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1

Narghile (water pipe) smoking influences platelet function and (iso-)eicosanoids.  

PubMed

The biological effects of smoking water pipe on haemostasis and the eicosanoid system is unknown. Water pipe smoking is familiar to approximately 1 billion people around the world. Considering this quite impressive number, we investigated the potential effect of smoking the Narghile on oxidation injury by monitoring parameters of the (iso)eicosanoid system. Patients were allowed to smoke a water pipe once daily for 14 days. Blood was drawn from 7 healthy adult non-cigarette smoking male volunteers before and immediately after the first smoking of the water pipe and additionally after 6 hours. One and 2 weeks thereafter, blood was drawn again before and after smoking. A total of 7 blood samples was drawn during the study, and parameters of in vivo oxidation injury (8-epi-PGF2alpha, malondialdehyde [MDA]) and haemostasis (11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 [11-DH-TXB2]) were investigated. A single smoking session increased oxidation injury (8-epi-PGF2alpha: p=0.03; MDA: p=0.001) and 11-DH-TXB2 (p=0.00003) significantly, and repeated daily smoking induced a persistent long-lasting oxidation injury reflected by elevated prevalues but a smaller response to the actual water pipe smoke. These findings indicate a significant increase of in vivo oxidative stress by regular water pipe smoking. PMID:14575812

Wolfram, Roswitha M; Chehne, Fahdi; Oguogho, Anthony; Sinzinger, Helmut

2003-11-21

2

Smoke Production of Nonmetallic Pipes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The smoke production of nonmetallic pipes was investigated using 'Test Method for Specific Optical Density of Smoke Generated by Solid Materials,' ASTM E 662. The pipe samples consisted of two epoxy resin glass reinforced pipes, two vinyl ester resin glas...

W. H. McLain L. Nash

1995-01-01

3

Water-Pipe Smoking and Metabolic Syndrome: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Water-pipe (WP) smoking has significantly increased in the last decade worldwide. Compelling evidence suggests that the toxicants in WP smoke are similar to that of cigarette smoke. The WP smoking in a single session could have acute harmful health effects even worse than cigarette smoking. However, there is no evidence as such on long term WP smoking and its impact on chronic health conditions particularly cardiovascular and metabolic conditions. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate the relationship between WP smoking and metabolic syndrome (MetS). This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Punjab province of Pakistan using the baseline data of a population-based study – Urban Rural Chronic Diseases Study (URCDS). Information was collected by trained nurses regarding the socio-demographic profile, lifestyle factors including WP smoking, current and past illnesses. A blood sample was obtained for measurement of complete blood count, lipid profile and fasting glucose level. MetS was ascertained by using the International Diabetic Federation’s criteria. We carried out multiple logistic regressions to investigate the association between WP smoking and MetS. Final sample included 2,032 individuals – of those 325 (16.0%) were current WP smokers. Age adjusted-prevalence of MetS was significantly higher among current WP smokers (33.1%) compared with non-smokers (14.8%). Water-pipe smokers were three times more likely to have MetS (OR 3.21, 95% CI 2.38–4.33) compared with non-smokers after adjustment for age, sex and social class. WP smokers were significantly more likely to have hypertriglyceridemia (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.25–2.10), hyperglycaemia (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.37–2.41), Hypertension (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.51–2.51) and abdominal obesity (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.52–2.45). However, there were no significant differences in HDL level between WP smokers and non-smokers. This study suggests that WP smoking has a significant positive (harmful) relationship with MetS and its components.

Shafique, Kashif; Mirza, Saira Saeed; Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Arain, Zain Islam; Khan, Naveed Ahmed; Tareen, Muhammad Farooq; Ahmad, Ishtiaque

2012-01-01

4

Hookah pipe smoking among health sciences students.  

PubMed

Background. Hookah pipe smoking is a social practice and has gained popularity, especially among South African youth. The extent of this practice among health sciences students, and their knowledge regarding the health risks, are unknown. This is important, as these students will become future health professionals possibly influencing the practice of individuals and communities.Objective. To explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of hookah pipe smoking among students at the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town.Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate and postgraduate students. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed as a hard copy and online survey.Results. Of 228 participants, 66% had smoked a hookah pipe before, with 18% still smoking. Most began smoking in high school, with 25% initiating at university. Of the current smokers, 65% smoked occasionally socially, commonly at friends' houses for 30 - 60 min/session. A further 11% smoked cigarettes concurrently and 30% added other substances, mainly cannabis, to pipes. Most current hookah smokers had no interest in quitting (84%). Only 30% of participants had prior health information about hookah pipe smoking. Most knew that it was harmful (91%), with many not knowing why. A total of 80% of participants perceived that the practice was socially acceptable and 84% would recommend it to others.Conclusion. The poor knowledge about the dangers of hookah pipe smoking and the extent of its practice among health sciences students is alarming. These findings highlight the need for school and university health promotion campaigns, and for better regulation of hookah pipe smoking. PMID:24148170

Van der Merwe, N; Banoobhai, T; Gqweta, A; Gwala, A; Masiea, T; Misra, M; Zweigenthal, V

2013-09-30

5

The Ceremony of Peace Pipe Smoking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Anishnabeg ceremony of peace pipe smoking centered upon the theme of inner personal peace as the principle of conduct and relationship with the world wherein smoking became a prayer for wisdom, an act of thanksgiving, and a preparation for admittance to the land of peace. (JC)

Johnston, Basil

1978-01-01

6

Pipe Smoking in the United States, 1965–1991:Prevalence and Attributable Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.National pipe-smoking prevalence data have rarely been reported, and mortality associated with pipe smoking has not been estimated.Methods.We analyzed National Health Interview Survey data from 1965, 1966, 1970, 1987, and 1991 to estimate adult pipe-smoking prevalence in the United States. For each of these years, we estimated pipe smoking-attributable mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancers of the oral

David E. Nelson; Ronald M. Davis; Jeffrey H. Chrismon; Gary A. Giovino

1996-01-01

7

Grey Cast Iron Water Pipe Metallurgy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a metallographic study of grey cast iron water pipes are reported. These pipes had been installed between 1885 and 1973 in eight different water systems. Each pipe had been extracted during scheduled maintenance or failure repairs to provide data for a larger study to produce a methodology for determining the residual life of grey cast iron pipes.

J. M. Makar; B. Rajani

8

Carbon monoxide poisoning in narghile (water pipe) tobacco smokers.  

PubMed

Narghile (water pipe, hookah, shisha, goza, hubble bubble, argeela) is a traditional method of tobacco use. In recent years, its use has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Narghile smoking, compared to cigarette smoking, can result in more smoke exposure and greater levels of carbon monoxide (CO). We present an acutely confused adolescent patient who had CO poisoning after narghile tobacco smoking. She presented with syncope and a carboxyhemoglobin level of 24% and was treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Five additional cases of CO poisoning after narghile smoking were identified during a literature search, with carboxyhemoglobin levels of 20 to 30%. Each patient was treated with oxygen supplementation and did well clinically. In light of the increasing popularity of narghile smoking, young patients presenting with unexplained confusion or nonspecific neurologic symptoms should be asked specifically about this exposure, followed by carboxyhemoglobin measurement. PMID:22417961

La Fauci, Giovanna; Weiser, Giora; Steiner, Ivan P; Shavit, Itai

2012-01-01

9

Freezing and Blocking of Water Pipes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The topic addressed in this article is the freezing and blockage of water pipes that are full, with the water either flowing or still. It has long been assumed that when the water in a pipe freezes the ice begins to form on the inside surface of the pipe ...

K. L. Carey

1982-01-01

10

Hydrogen gas generation in water heat pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water heat pipes were fabricated from 316, 347, and 430 stainless steel, Monel 400, CDA 715, Inconel 600, and Incoloy 800. All of these materials generated varying amounts of hydrogen gas during the first few days of operation. However, as the heat pipes continued to operate, the amount of gas in each heat pipe, excluding 430 stainless steel, decreased by

G. F. Pittinato

1978-01-01

11

Noise control of waste water pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise radiated by waste water pipes is a major concern in multifamily housing projects. While the most common solution to this problem is to use cast-iron pipes in lieu of plastic pipes, this may not be sufficient in high-end applications. It should also be noted that many (if not most) multifamily housing projects in the U.S.A. are constructed with plastic waste piping. This paper discusses some of the measures that developers are currently using to control noise from both plastic and cast-iron waste pipes. In addition, results of limited noise measurements of transient water flow in plastic and cast-iron waste pipes will be presented.

Lilly, Jerry

2005-09-01

12

LARGE DIAMETER WATER TEST MACHINE, TEST FINISHED, PIPE ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

LARGE DIAMETER - WATER TEST MACHINE, TEST FINISHED, PIPE ON CAR. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

13

Identification of Nicotine by Gas Chromatography\\/Mass Spectroscopy Analysis of Smoking Pipe Residue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnographic sources show the spiritual importance of tobacco in Native American Societies. Archaeological evidence, such as Early Woodland Period smoking pipes, indicate that this spiritual function has been maintained for thousands of years. However, ethnobotanical research on the prehistory of tobacco smoking in Eastern North America has been hampered by a lack of direct evidence prior to the Middle Woodland

Sean M. Rafferty

2002-01-01

14

Deep well pipe water release valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

A deep well pipe water release valve is described including a valve assembly comprising a body defining an upright passage therethrough having upper and lower ends. The body includes a lateral port having an inner end opening into the passage intermediate the upper and lower ends and an outer end adapted for sealed communication with the interior of the lower

1986-01-01

15

Leak noise propagation and attenuation in submerged plastic water pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of water leaks in buried distribution pipes using acoustic methods is common practice in many countries. Correlation techniques are widely used in leak detection, and these have been extremely effective when attempting to locate leaks in metal pipes. However, a number of difficulties have been highlighted when trying to determine the position of leaks in plastic pipes. Of particular interest here is what happens to the leak noise when the pipe passes through an expanse of water, such as across a river or lake. In this paper, the low-frequency acoustic propagation and attenuation characteristics of a submerged plastic water pipe are investigated experimentally in the laboratory, supported by predictions from a theoretical model. It is found that, whilst the signal attenuation for a submerged pipe is increased relative to that for a similar in-vacuo pipe, energy does not, in fact, radiate into the water; furthermore, the attenuation is small compared with that for a pipe buried in soil.

Muggleton, J. M.; Brennan, M. J.

2004-12-01

16

Steam bubble collapse induced water hammer in draining pipes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When hot steam replaces cold condensate in a horizontal or almost horizontal pipe, a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer often results. The effect of condensate drainage velocity and pipe declination on the incidence of steam bubble collapse induce...

P. Griffith R. J. Silva

1991-01-01

17

Quality characteristics and safety of smoke-flavoured water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoke-flavoured water is produced in Ghana by filling a previously smoked container with potable water and allowing the water to condition with the smoke to attain a characteristic rain water flavour. Owing to the current knowledge on the toxicity, carcinogenicity and other safety issues of some smoke-constituents, the commercial production of the product is becoming a public health concern. This

Kwaku Tano-Debrah; Joanne Amamoo-Otchere; A. Y. Karikari; Charles Diako

2007-01-01

18

Steam bubble collapse induced water hammer in draining pipes  

SciTech Connect

When hot steam replaces cold condensate in a horizontal or almost horizontal pipe, a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer often results. The effect of condensate drainage velocity and pipe declination on the incidence of steam bubble collapse induced water hammer is investigated experimentally. Declining the pipe more than 2.4{degrees} allows drainage velocities up to 3 ft/sec (1m/s) in a two inch (5 cm) pipe without water hammer. A semi-empirical theory allows extrapolation to other pressures, pipe sizes and inclinations. 4 refs.

Griffith, P.; Silva, R.J.

1991-08-01

19

PIPING FOR COOLANT WATER IS INSTALLED INSIDE REACTOR STRUCTURE PRIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PIPING FOR COOLANT WATER IS INSTALLED INSIDE REACTOR STRUCTURE PRIOR TO EMBEDMENT IN CONCRETE. HIGHER PIPE IS INLET; THE OTHER, THE OUTLET LOOP. INLET PIPE WILL CONNECT TO TOP SECTION OF REACTOR VESSEL. INL NEGATIVE NO. 1287. Unknown Photographer, 1/18/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

20

Leak noise propagation and attenuation in submerged plastic water pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of water leaks in buried distribution pipes using acoustic methods is common practice in many countries. Correlation techniques are widely used in leak detection, and these have been extremely effective when attempting to locate leaks in metal pipes. However, a number of difficulties have been highlighted when trying to determine the position of leaks in plastic pipes. Of particular

J. M. Muggleton; M. J. Brennan

2004-01-01

21

Mineralogical Evidence of Galvanic Corrosion in Domestic, Drinking Water Pipes  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking water distribution system (DWDS) piping contains numerous examples of galvanically-coupled metals (e.g., soldered copper pipe joints, copper-lead pipes joined during partial replacements of lead service lines). The possible role of galvanic corrosion in the release of l...

22

Phenomena of Pipe Fracture by Freezing Water in Air Conditioner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When water is frozen at some parts inside a pipe, the pressure of water blockaded by growing ice increases unusually and the pipe would be deformed to fracture under a certain circumstance. The behavior of pipe fracture cannot be explained by the volume expansion during phase change that the water is frozen and the ice is growing to the radius direction of pipe. In this study, we have investigated experimentally the behavior of pipe fracture for a plate fin coil in air conditioner about the freezing location, the growing direction of ice, and the change of water pressure and the deformation of pipe in the ice growing process. Moreover, we examined the behavior of water pressure in the ice growing process by numerical analysis. The pressure of water blockaded by growing ice increased to 20 MPa or more. This high water pressure deforms the pipe; the thickness and strength of pipe remarkably decrease at a time of freezing. Therefore, after the deformations of the pipe are repeated by freezing, the pipe could be fractured easily under the normal operating condition.

Chiba, Ryoichi; Shoji, Yoshiaki; Tanino, Masayuki; Izumi, Masaaki

23

Fiber glass pipe effective for offshore water handling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excellent corrosion resistance, weight savings, ease of construction, and reduced maintenance make fiber glass pipe attractive for water-handling service on offshore platforms. This article covers guidelines for fiber glass pipe installations and presents a number of case histories from the industry and Chevron Corp. Applications include seawater treatment, water injection, sewage and drains, deluge fire water systems, hose reel fire

Turnipseed

1995-01-01

24

Water pipe leak detection using electromagnetic wave sensor for the water industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project concerns the use of an electromagnetic sensor for the detection of leaks\\/cracks in water pipes. As old metal pipes corrode, they start to become brittle, resulting in the potential for cracks to appear in the pipes. In addition corrosion can build up resulting in a restricted flow of water in the pipe. Using an electromagnetic (EM) sensor to

J. H. Goh; A. Shaw; J. D. Cullen; A. I. Al-Shamma'a; M. Oliver; M. Vines; M. Brockhurst

2011-01-01

25

Fiber glass pipe effective for offshore water handling  

SciTech Connect

Excellent corrosion resistance, weight savings, ease of construction, and reduced maintenance make fiber glass pipe attractive for water-handling service on offshore platforms. This article covers guidelines for fiber glass pipe installations and presents a number of case histories from the industry and Chevron Corp. Applications include seawater treatment, water injection, sewage and drains, deluge fire water systems, hose reel fire water, seawater cooling, produced water, and potable water. The paper gives usage guidelines.

Turnipseed, S.P. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)

1995-07-03

26

Numerical analysis of soil pipe effects on hillslope water dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil pipes are considered to drain off water from a hillslope and play an important role in the subsurface runoff generation\\u000a process, thus reducing the slope failure susceptibility. However, soil pipes are also often detected on the collapsed slope\\u000a suggesting that they might act to induce slope instability. To examine how the soil pipes act on pore-water pressure generation\\u000a and

Raj H. Sharma; Heinz Konietzky; Ken’ichirou Kosugi

2010-01-01

27

Steam bubble collapse induced water hammer in draining pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

When hot steam replaces cold condensate in a horizontal or almost horizontal pipe, a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer often results. The effect of condensate drainage velocity and pipe declination on the incidence of steam bubble collapse induced water hammer is investigated experimentally. Declining the pipe more than 2.4° allows drainage velocities up to 3 ft\\/sec (1m\\/s) in a

P. Griffith; R. J. Silva

1991-01-01

28

8. SETTLING TANK, WEST SIDE; WATER PIPE FROM INTAKE STRUCTURE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. SETTLING TANK, WEST SIDE; WATER PIPE FROM INTAKE STRUCTURE IN FOREGROUND. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

29

28. Main water inlet and outlet pipes under central corridor ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. Main water inlet and outlet pipes under central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

30

Steam Bubble Collapse, Water Hammer and Piping Network Response. Volume II. Piping Network Response to Steam Generated Water Hammer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conventional and nuclear power steam systems require the transport of high pressure, high temperature steam and water through complex piping networks. During transient phases of operation, steam and subcooled water can be present simultaneously in a varie...

P. Griffith P. Huber R. Gruel W. Hurwitz

1980-01-01

31

Screening reactor steam/water piping systems for water hammer  

SciTech Connect

A steam/water system possessing a certain combination of thermal, hydraulic and operational states, can, in certain geometries, lead to a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer. These states, operations, and geometries are identified. A procedure that can be used for identifying whether an unbuilt reactor system is prone to water hammer is proposed. For the most common water hammer, steam bubble collapse induced water hammer, six conditions must be met in order for one to occur. These are: (1) the pipe must be almost horizontal; (2) the subcooling must be greater than 20 C; (3) the L/D must be greater than 24; (4) the velocity must be low enough so that the pipe does not run full, i.e., the Froude number must be less than one; (5) there should be void nearby; (6) the pressure must be high enough so that significant damage occurs, that is the pressure should be above 10 atmospheres. Recommendations on how to avoid this kind of water hammer in both the design and the operation of the reactor system are made.

Griffith, P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1997-09-01

32

Prospective study of effect of switching from cigarettes to pipes or cigars on mortality from three smoking related diseases.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent to which cigarette smokers who switch to cigars or pipes alter their risk of dying of three-smoking related diseases-lung cancer, ischaemic heart disease, and chronic obstructive lung disease. DESIGN: A prospective study of 21520 men aged 35-64 years when recruited in 1975-82 with detailed history of smoking and measurement of carboxyhaemoglobin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Notification of deaths (to 1993) classified by cause. RESULTS: Pipe and cigar smokers who had switched from cigarettes over 20 years before entry to the study smoked less tobacco than cigarette smokers (8.1 g/day v 20 g/day), but they had the same consumption as pipe and cigar smokers who had never smoked cigarettes (8.1 g) and had higher carboxyhaemoglobin saturations (1.2% v 1.0%, P < 0.001), indicating that they inhaled tobacco smoke to a greater extent. They had a 51% higher risk of dying of the three smoking related diseases than pipe or cigar smokers who had never smoked cigarettes (relative risk 1.51; 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 2.38), a 68% higher risk than lifelong non-smokers (1.68; 1.16 to 2.45), a 57% higher risk than former cigarette smokers who gave up smoking over 20 years before entry (1.57; 1.04 to 2.38), and a 46% lower risk than continuing cigarette smokers (0.54; 0.38 to 0.77). CONCLUSION: Cigarette smokers who have difficulty in giving up smoking altogether are better off changing to cigars or pipes than continuing to smoke cigarettes. Much of the effect is due to the reduction in the quantity of tobacco smoked, and some is due to inhaling less. Men who switch do not, however, achieve the lower risk of pipe and cigar smokers who have never smoked cigarettes. All pipe and cigar smokers have a greater risk of lung cancer than lifelong non-smokers or former smokers.

Wald, N. J.; Watt, H. C.

1997-01-01

33

New system for inspecting shallow-water pipe burial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several years there have been a number of incidents where fishing boats struck underwater pipe lines in the shallow, near-shore waters of the Gulf of Mexico. In most cases, the major cause of these incidents has been inadequate pipe line cover. The two most severe accidents occurred in 1987 and 1989. In 1987, the fishing vessel, Sea

Caldwell

1991-01-01

34

Reactor process water (PW) piping inspections, 1984--1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July 1983, the NRC ordered the shutdown of five boiling water reactors (BWR`s) because of concerns about reliability of ultrasonic examination for detecting intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). These concerns arose because of leaking piping at Niagara Mohawk`s Nine Mile Point which was attributed to IGSCC. The leaks were detected shortly after completion of ultrasonic examinations of the piping.

W. S. Ehrhart; J. B. Elder; R. E. Sprayberry; R. W. Vande Kamp

1990-01-01

35

Reactor process water (PW) piping inspections, 1984--1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July 1983, the NRC ordered the shutdown of five boiling water reactors (BWR's) because of concerns about reliability of ultrasonic examination for detecting intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). These concerns arose because of leaking piping at Niagara Mohawk's Nine Mile Point which was attributed to IGSCC. The leaks were detected shortly after completion of ultrasonic examinations of the piping.

W. S. Ehrhart; J. B. Elder; R. E. Sprayberry; R. W. Vande Kamp

1990-01-01

36

Pulsating Viscoelastic Pipe Flow - Water-Hammer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This theoretical study of the effect of viscoelastic material properties of a pipe conveying one-dimensional, non-stationary flow shows that, in addition to exponential attenuation of wave fronts, the disturbance is transformed into a diffusion front whose thickness increases as ?t, and which propagates at a velocity corresponding to the retarded elasticity of the pipe material [E(?)]. The behaviour of pressure

E. Rieutord; A. Blanchard

1979-01-01

37

Reactor process water (PW) piping inspections, 1984--1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In July 1983, the NRC ordered the shutdown of five boiling water reactors (BWR's) because of concerns about reliability of ultrasonic examination for detecting intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). These concerns arose because of leaking piping...

W. S. Ehrhart J. B. Elder R. E. Sprayberry R. W. Vande Kamp

1990-01-01

38

Section A, view of cooling water pipes and parking garage ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Section A, view of cooling water pipes and parking garage entrance/exit on west slurry wall, looking west. (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York, New York County, NY

39

Section A, detail view of cooling water pipe valve on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Section A, detail view of cooling water pipe valve on west slurry wall, looking west. (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York, New York County, NY

40

26. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF OIL AND WATER PIPE GALLERY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF OIL AND WATER PIPE GALLERY ON LEVEL +77 OF POWERHOUSE #1. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

41

25. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE OIL AND WATER PIPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE OIL AND WATER PIPE GALLERY ON LEVEL +77 OF POWERHOUSE #1. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

42

Asbestos in Drinking Water Supplied Through Grossly Deteriorated AC Pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

High concentrations of asbestos were found in the water supply system of Woodstock, N.Y., following a routine pipe-tapping operation in the fall of 1985. Analysis of a water sample collected 10 days after tapping showed asbestos concentrations in excess of 10? million fibers per litre (MFL). The source of this asbestos was asbestos-cement (AC) pipe, which was so deteriorated that

James S. Webber; James R. Covey; Murray Vernon King

1989-01-01

43

Salvage and Recovery of the OTEC-1 Cold Water Pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

During autumn 1982, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) was assisted by the U.S. Navy in recovering the 2,250-foot-long ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC-1) cold water pipe which was vertically moored in 4,500 feet of water 22 miles off the northwest coast of the island of Hawaii. The pipe recovery was successfully completed on October 9, 1982, in one

D. E. Tracy; J. R. Vadus

1983-01-01

44

Lifetime prediction of a blue PE100 water pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional method to assess the lifetime of plastic pipes is based on hydrostatic pressure testing. A complementary approach has been conducted to monitor the depletion of antioxidants and initiation of thermo-oxidative degradation on a PE100 blue water pipe that had been exposed to hydrostatic pressure in water at low test temperatures (maximum 80°C).Depletion of antioxidants was monitored using OIT

Eric M. Hoŕng; David Lowe

2008-01-01

45

Effects of flow and water chemistry on lead release rates from pipe scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead release from pipe scales was investigated under different water compositions, stagnation times, and flow regimes. Pipe scales containing PbO2 and hydrocerussite (Pb3(OH)2(CO3)2) were developed on lead pipes by conditioning the pipes with water containing free chlorine for eight months. Water chemistry and the composition of the pipe scales are two key factors affecting lead release from pipe scales. The

Yanjiao Xie; Daniel E. Giammar

2011-01-01

46

The Lead Industry and Lead Water Pipes "A MODEST CAMPAIGN"  

PubMed Central

Lead pipes for carrying drinking water were well recognized as a cause of lead poisoning by the late 1800s in the United States. By the 1920s, many cities and towns were prohibiting or restricting their use. To combat this trend, the lead industry carried out a prolonged and effective campaign to promote the use of lead pipes. Led by the Lead Industries Association (LIA), representatives were sent to speak with plumbers’ organizations, local water authorities, architects, and federal officials. The LIA also published numerous articles and books that extolled the advantages of lead over other materials and gave practical advice on the installation and repair of lead pipes. The LIA’s activities over several decades therefore contributed to the present-day public health and economic cost of lead water pipes.

Rabin, Richard

2008-01-01

47

Initiation of Water Hammer in Horizontal or Nearly-Horizontal Pipes Containing Steam and Subcooled Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water slug formation in a stratified countercurrent flow of steam and subcooled water in a horizontal or nearly horizontal pipe traps a large steam bubble, which then collapses rapidly and causes a water hammer. This water hammer initiating mechanism has ...

R. W. Bjorge

1983-01-01

48

Cigarette, cigar, and pipe smoking and the risk of head and neck cancers: pooled analysis in the international head and neck cancer epidemiology consortium.  

PubMed

Cigar and pipe smoking are considered risk factors for head and neck cancers, but the magnitude of effect estimates for these products has been imprecisely estimated. By using pooled data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium (comprising 13,935 cases and 18,691 controls in 19 studies from 1981 to 2007), we applied hierarchical logistic regression to more precisely estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for cigarette, cigar, and pipe smoking separately, compared with reference groups of those who had never smoked each single product. Odds ratios for cigar and pipe smoking were stratified by ever cigarette smoking. We also considered effect estimates of smoking a single product exclusively versus never having smoked any product (reference group). Among never cigarette smokers, the odds ratio for ever cigar smoking was 2.54 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93, 3.34), and the odds ratio for ever pipe smoking was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.55, 2.81). These odds ratios increased with increasing frequency and duration of smoking (Ptrend ? 0.0001). Odds ratios for cigar and pipe smoking were not elevated among ever cigarette smokers. Head and neck cancer risk was elevated for those who reported exclusive cigar smoking (odds ratio = 3.49, 95% CI: 2.58, 4.73) or exclusive pipe smoking (odds ratio = 3.71, 95% CI: 2.59, 5.33). These results suggest that cigar and pipe smoking are independently associated with increased risk of head and neck cancers. PMID:23817919

Wyss, Annah; Hashibe, Mia; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Yu, Guo-Pei; Winn, Deborah M; Wei, Qingyi; Talamini, Renato; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Sturgis, Erich M; Smith, Elaine; Shangina, Oxana; Schwartz, Stephen M; Schantz, Stimson; Rudnai, Peter; Purdue, Mark P; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Muscat, Joshua; Morgenstern, Hal; Michaluart, Pedro; Menezes, Ana; Matos, Elena; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Lissowska, Jolanta; Levi, Fabio; Lazarus, Philip; La Vecchia, Carlo; Koifman, Sergio; Herrero, Rolando; Hayes, Richard B; Franceschi, Silvia; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Fernandez, Leticia; Fabianova, Eleonora; Daudt, Alexander W; Dal Maso, Luigino; Curado, Maria Paula; Chen, Chu; Castellsague, Xavier; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; Cadoni, Gabriella; Boccia, Stefania; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Olshan, Andrew F

2013-06-30

49

Acoustic imaging in a water filled metallic pipe  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for the imaging of the interior of a water filled metallic pipe using acoustical techniques. The apparatus consists of an array of 20 acoustic transducers mounted circumferentially around the pipe. Each transducer is pulsed in sequence, and the echos resulting from bubbles in the interior are digitized and processed by a computer to generate an image. The electronic control and digitizing system and the software processing of the echo signals are described. The performance of the apparatus is illustrated by the imaging of simulated bubbles consisting of thin walled glass spheres suspended in the pipe.

Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.; Turko, B.T.

1985-02-01

50

Design and analysis of OTEC's cold water pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Program of the Department of Energy (DOE) is developing an engineering design manual for the OTEC Cold Water Pipe (CWP). Nominal dimensions of the pipes now under study have lengths to 1,000 meters, diameters of 9 meters and thicknesses ranging from 0.07 to 0.6 meters, depending on materials. Under the action of unsteady, three-dimensional

R. Scotti; T. McGuinness

1980-01-01

51

The Thawing of Frozen Water Pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the present frost is causing serious inconvenience in many houses, I should like to direct attention to a method of thawing ice in pipes which I have frequently put into practice and found effective. It is based on the principle that strong brine eats its way into the ice like an acid, and that the resulting diluted brine rises

C. E. Stromeyer

1912-01-01

52

11. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes, stairs, and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes, stairs, and pump in pump room. View to SW - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

53

12. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes and pump ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes and pump in heater room. View to W - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

54

CHARACTERIZING PIPE WALL DEMAND: IMPLICATIONS FOR WATER QUALITY MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

It has become generally accepted that water quality can deteriorate in a distribution system through reactions in the bulk phase and/or at the pipe wall. These reactions may be physical, chemical or microbiological in nature. Perhaps one of the most serious aspects of water qua...

55

Unsaturated Water Flow beneath a leaking Pipe: Experiment and Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balancing solute transport and transformation processes near a sewer leakage requires the knowledge of the unsaturated water flow. Therefore 2D seepage experiments with clear water were conducted in a container, which represents a small scale, idealized cross section through a leaky pipe and the surrounding sand. The experiments showed in the beginning of infiltration a radial infiltration front, later the

M. Buecker-Gittel; U. Mohrlok

2003-01-01

56

Geographic constraints on passive solar domestic hot water systems due to pipe freezing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supply and return piping of passive solar domestic hot water systems (SDHWS) is typically exposed to ambient weather conditions, and damaging pipe freeze is a major concern. This paper presents a pipe-freeze model that accounts for hot water draws and uses 30 years of actual weather data. The simulation results are cast in terms of pipe-freeze probabilities. Using contour

Jim Salasovich; Jay Burch; Greg Barker

2002-01-01

57

Lead Water Pipes and Infant Mortality at the Turn of the Twentieth Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1897, about half of all American municipalities used lead pipes to distribute water. Employing data from Massachusetts, this paper compares infant death rates in cities that used lead water pipes to rates in cities that used nonlead pipes. In the average town in 1900, the use of lead pipes increased infant mortality by 25 to 50 percent.…

Troesken, Werner

2008-01-01

58

Volatile organic components migrating from plastic pipes (HDPE, PEX and PVC) into drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-density polyethylene pipes (HDPE), crossbonded polyethylene pipes (PEX) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes for drinking water were tested with respect to migration of volatile organic components (VOC) to water. The odour of water in contact with plastic pipes was assessed according to the quantitative threshold odour number (TON) concept. A major migrating component from HDPE pipes was 2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenol (2,4-DTBP) which

Ingun Skjevrak; Anne Due; Karl Olav Gjerstad; Hallgeir Herikstad

2003-01-01

59

Modeling the evolution of the structural state of water pipe networks with brief recorded pipe break histories: Methodology and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water managers are concerned about the poor structural state of their water pipe networks and are confronted with the lack of tools to analyze their data in order to evaluate both the present and future state of their networks. Researchers have developed statistical models with the annual number of pipe breaks as an indicator of the structural state of their

Alain Mailhot; Genevičve Pelletier; Jean-François Noël; Jean-Pierre Villeneuve

2000-01-01

60

Design, Baseline Results of Irbid Longitudinal, School-Based Smoking Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To compare patterns of water pipe and cigarette smoking in an eastern Mediterranean country. Methods: In 2008, 1781 out of 1877 seventh graders enrolled in 19 randomly selected schools in Irbid, Jordan, were surveyed. Results: Experimentation with and current water pipe smoking were more prevalent than cigarette smoking (boys: 38.7% vs…

Mzayek, Fawaz; Khader, Yousef; Eissenberg, Thomas; Ward, Kenneth D.; Maziak, Wasim

2011-01-01

61

Corrosion Resistance of Pipe Steel in Oil–Water Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the composition of deposits on the internal surface of the Kremenchuk–Kherson oil pipeline and the corrosion damages of its top and bottom fragments. We show that, in the main, corrosion damages are attributable to the presence of groundwater. We have established that the corrosion resistances of operated and nonoperated pipe steel in groundwater are different. In mixed oil–water

Z. V. Slobodyan; H. M. Nykyforchyn; O. I. Petrushchak

2002-01-01

62

The Behavior of Asbestos-Cement Pipe Under Various Water Quality Conditions: A Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Asbestos-cement pipe has had a reputation for resisting attack by aggressive waters that cause corrosion of metal pipe materials. The results of this study suggest that asbestos-cement pipe behaves much like other piping materials, except PVC, that are co...

R. W. Buelow J. R. Millette E. F. McFarren J. M. Symons

1980-01-01

63

A numerical investigation into the effect of pressure on holes and cracks in water supply pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of water pressure in a pipe on the rate of leakage from leak openings in the pipe is one of the main factors influencing leakage that is still not understood sufficiently. In this study, the behaviours of different types of leak openings (round holes and longitudinal and circumferential cracks) on pressurized pipes were investigated for different pipe materials

A. M. Cassa; J. E. van Zyl; R. F. Laubscher

2010-01-01

64

The Role of Plastic Pipe in Community Water Supplies in Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pipe is a major cost element of community and household water systems. In the most common diameters pipe made of plastics is competitive in cost and performance, and in many circumstances, costs less than pipe of other material. Plastic pressure pipe can ...

F. E. McJunkin C. S. Pineo

1971-01-01

65

Development of advanced design, insulation, and installation practices for hot water district heating piping  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first part of this paper, some of the newest design features of hot water district heating piping are described. Emphasis is on polyurethane preinsulated one- and two-pipe elements equipped with a polyethylene jacket pipe. The paper also deals with the newest developments in concrete culvert district heating lines, namely the preinsulated concrete culvert pipe elements with a metal

Huovilainen

1983-01-01

66

THE BEHAVIOR OF ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPE UNDER VARIOUS WATER QUALITY CONDITIONS: A PROGRESS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Asbestos-cement pipe has had a reputation for resisting attack by aggressive waters that cause corrosion of metal pipe materials. The results of this study suggest that asbestos-cement pipe behaves much like other piping materials, except PVC, that are commonly used for potable w...

67

Lightweight concrete OTEC cold water pipe tests, phase 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A one third scale model of a cold water pipe (CWP) for a 40 MW/sub ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plantship was constructed of reinforced lightweight concrete and tested to destruction. Failure occurred at approximately 138 percent of the design load for the once in 100 year storm condition in the Atlantic-1 siting area. The concept of using Neoprene bearing pads to provide flexibility of the joint between pipe segments was also verified. Measured deflections and stresses generally agreed with computer generated predictions and validated the design methods used. It is indicated that a light weight concrete CWP can be built with conventional material, and processes.

Oconnor, J. S.

