. In one major distribut...

104

Heat Transfer Performance and Piping Strategy Study for Chilled Water Systems at Low Cooling Loads  

E-print Network

rate is not the main cause of the low delta-T syndrome in the chilled water system. Possible causes for the piping strategy of the low delta-T syndrome existing in the chilled water system under low flow conditions are studied in this thesis: (1) use...

Li, Nanxi 1986-

2012-12-05

105

Use of a cellular clayey concrete for a wall specially fitted with water pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical wall made of cellular clayey concrete, which has been fitted with water pipes, is the subject of the study carried out herein under a heating mode of operations. The monitoring of this prototype's behaviour has been performed over 24-h cycles which include an 8-h period of water circulation. With both the material and the geometry of the prototype

L. Marmoret; P. Glouannec; O. Douzane; A. t'Kint de Roodenbeke; M. Queneudec

2000-01-01

106

Page 1 of 62 Redesigning Khardi Rural Piped Water  

E-print Network

...........................................................12 2.2 Water Mains and Distribution Network ........................................................................................................................ 25 4.2.2 Raw Water Mains).................................................................................................. 26 4.2.5 Water Mains

Damani, Om P.

107

Steam bubble collapse, water hammer and piping network response. Volume I. Steam bubble collapse and water hammer in piping systems: experiments and analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Water hammer incidents in conventional and nuclear steam systems are an important problem of broad general interest in piping network design and transient operation. Water hammer in PWR steam generator sparger feed lines has, for example, been a recurrent problem when the sparger becomes uncovered during certain operational transients (Creare 1977). The central goal of this research has been to develop experimental data and supporting analyses that will contribute to the evolving understanding of water hammer created by steam bubble entrapment in a pipe containing subcooled liquid. The first objective of this study has been to obtain a body of experimental data on water hammer initiated by steam bubble collapse. These experiments include measurement of pressure transients and high speed films of the process of bubble collapse and impact, and, in conjunction with Hurwitz (1980), records of the resultant pressure wave propagation through a variety of simple piping configurations and measurements of the induced structural response. The data that have been obtained should be useful in benchmarking existing analytic models and numerical codes.

Gruel, R.; Hurwitz, W.; Huber, P.; Griffith, P.

1980-06-01

108

Development of shellfish removing machine for large-diameter sea-water piping  

SciTech Connect

At nuclear and thermal power plants, the large amount of marine organisms that grow on the inside of condenser cooling, sea-water pipes, such as blue mussels and barnacles, significantly increases the pressure loss of the fluid in the pipes. This causes a deterioration in pumping efficiency and causes damage and corrosion to the paint coating on the inside of the pipes. These marine organisms must be removed, and this takes place by hand during each scheduled outage of the power plants. The working environment within these long lengths of large-diameter pipes is very harsh, requiring a great deal of time and physical labor to remove these organisms. Moreover, finding people to perform this task is becoming difficult. For these reasons. There has been a strong desire to mechanize this task. And this led to the development of a shellfish removing machine for these large-diameter sea-water pipes. The most important considerations in developing this machine were that the removal of the marine organisms be efficient and that the method of removal cause minimum damage to the coating on the inside of the pipes. Good results were obtained using a special cleaning brush that has a removing fixture attached to the end of a wire rope. After several application tests, the machine was used to remove shellfish from condenser cooling sea-water pipes during the sixth scheduled outage of the Japan Atomic Power Company`s Tsuruga No. 2 Unit in September, 1994. There, the capability and reliability of this machine were verified

Murakami, Seiichi [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan). Mechanical Maintenance Section; Nakazawa, Toyohiko [Genden Engineering Services and Construction Co., Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan); Watanabe, Seiji [Atox Co., Ltd., Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan). Technical Service Div.

1996-08-01

109

Pilot study of the effect of biofilms in irrigation pipes on the microbial water quality of irrigation water  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Irrigation is an essential element in the production of many food crops. Irrigation water is often delivered to fields from surface or subsurface sources via pipe-based systems. Surface waters are known to contain pathogenic microorganisms. Disease outbreaks in crops that are eaten raw (i.e. leafy g...

110

Experimental testing and modeling analysis of solute mixing at water distribution pipe junctions.  

PubMed

Flow dynamics at a pipe junction controls particle trajectories, solute mixing and concentrations in downstream pipes. The effect can lead to different outcomes of water quality modeling and, hence, drinking water management in a distribution network. Here we have investigated solute mixing behavior in pipe junctions of five hydraulic types, for which flow distribution factors and analytical equations for network modeling are proposed. First, based on experiments, the degree of mixing at a cross is found to be a function of flow momentum ratio that defines a junction flow distribution pattern and the degree of departure from complete mixing. Corresponding analytical solutions are also validated using computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) simulations. Second, the analytical mixing model is further extended to double-Tee junctions. Correspondingly the flow distribution factor is modified to account for hydraulic departure from a cross configuration. For a double-Tee(A) junction, CFD simulations show that the solute mixing depends on flow momentum ratio and connection pipe length, whereas the mixing at double-Tee(B) is well represented by two independent single-Tee junctions with a potential water stagnation zone in between. Notably, double-Tee junctions differ significantly from a cross in solute mixing and transport. However, it is noted that these pipe connections are widely, but incorrectly, simplified as cross junctions of assumed complete solute mixing in network skeletonization and water quality modeling. For the studied pipe junction types, analytical solutions are proposed to characterize the incomplete mixing and hence may allow better water quality simulation in a distribution network. PMID:24675269

Shao, Yu; Jeffrey Yang, Y; Jiang, Lijie; Yu, Tingchao; Shen, Cheng

2014-06-01

111

Electrokinetically enhanced flow and dewatering characteristics of concentrated black coal-water suspensions in pipes  

SciTech Connect

The transportability and dewatering of coal-water mixtures flowing in a pipe may be enhanced by the application of electrokinetic techniques. Previous experimental work by other workers shows a significant reduction in the wall shear stress, and consequently a decrease in pumping energy requirements for the flow of coal-water mixtures in pipes combined with electrodewatering. In this process the pipe wall acts as the cathode and a centrally aligned tube as the anode. The effects of {open_quote}In-pipe electrodewatering{close_quote} on the flow properties and stability of concentrated coal-water mixtures flowing in various alternative anode-cathode arrangements are presented in this paper. The application of an electrical energy flux at the electrode surface (< 6.1 kW/m{sup 2}) in a dewatering section of pipe (L{sub e}=1m) effectively reduces the pumping energy requirements by as much as one order of magnitude. The stability of flow conditions is investigated in a concentric anode-cathode pipe arrangement consisting of a dewatering and a non-dewatering section (L{sub o}). In this system (L{sub o}/L{sub e}) < 4.0. A microscopic study of dilute coal-water suspensions in the presence of a DC electric field revealed the migration of coal particles towards the anode and the structural formation of coal particle chains. The electrorheological behaviour of concentrated coal-water suspensions is examined with the use of a modified coaxial rheometer. The coal fines (d{sub 50}=17.7{mu}m) used in all experiments were produced by milling a low rank bituminous black coal which was followed by a sieving process that eliminated coal particles that were greater than 75{mu}m in size.

Rozakeas, P.K.; Snow, R.J. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Technology, Victoria (Australia)

1997-07-01

112

A closed-loop control "playback" smoking machine for generating mainstream smoke aerosols.  

PubMed

A first generation smoking machine capable of reading and replicating detailed puffing behavior from recorded smoking topography data is presented. Unlike standard smoking machines, which model human puffing behavior as a steady periodic waveform with a fixed puff frequency, volume, and duration, this novel machine generates a mainstream smoke aerosol by automatically "playing-back" puff topography recordings. Because combustion chemistry is highly non-linear, representing real smoking behavior with a smoothed periodic waveform may result in a tobacco smoke aerosol with a significantly different chemical composition and physical properties than that generated by a smoker. The machine presented here utilizes a rapid closed-loop control algorithm coded in Labview to generate smoke aerosols for toxicological assessment and inhalation studies. To illustrate its use, dry particulate matter and carbon monoxide yields generated using the playback and equivalent periodic puffing regimens are compared for a single smoking session by a 26-year-old male narghile water-pipe smoker. It was found that the periodic puffing regimen yielded 20% less carbon monoxide (CO) than the played-back smoking session, indicating that steady periodic smoking regimens, which are widely used in tobacco smoke research, may not produce realistic smoke aerosols. PMID:16796538

Shihadeh, Alan; Azar, Sima

2006-01-01

113

Nitrate contents of well, raw, treated and pipe borne water in Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria  

SciTech Connect

Nitrate content of water available to man and animals in a rural community in Plateau State, Nigeria was determined. Water samples were obtained from artesian wells, raw untreated surface water, treated raw water, and pipe borne water. The examination of the samples was over a period of 3 mo at weekly intervals. Sixty percent of the artesian wells sampled had nitrate concentration above 5-50 ppm in June and August, while samples from other sources had less than 1 ppm. The proximity of pit latrines to some of the wells may have been responsible for high nitrate content of the well water.

Gbodi, T.A.; Atawodi, S.E.

1987-04-01

114

Corrosion of stainless steel piping in a high manganese fresh water  

SciTech Connect

In March of 1993, about two years after startup in early 1991, pinhole leaks were found in the 16 in. (406 mm) type 304L stainless steel (UNS S30403) raw water piping at the Brunswick-Topsham Water District (BTWD) Potable Water Treatment Plant (PWTP) in Brunswick, Maine. The low chloride manganese-containing well water is chlorinated in the pump house. After reaching the plant, the raw water is handled in type 304L stainless steel (UNS S30403) piping. It was initially felt that the corrosion might be the microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) type corrosion described by Tverberg, Pinnow, and Redmerski. Investigation showed that the role of manganese and chlorine differed, in important respects, from that described by Tverberg et. al., and that heat tint scale may have played a significant role in the corrosion that occurred at the BTWD plant.

Avery, R.E. [Nickel Development Inst., Londonderry, NH (United States); Lutey, R.W. [Buckman Labs., Memphis, TN (United States); Musick, J. [Whitman and Howard, Portland, ME (United States); Pinnow, K.E. [Crucible Research, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tuthill, A.H. [Nickel Development Inst., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1996-07-01

115

31 CFR 700.14 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking. 700.14 Section 700.14 Money and Finance...CENTER (FLETC) BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 700.14 Smoking. Smoking of cigarettes, cigars and pipes is prohibited...

2010-07-01

116

31 CFR 700.14 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Smoking. 700.14 Section 700.14 Money and Finance...CENTER (FLETC) BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 700.14 Smoking. Smoking of cigarettes, cigars and pipes is prohibited...

2011-07-01

117

Surface Characterization on Corrosion By-products on Cu in Drinking Water Pipes  

EPA Science Inventory

Copper is widely used in house-hold plumbing due to its anti-corrosion property. However, as water travels within the distribution system into corroded copper pipes, copper may be released into consumer?s tap causing major problems. In an attempt to understand the mechanism and...

118

GAMMA FACILITY, TRA641. PIPING LAYOUT FOR DEMINERALIZED WATER, DRAINS, SUMP. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GAMMA FACILITY, TRA-641. PIPING LAYOUT FOR DEMINERALIZED WATER, DRAINS, SUMP. PICTORIAL VIEW OF CANAL AND LOCATION OF INPUTS AND DRAINS. IDAHO OPERATIONS OFFICE MTR-641-IDO-15P, 10/1954. INL INDEX NO. 531-0641-00-396-110615, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

119

THE BEHAVIOR OF ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPE UNDER VARIOUS WATER QUALITY CONDITIONS: PART 2, THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Field, pilot-plant, and theoretical studies show that asbestos-cement pipe can be used safely to transport drinking water provided that certain constraints, based on complicated chemical factors, are observed. Natural inhibitory factors, not calcite saturation, are the common pro...

120

Determination of air/water ratio in pipes by fast neutrons: experiment and Monte Carlo simulation.  

PubMed

Fast neutron dose attenuation from a (252)Cf neutron source is used for the determination of air to water ratio in pipes. Such measurement of the two-phase flow volume fraction is important for many industrial plants such as desalination plants and oil refineries. Fast neutrons penetrate liquid more than slow neutrons or gamma rays. Using diameters from 11.5 cm to 20.76 cm and with wall thicknesses from 0.45 to 1.02 cm, attenuation was independent of pipe wall thicknesses and diameters. Experimental data was in good agreement with values calculated using MCNP codes. The measured neutron flux values decreased with increasing water levels in pipes up to about 14 cm, indicating that our system can be used successfully in desalination plants in pipes of different sizes. The experimental sensitivity was found to be about 0.015 mSv/hcm and the system can be used to measure water level changes down to few millimeters. Use of such a system in fixed positions in the plant can provide information on plant's overall performance and can detect loss of flow immediately before any consequences. A portable system could be designed to measure the air to water ratio in different locations in the plant in a relatively short time. PMID:22277638

AboAlfaraj, Tareq; Abdul-Majid, Samir

2012-04-01

121

Pore-water pressures associated with clogging of soil pipes: Numerical analysis of laboratory experiments  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Clogging of soil pipes due to excessive internal erosion has been hypothesized to cause extreme erosion events such as landslides, debris flows, and gullies, but confirmation of this phenomenon has been lacking. Laboratory and field measurements have failed to measure pore water pressures within pip...

122

A COMPARISON OF RESIDENTIAL COPPER PIPES CARRYING HOT AND COLD WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Each year, the U.S. EPA examines numerous lead, iron, and copper pipes pulled from active use in homes and drinking water distribution systems throughout the United States. The intent of the work is to better understand factors that influence the release of metals into drinking ...

123

Heat Transfer in Pipes and Rod Bundles During Flow of Supercritical-Pressure Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current ideas on heat-transfer processes at supercritical pressure and on the hydraulic resistance in pipes and rod bundles are briefly presented in order to determine the computational relations for reactors cooled by water with supercritical parameters. The most widely used relations for calculating heat transfer in normal heat transfer regimes are analyzed and a comparison is made with the

V. A. Grabezhnaya; P. L. Kirillov

2004-01-01

124

High temperatures health monitoring of the condensed water height in steam pipe systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic probes were designed, fabricated and tested for high temperature health monitoring system. The goal of this work was to develop the health monitoring system that can determine the height level of the condensed water through the pipe wall at high temperature up to 250 °C while accounting for the effects of surface perturbation. Among different ultrasonic probe designs, 2.25 MHz probes with air backed configuration provide satisfactory results in terms of sensitivity, receiving reflections from the target through the pipe wall. A series of tests were performed using the airbacked probes under irregular conditions, such as surface perturbation and surface disturbance at elevated temperature, to qualify the developed ultrasonic system. The results demonstrate that the fabricated air-backed probes combined with advanced signal processing techniques offer the capability of health monitoring of steam pipe under various operating conditions.

Lee, Hyeong Jae; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Takano, Nobuyuki; Ostlund, Patrick; Blosiu, Julian

2013-04-01

125

Degassing of water-solved gases in thin pipings during fast pressure drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A one-dimensional model is presented, which describes the transient two-phase flow in thin pipes during fast pressure drops and degassing by use of Eulerian and Lagrangian systems. The reduction in dimension is obtained by introduction of a geometry model for bubbly and slug flow regimes. The complete model includes the transient two-phase flow, bubble formation and bubble growth. The flow model predicts rising velocities of bubbles and plugs in arbitrary inclined highly accurate pipes. The mass transfer (diffusion) of the dissolved phase is calculated by the bubble growth model. The quality of the model was examined by simulation of experimental series, whereby water was depressurised from the saturation pressure of the dissolved gas mixture (air), by variation of saturation pressure, pressure gradient and pipe geometry. The results of numerical simulation fit the experimental data well.

Fleischer, S.; Hampel, R.

126

Failure mechanisms and lifetime prediction methodology for polybutylene pipe in water distribution system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polybutylene (PB) is a semicrystalline thermoplastics. It has been widely used in potable water distribution piping system. However, field practice shows that failure occurs much earlier than the expected service lifetime. What are the causes and how to appropriately evaluate its lifetime motivate this study. In this thesis, three parts of work have been done. First is the understanding of PB, which includes material thermo and mechanical characterization, aging phenomena and notch sensitivity. The second part analyzes the applicability of the existing lifetime testing method for PB. It is shown that PB is an anomaly in terms of the temperature-lifetime relation because of the fracture mechanism transition across the testing temperature range. The third part is the development of the methodology of lifetime prediction for PB pipe. The fracture process of PB pipe consists of three stages, i.e., crack initiation, slow crack growth (SCG) and crack instability. The practical lifetime of PB pipe is primarily determined by the duration of the first two stages. The mechanism of crack initiation and the quantitative estimation of the time to crack initiation are studied by employing environment stress cracking technique. A fatigue slow crack growth testing method has been developed and applied in the study of SCG. By using Paris-Erdogan equation, a model is constructed to evaluate the time for SCG. As a result, the total lifetime is determined. Through this work, the failure mechanisms of PB pipe has been analyzed and the lifetime prediction methodology has been developed.

Niu, Xiqun

127

Effect of sulfate on the transformation of corrosion scale composition and bacterial community in cast iron water distribution pipes.  

PubMed

The chemical stability of iron corrosion scales and the microbial community of biofilm in drinking water distribution system (DWDS) can have great impact on the iron corrosion and corrosion product release, which may result in "red water" issues, particularly under the situation of source water switch. In this work, experimental pipe loops were set up to investigate the effect of sulfate on the dynamical transformation characteristics of iron corrosion products and bacterial community in old cast iron distribution pipes. All the test pipes were excavated from existing DWDS with different source water supply histories, and the test water sulfate concentration was in the range of 50-350 mg/L. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA was used for bacterial community analysis. The results showed that iron release increased markedly and even "red water" occurred for pipes with groundwater supply history when feed water sulfate elevated abruptly. However, the iron release of pipes with only surface water supply history changed slightly without noticeable color even the feed water sulfate increased multiply. The thick-layered corrosion scales (or densely distributed tubercles) on pipes with surface water supply history possessed much higher stability due to the larger proportion of stable constituents (mainly Fe3O4) in their top shell layer; instead, the rather thin and uniform non-layered corrosion scales on pipes with groundwater supply history contained relatively higher proportion of less stable iron oxides (e.g. ?-FeOOH, FeCO3 and green rust). The less stable corrosion scales tended to be more stable with sulfate increase, which was evidenced by the gradually decreased iron release and the increased stable iron oxides. Bacterial community analysis indicated that when switching to high sulfate water, iron reducing bacteria (IRB) maintained dominant for pipes with stable corrosion scales, while significant increase of sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB), sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron oxidizing bacteria (IOB) was observed for pipes with less stable corrosion scales. PMID:24784453

Yang, Fan; Shi, Baoyou; Bai, Yaohui; Sun, Huifang; Lytle, Darren A; Wang, Dongsheng

2014-08-01

128

Effect of pipe corrosion scales on chlorine dioxide consumption in drinking water distribution systems.  

PubMed

Previous studies showed that temperature and total organic carbon in drinking water would cause chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) loss in a water distribution system and affect the efficiency of ClO(2) for Legionella control. However, among the various causes of ClO(2) loss in a drinking water distribution system, the loss of disinfectant due to the reaction with corrosion scales has not been studied in detail. In this study, the corrosion scales from a galvanized iron pipe and a copper pipe that have been in service for more than 10 years were characterized by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The impact of these corrosion scale materials on ClO(2) decay was investigated in de-ionized water at 25 and 45 degrees C in a batch reactor with floating glass cover. ClO(2) decay was also investigated in a specially designed reactor made from the iron and copper pipes to obtain more realistic reaction rate data. Goethite (alpha-FeOOH) and magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) were identified as the main components of iron corrosion scale. Cuprite (Cu(2)O) was identified as the major component of copper corrosion scale. The reaction rate of ClO(2) with both iron and copper oxides followed a first-order kinetics. First-order decay rate constants for ClO(2) reactions with iron corrosion scales obtained from the used service pipe and in the iron pipe reactor itself ranged from 0.025 to 0.083 min(-1). The decay rate constant for ClO(2) with Cu(2)O powder and in the copper pipe reactor was much smaller and it ranged from 0.0052 to 0.0062 min(-1). Based on these results, it can be concluded that the corrosion scale will cause much more significant ClO(2) loss in corroded iron pipes of the distribution system than the total organic carbon that may be present in finished water. PMID:17884130

Zhang, Zhe; Stout, Janet E; Yu, Victor L; Vidic, Radisav

2008-01-01

129

Passive water hammer in pipes due to flashing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peak water hammer pressures arising from flashing flows passing through flow restrictions have been measured in a variety of experiments. Water hammer pressures up to 60 psig have been measured. A homogeneous, equilibrium theory has been developed and shown to be conservative by a factor three or more in predicting the peak pressures. The most likely reasons for the poor

A. R. Wolf; E. Sweeney; P. Griffith

1991-01-01

130

Rigid-plug elastic-water model for transient pipe flow with entrapped air pocket  

SciTech Connect

Pressure transients in a rapidly filling pipe with an entrapped air pocket are investigated analytically. A rigid-plug elastic water model is developed by applying elastic water hammer to the majority of the water column while applying rigid water analysis to a small portion near the air-water interface, which avoids effectively the interpolation error of previous approaches. Moreover, another two simplified models are introduced respectively based on constant water length and by neglecting water elasticity. Verification of the three models is confirmed by experimental results. Calculations show that the simplification of constant water length is feasible for small air pockets. The complete rigid water model is appropriate for cases with large initial air volume. The rigid-plug elastic model can predict all the essential features for the entire range of initial air fraction considered in this study, and it is the effective model for analysis of pressure transients of entrapped air.

Zhou, Ling [Hohai University, China] [Hohai University, China; Liu, Prof. Deyou [Hohai University, China] [Hohai University, China; Karney, Professor Byran W. [University of Toronto, Canada] [University of Toronto, Canada; Zhang, Qin Fen [ORNL] [ORNL; OU, CHANGQI [International Center on Small Hydro Power] [International Center on Small Hydro Power

2011-01-01

131

Wireless monitoring of the height of condensed water in steam pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wireless health monitoring system has been developed for determining the height of water condensation in steam pipes. The data acquisition in this system is done remotely using a wireless network system. The developed system is designed to operate in the harsh manhole environment and the pipe temperature of over 200 °C. The test method is an ultrasonic pulse-echo and the hardware that includes a pulser, receiver, a data processor and wireless modem for communication. Data acquisition and signal processing software were developed to determine the water height using adaptive signal processing and data communication that can be controlled while the hardware is installed in a manhole. A statistical decision-making tool is being developed based on the field test data to determine the height of the condensed water height under high noise conditions and other environmental factors.

Lee, Hyeong Jae; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Badescu, Mircea; Dingizian, Arsham; Takano, Nobuyuki; Blosiu, Julian O.

2014-04-01

132

Happiness on Tap: Piped Water Adoption in Urban Morocco  

E-print Network

Connecting private dwellings to the water main is expensive and typically cannot be publicly financed. We show that households' willingness to pay for a private connection is high when it can be purchased on credit, not ...

Devoto, Florencia

133

Evaluation of cracking in feedwater piping adjacent to the steam generators in Nine Pressurized Water Reactor Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cracking in ASTM A106-B and A106-C feedwater piping was detected near the inlet to the steam generators in a number of pressurized water reactor plants. We received sections with cracks from nine of the plants with the objective of identifying the cracking mechanism and assessing various factors that might contribute to this cracking. Variations were observed in piping surface irregularities,

A. Goldberg; R. D. Streit; R. G. Scott

1980-01-01

134

EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDY OF THE USE OF ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPE FOR THE DISTRIBUTION OF DRINKING WATER IN ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

Cancer mortality for the population census tracts of Escambia County, Florida, using asbestos-cement (A/C) pipe for public potable water distribution was compared with cancer mortality data collected from census tracts in the same county using other types of piping materials. An ...

135

Chapter 2 x Pressure Distribution in a Fluid 89 2.35 Water flows upward in a pipe  

E-print Network

Chapter 2 x Pressure Distribution in a Fluid 89 2.35 Water flows upward in a pipe slanted at 30q) and (2) in the pipe? Solution: The vertical distance between points 1 and 2 equals (2.0 m)tan 30q or 1

Bahrami, Majid

136

CORRELATION BETWEEN THE DAMAGE RATIOS OF WOODEN HOUSES AND WATER DISTRIBUTION PIPES AFTER THE SCENARIO TOKYO METROPOLITAN EARTHQUAKE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study estimated the damage ratios of wooden houses and water distribution pipes in Tokyo, Kanagawa, Saitama, and Chiba prefectures after the scenario Tokyo Metropolitan earthquake. Since the damage ratios were evaluated by common fragility functions, the amount of damage can be compared seamlessly for the areas around Tokyo Metropolis. This study also considers the correlations between the damage ratios of wooden houses and water distribution pipes with respect to the postal address areas (cho-cho-moku) along the Tokyo Bay. The areas associated with higher damage ratios of wooden houses and water pipes were detected and the delay of restoration work is anticipated in these areas.

Maruyama, Yoshihisa; Yamazaki, Fumio

137

Water quality criteria for colored smokes: Solvent Yellow 33, Final report. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

The available data on the environmental fate, aquatic toxicity, and mammalian toxicity of Solvent Yellow 33, a quinoline dye used in colored smoke grenades, were reviewed. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidelines were used in an attempt to generate water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and its use and of human health. 87 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

Davidson, K.A.; Hovatter, P.S.

1987-11-01

138

Temporal Variations in the Abundance and Composition of Biofilm Communities Colonizing Drinking Water Distribution Pipes  

PubMed Central

Pipes that transport drinking water through municipal drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) are challenging habitats for microorganisms. Distribution networks are dark, oligotrophic and contain disinfectants; yet microbes frequently form biofilms attached to interior surfaces of DWDS pipes. Relatively little is known about the species composition and ecology of these biofilms due to challenges associated with sample acquisition from actual DWDS. We report the analysis of biofilms from five pipe samples collected from the same region of a DWDS in Florida, USA, over an 18 month period between February 2011 and August 2012. The bacterial abundance and composition of biofilm communities within the pipes were analyzed by heterotrophic plate counts and tag pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, respectively. Bacterial numbers varied significantly based on sampling date and were positively correlated with water temperature and the concentration of nitrate. However, there was no significant relationship between the concentration of disinfectant in the drinking water (monochloramine) and the abundance of bacteria within the biofilms. Pyrosequencing analysis identified a total of 677 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (3% distance) within the biofilms but indicated that community diversity was low and varied between sampling dates. Biofilms were dominated by a few taxa, specifically Methylomonas, Acinetobacter, Mycobacterium, and Xanthomonadaceae, and the dominant taxa within the biofilms varied dramatically between sampling times. The drinking water characteristics most strongly correlated with bacterial community composition were concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, total chlorine and monochloramine, as well as alkalinity and hardness. Biofilms from the sampling date with the highest nitrate concentration were the most abundant and diverse and were dominated by Acinetobacter. PMID:24858562

Kelly, John J.; Minalt, Nicole; Culotti, Alessandro; Pryor, Marsha; Packman, Aaron

2014-01-01

139

OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) Cold Water Pipe At-Sea Test Program Data Analysis Project: Pipe, platform and environmental parameters data reduction and analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An assessment of computer models developed to analyze the structural response of cold water pipes (CWPs) is discussed. The principal aim of the data interpretation phase of the study was to determine the causal relationship between the environment and the barge/CWP response to provide the information required to assess the CWP computer models.

Vega, L. A.; Nilhous, G. C.

1985-08-01

140

Spatial and seasonal variability of tap water disinfection by-products within distribution pipe networks.  

PubMed

Gradually-changing shocks associated with potable water quality deficiencies are anticipated for urban drinking-water distribution systems (UDWDS). The impact of structural UDWDS features such as, the number of pipe leaking incidences on the formation of water trihalomethanes (THM) at the geocoded household level has never been studied before. The objectives were to: (i) characterize the distribution of water THM concentrations in households from two district-metered areas (DMAs) with contrasting UDWDS characteristics sampled in two seasons (summer and winter), and (ii) assess the within- and between-household, spatial variability of water THM accounting for UDWDS characteristics (household distance from chlorination tank and service pipe leaking incidences). A total of 383 tap water samples were collected from 193 households located in two DMAs within the UDWDS of Nicosia city, Cyprus, and analyzed for the four THM species. The higher intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values for water tribromomethane (TBM) (0.75) followed by trichloromethane (0.42) suggested that the two DMAs differed with respect to these analytes. On the other hand, the low ICC values for total THM levels between the two DMAs suggested a large variance between households. The effect of households nested under each DMA remained significant (p<0.05) for TBM (not for the rest of the THM species) in the multivariate mixed-effect models, even after inclusion of pipe network characteristics. Our results could find use by water utilities in overcoming techno-economic difficulties associated with the large spatiotemporal variability of THM, while accounting for the influence of UDWDS features at points of water use. PMID:25460936

Charisiadis, Pantelis; Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C; Christophi, Costas A; Skarlatos, Dimitrios; Vamvakousis, Vasilis; Kargaki, Sophia; Stephanou, Euripides G

2015-02-15

141

Construction and testing of ceramic fabric heat pipe with water working fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype ceramic fabric/titanium water heat pipe has been constructed and tested; it transported 25 to 80 W of power at 423 K. Component developement and testing is continuing with the aim of providing an improved prototype, with a 38-?m stainless steel liner covered by a biaxially-braided Nextel (trademark of the 3M Co., St. Paul, Minnesota) sleeve that is approximately 300-?m thick. This fabric has been tested to 800 K and its emittance is about 0.5 at that temperature. Advanced versions of the water heat pipe will probably require a coating over the ceramic fabric in order to increase this emittance to the 0.8 to 0.9 range.

Antoniak, Zenen I.; Webb, Brent J.; Bates, James M.; Cooper, Matthew F.

1991-01-01

142

Mathematical Model For Bubbly Water-Heavy Oil-Gas Flow in Vertical Pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work a unidimensional, time-dependent homogeneous mathematical model is presented. The model is able to predict pressure, temperature and velocity profiles of the flow known as bubbly-gas—bubbly-oil, which can be present when water-heavy oil and gas flow simultaneously in vertical pipes. The mathematical model consists of mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations and its numerical solution is based on

O. Cazarez-Candia; D. Montoya-Hernández; A. G. Vital-Ocampo

2009-01-01

143

Sensory aspects and water quality impacts of chlorinated and chloraminated drinking water in contact with HDPE and cPVC pipe.  

PubMed

Pipes constructed with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) or chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (cPVC) are commonly used in drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing. In this comprehensive investigation, the effects on odor, organic chemical release, trihalomethane (THM) formation, free chlorine demand and monochloramine demand were determined for water exposed to HDPE and cPVC pipes. The study was conducted in accordance with the Utility Quick Test (UQT), a migration/leaching protocol for analysis of materials in contact with drinking water. The sensory panel consistently attributed a weak to moderate intensity of a "waxy/plastic/citrus" odor to the water from the HDPE pipes but not the cPVC-contacted water samples. The odor intensity generated by the HDPE pipe remained relatively constant for multiple water flushes, and the odor descriptors were affected by disinfectant type. Water samples stored in both types of pipe showed a significant increase in the leaching of organic compounds when compared to glass controls, with HDPE producing 0.14 microgTOC/cm(2) pipe surface, which was significantly greater than the TOC release from cPVC. Water stored in both types of pipe showed disinfectant demands of 0.1-0.9 microg disinfectant/cm(2) pipe surface, with HDPE exerting more demand than cPVC. No THMs were detected in chlorinated water exposed to the pipes. The results demonstrate the impact that synthetic plumbing materials can have on sensory and chemical water quality, as well as the significant variations in drinking water quality generated from different materials. PMID:17223157

Heim, Timothy H; Dietrich, Andrea M

2007-02-01

144

THE EFFECT OF PHOSPHATE ON THE MORPHOLOGICAL AND SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF COPPER DRINKING WATER PIPES EXPERIENCING LOCALIZED CORROSION  

EPA Science Inventory

Extensive localized or pitting corrosion of copper pipes used in household drinking-water plumbing can eventually lead to pinhole water leaks that may result in water damage, mold growth, and costly repairs. A large water system in Florida has been addressing a widespread pinhole...

145

Stability of Water Lubricated Flow of Yield Stress Fluid in Sloping Pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To facilitate the transport of viscous crudes in a pipe, an immiscible lubricating liquid, usually water, is added. In such configuration, the water migrates into the regions of high shear at the pipe wall where it lubricates the flow. The pumping pressures being balanced by wall shear stresses in the water, the flow therefore requires pressures comparable to pumping water alone, at the same total throughput [1]. So significant savings in pumping power can be derived from this process provided that it is well monitored. Indeed, instabilities usually take place at the oil/water interface and they constitute an important source of energy dissipation. Precisely, a core annular flow is known to undergo a long-wave instability of capillary type, modified by shear occuring at low Reynolds. Above a given critical Reynolds number, the flow is unstable to shorter waves which leads to an emulsification system of water droplets in oil. In present work, an experimental study of the stability of sloping plane Poiseuille flow of well characterized viscoplastic mineral oils lubricated by water was performed. The investigation was carried out by means of image analysis based on spatiotemporal diagrams (STD). Notably indicated are the effects of bed slope, flow rates ratio and oil rheology on flow stability.

Ahmad, A.; Nsom, B.; Decruppe, J.

2010-06-01

146

Detection of Escherichia coli in Biofilms from Pipe Samples and Coupons in Drinking Water Distribution Networks?  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for direct detection of Escherichia coli on pipe surfaces and coupons in drinking water distribution networks. Old cast iron main pipes were removed from water distribution networks in France, England, Portugal, and Latvia, and E. coli was analyzed in the biofilm. In addition, 44 flat coupons made of cast iron, polyvinyl chloride, or stainless steel were placed into and continuously exposed to water on 15 locations of 6 distribution networks in France and Latvia and examined after 1 to 6 months exposure to the drinking water. In order to increase the signal intensity, a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) 15-mer probe was used in the FISH screening for the presence or absence of E. coli on the surface of pipes and coupons, thus reducing occasional problems of autofluorescence and low fluorescence of the labeled bacteria. For comparison, cells were removed from the surfaces and examined with culture-based or enzymatic (detection of ?-d-glucuronidase) methods. An additional verification was made by using PCR. Culture method indicated presence of E. coli in one of five pipes, whereas all pipes were positive with the FISH methods. E. coli was detected in 56% of the coupons using PNA FISH, but no E. coli was detected using culture or enzymatic methods. PCR analyses confirmed the presence of E. coli in samples that were negative according to culture-based and enzymatic methods. The viability of E. coli cells in the samples was demonstrated by the cell elongation after resuscitation in low-nutrient medium supplemented with pipemidic acid, suggesting that the cells were present in an active but nonculturable state, unable to grow on agar media. E. coli contributed to ca. 0.001 to 0.1% of the total bacterial number in the samples. The presence and number of E. coli did not correlate with any of physical and/or chemical characteristic of the drinking water (e.g., temperature, chlorine, or biodegradable organic matter concentration). We show here that E. coli is present in the biofilms of drinking water networks in Europe. Some of the cells are metabolically active but are often not detected due to limitations of traditionally used culture-based methods, indicating that biofilm should be considered as a reservoir that must be investigated further in order to evaluate the risk for human health. PMID:17720845

Juhna, T.; Birzniece, D.; Larsson, S.; Zulenkovs, D.; Sharipo, A.; Azevedo, N. F.; Ménard-Szczebara, F.; Castagnet, S.; Féliers, C.; Keevil, C. W.

2007-01-01

147

Thermal hydraulics of a feed-water pipe breakage with a back-pressure check valve  

SciTech Connect

The SOLA-LOOP computer code for transient, nonequilibrium, two-phase flows in networks has been coupled with a dynamic check valve model. Transient back-pressure check valve behavior and fluid dynamic effects in the form of the so called water-hammer are numerically simulated for a feed-water pipe breakage accident. Three tests from the Superheated Steam Reactor Safety Program Project (PHDR) carried out near Frankfurt, West Germany are analyzed, and the calculated transient back-pressure check valve behavior and fluid dynamics effects are found to be in excellent agreement with the experimentally measured data. 5 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

Travis, J.R.; Torrey, M.D.

1985-01-01

148

A Thermosyphon Titanium-Water Heat Pipe Design for a Lunar Surface Power System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long titanium-water thermosyphon heat pipe was designed and tested in support of NASA's lunar surface power system. With a ?T of 11.6 C, a prototype has been shown to meet the temperature drop specification of 15 C at 400 W and 400 K. The heat pipe is designed to be embedded in a composite radiator panel to spread waste heat delivered by a circulating pumped loop. The major challenge was managing the fluid inventory to balance the conflicting requirements of power capacity and freeze-thaw tolerance. A unique hybrid wick was designed to achieve the required thermal performance and yet store all the working fluid during idle periods in a freeze-thaw tolerant fashion. A non-condensable gas charge was used to boost power capacity at lower operating temperatures. Eighteen prototypes will be built and tested.

Thayer, John; Semenov, Sergey

2009-03-01

149

Conceptual design study: Cold water pipe systems for self-mounted OTEC powerplants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conceptual design and installation aspects of cold water pipes (CWP) systems for shelf mounted OTEC power plants in Puerto Rico and Hawaii are considered. The CWP systems using Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) and steel were designed; the FRP, can be controlled by varying the core thickness; and steel is used as a structural material in offshore applications. A marine railway approach was chosen for installation of the CWP. Two methods for pulling the track for the railway down the pipe fairway to its final location are presented. The track is permanently fastened to the sloping seabed with piles installed by a remotely controlled cart that rides on the track itself. Both the marine railway and the shelf mounted platform that houses the OTEC power plant require an anodic or equivalent corrosion protection system.

1981-02-01

150

Impact of advanced water conservation features and new copper pipe on rapid chloramine decay and microbial regrowth.  

PubMed

Taste and odor issues occurring in new buildings were attributed to rapid loss of chloramine residual, high levels of microbes in the potable water system, and high water age due to use of advanced water conservation devices. Laboratory experiments confirmed that chloramine could decay rapidly in the presence of new copper pipe, providing a possible explanation for the rapid disinfectant loss in the new buildings. Higher temperature and lower pH also accelerated the rate of chloramine decay in copper pipes. The reaction was slowed by the addition of phosphate inhibitor or aluminum, which presumably formed barriers between the pipe wall and the chloramine in the bulk water. Additional research is needed to better understand how to maintain high quality water in buildings while also conserving water. PMID:22153355

Nguyen, Caroline; Elfland, Carolyn; Edwards, Marc

2012-03-01

151

The association between distance to water pipes and water bodies positive for anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the urban community of Malindi, Kenya  

PubMed Central

The increasing risk of mosquito-borne diseases in African urban environments has been partly attributed to failed planning and resource underdevelopment. Though engineered systems may reduce mosquito proliferation, there are few studies describing this relationship. This study investigates how engineered systems such as roads and piped water systems affect the odds of anopheline immatures (i.e., larvae and pupae) occurring in water bodies located in Malindi, Kenya. Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Giles), An. arabiensis (Patton), and An. merus (Dointz) were identified in urban Malindi, with Anopheles gambiae s.s. being the predominant species identified. The Breslow-Day test was used to explore interactions among independent variables. Logistic regression was used to test whether water bodies positive for anopheline immatures are associated with engineered systems, while controlling for potential confounding and interaction effects associated with urban water body characteristics. Water bodies more than 100 m from water pipes were 13 times more likely to have anopheline immatures present, compared to water bodies that were less than 100 m from water pipes (OR = 13.54, 95% CI: 3.15 – 58.23). Roads were not significantly associated with water bodies positive for anopheline immatures. Statistical interaction was detected between water body substrate type and distance to water pipes. This study provides insight into how water pipes influence the distribution of water bodies positive with immature anophelines in urban environments. PMID:18260524

Impoinvil, Daniel E.; Keating, Joseph; Chowdhury, Rinku Roy; Duncan, Robert; Cardenas, Gabriel; Ahmad, Sajjad; Mbogo, Charles M.; Githure, John I.; Beier, John C.

2009-01-01

152

A parametric study and a guide chart to avoid condensation-induced water hammer in a horizontal pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental and analytical studies on the condensation-induced water hammer (CIWH) for steam-water countercurrent flow in a nearly horizontal circular pipe have been performed. A total of 17 experimental data for the onset of slugging, which is assumed to be the precursor of the CIWH, have been obtained for various flow rates of water. Incorporating the most recent correlations of

Moon-Hyun Chun; Seon-Oh Yu

2000-01-01

153

Applicability of Related Data, Algorithms, and Models to the Simulation of Ground-Coupled Residential Hot Water Piping in California  

SciTech Connect

Residential water heating is an important consideration in California?s building energy efficiency standard. Explicit treatment of ground-coupled hot water piping is one of several planned improvements to the standard. The properties of water, piping, insulation, backfill materials, concrete slabs, and soil, their interactions, and their variations with temperature and over time are important considerations in the required supporting analysis. Heat transfer algorithms and models devised for generalized, hot water distribution system, ground-source heat pump and ground heat exchanger, nuclear waste repository, buried oil pipeline, and underground electricity transmission cable applications can be adapted to the simulation of under-slab water piping. A numerical model that permits detailed examination of and broad variations in many inputs while employing a technique to conserve computer run time is recommended.

Warner, J.L.; Lutz, J.D.

2006-01-01

154

Narghile (water pipe) smoking among university students in Jordan: prevalence, pattern and beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Narghile is becoming the favorite form of tobacco use by youth globally. This problem has received more attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of narghile use among students in three public Jordanian universities; to assess their beliefs about narghile's adverse health consequences; and to evaluate their awareness

Najla S Dar-Odeh; Faris G Bakri; Mahmoud K Al-Omiri; Hamzeh M Al-Mashni; Hazem A Eimar; Ameen S Khraisat; Shatha MK Abu-Hammad; Abdul-Aziz F Dudeen; Mohamed Nur Abdallah; Samer M Zied Alkilani; Louai Al-Shami; Osama A Abu-Hammad

2010-01-01

155

Water quality criteria for colored smokes: 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The available data on the environmental fate, aquatic toxicity, and mammalian toxicity of 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone (DDA), and anthraquinone dye used in violet-colored smoke grenades, were reviewed. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidelines were used in an attempt to generate water quality criteria for the protection of human health and of aquatic life and its uses. DDA will readily oxidize to 1,4-diaminoanthraquinone (DAA) in air or during combustion of the smoke grenade. The dye is insoluble in water; however, no information is available concerning its transformation or transport in soil, water, and sediments. No data are available concerning the toxic effects of DDA in aquatic organisms; therefore, a Criterion maximum Concentration and a Criterion Continuous Concentration cannot be determined. Toxicity studies following the USEPA guidelines are recommended. DDA is a weak mutagen in the Salmonella Reversin Assay, but the combustion or oxidation product, DAA is a strong mutagen in the same test. Violet smoke is noncarcinogenic in the SENCAR Mouse Skin Tumor Bioassay. 63 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Davidson, K.A.; Hovatter, P.S.; Ross, R.H.

1988-01-01

156

Water pipe flow simulation using improved virtual particles on smoothed particle hydrodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a meshless method used widely to solve problems such as fluid flows. Due to its meshless property, it is ideal to solve problems on complex geometry. In this paper, boundary treatment were implied for the rectangular pipe flow simulations using SPH. The repulsive force is applied to the boundary particles along with the improved virtual particles on different geometry alignment. The water flow is solved using incompressible SPH and will be examined throughout the simulation. Results from this simulation will be compared with single layered virtual particles. Based on the result of the study, it is found that the improved virtual particles is more accurate and stable.

Ting, E. S.; Yeak, S. H.

2014-12-01

157

Review of industry efforts to manage pressurized water reactor feedwater nozzle, piping, and feedring cracking and wall thinning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a review of nuclear industry efforts to manage thermal fatigue, flow-accelerated corrosion, and water hammer damage to pressurized water reactor (PWR) feedwater nozzles, piping, and feedrings. The review includes an evaluation of design modifications, operating procedure changes, augmented inspection and monitoring programs, and mitigation, repair and replacement activities. Four actions were taken: (a) review of field experience

V. N. Shah; A. G. Ware; A. M. Porter

1997-01-01

158

Effect of sulfate on the transformation of corrosion scale composition and bacterial community in cast iron water distribution pipes  

EPA Science Inventory

The stability of iron corrosion products and the bacterial composition of biofilm in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) could have great impact on the water safety at the consumer ends. In this work, pipe loops were setup to investigate the transformation characteristics ...

159

Infrared Thermography applied to measurement of Heat transfer coefficient of water in a pipe heated by Joule effect  

E-print Network

Infrared Thermography applied to measurement of Heat transfer coefficient of water in a pipe heated. It has been applied to measure heat transfer coefficients of water flowing in a round tube and in a multiport-flat tube. Models were developed to deduce heat transfer coefficient from wall temperature

Boyer, Edmond

160

On the acoustic filtering of the pipe and sensor in a buried plastic water pipe and its effect on leak detection: an experimental investigation.  

PubMed

Acoustic techniques have been used for many years to find and locate leaks in buried water distribution systems. Hydrophones and accelerometers are typically used as sensors. Although geophones could be used as well, they are not generally used for leak detection. A simple acoustic model of the pipe and the sensors has been proposed previously by some of the authors of this paper, and their model was used to explain some of the features observed in measurements. However, simultaneous measurements of a leak using all three sensor-types in controlled conditions for plastic pipes has not been reported to-date and hence they have not yet been compared directly. This paper fills that gap in knowledge. A set of measurements was made on a bespoke buried plastic water distribution pipe test rig to validate the previously reported analytical model. There is qualitative agreement between the experimental results and the model predictions in terms of the differing filtering properties of the pipe-sensor systems. A quality measure for the data is also presented, which is the ratio of the bandwidth over which the analysis is carried out divided by the centre frequency of this bandwidth. Based on this metric, the accelerometer was found to be the best sensor to use for the test rig described in this paper. However, for a system in which the distance between the sensors is large or the attenuation factor of the system is high, then it would be advantageous to use hydrophones, even though they are invasive sensors. PMID:24658622

Almeida, Fabrício; Brennan, Michael; Joseph, Phillip; Whitfield, Stuart; Dray, Simon; Paschoalini, Amarildo

2014-01-01

161

On the Acoustic Filtering of the Pipe and Sensor in a Buried Plastic Water Pipe and its Effect on Leak Detection: An Experimental Investigation  

PubMed Central

Acoustic techniques have been used for many years to find and locate leaks in buried water distribution systems. Hydrophones and accelerometers are typically used as sensors. Although geophones could be used as well, they are not generally used for leak detection. A simple acoustic model of the pipe and the sensors has been proposed previously by some of the authors of this paper, and their model was used to explain some of the features observed in measurements. However, simultaneous measurements of a leak using all three sensor-types in controlled conditions for plastic pipes has not been reported to-date and hence they have not yet been compared directly. This paper fills that gap in knowledge. A set of measurements was made on a bespoke buried plastic water distribution pipe test rig to validate the previously reported analytical model. There is qualitative agreement between the experimental results and the model predictions in terms of the differing filtering properties of the pipe-sensor systems. A quality measure for the data is also presented, which is the ratio of the bandwidth over which the analysis is carried out divided by the centre frequency of this bandwidth. Based on this metric, the accelerometer was found to be the best sensor to use for the test rig described in this paper. However, for a system in which the distance between the sensors is large or the attenuation factor of the system is high, then it would be advantageous to use hydrophones, even though they are invasive sensors. PMID:24658622

Almeida, Fabrício; Brennan, Michael; Joseph, Phillip; Whitfield, Stuart; Dray, Simon; Paschoalini, Amarildo

2014-01-01

162

Water pipes and E-cigarettes: new faces of an ancient enemy.  

PubMed

In a world grappling with tobacco addiction, the hookah (water-pipe) and the electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) are creating new problems. Apart from posing the inherent danger of nicotine addiction, they both seem to be wolves cloaked in the sheep-skin of consumer-perceived safety, at least in comparison to the cigarette. However it seems that the e-cigarette may have a role in a nicotine-replacement therapy. There has been a wave of interest around the world in analysing these phenomena. The following review discusses the current data regarding the hookah and the e-cigarette. A PubMed, Medline and Google search using the keywords'sheesha', 'hookah', water-pipe', 'electronic cigarette', 'e-cigarette', 'vapers' was carried out.The studies carried out between 2007-2013 were included in this review. Information available in the public domain on internet websites was included to study the perception of the lay consumer regarding the hookah and the e-cigarette. PMID:25327035

Dagaonkar, Rucha S; Udwadi, Zarir F

2014-04-01

163

Flexible Pipes-Permeation of Methane, Carbon Dioxide and Water Through Tefzel ETFE: Experiments 1996  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The permeation of a mixture of CH4 and CO2 (97% CH4 and 3% CO2) saturated with water vapour through Tefzel has been studied at 950 C and 25 and 50 bars. Tefzel is the Du Pont trademark of an ETFE (ethylenetetrafluorethylene) which is a copolymer of ethylene and tetrafluorethylene. This material might be used as inner plastic lining of flexible pipes. For methane and carbon dioxide, the permeability of Tefzel is higher than the deplasticized PVDF (Polyvinylidenefluoride), but lower than the plasticized PVDF. For water, the situation seems to be the other way round; Tefzel has a lower permeability than deplasticized PVDF. Whether the permeability tests on Tefzel at higher temperatures and pressures will be pursued or not, will be considered by the steering committee of the CAPP project in May.

Wang, Per Arne; Hydro, Norsk

1997-01-01

164

Geochemistry of waters in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes region, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Meteoric waters from cold springs and streams outside of the 1912 eruptive deposits filling the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) and in the upper parts of the two major rivers draining the 1912 deposits have similar chemical trends. Thermal springs issue in the mid-valley area along a 300-m lateral section of ash-flow tuff, and range in temperature from 21 to 29.8??C in early summer and from 15 to 17??C in mid-summer. Concentrations of major and minor chemical constituents in the thermal waters are nearly identical regardless of temperature. Waters in the downvalley parts of the rivers draining the 1912 deposits are mainly mixtures of cold meteoric waters and thermal waters of which the mid-valley thermal spring waters are representative. The weathering reactions of cold waters with the 1912 deposits appear to have stabilized and add only subordinate amounts of chemical constituents to the rivers relative to those contributed by the thermal waters. Isotopic data indicate that the mid-valley thermal spring waters are meteoric, but data is inconclusive regarding the heat source. The thermal waters could be either from a shallow part of a hydrothermal system beneath the 1912 vent region or from an incompletely cooled, welded tuff lens deep in the 1912 ash-flow sheet of the upper River Lethe area. Bicarbonate-sulfate waters resulting from interaction of near-surface waters and the cooling 1953-1968 southwest Trident plug issue from thermal springs south of Katmai Pass and near Mageik Creek, although the Mageik Creek spring waters are from a well-established, more deeply circulating hydrothermal system. Katmai caldera lake waters are a result of acid gases from vigorous drowned fumaroles dissolving in lake waters composed of snowmelt and precipitation. ?? 1992.

Keith, T.E.C.; Thompson, J.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; White, L.D.

1992-01-01

165

Resistance properties of coal-water slurry flowing through local piping fittings  

SciTech Connect

Local resistance characteristics of coal-water slurry (CWS) flowing through three types of piping components, namely gradual contractions, sudden contractions and 90 horizontal bends, were investigated at a transportation test facility. The results show that CWS exhibits different rheological behaviors, i.e., the shear-thinning, Newtonian, and shear-thicken, at different shear rates. When CWS flows through the gradual contractions, the local pressure loss firstly decreases to a minimum, and then increases as the gradual contraction angle {theta} increases. When the CWS flow through the sudden contractions, with the increase of pipe diameter ratio {beta}, the local pressure loss increases for the two kinds of CWS, SHEN-HUA (S-H) CWS and YAN-ZHOU (Y-Z) CWS whose mass concentration range from 57% to 59% and 59% to 62%, respectively. For 90 horizontal bends, there is an optimal value of the bend diameter ratio (Rc/D) at which the local pressure loss is the least. Furthermore, the local resistance coefficient (K) in the empirical correlations is determined from the experimental data. The correlations show that as Re increases, K of the three fittings declines quickly at first. However, with further increase in Re, K shows different behaviors for the three fittings due to the special rheological property of CWS at higher shear rates. The factors of theta, beta and Rc/D have minor effects on K.

Meng, L.; Duan, Y.F. [South East University, Nanjing (China). School of Energy & Environment

2009-07-15

166

Resistance properties of coal-water slurry flowing through local piping fittings  

SciTech Connect

Local resistance characteristics of coal-water slurry (CWS) flowing through three types of piping components, namely gradual contractions, sudden contractions and 90 horizontal bends, were investigated at a transportation test facility. The results show that CWS exhibits different rheological behaviors, i.e., the shear-thinning, Newtonian, and shear-thicken, at different shear rates. When CWS flows through the gradual contractions, the local pressure loss firstly decreases to a minimum, and then increases as the gradual contraction angle ({theta}) increases. When the CWS flow through the sudden contractions, with the increase of pipe diameter ratio ({beta}), the local pressure loss increases for the two kinds of CWS, SHEN-HUA (S-H) CWS and YAN-ZHOU (Y-Z) CWS whose mass concentration range from 57% to 59% and 59% to 62%, respectively. For 90 horizontal bends, there is an optimal value of the bend diameter ratio (Rc/D) at which the local pressure loss is the least. Furthermore, the local resistance coefficient (K) in the empirical correlations is determined from the experimental data. The correlations show that as Re increases, K of the three fittings declines quickly at first. However, with further increase in Re, K shows different behaviors for the three fittings due to the special rheological property of CWS at higher shear rates. The factors of {theta}, {beta} and Rc/D have minor effects on K. (author)

Liu, Meng; Duan, Yu Feng [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Sipailou, Nanjing 210096 (China)

2009-07-15

167

Water heat pipe blackbody as a reference spectral radiance source between 50°C and 250°C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Realization of a radiometric temperature scale for near ambient temperatures with accuracy at the 20 to 50 mK level is crucial for a number of demanding military and commercial applications. In support of such measurements, radiation sources with high stability and spatial uniformity must be developed as reference and working standards. Traditionally, the temperature scale, maintained at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), relies on water bath and oil bath blackbodies in this temperature range. Recently, a water heat pipe blackbody was used at NIST as a spectral radiance source in a spectral emissivity measurement facility. Now a new, more versatile high emissivity water heat pipe blackbody was designed and characterized to be used as a reference radiance source for the radiometric temperature scale realization between 50 °C and 250 °C. Furthermore, it will serve as a reference source for the infrared spectral radiance measurements between 2.5 ?m and 20 ?m. The calculated spectral emissivity of the painted copper alloy cavity was verified by reflectance measurements using a CO II laser at 10.6 ?m wavelength. The spatial thermal uniformity and stability of the blackbody were characterized. Two independent realizations of the radiometric temperature scale were compared in order to verify the accuracy of the scale. Radiance temperature, calculated from the cavity temperature measured with a calibrated PRT contact thermometer and from the emissivity of the cavity, was compared to the radiance temperature, directly measured with a reference pyrometer, which was calibrated with a set of fixed point blackbodies. The difference was found to be within measurement uncertainties.

Noorma, M.; Mekhontsev, S.; Khromchenko, V.; Litorja, M.; Cagran, C.; Zeng, J.; Hanssen, L.

2006-04-01

168

Speciation and distribution of vanadium in drinking water iron pipe corrosion by-products.  

PubMed

Vanadium (V) when ingested from drinking water in high concentrations (>15 ?g L(-1)) is a potential health risk and is on track to becoming a regulated contaminant. High concentrations of V have been documented in lead corrosion by-products as Pb(5)(V(5+)O(4))(3)Cl (vanadinite) which, in natural deposits is associated with iron oxides/oxyhydroxides, phases common in iron pipe corrosion by-products. The extent of potential reservoirs of V in iron corrosion by-products, its speciation, and mechanism of inclusion however are unknown. The aim of this study is to assess these parameters in iron corrosion by-products, implementing synchrotron-based ?-XRF mapping and ?-XANES along with traditional physiochemical characterization. The morphologies, mineralogies, and chemistry of the samples studied are superficially similar to typical iron corrosion by-products. However, we found V present as discrete grains of Pb(5)(V(5+)O(4))(3)Cl likely embedded in the surface regions of the iron corrosion by-products. Concentrations of V observed in bulk XRF analysis ranged from 35 to 899 mg kg(-1). We calculate that even in pipes with iron corrosion by-products with low V concentration, 100 mg kg(-1), as little as 0.0027% of a 0.1-cm thick X 100-cm long section of that corrosion by-product needs to be disturbed to increase V concentrations in the drinking water at the tap to levels well above the 15 ?g L(-1) notification level set by the State of California and could adversely impact human health. In addition, it is likely that large reservoirs of V are associated with iron corrosion by-products in unlined cast iron mains and service branches in numerous drinking water distribution systems. PMID:20863549

Gerke, Tammie L; Scheckel, Kirk G; Maynard, J Barry

2010-11-01

169

Speciation and distribution of vanadium in drinking water iron pipe corrosion by-products  

SciTech Connect

Vanadium (V) when ingested from drinking water in high concentrations (> 15 {micro}g L{sup -1}) is a potential health risk and is on track to becoming a regulated contaminant. High concentrations of V have been documented in lead corrosion by-products as Pb{sub 5}(V{sup 5+}O{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl (vanadinite) which, in natural deposits is associated with iron oxides/oxyhydroxides, phases common in iron pipe corrosion by-products. The extent of potential reservoirs of V in iron corrosion by-products, its speciation, and mechanism of inclusion however are unknown. The aim of this study is to assess these parameters in iron corrosion by-products, implementing synchrotron-based {mu}-XRF mapping and {mu}-XANES along with traditional physiochemical characterization. The morphologies, mineralogies, and chemistry of the samples studied are superficially similar to typical iron corrosion by-products. However, we found V present as discrete grains of Pb{sub 5}(V{sup 5+}O{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl likely embedded in the surface regions of the iron corrosion by-products. Concentrations of V observed in bulk XRF analysis ranged from 35 to 899 mg kg{sup -1}. We calculate that even in pipes with iron corrosion by-products with low V concentration, 100 mg kg{sup -1}, as little as 0.0027% of a 0.1-cm thick X 100-cm long section of that corrosion by-product needs to be disturbed to increase V concentrations in the drinking water at the tap to levels well above the 15 {micro}g L{sup -1} notification level set by the State of California and could adversely impact human health. In addition, it is likely that large reservoirs of V are associated with iron corrosion by-products in unlined cast iron mains and service branches in numerous drinking water distribution systems.

Gerke, Tammie L.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Maynard, J. Barry (EPA); (UCIN)

2010-11-12

170

Identification of significant problems related to light water reactor piping systems  

SciTech Connect

Work on the project was divided into three tasks. In Task 1, past surveys of LWR piping system problems and recent Licensee Event Report summaries are studied to identify the significant problems of LWR piping systems and the primary causes of these problems. Pipe cracking is identified as the most recurring problem and is mainly due to the vibration of pipes due to operating pump-pipe resonance, fluid-flow fluctuations, and vibration of pipe supports. Research relevant to the identified piping system problems is evaluated. Task 2 studies identify typical LWR piping systems and the current loads and load combinations used in the design of these systems. Definitions of loads are reviewed. In Task 3, a comparative study is carried out on the use of nonlinear analysis methods in the design of LWR piping systems. The study concludes that the current linear-elastic methods of analysis may not predict accurately the behavior of piping systems under seismic loads and may, under certain circumstances, result in nonconservative designs. Gaps at piping supports are found to have a significant effect on the response of the piping systems.

None

1980-07-01

171

An experimental study of blowdown thrust and jet forces for a pipe under boiling water reactor loss of coolant accident conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blowdown thrust and jet impingement forces are simultaneously examined in jet discharge tests relating to an instantaneous pipe rupture accident. Tests were performed with a 6-in. pipe under boiling water reactor loss of coolant accident conditions. The initial pressure of the hot saturated water was 6.86 MPa. The time history of the blowdown thrust force just after the break, the

T. Yano; T. Isozaki; R. Kato; R. Kurihara; N. Miyazaki; S. Miyazono

1984-01-01

172

Transcriptome analysis of germinating maize kernels exposed to smoke-water and the active compound KAR1  

PubMed Central

Background Smoke released from burning vegetation functions as an important environmental signal promoting the germination of many plant species following a fire. It not only promotes the germination of species from fire-prone habitats, but several species from non-fire-prone areas also respond, including some crops. The germination stimulatory activity can largely be attributed to the presence of a highly active butenolide compound, 3-methyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one (referred to as karrikin 1 or KAR1), that has previously been isolated from plant-derived smoke. Several hypotheses have arisen regarding the molecular background of smoke and KAR1 action. Results In this paper we demonstrate that although smoke-water and KAR1 treatment of maize kernels result in a similar physiological response, the gene expression and the protein ubiquitination patterns are quite different. Treatment with smoke-water enhanced the ubiquitination of proteins and activated protein-degradation-related genes. This effect was completely absent from KAR1-treated kernels, in which a specific aquaporin gene was distinctly upregulated. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the array of bioactive compounds present in smoke-water form an environmental signal that may act together in germination stimulation. It is highly possible that the smoke/KAR1 'signal' is perceived by a receptor that is shared with the signal transduction system implied in perceiving environmental cues (especially stresses and light), or some kind of specialized receptor exists in fire-prone plant species which diverged from a more general one present in a common ancestor, and also found in non fire-prone plants allowing for a somewhat weaker but still significant response. Besides their obvious use in agricultural practices, smoke and KAR1 can be used in studies to gain further insight into the transcriptional changes during germination. PMID:21044315

2010-01-01

173

Investigation of factors affecting the accumulation of vinyl chloride in polyvinyl chloride piping used in drinking water distribution systems.  