1981-03-01

68

Metal contamination of drinking water from corrosion of distribution pipes.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to evaluate metal contamination of drinking water resulting from the corrosion of distribution pipes and its significance to human health. A community in Dhahran, which is served from its own desalination facilities, was chosen for this study. About 150 drinking water samples were collected and analyzed for metal concentrations using an inductively coupled argon plasma analyzer. It was found that copper, iron and zinc in the drinking water increased during its transportation from the desalination plant to the consumers. This increase was related to the length and material of distribution pipes. Concentrations of copper and zinc were increased during overnight storage of water in the appliances. Metal concentrations found in this study are discussed with reference to human health. PMID:15092461

Alam, I A; Sadiq, M

1989-01-01

69

Effects of diverse water pipe materials on bacterial communities and water quality in the annular reactor.  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of pipe materials on biofilm accumulation and water quality, an annular reactor with the sample coupons of four pipe materials (steel, copper, stainless steel, and polyvinyl chloride) was operated under hydraulic conditions similar to a real plumbing system for 15 months. The bacterial concentrations were substantially increased in the steel and copper reactors with progression of corrosion, whereas those in stainless steel (STS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) reactors were affected mainly by water temperature. The heterotrophic plate count (HPC) of biofilms was about 100 times higher on steel pipe than other pipes throughout the experiment, with the STS pipe showing the lowest bacterial number at the end of the operation. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences of 176 cultivated isolates revealed that 66.5% was Proteobacteria and the others included unclassified bacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacilli. Regardless of the pipe materials, Sphingomonas was the predominant species in all biofilms. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that steel pipe exhibited the highest bacterial diversity among the metallic pipes, and the DGGE profile of biofilm on PVC showed three additional bands not detected from the profiles of the metallic materials. Environmental scanning electron microscopy showed that corrosion level and biofilm accumulation were the least in the STS coupon. These results suggest that the STS pipe is the best material for plumbing systems in terms of the microbiological aspects of water quality. PMID:21364292

Jang, Hyun-Jung; Choi, Young-June; Ka, Jong-Ok

2011-02-01

70

Slip ratio in dispersed viscous oil-water pipe flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, dispersed flow of viscous oil and water is investigated. The experimental work was performed in a 26.2-mm-i.d. 12-m-long horizontal glass pipe using water and oil (viscosity of 100 mPa s and density of 860 kg\\/mł) as test fluids. High-speed video recording and a new wire-mesh sensor based on capacitance (permittivity) measurements were used to characterize the flow.

Iara H. Rodriguez; Henrique K. B. Yamaguti; Marcelo S. de Castro; Oscar M. H. Rodriguez; Marco J. Da Silva

2011-01-01

71

Slip ratio in dispersed viscous oil–water pipe flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, dispersed flow of viscous oil and water is investigated. The experimental work was performed in a 26.2-mm-i.d. 12-m-long horizontal glass pipe using water and oil (viscosity of 100mPas and density of 860kg\\/m3) as test fluids. High-speed video recording and a new wire-mesh sensor based on capacitance (permittivity) measurements were used to characterize the flow. Furthermore, holdup data

Iara H. Rodriguez; Henrique K. B. Yamaguti; Marcelo S. de Castro; Marco J. Da Silva; Oscar M. H. Rodriguez

2011-01-01

72

Reactor process water (PW) piping inspections, 1984--1990  

SciTech Connect

In July 1983, the NRC ordered the shutdown of five boiling water reactors (BWR`s) because of concerns about reliability of ultrasonic examination for detecting intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). These concerns arose because of leaking piping at Niagara Mohawk`s Nine Mile Point which was attributed to IGSCC. The leaks were detected shortly after completion of ultrasonic examinations of the piping. At that time, the Dupont plant manager at Savannah River (SR) directed that investigations be performed to determine if similar problems could exist in SR reactors. Investigation determined that all conditions believed necessary for the initiation and propagation of IGSCC in austenitic stainless steel exist in SR reactor process water (PW) systems. Sensitized, high carbon, austenitic stainless steel, a high purity water system with high levels of dissolved oxygen, and the residual stresses associated with welding during construction combine to provide the necessary conditions. A periodic UT inspection program is now in place to monitor the condition of the reactor PW piping systems. The program is patterned after NRC NUREG 0313, i.e., welds are placed in categories based on their history. Welds in upgraded or replacement piping are examined on a standard schedule (at least every five years) while welds with evidence of IGSCC, evaluated as acceptable for service, are inspected at every extended outage (15 to 18 months). This includes all welds in PW systems three inches in diameter and above. Welds are replaced when MSCC exceeds the replacement criteria of more than twenty percent of pipe circumference of fifty percent of through-wall depth. In the future, we intend to perform flow sizing with automated UT techniques in addition to manual sizing to provide more information for comparison with future examinations.

Ehrhart, W.S.; Elder, J.B.; Sprayberry, R.E.; Vande Kamp, R.W.

1990-12-31

73

Reactor process water (PW) piping inspections, 1984--1990  

SciTech Connect

In July 1983, the NRC ordered the shutdown of five boiling water reactors (BWR's) because of concerns about reliability of ultrasonic examination for detecting intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). These concerns arose because of leaking piping at Niagara Mohawk's Nine Mile Point which was attributed to IGSCC. The leaks were detected shortly after completion of ultrasonic examinations of the piping. At that time, the Dupont plant manager at Savannah River (SR) directed that investigations be performed to determine if similar problems could exist in SR reactors. Investigation determined that all conditions believed necessary for the initiation and propagation of IGSCC in austenitic stainless steel exist in SR reactor process water (PW) systems. Sensitized, high carbon, austenitic stainless steel, a high purity water system with high levels of dissolved oxygen, and the residual stresses associated with welding during construction combine to provide the necessary conditions. A periodic UT inspection program is now in place to monitor the condition of the reactor PW piping systems. The program is patterned after NRC NUREG 0313, i.e., welds are placed in categories based on their history. Welds in upgraded or replacement piping are examined on a standard schedule (at least every five years) while welds with evidence of IGSCC, evaluated as acceptable for service, are inspected at every extended outage (15 to 18 months). This includes all welds in PW systems three inches in diameter and above. Welds are replaced when MSCC exceeds the replacement criteria of more than twenty percent of pipe circumference of fifty percent of through-wall depth. In the future, we intend to perform flow sizing with automated UT techniques in addition to manual sizing to provide more information for comparison with future examinations.

Ehrhart, W.S.; Elder, J.B.; Sprayberry, R.E.; Vande Kamp, R.W.

1990-01-01

74

Steam bubble collapse, water hammer and piping network response. Volume II. Piping network response to steam generated water hammer. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional and nuclear power steam systems require the transport of high pressure, high temperature steam and water through complex piping networks. During transient phases of operation, steam and subcooled water can be present simultaneously in a variety of piping and reservoir configurations. Under certain conditions, instabilities in the two phase flows can give rise to water hammer events. Most notable

R. Gruel; W. Hurwitz; P. Huber; P. Griffith

1980-01-01

75

Composites cold water pipe for ocean thermal energy conversion /OTEC/ systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cold water pipe, 23 feet in diameter by 3,000 feet long, used as part of an ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power plant, is described. The requirements and design concepts for the pipe recommend fiber-reinforced plastic composite construction. Market estimates are for four billion pounds of RP for OTEC cold water pipes.

Trimble, L. C.; Waid, R. L.; Connolly, W. J.

76

Water Absorption Behavior and Its Influence on Properties of GRP Pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of glass-fiber reinforced plastic (GRP) pipes in civil infrastructure under different environments, it is essential to understand the fundamental mechanisms responsible for the pipe failure. However, research reports on water absorption behavior and its influence on the performance of GRP pipe are few in the literatures. This study provides test results of water diffusion in a

J. Yao; G. Ziegmann

2007-01-01

77

DETERMINATION OF PHASE WETTING IN OIL-WATER PIPE FLOWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil-water two-phase flow often presents a internal corrosion problem in pipeline transportation. The corrosion rate of the mild steel line is closely related to which phase wets the pipe wall. The problem has been investigated here on a large scale, in a 60 meter-long flow loop with crude oils. In this paper extensive experimental studies of flow pattern as well

François Ayello; Chong Li; Xuanping Tang; Jiyong Cai; Srdjan Nesic; C. Cruz; Jamal N. Al-Khamis

2008-01-01

78

Reactor Materials Program process water piping indirect failure frequency  

SciTech Connect

Following completion of the probabilistic analyses, the LOCA Definition Project has been subject to various external reviews, and as a result the need for several revisions has arisen. This report updates and summarizes the indirect failure frequency analysis for the process water piping. In this report, a conservatism of the earlier analysis is removed, supporting lower failure frequency estimates. The analysis results are also reinterpreted in light of subsequent review comments.

Daugherty, W.L.

1989-10-30

79

Initiation of water hammer in horizontal or nearly-horizontal pipes containing steam and subcooled water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water slug formation in a stratified countercurrent flow of steam and subcooled water in a horizontal or nearly horizontal pipe which traps a large steam bubble which then collapses rapidly and causes a water hammer is discussed. This water hammer initiating mechanism was studied.

1983-02-01

80

Safety considerations for condensation-induced water hammer in steam piping systems  

SciTech Connect

The phenomenon of condensation-induced water hammer may occur when subcooled water and steam interact and form a water slug by rapid steam condensation, and the slug is accelerated through the piping by the full system pressure. The sudden deceleration of the slug by existing liquid in the system or any part of the piping system can produce large pressure pulses that can, by themselves or in combination with other loads, rupture the piping system. This paper describes the results of a study on condensation-induced water hammer in a specific piping geometry and lists recommendations that when implemented will prevent piping system failure.

Squarer, D.; Roidt, R.M.; McCall, T.B.

1994-12-31

81

Safety considerations for condensation induced water hammer in steam piping system  

SciTech Connect

The phenomenon of condensation induced water hammer may occur when subcooled water and steam interact and form a water slug by rapid steam condensation, and the slug is accelerated through the piping by the full system pressure. The sudden deceleration of the slug by existing liquid in the system, or by any part of the piping system can produce large pressure pulses, that by themselves or in combination with other loads, can rupture the piping system. This paper describes the results of a study on condensation induced water hammer in a specific piping geometry, and lists recommendations that when implemented will prevent piping system failure.

McCall, T.B. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Squarer, D.; Roidt, R.M. [Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1994-06-01

82

Elastoplastic pipe-soil interaction analyses of partially-supported jointed water mains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water distribution networks are essential components of water supply systems. The combination of pipe structural deterioration\\u000a and mechanics leads to the failure of pipelines. A physical model for estimating the pipe failure must include both the pipe\\u000a deterioration model and mechanics model. Winkler pipe-soil interaction (WPSI), an analytical mechanics model developed by\\u000a Rajani and Tesfamariam (2004), takes external and internal

Yu Shao; Tu-qiao Zhang

2008-01-01

83

Reducing widespread pipe sharing and risky sex among crystal methamphetamine smokers in Toronto: do safer smoking kits have a potential role to play?  

PubMed Central

Background Crystal methamphetamine smoking is associated with many negative health consequences, including the potential for transmission of hepatitis. We examined whether or not a kit for crystal methamphetamine smoking might have some potential to reduce the negative health effects of crystal methamphetamine smoking. Methods Five focus groups were conducted with crystal methamphetamine smokers recruited by community health agencies and youth shelters in Toronto, Canada. Target groups included homeless/street-involved youth, sex workers, men who have sex with men, and youth in the party scene. Participants (n = 32) were asked questions about motivations for crystal methamphetamine use, the process of smoking, health problems experienced, sharing behaviour, risky sexual practices, and the ideal contents of a harm reduction kit. Results Pipe sharing was widespread among participants and was deemed integral to the social experience of smoking crystal methamphetamine. Heated pipes were unlikely to cause direct injuries, but participants mentioned having dry, cracked lips, which may be a vector for disease transmission. Many reported having sex with multiple partners and being less likely to use condoms while on the drug. Demand for harm reduction kits was mixed. Conclusions Changing pipe sharing behaviours may be difficult because many participants considered sharing to be integral to the social experience of smoking crystal methamphetamine. Within the context of a broader health promotion and prevention program, pilot testing of safer smoking kits to initiate discussion and education on the risks associated with sharing pipes and unprotected sex for some communities (e.g., homeless/street-involved youth) is worth pursuing.

2012-01-01

84

Passive water hammer in pipes due to flashing  

SciTech Connect

Peak water hammer pressures arising from flashing flows passing through flow restrictions have been measured in a variety of experiments. Water hammer pressures up to 60 psig have been measured. A homogeneous, equilibrium theory has been developed and shown to be conservative by a factor three or more in predicting the peak pressures. The most likely reasons for the poor prediction of the peak pressure are two. (1) The pressure wave velocity (velocity of sound) is reduced due to small amounts of steam in the pipe probably due to flashing during the starting transient. (2) Thermal non-equilibrium in the flow restriction during flashing.

Wolf, A.R.; Sweeney, E.; Griffith, P.

1991-08-01

85

Passive water hammer in pipes due to flashing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peak water hammer pressures arising from flashing flows passing through flow restrictions have been measured in a variety of experiments. Water hammer pressures up to 60 psig have been measured. A homogeneous, equilibrium theory has been developed and shown to be conservative by a factor three or more in predicting the peak pressures. The most likely reasons for the poor prediction of the peak pressure are: (1) the pressure wave velocity (velocity of sound) is reduced due to small amounts of steam in the pipe probably due to flashing during the starting transient; and (2) thermal non-equilibrium in the flow restriction during flashing.

Wolf, A. R.; Sweeney, E.; Griffith, P.

1991-08-01

86

Axisymmetric Weakly Compressible Transient Pipe Flow and Water Hammer Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the partial success of existing theoretical models in explaining certain transient water flow phenomena in a long pipe, they can hardly predict the evolution of strong water hammer, in particular the one downstream the valve caused by its closing (reversed water hammer). We attack this important problem by a new perturbation theory based on the unsteady axisymmetric and compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The leading-order transient solution is in excellent agreement with the direction simulation of the original N-S equation. We establish a simple relation between the valve motion and adjacent pressure in reversed water hammer, by which the strategy of optimal control of reversed water hammer is analyzed and illustrated.

Wu, Jie-Zhi; Xuan, Li-Jun; Mao, Feng

2008-11-01

87

Steam Bubble Collapse, Water Hammer and Piping Network Response. Volume I. Steam Bubble Collapse and Water Hammer in Piping Systems: Experiments and Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water hammer incidents in conventional and nuclear steam systems are an important problem of broad general interest in piping network design and transient operation. Water hammer in PWR steam generator sparger feed lines has, for example, been a recurrent...

R. Gruel W. Hurwitz P. Huber P. Griffith

1980-01-01

88

Avoiding steam bubble collapse-induced water hammer in the auxiliary piping of steam power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms of steam bubble collapse-induced water hammer are identified for nominally horizontal or inclined pipes. On the basis of these observations, two methods of preventing steam bubble collapse-induced water hammer in nominally horizontal pipes are proposed. They are inclining them and injecting the water at a controlled rate at either the lowest point or injecting the water at several

C. A. O. C. Lobo; P. Griffith

1994-01-01

89

Thermo-economic optimization of hot water piping systems: A comparison study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four different thermo-economic techniques for optimum design of hot water piping systems are presented. They are as follows: the first one is a sequential optimization of pipe diameter based on minimization of total cost without considering heat losses and then of insulation thickness based on minimization of cost of insulation and heat losses. The second is simultaneous optimization of pipe

?. T. Öztürk; H. Karabay; E. Bilgen

2006-01-01

90

Investigation of performance of gravity assisted copper-water heat pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation of the hydrodynamics and heat transfer characteristics of gravity aided copper-water heat pipes was carried out. The operating temperature, tilt angle, and liquid inventory within the heat pipe were used as parameters. The data were compared to predictions from a liquid puddle model and the latter was found inadequate for tilted wicked heat pipes. The role of

A. Abhat; H. Nguyenchi

1976-01-01

91

Avoiding steam bubble collapse-induced water hammer in the auxiliary piping of steam power plants  

SciTech Connect

The mechanisms of steam bubble collapse-induced water hammer are identified for nominally horizontal or inclined pipes. On the basis of these observations, two methods of preventing steam bubble collapse-induced water hammer in nominally horizontal pipes are proposed. They are inclining them and injecting the water at a controlled rate at either the lowest point or injecting the water at several locations. The success of these methods is demonstrated for horizontal pipes and for pipes of other orientations. These ways of preventing steam bubble collapse-induced water hammer are then used to test filling strategies for L''-shaped pipes oriented in practically every way. Both methods are found to work though the application of multiple injection ports and has complications when applied to a complex piping system. The use of the recommended design guidelines for avoiding steam bubble collapse-induced water hammer is demonstrated in an example problem.

Lobo, C.A.O.C. (COPESP, Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Griffith, P. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1994-02-01

92

Screening reactor steam\\/water piping systems for water hammer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steam\\/water system possessing a certain combination of thermal, hydraulic and operational states, can, in certain geometries, lead to a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer. These states, operations, and geometries are identified. A procedure that can be used for identifying whether an unbuilt reactor system is prone to water hammer is proposed. For the most common water hammer, steam

1997-01-01

93

Is Chrysotile Asbestos Released From Asbestos-Cement Pipe Into Drinking Water?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the possibility that asbestos-cement pipe does, as has been suggested, release asbestos as a contaminant in drinking water, a study was made of water samples from fifteen public water-supply systems before and after their flow through asbestos-cement pipes of various ages, lengths, and diameters.

William H. Hallenbeck; Edwin H. Chen; Carolyn S. Hesse; Kusum Patel-Mandlik; Arthur H. Wolff

1978-01-01

94

Drag reduction of Newtonian fluid in a circular pipe with a highly water-repellent wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drag reduction phenomena, in which 14% drag reduction of tap water flowing in a 16 mm-diameter pipe occurs in the laminar flow range, have been clarified. Experiments were carried out to measure the pressure drop and the velocity profile of tap water and an aqueous solution of glycerin flowing in pipes with highly water-repellent walls, by using a pressure transducer

Keizo Watanabe; Yanuar Udagawa; Hiroshi Udagawa

1999-01-01

95

Safety considerations for condensation-induced water hammer in steam piping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon of condensation-induced water hammer may occur when subcooled water and steam interact and form a water slug by rapid steam condensation, and the slug is accelerated through the piping by the full system pressure. The sudden deceleration of the slug by existing liquid in the system or any part of the piping system can produce large pressure pulses

D. Squarer; R. M. Roidt; T. B. McCall

1994-01-01

96

Safety considerations for condensation induced water hammer in steam piping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon of condensation induced water hammer may occur when subcooled water and steam interact and form a water slug by rapid steam condensation, and the slug is accelerated through the piping by the full system pressure. The sudden deceleration of the slug by existing liquid in the system, or by any part of the piping system can produce large

T. B. McCall; D. Squarer; R. M. Roidt

1994-01-01

97

Comparison of drinking-water mutagenicity with leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water distribution pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objectives of this study were to examine the changes in concentration of six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the possibility of changes in mutagenic potential of treated waters as a result of their passage through commonly used distribution pipes. With the exception of the finished water taken at one treatment plant in which the total concentration of the

D. K. Basu; J. Saxena; F. W. Stoss; J. Santodonato; M. W. Neal

1987-01-01

98

Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... Lower Your Risk Smoking Listen It is no secret that smoking is bad for your health. Smoking hurts your lungs and your heart. It lowers the amount of oxygen that gets to your organs, raises your ...

99

Steam bubble collapse, water hammer and piping network response. Volume II. Piping network response to steam generated water hammer. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Conventional and nuclear power steam systems require the transport of high pressure, high temperature steam and water through complex piping networks. During transient phases of operation, steam and subcooled water can be present simultaneously in a variety of piping and reservoir configurations. Under certain conditions, instabilities in the two phase flows can give rise to water hammer events. Most notable are the water hammers experienced in the feed pipes to steam generator spargers in pressurized water nuclear reactors. This study combined with the work done by Gruel (1980) attempts to analyze the events which occur after the formation of an isolated steam vapor bubble. Experimental and theoretical models are developed to investigate the condensation process leading to steam bubble collapse, the mechanisms involved in the propagation of pressure waves through the pipes, and the resultant fluid-structure interactions.

Gruel, R.; Hurwitz, W.; Huber, P.; Griffith, P.

1980-06-01

100

Screening Reactor Steam/Water Piping Systems for Water Hammer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A steam/water system possessing a certian combination of thermal, hydraulic and operational states, can, in certain geometries, lead to a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer. These states, operations, and geometries are identified. A procedure that...

P. Griffith

1997-01-01

101

Effects of flow and water chemistry on lead release rates from pipe scales.  

PubMed

Lead release from pipe scales was investigated under different water compositions, stagnation times, and flow regimes. Pipe scales containing PbO(2) and hydrocerussite (Pb(3)(OH)(2)(CO(3))(2)) were developed on lead pipes by conditioning the pipes with water containing free chlorine for eight months. Water chemistry and the composition of the pipe scales are two key factors affecting lead release from pipe scales. The water rarely reached equilibrium with pipe scales within one day, which makes solid-water contact time and corrosion product dissolution rates the controlling factors of lead concentrations for the conditions tested. Among five water compositions studied, a solution with orthophosphate had the lowest dissolved lead release rate and highest particulate lead release rate. Free chlorine also decreased the dissolved lead release rate at stagnant conditions. Water flow increased rates of release of both dissolved and particulate lead by accelerating the mass transfer of lead out of the porous pipe scales and by physically destabilizing pipe scales. Dissolved lead comprised the majority of the lead released at both stagnant and laminar flow conditions. PMID:22018527

Xie, Yanjiao; Giammar, Daniel E

2011-10-05

102

[Study on the automatic parameters identification of water pipe network model].  

PubMed

Based on the problems analysis on development and application of water pipe network model, the model parameters automatic identification is regarded as a kernel bottleneck of model's application in water supply enterprise. The methodology of water pipe network model parameters automatic identification based on GIS and SCADA database is proposed. Then the kernel algorithm of model parameters automatic identification is studied, RSA (Regionalized Sensitivity Analysis) is used for automatic recognition of sensitive parameters, and MCS (Monte-Carlo Sampling) is used for automatic identification of parameters, the detail technical route based on RSA and MCS is presented. The module of water pipe network model parameters automatic identification is developed. At last, selected a typical water pipe network as a case, the case study on water pipe network model parameters automatic identification is conducted and the satisfied results are achieved. PMID:20329520

Jia, Hai-Feng; Zhao, Qi-Feng

2010-01-01

103

Water, Water Everywhere, but What's in the Pipes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Waterborne diseases like cholera, typhoid, and dysentery are not problematic in the United States. Most industrial and agricultural chemicals are neutralized by existing treatment technology, but cryptosporidium contamination can occur in dysfunctional treatment/filtration systems. Bottled water is no better than tap water. Awareness is better…

Hoober, Scott

1997-01-01

104

Smoke-saturated water promotes somatic embryogenesis in geranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of smoke saturated-water (SSW) on somatic embryogenesis was studied using geranium hypocotyl culture as a model system. Treatment of explants with 10% SSW or the inclusion of SSW with thidiazuron, a compound which induces somatic embryogenesis, enhanced the embryogenic potential of the geranium hypocotyl culture. Prolonged exposure to SSW was detrimental to embryogenesis. The SSW treatment also accelerated

Tissa Senaratna; Kingsley Dixon; Eric Bunn; Darren Touchell

1999-01-01

105

Development of pipe deterioration models for water distribution systems using EPR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic and social costs of pipe failures in water and wastewater systems are increasing, putting pressure on utility managers to develop annual replacement plans for critical pipes that balance investment with expected benefits in a risk-based management context. In addition to the need for a strategy for solving such a multi-objective problem, analysts and water system managers need reliable

L. Berardi; O. Giustolisi; D. A. Savic

2008-01-01

106

Heat transfer models for a subsurface, water pipe, soil-warming system  

Microsoft Academic Search

From symposium on beneficial uses for thermal discharges; New York (19 ; Aug 1971). Mathematical models are developed for the prediction of heat losses ; from subsurface pipes carrying hot water. The method of images is used to ; calculate the heat loss from a hot water pipe buried at a given depth below the ; surface of a homogeneous

J. H. Kendrick; J. A. Havens

1973-01-01

107

The physico-chemistry of biofilm-mediated pitting corrosion of copper pipe supplying potable water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper is a generally robust material that has beneficial properties to reduce biofilm formation and pathogen colonisation of pipes supplying potable water. However, a rare pitting corrosion can occur in soft, poorly buffered waters that can lead to pipe failure. This has been shown to be mediated by a copper-tolerant biofilm whose physical and chemical heterogeneity can establish microenvironments for

C. W. Keevil

108

Empirical model for dissolved oxygen depletion during corrosion of drinking water copper pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictive models characterizing the evolution and interaction of key parameters of water chemistry are needed to better understand corrosion events in drinking water pipes. We performed experiments with new copper pipes under combinations of pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, chlorine, and dissolved inorganic carbon. We found that DO consumption during 24h of stagnation was not limited by diffusion, thus the

Ignacio T. Vargas; Pablo A. Pastén; Gonzalo E. Pizarro

2010-01-01

109

The Analysis of Organotins in Polyvinyl Chloride Pipe and Their Diffusion into Water Over Time  

EPA Science Inventory

Organotins are commonly used as thermal stabilizers in the manufacturing of PVC pipes, which are widely used in drinking water distribution systems. Additives, such as organotins, have been show to leach through PVC pipe into water. While tri-substituted organotin compounds hav...

110

Indoor secondhand tobacco smoke emission levels in six Lebanese cities  

PubMed Central

Background To date, Lebanon has failed to enact comprehensive clean indoor air laws despite ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which calls for the protection of non-smokers from exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). Complicating the problem of SHS exposure in Lebanon is the widespread use of the tobacco water-pipe. While most research on SHS has involved cigarette smoking as a source of emissions, other sources, including tobacco water-pipes, may be an important contributor. Methods PM2.5 concentrations (?g/m3) were measured in a sample of 28 public venues located in six major Lebanese cities. Active smoker density (number of smokers/100?m3) was calculated for both water-pipe and cigarette smokers. Venues were then categorised as having higher density of water-pipe smokers or higher density of cigarette smokers, and resultant emission levels were compared between the two groups. Results Cigarette and water-pipe smoking was observed in 14 venues, while cigarette smoking only and water-pipe smoking only were found in 12 venues and one venue, respectively. Among all smoking-permitted venues, the mean PM2.5 concentration was 342??g/m3. Venues with a higher density of water-pipe smokers (n =14) showed a similar median PM2.5 concentration (349??g/m3) compared with venues with a higher density of cigarette smokers (n =13; 241??g/m3; p=0.159). The mean PM2.5 concentration in the single venue with a voluntary smoke-free policy was 6??g/m3. Conclusions Despite ratification of the FCTC in 2005, both cigarette and water-pipe smoking are commonly practised in enclosed public places throughout Lebanon, leading to unsafe levels of indoor particulate pollution. Smoke-free policies are needed in Lebanon to protect the public's health, and should apply to all forms of tobacco smoking.

Saade, Georges; Seidenberg, Andrew B; Otrock, Zaher; Connolly, Gregory N

2010-01-01

111

PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. AERIAL TAKEN WHILE SEVERAL PIPE TRENCHES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. AERIAL TAKEN WHILE SEVERAL PIPE TRENCHES REMAINED OPEN. CAMERA FACES EASTERLY. NOTE DUAL PIPES BETWEEN REACTOR BUILDING AND NORTH SIDE OF PROCESS WATER BUILDING. PIPING NEAR WORKING RESERVOIR HEADS FOR RETENTION RESERVOIR. PIPE FROM DEMINERALIZER ENTERS MTR FROM NORTH. SEE ALSO TRENCH FOR COOLANT AIR DUCT AT SOUTH SIDE OF MTR AND LEADING TO FAN HOUSE AND STACK. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2966-A. Unknown Photographer, 7/31/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

112

Acoustic Propagation in a Water-Filled Cylindrical Pipe  

SciTech Connect

This study was concerned with the physics of the propagation of a tone burst of high frequency sound in a steel water-filled pipe. The choice of the pulse was rather arbitrary, so that this work in no way can be considered as recommending a particular pulse form. However, the MATLAB computer codes developed in this study are general enough to carry out studies of pulses of various forms. Also, it should be pointed out that the codes as written are quite time consuming. A computation of the complete field, including all 5995 modes, requires several hours on a desktop computer. The time required by such computations as these is a direct consequence of the bandwidths, frequencies and sample rates employed. No attempt was made to optimize these codes, and it is assumed that much can be done in this regard.

Sullivan, E J; Candy, J V

2003-06-01

113

Microbial diversity in biofilms on water distribution pipes of different materials.  

PubMed

The effects of pipe materials on biofilm formation potential (BFP) and microbial communities in biofilms were analyzed. Pipe coupons made of six different materials (CU, copper; CP, chlorinated poly vinyl chloride; PB, polybutylene; PE, polyethylene; SS, stainless steel; ST, steel coated with zinc) were incubated in drinking water, mixed water (inoculated with 10% (v/v) of river water) and drinking water inoculated with Escherichia coli JM109 (E. coli), respectively. The highest BFPs were observed from steel pipes, SS and ST, while CU showed the lowest BFP values. Of the plastic materials, the BFP of CP in drinking water (96 pg ATP/cm(2)) and mixed water (183 pg ATP/cm(2)) were comparable to those of CU, but the other plastic materials, PB and PE, displayed relatively high BFP. The Number of E. coli in the drinking water inoculated with cultures of E. coli strain showed similar trends with BFP values of the pipe coupons incubated in drinking water and mixed water. Molecular analysis of microbial communities indicated the presence of alpha- and beta-proteobacteria, actinobacteria and bacteroidetes in biofilm on the pipe materials. However, the DGGE profile of bacterial 16S rDNA fragments showed significant differences among different materials, suggesting that the pipe materials affect not only BFP but also microbial diversity. Some plastic materials, such as CP, would be suitable for plumbing, particularly for drinking water distribution pipes, due to its low BFP and little microbial diversity in biofilm. PMID:20057102

Yu, J; Kim, D; Lee, T

2010-01-01

114

A NOVEL METHODOLOGY OF INTERNAL NOTCHED PIPE TESTING AS AN ACCELERATED TEST FOR PLASTIC PIPING MATERIALS IN POTABLE WATER APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accelerated testing at elevated temperatures and multiple hoop stresses has been the basis for various test methodologies to ensure the performance of plastic piping materials in potable water applications. The most common practice is to use the Rate Process Method (RPM) and extrapolate the failure times to end use conditions. In this paper, a new method is explored that examines

Sarah Chung; Tieqi Li; Ken Oliphant; Patrick Vibien

115

The compatibility of mild carbon steel and water in a heat pipe application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this experimental investigation was to evaluate the compatibility of water and mild steel as the working fluid and vessel material in a heat pipe application. Heat pipes of 1015 CD steel and 304 stainless steel were fabricated and operated at temperatures ranging from 150 C to 300 C for a period of six months. Results showed that mild steel heat pipes had a lower overall thermal resistance than the stainless steel pipes, and that performance recovery occurs at a greater rate in the mild steel pipes when noncondensible gas is generated. It is concluded that water and mild steel are a satisfactory materials combination in heat pipes in the temperature range investigated.

Feldman, K. T., Jr.; Kenney, D. D.

116

A study of vibroacoustic coupling between a pump and attached water-filled pipes.  

PubMed

This paper presents a model for the vibroacoustical behavior of a pump coupled with water-filled pipes. Coupling between (a) the pump and the inlet and outlet pipes, and (b) the pipe wall and the fluid contained in the pipe, is investigated through analytical modeling and numerical simulation. In the model, the pump is represented by a rigid body supported by multiple elastic mounts, and the inlet and outlet pipes by two semi-infinite water-filled pipes. The vibration characteristics of the coupled system under the excitation of mechanical forces and fluid-borne forces at the pump are calculated. The results enhance our understanding about how the input mechanical and fluid excitation energy at the pump is transmitted to the pipes and how to relate the piping vibroacoustical response to the excitations at the pump. This study assists in predicting dynamic stress in pipes for given excitations at the pump, and in developing methods to identify the nature (fluid or mechanical) of the excitation forces at the pump using the vibration and dynamic pressure measurements on the pump/pipe system. PMID:17348514

Li, Bilong; Hodkiewicz, Melinda; Pan, Jie

2007-02-01

117

Fluid-structure interaction in water-filled thin pipes of anisotropic composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of elastic anisotropy in piping materials on fluid-structure interaction are studied for water-filled carbon-fiber reinforced thin plastic pipes. When an impact is introduced to water in a pipe, there are two waves traveling at different speeds. A primary wave corresponding to a breathing mode of pipe travels slowly and a precursor wave corresponding to a longitudinal mode of pipe travels fast. An anisotropic stress-strain relationship of piping materials has been taken into account to describe the propagation of primary and precursor waves in the carbon-fiber reinforced thin plastic pipes. The wave speeds and strains in the axial and hoop directions are calculated as a function of carbon-fiber winding angles and compared with the experimental data. As the winding angle increases, the primary wave speed increases due to the increased stiffness in the hoop direction, while the precursor wave speed decreases. The magnitudes of precursor waves are much smaller than those of primary waves so that the effect of precursor waves on the deformation of pipe is not significant. The primary wave generates the hoop strain accompanying the opposite-signed axial strain through the coupling compliance of pipe. The magnitude of hoop strain induced by the primary waves decreases with increasing the winding angle due to the increased hoop stiffness of pipe. The magnitude of axial strain is small at low and high winding angles where the coupling compliance is small.

You, Jeong Ho; Inaba, K.

2013-01-01

118

Ocean thermal energy conversion cold water pipe at-sea test program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed design for a 10 foot diameter, 1,000 foot long fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) cold water pipe (CWP) was tested a sea aboard a platform. The wall of the pipe was of sandwich construction with FRP facesheets and a core of syntactic foam. In addition to developing the design for the pipe itself, other activities were conducted to support the design effect.

1982-07-01

119

The physico-chemistry of biofilm-mediated pitting corrosion of copper pipe supplying potable water.  

PubMed

Copper is a generally robust material that has beneficial properties to reduce biofilm formation and pathogen colonisation of pipes supplying potable water. However, a rare pitting corrosion can occur in soft, poorly buffered waters that can lead to pipe failure. This has been shown to be mediated by a copper-tolerant biofilm whose physical and chemical heterogeneity can establish microenvironments for corrosion potentials, causing micro pits that eventually coalesce into large perforations through the pipe wall. Control of the biofilm, for example through reduced cold water or elevated hot water temperatures, can suppress this corrosion phenomenon. PMID:14982168

Keevil, C W

2004-01-01

120

Factors influencing lead and iron release from some Egyptian drinking water pipes.  