PubMed

Plastic piping made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and chlorinated PVC (CPVC), is being increasingly used for drinking water distribution lines. Given the formulation of the material from vinyl chloride (VC), there has been concern that the VC (a confirmed human carcinogen) can leach from the plastic piping into drinking water. PVC/CPVC pipe reactors in the laboratory and tap samples collected from consumers homes (n = 15) revealed vinyl chloride accumulation in the tens of ng/L range after a few days and hundreds of ng/L after two years. While these levels did not exceed the EPA's maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2 ?g/L, many readings that simulated stagnation times in homes (overnight) exceeded the MCL-Goal of 0 ?g/L. Considerable differences in VC levels were seen across different manufacturers, while aging and biofilm effects were generally small. Preliminary evidence suggests that VC may accumulate not only via chemical leaching from the plastic piping, but also as a disinfection byproduct (DBP) via a chlorine-dependent reaction. This is supported from studies with CPVC pipe reactors where chlorinated reactors accumulated more VC than dechlorinated reactors, copper pipe reactors that accumulated VC in chlorinated reactors and not in dechlorinated reactors, and field samples where VC levels were the same before and after flushing the lines where PVC/CPVC fittings were contributing. Free chlorine residual tests suggest that VC may be formed as a secondary, rather than primary, DBP. Further research and additional studies need to be conducted in order to elucidate reaction mechanisms and tease apart relative contributions of VC accumulation from PVC/CPVC piping and chlorine-dependent reactions. PMID:21420710

Walter, Ryan K; Lin, Po-Hsun; Edwards, Marc; Richardson, Ruth E

2011-04-01

174

Tilt angle dependence of backscattering enhancements from organ pipe modes of open water-filled cylinders: Measurements and models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple target for simulating narrow low-frequency resonances of cylinders is an open metal pipe completely filled with water. We have previously described how the high-Q organ-pipe modes having a pressure node near each end are easily observed in backscattering experiments with small cylinders [C. F. Osterhoudt and P. L. Marston, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 2773 (2001)]. The resonance occurs because of the strong reflection of internal acoustic waves from the open ends of the pipe [H. Levine and J. Schwinger, Phys. Rev. 73, 383-406 (1948)]. In the present research, the dependence of the backscattering amplitude on the orientation of the cylinder is measured and modeled. The tilt angle dependence is affected by the symmetry of the organ pipe mode. An approximation was also developed for the backscattering amplitude at high Q resonances based on energy conservation, reciprocity, and the optical theorem. While this analysis applies to cylinders suspended in water away from boundaries, the organ-pipe modes studied may be useful for investigating scattering processes for buried or partially buried cylinders. [Research supported in part by ONR.

Osterhoudt, Curtis F.; Marston, Philip L.

2003-04-01

175

Singing Corrugated Pipes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents theoretical and experimental observations made with a musical toy called Hummer consisting of a corrugated flexible plastic tube about three-feet long and one-inch diam open at both ends. Included are descriptions of three new instruments: the Water Pipe, the Gas-Pipe Corrugahorn Bugle, and the Gas-Pipe Blues Corrugahorn. (CC)

Crawford, Frank S.

1974-01-01

176

THE PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE OF BIOFILM SLIME IN DRINKING WATER PIPES: CREATING HIDEOUTS FOR THE PATHOGENIC UNDERWORLD OF MICROBIOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Biofilms consist of many species of bacteria, protozoa, and other microbes living together on almost any type of moist surface. Within drinking water distribution systems, biofilms grow readily on the inner walls of pipes, even in the presence of chlorine disinfectants. Some mi...

177

Radioactivity production around the surface of a cooling water pipe in a DT fusion reactor by sequential charged particle reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Around the surface of a cooling pipe in a D-T fusion reactor, it is expected that the radioactivity production via what is known as ‘Sequential Charged Particle Reaction (SCPR)’ would be enhanced by recoiled proton from hydrogen in cooling water. In order to simulate the circumstances, several sheets of foil with a thickness of 50–250 ?m were laminated on a

Jun-ichi Hori; Fujio Maekawa; Masayuki Wada; Kentaro Ochiai; Michinori Yamauchi; Yuichi Morimoto; Yasuaki Terada; Axel Klix; Takeo Nishitani

2002-01-01

178

Evaluation of sea water piping system after fifteen years of service  

SciTech Connect

Seawater is the main cooling medium in the petrochemical plant. Failure of the seawater piping systems could lead to total shutdown of the plant. The main piping system in the plant consists of prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP), cement mortar--lined carbon steel, fiberglass and nickel-copper alloy N04400/ASTM B165 pipe. After more than fifteen years of experience with these materials, evaluation was made to select the most durable material for replacement projects and new construction. This paper discusses the problems associated with each material, repair procedure and materials selection decisions for the long-term operation of the plant.

Al Beed, A.A. [Saudi Petrochemical Co. (Saudi Arabia); Ali, M. [SABIC R and D (Saudi Arabia)

1999-11-01

179

Supercritical water oxidation of colored smoke, dye, and pyrotechnic compositions. Final report: Pilot plant conceptual design  

SciTech Connect

The existing demilitarization stockpile contains large quantities of colored smoke, spotting dye, and pyrotechnic munitions. For many years, these munitions have been stored in magazines at locations within the continental United States awaiting completion of the life-cycle. The open air burning of these munitions has been shown to produce toxic gases that are detrimental to human health and harmful to the environment. Prior efforts to incinerate these compositions have also produced toxic emissions and have been unsuccessful. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a rapidly developing hazardous waste treatment method that can be an alternative to incineration for many types of wastes. The primary advantage SCWO affords for the treatment of this selected set of obsolete munitions is that toxic gas and particulate emissions will not occur as part of the effluent stream. Sandia is currently designing a SCWO reactor for the US Army Armament Research, Development & Engineering Center (ARDEC) to destroy colored smoke, spotting dye, and pyrotechnic munitions. This report summarizes the design status of the ARDEC reactor. Process and equipment operation parameters, process flow equations or mass balances, and utility requirements for six wastes of interest are developed in this report. Two conceptual designs are also developed with all process and instrumentation detailed.

LaJeunesse, C.A.; Chan, Jennifer P.; Raber, T.N.; Macmillan, D.C.; Rice, S.F.; Tschritter, K.L.

1993-11-01

180

Supercritical water oxidation of colored smoke, dye, and pyrotechnic compositions. Phase 1, Final report  

SciTech Connect

The US military stockpile has large quantities of obsolete munitions awaiting disposal. Although suitable means for the safe dismantlement of much of this stockpile have been identified, there are still considerable quantities of specialty materials for which existing methods have been deemed inappropriate from an environmental standpoint. Among these munitions are colored spotting dyes and a wide assortment of pyrotechnics, including colored smokes and flares. In open bum or incineration treatment processes these materials produce large quantities of toxic, and possibly carcinogenic, gases and particulate matter. The U.S Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ is interested in developing a method of treatment that will dispose of these munitions without the difficulties identified above. This report examines the feasibility of supercritical water oxidation, an emerging waste treatment technology, to process these materials. Four colored dyes and one pyrotechnic smoke composition were processed in a flow reactor, and the effluent was analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the processing. The tests showed that all of these materials could by oxidized to much less hazardous compounds in less than 10 seconds with a destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) typically > 99.5%. Two technical issues were identified as needing more attention in Phase II of this project: formation of sulfate and chloride salt deposits within the flow reactor and corrosion of the materials of construction.

Rice, S.F.; LaJeunesse, C.A.; Hanush, R.G.; Aiken, J.D.; Johnston, S.C.

1994-01-01

181

Technology development plan: Geotechnical survey systems for OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview is given of current and developing technologies and techniques for performing geotechnical investigations for siting and designing Cold Water Pipes (CWP) for shelf-resting Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants. The geotechnical in situ tools used to measure the required parameters and the equipment/systems used to deploy these tools are identified. The capabilities of these geotechnical tools and deployment systems are compared to the data requirements for the CWP foundation/anchor design, and shortfalls are identified. For the last phase of geotechnical data gathering for design, a drillship will be required to perform soil boring work, to obtain required high quality sediment samples for laboratory dynamic testing, and to perform deep penetration in situ tests. To remedy shortfalls and to reduce the future OTEC CWP geotechnical survey costs, it is recommended that a seafloor resting machine be developed to advance the friction cone penetrometer, and also probably a pressuremeter, to provide geotechnical parameters to shallow subseafloor penetrations on slopes of 35 deg and in water depths to 1300 m.

Valent, Philip J.; Riggins, Michael

1989-04-01

182

Cigarette smoking among female students in five medical and nonmedical colleges  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking, knowledge about the ill effects of smoking on health, and the influence of family members’ smoking habits among Saudi female students. Methods This is a type of cross-sectional study. A sample of 1,070 female students was selected by a nonrandom and convenient sampling method from five colleges (Medicine, Business and Administration, Computer Sciences, Education, and Languages and Translation) of King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to determine the personal, social, and educational characteristics of the respondents. In addition, questions about their smoking types, status, duration of smoking, knowledge about the ill effects of smoking, daily cigarette consumption, and reasons for quitting smoking were included. Results The students’ response rate was 85%. The prevalence of current smoking was 4.3% and 5.6% for cigarettes and water-pipes, respectively, whereas 3.9% of the participants were ex-smokers. The prevalence of current smoking was highest in the College of Business and Administration (10.81%) and lowest in the College of Medicine (0.86%). The majority (77%) of the smokers’ parents (current and ex-smokers) were also smokers. More than half (54%) of the smokers started their smoking habit for entertainment, and 44.4% of the participants did not know that smoking causes serious health problems. The most common factors for quitting smoking were health concerns (54%), religious beliefs (29%), and parent’s advice (17%). Conclusion The study concludes that the prevalence of smoking varies in different subject streams and that family and friends have a great influence on individuals starting or stopping smoking. Extensive health education programs are needed to educate young women on the health hazards of smoking and help stop them from smoking. PMID:23986648

Abdulghani, Hamza M; Alrowais, Norah A; Alhaqwi, Ali I; Alrasheedi, Ahmed; Al-Zahir, Mohammed; Al-Madani, Ahmed; Al-Eissa, Abdulaziz; Al-Hakmi, Bader; Takroni, Redwan; Ahmad, Farah

2013-01-01

183

Water quality analysis of the piped water supply in Tamale, Ghana  

E-print Network

The United Nation's Millennium Development Goal Target 7.C is to "halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water". While the UN claimed to have met this goal, studies ...

Hansen, Allison Jean

2014-01-01

184

Ground deformation at Campi Flegrei caldera using long water pipe tiltmeters and sea level gauges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Campi Flegrei is a caldera complex located in the Campanian plain region of southern Italy, 15 km west of the city of Naples, and forms part of the Roman co-magmatic province which is a volcanic chain that characterizes the western coast of the country. The Campi Flegrei caldera was generated by several collapses produced by strong explosive eruptions. The main caldera at Campi Flegrei is 12 - 15km across and its rim is thought to have been formed during the catastrophic eruption, occurred 39 ky ago ca. which produced a deposit referred to as the Campanian Ignimbrite. Campi Flegrei area periodically experiences significant unrest episodes which include ground deformations, the so-called "bradisismo", recorded both by marine terraces, archaeological record and harbour structures. Following the last eruption (Monte Nuovo, 1538) a general subsidence has been interrupted by episodes of uplift, the most recent of which occurred in 1970-72 and 1982-84. In the past decade subsidence has been arrested and has been replaced by intermittent episodes of inflation with short time duration and various maximum amplitude. They occurred in 1989, 1994, 2000, 2004, 2005-06, 2009 and 2011 with duration of few months and maximum amplitude ranging between 3 and 11 cm. Since 2008 an array of water-pipe tiltmeters with lengths between 28 m and 278 m in tunnels on the flanks of the region of maximum inflation has been installed to avoid problems common to the traditional tiltmeters. The tiltmeters record inflation episodes upon which are superimposed local load tides, with amplitudes roughly an order of magnitude greater than the solid Earth body tides. In addition to the tides, the tiltmeters record a line spectrum of seiches in the Bay of Naples and in the Tyrrenian sea. We use data recorded by three tide gauges in the Bay of Pozzuoli to compare water pipe data with sea level to extract astronomical tidal components and seiches periods particularly between 20 minutes and 56 minutes that could constitute local loading frequencies recorded clearly by tide gauges and tiltmeters. The comparison between these two kind of data enables a more sensitive definition of the low level uplift with an accuracy of 1% for nanoradiant tilts in the period range 10 minutes to 10 hours with a long term tilt stability of approximately 0.1 µradian/yr

Scarpa, R.; Capuano, P.; Tammaro, U.; Bilham, R.

2012-04-01

185

Water hammer in pressurized polyethylene pipes: conceptual model and experimental analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the dynamic effects of pipe wall viscoelasticity on hydraulic transients. These effects have been observed in transient data collected from two polyethylene (PE) pipe systems. The first is a 270 m pipeline, 50 mm diameter, at Imperial College London, and the second is the world's longest experimental PE pipeline, 1.3 km long, 110 mm diameter, buried underground

Dídia Covas; Ivan Stoianov; Helena Ramos; Nigel Graham; ?edo Maksimovi?; David Butler

2004-01-01

186

Installation of 66kV XLPE power-optical fiber composite submarine cable and water pipe for the Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway  

SciTech Connect

The manufacturing and the installation of the optical fiber composite submarine cable and water pipe for the Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway were completed in 1993. It was the Japanese longest 66kV XLPE power-optical fiber composite submarine cable and the first application of optical fiber composite submarine water pipe composed of two hollow galvanized steel armor wires inserted with optical fiber to monitor and control of construction sites. This paper describes the application and development of the hollow steel armor wire with optical fiber ribbon and the features of construction and installation of the optical fiber composite submarine cable and water pipe.

Nakamura, Y.; Kuroshima, T.; Takeuchi, M. [Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway Co. (Japan)] [Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway Co. (Japan); Sanpei, T.; Suzuki, S.; Ishikura, S.; Inoue, H.; Uematsu, T. [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd. (Japan)] [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd. (Japan)

1995-07-01

187

Demonstration comparing sound wave attenuation inside pipes containing bubbly water and water droplet fog.  

PubMed

This paper describes a demonstration and explanation of sound absorption in water due to bubbles, and in air due to a fog of water droplets. It is suitable for 10-12 year olds, but the paper indicates where further exploration of the simplifications in the explanations provided for that age range would allow the demonstration to be used for undergraduate and Masters-level teaching. Applications to submarines, the space shuttle, and neutron generators are described. The demonstration is designed for transportation in a family-sized car. PMID:22423788

Leighton, Timothy G; Jiang, Jian; Baik, Kyungmin

2012-03-01

188

Experimental and analytical study of water pipe's rupture for damage identification purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A malfunction, local damage or sudden pipe break of a pipeline system can trigger significant flow variations. As shown in the paper, pressure variations and pipe vibrations are two strongly correlated parameters. A sudden change in the flow velocity and pressure of a pipeline system can induce pipe vibrations. Thus, based on acceleration data, a rapid detection and localization of a possible damage may be carried out by inexpensive, nonintrusive monitoring techniques. To illustrate this approach, an experiment on a single pipe was conducted in the laboratory. Pressure gauges and accelerometers were installed and their correlation was checked during an artificially created transient flow. The experimental findings validated the correlation between the parameters. The interaction between pressure variations and pipe vibrations was also theoretically justified. The developed analytical model explains the connection among flow pressure, velocity, pressure wave propagation and pipe vibration. The proposed method provides a rapid, efficient and practical way to identify and locate sudden failures of a pipeline system and sets firm foundations for the development and implementation of an advanced, new generation Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system for continuous health monitoring of pipe networks.

Papakonstantinou, Konstantinos G.; Shinozuka, Masanobu; Beikae, Mohsen

2011-04-01

189

An experimental study of blowdown thrust and jet forces for a pipe under boiling water reactor loss of coolant accident conditions  

SciTech Connect

Blowdown thrust and jet impingement forces are simultaneously examined in jet discharge tests relating to an instantaneous pipe rupture accident. Tests were performed with a 6-in. pipe under boiling water reactor loss of coolant accident conditions. The initial pressure of the hot saturated water was 6.86 MPa. The time history of the blowdown thrust force just after the break, the jet thrust parameter of the pipe, the jet impingement force, the pressure and temperature distributions of the impinging jet, and the relationship between the thermal-hydraulic quantities and the thrust forces are examined.

Yano, T.; Isozaki, T.; Kato, R.; Kurihara, R.; Miyazaki, N.; Miyazono, S.

1984-11-01

190

Large-basin ground water circulation and paleo-reconstruction of circulation leading to uranium mineralization in Grand Canyon breccia pipes, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

Breccia pipes - vertical collapse structures - are common in the Phanerozoic sedimentary section in the Grand Canyon region. Breccias in economically significant pipes are as great as 900 m high and 90 m in diameter. The pipes originated through collapse into paleocaverns in Mississippian carbonates. The large heights of the mineralized pipes is attributed to upward stoping resulting from progressive creation of space within the pipes through dissolution of wall rocks and soluble constituents in the breccia clasts. The paleocaves that served as nucleation sites for the pipes date from Mississippian time. Stoping appears to have been reactivated or accelerated during Triassic time as terrains to the south became uplifted. Uplift cause hydraulic gradients within aquifers in the Paleozoic section to increase significantly which enhanced ground water circulation and attendant dissolution. The most likely source for uranium in the Grand Canyon breccia pipes was eroding volcanic and Precambrian crystalline rocks in the Triassic Mogollon highlands south of the Grand Canyon region. The circulation model proposed herein assumes that uranium-rich waters originating in the highlands recharged through the exposed Redwall Limestone and circulated northward in the artesian Redwall aquifer. On reaching the Grand Canyon region, the water circulated upward into the Phanerozoic section in the breccia pipes which served as permeability pathways through thick confining strata. The pipes concentrated fluid circulation and directed it through reducing environments which caused precipitation of the uranium and associated metals yielding a number of economic uranium ore bodies. The architecture of the circulation systems in the Colorado plateau prior to incision of the Colorado river was such that hydraulic heads decreased within successively shallower aquifers. Consequently, head gradients at any location were upward in the pipes during the mineralizing stages.

Huntoon, P.W. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

1996-07-01

191

Preventing and Thawing Frozen Pipes  

MedlinePLUS

... do freeze. Why Pipe Freezing is a Problem Water has a unique property in that it expands as it freezes. This expansion puts tremendous pressure on whatever is containing it, including ... a container, expanding water can cause pipes to break. Pipes that freeze ...

192

24 CFR 3280.706 - Oil piping systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Steel or wrought-iron pipe shall comply with ANSI B 36.10-1979, Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe. Threaded copper or brass pipe in iron pipe sizes may be used. ...Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Water Tube,...

2010-04-01

193

24 CFR 3280.706 - Oil piping systems.  

...Steel or wrought-iron pipe shall comply with ANSI B 36.10-1979, Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe. Threaded copper or brass pipe in iron pipe sizes may be used. ...Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Water Tube,...

2014-04-01

194

24 CFR 3280.706 - Oil piping systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Steel or wrought-iron pipe shall comply with ANSI B 36.10-1979, Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe. Threaded copper or brass pipe in iron pipe sizes may be used. ...Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Water Tube,...

2011-04-01

195

24 CFR 3280.706 - Oil piping systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Steel or wrought-iron pipe shall comply with ANSI B 36.10-1979, Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe. Threaded copper or brass pipe in iron pipe sizes may be used. ...Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Water Tube,...

2012-04-01

196

24 CFR 3280.706 - Oil piping systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Steel or wrought-iron pipe shall comply with ANSI B 36.10-1979, Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe. Threaded copper or brass pipe in iron pipe sizes may be used. ...Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Water Tube,...

2013-04-01

197

University of California Policy Smoke and Tobacco Free Environment  

E-print Network

, the use of unregulated nicotine products, and the use of electronic smoking devices (which includes e-cigarettes of tobacco, including but not limited to cigarettes, cigars, pipes, hookahs, electronic cigarettes, and all, and operating electronic smoking devices and other smoking instruments. Tobacco Use includes inhaling, smoking

Talley, Lynne D.

198

Assessing the Spatial Distribution of Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure via Public Drinking Water Pipes Using Geographic Information Systems  

PubMed Central

Objectives Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a powerful tool for assessing exposure in epidemiologic studies. We used GIS to determine the geographic extent of contamination by perfluorooctanoic acid, C8 (PFOA) that was released into the environment from the DuPont Washington Works Facility located in Parkersburg, West Virginia. Methods Paper maps of pipe distribution networks were provided by six local public water districts participating in the community cross-sectional survey, the C8 Health Project. Residential histories were also collected in the survey and geocoded. We integrated the pipe networks and geocoded addresses to determine which addresses were serviced by one of the participating water districts. The GIS-based water district assignment was then compared to the participants' self-reported source of public drinking water. Results There were a total of 151,871 addresses provided by the 48,800 participants of the C8 Health Project that consented to geocoding. We were able to successfully geocode 139,067 (91.6%) addresses, and of these, 118,209 (85.0%) self-reported water sources were confirmed using the GIS-based method of water district assignment. Furthermore, the GIS-based method corrected 20,858 (15.0%) self-reported public drinking water sources. Over half (54%) the participants in the lowest GIS-based exposure group self-reported being in a higher exposed water district. Conclusions Not only were we able to correct erroneous self-reported water sources, we were also able to assign water districts to participants with unknown sources. Without the GIS-based method, the reliance on only self-reported data would have resulted in exposure misclassification. PMID:24010064

Hoffman, Kate; Fletcher, Tony

2013-01-01

199

Assessment of the microbial integrity, sensu G.S. Wilson, of piped and bottled drinking water in the condition as ingested  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second half of the 20th century witnessed substantial progress in the assurance and verification of microbiological integrity, i.e., safety and sensory quality, of drinking water. Enteropathogenic agents, such as particular viruses and protozoa, not previously identified as transmitted by industrially provided water supplies, were demonstrated to cause disease outbreaks, when ingested with piped water. The potential harm posed by

David A. A Mossel; Corry B Struijk

2004-01-01

200

Review of industry efforts to manage pressurized water reactor feedwater nozzle, piping, and feedring cracking and wall thinning  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a review of nuclear industry efforts to manage thermal fatigue, flow-accelerated corrosion, and water hammer damage to pressurized water reactor (PWR) feedwater nozzles, piping, and feedrings. The review includes an evaluation of design modifications, operating procedure changes, augmented inspection and monitoring programs, and mitigation, repair and replacement activities. Four actions were taken: (a) review of field experience to identify trends of operating events, (b) review of technical literature, (c) visits to PWR plants and a PWR vendor, and (d) solicitation of information from 8 other countries. Assessment of field experience is that licensees have apparently taken sufficient action to minimize feedwater nozzle cracking caused by thermal fatigue and wall thinning of J-tubes and feedwater piping. Specific industry actions to minimize the wall-thinning in feedrings and thermal sleeves were not found, but visual inspection and necessary repairs are being performed. Assessment of field experience indicates that licensees have taken sufficient action to minimize steam generator water hammer in both top-feed and preheat steam generators. Industry efforts to minimize multiple check valve failures that have allowed backflow of steam from a steam generator and have played a major role in several steam generator water hammer events were not evaluated. A major finding of this review is that analysis, inspection, monitoring, mitigation, and replacement techniques have been developed for managing thermal fatigue and flow-accelerated corrosion damage to feedwater nozzles, piping, and feedrings. Adequate training and appropriate applications of these techniques would ensure effective management of this damage.

Shah, V.N.; Ware, A.G.; Porter, A.M.

1997-03-01

201

Analysis of perforated-pipe watercollector systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

When there is the need for domestic or industrial use of water from a natural stream or lake, a filtering process through layers of soil and a perforated collector-pipe system is customarily used. The water enters the pipe through a series of small opening cut in the pipe wall. Discharge through the pipe increasing as flow proceeds along its length.

Rouhollah Fatahi; Otto Haszpra

2004-01-01

202

Heat Pipe Materials Compatibility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental program to evaluate noncondensable gas generation in ammonia heat pipes was completed. A total of 37 heat pipes made of aluminum, stainless steel and combinations of these materials were processed by various techniques, operated at different temperatures and tested at low temperature to quantitatively determine gas generation rates. In order of increasing stability are aluminum/stainless combination, all aluminum and all stainless heat pipes. One interesting result is the identification of intentionally introduced water in the ammonia during a reflux step as a means of surface passivation to reduce gas generation in stainless-steel/aluminum heat pipes.

Eninger, J. E.; Fleischman, G. L.; Luedke, E. E.

1976-01-01

203

A case study to detect the leakage of underground pressureless cement sewage water pipe using GPR, electrical, and chemical data.  

PubMed

The exploration and determination of leakage of underground pressureless nonmetallic pipes is difficult to deal with. A comprehensive method combining Ground Penetrating Rader (GPR), electric potential survey and geochemical survey is introduced in the leakage detection of an underground pressureless nonmetallic sewage pipe in this paper. Theoretically, in the influencing scope of a leakage spot, the obvious changes of the electromagnetic properties and the physical-chemical properties of the underground media will be reflected as anomalies in GPR and electrical survey plots. The advantages of GPR and electrical survey are fast and accurate in detection of anomaly scope. In-situ analysis of the geophysical surveys can guide the geochemical survey. Then water and soil sampling and analyzing can be the evidence for judging the anomaly is caused by pipe leakage or not. On the basis of previous tests and practical surveys, the GPR waveforms, electric potential curves, contour maps, and chemical survey results are all classified into three types according to the extent or indexes of anomalies in orderto find out the leakage spots. When three survey methods all show their anomalies as type I in an anomalous spot, this spot is suspected as the most possible leakage location. Otherwise, it will be down grade suspected point. The suspect leakage spots should be confirmed by referring the site conditions because some anomalies are caused other factors. The excavation afterward proved that the method for determining the suspected location by anomaly type is effective and economic. Comprehensive method of GRP, electric potential survey, and geochemical survey is one of the effective methods in the leakage detection of underground nonmetallic pressureless pipe with its advantages of being fast and accurate. PMID:11917994

Liu, Guanqun; Jia, Yonggang; Liu, Hongjun; Qiu, Hanxue; Qiu, Dongling; Shan, Hongxian

2002-03-01

204

Contributions of silane cross-linked PEX pipe to chemical/solvent odours in drinking water.  

PubMed

A commonly used plastic plumbing pipe, silane-cross-linked polyethylene (PEX-b according to European standards), was investigated using the Utility Quick Test (UQT), which is a migration/leaching protocol recommended for evaluating taste-and-odour properties of materials prior to installation in distribution systems. After exposure of new PEX pipe to chlorine, monochloramine or no disinfectant, the odours in the leachate were described as "chlorinous" if chlorine or monochloramine were present and "chemical/solvent-like" with descriptors of sweet, bitter, chemical, solvent, plastic, burnt and mechanical/motor oil. The presence of disinfectant, chlorine or chloramines, did not alter the odour characteristics or intensity of the PEX odour. The "chemical/solvent-like" odours persisted even after multiple flushing periods. 2-Ethoxy-2-methylpropane, commonly called ETBE, was identified as a contributor to the described odour from the PEX pipe. Aqueous concentrations of ETBE in pipe leachate ranged from a low of 23 microg/L to > 100 microg/L. The concentrations decreased with increased flushing. Panelists were able to smell ETBE at a concentration of 5 microg/L and assigned a rating of a weak odour. The need for taste and odour testing of plumbing materials prior to use in residential housing systems is necessary. PMID:17489405

Durand, M L; Dietrich, A M

2007-01-01

205

Marine pipe-lay and recovery. Pt. 7. Subsea line buckling costs soar in deep, rough water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses to preclude buckling must be considered during both pipe-lay operations and after pipe-lay. For pipe-lay operations, preclusion of buckling is taken into account in the design by proper pipe diameter and thickness. Also to be considered are pipe coating, stringer configurations, and tension level. In a wet buckle where the pipeline breaks open and is flooded, 1 to 3

D. Jr. Bynum; I. H. Rapp

1975-01-01

206

Biofilm formation and multiplication of Legionella in a model warm water system with pipes of copper, stainless steel and cross-linked polyethylene.  

PubMed

Legionella pneumophila was grown in a model warm water system with pipes of copper (Cu), stainless steel (SS) and cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) during recirculation of tap water at 25--35 degrees C. Subsequently, domestic use of warm (37 degrees C) water was simulated using tap water with a low AOC concentration (<10 microg C/L). Two times each week the temperature of the water in the electric heaters (not in the pipes) was elevated to 70 degrees C for 30 min. ATP concentrations in the water sampled from the pipes over a 2-year period were significantly different for the pipe materials, with median values of 2.1 ng/l (Cu), 2.5 ng/l (SS) and 4.5 ng/l (PEX), respectively. Median values of the biofilm concentration were similar on Cu and SS (about 630 pg ATP/cm(2)) and 1870 pg ATP/cm(2) on PEX. Legionella multiplied in these biofilms and median values of Legionella concentrations in water were 1500 CFU/l (Cu) and about 4300 CFU/l for SS and PEX. Legionella to ATP ratios in water had median values of about 0.8 CFU/pg. Hot water flushing (70 degrees C) of the pipes on day 552, followed by 2 weeks of recirculation at 37 degrees C, caused strongly increased concentrations of ATP (up to 300 ng/l) and Legionella (>10(7)CFU/l), with about 100 CFU/pg ATP. Concentrations declined to original levels within 1 week of domestic water use, etc. Legionella concentrations in water and biofilms were at the same levels for all materials after 2 years. Hence, copper temporarily limited the growth of Legionella under the applied conditions and a rapid biomass development strongly increased the Legionella to ATP ratio. PMID:16019051

van der Kooij, Dick; Veenendaal, Harm R; Scheffer, Will J H

2005-08-01

207

Flow accelerated corrosion of carbon steel feeder pipes from pressurized heavy water reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed investigation of a number of feeder pipes received from Rajasthan Atomic Power Station Unit 2 (RAPS#2) after en-masse feeder pipe replacement after 15.67 Effective Full Power Years (EFPYs) was carried out. Investigations included ultrasonic thickness measurement by ultrasonic testing, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, chemical analysis and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Results showed that maximum thickness reduction of the feeder had occurred downstream and close to the weld in 32 NB (1.25?/32.75 mm ID) elbows. Rate of Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) was measured to be higher in the lower diameter feeder pipes due to high flow velocity and turbulence. Weld regions had thinned to a lower extent than the parent material due to higher chromium content in the weld. A weld protrusion has been shown to add to the thinning due to FAC and lead to faster thinning rate at localized regions. Surface morphology of inner surface of feeder had shown different size scallop pattern over the weld and parent material. Inter-granular cracks were also observed along the weld fusion line and in the parent material in 32 NB outlet feeder elbow.

Singh, J. L.; Kumar, Umesh; Kumawat, N.; Kumar, Sunil; Kain, Vivekanand; Anantharaman, S.; Sinha, A. K.

2012-10-01

208

Effects of phosphate addition on biofilm bacterial communities and water quality in annular reactors equipped with stainless steel and ductile cast iron pipes.  

PubMed

The impact of orthophosphate addition on biofilm formation and water quality was studied in corrosion-resistant stainless steel (STS) pipe and corrosion-susceptible ductile cast iron (DCI) pipe using cultivation and culture-independent approaches. Sample coupons of DCI pipe and STS pipe were installed in annular reactors, which were operated for 9 months under hydraulic conditions similar to a domestic plumbing system. Addition of 5 mg/L of phosphate to the plumbing systems, under low residual chlorine conditions, promoted a more significant growth of biofilm and led to a greater rate reduction of disinfection by-products in DCI pipe than in STS pipe. While the level of THMs (trihalomethanes) increased under conditions of low biofilm concentration, the levels of HAAs (halo acetic acids) and CH (chloral hydrate) decreased in all cases in proportion to the amount of biofilm. It was also observed that chloroform, the main species of THM, was not readily decomposed biologically and decomposition was not proportional to the biofilm concentration; however, it was easily biodegraded after the addition of phosphate. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences of 102 biofilm isolates revealed that Proteobacteria (50%) was the most frequently detected phylum, followed by Firmicutes (10%) and Actinobacteria (2%), with 37% of the bacteria unclassified. Bradyrhizobium was the dominant genus on corroded DCI pipe, while Sphingomonas was predominant on non-corroded STS pipe. Methylobacterium and Afipia were detected only in the reactor without added phosphate. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that the diversity of species in biofilm tended to increase when phosphate was added regardless of the pipe material, indicating that phosphate addition upset the biological stability in the plumbing systems. PMID:22367933

Jang, Hyun-Jung; Choi, Young-June; Ro, Hee-Myong; Ka, Jong-Ok

2012-02-01

209

Distribution of Asellus aquaticus and microinvertebrates in a non-chlorinated drinking water supply system--effects of pipe material and sedimentation.  

PubMed

Danish drinking water supplies based on ground water without chlorination were investigated for the presence of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, microinvertebrates (<2 mm) and annelida. In total, 52 water samples were collected from fire hydrants at 31 locations, and two elevated tanks (6000 and 36,000 m(3)) as well as one clean water tank at a waterworks (700 m(3)) were inspected. Several types of invertebrates from the phyla: arthropoda, annelida (worms), plathyhelminthes (flatworms) and mollusca (snails) were found. Invertebrates were found at 94% of the sampling sites in the piped system with A. aquaticus present at 55% of the sampling sites. Populations of A. aquaticus were present in the two investigated elevated tanks but not in the clean water tank at a waterworks. Both adult and juvenile A. aquaticus (length of 2-10 mm) were found in tanks as well as in pipes. A. aquaticus was found only in samples collected from two of seven investigated distribution zones (zone 1 and 2), each supplied directly by one of the two investigated elevated tanks containing A. aquaticus. Microinvertebrates were distributed throughout all zones. The distribution pattern of A. aquaticus had not changed considerably over 20 years when compared to data from samples collected in 1988-89. Centrifugal pumps have separated the distribution zones during the whole period and may have functioned as physical barriers in the distribution systems, preventing large invertebrates such as A. aquaticus to pass alive. Another factor characterising zone 1 and 2 was the presence of cast iron pipes. The frequency of A. aquaticus was significantly higher in cast iron pipes than in plastic pipes. A. aquaticus caught from plastic pipes were mainly single living specimens or dead specimens, which may have been transported passively trough by the water flow, while cast iron pipes provided an environment suitable for relatively large populations of A. aquaticus. Sediment volume for each sample was measured and our study described for the first time a clear connection between sediment volume and living A. aquaticus since living A. aquaticus were nearly only found in samples with sediment contents higher than 100 ml/m(3) sample. Presence of A. aquaticus was not correlated to turbidity of the water. Measurements by ATP, heterotrophic plate counting and Colilert(®) showed that the microbial quality of the water was high at all locations with or without animals. Four other large Danish drinking water supplies were additionally sampled (nine pipe samples and one elevated tank), and invertebrates were found in all systems, three of four containing A. aquaticus, indicating a nationwide occurrence. PMID:21507451

Christensen, Sarah C B; Nissen, Erling; Arvin, Erik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

2011-05-01

210

Performance and Reliability Analysis of Water Distribution Systems under Cascading Failures and the Identification of Crucial Pipes  

PubMed Central

As a mean of supplying water, Water distribution system (WDS) is one of the most important complex infrastructures. The stability and reliability are critical for urban activities. WDSs can be characterized by networks of multiple nodes (e.g. reservoirs and junctions) and interconnected by physical links (e.g. pipes). Instead of analyzing highest failure rate or highest betweenness, reliability of WDS is evaluated by introducing hydraulic analysis and cascading failures (conductive failure pattern) from complex network. The crucial pipes are identified eventually. The proposed methodology is illustrated by an example. The results show that the demand multiplier has a great influence on the peak of reliability and the persistent time of the cascading failures in its propagation in WDS. The time period when the system has the highest reliability is when the demand multiplier is less than 1. There is a threshold of tolerance parameter exists. When the tolerance parameter is less than the threshold, the time period with the highest system reliability does not meet minimum value of demand multiplier. The results indicate that the system reliability should be evaluated with the properties of WDS and the characteristics of cascading failures, so as to improve its ability of resisting disasters. PMID:24551102

Shuang, Qing; Zhang, Mingyuan; Yuan, Yongbo

2014-01-01

211

Provision of private, piped water and sewerage connections and directly observed handwashing of mothers in a peri-urban community of Lima, Peru  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To estimate the association between improved water and sanitation access and handwashing of mothers living in a peri-urban community of Lima, Peru. METHODS We observed 27 mothers directly, before and after installation of private, piped water and sewerage connections in the street just outside their housing plots, and measured changes in the proportion of faecal-hand contamination and hand-to-mouth transmission events with handwashing. RESULTS After provision of water and sewerage connections, mothers were approximately two times more likely to be observed washing their hands within a minute of defecation, compared with when they relied on shared, external water sources and non-piped excreta disposal (RR = 2.14, 95% CI = 0.99–4.62). With piped water and sewerage available at housing plots, handwashing with or without soap occurred within a minute after 48% (10/21) of defecation events and within 15 min prior to 8% (11/136) of handling food events. CONCLUSIONS Handwashing increased following installation of private, piped water and sewerage connections, but its practice remained infrequent, particularly before food-related events. Infrastructural interventions should be coupled with efforts to promote hygiene and ensure access to water and soap at multiple on-plot locations convenient to mothers. PMID:24438038

Oswald, William E.; Hunter, Gabrielle C.; Kramer, Michael R.; Leontsini, Elli; Cabrera, Lilia; Lescano, Andres G.; Gilman, Robert H.

2014-01-01

212

Hookah (Shisha, Narghile) Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). A Critical Review of the Relevant Literature and the Public Health Consequences  

PubMed Central

Hookah (narghile, shisha, “water-pipe”) smoking is now seen by public health officials as a global tobacco epidemic. Cigarette Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is classically understood as a combination of Side-Stream Smoke (SSS) and Exhaled Main-Stream Smoke (EMSS), both diluted and aged. Some of the corresponding cigarette studies have served as the scientific basis for stringent legislation on indoor smoking across the world. Interestingly, one of the distinctive traits of the hookah device is that it generates almost no SSS. Indeed, its ETS is made up almost exclusively by the smoke exhaled by the smoker (EMSS), i.e. which has been filtered by the hookah at the level of the bowl, inside the water, along the hose and then by the smoker’s respiratory tract itself. The present paper reviews the sparse and scattered scientific evidence available about hookah EMSS and the corresponding inferences that can be drawn from the composition of cigarette EMSS. The reviewed literature shows that most of hookah ETS is made up of EMSS and that the latter qualitatively differs from MSS. Keeping in mind that the first victim of passive smoking is the active smoker her/himself, the toxicity of hookah ETS for non-smokers should not be overestimated and hyped in an unscientific way. PMID:19440416

Chaouachi, Kamal

2009-01-01

213

Modelling of Urban Water Flow - Coupling Surface and Pipe Flow. The State of The Eureka Projekt Risursim  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The challenge of serving the cities with efficient drainage networks and waste water systems is increasingly getting larger as the cities grow. Urban flooding, sewer over- flow and rainfall impact are high priority issues in most countries. The German and Norwegian EUREKA-Project RISURSIM (Risk management for urban drainage systems simulation and optimization) headed by ITWM focuses these problems. The overall objective is the development of an integrated planning and man- agement tool to allow cost effective management for urban drainage systems. The project consortium includes applied mathematics and water engineering research in- stitutes, municipal drainage works as well as insurance companies. Focussing on flooding events caused by surcharged sewer systems a dual drainage model has been developed to most accurately describe the hydraulic processes of flooded drainage systems taking in account the possible interactions between surface and surcharged sewer system. This dual drainage simulation model is computing water levels above ground and assessing possible damage costs. Hydraulic models for both, surface runoff and flooded surfaces, and sewer flow have been established. Surface flow is simulated in a 2-dimensional shallow water approach using GIS-based detailed physical surface data. Links to the hydraulic pipe flow model are stablished at all inlets of surface drainage (manholes, street inlets and private drain pipes) to the underground sewer system. These inlets are interpreted as possible sinks or sources in the mathematical model of both, surface and sewer flow simulation. In addition, the interaction between the public sewer system and private drains is taken into account in order to assess flooding of buildings or private ground via house drains. The status of the project is outlined; the structure of the being developed decision support system is presented.

Nieschulz, K.-P.; Risursim Project Group

214

Cigar Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... in our society. How are cigars different from cigarettes? Who smokes cigars? What kinds of illness and death are caused by smoking cigars? What about secondhand cigar smoke? Are electronic cigars safe? Are there laws regulating cigars? What ...

215

Characterization of biofilm and corrosion of cast iron pipes in drinking water distribution system with UV/Cl2 disinfection.  

PubMed

The effect of UV/Cl2 disinfection on the biofilm and corrosion of cast iron pipes in drinking water distribution system were studied using annular reactors (ARs). Passivation occurred more rapidly in the AR with UV/Cl2 than in the one with Cl2 alone, decreasing iron release for higher corrosivity of water. Based on functional gene, pyrosequencing assays and principal component analysis, UV disinfection not only reduced the required initial chlorine dose, but also enhanced denitrifying functional bacteria advantage in the biofilm of corrosion scales. The nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) Dechloromonas exhibited the greatest corrosion inhibition by inducing the redox cycling of iron to enhance the precipitation of iron oxides and formation of Fe3O4 in the AR with UV/Cl2, while the rhizobia Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium, and the NRB Sphingomonas, Brucella producing siderophores had weaker corrosion-inhibition effect by capturing iron in the AR with Cl2. These results indicated that the microbial redox cycling of iron was possibly responsible for higher corrosion inhibition and lower effect of water Larson-Skold Index (LI) changes on corrosion. This finding could be applied toward the control of water quality in drinking water distribution systems. PMID:24859195

Zhu, Ying; Wang, Haibo; Li, Xiaoxiao; Hu, Chun; Yang, Min; Qu, Jiuhui

2014-09-01

216

Occupation and smoking in college graduates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a study of 895 members of the Harvard Class of 1946, 13 years after graduation, with respect to the association of occupation and smoking behavior, indicate statistically significant differentiations between smokers and nonsmokers; between cigarette, cigar, and pipe smokers; and in accordance with degree or rate of cigarette smoking. The significance of these findings appears to relate

Carl C. Seltzer

1964-01-01

217

Detection of the cytotoxicity of water-insoluble fraction of cigarette smoke by direct exposure to cultured cells at an air-liquid interface.  

PubMed

For the biological evaluation of cigarette smoke in vitro, the particulate phase (PP) and the gas vapor phase (GVP) of mainstream smoke have usually been collected individually and exposed to biological material such as cultured cells. Using this traditional method, the GVP is collected by bubbling in an aqueous solution such as phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). In such a way the water-insoluble GVP fraction is excluded from the GVP, meaning that the toxic potential of the water-insoluble GVP fraction has hardly been investigated so far. In our experiments we used a direct exposure method to expose cells at the air-liquid interface (ALI) to the water-insoluble GVP fraction for demonstrating its toxicological/biological activity. In order to isolate the water-insoluble GVP fraction from mainstream smoke, the GVP was passed through 6 impingers connected in series with PBS. After direct exposure of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) with the water-insoluble GVP fraction in the CULTEX(®) system its cytotoxicity was assayed by using the neutral red uptake assay. The water-insoluble GVP fraction was proven to be less cytotoxic than the water-soluble GVP fraction, but showed a significant effect in a dose-dependent manner. The results of this study showed that the direct exposure of cultivated cells at the air-liquid interface offers the possibility to analyze the biological and toxicological activities of all fractions of cigarette smoke including the water-insoluble GVP fraction. PMID:22999638

Nara, Hidenori; Fukano, Yasuo; Nishino, Tomoki; Aufderheide, Michaela

2013-07-01

218

Insulating Cryogenic Pipes With Frost  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crystallized water vapor fills voids in pipe insulation. Small, carefully controlled amount of water vapor introduced into dry nitrogen gas before it enters aft fuselage. Vapor freezes on pipes, filling cracks in insulation. Ice prevents gaseous nitrogen from condensing on pipes and dripping on structure, in addition to helping to insulate all parts. Industrial applications include large refrigeration plants or facilities that use cryogenic liquids.

Stephenson, J. G.; Bova, J. A.

1985-01-01

219

Quitting Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

220

Radiological hazards of Narghile (hookah, shisha, goza) smoking: activity concentrations and dose assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narghile (hookah, shisha, goza, “water-pipe”) smoking has become fashionable worldwide. Its tobacco pastes, known as moassel and jurak, are not standardized and generally contain about 30–50% (sometimes more) tobacco, molasses\\/juice of sugarcane, various spices and dried fruits (particularly in jurak) and, in the case of moassel, glycerol and flavoring essences. Tobacco contains minute amounts of radiotoxic elements such as 210Pb,

Ashraf E. M. Khater; Nawal S. Abd El-Aziz; Hamed A. Al-Sewaidan; Kamal Chaouachi

2008-01-01

221

Study of Secondhand Smoke Levels Pre and Post Implementation of the Comprehensive Smoking Ban in Mumbai  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This research was undertaken with the aim of assessing the indoor air quality in popular hospitality venues, as also to evaluate the effectiveness of the nationwide comprehensive public smoking ban. The analysis was split into two halves – baseline study taken up prior to implementation of the said ban on 2nd October 2008, and the follow-up study after it came into effect. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five venues including five restaurants, fourteen resto-bars, two hookah (smoking water-pipe) cafes and four pubs were selected using a mix of random, convenience and purposeful sampling. Particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements at these venues were made using TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. Results: The average PM2.5 level in venues where smoking was permitted prior to implementation of ban was found to be 669.95 ?g/m3 in the baseline study. Post ban, the average PM2.5 level in same test venues reduced to 240.8 ?g/m3. The hookah cafes were an exception as the average PM2.5 levels exceeded the permissible limits before as well as post ban. Conclusion: The baseline study showed that the hospitality venues had hazardous levels of PM2.5 particles arising from second-hand smoke prior to smoking ban. These decreased by a maximum of 64% after the law took effect. A substantial improvement in air quality at these venues post implementation of the smoking ban indicated the effectiveness of the law. PMID:21031108

Deshpande, Aditi; Kudtarkar, Priyanka; Dhaware, Dhanashri; Chowgule, Rohini

2010-01-01

222

Analysis and design of an in-pipe system for water leak detection  

E-print Network

Leaks are a major factor for unaccounted water losses in almost every water distribution network. Pipeline leak may result, for example, from bad workmanship or from any destructive cause, due to sudden changes of pressure, ...

Chatzigeorgiou, Dimitris M

2010-01-01

223

Power plant releasing smoke  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Power plants are a well-known source of pollution. They drain directly into bodies of water such as the ocean. In addition, they burn fossil fuels to create energy. The smoke that results causes acid rain and global warming.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-12

224

Volumetric Fraction Dynamic Measurement in Oil-Water-Gas Multiphase Horizontal Pipe Flow with Dual Energy Gamma-Ray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problems of how to measuring the volumetric fractions of oil-water-gas multiphase flow are still a problem remaining to be solved in oil industry. With the technological development of nuclear radioactive inspection, dual-energy ?-ray techniques make it possible to investigate the concentration of the different components on the cross-section of oil-water-gas multiphase pipe-flow. The dual-energy Gamma-ray technique is based on the materials attenuation coefficients measurement. It is comprised of two radioactive isotopes of 241Am and 137Cs with emission energies of 59.5keV and 662keV. In order to measuring the material's attenuation dose rate, some nuclear instruments and data acquisition system were designed; a number of static and dynamic tests were carried out in the Multiphase Laboratory, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The oil-water-gas three phases of medium have been investigated to simulate different media volumetric fraction distributions on the experimental flow loop. The measurement results of attenuation intensities were obtained; the linear attenuation coefficients and the volumetric fractions were studied and measurement error was discussed in this paper as well.

Li, Donghui; Wu, Yingxiang; Wang, Keren; Zhong, Xingfu

2007-06-01

225

Prevalence of chronic cough and phlegm among male cigar and pipe smokers: results of the Scottish Heart Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND--Previous studies investigating the effect of cigar or pipe smoking on the occurrence of chronic cough and chronic phlegm have reported prevalences among cigar and pipe smokers lying between those of non-smokers and current cigarette smokers. This study uses data on previous cigarette consumption, current cigar or pipe consumption, and biochemical markers of smoking to provide a detailed analysis of

C A Brown; M Woodward; H Tunstall-Pedoe

1993-01-01

226

Volatile organic compounds in natural biofilm in polyethylene pipes supplied with lake water and treated water from the distribution network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was investigation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in natural biofilm inside polyethylene (HDPE) pipelines at continuously flowing water. VOC in biofilm may contribute to off-flavour episodes in drinking water. The pipelines were supplied with raw lake water and treated water from the distribution network. Biofilm was established at test sites located at two different drinking

Ingun Skjevrak; Vidar Lund; Kari Ormerod; Hallgeir Herikstad

2005-01-01

227

Qualification requirements of guided ultrasonic waves for inspection of piping in light water reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is anticipated that guided ultrasonic wave (GUW) techniques will eventually see widespread application in the nuclear power industry as there are several near-term and future needs that could benefit from the availability of GUW technologies. Already, GUW techniques are receiving consideration for inspecting buried piping at nuclear power plants and future applications may include several Class 1 and 2 components. To accept the results of a nondestructive examination of safety critical components, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that the examinations be performed using qualified equipment, personnel, and procedures. As the use of GUW techniques becomes more frequent, qualification may be required. Performance demonstration has been the approach to qualifying conventional NDE methods in the nuclear power industry. This paper highlights potential issues and research needs associated with facilitating GUW qualification for the nuclear power industry. Parametric studies of essential inspection parameters are necessary to understand their influence on inspection performance. The large volume sampling capability introduces several challenges for qualifying GUW techniques including the quantification of performance, potential interference caused by the presence of multiple flaws in the inspection region, and the practicality of manufacturing several large qualification specimens. Computer simulation may have a significant role in reducing the experimental burden associated with qualifying GUW techniques for nuclear power plant examinations.

Meyer, R. M.; Ramuhalli, P.; Doctor, S. R.; Bond, L. J.

2013-01-01

228

An environmental factor approach to account for reactor water effects in light water reactor pressure vessel and piping fatigue evaluations  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes past and current studies of the environmental fatigue effects in LWR applications. Current Argonne and Japanese research efforts are reviewed and an approach to calculate an environmental correction factor is described. A description of how the proposed approach can be implemented in Section III, NB-3600 and NB-3200-type fatigue evaluations, is presented along with examples of applying the approach to piping (NB-3600) and safe-end fatigue evaluations. These procedures were applied to several BWR and PWR example cases. The results of these case studies indicated that there is a modest increase in calculated fatigue usage, which is considerably less than the results obtained when the NUREG/CR-5999 curves are applied directly.

Mehta, H.S. [GE Nuclear Energy, San Jose, CA (United States); Gosselin, S.R. [Electric Power Research Inst., Charlotte, NC (United States)

1996-12-01

229

Comparison of microbial quality of irrigation water delivered in aluminum and PVC pipes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microbial quality of irrigation water attracts substantial attention due to the increased incidence of gastrointestinal illness caused by contaminated produce. Little is known about the changes in microbial quality of water during its delivery to crops. Studies were conducted to compare the biofilm ...

230

CHARACTERISATION OF AGED HDPE PIPES FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION: INVESTIGATION OF CRACK DEPTH BY NOL RING  

E-print Network

are used for the transport of drinking water. However, disinfectants in water seem to have a strong impact with disinfectants leading to the formation of a thin oxidised layer coupled to the cracks initiation of cracks, when they are in contact with disinfectants such as chlorine dioxide ClO2 or chlorine Cl2 (in severe

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

231

Heat Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phoenix Refrigeration Systems, Inc.'s heat pipe addition to the Phoenix 2000, a supermarket rooftop refrigeration/air conditioning system, resulted from the company's participation in a field test of heat pipes. Originally developed by NASA to control temperatures in space electronic systems, the heat pipe is a simple, effective, heat transfer system. It has been used successfully in candy storage facilities where it has provided significant energy savings. Additional data is expected to fully quantify the impact of the heat pipes on supermarket air conditioning systems.

1991-01-01

232

Heat Pipe Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar Fundamentals, Inc.'s hot water system employs space-derived heat pipe technology. It is used by a meat packing plant to heat water for cleaning processing machinery. Unit is complete system with water heater, hot water storage, electrical controls and auxiliary components. Other than fans and a circulating pump, there are no moving parts. System's unique design eliminates problems of balancing, leaking, corroding, and freezing.

1988-01-01

233

The Politics of Pipes: The Persistence of Small Water Networks in Post-Privatization Manila  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project examines the politics of water provision in low-income areas of large, developing cities. In the last two decades, water privatization has become a global paradigm, emerging as a potential means for addressing the urban water crisis. In Manila, the site of the world's largest water privatization project, service to low-income areas has improved significantly in the post-privatization era. But whereas expansion of a water utility typically involves the replacement of informal providers, the experience in Manila demonstrates that the rapid connection of low-income areas actually hinges, in part, on the selective inclusion and exclusion of these smaller actors. Based on an ethnography of the private utilities and community-based providers, I use the persistence of small water networks as a lens for exploring the limits of water privatization in Manila. I focus on what I call micro-networks---community-built infrastructure that extends the formal, private utilities into low-income neighborhoods that the utilities do not wish to serve directly. In such a setup, the utility provides water only as far as the community boundary; beyond that, the micro-network operator constructs internal infrastructure, monitors for leakage and theft, and collects bills. But while these communities may gain access to safer water, they are also subject to higher costs and heightened disciplinary measures. By tracing the ways in which the utilities selectively use micro-networks to manage sub-populations, I show how the utilities make low-income spaces more governable. Delegating localized water management to micro-network operators depoliticizes the utilities' roles, shifting the sociopolitical difficulties of water provision to community organizations, while allowing the utilities to claim that these areas are served. This research leads to three related arguments. First, the persistence of small water networks highlights lingering inequities in access to water, for micro-network consumers are subject to disparities in cost, materials, and personal freedoms. Though Manila's water privatization project has resulted in significant improvements to the centralized system, its success must be tempered by the inequalities that remain. Second, the two utilities are largely able to shape both the geographies of water access and the production of knowledge. For this reason, the utilities typically use micro-networks where cost recovery may be difficult---such as in areas with uncertain land tenure or where higher levels of nonpayment are perceived---while including these areas in their aggregate coverage statistics. Third, the presence of multiple providers of water and other basic services blurs the boundaries between public, private, and community. But that blurriness serves to consolidate the private utilities' power, while increasing the opacity by which citizens navigate processes related to urban water provision. The persistence of micro-networks thus allows us to understand the ways in which low-income spaces are made more governable. By focusing on this peri-urban frontier, this project asserts that differentiation and discipline serve simultaneously as tools of governance and as points of contestation. What emerges is a waterscape consisting not of one type of privatization---where service and access are uniformly provided---but multiple, coexisting, and differentiated privatizations.

Cheng, Deborah

234

Quitting Smoking  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... and constricts the arteries. Here is a normal hand. The various warm colors show where oxygen-rich ... of life can also be affected by second-hand smoke, the smoke that non-smokers are exposed ...

235

Semi-analytical prediction of hydraulic resistance and heat transfer for pipe and channel flows of water at supercritical pressure  

SciTech Connect

Within the Generation IV International Forum the Supercritical Water Reactor is investigated. For its core design and safety analysis the efficient prediction of flow and heat transfer parameters such as the wall-shear stress and the heat-transfer coefficient for pipe and channel flows is needed. For circular pipe flows a numerical model based on the one-dimensional conservation equations of mass, momentum end energy in the radial direction is presented, referred to as a 'semi-analytical' method. An accurate, high-order numerical method is employed to evaluate previously derived analytical solutions of the governing equations. Flow turbulence is modeled using the algebraic approach of Prandtl/van-Karman, including a model for the buffer layer. The influence of wall roughness is taken into account by a new modified numerical damping function of the turbulence model. The thermo-hydraulic properties of water are implemented according to the international standard of 1997. This method has the potential to be used within a sub-channel analysis code and as wall-functions for CFD codes to predict the wall shear stress and the wall temperature. The present study presents a validation of the method with comparison of model results with experiments and multi-dimensional computational (CFD) studies in a wide range of flow parameters. The focus is laid on forced convection flows related to reactor design and near-design conditions. It is found, that the method can accurately predict the wall temperature even under deterioration conditions as they occur in the selected experiments (Yamagata el al. 1972 at 24.5 MPa, Ornatski et al. 1971 at 25.5 and Swenson et al. 1963 at 22.75 MPa). Comparison of the friction coefficient under high heat flux conditions including significant viscosity and density reductions near the wall with various correlations for the hydraulic resistance will be presented; the best agreement is achieve with the correlation of Pioro et al. 2004. It is concluded, that the semi-analytical prediction method is accurate and efficient for forced convection flows even at high heat fluxes. The wall-roughness height is identified as an important model parameter. (authors)

Laurien, E. [Univ. of Stuttgart, Inst. for Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems IKE, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany)

2012-07-01

236

Joint use of long water pipe tiltmeters and sea level gauges for monitoring ground deformation at Campi Flegrei caldera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Campi Flegrei caldera, located in the Campanian Plain, Southern Italy, 15 km west of the city of Naples, is a nested, resurgent, and restless structure in the densely inhabited Neapolitan area. The main caldera at Campi Flegrei is 12 - 15 km across and its rim is thought to have been formed during the catastrophic eruption, occurred 39 ky ago ca., which produced a deposit referred to as the Campanian Ignimbrite. The volcanic hazards posed by this caldera and the related risk are extremely high, because of its explosive character and the about 1.5 million people living within the caldera. Campi Flegrei area periodically experiences significant unrest episodes which include ground deformations, the so-called 'bradisismo'. Following the last eruption (Monte Nuovo, 1538) a general subsidence has been interrupted by episodes of uplift, the most recent of which occurred in 1970-72 and 1982-84. Since 1950 the caldera is showing signs of unrest with ground uplift, seismicity, and composition variation of fumarole fluids. In particular, subsidence has been replaced by intermittent episodes of inflation with short time duration and various maximum amplitude. They occurred in 1989, 1994, 2000, 2005-06, 2008-09 and 2011-2014 with duration of few months and maximum amplitude ranging between 3 and 18 cm., approximately. In the last years an array of water-pipe tiltmeters with lengths between 28 m and 278 m in tunnels on the flanks of the region of maximum inflation has been installed to avoid problems common to the traditional tiltmeters. The tiltmeters record inflation episodes upon which are superimposed local load tides and the effects of the seiches in the Bay of Naples and in the Tyrrhenian sea. We use data recorded by three tide gauges in the Bay of Pozzuoli (Pozzuoli, Miseno, Nisida) to compare water pipe data with sea level to extract astronomical tidal components (diurnal and semidiurnal) and seiches periods (particularly between 20 minutes and 56 minutes) that could constitute local loading frequencies recorded clearly by tide gauges and tiltmeters. We perform an analysis of the amplitude stability of seiches amplitudes. After the removal of the tides and seiches component we compare tilt residual and sea level trend for the same periods of time. The comparison between these two kind of data enables a more sensitive definition of the low level uplift with an accuracy of 1% for nanoradiant tilts in the period range 10 minutes to 10 hours with a long term tilt stability of approximately 0.1 microradiant/yr.

Scarpa, Roberto; Capuano, Paolo; Tammaro, Umberto; Bilham, Roger

2014-05-01

237

Study of Cold Heat Energy Release Characteristics of Flowing Ice Water Slurry in a Pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper has dealt with melting heat transfer characteristics of ice water slurry in an inside tube of horizontal double tube heat exchanger in which a hot water circulated in an annular gap between the inside and outside tubes. Two kinds of heat exchangers were used; one is made of acrylic resin tube for flow visualization and the other is made of stainless steel tube for melting heat transfer measurement. The result of flow visualization revealed that ice particles flowed along the top of inside tube in the ranges of small ice packing factor and low ice water slurry velocity, while ice particles diffused into the whole of tube and flowed like a plug built up by ice particles for large ice packing factor and high velocity. Moreover, it was found that the flowing ice plug was separated into numbers of small ice clusters by melting phenomenon. Experiments of melting heat transfer were carried out under some parameters of ice packing factor, ice water slurry flow rate and hot water temperature. Consequently, the correlation equation of melting heat transfer was derived as a function of those experimental parameters.

Inaba, Hideo; Horibe, Akihiko; Ozaki, Koichi; Yokota, Maki

238

Piping Plover  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Chicks and eggs of piping plovers. The piping plover is a small migratory shorebird listed as endangered in Canada and the U.S. Great Lakes, and threatened throughout the remainder of its U.S. breeding and winter range. Recent surveys indicate that there are only about 8,000 adults in existence.  Th...

2010-02-24

239

Piping Plover  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

An adult piping plover. The piping plover is a small migratory shorebird listed as endangered in Canada and the U.S. Great Lakes, and threatened throughout the remainder of its U.S. breeding and winter range. Recent surveys indicate that there are only about 8,000 adults in existence. The USGS is co...

2010-02-24

240

[Youth Smoking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of the newsletter "Prevention Forum" focuses on smoking among adolescents. The articles are as follows: (1) "Where There's Smoke--Will Prevention Put Out the Fire?" (Joanne Burgess), an overview of the Surgeon General's report "Preventing Tobacco Use among Young People," including interviews with prevention and anti-smoking activists;…

Stare, Russell K., Ed.

1994-01-01

241

Quit Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... Break the connection between eating and smoking. Many people like to smoke when they finish a meal. Here are some ... overcome addiction. Check out these tips on staying smoke-free . Learn from the past. Many people try to quit more than once before they ...

242

Construction and early test results of waste transport in piping systems served by ULF water closets  

E-print Network

for a single test. Since lhe scale reported data in terms of accumulated weight of water during a time interval (mass per unit of time) the dain required additional reduction to determine instantaneous flow rate gpm/m (lps/m). Data l. ogging Computer... differed in peak flush gpm/m (lps/m), discharge peak time, flush duration, volume at peak and total volume discharged. Figure 19 shows an example of the 3 inch open vent tests to illustrate each discharge curve. The discharge curve for Type A water...