PubMed

The major objective of this study is to assess the effect of stagnation time, pipe age, pipes material and water quality parameters such as pH, alkalinity and chloride to sulfate mass ratio on lead and iron release from different types of water pipes used in Egypt namely polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP) and galvanized iron (GI), by using fill and dump method. Low pH increased lead and iron release from pipes. Lead and iron release decreased as pH and alkalinity increased. Lead and iron release increased with increasing chloride to sulfate mass ratio in all pipes. EDTA was used as an example of natural organic matter which may be influence metals release. It is found that lead and iron release increased then this release decreased with time. In general, GI pipes showed to be the most effected by water quality parameters tested and the highest iron release. PVC pipes are the most lead releasing pipes while PP pipes are the least releasing. PMID:18436372

Lasheen, M R; Sharaby, C M; El-Kholy, N G; Elsherif, I Y; El-Wakeel, S T

2008-03-20

121

Simulation of the Process of Water Freezing in a Round Pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of freezing of pure water in a round pipe is treated with due regard for convection under asymmetric thermal boundary conditions in the absence of motion along the pipe. The problem is solved numerically using the control volume approach, SIMPLER algorithm, and the enthalpy method. Results are obtained for three Grashof (Gr) and six Biot (Bi) numbers: Gr

P. T. Zubkov; V. A. Kravchenko; E. M. Sviridov

2001-01-01

122

On the selection of acoustic\\/vibration sensors for leak detection in plastic water pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaks from buried water distribution pipes are commonly located by applying the correlation technique to two measured acoustic\\/vibration signals on either side of a leak. The effectiveness of the correlation technique for locating leaks in plastic pipes depends on the type of sensors used and their sensitivities. Based on an analytical model of the cross-correlation of pressure responses established in

Y. Gao; M. J. Brennan; P. F. Joseph; J. M. Muggleton; O. Hunaidi

2005-01-01

123

A novel sensor for measuring the acoustic pressure in buried plastic water pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic techniques are widely used to locate leaks in buried water pipes. However, difficulties are often encountered when attempting to detect a leak in a plastic pipe, as the leak noise signals attenuate very rapidly away from the leak. Identifying suitable sensors which can be easily deployed and are sufficiently sensitive has been problematic. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) wire ring sensors

J. M. Muggleton; M. J. Brennan; R. J. Pinnington; Y. Gao

2006-01-01

124

Rapid crack propagation in plastic water pipes: measurement of dynamic fracture resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A classical analysis of Irwin and Corten relates the minimum pressure to sustain crack propagation along a pipeline to the dimensions, elastic modulus and fracture resistance of the pipe wall. Although the model is inapplicable to gas pressurisation, it is here modified to become sufficiently accurate for water pressurised thickwalled pipe to provide the basis of a dynamic fracture resistance

C. J. Greenshields; P. S. Leevers

1996-01-01

125

Avoiding steam-bubble-collapse-induced water hammers in piping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In terms of the frequency of occurrence, steam bubble collapse in subcooled water is the dominant initiating mechanism for water hammer events in nuclear power plants. Water hammer due to steam bubble collapse occurs when water slug forms in stratified horizontal flow, or when steam bubble is trapped at the end of the pipe. These types of water hammer events

Y. Chou; P. Griffith

1989-01-01

126

Procedure for Determining Heat Losses Through the Insulation of Hot-Water Pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is described for determining heat losses. The procedure establishes the content of work on determining heat losses through the insulation of hot-water pipes and the way of carrying it out and is extended to all steam and water-filled hot-water pipes (above and below ground) employed in heat-distribution, housing-block, and main-line heating networks.

V. I. Mishustin; Yu. A. Chistyakov

2003-01-01

127

Acoustical characteristics of leak signals in plastic water distribution pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustical characteristics of leak signals in plastic pipes were investigated in this study for several types of leaks simulated under controlled conditions at an experimental site. The investigation included the characterization of frequency content of sound or vibration signals as a function of leak type, flow rate, pipe pressure and season, the determination of the attenuation rate, and the variation

Osama Hunaidi; Wing T. Chu

1999-01-01

128

Steam bubble collapse, water hammer and piping network response. Volume I. Steam bubble collapse and water hammer in piping systems: experiments and analysis. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water hammer incidents in conventional and nuclear steam systems are an important problem of broad general interest in piping network design and transient operation. Water hammer in PWR steam generator sparger feed lines has, for example, been a recurrent problem when the sparger becomes uncovered during certain operational transients (Creare 1977). The central goal of this research has been to

R. Gruel; W. Hurwitz; P. Huber; P. Griffith

1980-01-01

129

Wavenumber Prediction of Waves in Buried Pipes for Water Leak Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water leaks are a topic of great concern in Britain and many other countries, because of decreasing water supplies and the deterioration of old pipework. Correlation techniques are widely used in leak detection, but for these to be effective, the propagation wavespeeds and wave attenuation must be known. Relatively predictable for metal pipes, these are largely unknown for the newer plastic pipes, being highly dependent on the pipe wall properties and the surrounding medium. In this paper, pipe equations for n=0 axisymmetric wave motion are derived for a fluid-filled pipe, surrounded by an infinite elastic medium which can support both longitudinal and shear waves. These equations are solved for two wave types,s =1,2, which correspond to a fluid dominated wave and an axial shell wave, and expressions for a complex wavenumber for each wave are given.

Muggleton, J. M.; Brennan, M. J.; Pinnington, R. J.

2002-01-01

130

Determining the location of buried plastic water pipes from measurements of ground surface vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

'Mapping the Underworld' is a UK-based project, which aims to create a multi-sensor device that combines complementary technologies for remote buried utility service detection and location. One of the technologies to be incorporated in the device is low-frequency vibro-acoustics, and techniques for detecting buried infrastructure, in particular plastic water pipes, are being investigated. One of the proposed techniques involves excitation of the pipe at some known location with concurrent vibrational mapping of the ground surface in order to infer the location of the remainder of the pipe. In this paper, measurements made on a dedicated pipe rig are reported. Frequency response measurements relating vibrational velocity on the ground to the input excitation were acquired. Contour plots of the unwrapped phase revealed the location of the pipe to within 0.1-0.2 m. Magnitude contour plots revealed the excitation point and also the location of the pipe end. By examining the unwrapped phase gradients along a line above the pipe, it was possible to identify the wave-type within the pipe responsible for the ground surface vibration. Furthermore, changes in the ground surface phase speed computed using this method enabled the location of the end of the pipe to be confirmed.

Muggleton, J. M.; Brennan, M. J.; Gao, Y.

2011-09-01

131

Early Response of Pressurized Hot Water in a Pipe to a Sudden Break. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental and analytic studies that explain the details of early pressure variations during rapid depressurization in water-cooled reactors are presented as a means of assessing sudden break consequences in a coolant pipe. The report includes (1) a des...

M. Alamgir C. Y. Kan J. H. Lienhard

1981-01-01

132

PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. SIX CONTROL VALVES INSTALLED ABOVE PIPES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. SIX CONTROL VALVES INSTALLED ABOVE PIPES IN BASEMENT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3583A. Unknown Photographer, 10/29/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

133

CHLORINE DECAY AND BIOFILM STUDIES IN A PILOT SCALE DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION DEAD END PIPE SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Chlorine decay experiments using a pilot-scale water distribution dead end pipe system were conducted to define relationships between chlorine decay and environmental factors. These included flow rate, biomass concentration and biofilm density, and initial chlorine concentrations...

134

Detrimental Effects of Natural Soil and Water Elements on Drainage Pipe Structures in Alabama.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Field studies were conducted in Alabama on soil and water parameters to determine their relationship to culvert pipe corrosion. The types of culvert materials investigated included concrete, galvanized steel, bituminous-coated galvanized steel, aluminum, ...

L. W. Hyde V. M. Shamburger J. S. Ellard R. E. Pate

1969-01-01

135

OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) CWP (Cold Water Pipe) Laboratory Test Program. Materials Project Test Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fiberglass sandwich wall structures emerged as leading candidates for the OTEC cold water pipe because of their high strength to weight ratio, their flexibility in selecting directional properties, their resistance to electrochemical interaction, their ea...

1981-01-01

136

Fatigue growth in piping and rpv steels in simulated BWR water environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes results of an experimental testing program focused on establishing the fatigue crack growth behavior of several commercial pressure vessel and piping steels typically used in light water reactors. Testing was done in a simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) primary water environment (1230 psig, 550°F demineralized water). The data obtained were analyzed using linear elastic fracture mechanics principles

D. A. Hale; J. L. Yuen; T. L. Gerber

1978-01-01

137

The effect of piped water on early childhood mortality in Urban Brazil, 1970 to 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of access to piped water on the trends in child mortality and on differentials by income class are analyzed using\\u000a data on surviving children and other variables in samples of urban mothers aged 20–29 in 1970 and 1976. Path analytic regression\\u000a techniques are used to test a recursive model linking the supply and demand for piped water to

Thomas W. Merrick

1985-01-01

138

Iron release from corroded iron pipes in drinking water distribution systems: effect of dissolved oxygen.  

PubMed

Iron release from corroded iron pipes is the principal cause of "colored water" problems in drinking water distribution systems. The corrosion scales present in corroded iron pipes restrict the flow of water, and can also deteriorate the water quality. This research was focused on understanding the effect of dissolved oxygen (DO), a key water quality parameter, on iron release from the old corroded iron pipes. Corrosion scales from 70-year-old galvanized iron pipe were characterized as porous deposits of Fe(III) phases (goethite (alpha-FeOOH), magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)), and maghemite (alpha-Fe(2)O(3))) with a shell-like, dense layer near the top of the scales. High concentrations of readily soluble Fe(II) content was present inside the scales. Iron release from these corroded pipes was investigated for both flow and stagnant water conditions. Our studies confirmed that iron was released to bulk water primarily in the ferrous form. When DO was present in water, higher amounts of iron release was observed during stagnation in comparison to flowing water conditions. Additionally, it was found that increasing the DO concentration in water during stagnation reduced the amount of iron release. Our studies substantiate that increasing the concentration of oxidants in water and maintaining flowing conditions can reduce the amount of iron release from corroded iron pipes. Based on our studies, it is proposed that iron is released from corroded iron pipes by dissolution of corrosion scales, and that the microstructure and composition of corrosion scales are important parameters that can influence the amount of iron released from such systems. PMID:14975659

Sarin, P; Snoeyink, V L; Bebee, J; Jim, K K; Beckett, M A; Kriven, W M; Clement, J A

2004-03-01

139

Avoiding steam-bubble-collapse-induced water hammers in piping systems  

SciTech Connect

In terms of the frequency of occurrence, steam bubble collapse in subcooled water is the dominant initiating mechanism for water hammer events in nuclear power plants. Water hammer due to steam bubble collapse occurs when water slug forms in stratified horizontal flow, or when steam bubble is trapped at the end of the pipe. These types of water hammer events have been studied experimentally and analytically in order to develop stability maps showing those combinations of filling velocities and liquid subcooling that cause water hammer and those which don't. In developing the stability maps, experiments with different piping orientations were performed in a low pressure laboratory apparatus. Details of these experiments are described, including piping arrangement, test procedures, and test results. Visual tests using a transparent Lexan pipe are also performed to study the flow regimes accompanying the water hammer events. All analytical models were tested by comparison with the corresponding experimental results. Based on these models, and step-by-step approach for each flow geometry is presented for plant designers and engineers to follow in avoiding water hammer induced by steam bubble collapse when admitting cold water into pipes filled with steam. 37 refs., 54 figs., 2 tabs.

Chou, Y.; Griffith, P. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))

1989-10-01

140

Turbulent heat transfer characteristics of water flow in a rotating pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-Eddy-Simulation of turbulent heat transfer for water flow in rotating pipe is performed, for various rotation ratios (0 ? N ? 14). The value of the Reynolds number, based on the bulk velocity and pipe diameter, is Re = 5,500. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of the rotating pipe on the turbulent heat transfer for water flow, as well as the reliability of the LES approach for predicting turbulent heat transfer in water flow. Some predictions for the case of non-rotating pipe are compared to the available results of literature for validation. To depict the influence of the rotation ratio on turbulent heat transfer, many statistical quantities are analyzed (distributions of mean temperature, rms of fluctuating temperature, turbulent heat fluxes, higher-order statistics). Some contours of instantaneous temperature fluctuations are examined.

Bousbai, M.; Ould-Rouiss, M.; Mazouz, A.; Mataoui, A.

2013-04-01

141

OTEC Advanced Composite Cold Water Pipe: Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion can exploit natural temperature gradients in the oceans to generate usable forms of energy (for example, cost-competitive baseload electricity in tropical regions such as Hawaii) free from fossil fuel consumption and global warming emissions.The No.1 acknowledged challenge of constructing an OTEC plant is the Cold Water Pipe (CWP), which draws cold water from 1000m depths up to the surface, to serve as the coolant for the OTEC Rankine cycle. For a commercial-scale plant, the CWP is on the order of 10m in diameter.This report describes work done by LMSSC developing the CWP for LM MS2 New Ventures emerging OTEC business. The work started in early 2008 deciding on the minimum-cost CWP architecture, materials, and fabrication process. In order to eliminate what in previous OTEC work had been a very large assembly/deployment risk, we took the innovative approach of building an integral CWP directly from theOTEC platform and down into the water. During the latter half of 2008, we proceeded to a successful small-scale Proof-of-Principles validation of the new fabrication process, at the Engineering Development Lab in Sunnyvale. During 2009-10, under the Cooperative Agreement with the US Dept. of Energy, we have now successfully validated key elements of the process and apparatus at a 4m diameter scale suitable for a future OTEC Pilot Plant. The validations include: (1) Assembly of sandwich core rings from pre-pultruded hollow 'planks,' holding final dimensions accurately; (2) Machine-based dispensing of overlapping strips of thick fiberglass fabric to form the lengthwise-continuous face sheets, holding accurate overlap dimensions; (3) Initial testing of the fabric architecture, showing that the overlap splices develop adequate mechanical strength (work done under a parallel US Naval Facilities Command program); and (4) Successful resin infusion/cure of 4m diameter workpieces, obtaining full wet-out and a non-discernable knitline between successive stepwise infusions.

Dr. Alan Miller; Matthew Ascari

2011-09-12

142

OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) Cold Water Pipe At-Sea Test Program. Phase 2: Suspended pipe test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important step in the development of technology for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) cold water pipes (CWP) is the at-sea testing and subsequent evaluation of a large diameter fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) pipe. Focus was on the CWP since it is the most critical element in any OTEC design. The results of the second phase of the CWP At-Sea Test Program are given. During this phase an 8 foot diameter, 400 foot long sandwich wall FRP syntactic foam configuration CWP test article was developed, constructed, deployed and used for data acquisition in the open ocean near Honolulu, Hawaii. This instrumented CWP as suspended from a moored platform for a three week experiment in April-May, 1983. The CWP represented a scaled version of a 40 megawatt size structure, nominally 30 feet in diameter and 3000 feet long.

McHale, F. A.

1984-08-01

143

Sensory aspects of drinking water in contact with epoxy lined copper pipe.  

PubMed

Pipe relining via in situ epoxy lining is used to remediate corroded plumbing or distribution systems. This investigation examined the effects on odour, TOC, THM formation and disinfectant demand in water exposed to epoxy-lined copper pipes used for home plumbing. The study was conducted in accordance with the Utility Quick Test, a migration/leaching method for utilities to conduct sensory analysis of materials in contact with drinking water. The test was performed using water with no disinfectant and levels of chlorine and monochloramines representative of those found in the distribution system. Panelists repeatedly and consistently described a "plastic/adhesive/putty" odour in the water from the pipes. The odour intensity remained relatively constant for each of two subsequent flushes. Water samples stored in the epoxy-lined pipes showed a significant increase in the leaching of organic compounds (as TOC), and this TOC was demonstrated to react with free chlorine to form trichloromethane. Water stored in the pipes also showed a marked increase in disinfectant demand relative to the water stored in glass control flasks. A study conducted at a full scale installation at an apartment demonstrated that after installation and regular use, the epoxy lining did not yield detectable differences in water quality. PMID:17489406

Heim, T H; Dietrich, A M

2007-01-01

144

Impacts of pipe materials on densities of fixed bacterial biomass in a drinking water distribution system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Densities of fixed bacterial biomass were measured on different pipe materials (PVC, PE, cemented steel, asbestos-cement, cemented cast iron, tarred steel and grey iron) incubated in drinking waters from different sources (ground waters and a surface water) which had different characteristics (temperature, concentration of residual oxidant and content of biodegradable organic matter). Results showed that the densities of bacterial biomass

Patrick Niquette; Pierre Servais; Raoul Savoir

2000-01-01

145

CONTROLLING ASBESTOS LOSS FROM ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPE IN AGGRESSIVE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A project was conducted to evaluate measures for controlling loss of asbestos fibers from asbestos-cement (A/C) water distribution pipe under aggressive water conditions. During Phase 1, water quality data were analyzed for the distribution system of Bellevue, Washington, which r...

146

Observations of Air–Water Interaction in a Rapidly Filling Horizontal Pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an observational study related to the behavior of drainage sewers under conditions of hydraulic overloading. Specifically, the investigation focuses on the interaction of water and trapped air in surcharging drainage and pressurized pipeline systems, by studying the air-water flow behavior in a rapidly filling horizontal pipe. Air-water interface patterns, air entrainment, and air release

F. Zhou; F. E. Hicks; P. M. Steffler

2002-01-01

147

IRON TUBERCULATION: PHYSIO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A SINGLE PIPE FROM A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The nature of iron tubercles inside unlined iron pipes of drinking water distribution systems are influenced by water quality and therefore susceptible to changes in water chemistry. The underlying assumption is that tubercles in a system have similar physio-chemical properties. ...

148

The effects of changing water flow velocity on the formation of biofilms and water quality in pilot distribution system consisting of copper or polyethylene pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of flow velocity on the formation of biofilms and the concentration of bacteria in water in copper and plastic (polyethylene, PE) pipes. The formation of biofilms increased with the flow velocity of water. The increase in microbial numbers and contents of ATP was clearer in the PE pipes than in the copper pipes. This was also

Markku J. Lehtola; Michaela Laxander; Ilkka T. Miettinen; Arja Hirvonen; Terttu Vartiainen; Pertti J. Martikainen

2006-01-01

149

Dynamic effect of sodium-water reaction in fast flux test facility power addition sodium pipes  

SciTech Connect

The Fast Flux Facility (FFTF) is a demonstration and test facility of the sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. A power addition'' to the facility is being considered to convert some of the dumped, unused heat into electricity generation. Components and piping systems to be added are sodium-water steam generators, sodium loop extensions from existing dump heat exchangers to sodium-water steam generators, and conventional water/steam loops. The sodium loops can be subjected to the dynamic loadings of pressure pulses that are caused by postulated sodium leaks and subsequent sodium-water reaction in the steam generator. The existing FFTF secondary pipes and the new power addition sodium loops were evaluated for exposure to the dynamic effect of the sodium-water reaction. Elastic and simplified inelastic dynamic analyses were used in this feasibility study. The results indicate that both the maximum strain and strain range are within the allowable limits. Several cycles of the sodium-water reaction can be sustained by the sodium pipes that are supported by ordinary pipe supports and seismic restraints. Expensive axial pipe restraints to withstand the sodium-water reaction loads are not needed, because the pressure-pulse-induced alternating bending stresses act as secondary stresses and the pressure pulse dynamic effect is a deformation-controlled quantity and is self-limiting. 14 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Huang, S.N.; Anderson, M.J.

1990-03-01

150

A comparison of time delay estimators for the detection of leak noise signals in plastic water distribution pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The position of a leak in buried water distribution pipes, may be determined by accurate estimation of the time delay between two measured acoustic signals. By using a model for the wave propagation along plastic pipes, various time delay estimators using cross-correlation are compared in this paper for their ability to locate a leak in plastic pipes. The estimators of

Y. Gao; M. J. Brennan; P. F. Joseph

2006-01-01

151

On the effects of reflections on time delay estimation for leak detection in buried plastic water pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the way in which wave reflections in a fluid-filled pipe affect the cross-correlation function of two leak noise signals used to detect and locate leaks in buried water pipes. Propagating waves generated by leak noise reverberate in a pipe network system, as they encounter features such as changes in section, and resistance such as valves,

Y. Gao; M. J. Brennan; P. F. Joseph

2009-01-01

152

Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. It is also responsible for many other cancers and health problems. These include lung disease, heart and blood vessel disease, stroke and cataracts. Women ...

153

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Cold Water Pipe At-Sea Test Program  

SciTech Connect

A detailed design for a 10-foot diameter, 1000-foot long fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) cold water pipe (CWP) was tested at-sea aboard an HD and C platform. The wall of the pipe is of sandwich construction with FRP facesheets and a core of syntactic foam. In addition to developing the design for the pipe itself, other activities were conducted to support the design effort. These included: materials testing; instrumentation system specification; fabrication plan; CWP deployment plan; mooring system design and deployment plan; and environmental conditions descriptor and analysis. The objectives of the program to date have been achieved, and the results are summarized in this volume.

Not Available

1982-07-01

154

Scientific-Chemical Viewpoints regarding Smoking: A Science Laboratory for All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes laboratory activity that examines the chemical process of smoking and the components of smoke, of both cigarettes and water pipes (narghiles also known as "hookah"). The aim of this activity is to expose adolescents to the scientific aspects of smoking; and to present the relevance of chemistry in everyday life. (Contains 3…

Blonder, Ron

2008-01-01

155

[Microbial contamination of water by pipe and tubing material. 2. Growth of Legionella pneumophila].  

PubMed

In the 1st communication it was possible to show that some hoses and insufficiently cleaned high grade steel pipe can produce a microbial growth. The growth-promoting effect of materials in the water distribution system for Legionella pneumophila has been discussed before. In this investigation it was tested how L. pneumophila behaves in pipes and hoses with narrow diameter, at temperatures from 35 degrees C to 40 degrees C and over a time of half a year. L. pneumophila could be found in high numbers in the water from PVC, PE, PTFE, rubber and silicon hoses all over the time and regularly in low numbers or occasionally in glass, high-grade steel pipes and PA hose. L. pneumophila could be found only for the first 4 weeks in the copper pipe. PMID:3140536

Schoenen, D; Schulze-Röbbecke, R; Schirdewahn, N

1988-07-01

156

Water hammer with fluid–structure interaction in thick-walled pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one-dimensional mathematical model is presented which describes the acoustic behaviour of thick-walled liquid-filled pipes. The model is based on conventional water-hammer and beam theories. Fluid–structure interaction (FSI) is taken into account. The equations governing straight pipes are derived by the cross-sectional integration of axisymmetric two-dimensional basic equations. The resulting FSI four-equation model has small correction terms and factors accounting

A. S. Tijsseling

2007-01-01

157

Tetrachloroethylene leached from lined asbestos-cement pipe into drinking water [with Discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetrachloroethylene has been detected in concentrations ranging from a few micrograms per litre to several milligrams per litre in dead ends of water distribution systems made of vinyl-toluene-lined asbestos-cement pipe. About 1600 km (1000 mi) of this lined pipe is being used, primarily in New England. Tetrachloroethylene concentrations can be lessened by flushing and installing continuous bleeders, two of the

Charles D. Larson; O. Thomas Love Jr.; Gardiner Reynolds III; S. Wyatt McCallie; R. H. Moser; Edward J. Calabrese

1983-01-01

158

A new heat-pipe type solar domestic hot water system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a new solar hot water system with an integrated heat-pipe is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The new system uses a wickless gravity assisted loop heat-pipe for the heat transfer from the collector–evaporator to the tank through a heat exchanger–condenser. A detailed heat transfer experimental study is performed, focused on the thermal behaviour of the different parts of

Emmanouil Mathioulakis; Vassilis Belessiotis

2002-01-01

159

Non-stationary signal analysis in water pipes monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop early failure detection tools for hydro-power plants, “Electricite de France” (EDF) has equipped its high pressure pipes with sensors which monitor the pressure surge transients, the position of the intake and overpressure valves. The control valves are constructed so that the pressure will not exceed a maximum threshold called the Maximum Guaranteed Pressure (MGP). Modifications in

D. Mocanu; J. L. Ballester; C. Ioana

2010-01-01

160

High Temperature Titanium-Water Heat Pipe Radiator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space nuclear systems require large area radiators to reject the unconverted heat to space. System optimizations with Brayton cycles lead to radiators with radiator temperatures in the 400 to 550 K range. To date, nearly all space radiator systems have used aluminum\\/ammonia heat pipes but these components cannot function at the required temperatures. A Graphite Fiber Reinforced Composites (GFRC) radiator

William G. Anderson; Richard Bonner; John Hartenstine; Jim Barth

2006-01-01

161

Evaluation of surface sampling techniques for collection of Bacillus spores on common drinking water pipe materials.  

PubMed

Drinking water utilities may face biological contamination of the distribution system from a natural incident or deliberate contamination. Determining the extent of contamination or the efficacy of decontamination is a challenge, because it may require sampling of the wetted surfaces of distribution infrastructure. This study evaluated two sampling techniques that utilities might use to sample exhumed pipe sections. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), cement-lined ductile iron, and ductile iron pipe coupons (3 cm x 14 cm) cut from new water main piping were conditioned for three months in dechlorinated Cincinnati, Ohio tap water. Coupons were spiked with Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii, a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis. Brushing and scraping were used to recover the inoculated spores from the coupons. Mean recoveries for all materials ranged from 37 +/- 30% to 43 +/- 20% for brushing vs. 24 +/- 10% to 51 +/- 29% for scraping. On cement-lined pipe, brushing yielded a significantly different recovery than scraping. No differences were seen between brushing and scraping the PVC and iron pipe coupons. Mean brushing and scraping recoveries from PVC coupons were more variable than mean recoveries from cement-lined and iron coupons. Spore retention differed between pipe materials and the presence of established biofilms also had an impact. Conditioned PVC coupons (with established biofilms) had significantly lower spore retention (31 +/- 11%) than conditioned cement-lined coupons (61 +/- 14%) and conditioned iron coupons (71 +/- 8%). PMID:20082033

Packard, Benjamin H; Kupferle, Margaret J

2009-12-10

162

Drag reduction of Newtonian fluid in a circular pipe with a highly water-repellent wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drag reduction phenomena, in which 14% drag reduction of tap water flowing in a 16 mm-diameter pipe occurs in the laminar flow range, have been clarified. Experiments were carried out to measure the pressure drop and the velocity profile of tap water and an aqueous solution of glycerin flowing in pipes with highly water-repellent walls, by using a pressure transducer and a hot-film anemometer, respectively. The same drag reduction phenomena also occurred in degassed tap water when using a vacuum tank. The velocity profile measured in this experiment gives the slip velocity at the pipe wall, and it was shown that the shear stress is directly proportional to the slip velocity.

Watanabe, Keizo; Udagawa, Yanuar; Udagawa, Hiroshi

1999-02-01

163

Applicability of Related Data, Algorithms, and Models to the Simulation of Ground-Coupled Residential Hot Water Piping in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residential water heating is an important consideration in California?s building energy efficiency standard. Explicit treatment of ground-coupled hot water piping is one of several planned improvements to the standard. The properties of water, piping, insulation, backfill materials, concrete slabs, and soil, their interactions, and their variations with temperature and over time are important considerations in the required supporting analysis. Heat

J. L. Warner; J. D. Lutz

2006-01-01

164

Evaluation of Susceptibility to Crevice Corrosion in Drinking Water of Stainless Steel Pipes with Connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new electrochemical corrosion testing method has been established for evaluating the crevice corrosion resistance of stainless steel pipes joined with stainless steel connections. The test has been used for approval of such systems for drinking water in Denmark. The test program is based on the assumption that stainless steel in both hot and cold domestic water can reach maximum

Troels Mathiesen; Kate Nielsen

165

CHRYSOTILE ASBESTOS FIBERS IN DRINKING WATER FROM ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPE  

EPA Science Inventory

Chrysotile asbestos fiber counts were compared in drinking water samples taken before and after flow through asbestos-cement pipes in the San Francisco Bay area. The drinking water supplies in that area are chemically nonaggressive by the standard measures. In one major distribut...

166

Biofilms in irrigation pipes affect the microbial quality of irrigation water  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Irrigation is an essential element in the production of many food crops. Irrigation water is often delivered to fields from surface or subsurface sources via pipe-based systems. Surface waters are known to contain pathogenic microorganisms. Disease outbreaks in crops that are eaten raw (i.e. leafy g...

167

Transient Natural Convection in Horizontal Water Pipes with Maximum Density Effect and Supercooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient natural convection cooling in a horizontal water pipe with a convective boundary condition is approached by a numerical method considering maximum density effect and supercooling in order to understand the flow and temperature fields before the onset of dendritic ice. Numerical solution is obtained for initial uniform water temperature T0 = 10 C, ambient temperature T? = ? 10 C, Biot number 2, size

K. C. Cheng; M. Takeuchi; R. R. Gilpin

1978-01-01

168

IRON-CONTAINING COATINGS ON ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPES EXPOSED TO AGGRESSIVE WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Coatings containing iron were found on asbestos-cement pipes exposed to a range of water qualities from very aggressive to nonaggressive. Under aggressive water conditions iron coatings had a granular, porous structure that prevented asbestos fibers from being exposed on the surf...

169

Influence of organic matter on orthophosphate corrosion inhibition for copper pipe in soft water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adverse effects of organic matter on orthophosphate corrosion inhibition for copper pipe in simulated soft water were investigated. Sodium alginate and fulvic acid were selected to simulate extracellular polymeric substance produced by bacteria and natural organic matter in potable water. The results showed that the doses of organic matters, pH values and stagnation times had significantly affected on the

Shiyin Li; Lixiao Ni; Cheng Sun; Liansheng Wang

2004-01-01

170

Characterisation of bulk water samples from copper pipes undergoing microbially influenced corrosion by diagnostic metabolomic profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the application of metabolomic techniques to determine the presence of microbial influenced corrosion (MIC). In a previous study, the extracellular metabolites expressed from pipe biofilm was identified by analysing the passing water. This investigation extends this work by successfully applying a chemometric statistical analysis to the extracellular metabolomic profile of a number of water samples to identify

David J. Beale; Michael S. Dunn; Paul D. Morrison; Nichola A. Porter; David R. Marlow

171

Comparing microbial water quality in an intermittent and continuous piped water supply.  

PubMed

Supplying piped water intermittently is a common practice throughout the world that increases the risk of microbial contamination through multiple mechanisms. Converting an intermittent supply to a continuous supply has the potential to improve the quality of water delivered to consumers. To understand the effects of this upgrade on water quality, we tested samples from reservoirs, consumer taps, and drinking water provided by households (e.g. from storage containers) from an intermittent and continuous supply in Hubli-Dharwad, India, over one year. Water samples were tested for total coliform, Escherichia coli, turbidity, free chlorine, and combined chlorine. While water quality was similar at service reservoirs supplying the continuous and intermittent sections of the network, indicator bacteria were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in samples from taps supplied intermittently compared to those supplied continuously (p < 0.01). Detection of E. coli was rare in continuous supply, with 0.7% of tap samples positive compared to 31.7% of intermittent water supply tap samples positive for E. coli. In samples from both continuously and intermittently supplied taps, higher concentrations of total coliform were measured after rainfall events. While source water quality declined slightly during the rainy season, only tap water from intermittent supply had significantly more indicator bacteria throughout the rainy season compared to the dry season. Drinking water samples provided by households in both continuous and intermittent supplies had higher concentrations of indicator bacteria than samples collected directly from taps. Most households with continuous supply continued to store water for drinking, resulting in re-contamination, which may reduce the benefits to water quality of converting to continuous supply. PMID:23866140

Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

2013-06-11

172

Effect of temperature and pipe material on biofilm formation and survival of Escherichia coil in used drinking water pipes: a laboratory-based study.  

PubMed

Segments of used drinking water pipes of galvanised steel (GS), cross-linked polyethylene (PEX), copper pipes (Cu) or new medium-density polyethylene (PE) were investigated for the formation of biofilm and survival of E. coli in biofilm and in the water phase. Pipes were filled with water and incubated at 15 degrees C or 35 degrees C under static conditions. Biofilm formation was followed during 32, 40 and 56 (58) d. The most dense biofilm was formed on GS, reaching approximately 4.7 x 10(5) CFU/cm2 measured as heterotrophic plate count (HPC), and at the other materials the density reached 3 x 10(3) CFU/cm2 on PE and PEX and 5 x 10(1) and 5 x 10(2) CFU/cm2 on Cu pipes after 58d at 15 degrees C. Biofilm HPC values were higher at 35 degrees C than at 15 degrees C, with only slightly higher values on the metals, but 100-fold higher on PE and PEX. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements confirmed the general trends observed by HPC. Higher temperature was seen to be an important factor reducing E. coli survival in the water phase in drinking water pipes. At 15 degrees C E. coli survived more than 4 d in GS and Cu pipes and 8 d in PE pipes, but was not detected after 48 h at 35 degrees C. The E. coli survived longer at both temperatures in the glass control bottles than in the drinking water pipes. Despite the obvious biofilm formation, E. coli was not detected in the biofilm at any of the investigated surfaces. PMID:17037132

Silhan, J; Corfitzen, C B; Albrechtsen, H J

2006-01-01

173

Steam bubble collapse, water hammer and piping network response. Volume I. Steam bubble collapse and water hammer in piping systems: experiments and analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Water hammer incidents in conventional and nuclear steam systems are an important problem of broad general interest in piping network design and transient operation. Water hammer in PWR steam generator sparger feed lines has, for example, been a recurrent problem when the sparger becomes uncovered during certain operational transients (Creare 1977). The central goal of this research has been to develop experimental data and supporting analyses that will contribute to the evolving understanding of water hammer created by steam bubble entrapment in a pipe containing subcooled liquid. The first objective of this study has been to obtain a body of experimental data on water hammer initiated by steam bubble collapse. These experiments include measurement of pressure transients and high speed films of the process of bubble collapse and impact, and, in conjunction with Hurwitz (1980), records of the resultant pressure wave propagation through a variety of simple piping configurations and measurements of the induced structural response. The data that have been obtained should be useful in benchmarking existing analytic models and numerical codes.

Gruel, R.; Hurwitz, W.; Huber, P.; Griffith, P.

1980-06-01

174

[Influence of EPS on silicate corrosion inhibition for copper pipe in soft water].  

PubMed

The effects of sodium alginate on silicate corrosion inhibition for copper pipe in simulated soft water were investigated. The results showed that more soluble copper release was occurred when low concentration sodium alginate was in presence. The 1 a aged copper pipe released more soluble copper than the 3 a and 10 a aged copper pipe. The sequence of concentration of soluble copper release was c 1 a > c 3 a, > c 10 a. However, compared to the low concentration sodium alginate, soluble copper released from the 1 a aged copper pipe increased, and the 3 a and 10 a aged copper pipe were inverse when high level sodium alginate was in presence. These phenomena showed that the effect of silicate corrosion inhibition decreased when extracellular polymer substances was dissolved in soft water. Under the conditions of pH 7.5 and sodium alginate 16 mg/L, soluble copper release tend was gradually increase-decrease-gradually run-up which due to the absorption of sodium alginate on the surface of copper surface and the complex interaction between sodium alginate, silicate and copper ions. When the initial pH value was low, compared to the system of no sodium alginate, the soluble copper release distinctly increased in the presence of sodium alginate. The amount of soluble copper released from 1 a copper pipe is higher than that from 3 a and 10 a aged copper pipe, which due to the different components of copper corrosion by-products on the surface of different aged copper pipes and the different solubility of different corrosion by-products. PMID:19143383

Li, Shi-Yin

2008-10-01

175

[Microbial contamination of water by pipe and hose material. 1. Detection of colony count changes].  

PubMed

Materials may produce a growth of microorganisms by contact with water. Pipes and hoses with a narrow diameter have not yet been tested on their influence on the microbial colonization of the water. A harmful change has been discussed especially in dental treatment units. Pipes and hoses were tested in their influence on the microbial growth for half a year. Glass, high grade steel, copper and PTFE showed no increase in microorganisms or only a little in the beginning. The other tested materials, PVC, PE, PA, silicon and rubber, produced an intensive microbial growth. PMID:3138830

Schoenen, D; Wehse, A

1988-05-01

176

High Temperature Water Heat Pipes Radiator for a Brayton Space Reactor Power System  

SciTech Connect

A high temperature water heat pipes radiator design is developed for a space power system with a sectored gas-cooled reactor and three Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engines, for avoidance of single point failures in reactor cooling and energy conversion and rejection. The CBC engines operate at turbine inlet and exit temperatures of 1144 K and 952 K. They have a net efficiency of 19.4% and each provides 30.5 kWe of net electrical power to the load. A He-Xe gas mixture serves as the turbine working fluid and cools the reactor core, entering at 904 K and exiting at 1149 K. Each CBC loop is coupled to a reactor sector, which is neutronically and thermally coupled, but hydraulically decoupled to the other two sectors, and to a NaK-78 secondary loop with two water heat pipes radiator panels. The segmented panels each consist of a forward fixed segment and two rear deployable segments, operating hydraulically in parallel. The deployed radiator has an effective surface area of 203 m2, and when the rear segments are folded, the stowed power system fits in the launch bay of the DELTA-IV Heavy launch vehicle. For enhanced reliability, the water heat pipes operate below 50% of their wicking limit; the sonic limit is not a concern because of the water, high vapor pressure at the temperatures of interest (384 - 491 K). The rejected power by the radiator peaks when the ratio of the lengths of evaporator sections of the longest and shortest heat pipes is the same as that of the major and minor widths of the segments. The shortest and hottest heat pipes in the rear segments operate at 491 K and 2.24 MPa, and each rejects 154 W. The longest heat pipes operate cooler (427 K and 0.52 MPa) and because they are 69% longer, reject more power (200 W each). The longest and hottest heat pipes in the forward segments reject the largest power (320 W each) while operating at {approx} 46% of capillary limit. The vapor temperature and pressure in these heat pipes are 485 K and 1.97 MPa. By contrast, the shortest water heat pipes in the forward segments operate much cooler (427 K and 0.52 MPa), and reject a much lower power of 45 W each. The radiator with six fixed and 12 rear deployable segments rejects a total of 324 kWth, weights 994 kg and has an average specific power of 326 Wth/kg and a specific mass of 5.88 kg/m2.

El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

2006-01-20

177

High Temperature Water Heat Pipes Radiator for a Brayton Space Reactor Power System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high temperature water heat pipes radiator design is developed for a space power system with a sectored gas-cooled reactor and three Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engines, for avoidance of single point failures in reactor cooling and energy conversion and rejection. The CBC engines operate at turbine inlet and exit temperatures of 1144 K and 952 K. They have a net efficiency of 19.4% and each provides 30.5 kWe of net electrical power to the load. A He-Xe gas mixture serves as the turbine working fluid and cools the reactor core, entering at 904 K and exiting at 1149 K. Each CBC loop is coupled to a reactor sector, which is neutronically and thermally coupled, but hydraulically decoupled to the other two sectors, and to a NaK-78 secondary loop with two water heat pipes radiator panels. The segmented panels each consist of a forward fixed segment and two rear deployable segments, operating hydraulically in parallel. The deployed radiator has an effective surface area of 203 m2, and when the rear segments are folded, the stowed power system fits in the launch bay of the DELTA-IV Heavy launch vehicle. For enhanced reliability, the water heat pipes operate below 50% of their wicking limit; the sonic limit is not a concern because of the water, high vapor pressure at the temperatures of interest (384 - 491 K). The rejected power by the radiator peaks when the ratio of the lengths of evaporator sections of the longest and shortest heat pipes is the same as that of the major and minor widths of the segments. The shortest and hottest heat pipes in the rear segments operate at 491 K and 2.24 MPa, and each rejects 154 W. The longest heat pipes operate cooler (427 K and 0.52 MPa) and because they are 69% longer, reject more power (200 W each). The longest and hottest heat pipes in the forward segments reject the largest power (320 W each) while operating at ~ 46% of capillary limit. The vapor temperature and pressure in these heat pipes are 485 K and 1.97 MPa. By contrast, the shortest water heat pipes in the forward segments operate much cooler (427 K and 0.52 MPa), and reject a much lower power of 45 W each. The radiator with six fixed and 12 rear deployable segments rejects a total of 324 kWth, weights 994 kg and has an average specific power of 326 Wth/kg and a specific mass of 5.88 kg/m2.

El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel

2006-01-01

178

Pipe break testing of primary loop piping similar to Department of Energy's New Production Reactor-Heavy Water Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The subject of this paper is to review the recent failure testing of the Savannah River C-reactor piping weldment, which will be referred to as the C-pipe in the remainder of the paper. The intent of this paper is to further familiarize the technical community with Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) pipe test program and associated activities surrounding the C-pipe test as conducted on behalf of the Department of Energy New Production Reactor (DOE-NPR) Program.

Poole, A.B.; Clinard, J.A.; Battiste, R.L.; Hendrich, W.R.

1993-01-01

179

Water-hammer pressure waves interaction at cross-section changes in series in viscoelastic pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of scarcity of both experimental data and numerical models concerning transient behavior of cross-section area changes in pressurized liquid flow, the paper presents laboratory data and numerical simulation of the interaction of a surge wave with a partial blockage by a valve, a single pipe contraction or expansion and a series of pipe contraction/expansion in close proximity.With regard to a single change of cross-section area, laboratory data point out the completely different behavior with respect to one of the partially closed in-line valves with the same area ratio. In fact, for the former the pressure wave interaction is not regulated by the steady-state local head loss. With regard to partial blockages, transient tests have shown that the smaller the length, the more intense the overlapping of pressure waves due to the expansion and contraction in series.Numerically, the need for taking into account both the viscoelasticity and unsteady friction is demonstrated, since the classical water-hammer theory does not simulate the relevant damping of pressure peaks and gives rise to a time shifting between numerical and laboratory data. The transient behavior of a single local head loss has been checked by considering tests carried out in a system with a partially closed in-line valve. As a result, the reliability of the quasi steady-state approach for local head loss simulation has been demonstrated in viscoelastic pipes. The model parameters obtained on the basis of transients carried out in single pipe systems have then been used to simulate transients in the more complex pipe systems. These numerical experiments show the great importance of the length of the small-bore pipe with respect to one of the large-bore pipes. Precisely, until a gradually flow establishes in the small-bore pipe, the smaller such a length, the better the quality of the numerical simulation.

Meniconi, S.; Brunone, B.; Ferrante, M.

2012-08-01

180

Microbiologically induced corrosion of copper pipes in low-pH water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper was to study the influence of microbial biofilms on the high copper levels measured in the drinking water of rural houses. Drinking water parameters and copper pipe surfaces were analysed in the copper plumbing systems of rural and urban houses. The water in rural houses had pH values of 6.2 and alkalinity values of 63mg\\/L

A. Reyes; M. V. Letelier; R. De la Iglesia; B. González; G. Lagos

2008-01-01

181

On the selection of acoustic/vibration sensors for leak detection in plastic water pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaks from buried water distribution pipes are commonly located by applying the correlation technique to two measured acoustic/vibration signals on either side of a leak. The effectiveness of the correlation technique for locating leaks in plastic pipes depends on the type of sensors used and their sensitivities. Based on an analytical model of the cross-correlation of pressure responses established in an earlier study, this paper investigates the behaviour of the cross-correlation coefficient for leak signals measured using pressure, velocity and acceleration sensors. Theoretical predictions show that a measure of pressure responses using hydrophones is effective for measurements where there is a small signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), but a sharper peak correlation coefficient can be achieved if accelerometers are used. The theoretical work is validated to some extent with test data from actual water pipes on a test site in Canada.

Gao, Y.; Brennan, M. J.; Joseph, P. F.; Muggleton, J. M.; Hunaidi, O.

2005-05-01

182

Particle image velocimetry for characterizing the flow structure of oil–water flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simultaneous flow of oil and water in pipelines is a common occurrence in the chemical and process industry. An experimental investigation of oil–water flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes is presented in this paper. The experiments are performed in a 15m long stainless steel pipe section with internal diameter 56mm at room temperature and atmospheric outlet pressure. Exxsol

W. A. S. Kumara; B. M. Halvorsen; M. C. Melaaen

2010-01-01

183

Development of tree-shaped flows by adding new users to existing networks of hot water pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the optimization of a tree-shaped system of insulated pipes for the distribution of a stream of hot water over an area. The area is covered uniformly by users who must receive the same flow rate of hot water. The network of pipes is developed in steps. Each step consists of attaching to an existing network an extension

W. Wechsatol; S. Lorente; A. Bejan

2002-01-01

184

The decay of chlorine associated with the pipe wall in water distribution systems.  

PubMed

Free chlorine decay rates in water distribution systems for bulk and wall demands should be modelled separately as they have different functional dependencies. Few good quality determinations of in situ wall demand have been made due to the difficulty of monitoring live systems and due to their complexity. Wall demands have been calculated from field measurements at 11 locations in a distribution system fed from a single source. A methodology for the laboratory determination has been evolved and shown to give results that are similar to the in situ results. Pipe materials were classified as either having high reactivity (unlined iron mains) or low reactivity (PVC, MDPE and cement-lined ductile iron). The results indicate that wall decay rates for the former are limited by chlorine transport and for the latter by pipe material characteristics. The wall decay rate is inversely related to initial chlorine concentration for low reactivity pipes. In general, water velocity increases wall decay rates though the statistical confidence is low for low reactivity pipes. A moderate biofilm coating did not influence the wall decay rate for low reactivity pipes. PMID:12230193

Hallam, N B; West, J R; Forster, C F; Powell, J C; Spencer, I

2002-08-01

185

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. Th...

M. R. Guerin

1993-01-01

186

Calibration of a model of an operational water distribution system containing pipes of different age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the paper is to demonstrate that the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm can give successful results when operational water distribution systems are calibrated with the proper selection of parameter increment for the calculation of partial derivatives. The functional dependence of pipe roughness on age, which describes linear and nonlinear dependences, is proposed for the calibration of a model of a

T. Koppel; A. Vassiljev

2009-01-01

187

High Temperature Water Heat Pipes Radiator for a Brayton Space Reactor Power System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high temperature water heat pipes radiator design is developed for a space power system with a sectored gas-cooled reactor and three Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engines, for avoidance of single point failures in reactor cooling and energy conversion and rejection. The CBC engines operate at turbine inlet and exit temperatures of 1144 K and 952 K. They have a

Mohamed S. El-Genk; Jean-Michel Tournier

2006-01-01

188

Neural network based correlation for critical heat flux in steam-water flows in pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach using artificial neural networks (ANN) to predict the critical heat flux (CHF) for a steam–water mixture through pipes. A large number of experimental measurements are used for training and testing the developed network. The Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm was used to train the developed feed forward ANN. The training and validation are performed with good accuracy.

Ahmed Safwat Nafey

2009-01-01

189

On the phase inversion process in an oil–water pipe flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study of the phase inversion process in an oil–water flow through a pipe was carried out. Special attention was paid to the critical concentration of the dispersed phase at which phase inversion occurs and to the change in morphological structures during inversion. To that purpose two different types of experiments were performed: (1) continuous experiments during which the

K. Piela; R. Delfos; G. Ooms; J. Westerweel; R. V. A. Oliemans

2008-01-01

190

Influence of a surfactant or salt on phase inversion in a water–oil pipe flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase inversion experiments have been performed with a water–oil flow through a pipe to study the effect of the addition of a surfactant or of salt on the critical dispersed phase volume fraction (at the point of phase inversion). The addition of a surfactant caused a small change in the critical volume fraction, but the general form of the ambivalence

K. Piela; E. Djojorahardjo; G. J. M. Koper; G. Ooms

2009-01-01

191

Technology development plan: Geotechnical survey systems for OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is given of current and developing technologies and techniques for performing geotechnical investigations for siting and designing Cold Water Pipes (CWP) for shelf-resting Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants. The geotechnical in situ tools used to measure the required parameters and the equipment\\/systems used to deploy these tools are identified. The capabilities of these geotechnical tools and

Philip J. Valent; Michael Riggins

1989-01-01

192

A preliminary analysis of failures in grey cast iron water pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most water utility engineers are familiar with the typical failure modes of grey cast iron pipes such as circumferential breaks and split bells. However, while researchers have examined the forces that are likely responsible for these failures, the failure mechanisms that link those forces with the observed failures have not been thoroughly investigated. Understanding these mechanisms is important for finding

J. M Makar

2000-01-01

193

GAMMA FACILITY, TRA641. PIPING LAYOUT FOR DEMINERALIZED WATER, DRAINS, SUMP. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GAMMA FACILITY, TRA-641. PIPING LAYOUT FOR DEMINERALIZED WATER, DRAINS, SUMP. PICTORIAL VIEW OF CANAL AND LOCATION OF INPUTS AND DRAINS. IDAHO OPERATIONS OFFICE MTR-641-IDO-15P, 10/1954. INL INDEX NO. 531-0641-00-396-110615, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

194

Heat Transfer in Pipes and Rod Bundles During Flow of Supercritical-Pressure Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current ideas on heat-transfer processes at supercritical pressure and on the hydraulic resistance in pipes and rod bundles are briefly presented in order to determine the computational relations for reactors cooled by water with supercritical parameters. The most widely used relations for calculating heat transfer in normal heat transfer regimes are analyzed and a comparison is made with the

V. A. Grabezhnaya; P. L. Kirillov

2004-01-01

195

A statistical treatment of accelerated life test data for copper-water heat pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical method is proposed to treat accelerated life test data conducted at several elevated temperatures for a sufficient number of commercially available Cu-water heat pipes to predict the operation life. The temperature distribution measurements periodically carried out yield both data sets concerning the temperature drop and the gas column length as measures of noncondensible gas accumulation. The gas analysis

M. Murakami; K. Arai; Y. Kojima

1988-01-01

196

[Induction of a microbial colonization of the walls of copper pipes through which drinking water flows].  

PubMed

Bacterial colonization developed within one month on the surface of a copper pipe used for the transport of drinking water. No severe signs of corrosion could be detected within six weeks. Dividing cells and the formation of microcolonies indicated active metabolism and multiplication of the bacteria and not only a more or less passive adsorption on the copper from the bulk phase. PMID:2393491

Tuschewitzki, G J

1990-05-01

197

Surface Characterization on Corrosion By-products on Cu in Drinking Water Pipes  

EPA Science Inventory

Copper is widely used in house-hold plumbing due to its anti-corrosion property. However, as water travels within the distribution system into corroded copper pipes, copper may be released into consumer?s tap causing major problems. In an attempt to understand the mechanism and...

198

Experimental investigation of freezing blowby in a copper\\/water heat pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation designed to evaluate and better define the overall characteristics of freezing blowby in a copper\\/water heat pipe was conducted. The results from various rates of restart heat addition and channel blockage, indicate that upon breakthrough the depressurization of the evaporator may result in an effective heat transport capacity far in excess of the steady-state transport limit. The

J. M. Ochterbeck; G. P. Peterson

1992-01-01

199

A COMPARISON OF RESIDENTIAL COPPER PIPES CARRYING HOT AND COLD WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Each year, the U.S. EPA examines numerous lead, iron, and copper pipes pulled from active use in homes and drinking water distribution systems throughout the United States. The intent of the work is to better understand factors that influence the release of metals into drinking ...

200

Predicting the Migration Rate of Dialkyl Organotins from PVC Pipe into Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Organotins (OTs) are additives widely used as thermal and light stabilizers in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. OTs can leach into water flowing through PVC pipes. This work examines the leaching rates of two neurotoxic OTs, dimethyl tin (DMT) and dibutyl tin (DBT), from PVC pi...

201

[The effect of the pipe material of the drinking water system on the frequency of Legionella in a hospital].  

PubMed

In this paper the prevalence of Legionella in water samples from cold and warm water supply systems made of copper, iron and polyethylene was determined. Water supplied by copper pipes revealed to be nearly free of Legionella (only 2% of probes positive), but water from iron (90%) or polyethylene pipes (65% probes positive) proved to be heavily contaminated. The 82 isolates were identified as Legionella pneumophila, one from serogroup 1, the others from serogroup 4. PMID:7916876

Pongratz, A; Schwarzkopf, A; Hahn, H; Heesemann, J; Karch, H; Döll, W

1994-06-01

202

Experimental study on oil–water flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil–water two-phase flow experiments were conducted in a 15m long, 8.28cm diameter, inclinable steel pipe using mineral oil (density of 830kg\\/m3 and viscosity of 7.5mPas) and brine (density of 1060kg\\/m3 and viscosity of 0.8mPas). Steady-state data on flow patterns, two-phase pressure gradient and holdup were obtained over the entire range of flow rates for pipe inclinations of ?5°, ?2°, ?1.5°,

O. M. H. Rodriguez; R. V. A. Oliemans

2006-01-01

203

Experimental Performance of R-134a-Filled and Water-Filled Loop Heat Pipe Heat Exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental investigations were conducted to determine the thermal performances of an R-134a-filled thermosyphon heat pipe heat exchanger (THPHE) and a water-filled loop heat pipe heat exchanger (LHPHE) for hot and cold energy recovery for air conditioning purposes. For such applications, the heat pipe heat exchangers are operated at low temperatures. Both exchangers were operated in the countercurrent flow mode. This

K. S. Ong

2010-01-01

204

Microbiology, chemistry and biofilm development in a pilot drinking water distribution system with copper and plastic pipes.  

PubMed

We studied the changes in water quality and formation of biofilms occurring in a pilot-scale water distribution system with two generally used pipe materials: copper and plastic (polyethylene, PE). The formation of biofilms with time was analysed as the number of total bacteria, heterotrophic plate counts and the concentration of ATP in biofilms. At the end of the experiment (after 308 days), microbial community structure, viable biomass and gram-negative bacterial biomass were analysed via lipid biomarkers (phospholipid fatty acids and lipopolysaccharide 3-hydroxy fatty acids), and the numbers of virus-like particles and total bacteria were enumerated by SYBR Green I staining. The formation of biofilm was slower in copper pipes than in the PE pipes, but after 200 days there was no difference in microbial numbers between the pipe materials. Copper ion led to lower microbial numbers in water during the first 200 days, but thereafter there were no differences between the two pipe materials. The number of virus-like particles was lower in biofilms and in outlet water from the copper pipes than PE pipes. Pipe material influenced also the microbial and gram-negative bacterial community structure in biofilms and water. PMID:15350429

Lehtola, Markku J; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Keinänen, Minna M; Kekki, Tomi K; Laine, Olli; Hirvonen, Arja; Vartiainen, Terttu; Martikainen, Pertti J

2004-10-01

205

Effect of pipe corrosion scales on chlorine dioxide consumption in drinking water distribution systems.  

PubMed

Previous studies showed that temperature and total organic carbon in drinking water would cause chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) loss in a water distribution system and affect the efficiency of ClO(2) for Legionella control. However, among the various causes of ClO(2) loss in a drinking water distribution system, the loss of disinfectant due to the reaction with corrosion scales has not been studied in detail. In this study, the corrosion scales from a galvanized iron pipe and a copper pipe that have been in service for more than 10 years were characterized by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The impact of these corrosion scale materials on ClO(2) decay was investigated in de-ionized water at 25 and 45 degrees C in a batch reactor with floating glass cover. ClO(2) decay was also investigated in a specially designed reactor made from the iron and copper pipes to obtain more realistic reaction rate data. Goethite (alpha-FeOOH) and magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) were identified as the main components of iron corrosion scale. Cuprite (Cu(2)O) was identified as the major component of copper corrosion scale. The reaction rate of ClO(2) with both iron and copper oxides followed a first-order kinetics. First-order decay rate constants for ClO(2) reactions with iron corrosion scales obtained from the used service pipe and in the iron pipe reactor itself ranged from 0.025 to 0.083 min(-1). The decay rate constant for ClO(2) with Cu(2)O powder and in the copper pipe reactor was much smaller and it ranged from 0.0052 to 0.0062 min(-1). Based on these results, it can be concluded that the corrosion scale will cause much more significant ClO(2) loss in corroded iron pipes of the distribution system than the total organic carbon that may be present in finished water. PMID:17884130

Zhang, Zhe; Stout, Janet E; Yu, Victor L; Vidic, Radisav

2007-08-28

206

DEVELOPING A WATER PIPE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN SEOUL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water mains burst in Seoul, Korea is one of the most frequently raised problems and the major reason can be found in the inefficiency in design and management of the network. The study developed a system that allows the user to evaluate the level of deterioration and to design alternative water mains for simulation. The study suggested an evaluation

Chulmin Jun; Hwa-Yong Yoonb; Byoung-Woon Leec; Chong-Moon Kimd

207

WATER SUPPLY PIPE REPLACEMENT CONSIDERING SUSTAINABLE TRANSITION TO POPULATION DECREASED SOCIETY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social infrastructures are aging and population is decreasing in Japan. The aged social infrastructures should be renewed. At the same time, they are required to be moved into new framework suitable for population decreased societies. Furthermore, they have to continue to supply sufficient services even during transition term that renewal projects are carried out. Authors propose sustainable soft landing management of infrastructures and it is tried to apply to water supply pipe replacement in this study. Methodology to replace aged pipes not only aiming for the new water supply network which suits for population decreased condition but also ensuring supply service and feasibility while the project is carried out was developed. It is applied for a model water supply network and discussions were carried out.

Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Iwasaki, Yoji; Aklog, Dagnachew; Masuda, Takanori

208

Cigarette Smoking and Drinking Water Source: Correlation with Clinical Features and Pathology of Superficial Bladder Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Water source and cigarette smoking are related to clinical characteristics and pathology of superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Methods: Tumor number, dimension, G-grade, T-stage, recurrences, cigarette smoking and water supply were recorded in patients harboring Ta–T1 G1–3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Results: Of 577 patients, 61% had multiple and 36% recurrent tumors. Two hundred and

Vincenzo Serretta; Vincenzo Altieri; Giuseppe Morgia; Rosalinda Allegro; Antonina Ruggirello; Alessandra Di Lallo; Giuseppe Carrieri; Darvinio Melloni

2009-01-01

209

EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDY OF THE USE OF ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPE FOR THE DISTRIBUTION OF DRINKING WATER IN ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

Cancer mortality for the population census tracts of Escambia County, Florida, using asbestos-cement (A/C) pipe for public potable water distribution was compared with cancer mortality data collected from census tracts in the same county using other types of piping materials. An ...

210

Effect of transverse vibration on the capillary limit of a wrapped screen wick copper\\/water heat pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of transverse vibration on the capillary limit of a copper\\/water heat pipe with a tightly wrapped screen wick was investigated. The capillary limit was measured over a range of operating temperatures under static conditions. A bench-top shaker was used to provide vibration normal to the longitudinal axis of the pipe, and the capillary limit was measured at vibration

Mark C. Charlton; W. J. Bowman

1993-01-01

211

On the effects of reflections on time delay estimation for leak detection in buried plastic water pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with the way in which wave reflections in a fluid-filled pipe affect the cross-correlation function of two leak noise signals used to detect and locate leaks in buried water pipes. Propagating waves generated by leak noise reverberate in a pipe network system, as they encounter features such as changes in section, and resistance such as valves, and pipe junctions. A theoretical model of a straight pipe with discontinuities, which cause reflections, is developed and incorporated into a model of the cross-correlation function. The reasons why the reflections and the low-pass filtering properties of the pipe can be largely removed by the generalised cross-correlation (GCC) phase transform (PHAT) are determined. Using the analytical model, theoretical predictions of the basic cross-correlation function (BCC) and the GCC PHAT are compared with experimental data from a specially constructed test site in Canada.

Gao, Y.; Brennan, M. J.; Joseph, P. F.

2009-08-01

212

DETECTING WATER FLOW BEHIND PIPE IN INJECTION WELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency require that an injection well exhibit both internal and external mechanical integrity. he external mechanical integrity consideration is that there is no significant fluid movement into an underground source of drinking water th...

213

DETECTING WATER FLOW BEHIND PIPE IN INJECTION WELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency require that an injection well exhibit both internal and external mechanical integrity. The external mechanical integrity consideration is that there is no significant fluid movement into an underground source of drinking water ...

214

Water hammer in piping. January 1970-April 1989 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for January 1970-April 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning explanations for the occurrence of water-hammer, analytical methods to predict the pressure surge rise, and prevention methods. Discussions center on specific piping components such as valves, pipes, tubes, pumps, elbows, fittings, surge tanks, and accumulators. Non-viscous, viscous, two-phase, and two-component fluids are examined. Applications include thermal, nuclear, and hydroelectric power plants, building service water systems, district-heating systems, municipal water mains, and general industrial piping systems. (Contains 264 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1989-04-01

215

CORRELATION BETWEEN THE DAMAGE RATIOS OF WOODEN HOUSES AND WATER DISTRIBUTION PIPES AFTER THE SCENARIO TOKYO METROPOLITAN EARTHQUAKE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study estimated the damage ratios of wooden houses and water distribution pipes in Tokyo, Kanagawa, Saitama, and Chiba prefectures after the scenario Tokyo Metropolitan earthquake. Since the damage ratios were evaluated by common fragility functions, the amount of damage can be compared seamlessly for the areas around Tokyo Metropolis. This study also considers the correlations between the damage ratios of wooden houses and water distribution pipes with respect to the postal address areas (cho-cho-moku) along the Tokyo Bay. The areas associated with higher damage ratios of wooden houses and water pipes were detected and the delay of restoration work is anticipated in these areas.

Maruyama, Yoshihisa; Yamazaki, Fumio

216

OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) Cold Water Pipe At-Sea Test Program Data Analysis Project: Pipe, platform and environmental parameters data reduction and analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An assessment of computer models developed to analyze the structural response of cold water pipes (CWPs) is discussed. The principal aim of the data interpretation phase of the study was to determine the causal relationship between the environment and the barge/CWP response to provide the information required to assess the CWP computer models.

Vega, L. A.; Nilhous, G. C.

1985-08-01

217

A comparison of time delay estimators for the detection of leak noise signals in plastic water distribution pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The position of a leak in buried water distribution pipes, may be determined by accurate estimation of the time delay between two measured acoustic signals. By using a model for the wave propagation along plastic pipes, various time delay estimators using cross-correlation are compared in this paper for their ability to locate a leak in plastic pipes. The estimators of interest are the ROTH impulse response, the smoothed coherence transform (SCOT), the WIENER, the phase transform (PHAT) and the maximum likelihood (ML) estimators. For leak detection in buried plastic water pipes it is found that the SCOT estimator is particularly suited to this purpose. The accuracy of the estimators is also discussed. It is found that random errors introduced by random noise on the signal measurements are insignificant compared with the resolution of the time delay estimators imposed by the low-pass filtering characteristics of the pipe. Limited experimental results are presented to support the findings.

Gao, Y.; Brennan, M. J.; Joseph, P. F.

2006-05-01

218

Construction and testing of ceramic fabric heat pipe with water working fluid  

SciTech Connect

A prototype ceramic fabric/titanium water heat pipe has been constructed and tested; it transported 25 to 80 W of power at 423 K. Component development and testing is continuing with the aim of providing an improved prototype, with a 38-{mu}m stainless steel linear covered by a biaxially-braided Nextel (trademark of the 3M Co., St. Paul Minnesota) sleeve that is approximately 300-{mu}m thick. This fabric has been tested to 800 K, and its emittance is about 0.5 at that temperature. Advanced versions of the water heat pipe will probably require a coating over the ceramic fabric in order to increase this emittance to the 0.8 to 0.9 range. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Antoniak, Z.I.; Webb, B.J.; Bates, J.M.; Cooper, M.F.

1991-01-01

219

“End-of-pipe” versus “process-integrated” water conservation solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical and economic advantages and disadvantages of numerous approaches for fulfilling environmental protection aims are discussed in the literature. This article compares water conservation solutions that are applied to the wastewater from the production processes (end-of-pipe solutions) and solutions that intervene in the production processes (process-integrated solutions). Three arguments that are commonly used in the literature to compare the

Karl A Zotter

2004-01-01

220

Critical stationary efflux of boiling water through a pipe and a nozzle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formulation and results of a numerical experiment on the stationary critical efflux of boiling water through relatively short pipes (L\\/D = 3--20, Lapprox. <0.8 m) and channels of the Laval nozzle type under moderate pressures at the inlet to the channel (papprox. <16 MPa) are examined using the thermodynamically equilibrium quasi-one-dimensional one-velocity model of a two-phase bubble flow.

B. I. Nigmatulin; K. I. Soplenkov; V. N. Blinkov

1987-01-01

221

An experimental investigation of critical flow rates of subcooled water through short pipes with small diameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical two-phase flow rates of subcooled water through short pipes (L < 400 mm) with small diameters (D < 7.15 mm) have been experimentally investigated for wide ranges of subcooling (0 ? 199 °C) and pressure (0.5 ? 2.0 MPa). To examine the effects of various parameters (i.e., the location of flashing inception, the degree of subcooling, the stagnation temperature

Jee-Won Park; C. K. Park; J. W. Park

1996-01-01

222

Bubble characteristics of steam–water two-phase flow in a large-diameter pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bubble characteristics of steam–water two-phase upward flow were observed in a vertical pipe 155 mm in inner diameter. Experiments were conducted under volumetric flux conditions of JG<0.25 m\\/s and JL<0.6 m\\/s, and three different inlet boundary conditions to investigate the developing state of the flow. The radial distributions of flow structure were obtained by horizontally traversing optical dual void probes

Kimitoshi Yoneda; Akira Yasuo; Tomio Okawa

2002-01-01

223

Detection, integration and persistence of aeromonads in water distribution pipe biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. within biofilms formed on stainless steel (SS), unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) and glass (GL) substrata was investigated in modified Robbins Devices (MRD) in potable (MRD-p) and recycled (MRD-r) water systems, a Biofilm ReactorY (BR) and a laboratory-scale pipe loop (PL) receiving simulated recycled wastewater. No aeromonads were isolated from the MRD-p whereas 3-10% of SS

A.-M. Bomo; M. V. Storey; N. J. Ashbolt

2004-01-01

224

THE EFFECT OF PHOSPHATE ON THE MORPHOLOGICAL AND SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF COPPER DRINKING WATER PIPES EXPERIENCING LOCALIZED CORROSION  

EPA Science Inventory

Extensive localized or pitting corrosion of copper pipes used in household drinking-water plumbing can eventually lead to pinhole water leaks that may result in water damage, mold growth, and costly repairs. A large water system in Florida has been addressing a widespread pinhole...

225

Numerical simulation of flow field in water-pump sump and inlet suction pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several important considerations in the design of a suction supply sump. It is imperative that the amount of turbulence and entrained air be kept to a minimum. Free air-core vortex occurring at a water-intake pipe is an important problem encountered in hydraulic engineering. These vortices may reduce pump performances, have large effects on the operating conditions and lead to increase plant operating costs. Experiments, conducted in order to select best positions of the suction pipe of a water-intake sump, show qualitative results concerning flow disturbances in the pump-intake related to sump geometries and position of the pump intake. The purpose of the paper is to reproduce the flow pattern and confirm the geometrical parameter influences of the flow behavior in such a pump. The numerical model used solves the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and VOF multiphase model for two cases. In the validation of this numerical model, emphasis was placed on the prediction of the number, location, size and strength of the various types of vortices. Previous studies, without simulation of air entrainment, have shown the influence on a single type of mesh with different cell numbers, different intake pipe depths and different water levels, for two turbulence models closure.

Bayeul-Lainé, A. C.; Bois, G.; Issa, A.

2010-08-01

226

OTEC cold water pipe design for problems caused by vortex-excited oscillations  

SciTech Connect

Vortex-excited oscillations of marine structures result in reduced fatigue life, large hydrodynamic forces and induced stresses, and sometimes lead to structural damage and to diestructive failures. The cold water pipe of an OTEC plant is nominally a bluff, flexible cylinder with a large aspect ratio (L/D = length/diameter), and is likely to be susceptible to resonant vortex-excited oscillations. The objective of this report is to survey recent results pertaining to the vortex-excited oscillations of structures in general and to consider the application of these findings to the design of the OTEC cold water pipe. Practical design calculations are given as examples throughout the various sections of the report. This report is limited in scope to the problems of vortex shedding from bluff, flexible structures in steady currents and the resulting vortex-excited oscillations. The effects of flow non-uniformities, surface roughness of the cylinder, and inclination to the incident flow are considered in addition to the case of a smooth cyliner in a uniform stream. Emphasis is placed upon design procedures, hydrodynamic coefficients applicable in practice, and the specification of structural response parameters relevant to the OTEC cold water pipe. There are important problems associated with in shedding of vortices from cylinders in waves and from the combined action of waves and currents, but these complex fluid/structure interactions are not considered in this report.

Griffin, O. M.

1980-03-14

227

Detection of Escherichia coli in Biofilms from Pipe Samples and Coupons in Drinking Water Distribution Networks?  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for direct detection of Escherichia coli on pipe surfaces and coupons in drinking water distribution networks. Old cast iron main pipes were removed from water distribution networks in France, England, Portugal, and Latvia, and E. coli was analyzed in the biofilm. In addition, 44 flat coupons made of cast iron, polyvinyl chloride, or stainless steel were placed into and continuously exposed to water on 15 locations of 6 distribution networks in France and Latvia and examined after 1 to 6 months exposure to the drinking water. In order to increase the signal intensity, a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) 15-mer probe was used in the FISH screening for the presence or absence of E. coli on the surface of pipes and coupons, thus reducing occasional problems of autofluorescence and low fluorescence of the labeled bacteria. For comparison, cells were removed from the surfaces and examined with culture-based or enzymatic (detection of ?-d-glucuronidase) methods. An additional verification was made by using PCR. Culture method indicated presence of E. coli in one of five pipes, whereas all pipes were positive with the FISH methods. E. coli was detected in 56% of the coupons using PNA FISH, but no E. coli was detected using culture or enzymatic methods. PCR analyses confirmed the presence of E. coli in samples that were negative according to culture-based and enzymatic methods. The viability of E. coli cells in the samples was demonstrated by the cell elongation after resuscitation in low-nutrient medium supplemented with pipemidic acid, suggesting that the cells were present in an active but nonculturable state, unable to grow on agar media. E. coli contributed to ca. 0.001 to 0.1% of the total bacterial number in the samples. The presence and number of E. coli did not correlate with any of physical and/or chemical characteristic of the drinking water (e.g., temperature, chlorine, or biodegradable organic matter concentration). We show here that E. coli is present in the biofilms of drinking water networks in Europe. Some of the cells are metabolically active but are often not detected due to limitations of traditionally used culture-based methods, indicating that biofilm should be considered as a reservoir that must be investigated further in order to evaluate the risk for human health.

Juhna, T.; Birzniece, D.; Larsson, S.; Zulenkovs, D.; Sharipo, A.; Azevedo, N. F.; Menard-Szczebara, F.; Castagnet, S.; Feliers, C.; Keevil, C. W.

2007-01-01

228

Surface analysis and depth profiling of corrosion products formed in lead pipes used to supply low alkalinity drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern analytical techniques have been applied to investigate the nature of lead pipe corrosion products formed in pH adjusted, orthophosphate-treated, low alkalinity water, under supply conditions. Depth profiling and surface analysis have been carried out on pipe samples obtained from the water distribution system in Glasgow, Scotland, UK. X-ray diffraction spectrometry identified basic lead carbonate, lead oxide and lead phosphate

C. M. Davidson; N. J. Peters; A. Britton; L. Brady; P. H. E. Gardiner; B. D. Lewis

229

Thermal hydraulics of a feed-water pipe breakage with a back-pressure check valve  

SciTech Connect

The SOLA-LOOP computer code for transient, nonequilibrium, two-phase flows in networks has been coupled with a dynamic check valve model. Transient back-pressure check valve behavior and fluid dynamic effects in the form of the so called water-hammer are numerically simulated for a feed-water pipe breakage accident. Three tests from the Superheated Steam Reactor Safety Program Project (PHDR) carried out near Frankfurt, West Germany are analyzed, and the calculated transient back-pressure check valve behavior and fluid dynamics effects are found to be in excellent agreement with the experimentally measured data. 5 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

Travis, J.R.; Torrey, M.D.