Carrier, Jonathan Gerald

2012-06-07

243

Intermediate Temperature Fluids for Heat Pipes and Loop Heat Pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential working fluids for heat pipes and loop heat pipes include water, organic fluids, elements, and halides. The paper surveys life tests conducted with 30 different intermediate temperature working fluids, and over 60 different working fluid\\/envelope combinations. Life tests have been run with three elemental working fluids: sulfur, sulfur-iodine mixtures, and mercury. Other fluids offer benefits over these three liquids

William G. Anderson; John R. Hartenstine; David B. Sarraf; Calin Tarau

244

Tippy Tap Plus Piping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Tippy Tap hand-washing station is an inexpensive and effective device used extensively in the developing world. One shortcoming of the homemade device is that it must be manually refilled with water and therefore is of limited use in high-traffic areas. In this activity, student teams design, prototype and test piping systems to transport water from a storage tank to an existing Tippy Tap hand-washing station, thereby creating a more efficient hand-washing station. Through this example service-learning engineering project, students learn basic fluid dynamic principles that are needed for creating efficient piping systems.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder,

245

In-pipe water quality monitoring in water supply systems under steady and unsteady state flow conditions: A quantitative assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring the quality of drinking water from the treatment plant to the consumers tap is critical to ensure compliance with national standards and\\/or WHO guideline levels. There are a number of processes and factors affecting the water quality during transmission and distribution which are little understood. A significant obstacle for gaining a detailed knowledge of various physical and chemical processes

Angelina Aisopou; Ivan Stoianov; Nigel J. D. Graham

246

FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EMERGING PIPE WALL INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR LARGE CAST IRON WATER MAINS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,500-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Septembe...

247

EVALUATION OF OPPORTUNITIES TO IMPROVE STRUCTURAL INSPECTION CAPABILITIES FOR WATER MAINS: LARGE DIAMETER CAST IRON PIPE  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA and other organizations have projected that a large portion of the United States? aging water conveyance infrastructure will reach the end of its service life in the next several decades. EPA has identified asset management as a critical factor in efficiently addre...

248

Avoiding water hammer/fluid transients in nuclear piping systems by controlled filling. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A variety of geometries and operating procedures that lead to steam bubble collapse induced water hammers have been explored experimentally. Construction guidelines that will eliminate the problem at the design stage have been proposed and methods for predicting the pressure signatures proposed.

Not Available

1991-12-31

249

Avoiding water hammer/fluid transients in nuclear piping systems by controlled filling  

SciTech Connect

A variety of geometries and operating procedures that lead to steam bubble collapse induced water hammers have been explored experimentally. Construction guidelines that will eliminate the problem at the design stage have been proposed and methods for predicting the pressure signatures proposed.

Not Available

1991-01-01

250

Field Demonstration of Emerging Pipe Wall Integrity Assessment Technologies for Large Cast Iron Water Mains - Paper  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,000-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast-iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Se...

251

CHARACTERIZATION OF LOCALIZED CORROSION OF COPPER PIPES USED IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Localized corrosion of copper, or "copper pitting" in water distribution tubing is a large problem at many utilities. Pitting can lead to pinhole leaks less than a year. Tubing affected by copper pitting will often fail in ultiple locations, resulting in a frustrating situation ...

252

Speciation And Distribution Of Vanadium In Drinking Water Iron Pipe Corrosion By-Products  

EPA Science Inventory

Vanadium (V) when ingested from drinking water in high concentrations (> 15 µg L-1) is a potential health risk and is on track to becoming a regulated contaminant. High concentrations of V have been documented in lead corrosion by-products as Pb5(V5+...

253

Uncoupled axial, flexural, and circumferential pipe–soil interaction analyses of partially supported jointed water mains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pipelines used in the distribution of potable water are a vital part of everyday life. The pipelines buried in soil-backfill are exposed to different deleterious reactions; as a result, the design factor of safety may be significantly degraded and, consequently, pipelines may fail prematurely. Proactive pipeline management, which entails optimal maintenance, repair, or replacement strategies, helps increase the longevity of

Balvant Rajani; Solomon Tesfamariam

2004-01-01

254

Mineralogical and Molecular Microbial Characterization of a Lead Pipe Removed from a Drinking Water Distribution System  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) Lead and Copper Rule established an action level for lead of 0.0 15 mg/L in a 1 liter first draw sample at the consumer's tap. Lead corrosion and solubility in drinking water distribution systems are largely controlled by the fo...

255

Heat transfer mechanism of miniature loop heat pipe with water-copper nanofluid: thermodynamics model and experimental study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to ensure the normal work of electronic product, the thermal management is of key importance. Miniature loop heat pipe (mLHP) is a promising device of heat transfer for electronic products. Cu-water nanofluid with different concentration is used as working material in mLHP. Experiments are conducted to investigate its heat transfer performance. The heat flux owing to thermal diffusion is calculated. It is found that this heat flux and the boiling temperature are non-monotonic function of concentration of nanoparticle. Turning concentration appears at about 1.5 wt%. Differential equation of thermal diffusion produced by micro movement of nanoparticle is established in this paper. Average speed formula for nanoparticles is derived and slope of the curve of phase equilibrium is obtained. Based on the theoretical research in this paper, enhanced heat transfer mechanism of nanofluid is analyzed. The facts that heat flux owing to thermal diffusion and boiling temperature are all associated with nanoparticle concentration are also well explained with the aid of the derived theory in this paper.

Wang, Xiao-wu; Wan, Zhen-ping; Tang, Yong

2013-07-01

256

Experimental investigation of convective heat transfer agumentation using Al2O3/water nanofluid in circular pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, experimental study is performed to investigate convective heat transfer and flow characteristics of nanofluids through a circular tube. The heat transfer coefficient and friction factor of the ?-Al2O3-water nanofluid flowing through a pipe of 10 mm inner ID and 1 m in length, with constant wall temperature under turbulent flow conditions are investigated. Experiments are conducted with 30 nm size ?-Al2O3 nanoparticle with a volume fraction between 0.1 and to 1.0 and Reynolds number between 8,000 and 14,000. Experimental results emphasize the heat transfer enhancement with the increase in a Reynolds number or nanoparticle volume fraction. The maximum enhancement of 36 % in the heat transfer coefficient for a Reynolds number of 8,550, by using nanofluid with 1.0 vol% was observed compared with base fluid. Experimental measurement also shows the considerable increase in the pressure drop with small addition of nanoparticles in base fluid. Experimental results of nanofluids were compared with existing convective heat transfer correlations in the turbulent regime. Comparison shows that Maiga's correlation has close agreement with experimental results in comparison with Dittus Boelter correlation.

Chavan, Durgeshkumar; Pise, Ashok T.

2015-01-01

257

Effects of disinfectant and biofilm on the corrosion of cast iron pipes in a reclaimed water distribution system.  

PubMed

The effects of disinfection and biofilm on the corrosion of cast iron pipe in a model reclaimed water distribution system were studied using annular reactors (ARs). The corrosion scales formed under different conditions were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the bacterial characteristics of biofilm on the surface were determined using several molecular methods. The corrosion scales from the ARs with chlorine included predominantly ?-FeOOH and Fe2O3, while CaPO3(OH)·2H2O and ?-FeOOH were the predominant phases after chloramines replaced chlorine. Studies of the consumption of chlorine and iron release indicated that the formation of dense oxide layers and biofilm inhibited iron corrosion, causing stable lower chlorine decay. It was verified that iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB) such as Sediminibacterium sp., and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) such as Shewanella sp., synergistically interacted with the corrosion product to prevent further corrosion. For the ARs without disinfection, ?-FeOOH was the predominant phase at the primary stage, while CaCO3 and ?-FeOOH were predominant with increasing time. The mixed corrosion-inducing bacteria, including the IRB Shewanella sp., the IOB Sediminibacterium sp., and the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) Limnobacter thioxidans strain, promoted iron corrosion by synergistic interactions in the primary period, while anaerobic IRB became the predominant corrosion bacteria, preventing further corrosion via the formation of protective layers. PMID:22209261

Wang, Haibo; Hu, Chun; Hu, Xuexiang; Yang, Min; Qu, Jiuhui

2012-03-15

258

Stop smoking support programs  

MedlinePLUS

Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...

259

Experimental on two sensors combination used in horizontal pipe gas-water two-phase flow  

SciTech Connect

Gas-water two phase flow phenomenon widely exists in production and living and the measurement of it is meaningful. A new type of long-waist cone flow sensor has been designed to measure two-phase mass flow rate. Six rings structure of conductance probe is used to measure volume fraction and axial velocity. The calibration of them have been made. Two sensors have been combined in horizontal pipeline experiment to measure two-phase flow mass flow rate. Several model of gas-water two-phase flow has been discussed. The calculation errors of total mass flow rate measurement is less than 5% based on the revised homogeneous flow model.

Wu, Hao; Dong, Feng [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Process Measurement and Control, School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)

2014-04-11

260

Thermal hydraulic characteristics of air–water two-phase flows in helical pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helically coiled heat exchangers, where one of the working fluids is flowing through helical coil, are used in various process industries due to better heat transfer characteristics and the resulting compact layout. Out of these, process requirements make some of the heat exchangers to operate in air–water two-phase region. Even though the characteristics of their operation with single-phase working fluids

J. S. Jayakumar; S. M. Mahajani; J. C. Mandal; Kannan N. Iyer; P. K. Vijayan

2010-01-01

261

Hydrogeologic setting and hydrologic data of the Smoke Creek Desert basin, Washoe County, Nevada, and Lassen County, California, water years 1988-90  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Smoke Creek Desert is a potential source of water for urban development in Washoe County, Nevada. Hydrogeologic data were collected from 1988 to 1990 to learn more about surface- and ground-water flow in the basin. Impermeable rocks form a boundary to ground-water flow on the east side of the basin and at unknown depths at the base of the flow system. Permeable volcanic rocks on the west and north sides of the basin represent a previously unrecognized aquifer and provide potential avenues for interbasin flow. Geophysical data indicate that basin-fill sediments are about 2,000 feet thick near the center of the basin. The geometry of the aquifers, however, remains largely unknown. Measurements of water levels, pressure head, flow rate, water temperature, and specific conductance at 19 wells show little change from 1988 to 1990. Chemically, ground water begins as a dilute sodium and calcium bicarbonate water in the mountain blocks, changes to a slightly saline sodium bicarbonate solution beneath the alluvial fans, and becomes a briny sodium chloride water near the playa. Concentrations of several inorganic constituents in the briny water near the playa commonly exceed Nevada drinking-water standards. Ground water in the Honey Lake basin and Smoke Creek Desert basin has similar stable-isotope composition, except near Sand Pass. If interbasin flow takes place, it likely occurs at depths greater than 400-600 feet beneath Sand Pass or through volcanic rocks to the north of Sand Pass. Measure- ments of streamflow indicate that about 2,800 acre-feet/year discharged from volcanic rocks to streamflow and a minimum of 7.300 acre-feet/year infiltrated and recharged unconsolidated sediments near Smoke, Buffalo, and Squaw Creeks during the period of study. Also about 1,500 acre-feet per year was lost to evapotranspiration along the channel of Smoke Creek, and about 1,680 acre-feet per year of runoff from Smoke, Buffalo, and Squaw Creeks was probably lost to evaporation from the playa.

Maurer, D.K.

1993-01-01

262

Poster Abstract: PipeProbe: Mapping Hidden Water Pipelines Tsung-te (Ted) Lai, Yu-han (Tiffany) Chen  

E-print Network

combinations, computational power, battery power, and radios. Our work focuses on a novel mobile sen- sor into a rectangle shape and sealed waterproof with glue and acrylic. Figure 2 shows how the PipeProbe capsule

Ouhyoung, Ming

263

Transient heat pipe response and rewetting behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of an investigation of pulsed heat pipe start up. Two types of pulsed start up of a copper and water heat pipe are examined. In the first, the mean temperature of the transport section is nearly constant with time. In the second, the entire heat pipe is increasing in temperature, so thermal energy storage is

J. H. Ambrose; L. C. Chow; J. E. Beam

1986-01-01

264

Heat pipe dynamics. Final report, April 30, 1981. [Uses of heat pipe, especially in solar collector  

SciTech Connect

A heat-pipe flat plate solar collector is constructed like a typical flat plate collector with the exception that individual heat pipes are attached to the collector surface to transfer collected heat via a phase change from collector surface into an attached jacket containing a phase change material. The efficiency of such a collector was measured roughly. Also briefly described are: a heat-pipe heat exchanger, heat-pipe heat exchanger freeze proofing, heat-pipe attic ventilation, transfer of light bulb heat via a heat pipe to heat water, heat recovery via heat pipe, cooling of oil in engines and transmissions via heat pipe, a tracking reflector, automatic sun tracker, single-stroke vacuum pump for heat-pipe manufacture, and heat pipe heat transfer from rock bed. (LEW)

Norman, R.M. Sr.

1981-01-01

265

Heat transfer in pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heat transfer from hot water to a cold copper pipe in laminar and turbulent flow condition is determined. The mean flow through velocity in the pipe, relative test length and initial temperature in the vessel were varied extensively during tests. Measurements confirm Nusselt's theory for large test lengths in laminar range. A new equation is derived for heat transfer for large starting lengths which agrees satisfactorily with measurements for large starting lengths. Test results are compared with the new Prandtl equation for heat transfer and correlated well. Test material for 200- and to 400-diameter test length is represented at four different vessel temperatures.

Burbach, T.

1985-01-01

266

Heat Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than $57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was $28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

1990-01-01

267

Secondhand Smoke  

MedlinePLUS

... secondhand smoke affects babies and children Why does birth weight matter? Low-birth-weight babies are more likely to die or have ... babies tend to have weaker lungs and lower birth weights. Also, babies of mothers who smoke before and ...

268

Smoking cessation.  

PubMed

Essential facts There are about ten million smokers in the UK. Smoking is the country's main cause of preventable illness and premature death, killing more than 100,000 people a year. According to ASH: Action on Smoking and Health, two thirds of smokers would like to stop. PMID:25585742

2015-01-14

269

Social Smoking  

PubMed Central

Background Social smoking is increasingly prevalent and poses a challenge to traditional cessation practices. Tobacco companies conducted extensive research on social smokers long before health authorities did and marketed products to promote this smoking behavior. Purpose Research is described and mechanisms identified that are used to promote social smoking to help improve cessation strategies in this growing group. Evidence acquisition Searches from 2006 to 2008 of previously secret tobacco industry documents using keywords social smoker, light smoker, casual smoker, youth smoker, and occasional smoker, followed by snowball searching. Data analysis was conducted in 2008. Evidence synthesis Tobacco industry research identified characteristics of social smokers that include: (1) denial of personal nicotine addiction; (2) self-categorization as a nonsmoker; (3) propensity for decreased tobacco use in response to smoke-free laws; (4) variations in age, education, ethnicity, and socioeconomic backgrounds; and (5) a perceived immunity to personal health effects of tobacco but fear of consequences to others. Tobacco companies developed marketing strategies aimed at social smokers, including “non–habit forming” cigarettes. Conclusions Previously considered a transient behavior, social smoking is also a stable consumption pattern. Focused clinical questions to detect social smoking are needed and may include, “Have you smoked any cigarettes or used any tobacco products in the past month?” as opposed to “Are you a smoker?” Clinicians should recognize that social smokers might be motivated to quit after education on the dangers of secondhand smoke rather than on personal health risks or with pharmacotherapy. PMID:19589449

Schane, Rebecca E.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Ling, Pamela M.

2009-01-01

270

Numerical heat-pipe modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research described in this paper was conducted to better understand numerical modeling of heat-pipe transients. In the numerical model, the vapor flow was assumed to be unsteady, compressible and one-dimensional, while the one-dimensional, unsteady, heat diffusion equation was used to model energy conduction through the heat-pipe wall. The liquid return process in the heat-pipe wick was not modeled. Finite difference techniques were used to solve the governing equations. Damping was needed to stabilize the numerical scheme. To validate the numerical model, experimental data was obtained from a copper-water heat-pipe start-up. The heat-pipe's external evaporator and condenser temperatures were recorded during the experiment. In the paper, the results from the numerical model are compared to the experimental data.

Bowman, Jerry; Sweeten, Richard W.

1989-06-01

271

Piping Connector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A complex of high pressure piping at Stennis Space Center carries rocket propellants and other fluids/gases through the Center's Component Test Facility. Conventional clamped connectors tend to leak when propellant lines are chilled to extremely low temperatures. Reflange, Inc. customized an existing piping connector to include a secondary seal more tolerant of severe thermal gradients for Stennis. The T-Con connector solved the problem, and the company is now marketing a commercial version that permits testing, monitoring or collecting any emissions that may escape the primary seal during severe thermal transition.

1993-01-01

272

OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) Cold Water Pipe At-Sea Test Program Data Analysis Project: Users guide for the NOAA/ROTECF and NOAA/TRW computer models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Additional guidelines for the use of the Cold-Water-Pipe computer models NOAA/TRW and NOAA/ROTECF are provided. The primary intent is to correct and upgrade the user manuals with errata sheets and to provide an updated listing of the source codes. It is recommended that users be familiar with the hydrodynamic and structural aspects of floating vessels and the representation of ocean thermal energy conversion pipes as beams of equivalent structural properties.

Vega, L. A.; Nihous, G. C.

1985-06-01

273

Location of Agricultural Drainage Pipes and Assessment of Agricultural Drainage Pipe Conditions Using Ground Penetrating Radar  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Methods are needed to not only locate buried agricultural drainage pipe, but to also determine if the pipes are functioning properly with respect to water delivery. The primary focus of this research project was to confirm the ability of ground penetrating radar (GPR) to locate buried drainage pipe ...

274

Impact of elevated Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) concentrations of reverse osmosis membrane desalinated seawater on the stability of water pipe materials.  

PubMed

Hardness and alkalinity are known factors influencing the chemical stability of desalinated water. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) on corrosion and/or scale formation on the surface of different water distribution pipe materials under tropical conditions. The corrosion rates of ductile iron, cast iron and cement-lined ductile iron coupons were examined in reverse osmosis (RO) membrane desalinated seawater which was remineralised using different concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). The changes in water characteristics and the coupon corrosion rates were studied before and after the post-treatment. The corrosion mechanisms and corrosion products were examined using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction, respectively. We found that the combination of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (60/40 mg/L as CaCO3) resulted in lower corrosion rates than all other treatments for the three types of pipe materials, suggesting that Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) combination improves the chemical stability of desalinated seawater rather than Ca(2+) only. PMID:24642429

Liang, Juan; Deng, Anqi; Xie, Rongjing; Gomez, Mylene; Hu, Jiangyong; Zhang, Jufang; Ong, Choon Nam; Adin, Avner

2014-03-01

275

Smoking and cancer: smoking cessation.  

PubMed

Smoking is the single most important cause of cancer. The risk of developing cancer is reduced by stopping smoking and decreases substantially after five years. Reduction in smoking must be central to any programme aimed seriously at the prevention of cancer. An individual approach, based in primary care, has the potential to bring about modest but important reductions in risk. Many randomised trials have shown the effectiveness of various smoking cessation interventions in primary care. Given resource limitations in primary care, individual effort should be focused on those at highest risk who are motivated to stop smoking. A population strategy has considerable advantages over the high risk approach as the potential for reducing morbidity and mortality in the whole population is much greater. The government must acknowledge its major responsibility; the outstanding example of its failure to do this is its persistent refusal to ban outright all forms of advertising and promotion of tobacco. There is clear evidence that a ban would contribute to a reduction in smoking prevalence and especially in the uptake of smoking by children. PMID:8019283

Austoker, J; Sanders, D; Fowler, G

1994-06-01

276

Secondhand Smoke  

MedlinePLUS

... who smokes. Maybe it's your Grandma or the guy you hang out with at your job at ... and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours ...

277

Smoking Stinks!  

MedlinePLUS

... cigarettes and tobacco. Continue What Are Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco? Tobacco (say: tuh-BA-ko) is a plant ... or cigars. It's the same plant that's in smokeless tobacco, known as dip, chew, snuff, spit, or chewing ...

278

Japan Smoke  

... Smoke Plume from Industrial Fires in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan     View larger image ... a.m. The images are oriented with north at the left and east at the top, and cover an area measuring 85 kilometers by 115 kilometers ...

2013-04-16

279

Heat pipe technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bibliography of heat pipe technology to provide a summary of research projects conducted on heat pipes is presented. The subjects duscussed are: (1) heat pipe applications, (2) heat pipe theory, (3) design and fabrication, (4) testing and operation, (5) subject and author index, and (6) heat pipe related patents.

1972-01-01

280

All about Quitting Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... quit-smoking class or join a support group. All About Quitting Smoking American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800– ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 3/14 Toolkit No. 7: All About Quitting Smoking continued Diabetes and Smoking: Double ...

281

On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Gravel-less Pipe  

E-print Network

Two-compartment septic tank Soil absorption field Gravel-less pipe On-site wastewater treatment systems Gravel-less pipe Bruce Lesikar and Russell Persyn Extension Agricultural Engineering Specialist, Extension Assistant-Water Conservation...

Lesikar, Bruce J.

2000-04-10

282

Smoke Mask  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

2003-01-01

283

Smoke generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A smoke generator is disclosed which is particularly suitable for mounting on the wing tips of an aircraft and for conducting airflow studies. The device includes a network of thermally insulated tubes for carrying a fluid which is used to produce smoke. The fluid, which need not be combustible, is heated above its vaporization temperature by electric current which is passed through the fluid conduit tubes, so that the tubes serve both as fluid conduits and resistance heating elements. Fluid supply and monitoring systems and electrical control systems are also disclosed.

Rogers, J. R. (inventor)

1976-01-01

284

Trace gas emissions and smoke-induced seed germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dormant seeds of a California chaparral annual were induced to germinate by smoke or paper. Nitrogen oxides induced 100 percent vapors emitted from smoke-treated sand or treated water samples inducing. Smoke germination in a manner similar to smoke germination were comparable in acidity and concentration of nitrate and nitrite to nitrogen dioxide (NOâ)-treated samples. Vapors from smoke-treated and NOâ-treated filter

Jon E. Keeley; C. J. Fotheringham

1997-01-01

285

Experimental Study on the Flow Regimes and Pressure Gradients of Air-Oil-Water Three-Phase Flow in Horizontal Pipes  

PubMed Central

An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flows in 2.25 ID horizontal pipe at different flow conditions. The effects of water cuts, liquid and gas velocities on flow patterns and pressure gradients have been studied. The experiments have been conducted at 20°C using low viscosity Safrasol D80 oil, tap water and air. Superficial water and oil velocities were varied from 0.3?m/s to 3?m/s and air velocity varied from 0.29?m/s to 52.5?m/s to cover wide range of flow patterns. The experiments were performed for 10% to 90% water cuts. The flow patterns were observed and recorded using high speed video camera while the pressure drops were measured using pressure transducers and U-tube manometers. The flow patterns show strong dependence on water fraction, gas velocities, and liquid velocities. The observed flow patterns are stratified (smooth and wavy), elongated bubble, slug, dispersed bubble, and annular flow patterns. The pressure gradients have been found to increase with the increase in gas flow rates. Also, for a given superficial gas velocity, the pressure gradients increased with the increase in the superficial liquid velocity. The pressure gradient first increases and then decreases with increasing water cut. In general, phase inversion was observed with increase in the water cut. The experimental results have been compared with the existing unified Model and a good agreement has been noticed. PMID:24523645

Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.; Shaahid, S. M.; Tunde, Lukman O.; Al-Sarkhi, A.

2014-01-01

286

Experimental study on the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flow in horizontal pipes.  

PubMed

An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flows in 2.25 ID horizontal pipe at different flow conditions. The effects of water cuts, liquid and gas velocities on flow patterns and pressure gradients have been studied. The experiments have been conducted at 20 °C using low viscosity Safrasol D80 oil, tap water and air. Superficial water and oil velocities were varied from 0.3 m/s to 3 m/s and air velocity varied from 0.29 m/s to 52.5 m/s to cover wide range of flow patterns. The experiments were performed for 10% to 90% water cuts. The flow patterns were observed and recorded using high speed video camera while the pressure drops were measured using pressure transducers and U-tube manometers. The flow patterns show strong dependence on water fraction, gas velocities, and liquid velocities. The observed flow patterns are stratified (smooth and wavy), elongated bubble, slug, dispersed bubble, and annular flow patterns. The pressure gradients have been found to increase with the increase in gas flow rates. Also, for a given superficial gas velocity, the pressure gradients increased with the increase in the superficial liquid velocity. The pressure gradient first increases and then decreases with increasing water cut. In general, phase inversion was observed with increase in the water cut. The experimental results have been compared with the existing unified Model and a good agreement has been noticed. PMID:24523645

Al-Hadhrami, Luai M; Shaahid, S M; Tunde, Lukman O; Al-Sarkhi, A

2014-01-01

287

THE EFFECT OF CHLORIDE, SULFATE, BICARBONATE AND ORTHOPHOSPHATE ON THE RELEASE OF IRON FROM A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PIPE  

EPA Science Inventory

“Colored water” describes the appearance of drinking water that contains suspended particulate iron where the actual suspension color may range from light yellow to red due to water chemistry and particle properties. This iron can originate from the source water and f...

288

OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipe at-sea test program data analysis project. Comparisons between measured and predicted barge and pipe response: Evaluation of the NOAA/ROTECF and NOAA/TRW computer models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simulation of the at-sea test conditions with computer models is considered. The NOAA/ROTECF model simulates a coupled barge/pipe system driven by waves and currents in the frequency domain (standard-deviation parameters are considered). The NOAA/TRW model simulates a pipe driven by user-specified barge motions, waves, and currents in the time domain (parameters as a function of time are considered).

Vega, L. A.; Nihous, G. C.

1985-10-01

289

Transcriptome analysis of germinating maize kernels exposed to smoke-water and the active compound KAR1  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Smoke released from burning vegetation functions as an important environmental signal promoting the germination of many plant species following a fire. It not only promotes the germination of species from fire-prone habitats, but several species from non-fire-prone areas also respond, including some crops. The germination stimulatory activity can largely be attributed to the presence of a highly active butenolide

Vilmos Soós; Endre Sebestyén; Angéla Juhász; Marnie E Light; Ladislav Kohout; Gabriella Szalai; Júlia Tandori; Johannes Van Staden; Ervin Balázs

2010-01-01

290

System for Testing Thermal Insulation of Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and method have been developed for measuring the rates of leakage of heat into pipes carrying liquids, the purpose of the measurements being to quantify the thermal performance of the insulation system. The apparatus is designed primarily for testing pipes used to carry cryogenic liquids, but can also be used for measuring the thermal performance of other insulated pipes or piping systems. The basic measurement principle is straightforward: The outer surface of the pipe insulation is maintained at a fixed warmer temperature. The interior of the pipe is maintained in a narrow fixed lower-temperature range by means of a regular liquid (e.g., water) that is pumped through the pipe at a known flow rate or a cryogenic liquid (e.g., nitrogen) that is saturated at atmospheric pressure and replenished until steady-state conditions are achieved. In the case of water or another liquid pumped through, the inlet and outlet temperatures are measured and heat-leak power is calculated as the mass flow rate of the liquid multiplied by the specific heat of the liquid multiplied by the inlet-to-outlet temperature rise of the liquid. In the case of liquid nitrogen or another low-temperature boiling liquid, the heat-leak power is calculated as the rate of boil-off multiplied by the latent heat of vaporization of the liquid. Then the thermal-insulation performance of the pipe system can be calculated as a function of the measured heat-leak power, the inner and outer boundary temperatures, and the dimensions of the pipe. The apparatus can test as many as three pipes simultaneously. The pipes can have inner diameters up to .15 cm and outer diameters up to .20 cm. The lengths of the pipes may vary; typical lengths are of the order of 18 m. Two thermal guard boxes . one for each end of the pipe(s) under test . are used to make the inlet and outlet fluid connections to the pipe(s) (see figure). The connections include bellows that accommodate thermal expansion and contraction of the pipes. The guard boxes and pipe(s) are positioned so that the pipe(s) slope upward from the upstream to the downstream end at an angle of at least 2 . The upward slope allows vapor bubbles to accumulate at the downstream end. The thermal guard boxes keep the ends of the pipes at the lower interior temperature to prevent spurious lengthwise leakage of heat into the pipes. It is important to prevent this spurious heat leakage because, if it were allowed to occur, it could contribute a large error in the measured heat-leak power. The upstream thermal guard box includes a heat exchanger through which liquid flowing into the pipe(s) is subcooled to the saturation temperature corresponding to the ambient pressure. Conversely, this heat exchanger can also be used to warm the flowing liquid to a desired fixed temperature. The apparatus includes a temperature control device that is placed around each pipe under test. Each device is operated under thermostatic control to maintain the outer surface of the pipe insulation at the specified test temperature. All measurements are recorded on a portable data-acquisition system.

Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, Stanislaw D.; Nagy, Zoltan F.

2003-01-01

291

OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipe at-sea test program. Volume 2.F.: Environmental design criteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prototype for one third scale model is envisioned to be the OTEC Pilot Plant design in the 10/40 MWe size range with an estimated CWP diameter of about 30 feet and an overall vertical length of about 3,000 feet. Thus the one third scale CWP consists of pipe about 10 feet in diameter and 1,000 feet long. A side selection evaluation was initiated to establish a site which would meet both the logistic requirement for construction and operation, provide adequate wave wind climate required for the test validation and finally exhibit bottom slope and sediment layer characteristics adequate for the mooring system, as confirmed by geophysical surveys.

1982-07-01

292

Heat pipes cool probe and sandwich panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two concepts integrate heat-pipe technology. Probe with heat-pipe cooled jacket is self-contained, passive, and has no moving parts, unlike conventional air and water cooled probes. It is used in hostile, high temperature environments like wind tunnels and powerplants or on high-speed research and hypersonic cruise vehicles. Heat-pipe sandwich panel combines structural efficiency of sandwich with thermal efficiency of heat-pipe. It is used to eliminate thermal gradients and stresses, minimize thermal distortions, and transfer heat from one face of panel to other.

Camarda, C. J.; Couch, L. M.; Kelly, H. N.

1981-01-01

293

Modeling and testing of reactive contaminant transport in drinking water pipes: Chlorine response and implications for online contaminant detection  

EPA Science Inventory

Reactive contaminants introduced to chlorinated drinking water can cause water quality change directly related to their reactivity and other physiochemical properties. This general principle is further developed and utilized in a proposed real-time event adaptive detection, iden...

294

THE EFFECT OF CHLORIDE AND ORTHOPHOSPHATE ON THE RELEASE OF IRON FROM A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CAST IRON PIPE  

EPA Science Inventory

Colored water" describes the appearance of drinking water that contains suspended particulate iron although the actual suspension color may be light yellow to red depending on water chemistry and particle properties. The release of iron from distribution system materials such as...

295

NOAA OTEC CWP (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Cold Water Pipe) at-sea test. Volume 3: Additional tabulation of the power spectra, part 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data collected during the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Cold Water Pipe At Sea Test are analyzed. Also included are the following ittems: (1) sensor factors and offsets, and the data processing algorithms used to convert the recorded sensor measurements from electrical to engineering units; (2) plots of the power spectra estimates obtained from a fast fourier transform (FFT) analysis of selected channels; (3) plots of selected sensor measurements as a function of time; and (4) plots of bending strain along the pipe using statistics and values presented.

1983-12-01

296

NOAA OTEC CWP (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Cold Water Pipe) at-sea test. Volume 3, part 1: Tabulation of the power spectra for selected channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data collected during the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Cold Water Pipe At-Sea Test was analyzed. Data presented included: (1)sensor factors and off sets and the data processing algorithms used to convert the recorded sensor measurements from electrical units to engineering units; (2) plots of the power spectra estimates obtained from a fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis of selected channels; (3) plots of selected sensor measurements as a function of time; and (4) plots of bending strain along the pipe. The mean, root-mean-square (RMS) maximum, and minimum values at each depth are shown in each plot.

1983-11-01

297

Cured-in-place pipe reconstruction of existing underground systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes InLiner USA{reg_sign} which is a cost effective process that allows pipes to be rebuilt without digging and avoids disturbing the area surrounding the pipe. This cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) technology is a unique process for reconstructing deteriorated pipe line systems in municipal and industry applications, which includes powerplants. The process uses a resin that coats and rebuilds th interior of the pipe to improve its structural integrity and corrosion resistance. CIPP creates continuous, seamless construction which increases flow capacities, stops infiltration, improves structural strength, resists long term corrosion and forms its own pipe within a pipe. It can be installed in a matter of hours or days and can be utilized in gravity and pressure pipes for storm sewers, sanitary sewers, combined sewers, water mains, gas mains and process piping.

Knasel, J. [Kenny Construction Co., Wheeling, IL (United States)

1995-09-01

298

Smoke Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the photo, Fire Chief Jay Stout of Safety Harbor, Florida, is explaining to young Richard Davis the workings of the Honeywell smoke and fire detector which probably saved Richard's life and that of his teen-age brother. Alerted by the detector's warning, the pair were able to escape their burning home. The detector in the Davis home was one of 1,500 installed in Safety Harbor residences in a cooperative program conducted by the city and Honeywell Inc.

1979-01-01

299

Vapor spill pipe monitor  

DOEpatents

The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

1983-06-23

300

COPPER-INDUCED CORROSION OF GALVANIZED STEEL PIPE  

EPA Science Inventory

An investigation was conducted to determine the cause(s) of rapid pitting failure of galvanized steel pipe used in consumer plumbing systems. The presence of copper in water and the character of the galvanized steel pipe were factors examined in detail. Pipe manufactured in Korea...

301

Automated Assessment Tool for the Depth of Pipe Deterioration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defects in underground pipeline images are indicative of the condition of buried infrastructures like sewers and water mains. This paper entitled automated assessment Tool for the depth of pipe deterioration presents a three step method which is a simple, robust and efficient one to detect defects in the underground concrete pipes. It identifies and extracts defect-like structures from pipe images

P. Swarnalatha; Madhuri Kota; Nagarjuna Reddy Resu; G. Srivasanth

2009-01-01

302

Effect of temperature, WPS (water-phase salt) and phenolic contents on4 Listeria monocytogenes growth rates on cold-smoked salmon and evaluation5  

E-print Network

monocytogenes growth rates on cold-smoked salmon and evaluation5 of secondary models.6 M. Cornu1* , A. Beaufort1 and phenolic20 smoke compounds on the growth rate of L. monocytogenes in cold-smoked salmon were21 investigated, through physico-chemical analyses, challenge tests on surface of cold-smoked22 salmon at 4°C and 8°C

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

303

Smoking and Infertility  

MedlinePLUS

... parents smoke are at increased risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and for developing asthma. I don’t smoke but my partner does. Could this secondhand smoke affect my fertility? Women exposed to secondhand smoke can suffer all the above health risks. If I stop smoking, will my chances ...

304

Green-blue water in the city: quantification of impact of source control versus end-of-pipe solutions on sewer and river floods.  

PubMed

Urbanization and climate change trends put strong pressures on urban water systems. Temporal variations in rainfall, runoff and water availability increase, and need to be compensated for by innovative adaptation strategies. One of these is stormwater retention and infiltration in open and/or green spaces in the city (blue-green water integration). This study evaluated the efficiency of three adaptation strategies for the city of Turnhout in Belgium, namely source control as a result of blue-green water integration, retention basins located downstream of the stormwater sewers, and end-of-pipe solutions based on river flood control reservoirs. The efficiency of these options is quantified by the reduction in sewer and river flood frequencies and volumes, and sewer overflow volumes. This is done by means of long-term simulations (100-year rainfall simulations) using an integrated conceptual sewer-river model calibrated to full hydrodynamic sewer and river models. Results show that combining open, green zones in the city with stormwater retention and infiltration for only 1% of the total city runoff area would lead to a 30 to 50% reduction in sewer flood volumes for return periods in the range 10-100 years. This is due to the additional surface storage and infiltration and consequent reduction in urban runoff. However, the impact of this source control option on downstream river floods is limited. Stormwater retention downstream of the sewer system gives a strong reduction in peak discharges to the receiving river. However due to the difference in response time between the sewer and river systems, this does not lead to a strong reduction in river flood frequency. The paper shows the importance of improving the interface between urban design and water management, and between sewer and river flood management. PMID:25500472

De Vleeschauwer, K; Weustenraad, J; Nolf, C; Wolfs, V; De Meulder, B; Shannon, K; Willems, P

2014-01-01

305

Pipe Leak Detection Technology Development  

EPA Science Inventory

The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has determined that one of the nation?s biggest infrastructural needs is the replacement or rehabilitation of the water distribution and transmission systems. The institution of more effective pipe leak detection technology will im...

306

Modeling of pulsating heat pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the results of a computer model that describes the behavior of pulsating heat pipes (PHP). The purpose of the project was to develop a highly efficient (as compared to the heat transfer capability of solid copper) thermal groundplane (TGP) using silicon carbide (SiC) as the substrate material and water as the working fluid. The objective of this

Richard C. Givler; Mario J. Martinez

2009-01-01

307

The Occurrence of Contaminant Accumulation in Lead Pipe Scales from Domestic Drinking Water Distribution Systems-ABSTRACT  

EPA Science Inventory

Previous work has shown that contaminants such as Al, As and Ra, can accumulate in drinking water distribution system solids. The release of accumulated contaminants back into the water supply could conceivably result in elevated levels at consumers? taps. The current regulatory...

308

Analysis of Distribution System and Domestic Service Line Pipe Deposits to Understand Water Treatment/Metal Release Relationships  

EPA Science Inventory

This project puts the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) into a unique position of being able to bring analytical tools to bear to solve or anticipate future drinking water infrastructure water quality and metallic or cement material performance problems, for which little...

309

Demonstration and evaluation of an innovative water main rehabilitation technology: Cured-in-Place Pipe (CIPP) lining  

EPA Science Inventory

As many water utilities are seeking new and innovative rehabilitation technologies to extend the life of their water distribution systems, information on the capabilities and applicability of new technologies is not always readily available from an independent source. The U.S. E...

310

Smoking and asthma  

MedlinePLUS

... your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger for many people who have ... do not have to be a smoker for smoking to cause harm. Exposure to someone else's smoking ( ...

311

Guide to Quitting Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... My Saved Articles » My ACS » Guide to Quitting Smoking Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) The US Surgeon General has said, “Smoking cessation [stopping smoking] represents the single most important ...

312

Smoking and Youth  

MedlinePLUS

Smoking cigarettes has many health risks for everyone. However, the younger you are when you start smoking, the more problems it can cause. People who start smoking before the age of 21 have the hardest ...

313

Smoking and Tobacco Information  

Cancer.gov

Harms of Smoking and Health Benefits of Quitting A fact sheet that lists some of the cancer-causing chemicals in tobacco smoke and describes the health problems caused by smoking and the benefits of quitting.

314

Smoking and Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Smoking and Cervical Cancer If you smoke, you have an increased chance of developing precancerous lesions of the cervix (called moderate or ... and an increase in the chance of developing cervical cancer. Smoking greatly increases your risk for dysplasia and ...

315

A Spatio-Temporal exploratory analysis of pipe-failure incidents in the Water Distribution Network of Limassol, Cyprus   

E-print Network

This paper presents the first attempt to the use of Geographic Information Systems technology in the Water Distribution Networks of Cyprus. A variety of exploratory, statistical and visualization techniques were used in order to identify patterns...

Gagatsis, Anastasios

2011-08-10

316

Applicability of Related Data, Algorithms, and Models to the Simulation of Ground-Coupled Residential Hot Water Piping in California  

E-print Network

preliminary model for ground heat transfer that includes thein Modeling of Heat Transfer in Vertical Ground HeatHeat transfer algorithms and models devised for generalized, hot water distribution system, ground-

Warner, J.L.

2009-01-01

317

Smoking cessation medications  

MedlinePLUS

Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Creating a plan to help you deal with smoking urges. Getting support from a doctor, counselor, or ...

318

33 CFR 127.613 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking. 127.613 Section 127.613 Navigation and Navigable...Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.613 Smoking. In the marine transfer area for LNG, the operator...

2010-07-01

319

33 CFR 127.1601 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking. 127.1601 Section 127.1601 Navigation and Navigable...Liquefied Hazardous Gas Fire Protection § 127.1601 Smoking. Each operator of a waterfront facility handling LHG...

2010-07-01

320

33 CFR 127.1601 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Smoking. 127.1601 Section 127.1601 Navigation and Navigable...Liquefied Hazardous Gas Fire Protection § 127.1601 Smoking. Each operator of a waterfront facility handling LHG...

2011-07-01

321

33 CFR 127.613 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Smoking. 127.613 Section 127.613 Navigation and Navigable...Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.613 Smoking. In the marine transfer area for LNG, the operator...

2011-07-01

322

Attitudes of Cairo University medical students toward smoking: the need for tobacco control programs in medical education  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco smoking rates are increasing in developing countries and so are tobacco-related chronic diseases. Reported figures from the WHO show rates of smoking in Egypt as high as 20% but limited information is available about smoking specifically among physicians and medical students. Materials and methods Final-year medical students of Cairo University were surveyed regarding their tobacco behavior and attitudes using a modified Global Health Professions Student Survey. We approached 220 students by randomly selecting clinical units into which they were assigned and requested completion of the survey. Results Ever users of some form of tobacco comprised 46.7% of students sampled, current users of cigarettes comprised 17.4%, and current users of water pipe ‘sheesha’ comprised 17.6%. The vast majority (87.7%) of students believed that smoking is a public health problem in Cairo and supported restriction of tobacco. Yet, only 58.5% stated that they were taught it is important for physicians to provide tobacco education materials to patients. Among ever users of cigarettes, 54.4% believed health professionals do not serve as health role models for patients, and only a small percentage of all students (34.2%) stated that they had received some form of training on smoking cessation in their medical curriculum to be able to instruct patients. Conclusion and recommendations A high rate of smoking was revealed among medical students in Cairo. Overall, approximately 23.4% of students were currently smoking cigarettes and/or sheesha, and 46.7% were ever users of some form of tobacco. A formal antitobacco program for medical students should be incorporated into their medical curriculum to change the attitudes of medical students and overcome the anticipated increase in chronic diseases in Egypt. PMID:22415329

Khan, Adeel A.M.; Dey, Subhojit; Taha, Alaa H.; Huq, Farhan S.; Moussawi, Ahmad H.; Omar, Omar S.; Soliman, Amr S.

2014-01-01

323

Water heat pipe frozen startup and shutdown transients with internal temperature, pressure, and visual observation. Final report, September 1984May 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three sets of experiments were performed to analyze the transient nature of heat pipes and possible failures. The first set studied the entrainment phenomenon and suggests that entrainment starts in a form not readily observable by other than visual means. The second set used a specially designed heat pipe with a rectangular cross section, flat mesh-type wick, and a clear

T. Reinarts; M. DeHart; J. Peery; F. Best

1990-01-01

324

Field Demonstration of Innovative Leak Detection/Location in Conjunction with Pipe Wall Thickness Testing for Water Mains  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,000-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Se...

325

Arsenic Accumulation and Release Studies Using a Cast Iron Pipe Section from a Drinking Water Distribution System  

EPA Science Inventory

The tendency of iron solid surfaces to adsorb arsenic and other ions is well known and has become the basis for several drinking water treatment approaches that remove these contaminants. It is reasonable to assume that iron-based solids, such as corrosion deposits present in dri...

326

Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector  

SciTech Connect

A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

McConnell, R.D.; Vansant, J.H.

1984-10-02

327

Rotating optical geometry sensor for inner pipe-surface reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inspection of sewer or fresh water pipes is usually carried out by a remotely controlled inspection vehicle equipped with a high resolution camera and a lightning system. This operator-oriented approach based on offline analysis of the recorded images is highly subjective and prone to errors. Beside the subjective classification of pipe defects through the operator standard closed circuit television (CCTV) technology is not suitable for detecting geometrical deformations resulting from e.g. structural mechanical weakness of the pipe, corrosion of e.g. cast-iron material or sedimentations. At Fraunhofer Institute of Optronics, System Technologies and Image Exploitation (IOSB) in Karlsruhe, Germany, a new Rotating Optical Geometry Sensor (ROGS) for pipe inspection has been developed which is capable of measuring the inner pipe geometry very precisely over the whole pipe length. This paper describes the developed ROGS system and the online adaption strategy for choosing the optimal system parameters. These parameters are the rotation and traveling speed dependent from the pipe diameter. Furthermore, a practicable calibration methodology is presented which guarantees an identification of the several internal sensor parameters. ROGS has been integrated in two different systems: A rod based system for small fresh water pipes and a standard inspection vehicle based system for large sewer Pipes. These systems have been successfully applied to different pipe systems. With this measurement method the geometric information can be used efficiently for an objective repeatable quality evaluation. Results and experiences in the area of fresh water pipe inspection will be presented.

Ritter, Moritz; Frey, Christan W.

2010-01-01

328

Minimising surface water pollution resulting from farm?dairy effluent application to mole?pipe drained soils. I. An evaluation of the deferred irrigation system for sustainable land treatment in the Manawatu  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little information available on the magnitude of nutrient losses to surface water from the two?pond and daily irrigation treatment systems for farm?dairy effluent (FDE). A research site has been established on a mole?pipe drained Tokomaru silt loam at Massey University's No. 4 Dairy Farm (475 cows) to investigate some of these issues. The site consists of four plots

D. J. Houlbrooke; D. J. Horne; M. J. Hedley; J. A. Hanly; D. R. Scotter; V. O. Snow

2004-01-01

329

Heat pipe system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat pipe diode device for transferring heat from a heat source component to a heat sink wall is described. It contains a heat pipe body member attached to the best source; the heat source having a wall forming at least a portion of the normal evaporator section of the heat pipe diode; a working fluid within the body member;

H. L. Kroebig; F. J. Riha

1974-01-01

330

Heat pipes. [technology utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and use of heat pipes are described, including space requirements and contributions. Controllable heat pipes, and designs for automatically maintaining a selected constant temperature, are discussed which would add to the versatility and usefulness of heat pipes in industrial processing, manufacture of integrated circuits, and in temperature stabilization of electronics.

1975-01-01

331

Gas chromatographic determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and smoked rice samples after solid-phase microextraction using multiwalled carbon nanotube loaded hollow fiber.  

PubMed

A novel solid-phase microextraction fiber was prepared based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) loaded on hollow fiber membrane pores. Stainless steel wire was used as unbreakable support. The major advantages of the proposed fiber are its (a) high reproducibility due to the uniform structure of the hollow fiber membranes, (b) high extraction capacity related to the porous structure of the hollow fiber and outstanding adsorptive characteristics of MWCNTs. The proposed fiber was applied for the microextraction of five representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from aqueous media (river and hubble-bubble water) and smoked rice samples followed by gas chromatographic determination. Analytical merits of the method, including high correlation coefficients [(0.9963-0.9992) and (0.9982-0.9999)] and low detection limits [(9.0-13.0ngL(-1)) and (40.0-150.0ngkg(-1))] for water and rice samples, respectively, made the proposed method suitable for the ultra-trace determination of PAHs. PMID:25476686

Matin, Amir Abbas; Biparva, Pourya; Gheshlaghi, Mohammad

2014-12-29

332

Smoking Cessation: The Economic Benefits  

MedlinePLUS

... Advocacy > Reports & Resources > Smoking Cessation: The Economic Benefits Smoking Cessation: The Economic Benefits When states invest in covering smoking cessation treatments, they save lives and money. Click ...

333

Remotely operated pipe connector  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for remotely assembling and disassembling a connector between a pipe and a closure for the pipe is described, wherein the connector includes an angled flange defining an annular camming surface on the end of the pipe, an angled flange defining an annular camming surface on the closure, two semicircular collars which surround the flanges on the pipe and the closure, each of the collars having annular camming surfaces thereon adapted to contact the annular camming surfaces on the pipe and closure, a nut and bolt means extending through the two collars at each side for drawing the collars together, and an annular sealing ring located between the pipe and closure. The sealing ring is compressed between the pipe and the closure as the camming action of the camming surfaces on the collars against the camming surfaces on the pipe and closure draws the pipe and closure toward one another. The apparatus comprises: a base, a receptacle on the base, the closure being positioned on the receptacle with the flange of the closure upwardmost and horizontally disposed, and the sealing ring resting on the flange; a positioning means for moving the pipe into position vertically above the closure with the flange on the end of the pipe immediately adjacent to and the sealing ring resting on the flange of the closure; a moving means for each collar for reciprocally moving each collar horizontally from a position free of the closure to a position such that the annular camming surfaces on each collar are in contact with the annular camming surfaces on the pipe and closure; and a tensioning means for automatically tightening the nut and bolt means in each side of the collars to draw the collars together and thereby draw the pipe and closure toward one another to cause the seal ring to be compressed between the pipe and closure.

Josefiak, L.J.; Cramer, C.E.

1988-02-16

334

The Wick-concept for Thermal Insulation of Cold Piping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wick-concept for thermal insulation of cold piping is based on capillary suction of a fiber fabric to remove excess water from the pipe surface by transporting it to the outer surface of the insulation. From the surface of the insulation jacket, the water will evaporate to the ambient air. This will prevent long-term accumulation of moisture in the insulation

Vit Koverdynsky; Vagn Korsgaard; Carsten Rode

2006-01-01

335

Model for hydraulic networks with evenly distributed demands along pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows how the global gradient method formulated by Todini and Pilati (Todini, E. and Pilati, S., 1987. A gradient algorithm for the analysis of pipe network. In: International conference on computer applications for water supply and distribution, Leicester Polytechnic, UK) can be modified in order to represent user water demand evenly distributed along pipes. It is also shown

Marco Franchini; Stefano Alvisi

2010-01-01

336

Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water\\/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the

Paul R. Huebotter; George A. McLennan

1985-01-01

337

Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water\\/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the

P. R. Huebotter; G. A. McLennan

1984-01-01

338

The impact of blocking natural peat pipes on dissolved organic carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural pipes transport water and aquatic carbon through peatlands. In 2010 pipes were blocked on Keighley Moor in northern England as part of a peatland restoration programme aimed at reducing water discolouration and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release into stream waters used for potable water supply. Blocked and open pipes were monitored for water quality between June 2012 and October 2013. The DOC, water colour, conductivity and pH were not significantly different between open pipes and water flowing from areas where pipe blocking had occurred. A before-after control-treatment experiment was devised at another peatland site - Moor House World Biosphere Reserve in northern England. Here, the areas around six pipes were monitored for water quality, discharge, water tables, and overland flow. Four of the pipes were then blocked while monitoring continued on all six pipes. The Moor House investigation suggests that the overall effects of blocking on water colour and DOC in the following summer were small (5 % decrease in absorbance at 254 nm but 7 % increase in absorbance at 400 nm, and 2 % decrease in DOC relative to open pipe controls). There were large (40-117 %) local increases in colour and DOC in overland flow but decreases in soil water (7-10 %) relative to the areas around open pipes. Water tables rose by a few cm upslope of the pipe dams. However, downslope, water tables fell by a similar amount, thereby potentially counteracting any water quality benefits resulting from shallower water tables upslope. Pipe blocking is expensive, and our results to date suggest that any water quality benefits are outweighed by the cost of blocking. However, in highly-degraded sites where pipes are rapidly expanding to form gullies, pipe blocking may be useful as part of a larger suite of measures to help reduce peat erosion.

Holden, Joseph; Baird, Andy; Parry, Lauren; Chapman, Pippa; Palmer, Sheila; Wallage, Zoe; Wynne, Hannah

2014-05-01

339

Water temperature effect on upward air-water flow in a vertical pipe: Local measurements database using four-sensor conductivity probes and LDA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental work was carried out to study the effects of temperature variation in bubbly, bubbly to slug transition. Experiments were carried out in an upward air-water flow configuration. Four sensor conductivity probes and LDA techniques was used together for the measurement of bubble parameters. The aim of this paper is to provide a bubble parameter experimental database using four-sensor conductivity probes and LDA technique for upward air-water flow at different temperatures and also show transition effect in different temperatures under the boiling point.

Monrós-Andreu, G.; Chiva, S.; Martínez-Cuenca, R.; Torró, S.; Juliá, J. E.; Hernández, L.; Mondragón, R.

2013-04-01

340

Abrasion resistant heat pipe  

DOEpatents

A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

Ernst, D.M.

1984-10-23

341

Smoking and Bone Health  

MedlinePLUS

... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Smoking and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF (217 ... Overtraining Risks for Women Oral Health Partner Resources Smoking: It’s Never Too Late to Stop (NIA)

342

Cigar Smoking and Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... size of most cigars (more tobacco) and longer smoking time result in higher exposure to many toxic ... the health risk to yourself and others, stop smoking. 3. Do cigars cause cancer and other diseases? ...

343

Kids and Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... Parents > School & Family Life > Tough Topics > Kids and Smoking Print A A A Text Size What's in ... sure kids understand the dangers of tobacco use. Smoking is the leading cause of preventable deaths in ...

344

Smoking in the Movies  

MedlinePLUS

... The Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), the studios' organization that assigns ratings, provides a "smoking label" ... to be efficient at minimizing smoking in movies. Studios with policies have had more tobacco incidents in ...

345

Up in Smoke.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research on adolescent smoking and nicotine addiction. Finds, for example, that smoking is linked to depression. Describes five stages of nicotine addiction. Offers tips for prevention. (Contains 12 references.) (PKP)

Black, Susan

2002-01-01

346

Continuous laminar smoke generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A smoke generator capable of emitting a very thin, laminar stream of smoke for use in high detail flow visualization was invented. The generator is capable of emitting a larger but less stable rope of smoke. The invention consists of a pressure supply and fluid supply which supply smoke generating fluid to feed. The feed tube is directly heated by electrical resistance from current supplied by power supply and regulated by a constant temperature controller. A smoke exit hole is drilled in the wall of feed tube. Because feed tube is heated both before and past exit hole, no condensation of smoke generating occurs at the smoke exit hole, enabling the production of a very stable smoke filament. The generator is small in size which avoids wind turbulence in front of the test model.

Weinstein, L. M. (inventor)

1985-01-01

347

Curing and Smoking Poultry  

E-print Network

Cured and smoked poultry is a taste-tempting treat. Easy directions lead the reader step-by-step through the process of selecting poultry, preparing and injecting the brine, soaking and draining the carcass, and smoking the poultry....

Denton, James H.

1999-11-10

348

30 CFR 75.1101-12 - Equivalent dry-pipe system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1101-12 Equivalent dry-pipe system. Where water sprinkler systems are installed to protect main and secondary belt conveyor drives and freezing temperatures prevail, an equivalent dry-pipe...

2013-07-01

349

30 CFR 75.1101-12 - Equivalent dry-pipe system.  

...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1101-12 Equivalent dry-pipe system. Where water sprinkler systems are installed to protect main and secondary belt conveyor drives and freezing temperatures prevail, an equivalent dry-pipe...

2014-07-01

350

Heat pipe investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The OAO-C spacecraft has three circular heat pipes, each of a different internal design, located in the space between the spacecraft structural tube and the experiment tube, which are designed to isothermalize the structure. Two of the pipes are used to transport high heat loads, and the third is for low heat loads. The test problems deal with the charging of the pipes, modifications, the mobile tilt table, the position indicator, and the heat input mechanisms. The final results showed that the techniques used were adequate for thermal-vacuum testing of heat pipes.

Marshburn, J. P.

1972-01-01

351

External artery heat pipe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

352

Internal pipe attachment mechanism  

DOEpatents

An attachment mechanism is described for repairing or extending fluid carrying pipes, casings, conduits, etc. utilizing one-way motion of spring tempered fingers to provide a mechanical connection between the attachment mechanism and the pipe. The spring tempered fingers flex to permit insertion into a pipe to a desired insertion depth. The mechanical connection is accomplished by reversing the insertion motion and the mechanical leverage in the fingers forces them outwardly against the inner wall of the pipe. A seal is generated by crushing a sealing assembly by the action of setting the mechanical connection. 6 figures.

Bast, R.M.; Chesnut, D.A.; Henning, C.D.; Lennon, J.P.; Pastrnak, J.W.; Smith, J.A.

1994-12-13

353

Cutaneous Effects of Smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cigarette smoking is the single biggest preventable cause of death and disability in developed countries and is a significant public health concern. While known to be strongly associated with a number of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases and cancers, smoking also leads to a variety of cutaneous manifestations. Objective: This article reviews the effects of cigarette smoking on the skin

Anatoli Freiman; Garrett Bird; Andrei I. Metelitsa; Benjamin Barankin; Gilles J. Lauzon

2004-01-01

354

Parental Smoking Affects Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research done by workers at Harvard Medical School suggests that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can impair breathing in children ages five through nine. Lung flow rates (breathing ability) decreased for children with smoking parents, and significantly if the children also smoke. (MA)

Science News, 1978

1978-01-01

355

Smoking and Asthma  

MedlinePLUS

... wants to help you quit! Continue If Other People Smoke Even if you don't smoke, you may ... There's not much you can do about other people's behavior. But let your friends and family know that what they are doing is making your asthma worse. Ask them not to smoke in your house or car. It's your air, ...

356

Relationships and Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... This is true whether only one or both people smoke. Likely, there are patterns in how you and ... she can, Jen likes to get away and smoke in peace. Why does it help to know your ... how other people, like friends and co-workers, affect your smoking ...

357

Teen smoking cessation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in adolescent smoking cessation has increased dramatically over the past several years, as researchers and practitioners have acknowledged the high rates of adolescents who smoke regularly and the low probability that adolescents who are regular smokers will stop on their own. The evidence base behind smoking cessation interventions for adolescents is also now starting to grow, but unfortunately the

R Mermelstein

2003-01-01

358

About You and Smoking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet acquaints the student with current scientific knowledge about smoking and its effects on health, with the economic aspects of smoking, with ways in which young people might help those who now have a smoking problem, and with significant health statistics. It begins, in chapter 1, with a discussion of the history of tobacco and its…

Houser, Norman W.; And Others

359

Smoking cessation in pregnancy.  

PubMed Central

Smoking during pregnancy harms the fetus, newborn infant, young child, and mother. Smoking during the last two trimesters greatly increases the risk of stillbirth, spontaneous abortion, premature delivery, neonatal death, and low birth weight. Risk is in direct proportion to cigarette smoke exposure. PMID:8924801

Brown, D. C.

1996-01-01

360

Time scales and FSI in unsteady liquid-filled pipe flow Arris S Tijsseling Alan E Vardy  

E-print Network

Time scales and FSI in unsteady liquid-filled pipe flow Arris S Tijsseling Alan E Vardy Department are used to classify unsteady flow in liquid-filled pipes. Seven types of pipe flow are distinguished examples are given for accelerating flow, water hammer and FSI in a single pipe. One aim of the present

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

361

UNDERSTANDING CHLORINE AND CHLORAMINE DECAY KINETICS IN OLD CAST IRON PIPES, 2. CONVERSION FROM CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT TO MICROFILTRATION IN A SMALL WATER SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

This insitu pipe loop study was designed to determine the disinfectant kinetics associated with very old unlined cast iron pipelines with both chlorine and chloramination residuals. An abandoned 90-year-old unlined cast iron pipeline about 2000 ft long was acclimated to conduct a...

362

Worldwide effort against smoking.  

PubMed

The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because smokers need to be aware of the dangers of smoking. Health education projects and public information should address the hazards of smoking and discourage smoking from becoming the social norm. PMID:12314496

1986-07-01

363

Avoid freeze-up of steam traps and their piping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the problem of keeping steam traps free of ice in cold weather. The topics of the article include piping configurations and trap types that contribute to freezing, freeze damage, obstructions in piping, insulation of lines to retard freezing, common manifolds for heating of condensate, draining of low points, temperature-actuated devices, and water hammer damage.

OKeefe

1993-01-01

364

Avoid freeze-up of steam traps and their piping  

SciTech Connect

This article addresses the problem of keeping steam traps free of ice in cold weather. The topics of the article include piping configurations and trap types that contribute to freezing, freeze damage, obstructions in piping, insulation of lines to retard freezing, common manifolds for heating of condensate, draining of low points, temperature-actuated devices, and water hammer damage.

O'Keefe, W.

1993-12-01

365

Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

Huebotter, P.R.; McLennan, G.A.

1984-08-30

366

Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

Huebotter, Paul R. (Western Springs, IL); McLennan, George A. (Downers Grove, IL)

1985-01-01

367

46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler feed piping. 56.50-30 Section...to Specific Systems § 56.50-30 Boiler feed piping. (a) General requirements...separate means of supplying feed water for the boilers. All feed pumps shall be fitted...

2010-10-01

368

46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boiler feed piping. 56.50-30 Section...to Specific Systems § 56.50-30 Boiler feed piping. (a) General requirements...separate means of supplying feed water for the boilers. All feed pumps shall be fitted...

2011-10-01

369

46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Boiler feed piping. 56.50-30 Section...to Specific Systems § 56.50-30 Boiler feed piping. (a) General requirements...separate means of supplying feed water for the boilers. All feed pumps shall be fitted...

2012-10-01

370

46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Boiler feed piping. 56.50-30 Section...to Specific Systems § 56.50-30 Boiler feed piping. (a) General requirements...separate means of supplying feed water for the boilers. All feed pumps shall be fitted...

2013-10-01

371

Assessment of Agricultural Drainage Pipe Conditions Using Ground Penetrating Radar  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Farmers and land improvement contractors, especially in the Midwest U.S., need methods to not only locate buried agricultural drainage pipe, but also to determine if the pipes are functioning properly with respect to water delivery. Previous investigations have already demonstrated the feasibility o...

372

SATURATED-SUBCOOLED STRATIFIED FLOW IN HORIZONTAL PIPES  

SciTech Connect

Advanced light water reactor systems are designed to use passive emergency core cooling systems with horizontal pipes that provide highly subcooled water from water storage tanks or passive heat exchangers to the reactor vessel core under accident conditions. Because passive systems are driven by density gradients, the horizontal pipes often do not flow full and thus have a free surface that is exposed to saturated steam and stratified flow is present.