1985-01-01

230

Optimal fund assignment and allocation models for pipe repair maintenance in leaky water distribution networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In pipe repair maintenance operations for leaky water distribution networks in cities, it is usually the practice that whenever pipe leaks are detected, repair actions are undertaken until the funds assigned are exhausted. The allocation of limited repair funds to different pipe sections is normally done without careful quantitative analysis but according to an intuitive rule, whereby the section of the larger leak volume receives the larger share of funds. This paper proposes a new modeling approach to determine optimal repair fund allocation to different sections of a city. A basic periodic-review stochastic demand inventory model is first applied to ascertain the optimal funds to be assigned to a city under an assumption of no fund limitation. The model is then extended to determine the optimal allocation of the limited funds to different sections of a city. The models minimize the expected total system cost composed of repair cost, storage cost (of spare parts and materials), and penalty cost for water loss due to lack of funds. Numerical experiments are then conducted to illustrate the applicability of the proposed models, and the characteristics of the optimal solutions with regard to parameter variations are investigated. Data used in the numerical example are taken from actual data of the secondary network of Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam.

Bach, Nguyen Luong; Fujiwara, Okitsugu; Luong, Huynh Trung

2000-05-01

231

A Thermosyphon Titanium-Water Heat Pipe Design for a Lunar Surface Power System  

SciTech Connect

A long titanium-water thermosyphon heat pipe was designed and tested in support of NASA's lunar surface power system. With a {delta}T of 11.6 C, a prototype has been shown to meet the temperature drop specification of 15 C at 400 W and 400 K. The heat pipe is designed to be embedded in a composite radiator panel to spread waste heat delivered by a circulating pumped loop. The major challenge was managing the fluid inventory to balance the conflicting requirements of power capacity and freeze-thaw tolerance. A unique hybrid wick was designed to achieve the required thermal performance and yet store all the working fluid during idle periods in a freeze-thaw tolerant fashion. A non-condensable gas charge was used to boost power capacity at lower operating temperatures. Eighteen prototypes will be built and tested.

Thayer, John; Semenov, Sergey [Thermacore Inc. 780 Eden Road Lancaster, PA 17601 (United States)

2009-03-16

232

A Thermosyphon Titanium-Water Heat Pipe Design for a Lunar Surface Power System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long titanium-water thermosyphon heat pipe was designed and tested in support of NASA's lunar surface power system. With a ?T of 11.6 C, a prototype has been shown to meet the temperature drop specification of 15 C at 400 W and 400 K. The heat pipe is designed to be embedded in a composite radiator panel to spread waste heat delivered by a circulating pumped loop. The major challenge was managing the fluid inventory to balance the conflicting requirements of power capacity and freeze-thaw tolerance. A unique hybrid wick was designed to achieve the required thermal performance and yet store all the working fluid during idle periods in a freeze-thaw tolerant fashion. A non-condensable gas charge was used to boost power capacity at lower operating temperatures. Eighteen prototypes will be built and tested.

Thayer, John; Semenov, Sergey

2009-03-01

233

Impact of advanced water conservation features and new copper pipe on rapid chloramine decay and microbial regrowth.  

PubMed

Taste and odor issues occurring in new buildings were attributed to rapid loss of chloramine residual, high levels of microbes in the potable water system, and high water age due to use of advanced water conservation devices. Laboratory experiments confirmed that chloramine could decay rapidly in the presence of new copper pipe, providing a possible explanation for the rapid disinfectant loss in the new buildings. Higher temperature and lower pH also accelerated the rate of chloramine decay in copper pipes. The reaction was slowed by the addition of phosphate inhibitor or aluminum, which presumably formed barriers between the pipe wall and the chloramine in the bulk water. Additional research is needed to better understand how to maintain high quality water in buildings while also conserving water. PMID:22153355

Nguyen, Caroline; Elfland, Carolyn; Edwards, Marc

2011-11-15

234

A parametric study and a guide chart to avoid condensation-induced water hammer in a horizontal pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental and analytical studies on the condensation-induced water hammer (CIWH) for steam-water countercurrent flow in a nearly horizontal circular pipe have been performed. A total of 17 experimental data for the onset of slugging, which is assumed to be the precursor of the CIWH, have been obtained for various flow rates of water. Incorporating the most recent correlations of

Moon-Hyun Chun; Seon-Oh Yu

2000-01-01

235

Simulation of external contamination into water distribution systems through defects in pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water quality can be defined as a set of properties (physical, biological and chemical) that determine its suitability for human use or for its role in the biosphere. In this contribution we focus on the possible impact on water distribution systems quality of external contaminant fluids entering through defects in pipes. The physical integrity of the distribution system is a primary barrier against the entry of external contaminants and the loss in quality of the treated drinking water, but this integrity can be broken. Deficiencies in physical and hydraulic integrity can lead into water losses, but also into the influx of contaminants through pipes walls, either through breaks coming from external subsoil waters, or via cross connections coming from sewerage or other facilities. These external contamination events (the so called pathogen intrusion phenomenon) can act as a source of income by introducing nutrients and sediments as well as decreasing disinfectant concentrations within the distribution system, thus resulting in a degradation of the distribution water quality. The objective of this contribution is to represent this pathogen intrusion phenomenon. The combination of presence of defects in the infrastructures (equipment failure), suppression and back-siphonage and lack of disinfection is the cause of propagation of contamination in the clean current of water. Intrusion of pathogenic microorganisms has been studied and registered even in well maintained services. Therefore, this situation can happen when negative pressure conditions are achieved in the systems combined with the presence of defects in pipes nearby the suppression. A simulation of the process by which the external fluids can come inside pipes across their defects in a steady-state situation will be considered, by using different techniques to get such a successful modeling, combining numerical and experimental simulations. The proposed modeling process is based on experimental and computational simulations. An analysis of the intrusion behavior considering hydrodynamic and transportation of pollutant phenomena has been developed, comparing the influence of the turbulence consideration and the agreement of both computational and experimental results. This paper is focused on the analysis of such external intrusion phenomenon, the relationship between the income flow and the pressure inside the pipe, depending on the characteristics of the defect and the pressure level, as well as the effect on the water quality of the income substances dispersion. Two different experiments have been developed. In order to represent the intrusion phenomenon in steady state, two suitable assemblies have been implemented in the laboratory. In a lower order of pressures a Venturi tube has been used for generating the depression. In a higher level of pressures, a pumping system has been used. The defect on the pipe has been simulated by a circular hole, and the dispersion of pollutant has been considered by means of salinity as a conservative contaminant. The simulated scenarios of different suppressions can vary from 0.001 to 0.7 bars. The prototypes are also simulated by numerical modeling in two and three dimensions using Computational Fluid Dynamics techniques. For this purpose Fluent 6.3™ has been used, which displays the fields of hydrodynamic components and salinity. After doing a proper calibration process, the contrast made between models will allows us to establish the foundation for further pathogen intrusion simulations in the distribution system. Different turbulent models based on turbulent viscosity and different boundary conditions will also be considered. The agreement between experimental and computational models will be analyzed, and the differences between series of results will be compared, validating thus the use of computational models for representing the pathogen intrusion problem. By both, mathematical and physical models, it is intended to have a better knowledge of quantities that can not be measured, such as velocity fields, aspects of t

López, P. A.; Mora, J. J.; García, F. J.; López, G.

2009-04-01

236

Characterisation of the fatigue properties of cast irons used in the water industry and the effect on pipe strength and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an on going programme to characterise the residual properties and understand the failure mechanisms of in-service grey cast iron water pipes, the fatigue crack propagation behaviour of grey cast iron samples has been studied. Specimens were sourced from three ex-service pipes. For each pipe the microstructure and composition were characterised and the fracture toughness was determined. The

H. Mohebbi; D. A. Jesson; M. J. Mulheron; P. A. Smith

2009-01-01

237

Applicability of Related Data, Algorithms, and Models to the Simulation of Ground-Coupled Residential Hot Water Piping in California  

SciTech Connect

Residential water heating is an important consideration in California?s building energy efficiency standard. Explicit treatment of ground-coupled hot water piping is one of several planned improvements to the standard. The properties of water, piping, insulation, backfill materials, concrete slabs, and soil, their interactions, and their variations with temperature and over time are important considerations in the required supporting analysis. Heat transfer algorithms and models devised for generalized, hot water distribution system, ground-source heat pump and ground heat exchanger, nuclear waste repository, buried oil pipeline, and underground electricity transmission cable applications can be adapted to the simulation of under-slab water piping. A numerical model that permits detailed examination of and broad variations in many inputs while employing a technique to conserve computer run time is recommended.

Warner, J.L.; Lutz, J.D.

2006-01-01

238

Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 1. Investigation and evaluation of stress corrosion cracking in piping of boiling water reactor plants  

SciTech Connect

IGSCC in BWR piping is occurring owing to a combination of material, environment, and stress factors, each of which can affect both the initiation of a stress-corrosion crack and the rate of its subsequent propagation. In evaluating long-term solutions to the problem, one needs to consider the effects of each of the proposed remedial actions. Mitigating actions to control IGSCC in BWR piping must be designed to alleviate one or more of the three synergistic factors: sensitized material, the convention BWR environment, and high tensile stresses. Because mitigating actions addressing each of these factors may not be fully effective under all anticipated operating conditions, mitigating actions should address two and preferably all three of the causative factors; e.g., material plus some control of water chemistry, or stress reversal plus controlled water chemistry.

Not Available

1984-08-01

239

[Microbial contamination of water by pipe and tube materials. 3. Behavior of E. coli, Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae].  

PubMed

Materials water comes into contact with can promote the microbial growth as it could be shown before. The reaction of an unspecific microorganism flora and of Legionella pneumophila in pipes and hoses has been described in the two previous communications. The investigation with L. pneumophila has shown that even a pathogen organism can grow upon the materials. Therefore it was of special interest to prove whether indicator organisms for the testing of drinking water can grow in pipes and hoses as well. Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae grew after the experimental contamination for many weeks on the rubber hose until the test was finally stopped, in the other pipes and hoses (glass, high-grade steel, PVC, PE, PA, PTFE and silicone) E. coli could be found for maximal 7 weeks, Citrobacter freundii for 1 week and Klebsiella pneumoniae for maximal 3 weeks. In the copper pipe the organisms could be found only for a few days. PMID:2673263

Schoenen, D; Schlömer, G

1989-08-01

240

Fluid-structure interaction with pipe-wall viscoelasticity during water hammer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) due to water hammer in a pipeline which has viscoelastic wall behaviour is studied. Appropriate governing equations are derived and numerically solved. In the numerical implementation of the hydraulic and structural equations, viscoelasticity is incorporated using the Kelvin-Voigt mechanical model. The equations are solved by two different approaches, namely the Method of Characteristics-Finite Element Method (MOC-FEM) and full MOC. In both approaches two important effects of FSI in fluid-filled pipes, namely Poisson and junction coupling, are taken into account. The study proposes a more comprehensive model for studying fluid transients in pipelines as compared to previous works, which take into account either FSI or viscoelasticity. To verify the proposed mathematical model and its numerical solutions, the following problems are investigated: axial vibration of a viscoelastic bar subjected to a step uniaxial loading, FSI in an elastic pipe, and hydraulic transients in a pressurised polyethylene pipe without FSI. The results of each case are checked with available exact and experimental results. Then, to study the simultaneous effects of FSI and viscoelasticity, which is the new element of the present research, one problem is solved by the two different numerical approaches. Both numerical methods give the same results, thus confirming the correctness of the solutions.

Keramat, A.; Tijsseling, A. S.; Hou, Q.; Ahmadi, A.

2012-01-01

241

Investigation of Temperature Fluctuations Caused by Steam-Water Two-Phase Flow in Pressurizer Spray Piping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a PWR plant, a steam-water two-phase flow may possibly exist in the pressurizer spray pipe under a normal operating condition since the flow rate of the spray water is not sufficient to fill the horizontal section of the pipe completely. Initiation of high cycle fatigue cracks is suspected to occur under such thermally stratified two phase flow conditions due to cyclic thermal stress fluctuations caused by oscillations of the water surface. Such oscillations cannot be detected by the measurement of temperature on outer surface of the pipe. In order to clarify the flow and thermal conditions in the pressurizer spray pipe and assess their impact on the pipe structure, an experiment was conducted for a steam-water flow at a low flow rate using a mock-up pressurizer spray pipe. The maximum temperature fluctuation of about 0.2 times of the steam-water temperature difference was observed at the inner wall around water surface in the test section. Visualization tests were conducted to investigate the temperature fluctuation phenomena. It was shown that the fluid temperature fluctuations were not caused by the waves on the water surface, but were caused by liquid temperature fluctuations in water layer below the interface. The influence of small amount of non-condensable gas dissolved in the reactor coolant on the liquid temperature fluctuation phenomena was investigated by injecting air into the experimental loop. The air injection attenuated the liquid temperature fluctuations in the water layer since the condensation was suppressed by the non- condensable gas. It is not expected that wall temperature fluctuation in the actual PWR plant may exceed the temperature equivalent to the fatigue limit stress amplitude when it is assumed to be proportional to the steam-water temperature difference.

Miyoshi, Koji; Nakamura, Akira; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Oumaya, Toru

242

The laboratory scaled-down model of a ground-penetrating radar for leak detection of water pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the potential of a ground-penetrating radar for leak detection of water pipes, well-controlled experiments allowing flexibility of the involved parameters are necessary. To accomplish this purpose, a laboratory scaled-down model of the radar under leak conditions is proposed here. The laboratory system consisted of a dry sand tank, a pipe and a simulated zone of leakage adjacent to

Seung-Yeup Hyun; Yu-Sun Jo; Heon-Cheol Oh; Se-Yun Kim; Young-Sik Kim

2007-01-01

243

Heat extraction from the ground in a volcanic zone using copper water heat pipes—experiment and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This test of the technical feasibility of extracting heat from the earth of a volcanic zone and delivering it to water-utilizing heat pipes was conducted at Tsukahara Hot Spring in Kyushu, Japan, in July 1992. The temperature distributions of the heat pipes and the surrounding earth were analyzed through an equivalent thermal network-a three-dimensional circuit of thermal resistances and capacitors

Osamu Tanaka; Hidekazu Koshino; Jun Kuriki; Yoshimi Yohmatsu; Osamu Harada

1995-01-01

244

The effects of changing water flow velocity on the formation of biofilms and water quality in pilot distribution system consisting of copper or polyethylene pipes.  

PubMed

We studied the effects of flow velocity on the formation of biofilms and the concentration of bacteria in water in copper and plastic (polyethylene, PE) pipes. The formation of biofilms increased with the flow velocity of water. The increase in microbial numbers and contents of ATP was clearer in the PE pipes than in the copper pipes. This was also seen as increased consumption of microbial nutrients in the pipeline system. This indicates that the mass transfer of nutrients is in major role in the growth of biofilms. However, the increased biomass of biofilms did not affect microbial numbers in the water. Rapid changes in water flow rate resuspended biofilms and sediments which increased the concentrations of bacteria and copper in water. The disturbance caused by the changing water flow was also seen as an increase in the particle counts and water turbidity recorded with online instrumentation. PMID:16725175

Lehtola, Markku J; Laxander, Michaela; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Hirvonen, Arja; Vartiainen, Terttu; Martikainen, Pertti J

2006-05-24

245

OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) CWP (Cold Water Pipe) Laboratory Test Program. Materials Project Test Report  

SciTech Connect

Fiberglass sandwich wall structures emerged as leading candidates for the OTEC cold water pipe because of their high strength to weight ratio, their flexibility in selecting directional properties, their resistance to electrochemical interaction, their ease of deployment and their relative low cost. A review of the literature established reasonable confidence that FRP laminates could meet the OTEC requirements; however, little information was available on the performance of core materials suitable for OTEC applications. Syntactic foam cores of various composition and density were developed and tested for mechanical properties and seawater absorption.

Not Available

1981-04-01

246

Indicators for microbiologically induced corrosion of copper pipes in a cold-water plumbing system.  

PubMed

Corrosion damage in the copper cold-water plumbing system of a large building was investigated. An unusual combination of corrosion patterns was found on the inner copper pipe surfaces that were in contact with water. Damage was in the form of shallow cavities, a surface cover or pinprick-like pits. The corrosion system was influenced by thermal treatment and also by cefoxitin dosing. The latter fact in particular is a clear indication of microbiological involvement in this corrosive action. Different parameters, to be measured in standing water (24-h stagnation), are considered typical for this type of corrosion: the detection of Sphingomonas spec. and other species in whose cell wall regions copper can accumulate, a copper content of more than 2 mg/l, oxygen consumption of more than 4 mg/l and an increase in pH. With the help of these indicators, it is possible to recognize microbiologically induced corrosion in copper plumbing systems before pipe perforation occur. PMID:7727024

Arens, P; Tuschewitzki, G J; Wollmann, M; Follner, H; Jacobi, H

1995-01-01

247

65. FIRE SUPPRESSION PIPES BEHIND FLAME BUCKET. PIPES TO UMBILICAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

65. FIRE SUPPRESSION PIPES BEHIND FLAME BUCKET. PIPES TO UMBILICAL MAST IN LOWER LEFT CORNER; PIPES TO LAUNCHER IN UPPER LEFT CORNER; PIPES TO FLAME BUCKET IN LOWER RIGHT CORNER OF PHOTOGRAPH. POTABLE WATER PIPING IN UPPER RIGHT CORNER OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

248

Effect of Cu-water nanofluid on the heat transfer by rotating heat pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a study on the effect of using Cu-water nanofluid on the heat transfer by rotating heat pipe (RHP). A mathematical model is presented of the RHP including, vapor velocity, gravity effect and taper angle. The study is carried out at different rotation speeds, RHP temperatures differences (?T) and masses of working fluid of the RHP. Using of Cu-water nanofluid with RHP decreases the liquid film thickness adjacent to its walls and increases the heat transfer by RHP compared with ordinary fluid. The heat transfer by RHP increases with increasing ?T and volume fraction and radius of solid nanoparticles. The maximum heat transfer by RHP at ?T=20 oC and ?=3000rpm increases by about 56% due to using Cu-water nanofluid with volume fraction 0.04 and nanoparticles radius 5nm.

Hassan, Hamdy; Harmand, Souad

2013-10-01

249

Review of industry efforts to manage pressurized water reactor feedwater nozzle, piping, and feedring cracking and wall thinning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a review of nuclear industry efforts to manage thermal fatigue, flow-accelerated corrosion, and water hammer damage to pressurized water reactor (PWR) feedwater nozzles, piping, and feedrings. The review includes an evaluation of design modifications, operating procedure changes, augmented inspection and monitoring programs, and mitigation, repair and replacement activities. Four actions were taken: (a) review of field experience

V. N. Shah; A. G. Ware; A. M. Porter

1997-01-01

250

Are There Health Risks from the Migration of Chemical Substances from Plastic Pipes into Drinking Water? A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic pipes used to convey hot and cold drinking water are synthetic polymers containing numerous additives that enhance durability, impact strength, and toughness, and resist material degradation. Although some research studies have been conducted to evaluate the type and levels of chemical substances migrating from polymeric materials into drinking water, the potential adverse health effects associated with these compounds in

Bonnie Ransom Stern; Gustavo Lagos

2008-01-01

251

Fatique testing of OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion) cold water pipe glass-reinforced plastic materials. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

Specimens of a GFRP (glass fiber reinforced plastic) composite laminate - a candidate material for use in an OTEC cold water pipe (CWP) - were subjected to cyclic bending while immersed in a synthetic sea water solution. The loss of stiffness, i.e., decrease in bending modulus, for this GFRP was determined as a function of cycles of loading.

Sirian, C.R.; Conn, A.F.

1983-09-01

252

Fatique testing of OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion) cold water pipe glass-reinforced plastic materials. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specimens of a GFRP (glass fiber reinforced plastic) composite laminate - a candidate material for use in an OTEC cold water pipe (CWP) - were subjected to cyclic bending while immersed in a synthetic sea water solution. The loss of stiffness, i.e., decrease in bending modulus, for this GFRP was determined as a function of cycles of loading.

C. R. Sirian; A. F. Conn

1983-01-01

253

Microbiology, chemistry and biofilm development in a pilot drinking water distribution system with copper and plastic pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the changes in water quality and formation of biofilms occurring in a pilot-scale water distribution system with two generally used pipe materials: copper and plastic (polyethylene, PE). The formation of biofilms with time was analysed as the number of total bacteria, heterotrophic plate counts and the concentration of ATP in biofilms. At the end of the experiment (after

Markku J. Lehtola; Ilkka T. Miettinen; Minna M. Keinänen; Tomi K. Kekki; Olli Laine; Arja Hirvonen; Terttu Vartiainen; Pertti J. Martikainen

2004-01-01

254

OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold-water pipe at-sea test program. Phase 2. Suspended pipe test. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An important step in the development of technology for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) cold water pipes (CWP) is the at-sea testing and subsequent evaluation of a large-diameter fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) pipe. Focus has been on the CWP since it is the most critical element in any OTEC design. This report presents the results of the second phase of the CWP At-Sea Test Program. During this phase an 8-foot diameter, 400-foot long sandwich wall FRP syntactic foam configuration CWP test article was developed, constructed, deployed and used for data acquisition in the open ocean near Honolulu, Hawaii. This instrumented CWP was suspended from a moored platform for a three-week experiment in April - May, 1983. The CWP represented a scaled version of a 40-megawatt size structure, nominally 30 feet in diameter and 3000 feet long.

McHale, F.A.

1984-08-01

255

Analysis on shock wave speed of water hammer of lifting pipes for deep-sea mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water hammer occurs whenever the fluid velocity in vertical lifting pipe systems for deep-sea mining suddenly changes. In this work, the shock wave was proven to play an important role in changing pressures and periods, and mathematical and numerical modeling technology was presented for simulated transient pressure in the abnormal pump operation. As volume concentrations were taken into account of shock wave speed, the experiment results about the pressure-time history, discharge-time history and period for the lifting pipe system showed that: as its concentrations rose up, the maximum transient pressure went down, so did its discharges; when its volume concentrations increased gradually, the period numbers of pressure decay were getting less and less, and the corresponding shock wave speed decreased. These results have highly coincided with simulation results. The conclusions are important to design lifting transporting system to prevent water hammer in order to avoid potentially devastating consequences, such as damage to components and equipment and risks to personnel.

Zhou, Zhi-jin; Yang, Ning; Wang, Zhao

2013-04-01

256

Characterization of the critical transition from annular to wavy-stratified flow for oil-water mixtures in horizontal pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transition from annular to wavy-stratified oil-water adiabatic flow within horizontal pipes is experimentally analyzed, and a semiempirical model is proposed. The transition is referred to as critical because it occurs suddenly, giving rise to a sharp and strong increase in the pressure drop due to the contact of the high-viscosity oil with the pipe wall. This could lead to a dangerous accident in pipelines. Experimental runs were performed on eight test sections of both Plexiglas® and Pyrex® pipes with internal diameters ranging from 21.5 to 50 mm, using tap water and oil with viscosity about 880 times higher than that of water. On the basis of pressure drop measurement and flow pattern visualization, the transition boundary between annular and wavy-stratified flow was analytically determined and compared with flow pattern maps.

Colombo, Luigi P. M.; Guilizzoni, Manfredo; Sotgia, Giorgio M.

2012-11-01

257

Adhesion of Aeromonas hydrophila to water distribution system pipes after different contact times.  

PubMed

Scanning electron microscopy observation was used to investigate the ability of Aeromonas hydrophila to attach to various water distribution pipe surfaces, such as stainless steel, copper, and polybutylene, after different contact times at ambient and storage temperatures. Surface energy value of each surface was estimated by contact angle measurements using water, alpha-bromonaphthalene, and dimethyl sulfoxide. Our results indicated that Aeromonas cells could easily attach to all surface types after exposures as short as 1 or 4 h at both temperatures (4 and 20 degrees C). Polybutylene, a low-energy surface (41.2 mJ.m-2), followed by stainless steel (65.7 mJ.m-2), was most colonized by Aeromonas cells, whereas few cells were observed on copper, which has a surface energy of 45.8 mJ.m-2. Extracellular materials could also be observed on polybutylene surfaces, especially after 1 and 4 h of exposure at the refrigeration temperature. PMID:9798149

Assanta, M A; Roy, D; Montpetit, D

1998-10-01

258

Flexible ocean upwelling pipe  

DOEpatents

In an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, a cold water riser pipe is releasably supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. The pipe is substantially vertical and has its lower end far below the hull above the ocean floor. The pipe is defined essentially entirely of a material which has a modulus of elasticity substantially less than that of steel, e.g., high density polyethylene, so that the pipe is flexible and compliant to rather than resistant to applied bending moments. The position of the lower end of the pipe relative to the hull is stabilized by a weight suspended below the lower end of the pipe on a flexible line. The pipe, apart from the weight, is positively buoyant. If support of the upper end of the pipe is released, the pipe sinks to the ocean floor, but is not damaged as the length of the line between the pipe and the weight is sufficient to allow the buoyant pipe to come to a stop within the line length after the weight contacts the ocean floor, and thereafter to float submerged above the ocean floor while moored to the ocean floor by the weight. The upper end of the pipe, while supported by the hull, communicates to a sump in the hull in which the water level is maintained below the ambient water level. The sump volume is sufficient to keep the pipe full during heaving of the hull, thereby preventing collapse of the pipe.

Person, Abraham (Los Alamitos, CA)

1980-01-01

259

Seasonal Comparison of Observed Water Vapor Enhancement in Prescribed Fire Smoke Plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ measurements of temperature and relative humidity were obtained during multiple prescribed fires in a longleaf pine ecosystem at the Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center at Ichauway, Georgia in July 2008 and January 2009. A 10 m tower was constructed to capture fire front plume conditions, while radiosondes were launched so smoke plume characteristics aloft could be quantified. As soon as significant smoke from the fire was observed, radiosondes were launched downwind of the fire front and ascended directly into the smoke plumes. Radiosondes were also launched before and after each burn to obtain ambient background conditions. These two measurement platforms provide a unique dataset of smoke plume moisture to determine how moisture enhancement from fire smoke alters the dynamics of the plume. Additionally, seasonal variations in ambient environmental conditions seem to have had an impact on increased plume moisture. Comparisons between summer and winter, as well as tower and radiosonde data will be presented. Results show moisture enhancement occurred in both summer and winter prescribed fires, with tower based measurements capturing greater plume moisture than radiosonde measurements. Preliminary results show plume water vapor mixing ratio was on the order of 1-5 g kg-1 and 0.8-1.4 g kg-1 greater in the summer from tower and radiosonde data, respectively.

Kiefer, C. M.; Clements, C. B.; Potter, B. E.; Strenfel, S. J.; Hiers, J. K.

2009-12-01

260

Narghile (water pipe) smoking among university students in Jordan: prevalence, pattern and beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Narghile is becoming the favorite form of tobacco use by youth globally. This problem has received more attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of narghile use among students in three public Jordanian universities; to assess their beliefs about narghile's adverse health consequences; and to evaluate their awareness

Najla S Dar-Odeh; Faris G Bakri; Mahmoud K Al-Omiri; Hamzeh M Al-Mashni; Hazem A Eimar; Ameen S Khraisat; Shatha MK Abu-Hammad; Abdul-Aziz F Dudeen; Mohamed Nur Abdallah; Samer M Zied Alkilani; Louai Al-Shami; Osama A Abu-Hammad

2010-01-01

261

Resistance properties of coal-water slurry flowing through local piping fittings  

SciTech Connect

Local resistance characteristics of coal-water slurry (CWS) flowing through three types of piping components, namely gradual contractions, sudden contractions and 90 horizontal bends, were investigated at a transportation test facility. The results show that CWS exhibits different rheological behaviors, i.e., the shear-thinning, Newtonian, and shear-thicken, at different shear rates. When CWS flows through the gradual contractions, the local pressure loss firstly decreases to a minimum, and then increases as the gradual contraction angle {theta} increases. When the CWS flow through the sudden contractions, with the increase of pipe diameter ratio {beta}, the local pressure loss increases for the two kinds of CWS, SHEN-HUA (S-H) CWS and YAN-ZHOU (Y-Z) CWS whose mass concentration range from 57% to 59% and 59% to 62%, respectively. For 90 horizontal bends, there is an optimal value of the bend diameter ratio (Rc/D) at which the local pressure loss is the least. Furthermore, the local resistance coefficient (K) in the empirical correlations is determined from the experimental data. The correlations show that as Re increases, K of the three fittings declines quickly at first. However, with further increase in Re, K shows different behaviors for the three fittings due to the special rheological property of CWS at higher shear rates. The factors of theta, beta and Rc/D have minor effects on K.

Meng, L.; Duan, Y.F. [South East University, Nanjing (China). School of Energy & Environment

2009-07-15

262

Resistance properties of coal-water slurry flowing through local piping fittings  

SciTech Connect

Local resistance characteristics of coal-water slurry (CWS) flowing through three types of piping components, namely gradual contractions, sudden contractions and 90 horizontal bends, were investigated at a transportation test facility. The results show that CWS exhibits different rheological behaviors, i.e., the shear-thinning, Newtonian, and shear-thicken, at different shear rates. When CWS flows through the gradual contractions, the local pressure loss firstly decreases to a minimum, and then increases as the gradual contraction angle ({theta}) increases. When the CWS flow through the sudden contractions, with the increase of pipe diameter ratio ({beta}), the local pressure loss increases for the two kinds of CWS, SHEN-HUA (S-H) CWS and YAN-ZHOU (Y-Z) CWS whose mass concentration range from 57% to 59% and 59% to 62%, respectively. For 90 horizontal bends, there is an optimal value of the bend diameter ratio (Rc/D) at which the local pressure loss is the least. Furthermore, the local resistance coefficient (K) in the empirical correlations is determined from the experimental data. The correlations show that as Re increases, K of the three fittings declines quickly at first. However, with further increase in Re, K shows different behaviors for the three fittings due to the special rheological property of CWS at higher shear rates. The factors of {theta}, {beta} and Rc/D have minor effects on K. (author)

Liu, Meng; Duan, Yu Feng [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Sipailou, Nanjing 210096 (China)

2009-07-15

263

Speciation and distribution of vanadium in drinking water iron pipe corrosion by-products  

SciTech Connect

Vanadium (V) when ingested from drinking water in high concentrations (> 15 {micro}g L{sup -1}) is a potential health risk and is on track to becoming a regulated contaminant. High concentrations of V have been documented in lead corrosion by-products as Pb{sub 5}(V{sup 5+}O{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl (vanadinite) which, in natural deposits is associated with iron oxides/oxyhydroxides, phases common in iron pipe corrosion by-products. The extent of potential reservoirs of V in iron corrosion by-products, its speciation, and mechanism of inclusion however are unknown. The aim of this study is to assess these parameters in iron corrosion by-products, implementing synchrotron-based {mu}-XRF mapping and {mu}-XANES along with traditional physiochemical characterization. The morphologies, mineralogies, and chemistry of the samples studied are superficially similar to typical iron corrosion by-products. However, we found V present as discrete grains of Pb{sub 5}(V{sup 5+}O{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl likely embedded in the surface regions of the iron corrosion by-products. Concentrations of V observed in bulk XRF analysis ranged from 35 to 899 mg kg{sup -1}. We calculate that even in pipes with iron corrosion by-products with low V concentration, 100 mg kg{sup -1}, as little as 0.0027% of a 0.1-cm thick X 100-cm long section of that corrosion by-product needs to be disturbed to increase V concentrations in the drinking water at the tap to levels well above the 15 {micro}g L{sup -1} notification level set by the State of California and could adversely impact human health. In addition, it is likely that large reservoirs of V are associated with iron corrosion by-products in unlined cast iron mains and service branches in numerous drinking water distribution systems.

Gerke, Tammie L.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Maynard, J. Barry (EPA); (UCIN)

2010-11-12

264

RESPONSE OF A PVC WATER PIPE DURING CONCRETE SEWER REPLACEMENT BY BURSTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pipe replacement using bursting involves cavity expansion and ground movements in the vicinity. While influence charts from technology developers British Gas provide guidance on acceptable proximity of other infrastructure to bursting operations, there are no published measurements available to evaluate the effectiveness of those guidelines and the actual response of flexible pressure pipes in the vicinity. A pipe bursting experiment

John A. Cholewa; Ian D. Moore; Richard W. I. Brachman

265

Technology Development Plan: Geotechnical survey systems for OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipes: Final subcontract report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides an overview of current and developing technologies and techniques for performing geotechnical investigations for siting and designing Cold Water Pipes (CWP) for shelf-resting Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants. The geotechnical in situ tools used to measure the required parameters and the equipment\\/systems used to deploy these tools are identified. The capabilities of these geotechnical tools

P. J. Valent; M. Riggins

1989-01-01

266

THE OPTIMAL INSULATION DETAIL OF THE THERMAL BRIDGE ADJACENT TO HOT WATER PIPES IN APARTMENT BUILDING SLABS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods for evaluating the thermal performance of each insulation detail alternative with the multi- dimensional heat transfer simulation are presented to determine the optimal insulation details of the thermal bridges adjacent to hot water pipes in apartment building slabs. The optimal insulation detail of the side wall-slab joint is presented based on the evaluation of inside surface condensation and

Seung Yeong Song; Kwang Woo Kim

267

Singing Corrugated Pipes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents theoretical and experimental observations made with a musical toy called Hummer consisting of a corrugated flexible plastic tube about three-feet long and one-inch diam open at both ends. Included are descriptions of three new instruments: the Water Pipe, the Gas-Pipe Corrugahorn Bugle, and the Gas-Pipe Blues Corrugahorn. (CC)

Crawford, Frank S.

1974-01-01

268

Laboratory Tests of Thermoplastic Piping Assemblies Subjected to Water Hammer and Intermittent Hot Water Flow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Evaluation procedures are described that were used at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) for simulating the long-term effects of water hammer (shock pressure) and cycle hot water flow (thermal cycling) on chlorinated polyvinyl (CPVC) thermoplastic pre...

D. E. Rorrer J. R. Shaver R. S. Wyly

1977-01-01

269

The effect of applying a pipe-joint lubricant to connect ductile iron pipe on off-flavors in drinking water distribution systems.  

PubMed

This study was used to help define the contribution to taste and odor problems caused by the application of a pipe-joint lubricant to connect ductile iron pipe in drinking water distribution systems. Tyton Joint Lubricant (TJL) was studied. The lubricant produced odors that are continually oxidized by chlorine or oxygen. The mechanism of oxidative rancidity, one of the major causes of food spoilage is the apparent mechanism of oxidation. The odors produced by the lubricant were characterized by a Flavor Profile Analysis (FPA) panel as well as GC/MS and Sensory GC analysis. The most common odors perceived in the TJL water samples for the first six days were waxy/oily and soapy odors with a rancid oil, odor note. The waxy/oily and soapy odors decreased with time in the chlorine medium as the rancid oily odor note increased. Numerous aldehydes, ketones, alcohols and borneol compounds, produced from the lubricants, were tentatively identified and linked to the odors perceived by the FPA panel. PMID:15237630

Wiesenthal, K E; Amah, G; Lam, T; Suffet, I H

2004-01-01

270

Water quality criteria for colored smokes: 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The available data on the environmental fate, aquatic toxicity, and mammalian toxicity of 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone (DDA), and anthraquinone dye used in violet-colored smoke grenades, were reviewed. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidelines were used in an attempt to generate water quality criteria for the protection of human health and of aquatic life and its uses. DDA will readily oxidize to

K. A. Davidson; P. S. Hovatter; R. H. Ross

1988-01-01

271

Technology development plan: Geotechnical survey systems for OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview is given of current and developing technologies and techniques for performing geotechnical investigations for siting and designing Cold Water Pipes (CWP) for shelf-resting Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants. The geotechnical in situ tools used to measure the required parameters and the equipment/systems used to deploy these tools are identified. The capabilities of these geotechnical tools and deployment systems are compared to the data requirements for the CWP foundation/anchor design, and shortfalls are identified. For the last phase of geotechnical data gathering for design, a drillship will be required to perform soil boring work, to obtain required high quality sediment samples for laboratory dynamic testing, and to perform deep penetration in situ tests. To remedy shortfalls and to reduce the future OTEC CWP geotechnical survey costs, it is recommended that a seafloor resting machine be developed to advance the friction cone penetrometer, and also probably a pressuremeter, to provide geotechnical parameters to shallow subseafloor penetrations on slopes of 35 deg and in water depths to 1300 m.