Richard Schultz

2010-08-01

373

Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy, Child Behavior Problems, and Adolescent Smoking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used longitudinal sample of 187 mother-child dyads to examine the role of child behavior problems in explaining the effect of maternal prenatal smoking on adolescent daughters' smoking. Found that maternal prenatal smoking retained a unique effect on girls' current smoking with controls for current maternal smoking, child behavior problems, and…

Griesler, Pamela C.; Kandel, Denise B.; Davies, Mark

1998-01-01

374

Comparative study on CO 2 corrosion behavior of N80, P110, X52 and 13Cr pipe lines in simulated stratum water  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the carbon dioxide (CO2) corrosion behavior of carbon steel and its influence on petroleum development (including drilling, production and transportation)\\u000a in the Daqing Oilfield, CO2 corrosion behaviors of N80, P110, X52 and 13Cr pipe lines in simulated solution at high temperature and high pressure condition\\u000a are investigated by dynamic corrosion experiments, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy

YiDong Cai; PengChao Guo; DaMeng Liu; ShiYu Chen; JunLai Liu

2010-01-01

375

Machined Titanium Heat-Pipe Wick Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wick structures fabricated by machining of titanium porous material are essential components of lightweight titanium/ water heat pipes of a type now being developed for operation at temperatures up to 530 K in high-radiation environments. In the fabrication of some prior heat pipes, wicks have been made by extruding axial grooves into aluminum unfortunately, titanium cannot be extruded. In the fabrication of some other prior heat pipes, wicks have been made by in-situ sintering of metal powders shaped by the use of forming mandrels that are subsequently removed, but in the specific application that gave rise to the present fabrication method, the required dimensions and shapes of the heat-pipe structures would make it very difficult if not impossible to remove the mandrels due to the length and the small diameter. In the present method, a wick is made from one or more sections that are fabricated separately and assembled outside the tube that constitutes the outer heat pipe wall. The starting wick material is a slab of porous titanium material. This material is machined in its original flat configuration to form axial grooves. In addition, interlocking features are machined at the mating ends of short wick sections that are to be assembled to make a full-length continuous wick structure. Once the sections have been thus assembled, the resulting full-length flat wick structure is rolled into a cylindrical shape and inserted in the heatpipe tube (see figure). This wick-structure fabrication method is not limited to titanium/water heat pipes: It could be extended to other heat pipe materials and working fluids in which the wicks could be made from materials that could be pre-formed into porous slabs.

Rosenfeld, John H.; Minnerly, Kenneth G.; Gernert, Nelson J.

2009-01-01

376

Automated Ultrasonic Pipe Weld Inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This article contains an overview on automated ultrasonic w eld inspection for various pipe types. Some inspection steps might by carried out with portable t est equipment (e.g. pipe end test), but the weld inspection in all internationally relevant specif ications must be automated. The pipe geometry, the production process, and the further pipe usage determine if ND T

Wolfram A. Karl; Peter SCHULTE; Michael JOSWIG; Rainer KATTWINKEL

377

Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

1994-01-01

378

Smoking and Asthma (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... is an obvious risk, but just being around people who smoke — and breathing in secondhand smoke — can cause problems, ... other tobacco products are. Discuss how smoking gives people bad breath, ... he or she isn't allowed to smoke. If your child already smokes, you're not ...

379

Smoking behaviour in Taiwan, 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine smoking behaviours in Taiwan and compare those behaviours to those in the USA. Methods: Using the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) of Taiwan (2001), a survey of over 20 000 participants, frequencies were calculated for smoking, ex-smoking, quantity smoked, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Breakdowns by age, sex, and socioeconomic status were also calculated. Results:

C-P Wen; D T Levy; T Yuan Cheng; C C Hsu; S P Tsai

2010-01-01

380

Effects of Smoking Marijuana on Brain Perfusion and Cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of smoking marijuana on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cognitive performance were assessed in 12 recreational users in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. PET with [15Oxygen]-labeled water ([15O]H2O) was used to measure rCBF before and after smoking of marijuana and placebo cigarettes, as subjects repeatedly performed an auditory attention task. Smoking marijuana resulted in intoxication, as assessed by

Daniel S O'Leary; Robert I Block; Julie A Koeppel; Michael Flaum; Susan K Schultz; Nancy C Andreasen; Laura Boles Ponto; G Leonard Watkins; Richard R Hurtig; Richard D Hichwa

2002-01-01

381

Dietary supplement use and smoking are important correlates of biomarkers of water-soluble vitamin status after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables in a representative sample of U.S. adults.  

PubMed

Biochemical indicators of water-soluble vitamin (WSV) status were measured in a nationally representative sample of the U.S. population in NHANES 2003-2006. To examine whether demographic differentials in nutritional status were related to and confounded by certain variables, we assessed the association of sociodemographic (age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, income) and lifestyle (dietary supplement use, smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity) variables with biomarkers of WSV status in adults (aged ? 20 y): serum and RBC folate, serum pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), serum 4-pyridoxic acid, serum total cobalamin (vitamin B-12), plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA), and serum ascorbic acid. Age (except for PLP) and smoking (except for MMA) were generally the strongest significant correlates of these biomarkers (|r| ? 0.43) and together with supplement use explained more of the variability compared with the other covariates in bivariate analysis. In multiple regression models, sociodemographic and lifestyle variables together explained from 7 (vitamin B-12) to 29% (tHcy) of the biomarker variability. We observed significant associations for most biomarkers (? 6 of 8) with age, sex, race-ethnicity, supplement use, smoking, and BMI and for some biomarkers with PIR (5 of 8), education (1 of 8), alcohol consumption (4 of 8), and physical activity (5 of 8). We noted large estimated percentage changes in biomarker concentrations between race-ethnic groups (from -24 to 20%), between supplement users and nonusers (from -12 to 104%), and between smokers and nonsmokers (from -28 to 8%). In summary, age, sex, and race-ethnic differentials in biomarker concentrations remained significant after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables. Supplement use and smoking were important correlates of biomarkers of WSV status. PMID:23576641

Pfeiffer, Christine M; Sternberg, Maya R; Schleicher, Rosemary L; Rybak, Michael E

2013-06-01

382

Improved Thin, Flexible Heat Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible heat pipes of an improved type are fabricated as layers of different materials laminated together into vacuum- tight sheets or tapes. In comparison with prior flexible heat pipes, these flexible heat pipes are less susceptible to leakage. Other advantages of these flexible heat pipes, relative to prior flexible heat pipes, include high reliability and greater ease and lower cost of fabrication. Because these heat pipes are very thin, they are highly flexible. When coated on outside surfaces with adhesives, these flexible heat pipes can be applied, like common adhesive tapes, to the surfaces of heat sinks and objects to be cooled, even if those surfaces are curved.

Rosenfeld, John H.; Gernert, Nelson J.; Sarraf, David B.; Wollen, Peter J.; Surina, Frank C.; Fale, John E.

2004-01-01

383

Novel Innovative Concept for Self-Drying of the Insulation of Cold Piping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The self-drying concept for the insulation of cold piping is based on the wicking action of a hydrophillic fabric which is wound around the pipe and ex tended through the slot of the tubular insulation mantel. If the dew point of the am bient air is below the temperature of the surface of the pipe, water vapour will diffuse through

Vagn Korsgaard

1994-01-01

384

INTERIOR SURFACE OF GALVANIZED STEEL PIPE: A POTENTIAL FACTOR IN CORROSION RESISTANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the differences found in zinc coatings of galvanized pipes manufactured in the United States, Korea, and Australia. Zinc thickness and finish varied with the type of pipe. In an ongoing pilot study, these pipes are being exposed to water containing various con...

385

Effects of NCG Charging Mass on the Operational Characteristics of Variable Conductance Heat Pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical analysis and experimental study are performed to investigate the effect of heat load and operating temperature on the thermal performance of several variable conductance heat pipe heat pipe (VCHP) with screen meshed wick. The heat pipe is designed in 200 screen meshes, 500 ? length and 12.7 ? outer diameter tube of copper, water (4.8 g) is used as

JEONG SE SUH; YOUNG SIK PARK; KYUNG TAEK CHUNG; CHANG HO KANG

386

Apparatus for recovering waste heat from exhaust gas flowing through an exhaust pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus for recovering waste heat from a hot exhaust pipe and utilizing the heat to warm water passing through the apparatus, which comprises a plurality of thermal conduction members each longitudinally positioned in contact with said exhaust pipe, the plurality of conduction members being arranged circumferentially about the exhaust pipe, each of the thermal conduction members having a surface

Kochanowski

1983-01-01

387

Heat pipe development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this program was to investigate analytically and experimentally the performance of heat pipes with composite wicks--specifically, those having pedestal arteries and screwthread circumferential grooves. An analytical model was developed to describe the effects of screwthreads and screen secondary wicks on the transport capability of the artery. The model describes the hydrodynamics of the circumferential flow in triangular grooves with azimuthally varying capillary menisci and liquid cross-sections. Normalized results were obtained which give the influence of evaporator heat flux on the axial heat transport capability of the arterial wick. In order to evaluate the priming behavior of composite wicks under actual load conditions, an 'inverted' glass heat pipe was designed and constructed. The results obtained from the analysis and from the tests with the glass heat pipe were applied to the OAO-C Level 5 heat pipe, and an improved correlation between predicted and measured evaporator and transport performance were obtained.

Bienart, W. B.

1973-01-01

388

Heat Pipe Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heat pipe was developed to alternately cool and heat without using energy or any moving parts. It enables non-rotating spacecraft to maintain a constant temperature when the surface exposed to the Sun is excessively hot and the non Sun-facing side is very cold. Several organizations, such as Tropic-Kool Engineering Corporation, joined NASA in a subsequent program to refine and commercialize the technology. Heat pipes have been installed in fast food restaurants in areas where humid conditions cause materials to deteriorate quickly. Moisture removal was increased by 30 percent in a Clearwater, FL Burger King after heat pipes were installed. Relative humidity and power consumption were also reduced significantly. Similar results were recorded by Taco Bell, which now specifies heat pipe systems in new restaurants in the Southeast.

1993-01-01

389

DRAINAGE PIPE DETECTOR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One of the more frustrating problems confronting farmers and land improvement contractors in the Midwestern United States involves locating buried agricultural drainage pipes. Conventional geophysical methods, particularly ground penetrating radar (GPR), presently being used for environmental and co...

390

Heat pipe manufacturing study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat pipe manufacturing methods are examined with the goal of establishing cost effective procedures that will ultimately result in cheaper more reliable heat pipes. Those methods which are commonly used by all heat pipe manufacturers have been considered, including: (1) envelope and wick cleaning, (2) end closure and welding, (3) mechanical verification, (4) evacuation and charging, (5) working fluid purity, and (6) charge tube pinch off. The study is limited to moderate temperature aluminum and stainless steel heat pipes with ammonia, Freon-21 and methanol working fluids. Review and evaluation of available manufacturers techniques and procedures together with the results of specific manufacturing oriented tests have yielded a set of recommended cost-effective specifications which can be used by all manufacturers.

Edelstein, F.

1974-01-01

391

Smoking rain clouds over the Amazon.  

PubMed

Heavy smoke from forest fires in the Amazon was observed to reduce cloud droplet size and so delay the onset of precipitation from 1.5 kilometers above cloud base in pristine clouds to more than 5 kilometers in polluted clouds and more than 7 kilometers in pyro-clouds. Suppression of low-level rainout and aerosol washout allows transport of water and smoke to upper levels, where the clouds appear "smoking" as they detrain much of the pollution. Elevating the onset of precipitation allows invigoration of the updrafts, causing intense thunderstorms, large hail, and greater likelihood for overshooting cloud tops into the stratosphere. There, detrained pollutants and water vapor would have profound radiative impacts on the climate system. The invigorated storms release the latent heat higher in the atmosphere. This should substantially affect the regional and global circulation systems. Together, these processes affect the water cycle, the pollution burden of the atmosphere, and the dynamics of atmospheric circulation. PMID:14988556

Andreae, M O; Rosenfeld, D; Artaxo, P; Costa, A A; Frank, G P; Longo, K M; Silva-Dias, M A F

2004-02-27

392

Smoking promotes peritonsillar abscess.  

PubMed

Peritonsillar abscess (PTA) is a frequent complication to acute tonsillitis, in particular in adolescents and young adults. Smoking is most commonly initiated during adolescence and young adulthood. The study examines whether smoking increases the risk of PTA and whether smoking is associated with the bacterial findings in PTA. All patients with PTA admitted to the Ear-Nose-Throat Department at Aarhus University Hospital from January 2001 through December 2006 were included in the study. Age- and gender-stratified data on smoking habits in the Danish population and demographic data for Aarhus County for the same 6 years were obtained. Smoking status was available for 679 (80 %) of 847 patients with PTA. 247 (36 %) patients admitted to daily tobacco smoking. Age-stratified odds ratios of smokers compared to non-smokers, for developing PTA, were in the range of 1.9-4.7. Fusobacterium necrophorum and beta-hemolytic streptococci were equally distributed between smokers and non-smokers. Twenty nine percent of the higher incidence of PTA among males compared to females could be explained by a higher prevalence of smoking in males. After correcting for differences in smoking prevalence by gender, the risk of PTA was calculated to be 9.5 % higher among males than females. Smoking was associated with significantly increased risk of PTA in both males and females of all ages. No differences in the microbiological flora of smokers and non-smokers with PTA were found. PMID:23568043

Klug, Tejs Ehlers; Rusan, Maria; Clemmensen, Kim Katrine Bjerring; Fuursted, Kurt; Ovesen, Therese

2013-11-01

393

Smoking behavior and attitudes toward smoking among hospital nurses.  

PubMed Central

We examined smoking prevalence, smoking behavior, and attitudes toward smoking in hospitals in 1,380 respondents among 1,719 registered nurses in a large urban teaching hospital. In this group, current prevalence of smoking in hospital nurses (22 per cent) was less than women in the general population (29 per cent). Smoking nurses were more likely than nonsmokers to hold attitudes which potentially reduce their efficacy in helping patients to stop smoking. PMID:3777295

Becker, D M; Myers, A H; Sacci, M; Weida, S; Swank, R; Levine, D M; Pearson, T A

1986-01-01

394

USE OF ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPE  

EPA Science Inventory

Concerning the use of asbestos-cement (A/C) pipe for the distribution of drinking water, the status of the ingested asbestos health research underway in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is briefly described. At the present time there are no U.S. standards for asbestos in ...

395

PIPE FLOW IMPACTS ON EPHEMERAL GULLY EROSION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rills and ephemeral gullies are major sources of sediment yet their development is not well understood. Lateral flow through soil pipes over water-restricting horizons has been postulated to initiate the development and head cut migration of ephemeral gullies. The objective was to determine the effe...

396

Assessment of LWR piping design loading based on plant operating experience  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study has been to: (1) identify current Light Water Reactor (LWR) piping design load parameters, (2) identify significant actual LWR piping loads from plant operating experience, (3) perform a comparison of these two sets of data and determine the significance of any differences, and (4) make an evaluation of the load representation in current LWR piping design practice, in view of plant operating experience with respect to piping behavior and response to loading.

Svensson, P. O.

1980-08-01

397

Smoking in Cancer Care (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... Dictionary Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Smoking in Cancer Care (PDQ®) Overview This summary is ... who smoke, why it is important to stop smoking, and ways to get help. It includes information ...

398

Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke  

MedlinePLUS

... Surgeon Generalâ??s Report 4 Â Secondhand Smoke Causes Cardiovascular Disease Exposure to secondhand smoke has immediate adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and can cause coronary heart disease and stroke. 2,4,5 Secondhand smoke causes ...

399

Laws of Flow in Rough Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation is made of the turbulent flow of water in pipes with various degrees of relative roughness. The pipes range in size from 25 to 100 millimeters in diameter and from 1800 to 7050 millimeters in length. Flow velocities permitted Reynolds numbers from about 10 (sup. 4) to 10 (sup. 6). The laws of resistance and velocity distributions were obtained as a function of relative roughness and Reynolds number. Mixing length, as described by Prandtl's mixing-length formula, is discussed in relation to the experimental results.

Nikuradse, J

1950-01-01

400

4. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM OUTLET PIPE AND CONCRETE COLLAR, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM OUTLET PIPE AND CONCRETE COLLAR, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Water Lily Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 1.1 miles Northeast of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

401

46 CFR 182.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.  

...of water from reaching engine exhaust ports under normal...corrosion-resistant material and adequately protected...shielded from, combustible material. (2) Be provided...spaces must meet the material requirements of part...this chapter. (k) Engine exhaust pipe...

2014-10-01

402

46 CFR 182.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of water from reaching engine exhaust ports under normal...corrosion-resistant material and adequately protected...shielded from, combustible material. (2) Be provided...spaces must meet the material requirements of part...this chapter. (k) Engine exhaust pipe...

2013-10-01

403

PIPES: A Portable Integrated Piping Engineering Interface System  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes software developed by the authors to integrate and automate several piping engineering applications for high-volume production use in the power and petrochemical industries. The system utilizes piping component geometry from a CAD model together with associated engineering and material data. It produces input for an industry-standard piping isometric drawing program, Electronic Data Interchange information for pipe spool fabrication, and input for several,common pipe stress analysis codes. The piping isometric drawings feature stress analysis data points and material tabulations. The software is based on an open architecture and incorporates rule-driven Expert System technology to provide flexibility and ease of customization.

Lee, N.L.; Kanga, D. [Bechtel Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1995-12-01

404

Effects of smoking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cigarette smoke contains over 4,000 different chemical compounds, one of them being nicotine. Nicotine is an extremely addictive compound. Smoking cigarettes can cause several types of cancer, make wrinkles appear around your mouth, destroy your teeth, and permanently stain your fingers yellow.

Vincent van Gogh (None;)

2007-05-17

405

Smoke-Free Olympics  

E-print Network

for the enthusiastic smoker. Despite an ambitious promise from the government of a "smoke-free Olympics" the market here is 350 million... and growing. So when a restaurant chain called Meizhou Dongpo responded to a call to make restaurants smoke-free, they quickly...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2008-01-30

406

Hypnotic Treatment of Smoking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior studies of hypnotic treatment of smoking have reported abstinence rates of between 17 and 88 percent at six months, but few have investigated procedures or forms of suggestions. To compare the effectiveness of positive and negative hypnotic suggestions and self-hypnosis for cessation of smoking, 32 subjects were assigned to one of four…

Bastien, Samuel A., IV; Kessler, Marc

407

Coffee for smoking cessation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to add the value to coffee for Krabi's agricultural promoting, and response to ministry of health's policy in smoking cessation for health enhancement. Little iron weed or Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less.; a Thai herbal beverage for smoking cessation studied by U-thong Hospital in 1,000 prisoners with a dose of 3 g in 150 ml

Somrutai Jitpukdeebodintra; Amarawadee Jangwang

408

Smoking and Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a case control study of the relationship between smoking habits and Parkinson's disease a negative association was demonstrated with a relative risk of 0 x 52. A history of smoking up to 20 years earlier was associated with a risk of developing Parkinson's disease equal to about half that in non-smokers. The type of disease, age of onset and

R B Godwin-Austen; P N Lee; M G Marmot; G M Stern

1982-01-01

409

Smoke Detectors and Legislation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual, one of a series for use in public education, provides an in-depth review of the current status of state and local smoke detector legislation. First, for the community considering a smoke detector law or ordinance, six decision points are discussed: which residential occupancy sub-classes will be affected; what the time factors are for…

National Fire Prevention and Control Administration (DOC), Washington, DC.

410

COPD and tobacco smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

COPD and tobacco smoke. M. Bartal. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammation of the airways, including the parenchyma and the pulmonary vasculature. The burden of COPD is increasing around the world in terms of mor- bidity and mortality in adult population. Active smoking is a major risk factor for COPD, although there is individual susceptibility to the

M. Bartal

411

Secondhand Smoke: What It Means to You  

MedlinePLUS

... secondhand smoke. Some children even breathe smoke in day care. There is no safe amount of secondhand smoke. ... your children from smoke. ? Use a smoke-free day care center. ? Do not take your child to restaurants ...

412

Hazards of smoking.  

PubMed

A strong association exists between cigarette smoking and several diseases namely, cancer of the lung, bronchitis and emphysema, cancer of the larynx, oral cavity and oesophagus, gastric and duodenal ulcers, Crohn's disease, cancer of the bladder, coronary artery disease, macrocytosis, polycythaemia, leukaemia, etc. This is due to the harmful constituents of cigarette and other modalities smoking. Smokers not only harm themselves but also harm those around. Foetal malformations, abortions, stillbirths, prematurity and low birth weight are common in smoker mothers. These are the effects of passive smoking. There is no safer cigarette in the market even by lowering its harmful constituents. Mass education about the hazards of smoking with emphasis on complete stoppage of smoking is the only way to prevent its rising incidence. PMID:1940406

Arya, S N; Rajiv, K; Arya, S

1991-04-01

413

The Capabilities of Smoke Control: Fundamentals and Zone Smoke Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the principles of smoke control and the practical application of these principles to zoned smoke control systems. Zoned smoke control can use dedicat ed fans or the fans of a building's heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) sys tems. Application of HVAC systems that serve one or many smoke control zones are dis cussed. The paper discusses

John H. Klote; Edward K. Budnick

1989-01-01

414

A free surface model for incompressible pipe and open channel flow. Universite de Toulon, IMATH, EA 2134, 83957 La Garde, France.  

E-print Network

A free surface model for incompressible pipe and open channel flow. M. Ersoy 1 1 Universit´e de in the general framework of unsteady mixed flows in closed water pipes and is largely used by the engineers channel or pipe as well as pressurized flow (when considering pipe flow) plays an important role in many

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

415

Heat-pipe Earth.  

PubMed

The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics. PMID:24067709

Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G

2013-09-26

416

Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

417

46 CFR 119.455 - Fuel piping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...construction of fuel lines, including pipe, tube, and hose, must comply...piping of other materials, such as seamless steel pipe or tubing, which provide equivalent...installation of fuel lines, including pipe, tube, and hose, must...

2013-10-01

418

46 CFR 182.455 - Fuel piping.  

...construction of fuel lines, including pipe, tube, and hose, must comply...piping of other materials, such as seamless steel pipe or tubing, which provide equivalent...installation of fuel lines, including pipe, tube, and hose, must...

2014-10-01

419

46 CFR 182.455 - Fuel piping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...construction of fuel lines, including pipe, tube, and hose, must comply...piping of other materials, such as seamless steel pipe or tubing, which provide equivalent...installation of fuel lines, including pipe, tube, and hose, must...

2013-10-01

420

46 CFR 119.455 - Fuel piping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...construction of fuel lines, including pipe, tube, and hose, must comply...piping of other materials, such as seamless steel pipe or tubing, which provide equivalent...installation of fuel lines, including pipe, tube, and hose, must...

2011-10-01

421

46 CFR 119.455 - Fuel piping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...construction of fuel lines, including pipe, tube, and hose, must comply...piping of other materials, such as seamless steel pipe or tubing, which provide equivalent...installation of fuel lines, including pipe, tube, and hose, must...

2010-10-01

422

46 CFR 119.455 - Fuel piping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...construction of fuel lines, including pipe, tube, and hose, must comply...piping of other materials, such as seamless steel pipe or tubing, which provide equivalent...installation of fuel lines, including pipe, tube, and hose, must...

2012-10-01

423

46 CFR 119.455 - Fuel piping.  

...construction of fuel lines, including pipe, tube, and hose, must comply...piping of other materials, such as seamless steel pipe or tubing, which provide equivalent...installation of fuel lines, including pipe, tube, and hose, must...

2014-10-01

424

Apparatus for moving a pipe inspection probe through piping  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for controllably moving devices for cleaning or inspection through piping systems, including piping systems with numerous piping bends therein, by using hydrostatic pressure of a working fluid introduced into the piping system. The apparatus comprises a reservoir or other source for supplying the working fluid to the piping system, a launch tube for admitting the device into the launcher and a reversible, positive displacement pump for controlling the direction and flow rate of the working fluid. The device introduced into the piping system moves with the flow of the working fluid through the piping system. The launcher attaches to the valved ends of a piping system so that fluids in the piping system can recirculate in a closed loop. The method comprises attaching the launcher to the piping system, supplying the launcher with working fluid, admitting the device into the launcher, pumping the working fluid in the direction and at the rate desired so that the device moves through the piping system for pipe cleaning or inspection, removing the device from the launcher, and collecting the working fluid contained in the launcher.

Zollinger, W. Thor (Martinez, GA); Appel, D. Keith (Aiken, SC); Lewis, Gregory W. (North Augusta, SC)

1995-01-01

425

Apparatus for moving a pipe inspection probe through piping  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for controllably moving devices for cleaning or inspection through piping systems, including piping systems with numerous piping bends therein, by using hydrostatic pressure of a working fluid introduced into the piping system. The apparatus comprises a reservoir or other source for supplying the working fluid to the piping system, a launch tube for admitting the device into the launcher and a reversible, positive displacement pump for controlling the direction and flow rate of the working fluid. The device introduced into the piping system moves with the flow of the working fluid through the piping system. The launcher attaches to the valved ends of a piping system so that fluids in the piping system can recirculate in a closed loop. The method comprises attaching the launcher to the piping system, supplying the launcher with working fluid, admitting the device into the launcher, pumping the working fluid in the direction and at the rate desired so that the device moves through the piping system for pipe cleaning or inspection, removing the device from the launcher, and collecting the working fluid contained in the launcher. 8 figs.

Zollinger, W.T.; Appel, D.K.; Lewis, G.W.

1995-07-18

426

Glass-heat-pipe evacuated-tube solar collector  

SciTech Connect

A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

McConnell, R.D.; VanSant, J.H.

1981-08-06

427

Heat pipe cooled probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic heat pipe principle is employed to provide a self-contained passively cooled probe that may be placed into a high temperature environment. The probe consists of an evaporator region of a heat pipe and a sensing instrument. Heat is absorbed as the working fluid evaporates in the probe. The vapor is transported to the vapor space of the condenser region. Heat is dissipated from the condenser region and fins causing condensation of the working fluid, which returns to the probe by gravity and the capillary action of the wick. Working fluid, wick and condenser configurations and structure materials can be selected to maintain the probe within an acceptable temperature range.

Camarda, C. J. (inventor); Couch, L. M.

1984-01-01

428

Heat pipe array heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

1987-08-25

429

Effects of smoking on humans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tobacco contains nicotine, an addictive substance. Tobacco is the main substance in cigarettes. There are thousands of harmful chemicals in cigarettes. Second-hand smoke, where smoke from a burning cigarette is inhaled by someone who is not smoking, is just as bad as smoking a cigarette. Tobacco use of any kind can cause cancer and adversely affect the human body.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-25

430

The Smoke-Free Campus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report outlines the health threats of cigarette smoking on college campuses. It cites evidence that smoking among high school seniors and college freshmen has dropped only 1.5 percent since 1981, and notes the dangers of second-hand smoke. Six recommendations for becoming a smoke-free campus are listed. The experience of American industry and…

Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

431

Flavored Tobacco Use Among Canadian Students in Grades 9 Through 12: Prevalence and Patterns From the 2010–2011 Youth Smoking Survey  

PubMed Central

Introduction This study examined patterns of use of flavored tobacco products in a nationally generalizable sample of Canadian students in grades 9 through 12 after the implementation of a national ban on certain flavored tobacco products. Methods Data from the 2010–2011 Youth Smoking Survey, a nationally generalizable sample of Canadian students in grades 9 through 12 (n = 31,396), were used to examine tobacco product use. Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in use of flavored tobacco products (cigarettes, pipes, little cigars or cigarillos, cigars, roll-your-own cigarettes, bidis, smokeless tobacco, water pipes, and blunt wraps) by sociodemographic and regional characteristics. Results Approximately 52% of young tobacco users used flavored products in the previous 30 days. Flavored tobacco use varied by product type and ranged from 32% of cigarette smokers reporting menthol smoking to 70% of smokeless tobacco users reporting using flavored product in the previous 30 days. The percentage of last-30-day users who used flavored tobacco was significantly higher in Quebec than in Ontario and significantly higher among youths who received weekly spending money than among those who received no money. Conclusion More than half of tobacco users in grades 9 through 12 in Canada use flavored tobacco, despite a national ban on certain flavored tobacco products. PMID:24945240

Ahmed, Rashid; Hammond, David; Manske, Steve

2014-01-01

432

Heat Pipe With Interrupted Slot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Newer version of heat pipe slot interrupted by plug or, if heat pipe is cast, by bridge of heat-pipe material cast integrally across groove. Small barrier assists in priming heat pipe. Vapor and noncondensible gas still accumulates in liquid channel at evaporator before or during startup, but barrier keeps liquid out of small part of slot at bubble. Dry part of slot allows bubble to escape into vapor channel, making room for liquid to move in during startup.

Brown, Richard F.; Kosson, Robert L.; Edelstein, Fred

1994-01-01

433

Measurement of velocity profiles in a stratified pipe flow recirculatory shear zone using laser flow visualization  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory is studying pipe-flow/plenum thermal-plume interactions induced by a pipe-to-plenum temperature difference. Under these conditions a pipe-flow-generated thermal plume is produced in the plenum and a stratified recirculation zone is produced in the pipe resulting in cold fluid being drawn out of the plenum into the bottom of the horizontal pipe conveying hot fluid into the plenum. These phenomena produce plenum wall and pipe nozzle thermal distributions conductive to detrimental structural thermal stresses. In order to study these phenomena studies are being conducted in the ANL Buoyancy Effects Tank (BET), a 3.41-m/sup 3/ plenum containing cold water which is interfaced with a horizontal transparent pipe conveying hot water into the plenum.

Kasza, K.E.; Oras, J.J.; Kolman, R.

1984-12-01

434

Drag reduction in turbulent pipe flow by applied electric potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel approach to drag reduction is presented on the basis of applied positive electric potentials to a pipe. This has been studied by measuring the pressure drop over a 13.1 m epoxy-coated pipe made of carbon steel, through which water was flowing under conditions of constant flow rate. Potentials were applied between the pipe and the counter electrode located at the pipe inlet. The results show a decrease in the pressure drop (up to 2%) when positive electric DC-potentials in the range 0.6 -- 1.6V were applied to the pipe. However, no significant changes was obtained for applied potentials in the ranges of 0 to 0.6 V, 1.6 to 2.0 V or 0 to -2.0 V. Waterflow through an epoxy coated turbine pipe (length 1562 m, diameter 1 m, total fall 380 m) in a hydroelectric power plant has also been studied. A 1.1 V potential was applied between the pipe and the manlock (made of stainless steel and electrically insulated from the pipe). Results show that the head loss decreased from 45.9 m to 39.8 m at maximum flow rate, which corresponds to a 1.8% increase in the electricity production. Although small, the effect represents the possibility of significant cost savings. The mechanism by which the drag is reduced is not currently understood.

Waskaas, Magne; Daujotis, Vytautas; Wolden, Kjell; Raudonis, Rimantas; Plausinaitis, Deivis

2006-11-01

435

Reusable high-temperature heat pipes and heat pipe panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reusable, durable heat pipe which is capable of operating at temperatures up to about 3000 F in an oxidizing environment and at temperatures above 3000 F in an inert or vacuum environment is produced by embedding a refractory metal pipe within a carbon-carbon composite structure. A reusable, durable heat pipe panel is made from an array of refractory-metal pipes spaced from each other. The reusable, durable, heat-pipe is employed to fabricate a hypersonic vehicle leading edge and nose cap.

Camarda, Charles J. (inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (inventor)

1989-01-01

436

Smoke-induced seed germination in California chaparral  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The California chaparral community has a rich flora of species with different mechanisms for cuing germination to postfire conditions. Heat shock triggers germination of certain species but has no stimulatory effect on a great many other postfire species that are chemically stimulated by combustion products. Previous reports have shown that charred wood will induce germination, and here we report that smoke also induces germination in these same species. Smoke is highly effective, often inducing 100% germination in deeply dormant seed populations with 0% control germination. Smoke induces germination both directly and indirectly by aqueous or gaseous transfer from soil to seeds. Neither nitrate nor ammonium ions were effective in stimulating germination of smoke-stimulated species, nor were most of the quantitatively important gases generated by biomass smoke. Nitrogen dioxide, however, was very effective at inducing germination in Caulanthus heterophyllus (Brassicaceae), Emmenanthe penduliflora (Hydrophyllaceae), Phacelia grandiflora (Hydrophyllaceae), and Silene multinervia (Caryophyllaceae). Three species, Dendromecon rigida (Papaveraceae), Dicentra chrysantha, and Trichostema lanatum (Lamiaceae), failed to germinate unless smoke treatment was coupled with prior treatment of 1 yr soil storage. Smoke-stimulated germination was found in 25 chaparral species, representing 11 families, none of which were families known for heat-shock-stimulated germination. Seeds of smoke-stimulated species have many analogous characteristics that separate them from most heat-shock-stimulated seeds, including: (1) outer seed coats that are highly textured, (2) a poorly developed outer cuticle, (3) absence of a dense palisade tissue in the seed coat, and (4) a subdermal membrane that is semipermeable, allowing water passage but blocking entry of large (molecular mass > 500) solutes. Tentative evidence suggests that permeability characteristics of this subdermal layer are altered by smoke. While the mechanism behind smoke-induced germination is not known, it appears that smoke may be involved in overcoming different blocks to germination in different species. For example, in Emmenanthe penduliflora, NO2 in smoke was sufficient to induce germination, and most forms of physical or chemical scarification also induced germination. For Romneya coulteri, NO2 alone failed to induce germination, and scarified seeds required addition of gibberellic acid. In Dicentra chrysantha, none of these treatments, nor smoke alone, induced germination, but germination was triggered by a combination of soil burial followed by smoke treatment. Smoke-stimulated species differed substantially in the duration of smoke exposure required to induce germination, and this was inversely correlated with tolerance to smoke exposure. We suggest that such differences in response may affect postfire community structure.

Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J.

1998-01-01

437

Heat pipe investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques associated with thermal-vacuum and bench testing, along with flight testing of the OAO-C spacecraft heat pipes are outlined, to show that the processes used in heat transfer design and testing are adequate for good performance evaluations.

Marshburn, J. P.

1973-01-01

438

Aeronautical tubes and pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main and subcomponent French suppliers of aircraft tubes and pipes are discussed, and the state of the industry is analyzed. Quality control is essential for tubes with regard to their i.d. and metallurgical compositions. French regulations do not allow welded seam tubes in hydraulic circuits unless no other form is available, and then rustproofed steel must be installed. The actual low level of orders for any run of tubes dictates that the product is only one of several among the manufacturers' line. Automation, both in NDT and quality control, assures that the tubes meet specifications. A total of 10 French companies participate in the industry, serving both civil and military needs, with some companies specializing only in titanium, steel, or aluminum materials. Concerns wishing to enter the market must upgrade their equipment to meet the higher aeronautical specifications and be prepared to furnish tubes and pipes that serve both functional and structural purposes simultaneously. Additionally, pipe-bending machines must also perform to tight specifications. Pipes can range from 0.2 mm exterior diameter to 40 mm, with wall thicknesses from 0.02 mm to 3 mm. A chart containing a list of manufacturers and their respective specifications and characteristics is presented, and a downtrend in production with reduction of personnel is noted.

Beauclair, N.

1984-12-01

439

Heat pipe dynamic behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vapor flow in a heat pipe was mathematically modeled and the equations governing the transient behavior of the core were solved numerically. The modeled vapor flow is transient, axisymmetric (or two-dimensional) compressible viscous flow in a closed chamber. The two methods of solution are described. The more promising method failed (a mixed Galerkin finite difference method) whereas a more

F. Issacci; G. L. Roche; D. B. Klein; I. Catton

1988-01-01

440

Gendered Dimensions of Smoking Among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnographic research, including interviews, focus groups, and observations were conducted to explore gendered dimensions of smoking among low level smokers, including the acceptability of smoking in different contexts; reasons for smoking; the monitoring of self and friends’ smoking; and shared smoking as a means of communicating concern and empathy. Important gendered dimensions of smoking were documented. Although males who smoked

Mimi Nichter; Mark Nichter; Elizabeth E. Lloyd-Richardson; Brian Flaherty; Asli Carkoglu; Nicole Taylor

2006-01-01

441

Smoking and Influenza  

MedlinePLUS

... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... How to Quit Smoking Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

442

Smoking and Eye Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Smoking and Eye Health Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

443

Smoke-Free Homes  

MedlinePLUS

... Air Indoor Air Smoke-free Homes Publications/Resources Publications/Resources Additional Indoor Air Quality resources can be ... publications from EPA's National Service Center for Environmental Publications (NSCEP): U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Service Center ...

444

Women and Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Women and Smoking Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) Get the ... Walks Coaches vs. Cancer Relay For Life Events College Relay For Life Relay Recess Donate a Car ...

445

African Americans and Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... Facts About Smoking Among African Americans Use of menthol cigarettes is disproportionately high among African Americans. Almost ... software. 4. Ibid. 5. Hebert, JR. Invited Commentary: Menthol Cigarettes and Risk of Lung Cancer. American Journal ...

446

Theoretical and experimental investigation of heat pipe solar collector  

SciTech Connect

Heat pipe solar collector was designed and constructed at IROST and its performance was measured on an outdoor test facility. The thermal behavior of a gravity assisted heat pipe solar collector was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A theoretical model based on effectiveness-NTU method was developed for evaluating the thermal efficiency of the collector, the inlet, outlet water temperatures and heat pipe temperature. Optimum value of evaporator length to condenser length ratio is also determined. The modelling predictions were validated using experimental data and it shows that there is a good concurrence between measured and predicted results. (author)

Azad, E. [Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology, 71 Forsat Avenue Ferdousi sq., Tehran (Iran)

2008-09-15

447

Transient performance investigation of a space power system heat pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Start-up, shut-down, and peak power tests have been conducted with a molybdenum-lithium heat pipe at temperatures to 1500 K. The heat pipe was radiation coupled to a water-cooled calorimeter for the tests with RF induction heating used for the input to the evaporator region. Maximum power throughout in the tests was 36.8 kW corresponding to a power density of 23

M. A. Merrigan; E. S. Keddy; J. T. Sena

1986-01-01

448

Mathematical modeling of heat transfer, condensation, and capillary flow in porous insulation on a cold pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous insulation used on pipes carrying cold fluids suffers thermal degradation due to condensation of water vapor and the build up of water in the insulation. Recently, it has been suggested that the thermal degradation can be significantly reduced by wrapping a hydrophilic wick fabric on the cold pipe. The capillary action of the fabric, aided by gravity, allows the

M. K. Choudhary; K. C. Karki; S. V. Patankar

2004-01-01

449

49 CFR 192.319 - Installation of pipe in a ditch.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...pipe in water at least 12 feet (3.7 meters) deep but not more than 200 feet (61 meters) deep, as measured from the mean low tide, except pipe in the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets under 15 feet (4.6 meters) of water, must be installed so that...

2013-10-01

450

46 CFR 134.180 - Piping for fire-main suction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Piping for fire-main suction. 134.180 Section...134.180 Piping for fire-main suction. (a) Except...Suction lines that extend below the main deck outside the hull plating...this chapter for vital fresh-water and salt-water service,...

2011-10-01

451

46 CFR 134.180 - Piping for fire-main suction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Piping for fire-main suction. 134.180 Section...134.180 Piping for fire-main suction. (a) Except...Suction lines that extend below the main deck outside the hull plating...this chapter for vital fresh-water and salt-water service,...

2012-10-01

452

46 CFR 134.180 - Piping for fire-main suction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Piping for fire-main suction. 134.180 Section...134.180 Piping for fire-main suction. (a) Except...Suction lines that extend below the main deck outside the hull plating...this chapter for vital fresh-water and salt-water service,...

2010-10-01

453

46 CFR 134.180 - Piping for fire-main suction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Piping for fire-main suction. 134.180 Section...134.180 Piping for fire-main suction. (a) Except...Suction lines that extend below the main deck outside the hull plating...this chapter for vital fresh-water and salt-water service,...

2013-10-01

454

Piping design considerations in a solar-Rankine power plant. [pipe size  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two of the main parameters in sizing the piping of a solar power plant are the working pressure of the vapor leaving the solar collectors, and the type of working fluid used. Numerical examples for each case are given using the graphical Moody friction charts and the analytical Darcy-Weisbach equation. Different working pressures of steam vapor in the solar collector-turbine pipe connection indicate their major role in the design. The size variation was found not to be in linear proportion to vapor density variations. On the other hand, high molecular weight organic fluids such as R-11 and R-113, when compared with water, show insignificant changes in piping sizes.

Lansing, F. L.

1977-01-01

455

To build an oxygen pipe line  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports how an oxygen pipeline was laid in between lines for gas and water. All three of the lines, running 26 km from Obilic to Glogovac, were built to API specifications. In accordance with API specifications, the pipeline, starting-and-ending cleaning stations, and the three block stations, are made of black seamless pipe (6.35 mm, quality standard API 5LX

Miadenovic

1990-01-01

456

Instability in pipe flow  

PubMed Central

The long-puzzling, unphysical result that linear stability analyses lead to no transition in pipe flow, even at infinite Reynolds number, is ascribed to the use of stick boundary conditions, because they ignore the amplitude variations associated with the roughness of the wall. Once that length scale is introduced (here, crudely, through a corrugated pipe), linear stability analyses lead to stable vortex formation at low Reynolds number above a finite amplitude of the corrugation and unsteady flow at a higher Reynolds number, where indications are that the vortex dislodges. Remarkably, extrapolation to infinite Reynolds number of both of these transitions leads to a finite and nearly identical value of the amplitude, implying that below this amplitude, the vortex cannot form because the wall is too smooth and, hence, stick boundary results prevail. PMID:18178623

Cotrell, D. L.; McFadden, G. B.; Alder, B. J.

2008-01-01

457

Trace gas emissions and smoke-induced seed germination  

SciTech Connect

Dormant seeds of a California chaparral annual were induced to germinate by smoke or paper. Nitrogen oxides induced 100 percent vapors emitted from smoke-treated sand or treated water samples inducing. Smoke germination in a manner similar to smoke germination were comparable in acidity and concentration of nitrate and nitrite to nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2})-treated samples. Vapors from smoke-treated and NO{sub 2}-treated filter paper had comparable NO{sub 2} flux rates. Chaparral wildfires generate sufficient nitrogen oxides from combustion of organic matter or from postfire biogenic nitrification to trigger germination of Emmerianthe penduliflora. Nitrogen oxide-triggered germination is not the result of changes in imbibition, as is the case with heat stimulated seeds.

Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J. [Occidental College, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [Occidental College, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1997-05-23

458

Driving kids to smoke? Children's reported exposure to smoke in cars and early smoking initiation.  

PubMed

The health risks associated with second hand smoke (SHS) are well-known. However, little is known about exposure to SHS in cars and risk of smoking uptake. This paper investigates the association between pre-adolescents reported exposure to smoking in cars and prevalence of early stage smoking activity. Data from Keeping Kids Smokefree baseline surveys of students were used to investigate smoking status and reported exposure to smoking in cars. Log binomial regression analyses were used to investigate if reported exposure to SHS in cars was associated with smoking prevalence. 83% of 5676 students invited took part. After controlling for all variables reported exposure to smoking in cars and homes were significantly associated with increased risk of initiated smoking (RR 1.87, 95% CI 1.43-2.44, and RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.13-1.97, respectively). Exposure to smoking in cars was substantially and significantly associated with risk of current smoking (RR 3.21, 95% CI 1.45-7.08). Early smoking uptake is associated with students' reported exposure to smoking in cars which confirms the importance of protecting children from SHS. Smoking in cars is under parental control and therefore modifiable. Moreover, children's reports of SHlS exposure offer a simple way of identifying families who can be targeted for tobacco control interventions. PMID:21733632

Glover, Marewa; Scragg, Robert; Min, Sandar; Kira, Anette; Nosa, Vili; McCool, Judith; Bullen, Chris

2011-11-01

459

Racial resentment and smoking.  

PubMed

Racial resentment (also known as symbolic racism) is among the most widely tested measures of contemporary prejudice in political science and social psychological research over the past thirty years. Proponents argue that racial resentment reflects anti-black emotion obtained through pre-adult socialization. In light of affect-based models of substance use, this paper examined the association between racial resentment and smoking in a national sample of non-Hispanic white, black, and Hispanic respondents. Data come from the 2012 American National Election Study, which contained two measures of smoking. The results of ordinal logistic regression models indicate a positive association between racial resentment and smoking among non-Hispanic whites (N = 2133) that is not present among blacks (N = 693) or Hispanics (N = 660). Models controlled for age, education, income, gender, political ideology, region, and mode of interview. Furthermore, analyses indicated that a measure of race-related affect, admiration and sympathy towards blacks, partially mediated the association between racial resentment and smoking. For non-Hispanic whites, racial resentment appears to constitute a risk factor for smoking. Future studies should further specify the conditions linking substance use to the race-related affective component of racial resentment. PMID:25562312

Samson, Frank L

2015-02-01

460

Guidable pipe plug  

DOEpatents

A plugging device for closing an opening defined by an end of a pipe with sealant comprises a cap, an extension, an inner seal, a guide, and at least one stop. The cap has an inner surface which defines a chamber adapted for retaining the sealant. The chamber is dimensioned slightly larger than the end so as to receive the end. The chamber and end define a gap therebetween. The extension has a distal end and is attached to the inner surface opposite the distal end. The inner seal is attached to the extension and sized larger than the opening. The guide is positioned forward of the inner seal and attached to the distal end. The guide is also dimensioned to be inserted into the opening. The stop is attached to the extender, and when the stop is disposed in the pipe, the stop is movable with respect to the conduit in one direction and also prevents misalignment of the cap with the pipe. A handle can also be included to allow the cap to be positioned robotically.

Glassell, Richard L. (Knoxville, TN); Babcock, Scott M. (Farragut, TN); Lewis, Benjamin E. (Farragut, TN)

2001-01-01

461

Smoking tobacco along with marijuana increases symptoms of cannabis dependence  

PubMed Central

Aim User practices/rituals that involve concurrent use of tobacco and marijuana – smoking blunts and “chasing” marijuana with tobacco – are hypothesized to increase cannabis dependence symptoms. Design Ethnographers administered group surveys to a diverse, purposive sample of marijuana users who appeared to be 17–35 years old. Setting New York City, including non-impoverished areas of Manhattan, the transitional area of East Village/Lower East Side, low-income areas of northern Manhattan and South Bronx, and diverse areas of Brooklyn and Queens. Participants 481 marijuana users ages 14–35, 57% male, 43% female; 27% White, 30% Black, 19% Latino, 5% Asian, 20% of other/multiple race. Measurements Among many other topics, group surveys measured cannabis dependence symptoms; frequencies of chasing, blunt smoking, joint/pipe smoking, using marijuana while alone, and general tobacco use; and demographic factors. Findings Blunt smoking and chasing marijuana with tobacco were each uniquely associated with five of the seven cannabis dependence symptoms. Across symptoms, predicted odds were 2.4–4.1 times greater for participants who smoked blunts on all 30 of the past 30 days than for participants who did not smoke blunts in the past 30 days. Significant increases in odds over the whole range of the five-point chasing frequency measure (from never to always) ranged from 3.4 times to 5.1 times. Conclusions Using tobacco with marijuana – smoking blunts and “chasing” marijuana with tobacco – contributes to cannabis dependence symptoms. Treatment for cannabis dependence may be more effective it addresses the issue of concurrent tobacco use. PMID:18339491

Ream, Geoffrey L.; Benoit, Ellen; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise

2008-01-01

462

Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: An Occupational Hazard for Smoking and Non-Smoking Bar and Nightclub Employees  

PubMed Central

Background In the absence of comprehensive smoking bans in public places, bars and nightclubs have the highest concentrations of secondhand tobacco smoke, posing a serious health risk for workers in these venues. Objective To assess exposure of bar and nightclub employees to secondhand smoke, including non-smoking and smoking employees. Methods Between 2007 and 2009, we recruited approximately 10 venues per city and up to 5 employees per venue in 24 cities in the Americas, Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. Air nicotine concentrations were measured for 7 days in 238 venues. To evaluate personal exposure to secondhand smoke, hair nicotine concentrations were also measured for 625 non-smoking and 311 smoking employees (N=936). Results Median (interquartile range [IQR]) air nicotine concentrations were 3.5 (1.5, 8.5) µg/m3 and 0.2 (0.1, 0.7) µg/m3 in smoking and smoke-free venues, respectively. Median (IQR) hair nicotine concentrations were 6.0 (1.6, 16.0) ng/mg and 1.7 (0.5, 5.5) ng/mg in smoking and non-smoking employees, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, education, living with a smoker, hair treatment and region, a 2-fold increase in air nicotine concentrations was associated with a 30% (95% confidence interval 23%, 38%) increase in hair nicotine concentrations in non-smoking employees and with a 10% (2%, 19%) increase in smoking employees. Conclusions Occupational exposure to secondhand smoke, assessed by air nicotine, resulted in elevated concentrations of hair nicotine among non-smoking and smoking bar and nightclub employees. The high levels of airborne nicotine found in bars and nightclubs and the contribution of this exposure to employee hair nicotine concentrations support the need for legislation measures that ensure complete protection from secondhand smoke in these venues. PMID:22273689

Jones, Miranda R; Wipfli, Heather; Shahrir, Shahida; Avila-Tang, Erika; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N; Navas-Acien, Ana

2013-01-01

463

30 CFR 75.1702 - Smoking; prohibition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Smoking; prohibition. 75.1702 Section...MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1702 Smoking; prohibition. [Statutory Provisions] No person shall smoke, carry smoking materials, matches, or...

2011-07-01

464

14 CFR 129.29 - Smoking prohibitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Smoking prohibitions. 129.29 Section...COMMON CARRIAGE General § 129.29 Smoking prohibitions. (a) No person may smoke and no operator may permit smoking in any aircraft lavatory....

2011-01-01

465

14 CFR 129.29 - Smoking prohibitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoking prohibitions. 129.29 Section...COMMON CARRIAGE General § 129.29 Smoking prohibitions. (a) No person may smoke and no operator may permit smoking in any aircraft lavatory....

2010-01-01

466

30 CFR 75.1702 - Smoking; prohibition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking; prohibition. 75.1702 Section...MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1702 Smoking; prohibition. [Statutory Provisions] No person shall smoke, carry smoking materials, matches, or...

2010-07-01

467

Microsoft Word - Smoking_Decisional_Balance.doc  

Cancer.gov

Decisional Balance Inventory for Smoking: Adolescent Form The following statements represent different opinions about smoking. Please rate HOW IMPORTANT each statement is to your decision to smoke or not smoke according to the following five point scale.

468

Pipe inspection using the pipe crawler. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. In several of the buildings at the Fernald Site, there is piping that was used to transport process materials. As the demolition of these buildings occur, disposal of this piping has become a costly issue. Currently, all process piping is cut into ten-foot or less sections, the ends of the piping are wrapped and taped to prevent the release of any potential contaminants into the air, and the piping is placed in roll off boxes for eventual repackaging and shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal. Alternatives that allow for the onsite disposal of process piping are greatly desired due to the potential for dramatic savings in current offsite disposal costs. No means is currently employed to allow for the adequate inspection of the interior of piping, and consequently, process piping has been assumed to be internally contaminated and thus routinely disposed of at NTS. The BTX-II system incorporates a high-resolution micro color camera with lightheads, cabling, a monitor, and a video recorder. The complete probe is capable of inspecting pipes with an internal diameter (ID) as small as 1.4 inches. By using readily interchangeable lightheads, the same system is capable of inspecting piping up to 24 inches in ID. The original development of the BTX system was for inspection of boiler tubes and small diameter pipes for build-up, pitting, and corrosion. However, the system is well suited for inspecting the interior of most types of piping and other small, confined areas. The report describes the technology, its performance, uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

NONE

1999-05-01

469

Smoking and Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Smoking has been implicated as one of the most important extrinsic risk factors for its development and severity. Recent developments have shed light on the pathophysiology of RA in smokers, including oxidative stress, inflammation, autoantibody formation and epigenetic changes. The association of smoking and the development of RA have been demonstrated through epidemiologic studies, as well as through in vivo and animal models of RA. With increased use of biological agents in addition to standard disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), there has been interest in how smoking affects drug response in RA treatment. Recent evidence suggests the response and drug survival in people treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy is poorer in heavy smokers, and possible immunological mechanisms for this effect are presented in the current paper. PMID:25479074

Chang, Kathleen; Yang, So Min; Kim, Seong Heon; Han, Kyoung Hee; Park, Se Jin; Shin, Jae Il

2014-01-01

470

Development and Manufacture of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe  

SciTech Connect

This technical report presents the engineering research, process development and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents progress made from October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005 and contains the following discussions: (1) Qualification Testing; (2) Prototype Development and Testing of ''Smart Design'' Configuration; (3) Field Test Demonstration; and (4) Commercial order for SR-CDP from Torch International. The objective of this contract is to develop and demonstrate ''cost effective'' Composite Drill Pipe. It is projected that this drill pipe will weigh less than half of its steel counter part. The resultant weight reduction will provide enabling technology that will increase the lateral distance that can be reached from an offshore drilling platform and the depth of water in which drilling and production operations can be carried out. Further, composite drill pipe has the capability to carry real time signal and power transmission within the pipe walls. CDP can also accommodate much shorter drilling radius than is possible with metal drill pipe. As secondary benefits, the lighter weight drill pipe can increase the storage capability of floating off shore drilling platforms and provide substantial operational cost savings.

James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard; Steve Loya

2006-02-20

471

Transient performance investigation of a space power system heat pipe  

SciTech Connect

Start-up, shut-down, and peak power tests have been conducted with a molybdenum-lithium heat pipe at temperatures to 1500 K. The heat pipe was radiation coupled to a water cooled calorimeter for the tests with rf induction heating used for the input to the evaporator region. Maximum power throughput in the tests was 36.8 kw corresponding to a power density of 23 kw/cm/sup 2/ for the 1.4 cm diameter vapor space of the annular wick heat pipe. The corresponding evaporator flux density was approximately 150 w/cm/sup 2/ over an evaporator length of 40 cm at peak power. Condenser length for the tests was approximately 3.0 m. A variable geometry radiation shield was used to vary the load on the heat pipe during the tests. Results of the tests showed that liquid depletion in the evaporator region of the heat pipe could occur in shut-down and prevent restart of the heat pipe. Changes in surface emissivity of the heat pipe condenser surface were shown to affect the shut-down and re-start limits. 12 figs.

Merrigan, M.A.; Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.

1986-01-01

472

Aerosols: The colour of smoke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particles of smoke from natural and human-made fires absorb sunlight and contribute to global warming. Laboratory experiments suggest that smoke is often more absorbing than current numerical models of global climate assume.

Bellouin, Nicolas

2014-09-01

473

What about Secondhand Cigar Smoke?  

MedlinePLUS

... are caused by smoking cigars? Next Topic Are electronic cigars safe? What about secondhand cigar smoke? Because cigars contain more tobacco than cigarettes, and because they often burn for much longer, ...

474

CHARACTERIZATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been analyzed with respect to several components following smoking of research cigarettes in an experimental chamber. arameters analyzed and their airborne yield per cigarette included: particulate matter (10 mg) and its mutagenic activity in...

475

Protect Yourself from Wildfire Smoke  

MedlinePLUS

... diseases. Who is at greatest risk from wildfire smoke? People who have heart or lung diseases , like congestive ... or asthma, are at higher risk from wildfire smoke. In general, people with these conditions are at higher risk of ...

476

How Can I Quit Smoking?  

MedlinePLUS

... nicotine, one of the chemicals in cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. Nicotine is both a stimulant and a depressant. ... Dealing With Addiction Stop Smoking: Your Personal Plan Smokeless Tobacco Lungs and Respiratory System Smoking Gum Disease Secondhand ...

477

Smoking and Your Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... 282 KB) Alternate Language URL Smoking and the Digestive System Page Content DUE TO UNFORESEEN CIRCUMSTANCES, PUBLICATION ORDERS ... caused by cigarette smoking. 2 What is the digestive system? The digestive system is made up of the ...

478

FIELD TEST OF CORROSION CONTROL TO PROTECT ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPE  

EPA Science Inventory

This work was performed to determine if adding zinc orthophosphate to potable water could cause an asbestos-cement pipe to be coated with zinc sufficiently to prevent asbestos fibers from entering the water....

479

How society treats smoking  

PubMed Central

Bans on smoking in bars and other public places can make an important contribution to public health. However, for these bans to be effective, they require broad public support. Qualitative studies of the attitudes and perceptions of bar owners and patrons can help public health professionals identify the steps needed to promote public support for smoking bans. Such studies can also generate narratives and quotes that can help public health professionals translate findings on perceptions and attitudes into effective public education campaigns and related policy changes. PMID:22913416

2012-01-01

480

Cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the impact of smoking on mortality indicate that 35% of smoking-related deaths are due to cardiovascular causes. Current\\u000a cigarette smoking is associated with a threefold to sixfold increase in risk of myocardial infarction and increased rates\\u000a of ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Tobacco smoking has the greatest deleterious effect on peripheral arteries,\\u000a with multiple effects ranging from increased

John H. Fish III; John R. Bartholomew

2007-01-01

481

Heat pipe technology: A bibliography with abstracts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The annual supplement on heat pipe technology for 1971 is presented. The document contains 101 references with abstracts and 47 patents. The subjects discussed are: (1) heat pipe applications, (2) heat pipe theory, (3) design, development, and fabrication of heat pipes, (4) testing and operation, (5) subject and author index, and (6) heat pipe related patents.

1971-01-01

482

Systematic review with meta-analysis of the epidemiological evidence in the 1900s relating smoking to lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking is a known lung cancer cause, but no detailed quantitative systematic review exists. We summarize evidence for various indices. Methods Papers published before 2000 describing epidemiological studies involving 100+ lung cancer cases were obtained from Medline and other sources. Studies were classified as principal, or subsidiary where cases overlapped with principal studies. Data were extracted on design, exposures, histological types and confounder adjustment. RRs/ORs and 95% CIs were extracted for ever, current and ex smoking of cigarettes, pipes and cigars and indices of cigarette type and dose–response. Meta-analyses and meta-regressions investigated how relationships varied by study and RR characteristics, mainly for outcomes exactly or closely equivalent to all lung cancer, squamous cell carcinoma (“squamous”) and adenocarcinoma (“adeno”). Results 287 studies (20 subsidiary) were identified. Although RR estimates were markedly heterogeneous, the meta-analyses demonstrated a relationship of smoking with lung cancer risk, clearly seen for ever smoking (random-effects RR 5.50, CI 5.07-5.96) current smoking (8.43, 7.63-9.31), ex smoking (4.30, 3.93-4.71) and pipe/cigar only smoking (2.92, 2.38-3.57). It was stronger for squamous (current smoking RR 16.91, 13.14-21.76) than adeno (4.21, 3.32-5.34), and evident in both sexes (RRs somewhat higher in males), all continents (RRs highest for North America and lowest for Asia, particularly China), and both study types (RRs higher for prospective studies). Relationships were somewhat stronger in later starting and larger studies. RR estimates were similar in cigarette only and mixed smokers, and similar in smokers of pipes/cigars only, pipes only and cigars only. Exceptionally no increase in adeno risk was seen for pipe/cigar only smokers (0.93, 0.62-1.40). RRs were unrelated to mentholation, and higher for non-filter and handrolled cigarettes. RRs increased with amount smoked, duration, earlier starting age, tar level and fraction smoked and decreased with time quit. Relationships were strongest for small and squamous cell, intermediate for large cell and weakest for adenocarcinoma. Covariate-adjustment little affected RR estimates. Conclusions The association of lung cancer with smoking is strong, evident for all lung cancer types, dose-related and insensitive to covariate-adjustment. This emphasises the causal nature of the relationship. Our results quantify the relationships more precisely than previously. PMID:22943444

2012-01-01

483

Radiation crosslinked plasticized PVC - pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency of polyfunctional monomers triallyl cyanurate, allyl methacrylate, diallyl phtalate, 2-ethyl-2(hydroxy-methyl)-propanediol-(1,3) trimethacrylate, divinyl benzene and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in radiation crosslinking of PVC was investigated. Patterns of pipes were produced and irradiated with gamma rays. The resistance to internal pressure of crosslinked PVC pipes was measured at 80°C and compared with resistance of unirradiated PVC pipes.

Hell, Z.; Ravli?, M.; Bogdanovi?, Lj.; Maleš, J.; Dvornik, I.; Ranogajec, F.; Ranogajec, M.; Tudori?-Ghemo, J.

484

Numerical heat-pipe modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research described in this paper was conducted to better understand numerical modeling of heat-pipe transients. In the numerical model, the vapor flow was assumed to be unsteady, compressible and one-dimensional, while the one-dimensional, unsteady, heat diffusion equation was used to model energy conduction through the heat-pipe wall. The liquid return process in the heat-pipe wick was not modeled. Finite

Jerry Bowman; Richard W. Sweeten

1989-01-01

485

ASBESTOS CEMENT PIPE AND CANCER IN CONNECTICUT 1955-1974  

EPA Science Inventory

The associations of the use of asbestos-cement (A/C) pipe in public potable water distribution systems with changes in Connecticut cancer incidence rates were analyzed. Eight measurements related to asbestos in town water, population density, and socioeconomic scores were tested ...

486

6, 53575386, 2006 Meteoric smoke  

E-print Network

ACPD 6, 5357­5386, 2006 Meteoric smoke particle distribution L. Megner et al. Title Page Abstract Discussions Sensitivity of meteoric smoke distribution to microphysical properties and atmospheric conditions;ACPD 6, 5357­5386, 2006 Meteoric smoke particle distribution L. Megner et al. Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

487

Smoking Cessation and Weight Gain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated determinants of weight gain after quitting smoking in two smoking treatment outcome studies. Results indicated abstinence resulted in weight gain, and postquitting weight gain was predicted by pretreatment tobacco use, a history of weight problems, and eating patterns. Relapse to