Valent, Philip J.; Riggins, Michael

1989-04-01

272

Evaluation of Leak Seal Additives - Cooling Water Pipe in Nuclear Wastes  

SciTech Connect

Pre-deployment and degradation testing of commercial leak seal products were performed to evaluate the potential for remote, short-term repair of leaks in waste storage tank cooling coils. A liquid glass metallic product was identified for extensive testing after initial screening of four candidates. Testing was performed with manufactured holes and slits in an immersed pipe operated at nominal coil pressure (approximately 50 psig). The maximum leak sizes that sealed under simulated field conditions were a slit, 0.016 times 0.291 in. (leak rate, 1.34 gpm) and a 0.046 inch diameter hole (leak rate, 0.63 gpm). Degradation of seals and of the constituent fiber samples was studied for radiation and for immersion in water and simulated waste. Seals withstood doses up 1.66E7 R, equivalent to 2 years in a nuclear waste tank. A seal functioned for 50 days when immersed in simulated waste at 75-80 C, low-pressure cooling water at 27-35 C, and several salt/desalt cycles. A small leak occurred at 23 days, but self-healed. The limited test results provided confidence that small leaks in the evaporator cooling coils could be repaired. Visual sighting of the leaks in situ was unsuccessful, so geometry and locations were unknown. A simple deployment system was designed to introduce the sealant to the coil assemblies. The coils have successfully operated for three years with only one reapplication necessary.

JENKINS, CHARLES

2004-11-02

273

Finite element analysis for creep failure of coolant pipe in light water reactor due to local heating under severe accident condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

During severe accident of a light water reactor (LWR), the piping of the reactor cooling system would be damaged when the piping is subjected to high internal pressure and very high temperature, resulted from high temperature gas generated in a reactor core and decay heat released from the deposit of fission products. It is considered that, under such a condition,

Seiya Hagihara; Noriyuki Miyazaki

2008-01-01

274

A MIXTURE OF ORGANOTINS FOUND IN POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) PIPE IS NOT IMMUNOTOXIC TO SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS WHEN GIVEN IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Organotin compounds used in PVC pipe production are of concern to the U.S. EPA because they leach from supply pipes into drinking water and are reported multisystem toxicants. We assessed immune functions in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to the mixture of organotins used in P...

275

Comparison of Drinking Water Mutagenicity with Leaching of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Water Distribution Pipes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objectives of the study were to examine the changes in concentration of six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the possibility of changes in mutagenic potential of treated waters as a result of their passage through commonly used distr...

D. K. Basu J. Saxena F. W. Stoss J. Santodonato M. W. Neal

1987-01-01

276

Biodeterioration of asbestos cement (AC) pipe in drinking water distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various types of microorganisms have been found to inhabit the inner surfaces of asbestos cement (AC) pipe and their activities can cause significant structural damage. They cause a patina to form on the inside surface of AC pipes as a distinctively continuous coating, commonly 2–5 mm in thickness and generally pigmented as yellow, orange, brown or black depending on the metallic

Dunling Wang; Roy Cullimore; Yafei Hu; Rudaba Chowdhury

2011-01-01

277

Boiling critical point in horizontal pipes in a steam-and-water flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The onset of boiling in a vapor-liquid medium, flowing past a horizontal steamgenerating pipe, is analyzed. The analysis is based on the hydrodynamic nature of the critical transition. An equation for calculating the critical heat flow, correlated with experimental data obtained by the authors for horizontal pipes arranged in a gap and in a bundle, is obtained.

B. S. Fokin; E. N. Goldberg

1983-01-01

278

Ground deformation at Campi Flegrei caldera using long water pipe tiltmeters and sea level gauges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Campi Flegrei is a caldera complex located in the Campanian plain region of southern Italy, 15 km west of the city of Naples, and forms part of the Roman co-magmatic province which is a volcanic chain that characterizes the western coast of the country. The Campi Flegrei caldera was generated by several collapses produced by strong explosive eruptions. The main caldera at Campi Flegrei is 12 - 15km across and its rim is thought to have been formed during the catastrophic eruption, occurred 39 ky ago ca. which produced a deposit referred to as the Campanian Ignimbrite. Campi Flegrei area periodically experiences significant unrest episodes which include ground deformations, the so-called "bradisismo", recorded both by marine terraces, archaeological record and harbour structures. Following the last eruption (Monte Nuovo, 1538) a general subsidence has been interrupted by episodes of uplift, the most recent of which occurred in 1970-72 and 1982-84. In the past decade subsidence has been arrested and has been replaced by intermittent episodes of inflation with short time duration and various maximum amplitude. They occurred in 1989, 1994, 2000, 2004, 2005-06, 2009 and 2011 with duration of few months and maximum amplitude ranging between 3 and 11 cm. Since 2008 an array of water-pipe tiltmeters with lengths between 28 m and 278 m in tunnels on the flanks of the region of maximum inflation has been installed to avoid problems common to the traditional tiltmeters. The tiltmeters record inflation episodes upon which are superimposed local load tides, with amplitudes roughly an order of magnitude greater than the solid Earth body tides. In addition to the tides, the tiltmeters record a line spectrum of seiches in the Bay of Naples and in the Tyrrenian sea. We use data recorded by three tide gauges in the Bay of Pozzuoli to compare water pipe data with sea level to extract astronomical tidal components and seiches periods particularly between 20 minutes and 56 minutes that could constitute local loading frequencies recorded clearly by tide gauges and tiltmeters. The comparison between these two kind of data enables a more sensitive definition of the low level uplift with an accuracy of 1% for nanoradiant tilts in the period range 10 minutes to 10 hours with a long term tilt stability of approximately 0.1 µradian/yr

Scarpa, R.; Capuano, P.; Tammaro, U.; Bilham, R.

2012-04-01

279

Experimental and analytical study of water pipe's rupture for damage identification purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A malfunction, local damage or sudden pipe break of a pipeline system can trigger significant flow variations. As shown in the paper, pressure variations and pipe vibrations are two strongly correlated parameters. A sudden change in the flow velocity and pressure of a pipeline system can induce pipe vibrations. Thus, based on acceleration data, a rapid detection and localization of a possible damage may be carried out by inexpensive, nonintrusive monitoring techniques. To illustrate this approach, an experiment on a single pipe was conducted in the laboratory. Pressure gauges and accelerometers were installed and their correlation was checked during an artificially created transient flow. The experimental findings validated the correlation between the parameters. The interaction between pressure variations and pipe vibrations was also theoretically justified. The developed analytical model explains the connection among flow pressure, velocity, pressure wave propagation and pipe vibration. The proposed method provides a rapid, efficient and practical way to identify and locate sudden failures of a pipeline system and sets firm foundations for the development and implementation of an advanced, new generation Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system for continuous health monitoring of pipe networks.

Papakonstantinou, Konstantinos G.; Shinozuka, Masanobu; Beikae, Mohsen

2011-03-01

280

Early response of pressurized hot water in a pipe to a sudden break. Final report. [PWR; BWR  

SciTech Connect

Experimental and analytic studies that explain the details of early pressure variations during rapid depressurization in water-cooled reactors are presented as a means of assessing sudden break consequences in a coolant pipe. The report includes (1) a description of the experiment, (2) an analysis of the new bubble growth law for thermally controlled growth of vapor bubbles in an exponentially-varying pressure field, and (3) a review of previous studies and additional observations of blowdown behavior.

Alamgir, M.; Kan, C.Y.; Lienhard, J.H.

1981-06-01

281

Flow structure and bubble characteristics of steam–water two-phase flow in a large-diameter pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flow structure and bubble characteristics of steam–water two-phase upward flow were observed in a vertical pipe 155 mm in inner diameter. Experiments were conducted under volumetric flux conditions of JG<0.25 m s?1 and JL<0.6 m s?1, and three different inlet boundary conditions to investigate the developing state of the flow. The radial distributions of flow structure, such as void

Kimitoshi Yoneda; Akira Yasuo; Tomio Okawa

2002-01-01

282

Leak detection in water-filled plastic pipes through the application of tuned wavelet transforms to Acoustic Emission signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method to detect leakage in a water-filled plastic pipe is proposed. In this method, a leakage signal-signature in time domain is first captured by monitoring the Short Time Fourier Transforms (STFT) of AE (Acoustic Emission) signals over a relatively long time-interval. The captured signal is then used to find a mother wavelet (tuned wavelet) for the best signal

Majid Ahadi; Mehrdad Sharif Bakhtiar

2010-01-01

283

Visualization of the freeze\\/thaw characteristics of a copper\\/water heat pipe - Effects of non-condensible gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freeze\\/thaw characteristics of a copper\\/water heat pipe of rectangular cross section were investigated experimentally to determine the effect of variations in the amount of non-condensible gases (NCG) present. The transient internal temperature profiles in both the liquid and vapor channels are presented along with contours of the frozen fluid configuration obtained through visual observation. Several interesting phenomena were observed

J. M. Ochterbeck; G. P. Peterson

1991-01-01

284

Application of GC–MS metabolic profiling to ‘blue-green water’ from microbial influenced corrosion in copper pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel application of fluorescence spectroscopy and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) to water samples exposed to copper piping which had undergone some degree of microbial influenced corrosion. Using 3D fluorescence spectroscopy we were able to observe the ‘protein-like’ fluorophore associated with presence of bacteria, and cross reference this with derivatized fatty acid metabolites determined via GC–MS analyses

David J. Beale; Michael S. Dunn; Donavan Marney

2010-01-01

285

Experimental Investigation into the Transit Performance of a Titanium-Water Loop Heat Pipe Subjected to a Steady-Periodic Acceleration Field (Postprint).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research is to experimentally investigate the transient operating characteristics of a titanium-water loop heat pipe subjected to a combined steady-state evaporator input heat rate and a steady- periodic acceleration field. For this ...

D. L. Courson H. Jiang J. D. Scofield K. L. Yerkes

2012-01-01

286

Effect of Joints on the Fire Endurance of Glassfibre Reinforced Plastic Pipes with Stagnant Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research on the behavior of fire exposed glassfiber reinforced plastic (GRP) pipes is currently underway at the Technical Center for Fire Prevention TNO, for the National Foundation for the Coordination of Maritime Research in the Netherlands. The first p...

J. Dekker L. Twilt

1990-01-01

287

Cement-lined pipes for water lubricated transport of heavy oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents different strategies for preventing oil from fouling the walls of core-annular flow pipelines and also for restart from an unexpected pipeline shut-down. The most promising of these strategies is to use cement-lined pipes. Experiments presented here show that hydrated cement-lined pipes are highly oleophobic and therefore resist fouling for long term. A pilot scale cement-lined core-annular flow

Michael S. Arney; Geraldo S. Ribeiro; Emilio Guevara; Runyan Bai; Daniel D. Joseph

1996-01-01

288

Inactivation of Bacteriophage MS?2 and poliovirus in copper, galvanized and plastic domestic water pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival of bacteriophage MS?2 and poliovirus was evaluated in new and aged copper, galvanized and plastic polymer (polybutylene, cross?linked polyethylene, polyvinylchloride) pipes. Inactivation rates (k = — [log10Ct — log10C0]\\/t) were calculated as a log10 reduction h. Levels of copper leached from copper pipes, over a period of 24 h, ranged from 400–800 ?g 1. Numbers of viable MS?2 were

Moyasar T. Yahya; Timothy M. Straub; Charles P. Gerba; Aaron B. Margolin

1991-01-01

289

Large-basin ground water circulation and paleo-reconstruction of circulation leading to uranium mineralization in Grand Canyon breccia pipes, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

Breccia pipes - vertical collapse structures - are common in the Phanerozoic sedimentary section in the Grand Canyon region. Breccias in economically significant pipes are as great as 900 m high and 90 m in diameter. The pipes originated through collapse into paleocaverns in Mississippian carbonates. The large heights of the mineralized pipes is attributed to upward stoping resulting from progressive creation of space within the pipes through dissolution of wall rocks and soluble constituents in the breccia clasts. The paleocaves that served as nucleation sites for the pipes date from Mississippian time. Stoping appears to have been reactivated or accelerated during Triassic time as terrains to the south became uplifted. Uplift cause hydraulic gradients within aquifers in the Paleozoic section to increase significantly which enhanced ground water circulation and attendant dissolution. The most likely source for uranium in the Grand Canyon breccia pipes was eroding volcanic and Precambrian crystalline rocks in the Triassic Mogollon highlands south of the Grand Canyon region. The circulation model proposed herein assumes that uranium-rich waters originating in the highlands recharged through the exposed Redwall Limestone and circulated northward in the artesian Redwall aquifer. On reaching the Grand Canyon region, the water circulated upward into the Phanerozoic section in the breccia pipes which served as permeability pathways through thick confining strata. The pipes concentrated fluid circulation and directed it through reducing environments which caused precipitation of the uranium and associated metals yielding a number of economic uranium ore bodies. The architecture of the circulation systems in the Colorado plateau prior to incision of the Colorado river was such that hydraulic heads decreased within successively shallower aquifers. Consequently, head gradients at any location were upward in the pipes during the mineralizing stages.

Huntoon, P.W. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

1996-07-01

290

Pipe break testing of primary loop piping similar to Department of Energy`s New Production Reactor-Heavy Water Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The subject of this paper is to review the recent failure testing of the Savannah River C-reactor piping weldment, which will be referred to as the C-pipe in the remainder of the paper. The intent of this paper is to further familiarize the technical community with Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) pipe test program and associated activities surrounding the C-pipe test as conducted on behalf of the Department of Energy New Production Reactor (DOE-NPR) Program.

Poole, A.B.; Clinard, J.A.; Battiste, R.L.; Hendrich, W.R.

1993-05-01

291

Innovative technology summary report: High-speed clamshell pipe cutter  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site C Reactor Technology Demonstration Group demonstrated the High-Speed Clamshell Pipe Cutter technology, developed and marketed by Tri Tool Inc. (Rancho Cordova, California). The models demonstrated are portable, split-frame pipe lathes that require minimal radial and axial clearances for severing and/or beveling in-line pipe with ranges of 25 cm to 41 cm and 46 cm to 61 cm nominal diameter. The radial clearance requirement from the walls, floors, or adjacent pipes is 18 cm. The lathes were supplied with carbide insert conversion kits for the cutting bits for the high-speed technique that was demonstrated. Given site-specific factors, this demonstration showed the cost of the improved technology to be approximately 30% higher than the traditional (baseline) technology (oxyacetylene torch) cost of $14,400 for 10 cuts of contaminated 41-cm and 61-cm-diameter pipe at C Reactor. Actual cutting times were faster than the baseline technology; however, moving/staging the equipment took longer. Unlike the baseline torch, clamshell lathes do not involve applied heat, flames, or smoke and can be operated remotely, thereby helping personal exposures to be as low as reasonably achievable. The baseline technology was demonstrated at the C Reactor north and south water pipe tunnels August 19--22, 1997. The improved technology was demonstrated in the gas pipe tunnel December 15--19.

NONE

1998-09-01

292

Preventing and Thawing Frozen Pipes  

MedlinePLUS

... Thunderstorm Tornado Tsunami Volcano Water Safety Wildfire Winter Storm Preventing and Thawing Frozen Pipes Protect Your Pets ... a Disaster or Emergency › Types of Emergency › Winter Storm › Preventing and Thawing Frozen Pipes Preventing and Thawing ...

293

Stresses in District Heating Pipes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report studies the possibilities to introduce new, higher, norms for the maximum stresses allowed in hot water pipes with a low number of complete temperature cycles. Suggestions for new criteria are presented for pipes of various design. (ERA citati...

S. Andersson S. Andersson D. Olofsson

1984-01-01

294

Assessing the Spatial Distribution of Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure via Public Drinking Water Pipes Using Geographic Information Systems  

PubMed Central

Objectives Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a powerful tool for assessing exposure in epidemiologic studies. We used GIS to determine the geographic extent of contamination by perfluorooctanoic acid, C8 (PFOA) that was released into the environment from the DuPont Washington Works Facility located in Parkersburg, West Virginia. Methods Paper maps of pipe distribution networks were provided by six local public water districts participating in the community cross-sectional survey, the C8 Health Project. Residential histories were also collected in the survey and geocoded. We integrated the pipe networks and geocoded addresses to determine which addresses were serviced by one of the participating water districts. The GIS-based water district assignment was then compared to the participants' self-reported source of public drinking water. Results There were a total of 151,871 addresses provided by the 48,800 participants of the C8 Health Project that consented to geocoding. We were able to successfully geocode 139,067 (91.6%) addresses, and of these, 118,209 (85.0%) self-reported water sources were confirmed using the GIS-based method of water district assignment. Furthermore, the GIS-based method corrected 20,858 (15.0%) self-reported public drinking water sources. Over half (54%) the participants in the lowest GIS-based exposure group self-reported being in a higher exposed water district. Conclusions Not only were we able to correct erroneous self-reported water sources, we were also able to assign water districts to participants with unknown sources. Without the GIS-based method, the reliance on only self-reported data would have resulted in exposure misclassification.

Hoffman, Kate; Fletcher, Tony

2013-01-01

295

Acute lung injury after inhalation of water-proofing spray while smoking a cigarette.  

PubMed

A 34-year-old Japanese woman developed acute lung injury soon after inhaling a water-proofing spray which she applied onto her ski suit while smoking a cigarette at the same time. She initially demonstrated arterial hypoxemia (PaO2 = 59 mm Hg) and ground-glass opacities in both lung fields on the CT scan, which both returned to normal without any medication. Several water-proofing sprays, which are easily obtainable in Japan, contain 1,1,1-trichloroethane, liquefied petroleum gas and fluoride resin. Although these components have not been reported to be toxic to the lung yet, high concentrations of these components and/or the pyrolytic products of fluoride resin may have caused acute lung injury in this case. PMID:9817966

Jinn, Y; Akizuki, N; Ohkouchi, M; Inase, N; Ichioka, M; Marumo, F

1998-01-01

296

The Politics of the Pipe: Clay Pipes and Tobacco Consumption in Galway, Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, clay pipes and the historical record are used to explore the illicit importation of tobacco in seventeenth-century Galway, Ireland. This is part of a wider tradition of the politics of smoking, including the proliferation of the clay pipe, the widespread smuggling of tobacco, and the overtly political nineteenth-century pipes that touted nationalist emblems. Here, the juxtaposition of

Alexandra Hartnett

2004-01-01

297

A Study of Water Absorption and Mechanical Properties of Glass Fiber\\/Polyester Composite Pipes — Effects of Specimen Geometry and Preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ring-shaped glass fiber\\/polyester composite specimens cut from composite pipes with various lengths and cut edge quality were immersed into deionized water, and their water absorption was noted regularly by registering their mass gain. Monotonic ring compression tests were performed to monitor the stiffness properties during the water absorption process. Effect of specimen length and cut edge sealing with the matrix

G. Czél; T. Czigány

2008-01-01

298

Assessment of the microbial integrity, sensu G.S. Wilson, of piped and bottled drinking water in the condition as ingested  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second half of the 20th century witnessed substantial progress in the assurance and verification of microbiological integrity, i.e., safety and sensory quality, of drinking water. Enteropathogenic agents, such as particular viruses and protozoa, not previously identified as transmitted by industrially provided water supplies, were demonstrated to cause disease outbreaks, when ingested with piped water. The potential harm posed by

David A. A Mossel; Corry B Struijk

2004-01-01

299

Farm Water Supply and Sanitation--Pipe, Plumbing, Skills and Symbols. Student Materials. V.A. III. V-D-1, V-D-2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use by individuals enrolled in vocational agricultural classes, these student materials deal with farm water supply, sanitation, and plumbing skills. Topics covered in the unit are maintaining the farm water supply; repairing faucets and valves, leaks in pipes and storage tanks, and water closets; clearing clogged drains and traps;…

Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

300

Characterisation of the fatigue properties of cast irons used in the water industry and the effect on pipe strength and performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an on going programme to characterise the residual properties and understand the failure mechanisms of in-service grey cast iron water pipes, the fatigue crack propagation behaviour of grey cast iron samples has been studied. Specimens were sourced from three ex-service pipes. For each pipe the microstructure and composition were characterised and the fracture toughness was determined. The fatigue behaviour was investigated in terms of the crack growth rate (da/dN) as a function of the applied stress intensity factor range. Clear differences in the fatigue behaviour of the samples from different pipes were observed. The result from these investigations, which indicate that microstructural differences play a role in mechanical behaviour, will support the development of asset management tools for use in the water industry.

Mohebbi, H.; Jesson, D. A.; Mulheron, M. J.; Smith, P. A.

2009-08-01

301

Statistical evaluation of light water reactor piping damping data for use in PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of studies used to quantify, on a statistical basis, one of the parameters (piping system damping) input to probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) analyses of nuclear structures. Damping data were selected from tests in which the piping had been vibrated at levels representative of at least moderate severity seismic or hydrodynamic transients. These data, representing 27 light water reactor type piping systems, formed the basis for the statistical damping study. Most of these systems were actual nuclear power plant systems, and the lowest mode was < 8 Hz in over 80/percent/ of the systems. Damping was treated as independent of frequency (or mode number). The statistical analysis showed that a lognormal probability fit provided a suitable approximation of the raw data. For the cases in which all data were considered (which allowed duplicate tests for each system to be included so that the overall data were biased by those systems with the most data), mean lognormal damping values ranged from 2.68/percent/ to 3.55/percent/ of critical. When duplicate tests were eliminated, the means ranged from 3.12/percent/ to 3.72/percent/ of critical. For the final cases, which considered only the lowest mode at its highest excitation level, mean lognormal damping values ranged from 3.28/percent/ to 6.50/percent/ of critical.

Ware, A. G.

302

Supercritical water oxidation of colored smoke, dye, and pyrotechnic compositions. Phase 1, Final report  

SciTech Connect

The US military stockpile has large quantities of obsolete munitions awaiting disposal. Although suitable means for the safe dismantlement of much of this stockpile have been identified, there are still considerable quantities of specialty materials for which existing methods have been deemed inappropriate from an environmental standpoint. Among these munitions are colored spotting dyes and a wide assortment of pyrotechnics, including colored smokes and flares. In open bum or incineration treatment processes these materials produce large quantities of toxic, and possibly carcinogenic, gases and particulate matter. The U.S Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ is interested in developing a method of treatment that will dispose of these munitions without the difficulties identified above. This report examines the feasibility of supercritical water oxidation, an emerging waste treatment technology, to process these materials. Four colored dyes and one pyrotechnic smoke composition were processed in a flow reactor, and the effluent was analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the processing. The tests showed that all of these materials could by oxidized to much less hazardous compounds in less than 10 seconds with a destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) typically > 99.5%. Two technical issues were identified as needing more attention in Phase II of this project: formation of sulfate and chloride salt deposits within the flow reactor and corrosion of the materials of construction.

Rice, S.F.; LaJeunesse, C.A.; Hanush, R.G.; Aiken, J.D.; Johnston, S.C.

1994-01-01

303

Supercritical water oxidation of colored smoke, dye, and pyrotechnic compositions. Final report: Pilot plant conceptual design  

SciTech Connect

The existing demilitarization stockpile contains large quantities of colored smoke, spotting dye, and pyrotechnic munitions. For many years, these munitions have been stored in magazines at locations within the continental United States awaiting completion of the life-cycle. The open air burning of these munitions has been shown to produce toxic gases that are detrimental to human health and harmful to the environment. Prior efforts to incinerate these compositions have also produced toxic emissions and have been unsuccessful. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a rapidly developing hazardous waste treatment method that can be an alternative to incineration for many types of wastes. The primary advantage SCWO affords for the treatment of this selected set of obsolete munitions is that toxic gas and particulate emissions will not occur as part of the effluent stream. Sandia is currently designing a SCWO reactor for the US Army Armament Research, Development & Engineering Center (ARDEC) to destroy colored smoke, spotting dye, and pyrotechnic munitions. This report summarizes the design status of the ARDEC reactor. Process and equipment operation parameters, process flow equations or mass balances, and utility requirements for six wastes of interest are developed in this report. Two conceptual designs are also developed with all process and instrumentation detailed.

LaJeunesse, C.A.; Chan, Jennifer P.; Raber, T.N.; Macmillan, D.C.; Rice, S.F.; Tschritter, K.L.

1993-11-01

304

Flow drag and heat transfer reduction of flowing water containing fibrous material in a straight pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been well known that some kinds of surfactants are useful to reduce flow drag in a turbulent pipe flow by Toms effect. However, it is expensive to make these surfactants harmless to the environment. On the other hand, the fibrous material such as pulp fibers and cellulose are harmless additives to the environment. This paper deals with the

Hideo Inaba; Naoto Haruki; Akihiko Horibe

2000-01-01

305

Contributions of silane cross-linked PEX pipe to chemical/solvent odours in drinking water.  

PubMed

A commonly used plastic plumbing pipe, silane-cross-linked polyethylene (PEX-b according to European standards), was investigated using the Utility Quick Test (UQT), which is a migration/leaching protocol recommended for evaluating taste-and-odour properties of materials prior to installation in distribution systems. After exposure of new PEX pipe to chlorine, monochloramine or no disinfectant, the odours in the leachate were described as "chlorinous" if chlorine or monochloramine were present and "chemical/solvent-like" with descriptors of sweet, bitter, chemical, solvent, plastic, burnt and mechanical/motor oil. The presence of disinfectant, chlorine or chloramines, did not alter the odour characteristics or intensity of the PEX odour. The "chemical/solvent-like" odours persisted even after multiple flushing periods. 2-Ethoxy-2-methylpropane, commonly called ETBE, was identified as a contributor to the described odour from the PEX pipe. Aqueous concentrations of ETBE in pipe leachate ranged from a low of 23 microg/L to > 100 microg/L. The concentrations decreased with increased flushing. Panelists were able to smell ETBE at a concentration of 5 microg/L and assigned a rating of a weak odour. The need for taste and odour testing of plumbing materials prior to use in residential housing systems is necessary. PMID:17489405

Durand, M L; Dietrich, A M

2007-01-01

306

Detection of leaks in buried plastic water distribution pipes in urban places - a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nondestructive evaluation of leaks on buried tanks, drums and pipes is of interest from a variety of engineering and environmental applications. There is a limited arsenal of tools available for leakage detections. However, the diversity of techniques shows that each has advantages and shortcomings. Geophysical techniques are faster and cheaper generally than excavation and have the advantage that they

A. Stampolidis; P. Soupios; F. Vallianatos; G. N. Tsokas

2003-01-01

307

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF A PULSATING HEAT PIPE USING FC72, ETHANOL, AND WATER AS WORKING FLUIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental studies were performed on a pulsating heat pipe (PHP), consisting of a heating section, an adiabatic section, and a condensation section incorporating a heat sink. The capillary tube used in this study has an inside diameter of 1.18 mm and a wall thickness of 0.41 mm. The experiments were conducted under the condition of pure natural convection, for heating

X. M. Zhang

2004-01-01

308

These Pipes Are "Happening"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author is blessed with having the water pipes for the school system in her office. In this article, the author describes how the breaking of the pipes had led to a very worthwhile art experience for her students. They practiced contour and shaded drawing techniques, reviewed patterns and color theory, and used their reasoning skills--all while…

Skophammer, Karen

2010-01-01

309

Heat transfer in pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat transfer from hot water to a cold copper pipe in laminar and turbulent flow condition is determined. The mean flow through velocity in the pipe, relative test length and initial temperature in the vessel were varied extensively during tests. Measurements confirm Nusselt's theory for large test lengths in laminar range. A new equation is derived for heat transfer

T. Burbach

1985-01-01

310

Biofilm formation and multiplication of Legionella in a model warm water system with pipes of copper, stainless steel and cross-linked polyethylene.  

PubMed

Legionella pneumophila was grown in a model warm water system with pipes of copper (Cu), stainless steel (SS) and cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) during recirculation of tap water at 25--35 degrees C. Subsequently, domestic use of warm (37 degrees C) water was simulated using tap water with a low AOC concentration (<10 microg C/L). Two times each week the temperature of the water in the electric heaters (not in the pipes) was elevated to 70 degrees C for 30 min. ATP concentrations in the water sampled from the pipes over a 2-year period were significantly different for the pipe materials, with median values of 2.1 ng/l (Cu), 2.5 ng/l (SS) and 4.5 ng/l (PEX), respectively. Median values of the biofilm concentration were similar on Cu and SS (about 630 pg ATP/cm(2)) and 1870 pg ATP/cm(2) on PEX. Legionella multiplied in these biofilms and median values of Legionella concentrations in water were 1500 CFU/l (Cu) and about 4300 CFU/l for SS and PEX. Legionella to ATP ratios in water had median values of about 0.8 CFU/pg. Hot water flushing (70 degrees C) of the pipes on day 552, followed by 2 weeks of recirculation at 37 degrees C, caused strongly increased concentrations of ATP (up to 300 ng/l) and Legionella (>10(7)CFU/l), with about 100 CFU/pg ATP. Concentrations declined to original levels within 1 week of domestic water use, etc. Legionella concentrations in water and biofilms were at the same levels for all materials after 2 years. Hence, copper temporarily limited the growth of Legionella under the applied conditions and a rapid biomass development strongly increased the Legionella to ATP ratio. PMID:16019051

van der Kooij, Dick; Veenendaal, Harm R; Scheffer, Will J H

2005-08-01

311

Extended-period modeling of water pipe networks-a new approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extended-period (time-varying or dynamic) equations describing incompressible flow in pipe networks can be classified mathematically as a set of first-order, non-homogenous, non-linear differential equations. Since this set of equations cannot normally be solved analytically, numerical integration or regression methods are typically used. In this paper, a new method for extended-period simulation, called the explicit integration method, is proposed for

Jakobus E. Van Zyl; Dragan A. Savic; Godfrey A. Walters

2005-01-01

312

Causes for the failure of water-heater pipes in ammonia production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causes for the failure of subassemblies and components of apparatus used for chemical production should be diagnosed using modern methods of investigation for the complex study of the properties of the damaged metal and the character of the fracture. We investigated the character and causes of the failure of type 12KhlSNIOT steel pipes 21.7 Ť 3.5 mm in diameter,

M. B. Shapiro; Yu. P. Surkov; M. B. Chizhmakov; A. L. Belinkii; O. M. Sokolova; V. G. Rybalko

1987-01-01

313

Distribution of Asellus aquaticus and microinvertebrates in a non-chlorinated drinking water supply system--effects of pipe material and sedimentation.  

PubMed

Danish drinking water supplies based on ground water without chlorination were investigated for the presence of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, microinvertebrates (<2 mm) and annelida. In total, 52 water samples were collected from fire hydrants at 31 locations, and two elevated tanks (6000 and 36,000 m(3)) as well as one clean water tank at a waterworks (700 m(3)) were inspected. Several types of invertebrates from the phyla: arthropoda, annelida (worms), plathyhelminthes (flatworms) and mollusca (snails) were found. Invertebrates were found at 94% of the sampling sites in the piped system with A. aquaticus present at 55% of the sampling sites. Populations of A. aquaticus were present in the two investigated elevated tanks but not in the clean water tank at a waterworks. Both adult and juvenile A. aquaticus (length of 2-10 mm) were found in tanks as well as in pipes. A. aquaticus was found only in samples collected from two of seven investigated distribution zones (zone 1 and 2), each supplied directly by one of the two investigated elevated tanks containing A. aquaticus. Microinvertebrates were distributed throughout all zones. The distribution pattern of A. aquaticus had not changed considerably over 20 years when compared to data from samples collected in 1988-89. Centrifugal pumps have separated the distribution zones during the whole period and may have functioned as physical barriers in the distribution systems, preventing large invertebrates such as A. aquaticus to pass alive. Another factor characterising zone 1 and 2 was the presence of cast iron pipes. The frequency of A. aquaticus was significantly higher in cast iron pipes than in plastic pipes. A. aquaticus caught from plastic pipes were mainly single living specimens or dead specimens, which may have been transported passively trough by the water flow, while cast iron pipes provided an environment suitable for relatively large populations of A. aquaticus. Sediment volume for each sample was measured and our study described for the first time a clear connection between sediment volume and living A. aquaticus since living A. aquaticus were nearly only found in samples with sediment contents higher than 100 ml/m(3) sample. Presence of A. aquaticus was not correlated to turbidity of the water. Measurements by ATP, heterotrophic plate counting and Colilert(®) showed that the microbial quality of the water was high at all locations with or without animals. Four other large Danish drinking water supplies were additionally sampled (nine pipe samples and one elevated tank), and invertebrates were found in all systems, three of four containing A. aquaticus, indicating a nationwide occurrence. PMID:21507451

Christensen, Sarah C B; Nissen, Erling; Arvin, Erik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jřrgen

2011-03-29

314

Flow accelerated corrosion of carbon steel feeder pipes from pressurized heavy water reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed investigation of a number of feeder pipes received from Rajasthan Atomic Power Station Unit 2 (RAPS#2) after en-masse feeder pipe replacement after 15.67 Effective Full Power Years (EFPYs) was carried out. Investigations included ultrasonic thickness measurement by ultrasonic testing, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, chemical analysis and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Results showed that maximum thickness reduction of the feeder had occurred downstream and close to the weld in 32 NB (1.25?/32.75 mm ID) elbows. Rate of Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) was measured to be higher in the lower diameter feeder pipes due to high flow velocity and turbulence. Weld regions had thinned to a lower extent than the parent material due to higher chromium content in the weld. A weld protrusion has been shown to add to the thinning due to FAC and lead to faster thinning rate at localized regions. Surface morphology of inner surface of feeder had shown different size scallop pattern over the weld and parent material. Inter-granular cracks were also observed along the weld fusion line and in the parent material in 32 NB outlet feeder elbow.

Singh, J. L.; Kumar, Umesh; Kumawat, N.; Kumar, Sunil; Kain, Vivekanand; Anantharaman, S.; Sinha, A. K.

2012-10-01

315

Pipe-to-pipe impact program  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research was to determine the extent of damage that occurs when two pipes experience an impact event due to one whipping against the other. The research was conducted through experimental and analytical approaches. The former required the development of a specialized impact machine that could accelerate a whipping pipe with sufficient energy to cause failure of a target pipe that was heated and pressurized to Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) conditions. Damage was measured in terms of crushing, bending, and failure. The results of the tests permitted the correlation between pipes of a certain size and the damage they could cause when impacting with a certain amount of known energy. These results were used to evaluate the pipe whip criteria in the Standard Review Plan 3.6.2-4. It was established that the criteria conditions did not fully represent the results obtained experimentally. An analysis procedure to model the pipe whip event was developed and used to establish the test matrix for the experimental program. This analytical procedure can also be used to predict deformation and rupture for postulated pipe whip scenarios. 17 refs.

Alzheimer, J.M.; Bampton, M.C.C.; Friley, J.R.; Simonen, F.A.

1987-05-01

316

31 CFR 700.14 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Smoking. 700.14 Section 700.14 Money and Finance...CENTER (FLETC) BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 700.14 Smoking. Smoking of cigarettes, cigars and pipes is prohibited...

2013-07-01

317

Effect of pH on the concentrations of lead and trace contaminants in drinking water: a combined batch, pipe loop and sentinel home study.  

PubMed

High lead levels in drinking water are still a concern for households serviced by lead pipes in many parts of North America and Europe. This contribution focuses on the effect of pH on lead concentrations in drinking water delivered through lead pipes. Though this has been addressed in the past, we have conducted a combined batch, pipe loop and sentinel study aiming at filling some of the gaps present in the literature. Exhumed lead pipes and water quality data from the City of London's water distribution system were used in this study. As expected, the lead solubility of corrosion scale generally decreased as pH increased; whereas dissolution of other accumulated metals present in the corrosion scale followed a variety of trends. Moreover, dissolved arsenic and aluminum concentrations showed a strong correlation, indicating that the aluminosilicate phase present in the scale accumulates arsenic. A significant fraction of the total lead concentration in water was traced to particulate lead. Our results indicate that particulate lead is the primary contributor to total lead concentration in flowing systems, whereas particulate lead contribution to total lead concentrations for stagnated systems becomes significant only at high water pH values. PMID:21458838

Kim, Eun Jung; Herrera, Jose E; Huggins, Dan; Braam, John; Koshowski, Scott

2011-03-11

318

Preliminary investigation of structural controls of ground-water movement in Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pipe Spring National Monument, near the border of Arizona and Utah, includes several low-discharge springs that are the primary natural features of the monument. The National Park Service is concerned about the declines in spring discharge. Seismic-refraction and frequency-domain electromagnetic-induction methods were employed in an attempt to better understand the relation between spring discharge and geologic structure. The particular method used for the seismic-refraction surveys was unable to resolve structural features in the monument. Electromagnetic surveys delineated differences in apparent conductivity of the shallow subsurface deposits. The differences are attributable to differences in saturation, lithology, and structure of these deposits.

Truini, Margot; Fleming, John B.; Pierce, Herb A.

2004-01-01

319

Theater of Operations Water Supply--Feasibility of Manufacturing and Using Plastic Pipe in the Theater of Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study determined the feasibility of manufacturing and using plastic piping systems in theater of operations facilities. Available plastic pipe, fitting production, fabrication methods, and equipment were reviewed. Concepts were developed for extruding...

W. J. Mikucki

1973-01-01

320

Pipe support  

DOEpatents

A pipe support for high temperature, thin-walled piping runs such as those used in nuclear systems. A section of the pipe to be supported is encircled by a tubular inner member comprised of two walls with an annular space therebetween. Compacted load-bearing thermal insulation is encapsulated within the annular space, and the inner member is clamped to the pipe by a constant clamping force split-ring clamp. The clamp may be connected to pipe hangers which provide desired support for the pipe.

Pollono, Louis P. (Hempfield Township, Hempfield County, PA)

1979-01-01

321

WORKING CHARACTERISCS OF A COMPACT SOLAR HOT WATER SYSTEM WITH HEAT PIPES DURING STARTUP AND GEYSER BOILING PERIODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat pipes are widely used in solar heating systems. Two-phase closed thermosyphon (TPCT) heat pipes are characterized by their constructive simplicity and by gravity pumping of the working fluid inside the pipes. Because solar flat plate collectors are installed on tilted surfaces to maximize the performance along the year, it is possible to use TCPTs in their manufacture. The performance

Samuel L. Abreu; Jorge A. Skiavine; Sergio Colle

322

The detrimental danger of water-pipe (Hookah) transcends the hazardous consequences of general health to the driving behavior  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether the consumption of tobacco used in Water-Pipe by drivers increases the risk of a motor vehicle collision as a consequence of hypoxia. Design Analytical case–control study. Data sources Seventy exclusive Water-Pipe smokers (Experimental Group - EG) - mean age ± SD: 29.47?±?10.45?years; mean number of weekly WPS, (6.9?±?3.7); mean duration of WPS (WPS) is (7.5?±?2.1?years) - and thirty non-smoker (Control Group – CG; mean age ± SD: 36.33?±?13.92?years) were recruited during 2011 from two Arab villages located in the Galilee, northern Israel. Methods We performed a case–control study exclusively among Water-Pipe smokers with an appropriate non smokers control group. Demographic questionnaire, Pulse Oxymeter for blood oxygenation measure and a driver simulator for measuring various participants driving behaviors were utilized. Statistical analysis for analyzing the different variables, Pearson’s x2 analysis for the comparison of categorical variables, continuous variable is compared using Student’s t-test and for testing the correlation between the different variables and bivariate correlation analysis were applied. Results In the (EG) following WPS, we observed increase in the pulse rate - from 80 to 95 (t?=?11.84, p?

2012-01-01

323

Defect characterization in pipe-to-pipe welds in large diameter stainless steel piping  

SciTech Connect

Metallurgical evaluation of pipe-to-pipe welds in large-diameter, Type 304 stainless steel piping used to construct the moderator/coolant water systems for Savannah River Site reactors has demonstrated that small weld defects found in this 1950-vintage system do not compromise the integrity of the system. The weld defects were too small for detection by the pre-service standard radiographic inspection, but were found through systematic ultrasonic testing (UT) and penetrant testing (PT) evaluations of piping that had been removed during upgrades to the piping system. The defects include lack of weld penetration, slag inclusions, and other weld metal discontinuities. These discontinuities typically did not propagate during more than 35 years of service. The defects examined were too small and isolated to degrade the mechanical properties of the pipe-to-pipe weldments and therefore did not compromise the integrity of the piping system. 14 refs., 7 figs.

Rawl, D.E. Jr.; West, S.L.; Wheeler, D.A.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

1990-01-01

324

Pipe Dreams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of attention to plumbing in college facilities, offering examples from various campuses. Addresses preventive maintenance, technology, and piping materials, including the debate between cast iron and PVC for drain pipes. (EV)

Milshtein, Amy

2002-01-01

325

Pipe Dreams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the importance of attention to plumbing in college facilities, offering examples from various campuses. Addresses preventive maintenance, technology, and piping materials, including the debate between cast iron and PVC for drain pipes. (EV)|

Milshtein, Amy

2002-01-01

326

Development of the pipe-loop system for determining effectiveness of corrosion-control chemicals in potable water systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In the Army's 12,000 miles of water lines, internal corrosion slowly destroys a large investment and creates significant problems for Army water-treatment-plant operators, who try to maintain the water quality at acceptable levels. Corrosion can be slowed using corrosion-inhibiting chemicals, but it is difficult to measure the extent of corrosion and the effectiveness of inhibitors without excavating actual pipes. This study surveyed corrosion-inhibiting water-quality control chemicals and methods for monitoring corrosion. With this knowledge, a pipe-loop system was developed and installed at Fort Bragg, NC and Fort Monroe, VA. It was shown to be effective in gathering data on corrosion rates. After a standard procedure has been established, this loop will allow a water-treatment-plant operator to monitor with ease the effectiveness of corrosion-inhibiting treatments.

Prakash, T.M.; Scholze, R.J.; Neff, C.H.; Maloney, S.W.; Heath, M.

1988-08-01

327

A Review of Fatigue Crack Growth of Pressure Vessel and Piping Steels in High-Temperature, Pressurized Reactor-Grade Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fatigue crack growth data sets, for pressure vessel and piping steels, in reactor-grade water environment have appeared in various reports and publications since about 1972. All of the results which have been published from 1972 through 1979 have been plo...

W. H. Cullen K. Torronen

1980-01-01

328

A review of fatigue crack growth of pressure vessel and piping steels in high-temperature, pressurized reactor-grade water. Interim report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue crack growth data sets, for pressure vessel and piping steels, in reactor-grade water environment have appeared in various reports and publications since about 1972. All of the results which have been published from 1972 through 1979 have been plotted and are presented in this report. Beginning with a discussion of the need for these data, and an explanation of

W. H. Cullen; K. Torronen

1980-01-01

329

A review of fatigue crack growth of pressure vessel and piping steels in high-temperature, pressurized reactor-grade water. Memorandum report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue crack growth data sets, for pressure vessel and piping steels, in reactor-grade water environment have appeared in various reports and publications since about 1972. All of the results which have been published from 1972 through 1979 have been plotted and are presented in this report. Beginning with a discussion of the need for these data, and an explanation of

W. H. Cullen; K. Torronen

1980-01-01

330

Energy performance of plastic pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the power needed to circulate heating water in building networks using different plastic pipes manufactured in Jordan. A suitable set up was designed and built for this purpose; the study included the effect of the rate of flow and the water temperature. On the basis of the results of pressure drop the pipes were divided as high

M Hammad

1999-01-01

331

Water Quality Criteria for Colored Smokes: 1,4-Diamino-2,3-Dihydroanthraquinone: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The available data on the environmental fate, aquatic toxicity, and mammalian toxicity of 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone (DDA), and anthraquinone dye used in violet-colored smoke grenades, were reviewed. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA...

K. A. Davidson P. S. Hovatter R. H. Ross

1988-01-01

332

Permeation of organic compounds through ductile iron pipe gaskets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ductile iron (DI) pipes have been used for the conveyance of drinking water in drinking water distribution systems over the past several decades. It has been estimated that almost half of all new water mains installed in North America are DI pipes. Although DI pipe itself is resistant to chemical permeation, the polymeric gaskets that join and seal the pipe

Chu-lin Cheng

2009-01-01

333

Effect of pipe corrosion scales on chlorine dioxide consumption in drinking water distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies showed that temperature and total organic carbon in drinking water would cause chlorine dioxide (ClO2) loss in a water distribution system and affect the efficiency of ClO2 for Legionella control. However, among the various causes of ClO2 loss in a drinking water distribution system, the loss of disinfectant due to the reaction with corrosion scales has not been

Zhe Zhang; Janet E. Stout; Victor L. Yu; Radisav Vidic

2008-01-01

334

Qualification requirements of guided ultrasonic waves for inspection of piping in light water reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is anticipated that guided ultrasonic wave (GUW) techniques will eventually see widespread application in the nuclear power industry as there are several near-term and future needs that could benefit from the availability of GUW technologies. Already, GUW techniques are receiving consideration for inspecting buried piping at nuclear power plants and future applications may include several Class 1 and 2 components. To accept the results of a nondestructive examination of safety critical components, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that the examinations be performed using qualified equipment, personnel, and procedures. As the use of GUW techniques becomes more frequent, qualification may be required. Performance demonstration has been the approach to qualifying conventional NDE methods in the nuclear power industry. This paper highlights potential issues and research needs associated with facilitating GUW qualification for the nuclear power industry. Parametric studies of essential inspection parameters are necessary to understand their influence on inspection performance. The large volume sampling capability introduces several challenges for qualifying GUW techniques including the quantification of performance, potential interference caused by the presence of multiple flaws in the inspection region, and the practicality of manufacturing several large qualification specimens. Computer simulation may have a significant role in reducing the experimental burden associated with qualifying GUW techniques for nuclear power plant examinations.

Meyer, R. M.; Ramuhalli, P.; Doctor, S. R.; Bond, L. J.

2013-01-01

335

Comparison of microbial quality of irrigation water delivered in aluminum and PVC pipes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microbial quality of irrigation water attracts substantial attention due to the increased incidence of gastrointestinal illness caused by contaminated produce. Little is known about the changes in microbial quality of water during its delivery to crops. Studies were conducted to compare the biofilm ...

336

Household demand for improved piped water services: evidence from Kathmandu, Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine households’ demand for improved water services in Kathmandu, Nepal, where the government is considering the possibility of involving the private sector in the operation of municipal water supply services. We surveyed a randomly selected sample of 1500 households in the Kathmandu Valley and asked respondents questions in in-person interviews about how they would vote if given the choice

Dale Whittington; Subhrendu K Pattanayak; Jui-Chen Yang; K. C Bal Kumar

2002-01-01

337

Intergranular stress corrosion cracking: A rationalization of apparent differences among stress corrosion cracking tendencies for sensitized regions in the process water piping and in the tanks of SRS reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency of stress corrosion cracking in the near weld regions of the SRS reactor tank walls is apparently lower than the cracking frequency near the pipe-to-pipe welds in the primary cooling water system. The difference in cracking tendency can be attributed to differences in the welding processes, fabrication schedules, near weld residual stresses, exposure conditions and other system variables.

Louthan

1990-01-01

338

The effect of white or grey PVC pipe and its joint solvents (primer and cement) on odour problems in drinking water distribution systems.  

PubMed

A study of the production of odour-causing compounds was conducted from the leaching of polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipe and its joints, primer and cement, into drinking water distribution systems. Flavour Profile Analysis (FPA), closed-loop stripping analysis--gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (CLSA-GC/MS) and sensory-GC analysis of white or grey PVC alone found no odour-causing compounds produced during the leaching experiments. FPA analysis of the PVC's primer and cement leached alone and/or when applied to grey or white PVC pipes produced a glue/varnish odour. A sweet/phenolic odour replaced the glue/varnish odour after the leached media were diluted with Milli-Q water to threshold odour intensity. Three compounds were responsible for the sweet/phenolic odour and were observed by sensoryGC analysis. The leaching study of the PVC pipe with its joint solvents (primer and cement) concluded that the original solvent compounds, and their reaction products that formed during the bonding process on the PVC pipe, were a primary source of the glue/varnish odour. The original compounds of the PVC primer and cement were not detected by CLSA-GC/MS, due to their high volatility during the CLSA extraction method and/or these compounds appeared in a solvent peak of the GC/MS analysis. However, the original primer and cement chemicals (acetone, tetrahydrofuran, methyl ethyl ketone, and cyclohexanone) had a glue/varnish odour. A total of nine odorous GC peaks were produced as reaction products from leaching of primer in water and white or grey PVC pipe with primer and cement, and white or grey PVC with primer only. None of these compounds were among the chemical ingredients in the original primer or cement. Four GC peaks with a sweet/phenolic odour were present due to the reaction products of the cement leached with white or grey PVC. None of these compounds were positively identified. PMID:17489407

Wiesenthal, K E; Suffet, I H

2007-01-01

339

Avoiding water hammer/fluid transients in nuclear piping systems by controlled filling. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A variety of geometries and operating procedures that lead to steam bubble collapse induced water hammers have been explored experimentally. Construction guidelines that will eliminate the problem at the design stage have been proposed and methods for pre...

1991-01-01

340

Smoking: It's Never Too Late to Stop  

MedlinePLUS

... Some people have no withdrawal symptoms. Breaking the Addiction Josephine remembers she started smoking in high school ... known as oral leukoplakia, gum problems, and nicotine addiction. Pipe and cigar smokers may develop cancer of ...

341

Analysis of the Leaching Efficiency of Inhibited Water and Tank Simulant in Removing Residues on Thermowell Pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cleaning protocol was determined and modeled, using the shrinking core model, for the removal of a solid residue coating thermowell pipes contained in the riser of a Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tank (Tank 48H). The solid residues on two sets of thermowell pipe samples removed from the D2 riser in SRS Tank 48H were characterized by high performance

F. F. FONDEUR; T. L. WHITE; L. N. OJI; C. J. MARTINOW; R. WILMARTH

2012-01-01

342

Experimental Results for Low-Temperature Silicon Micromachined Micro Heat Pipe Arrays Using Water and Methanol as Working Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental test facility was constructed to test and verify the operation of two parallel arrays of anisotropicalfy micromachined (etched) micro heal pipes (MHPs) on a single crystalline (100) semiconductor silicon wafer, A micro heat pipe is a small-scale device used to transport energy from a heat source to a heat sink in nearly isothermal operation. The individual MHP was

Bassam Badran; Frank M. Gerner; Padmaja Ramadas; Thurman Henderson; Karl W. Baker

1997-01-01

343

Statistical evaluation of light water reactor piping damping data for use in PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of studies used to quantify, on a statistical basis, one of the parameters (piping system damping) input to probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) analyses of nuclear structures. Damping data were selected from tests in which the piping had been vibrated at levels representative of at least moderate severity seismic or hydrodynamic transients. These data, representing 27

A. G. Ware

1988-01-01

344

Study of Cold Heat Energy Release Characteristics of Flowing Ice Water Slurry in a Pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper has dealt with melting heat transfer characteristics of ice water slurry in an inside tube of horizontal double tube heat exchanger in which a hot water circulated in an annular gap between the inside and outside tubes. Two kinds of heat exchangers were used; one is made of acrylic resin tube for flow visualization and the other is made of stainless steel tube for melting heat transfer measurement. The result of flow visualization revealed that ice particles flowed along the top of inside tube in the ranges of small ice packing factor and low ice water slurry velocity, while ice particles diffused into the whole of tube and flowed like a plug built up by ice particles for large ice packing factor and high velocity. Moreover, it was found that the flowing ice plug was separated into numbers of small ice clusters by melting phenomenon. Experiments of melting heat transfer were carried out under some parameters of ice packing factor, ice water slurry flow rate and hot water temperature. Consequently, the correlation equation of melting heat transfer was derived as a function of those experimental parameters.

Inaba, Hideo; Horibe, Akihiko; Ozaki, Koichi; Yokota, Maki

345

Hookah (Shisha, Narghile) Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). A Critical Review of the Relevant Literature and the Public Health Consequences  

PubMed Central

Hookah (narghile, shisha, “water-pipe”) smoking is now seen by public health officials as a global tobacco epidemic. Cigarette Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is classically understood as a combination of Side-Stream Smoke (SSS) and Exhaled Main-Stream Smoke (EMSS), both diluted and aged. Some of the corresponding cigarette studies have served as the scientific basis for stringent legislation on indoor smoking across the world. Interestingly, one of the distinctive traits of the hookah device is that it generates almost no SSS. Indeed, its ETS is made up almost exclusively by the smoke exhaled by the smoker (EMSS), i.e. which has been filtered by the hookah at the level of the bowl, inside the water, along the hose and then by the smoker’s respiratory tract itself. The present paper reviews the sparse and scattered scientific evidence available about hookah EMSS and the corresponding inferences that can be drawn from the composition of cigarette EMSS. The reviewed literature shows that most of hookah ETS is made up of EMSS and that the latter qualitatively differs from MSS. Keeping in mind that the first victim of passive smoking is the active smoker her/himself, the toxicity of hookah ETS for non-smokers should not be overestimated and hyped in an unscientific way.

Chaouachi, Kamal

2009-01-01

346

Intermediate Temperature Fluids for Heat Pipes and Loop Heat Pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential working fluids for heat pipes and loop heat pipes include water, organic fluids, elements, and halides. The paper surveys life tests conducted with 30 different intermediate temperature working fluids, and over 60 different working fluid\\/envelope combinations. Life tests have been run with three elemental working fluids: sulfur, sulfur-iodine mixtures, and mercury. Other fluids offer benefits over these three liquids

William G. Anderson; John R. Hartenstine; David B. Sarraf; Calin Tarau

347

Avoiding water hammer/fluid transients in nuclear piping systems by controlled filling  

SciTech Connect

A variety of geometries and operating procedures that lead to steam bubble collapse induced water hammers have been explored experimentally. Construction guidelines that will eliminate the problem at the design stage have been proposed and methods for predicting the pressure signatures proposed.

Not Available

1991-01-01

348

Avoiding water hammer/fluid transients in nuclear piping systems by controlled filling. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A variety of geometries and operating procedures that lead to steam bubble collapse induced water hammers have been explored experimentally. Construction guidelines that will eliminate the problem at the design stage have been proposed and methods for predicting the pressure signatures proposed.

Not Available

1991-12-31

349

CHARACTERIZATION OF LOCALIZED CORROSION OF COPPER PIPES USED IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Localized corrosion of copper, or "copper pitting" in water distribution tubing is a large problem at many utilities. Pitting can lead to pinhole leaks less than a year. Tubing affected by copper pitting will often fail in ultiple locations, resulting in a frustrating situation ...

350

Uncoupled axial, flexural, and circumferential pipe–soil interaction analyses of partially supported jointed water mains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pipelines used in the distribution of potable water are a vital part of everyday life. The pipelines buried in soil-backfill are exposed to different deleterious reactions; as a result, the design factor of safety may be significantly degraded and, consequently, pipelines may fail prematurely. Proactive pipeline management, which entails optimal maintenance, repair, or replacement strategies, helps increase the longevity of

Balvant Rajani; Solomon Tesfamariam

2004-01-01

351

Mineralogical and Molecular Microbial Characterization of a Lead Pipe Removed from a Drinking Water Distribution System  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) Lead and Copper Rule established an action level for lead of 0.0 15 mg/L in a 1 liter first draw sample at the consumer's tap. Lead corrosion and solubility in drinking water distribution systems are largely controlled by the fo...

352

Tippy Tap Plus Piping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Tippy Tap hand-washing station is an inexpensive and effective device used extensively in the developing world. One shortcoming of the homemade device is that it must be manually refilled with water and therefore is of limited use in high-traffic areas. In this activity, student teams design, prototype and test piping systems to transport water from a storage tank to an existing Tippy Tap hand-washing station, thereby creating a more efficient hand-washing station. Through this example service-learning engineering project, students learn basic fluid dynamic principles that are needed for creating efficient piping systems.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder,

353

Pipe Gripper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to a device for gripping the exterior surface of a pipe or rod which has a plurality of wedges, each having a concave face which engages the outer surface of the pipe and each having a smooth face opposing the concave face. ...

S. M. Moyers

1974-01-01

354

Effects of disinfectant and biofilm on the corrosion of cast iron pipes in a reclaimed water distribution system.  

PubMed

The effects of disinfection and biofilm on the corrosion of cast iron pipe in a model reclaimed water distribution system were studied using annular reactors (ARs). The corrosion scales formed under different conditions were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the bacterial characteristics of biofilm on the surface were determined using several molecular methods. The corrosion scales from the ARs with chlorine included predominantly ?-FeOOH and Fe2O3, while CaPO3(OH)·2H2O and ?-FeOOH were the predominant phases after chloramines replaced chlorine. Studies of the consumption of chlorine and iron release indicated that the formation of dense oxide layers and biofilm inhibited iron corrosion, causing stable lower chlorine decay. It was verified that iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB) such as Sediminibacterium sp., and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) such as Shewanella sp., synergistically interacted with the corrosion product to prevent further corrosion. For the ARs without disinfection, ?-FeOOH was the predominant phase at the primary stage, while CaCO3 and ?-FeOOH were predominant with increasing time. The mixed corrosion-inducing bacteria, including the IRB Shewanella sp., the IOB Sediminibacterium sp., and the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) Limnobacter thioxidans strain, promoted iron corrosion by synergistic interactions in the primary period, while anaerobic IRB became the predominant corrosion bacteria, preventing further corrosion via the formation of protective layers. PMID:22209261

Wang, Haibo; Hu, Chun; Hu, Xuexiang; Yang, Min; Qu, Jiuhui

2011-12-20

355

Assessment of US shipbuilding current capability to build a commercial OTEC platform and a cold water pipe  

SciTech Connect

Lowry and Hoffman Associates Inc. (LHA) performed for ORI an analysis of the shipbuilding requirements for constructing an OTEC plant, and the available shipyard assets which could fulfill these requirements. In addition, several shipyards were queried concerning their attitudes towards OTEC. In assessing the shipbuilding requirements for an OTEC plant, four different platform configurations were studied and four different designs of the cold water pipe (CWP) were examined. The platforms were: a concrete ship design proposed by Lockheed; concrete spar designs with internal heat exchangers (IHE) (Rosenblatt) and external heat exchangers (XHE) (Lockheed); and a steel ship design proposed by Gibbs and Cox. The types of materials examined for CWP construction were: steel, fiber reinforced plastic (FPR), elastomer, and concrete. The report is organized io three major discussion areas. All the construction requirements are synthesized for the four platforms and CWPs, and general comments are made concerning their availability in the US. Specific shipbuilders facilities are reviewed for their applicability to building an OTEC plant, an assessment of the shipyards general interest in the OTEC program is presented providing an insight into their nearterm commercial outlook. The method of determining this interest will depend largely on a risk analysis of the OTEC system. Also included are factors which may comprise this analysis, and a methodology to ascertain the risk. In the appendices, various shipyard specifications are presented, shipyard assessment matrices are given, graphs of various shipyard economic outlooks are provided, and definitions of the risk factors are listed. (WHK)

Komelasky, M. C. [ed.

1980-03-01

356

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) cold water pipe three-dimensional design methodology. Volume 2. Users manual  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a computer program developed by TRW for use in performing three-dimensional dynamic analysis of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) cold water pipe (CWP) systems. The program, in FORTRAN IV-H language, was prepared in the time domain in order to permit the inclusion of non-linearities and other effects that cannot be included at all or can, at best, be approximated by frequency domain programs. These effects include velocity-squared drag, finite angles, parametric excitation, and out-of-roundness. Shear deformation and rotary inertia effects are also included. The detailed report is documented in two volumes: Volume I - Technical Manual and Volume II - Users Manual. Volume I presents the technical basis for the analytical formulation and solution procedure. Volume II gives a detailed description of the computer program and complete operating instructions. A brief synopsis of these detailed volumes is contained in the Executive Summary document. The source deck for the program has been delivered to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NCAA) and is available from that agency. Access to the compiled (binary) deck for use on the CDC CYBERNET system is likewise available by arrangement with NOAA.

Not Available

1982-06-01

357

Acoustic attenuation, phase and group velocities in liquid-filled pipes: Theory, experiment, and examples of water and mercury.  

PubMed

Del Grosso's [Acustica 24, 299-311 (1971)] formulation, which predicts the phase speed of propagating axisymmetric modes inside a liquid-filled tube, is here extended to the complex domain in order to predict the attenuation, as well as the sound speed, of the modes as a function of frequency. Measurements of the sound speeds and the attenuations of the modes were performed in a water-filled Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) tube of internal radius, b=4.445 cm, in the range of the wavenumber-radius product, k(1)b, from 2 to 10. Parts of three or four modes were investigated and the measured sound speeds and the damping of the modes were compared with the theoretical predictions. The theory was then used to estimate the modal sound speeds and attenuations in a stainless-steel pipe filled with mercury having the same dimensions as are used in the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee. PMID:21110559

Baik, Kyungmin; Jiang, Jian; Leighton, Timothy G

2010-11-01

358

Heat transfer mechanism of miniature loop heat pipe with water-copper nanofluid: thermodynamics model and experimental study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to ensure the normal work of electronic product, the thermal management is of key importance. Miniature loop heat pipe (mLHP) is a promising device of heat transfer for electronic products. Cu-water nanofluid with different concentration is used as working material in mLHP. Experiments are conducted to investigate its heat transfer performance. The heat flux owing to thermal diffusion is calculated. It is found that this heat flux and the boiling temperature are non-monotonic function of concentration of nanoparticle. Turning concentration appears at about 1.5 wt%. Differential equation of thermal diffusion produced by micro movement of nanoparticle is established in this paper. Average speed formula for nanoparticles is derived and slope of the curve of phase equilibrium is obtained. Based on the theoretical research in this paper, enhanced heat transfer mechanism of nanofluid is analyzed. The facts that heat flux owing to thermal diffusion and boiling temperature are all associated with nanoparticle concentration are also well explained with the aid of the derived theory in this paper.

Wang, Xiao-wu; Wan, Zhen-ping; Tang, Yong

2013-07-01

359

Chronic respiratory effect of narguileh smoking compared with cigarette smoking in women from the East Mediterranean region  

PubMed Central

Narguileh is a water pipe. Narguileh smoking is a traditional pattern of smoking among Eastern Mediterranean women, publicly considered as a harmless entertainment. We performed a survey aimed at tracking chronic respiratory symptoms and alteration in respiratory functions in 77 female narguileh smokers, 77 cigarette smokers, and controls. A questionnaire about respiratory symptoms, quantity, and duration of smoking was completed by each woman, and a flow-volume loop was performed with all women. Women were then categorized in subgroups according to a cumulative smoking duration of over 5 years, and cumulative quantity of 50 kilograms smoked. We obtained 8 subgroups for quantity and 10 for duration. Results showed a higher proportion of chronic bronchitis in narguileh smokers compared with cigarette smokers for both quantity and duration (p value < 0.001), as well as quasi-permanent alteration in maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF 25%–75%) in narguileh smokers compared with cigarette smokers (p value < 0.001). Forced expired volume in one second was more altered in cigarette smokers than in narguileh smokers (p value > 0.001). These results will help to raise health authority awareness that narguileh smoking is also dangerous for women.

Mohammad, Yousser; Kakah, Mouna; Mohammad, Yasser

2008-01-01

360

THE LOW PRESSURE CRITICAL DISCHARGE OF STEAM-WATER MIXTURES FROM PIPES  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus was eonstructed to investigate the critical flow behavior ; of steam-water mixtures flowing in passages of constant area. Experiments were ; limited to circular full-bore cross sections of 0.520- and 0.625-inch diameter, ; and lengths up to 4 feet. Test section exit qualities from 0.4 to 99% and ; critical mass velocities between l0² and l0³ lb\\/sec ft²

Zaloudek

1961-01-01

361

Experimental investigation of steam-water annular flow in piping junctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of dividing annular steam-water flow in horizontal tee junctions with horizontal branches have been investigated experimentally. Two test sections were used with branch to inlet diameter ratios of 1.0 and 0.5. The phase, pressure and void fraction distributions in the three legs of each test section were obtained. Inlet conditions were varied over the ranges of: 400less than

J. D. Ballyk; M. Shoukri; A. M. C. Chan

1987-01-01

362

Detection of the cytotoxicity of water-insoluble fraction of cigarette smoke by direct exposure to cultured cells at an air-liquid interface.  

PubMed

For the biological evaluation of cigarette smoke in vitro, the particulate phase (PP) and the gas vapor phase (GVP) of mainstream smoke have usually been collected individually and exposed to biological material such as cultured cells. Using this traditional method, the GVP is collected by bubbling in an aqueous solution such as phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). In such a way the water-insoluble GVP fraction is excluded from the GVP, meaning that the toxic potential of the water-insoluble GVP fraction has hardly been investigated so far. In our experiments we used a direct exposure method to expose cells at the air-liquid interface (ALI) to the water-insoluble GVP fraction for demonstrating its toxicological/biological activity. In order to isolate the water-insoluble GVP fraction from mainstream smoke, the GVP was passed through 6 impingers connected in series with PBS. After direct exposure of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) with the water-insoluble GVP fraction in the CULTEX(®) system its cytotoxicity was assayed by using the neutral red uptake assay. The water-insoluble GVP fraction was proven to be less cytotoxic than the water-soluble GVP fraction, but showed a significant effect in a dose-dependent manner. The results of this study showed that the direct exposure of cultivated cells at the air-liquid interface offers the possibility to analyze the biological and toxicological activities of all fractions of cigarette smoke including the water-insoluble GVP fraction. PMID:22999638

Nara, Hidenori; Fukano, Yasuo; Nishino, Tomoki; Aufderheide, Michaela

2012-09-19

363

INTERIOR VIEW WITH LADLE FILLING A PONT A MOUSSON PIPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH LADLE FILLING A PONT A MOUSSON PIPE CASTING MACHINE (EITHER NO. 2 OR NO. 3) FOR PRODUCTION OF AN 8 INCH FASTTITE PIPE USED FOR GAS AND WATER TRANSMISSION. THIS FRENCH-MADE CASTING MACHINE MAKES 4, 6, 8, 10, AND 12 INCH PIPE. THE MACHINE CAN MAKE 48 EIGHT INCH PIPE AN HOUR AND UP TO 60 FOUR INCH PIPE PER HOUR. - American Cast Iron Pipe Company, Mixer Building, 1501 Thirty-first Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

364

46 CFR 56.10-5 - Pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...56.60-20.) (1) Copper and brass pipe for water and steam service...temperatures to 406 °F. (2) Copper and brass pipe for air may be used in...per square inch. (5) Copper, brass, or aluminum pipe or tube shall not be...

2010-10-01

365

46 CFR 56.10-5 - Pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...56.60-20.) (1) Copper and brass pipe for water and steam service...temperatures to 406 °F. (2) Copper and brass pipe for air may be used in...per square inch. (5) Copper, brass, or aluminum pipe or tube shall not be...

2009-10-01

366

46 CFR 56.10-5 - Pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...56.60-20.) (1) Copper and brass pipe for water and steam service...temperatures to 406 °F. (2) Copper and brass pipe for air may be used in...per square inch. (5) Copper, brass, or aluminum pipe or tube shall not be...

2011-10-01

367

46 CFR 56.10-5 - Pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...56.60-20.) (1) Copper and brass pipe for water and steam service...temperatures to 406 °F. (2) Copper and brass pipe for air may be used in...per square inch. (5) Copper, brass, or aluminum pipe or tube shall not be...

2012-10-01

368

A heuristic for piping residential sprinklers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heuristic developed in this study derives efficient pipe configurations for connecting sprinklers. The objective is to connect all of the sprinkers in a watering zone with a minimum length of pipe. Minimum-length pipe configurations reduce pressure loss and installation cost. The heuristic adapts the Prim algorithm, conventionally used to derive minimal spanning trees, to a modified rectilinear Steiner problem.

Paul F. Hudak

1996-01-01

369

Heat pipe dynamics. Final report, April 30, 1981. [Uses of heat pipe, especially in solar collector  

SciTech Connect

A heat-pipe flat plate solar collector is constructed like a typical flat plate collector with the exception that individual heat pipes are attached to the collector surface to transfer collected heat via a phase change from collector surface into an attached jacket containing a phase change material. The efficiency of such a collector was measured roughly. Also briefly described are: a heat-pipe heat exchanger, heat-pipe heat exchanger freeze proofing, heat-pipe attic ventilation, transfer of light bulb heat via a heat pipe to heat water, heat recovery via heat pipe, cooling of oil in engines and transmissions via heat pipe, a tracking reflector, automatic sun tracker, single-stroke vacuum pump for heat-pipe manufacture, and heat pipe heat transfer from rock bed. (LEW)

Norman, R.M. Sr.

1981-01-01

370

Heat pipe heat exchanger design considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typical heat pipe heat exchangers (HPHX) are described, along with their advantages, uses, and some problems in HPHX design, and a computer HPHX analysis program is discussed with required input data. The computer program is being developed for analysis of heat exchange performance by finned-tube HPHX and thread-puddle-artery heat pipes. Copper-water heat pipes and carbon steel-Dowtherm A heat pipes are

K. T. Feldman; D. C. Lu

1976-01-01

371

Corrosion of Copper Pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid pitting of the walls of copper pipes used in plumbing has resulted in several controversial overtones. The results of a study of the problem in southern California are now available in this article and should benefit the water purveyor, who is, after all, responsible for taking reasonable measures to prevent unnecessary corrosion to copper service lines

Henry Cruse; Richard D. Pomeroy

1974-01-01

372

Power plant releasing smoke  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Power plants are a well-known source of pollution. They drain directly into bodies of water such as the ocean. In addition, they burn fossil fuels to create energy. The smoke that results causes acid rain and global warming.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-12

373

OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) Cold Water Pipe At-Sea Test Program Data Analysis Project: Users guide for the NOAA/ROTECF and NOAA/TRW computer models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Additional guidelines for the use of the Cold-Water-Pipe computer models NOAA/TRW and NOAA/ROTECF are provided. The primary intent is to correct and upgrade the user manuals with errata sheets and to provide an updated listing of the source codes. It is recommended that users be familiar with the hydrodynamic and structural aspects of floating vessels and the representation of ocean thermal energy conversion pipes as beams of equivalent structural properties.

Vega, L. A.; Nihous, G. C.

1985-06-01

374

Piping reliability analysis of AHWR down-comer piping using PFM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics (PFM) is widely used for the reliability assessment of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) piping. In PFM, the methods of fracture mechanics and structural reliability theory are combined for assessing the reliability of components, which contain cracks. In this work, reliability assessment of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) down-comer piping is done using PFM. AHWR down-comer piping is

P. A. Jadhav; Rastogi Rohit; Bhasin Vivek; K. K. Vaze

2010-01-01

375

Determination of the extent of excessive copper concentrations in the tap-water of households with copper pipes and an assessment of possible health hazards for infants.  

PubMed

During the past 20 years there has been much discussion about copper in connection with a form of Early Childhood Liver Cirrhosis (ECLC) known as Non Indian Childhood Cirrhosis (NICC). NICC is similar to Indian Childhood Cirrhosis (ICC) which occurs in India, and has already been known for many years. ICC is attributed to the excessive intake of copper derived from milk or water stored in copper and brass vessels. To determine precisely a possible connection between the amount of copper in tap-water and the risk of early childhood liver disease, an attempt was first made, through an epidemiological survey, to determine the extent of excessive concentrations of copper in the tap-water of households with copper pipes. To achieve this, water samples from 956 households were tested for copper, and the state of health of the infants in these households was documented. Infants who had been fed using water with a copper concentration of 0.8 mg/l or more received a paediatric examination with a blood check so as to rule out any possibility of liver damage. A copper level greater than 0.8 mg/l was found in only 2% of the households examined. Eight infants were examined by a paediatrician and received blood checks. (These infants had either been breast-fed up until their 12th week or had received more than 200 ml of tap water per day during their first 12 months). None of the infants examined showed any signs of liver malfunction. From the results of the study, no indication of a hazard due to copper pipes connected to public water supplies could be found. PMID:10585303

Dassel de Vergara, J; Zietz, B; Schneider, H B; Dunkelberg, H

1999-11-22

376

Smoking cessation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking is a risk factor for the four leading causes of death in the United States, yet 48 million Americans—24% of the U.S. adult population—continue to smoke. Approximately 70% of people who smoke visit a physician each year, yet only half report ever being advised to quit smoking by their physician. Smoking cessation is difficult due to nicotine addiction and

Bernard Karnath

2002-01-01

377

Patterns and predictors of tobacco smoking cessation: A hospital-based study of pregnant women in Lebanon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary\\u000a Objectives:  To describe patterns of cigarette and narghile (hubble-bubble or water-pipe) smoking before and during pregnancy and identify\\u000a predictors of successful smoking cessation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods:  A survey was conducted on 4 660 pregnant women who delivered single live births between September 1st, 2001 and December 31st,\\u000a 2002 at five hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon. Women were classified into four groups according to patterns

Kalid Yunis; Hind Beydoun; Pascale Nakad; Mustafa Khogali; Faysal Shatila; Hala Tamim

2007-01-01

378

Piping geofluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many cases the source of geothermal fluid to be used for a direct use application is located some distance away from the user. This requires a transmission pipeline to transport the geothermal fluid. Even in the absence of transmission line requirements it is frequently advisable to employ other than standard piping materials. Geothermal energy for direct use applications is

P. J. Lienau; K. Rafferty

2009-01-01

379

Intervention against smoking and its relationship to general practitioners' smoking habits  

PubMed Central

A postal survey was carried out in June and July 1980 to find out if there was any relationship between smoking habits of general practitioners and their reported intervention against smoking among their patients. Responses from 342 general practitioners in London and Kent indicated that there was a relationship: general practitioners who smoked cigarettes (13 per cent of the sample) were less likely to advise or help their patients to stop smoking than general practitioners who smoked a pipe or cigars or who did not smoke at all. The survey also yielded an estimate of smoking prevalence among general practitioners which indicated that prevalence has continued to decline, and that fewer general practitioners are being recruited to smoking.

Hallett, R.

1983-01-01

380

Repair of underground buried pipes with resin transfer molding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repairing and replacing of worn-out underground pipes, such as sewer pipes, water-supply pipes, gas pipes, and communication cables by excavating not only cause traffic congestion but also produce large amount of waste. Also, the operation requires heavy equipments and longer operating time and high cost.In this study, the repairing–reinforcing process of underground pipes with glass fiber fabric polymer composites using

Dai Gil Lee; Woo Seok Chin; Jae Wook Kwon; Ae Kwon Yoo

2002-01-01

381

Axisymmetric wave propagation in fluid-filled pipes: wavenumber measurements in in vacuo and buried pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of water leaks in buried distribution pipes using acoustic methods is common practice in many countries. Correlation techniques are widely used in leak detection, but for these to be effective, the propagation wave speeds and wave attenuation must be known. Relatively predictable for metal pipes, these are largely unknown for the newer plastic pipes, being highly dependent on the pipe wall properties and the surrounding medium. In a previous paper a theoretical model of a buried fluid-filled pipe to predict both wavespeed and attenuation was presented; the aim of the work in this paper is to validate this model experimentally. Wavenumber measurements, encompassing both wavespeed and wave attenuation are made on a water-filled pipe in vacuo and on a buried water-filled pipe. In general, the measurements show good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

Muggleton, J. M.; Brennan, M. J.; Linford, P. W.

2004-02-01

382

Persistence of two model enteric viruses (B40-8 and MS2 bacteriophages) in water distribution pipe biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The persistence of two model enteric virions (Bacteroides fragilis phage B40-8 and coliphage MS-2) within pipe biofilms was investigated in situ in an urban distribution system. Biofilms were allowed to develop on uPVC and stainless steel (SS) coupons in a modified Robbins' device for 70 d within a 150 mm uPVC reticulation main. Coupons were then placed in annular reactors

M. V. Storey; N. J. Ashbolt

2001-01-01

383

Study on Guided Ultrasonic Waves Propagating along Pipes with Fluid Loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guided ultrasonic wave technique was introduced as a promising non-destructive long range pipe inspection method. Theory of guided waves traveling along pipes with fluid loading on the inside and outside of the pipe was described. The effect of inner and outer media was investigated by considering a steel pipe with air and water inside and outside the experimental pipe. Longitudinal

Liying Sun; Yibo Lia; Shijiu Jin

2006-01-01

384

Smoking cessation.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and smoking cessation is the most effective means of stopping the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Worldwide, approximately a billion people smoke cigarettes and 80% reside in low-income and middle-income countries. Though in the United States there has been a substantial decline in cigarette smoking since 1964, when the Surgeon General's report first reviewed smoking, smoking remains widespread in the United States today (about 23% of the population in 2001). Nicotine is addictive, but there are now effective drugs and behavioral interventions to assist people to overcome the addiction. Available evidence shows that smoking cessation can be helped with counseling, nicotine replacement, and bupropion. Less-studied interventions, including hypnosis, acupuncture, aversive therapy, exercise, lobeline, anxiolytics, mecamylamine, opioid agonists, and silver acetate, have assisted some people in smoking cessation, but none of those interventions has strong research evidence of efficacy. To promote smoking cessation, physicians should discuss with their smoking patients "relevance, risk, rewards, roadblocks, and repetition," and with patients who are willing to attempt to quit, physicians should use the 5-step system of "ask, advise, assess, assist, and arrange." An ideal smoking cessation program is individualized, accounting for the reasons the person smokes, the environment in which smoking occurs, available resources to quit, and individual preferences about how to quit. The clinician should bear in mind that quitting smoking can be very difficult, so it is important to be patient and persistent in developing, implementing, and adjusting each patient's smoking-cessation program. One of the most effective behavioral interventions is advice from a health care professional; it seems not to matter whether the advice is from a doctor, respiratory therapist, nurse, or other clinician, so smoking cessation should be encouraged by multiple clinicians. However, since respiratory therapists interact with smokers frequently, we believe it is particularly important for respiratory therapists to show leadership in implementing smoking cessation. PMID:14651764

Marlow, Scott P; Stoller, James K

2003-12-01

385

The role of temperature gradients in residential copper pipe corrosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of sustained temperature gradients of ?20 °C on copper pipe corrosion under stagnant conditions in simulated potable water. An apparatus was constructed to (1) apply realistic temperature gradients to the pipes, (2) monitor copper release to the water, and (3) measure thermogalvanic currents between the warm and cold sections of pipe. The orientation

Jason C Rushing; Marc Edwards

2004-01-01

386

Smoking Stinks!  

MedlinePLUS

... you'll spend $312 in a year. Some people smoke a pack a day, which adds up to $ ... protect you and tell you to keep them smoke free. Also, many people say that they feel sick to their stomachs ...

387

[Youth Smoking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This issue of the newsletter "Prevention Forum" focuses on smoking among adolescents. The articles are as follows: (1) "Where There's Smoke--Will Prevention Put Out the Fire?" (Joanne Burgess), an overview of the Surgeon General's report "Preventing Tobacco Use among Young People," including interviews with prevention and anti-smoking activists;…

Stare, Russell K., Ed.

1994-01-01

388

Pilot-plant Simulation of Corrosion in Domestic Pipe Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilot-plant corrosion testing, using pipe inserts fabricated from domestic pipe materials and a typical on-off flow cycle, established equilibrium corrosion rates for domestic pipe materials in the soft, low-alkalinity water of Portland, Ore. Low corrosion rates for typical consumer plumbing materials were measured by pilot-plant inserts and verified by pipe samples from consumers' home plumbing. Eight-hour standing water samples removed

Gordon P. Treweek; Joe Glicker; Bruce Chow; Michael Sprinker

1985-01-01

389

THE EFFECT OF CHLORIDE, SULFATE, BICARBONATE AND ORTHOPHOSPHATE ON THE RELEASE OF IRON FROM A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PIPE  

EPA Science Inventory

“Colored water” describes the appearance of drinking water that contains suspended particulate iron where the actual suspension color may range from light yellow to red due to water chemistry and particle properties. This iron can originate from the source water and f...

390

OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipe at-sea test program data analysis project. Comparisons between measured and predicted barge and pipe response: Evaluation of the NOAA/ROTECF and NOAA/TRW computer models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simulation of the at-sea test conditions with computer models is considered. The NOAA/ROTECF model simulates a coupled barge/pipe system driven by waves and currents in the frequency domain (standard-deviation parameters are considered). The NOAA/TRW model simulates a pipe driven by user-specified barge motions, waves, and currents in the time domain (parameters as a function of time are considered).

Vega, L. A.; Nihous, G. C.

1985-10-01

391

OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion) cold water pipe at-sea test program data-analysis project. Comparisons between measured and predicted barge and pipe response: evaluation of the NOAA/ROTECF and NOAA/TRW computer models  

SciTech Connect

Simulation of the at-sea test conditions with computer models is considered. The NOAA/ROTECF model simulates a coupled barge/pipe system driven by waves and currents in the frequency domain (e.g., standard-deviation parameters are considered). The NOAA/TRW model simulates a pipe driven by user-specified barge motions, waves, and currents in the time domain (e.g., parameters as a function of time are considered).

Vega, L.A.; Nihous, G.C.

1985-10-01

392

Parental Smoking Cessation and Adolescent Smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the relation of parent smoking cessation to adolescent smoking and test its potential mediators. Method: Participants were 446 adolescents and their parents who completed a computerized measure of implicit attitudes toward smoking and questionnaires assessing smoking, parenting, and explicit attitudes. Results: Parental smoking cessation was associated with less adolescent smoking, except when the other parent currently smoked.

Laurie Chassin; Clark Presson; Jennifer Rose; Steven J. Sherman; Justin Prost

2002-01-01

393

OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipe at-sea test program. Volume 2.F.: Environmental design criteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prototype for one third scale model is envisioned to be the OTEC Pilot Plant design in the 10/40 MWe size range with an estimated CWP diameter of about 30 feet and an overall vertical length of about 3,000 feet. Thus the one third scale CWP consists of pipe about 10 feet in diameter and 1,000 feet long. A side selection evaluation was initiated to establish a site which would meet both the logistic requirement for construction and operation, provide adequate wave wind climate required for the test validation and finally exhibit bottom slope and sediment layer characteristics adequate for the mooring system, as confirmed by geophysical surveys.

1982-07-01

394

Basic measurements on a multiple heat pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multiple heat pipe which is a specially formed long heat pipe that fulfills the function of several single heat pipes was studied. The suitability of this arrangement for a heat exchanger was investigated. Several laboratory models were manufactured from corrugated tubes and their behavior was measured. Results show that the serpentine model exhibits the expected heat exchange properties. When subjected to severe operating conditions, the pipes remain operational, although somewhat limited in performance. The results are in function of the nature of the exchange media (air-air, air-water, water-water). This corrugated heat pipe design shows good promise for successful further development into an air-air heat exchanger.

Rohner, P.; Schippl, K.

1982-04-01

395

Experimental performance of a heat pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of heat pipes were studied experimentally using water as a working fluid. One with a wick and another with no wick. The wick was made of cotton, which is normally used in oil lamps. The heat pipe was positioned at different angles of 30°, 60°, and 90° with the horizontal. Results show that the performance of the heat

Salem A. Said; Bilal A. Akash

1999-01-01

396

Composite material heat pipe radiator  

SciTech Connect

Organic matrix composite material is recognized for its significant strength to weight ratio when compared to metal and consequently was investigated for reducing the mass of heat pipes for future space missions. The particular heat pipe that was constructed and tested was made from an organic matrix composite material applied to a linear of titanium tubing spun to foil thickness (0.076 mm). The thin liner transitioned to heavier-walled ends which allowed the tubing to be sealed using conventional welding. More specifically, the heat pipe was 1.14 m long, 24 mm in diameter and had a mass of 0.165 kg. Water was the working fluid. The heat pipe was tested in a Thermacore thermal vacuum chamber under hot and cold wall operating conditions. The heat load dissipated ranged from 10 to 60 watts. Heat pipe operating temperatures varied from 278 K to 403 K. After testing, the heat pipe was delivered to NASA JSC where future thermal vacuum chamber tests are planned. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Gernert, N.J.; Sarraf, D.B. [Thermacore, Inc., 780 Eden Road, Lancaster, Pennsylvania 17601 (United States); Guenther, R.J. [Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Hurlbert/, K.M. [NASA Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Road, 1 Houston, Texas 77058-3696 (United States); EC3

1996-03-01

397

NOAA OTEC CWP (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Cold Water Pipe) at-sea test. Volume 3: Additional tabulation of the power spectra, part 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data collected during the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Cold Water Pipe At Sea Test are analyzed. Also included are the following ittems: (1) sensor factors and offsets, and the data processing algorithms used to convert the recorded sensor measurements from electrical to engineering units; (2) plots of the power spectra estimates obtained from a fast fourier transform (FFT) analysis of selected channels; (3) plots of selected sensor measurements as a function of time; and (4) plots of bending strain along the pipe using statistics and values presented.

1983-12-01

398

NOAA OTEC CWP (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Cold Water Pipe) at-sea test. Volume 3, part 1: Tabulation of the power spectra for selected channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data collected during the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Cold Water Pipe At-Sea Test was analyzed. Data presented included: (1)sensor factors and off sets and the data processing algorithms used to convert the recorded sensor measurements from electrical units to engineering units; (2) plots of the power spectra estimates obtained from a fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis of selected channels; (3) plots of selected sensor measurements as a function of time; and (4) plots of bending strain along the pipe. The mean, root-mean-square (RMS) maximum, and minimum values at each depth are shown in each plot.

1983-11-01

399

Intergranular stress corrosion cracking: A rationalization of apparent differences among stress corrosion cracking tendencies for sensitized regions in the process water piping and in the tanks of SRS reactors  

SciTech Connect

The frequency of stress corrosion cracking in the near weld regions of the SRS reactor tank walls is apparently lower than the cracking frequency near the pipe-to-pipe welds in the primary cooling water system. The difference in cracking tendency can be attributed to differences in the welding processes, fabrication schedules, near weld residual stresses, exposure conditions and other system variables. This memorandum discusses the technical issues that may account the differences in cracking tendencies based on a review of the fabrication and operating histories of the reactor systems and the accepted understanding of factors that control stress corrosion cracking in austenitic stainless steels.

Louthan, M.R.

1990-09-28

400

THE EFFECT OF CHLORIDE AND ORTHOPHOSPHATE ON THE RELEASE OF IRON FROM A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CAST IRON PIPE  

EPA Science Inventory

Colored water" describes the appearance of drinking water that contains suspended particulate iron although the actual suspension color may be light yellow to red depending on water chemistry and particle properties. The release of iron from distribution system materials such as...

401

INTERIOR VIEW WITH LADLE FILLING A PONT A MOUSSON PIPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH LADLE FILLING A PONT A MOUSSON PIPE CASTING MACHINE (EITHER NO. 2 OR NO. 3) FOR PRODUCTION OF AN 8 INCH FASTTITE PIPE USED FOR GAS AND WATER TRANSMISSION. - American Cast Iron Pipe Company, Mixer Building, 1501 Thirty-first Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

402

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment  

SciTech Connect

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

Guerin, M.R.

1993-01-01

403

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment  

SciTech Connect

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

Guerin, M.R.

1993-06-01

404

The Sacred Calf Pipe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tells how the author learned of and recorded the list of Sioux tribe members who have kept the White Buffalo Calf Pipe. Reviews the legend surrounding the origin of the pipe and describes the succession of pipe-keepers and how they inherit the pipe. (Author/AEM)|

Simms, Thomas E.

1987-01-01

405

Pipe protection bibliography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pipes and pipelines are being used for an ever widening range of materials, for increasing flows and in harsher applications. There is also more legal and social pressure to reduce the hazards associated with handling materials in pipes. All of this increases the demand for improved pipe reliability. Two of the major preventable causes of pipe failure are corrosion and

1987-01-01

406

Vapor spill pipe monitor  

DOEpatents

The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

1983-06-23

407

Quality of Piped and Stored Water in Households with Children Under Five Years of Age Enrolled in the Mali Site of the Global Enteric Multi-Center Study (GEMS)  

PubMed Central

Water, sanitation, and hygiene information was collected during a matched case-control study of moderate and severe diarrhea (MSD) among 4,096 children < 5 years of age in Bamako, Mali. Primary use of piped water (conditional odds ratio [cOR] = 0.45; 0.34–0.62), continuous water access (cOR = 0.30; 0.20–0.43), fetching water daily (cOR = 0.77; 0.63–0.96), and breastfeeding (cOR = 0.65; 0.49–0.88) significantly reduced the likelihood of MSD. Fetching water in > 30 minutes (cOR = 2.56; 1.55–4.23) was associated with MSD. Piped tap water and courier-delivered water contained high (> 2 mg/L) concentrations of free residual chlorine and no detectable Escherichia coli. However, many households stored water overnight, resulting in inadequate free residual chlorine (< 0.2 mg/L) for preventing microbial contamination. Coliforms and E. coli were detected in 48% and 8% of stored household water samples, respectively. Although most of Bamako's population enjoys access to an improved water source, water quality is often compromised during household storage.

Baker, Kelly K.; Sow, Samba O.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Nataro, James P.; Farag, Tamer H.; Tamboura, Boubou; Doumbia, Mama; Sanogo, Doh; Diarra, Drissa; O'Reilly, Ciara E.; Mintz, Eric; Panchalingam, Sandra; Wu, Yukun; Blackwelder, William C.; Levine, Myron M.

2013-01-01

408

Predictive relationships for sidestream smoke cigarette yields.  

PubMed

Relationships have been sought for smoking machine generated sidestream smoke yields of cigarettes for particulate matter (water and nicotine free) (PMWNF) and nicotine. Comparisons have been made with the corresponding mainstream smoke yields, other readily measurable factors in machine smoking and with the physical characteristics of cigarettes. The sidestream smoke yields have been found to be related to the puff count during machine smoking multiplied by the cross-sectional area of a cigarette or to the total weight of cigarette tobacco burnt during machine smoking. For the brands retailed in the U.K. these relationships permit calculation of the sidestream smoke contributions of PMWNF and nicotine to environmental tobacco smoke. From the data used to derive these relationships, and based on 31 cigarette brands representing 71% of cigarette sales in the U.K., the sales weighted sidestream PMWNF yield is 27.1 mg/cigarette and that for nicotine is 5.12 mg/cigarette. PMID:1615311

Evans, W H; Sefton, G V

1992-05-15

409

Secondhand Smoke  

MedlinePLUS

... was put in place. Today, more and more states are passing laws banning smoking in restaurants and bars. Return to top How secondhand smoke affects babies and children Why does birth weight matter? Low-birth-weight babies are more likely to ...

410

Analysis of Distribution System and Domestic Service Line Pipe Deposits to Understand Water Treatment/Metal Release Relationships  

EPA Science Inventory

This project puts the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) into a unique position of being able to bring analytical tools to bear to solve or anticipate future drinking water infrastructure water quality and metallic or cement material performance problems, for which little...

411

The Occurrence of Contaminant Accumulation in Lead Pipe Scales from Domestic Drinking Water Distribution Systems-ABSTRACT  

EPA Science Inventory

Previous work has shown that contaminants such as Al, As and Ra, can accumulate in drinking water distribution system solids. The release of accumulated contaminants back into the water supply could conceivably result in elevated levels at consumersâ?? taps. The current regulatory...

412

Demonstration and evaluation of an innovative water main rehabilitation technology: Cured-in-Place Pipe (CIPP) lining  

EPA Science Inventory

As many water utilities are seeking new and innovative rehabilitation technologies to extend the life of their water distribution systems, information on the capabilities and applicability of new technologies is not always readily available from an independent source. The U.S. E...

413

CO2 EuroPipe study of the occurrence of free water in dense phase CO 2 transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

For carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), various specifications of the water content in CO2 have been given. These specifications range from 40 to 500 ppm. Unfortunately, little has been published on the rationale behind these concentration limits. The present lack of clarity on the dryness requirements is undesirable, because eventually, we must come to a water content standard for CCS

Luuk Buit; Mohammad Ahmad; Wim Mallon; Fred Hage

2011-01-01

414

Analysis of pyridines in mainstream cigarette smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique has been developed for the quantitative analysis of pyridines in mainstream cigarette smoke using a GC–MS technique. For analysis, 10 cigarettes are smoked using conditions based on US Federal Trade Commission recommendations. The smoke is collected in a water trap and analyzed using a GC–MS technique. A standard or a fast GC separation can be applied for

N. P Kulshreshtha; S. C Moldoveanu

2003-01-01

415

Design and evaluation of a heat pipe exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A promising approach to energy conservation is the use of heat pipes to recover heat now lost in effluent processing wastewater streams. At Radford Army Ammunition Plant a prototype water-to-water heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHX) was evaluated. Heat was extracted from wastewater and recovered heat then used to preheat incoming fresh water. The heat pipe is schematicized. Design objectives--access to

C. H. Johnson; E. Zeigler

1982-01-01

416

Simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their chlorination by-products in drinking water and the coatings of water pipes by automated solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this study, an automated method for the simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their chlorination by-products in drinking water was developed based on online solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main focus was the optimisation of the solid-phase microextraction step. The influence of the agitation rate, type of fibre, desorption time, extraction time, extraction temperature, desorption temperature, and solvent addition was examined. The method was developed and validated using a mixture of 17 PAHs, 11 potential chlorination by-products (chlorinated and oxidised PAHs) and 6 deuterated standards. The limit of quantification was 10ng/L for all target compounds. The validated method was used to analyse drinking water samples from three different drinking water distribution networks and the presumably coal tar-based pipe coatings of two pipe sections. A number of PAHs were detected in all three networks although individual compositions varied. Several PAH chlorination by-products (anthraquinone, fluorenone, cyclopenta[d,e,f]phenanthrenone, 3-chlorofluoranthene, and 1-chloropyrene) were also found, their presence correlating closely with that of their respective parent compounds. Their concentrations were always below 100ng/L. In the coatings, all PAHs targeted were detected although concentrations varied between the two coatings (76-12,635mg/kg and 12-6295mg/kg, respectively). A number of chlorination by-products (anthraquinone, fluorenone, cyclopenta[d,e,f]phenanthrenone, 3-chlorofluoranthene, and 1-chloropyrene) were also detected (from 40 to 985mg/kg), suggesting that the reaction of PAHs with disinfectant agents takes place in the coatings and not in the water phase after migration. PMID:24094751

Tillner, Jocelyn; Hollard, Caroline; Bach, Cristina; Rosin, Christophe; Munoz, Jean-François; Dauchy, Xavier

2013-09-19

417

GPR characterization of buried tanks and pipes  

SciTech Connect

Ray-based numerical simulations of monostatic and bistatic GPR responses for several tank and pipe configurations reveal the potential for noninvasive diagnostic evaluations. Examples include discrimination of the material from which a tank is constructed, its size, contents, fluid levels, and shape changes. Ambiguities occur when different configurations give similar responses, and evaluations become less reliable as noise increases. Simulations are able to reproduce the salient features of field GPR data recorded over a metal pipe, and over plastic pipes filled with air, fresh water, and salt water.

Zeng, X.; McMechan, G.A. [Univ. of Texas, Richardson, TX (United States). Center for Lithospheric Studies

1997-05-01

418

Insulated pipe clamp design  

SciTech Connect

Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. The design considerations and methods along with the development tests are presented. Special considerations to guard against adverse cracking of the insulation material, to maintain the clamp-pipe stiffness desired during a seismic event, to minimize clamp restraint on the pipe during normal pipe heatup, and to resist clamp rotation or spinning on the pipe are emphasized.

Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

1980-01-01

419

INTERIOR VIEW WITH PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 24' PIPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 24' PIPE AND OPERATOR JOHNNY NIXON. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

420

INTERIOR VIEW WITH PIPE CASTING MACHINE EXTRUDING A 24' PIPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH PIPE CASTING MACHINE EXTRUDING A 24' PIPE AND OPERATOR JOHNNY NIXON. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

421

Advances in Cured-in-Place Pipe Rehabilitation for Pressurized Piping Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevention of internal corrosion, erosion, pitting, biofouling, MIC and general degradation is vital to the reliable performance of pressurized piping systems. The availability of these systems is critical to the efficient and safe operation of facilities in the process industries. Historically, there have been various alternatives available as solutions to these problems, including water treatment, coatings and piping replacement.

Keith B. Oxner; Todd Allsup

422

Reusable pipe flange covers  

DOEpatents

A molded, flexible pipe flange cover for temporarily covering a pipe flange and a pipe opening includes a substantially round center portion having a peripheral skirt portion depending from the center portion, the center portion adapted to engage a front side of the pipe flange and to seal the pipe opening. The peripheral skirt portion is formed to include a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs, wherein free ends of the flexible tabs are formed with respective through passages adapted to receive a drawstring for pulling the tabs together on a back side of the pipe flange.

Holden, James Elliott (Simpsonville, SC); Perez, Julieta (Houston, TX)

2001-01-01

423

46 CFR 154.1125 - Pipes, fittings, and valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fitting, and valve for the water spray system must be made of...galvanized iron pipe. (e) Each water spray system must have a means...prevent corrosion of the system and freezing of accumulated water in subfreezing...

2009-10-01

424

46 CFR 154.1125 - Pipes, fittings, and valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fitting, and valve for the water spray system must be made of...galvanized iron pipe. (e) Each water spray system must have a means...prevent corrosion of the system and freezing of accumulated water in subfreezing...

2010-10-01

425

Field Demonstration of Innovative Leak Detection/Location in Conjunction with Pipe Wall Thickness Testing for Water Mains  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,000-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Se...

426

Arsenic Accumulation and Release Studies Using a Cast Iron Pipe Section from a Drinking Water Distribution System  

EPA Science Inventory

The tendency of iron solid surfaces to adsorb arsenic and other ions is well known and has become the basis for several drinking water treatment approaches that remove these contaminants. It is reasonable to assume that iron-based solids, such as corrosion deposits present in dri...

427

Modelling of Urban Water Flow - Coupling Surface and Pipe Flow. The State of The Eureka Projekt Risursim  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenge of serving the cities with efficient drainage networks and waste water systems is increasingly getting larger as the cities grow. Urban flooding, sewer over- flow and rainfall impact are high priority issues in most countries. The German and Norwegian EUREKA-Project RISURSIM (Risk management for urban drainage systems simulation and optimization) headed by ITWM focuses these problems. The overall

K.-P. Nieschulz

2002-01-01

428

Pipe performance analysis with nonparametric regression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asbestos cement (AC) water mains were installed extensively in North America, Europe, and Australia during 1920s-1980s and subject to a high breakage rate in recent years in some utilities. It is essential to understand how the influential factors contribute to the degradation and failure of AC pipes. The historical failure data collected from twenty utilities are used in this study to explore the correlation between pipe condition and its working environment. In this paper, we applied four nonparametric regression methods to model the relationship between pipe failure represented by average break rates and influential variables including pipe age and internal and external working environmental parameters. The nonparametric regression models do not take a predetermined form but it needs information derived from data. The feasibility of using a nonparametric regression model for the condition assessment of AC pipes is investigated and understood.

Liu, Zheng; Hu, Yafei; Wu, Wei

2011-03-01

429

Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector  

DOEpatents

A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

McConnell, Robert D. (Lakewood, CO); Vansant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

1984-01-01

430

[Smoking cessation].  

PubMed

We estimate that more than 80% of tobacco-smokers hope that they will stop smoking one day. The major obstacle is the psychologic and pharmacologic dependence generated by the cigarette. Different weaning methods have been tried, but their rate of success remains low. The nicotinic sustitution by transdermic track (patch) will give good results providing it is prescribed within the framework of a medical help to wean away from smoking tobacco. PMID:12416350

Azzabi, Saloua; Aouina, Hichem; Baccar, Mohamed Ali; Khirouni, Souâd; el Gharbi, Leďla; Bouacha, Hend

2002-04-01

431

Quitting smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To describe why medical patients quit smoking and the methods they use.\\u000a \\u000a Design:Cross-sectional and prospective cohort design. Patient smokers were enrolled in a study of physician counseling about smoking.\\u000a One year later, 2,581 of the patients were asked about quit attempts and methods used. Of those, 245 former smokers whose\\u000a quitting had been biologically validated were interviewed about why and

Carol L. Duncan; Steven R. Cummings; Esther Sid Hudes; Elaine Zahnd; Thomas J. Coates

1992-01-01

432

Minimising surface water pollution resulting from farm?dairy effluent application to mole?pipe drained soils. I. An evaluation of the deferred irrigation system for sustainable land treatment in the Manawatu  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little information available on the magnitude of nutrient losses to surface water from the two?pond and daily irrigation treatment systems for farm?dairy effluent (FDE). A research site has been established on a mole?pipe drained Tokomaru silt loam at Massey University's No. 4 Dairy Farm (475 cows) to investigate some of these issues. The site consists of four plots

D. J. Houlbrooke; D. J. Horne; M. J. Hedley; J. A. Hanly; D. R. Scotter; V. O. Snow

2004-01-01

433

Analysis of wave propagation in fluid-filled viscoelastic pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the investigation of the propagation wave speed and wave attenuation in viscoelastic fluid-filled pipes. Relatively predictable for metal pipes, these are largely unknown for plastic pipes, since they depend on the pipe wall properties. Wave number measurements, encompassing both wave speed and wave attenuation, were carried out on different water-filled plastic pipes using three hydrophones. The frequency-dependent wave speed and attenuation were calculated from the transfer function between three pressure measurements. Experimental results for different pipe wall materials, particularly those with applications in water supply installations, are presented. The purpose of this paper is to present a method of analysis in the frequency domain that can be used to determine the acoustical properties of fluid-filled plastic pipes.

Prek, Matjaz

2007-05-01

434

Comparison between oxide-reduced and water-atomized copper powders used in making sintered wicks of heat pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxide-reduced copper powder can be produced efficiently at low cost. The volume shrinkage, porosity, maximum pore size, permeability and thermal conductivity of wicks sintered from two oxide-reduced (OR) powders were compared with one from water-atomized (WA) powder. The green specimens were sintered at temperatures from 800 to 1000°C in a tube furnace under a reduction stream of 10% hydrogen and

Liu-Ho Chiu; Chang-Hui Wu; Pee-Yew Lee

2007-01-01

435

Miniature Heat Pipes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Small Business Innovation Research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to Thermacore Inc. have fostered the company work on devices tagged 'heat pipes' for space application. To control the extreme temperature ranges in space, heat pipes are import...

1997-01-01

436

Study on Plastic Pipes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

District heating pipelines are usually placed by using medium pipes consisting of steel; it is only in some exceptional cases that plastics are used. In future, plastics could be used for district heating subdistribution in competition with steel pipes pr...

A. Tautz

1982-01-01

437

Flexible Pipe Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conference proceedings contain 12 papers. The topics covered are: Technology, products and offshore applications; Steel reinforced elastomer pipes - Design approach and performance characteristics; Flexible pipe installation techniques; Gullfaks ''A''...

1986-01-01

438

Pipe-to-pipe impact program  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the tests and analyses performed as part of the Pipe-to-Pipe Impact (PTPI) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This work was performed to assist the NRC in making licensing decisions regarding pipe-to-pipe impact events following postulated breaks in high energy fluid system piping. The report scope encompasses work conducted from the program's start through the completion of the initial hot oil tests. The test equipment, procedures, and results are described, as are analytic studies of failure potential and data correlation. Because the PTPI Program is only partially completed, the total significance of the current test results cannot yet be accurately assessed. Therefore, although trends in the data are discussed, final conclusions and recommendations will be possible only after the completion of the program, which is scheduled to end in FY 1984.

Alzheimer, J.M.; Bampton, M.C.C.; Friley, J.R.; Simonen, F.A.

1984-06-01

439

Abrasion resistant heat pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to

1984-01-01

440

Abrasion resistant heat pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion

Donald M

1984-01-01

441

Bonded flexible pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of bonded flexible pipe improvements primarily driven by environmental safety as applied to offshore development using mobile production systems. Bonded pipe is a flexible pipe where the steel reinforcement is integrated and bonded to a vulcanized elastomeric material. Textile material is included in the structure to obtain additional structural reinforcement or to separate elastomeric layers.

Val M. Northcutt

2000-01-01

442

Heat pipe system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat pipe diode device for transferring heat from a heat source component to a heat sink wall is described. It contains a heat pipe body member attached to the best source; the heat source having a wall forming at least a portion of the normal evaporator section of the heat pipe diode; a working fluid within the body member;

H. L. Kroebig; F. J. Riha

1974-01-01

443

Inspecting flexible pipe  

SciTech Connect

Principal modes of failure as well as defects which cause leakage or cross-section damage are discussed. The author explains in detail how traditional problems associated with inspecting flexible pipe, which include discriminating between pipe layers, corrosion monitoring and the use of intelligent pigs, can be related to flexible pipe's complex construction and complex behavior. Proper pig selection and operations are emphasized.

Neffgen, J.M. (Pag-O-Flex, AS (NO))

1990-12-01

444

Depression and Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

Home » Tools » Depression Basics » Depression and Smoking Depression and Smoking How is depression different from withdrawal from smoking? Mood changes are common after quitting smoking. You might be irritable, restless, or ...

445

Controlled heat pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermodynamic analysis of the operation of controlled heat pipes is presented. Topics covered include a classification of controlled heat pipes; attention is given to heat pipes in the dry saturated vapor regime, with a superheated vapor, with a supercooled liquid phase, with a superheated vapor and a supercooled liquid phase, and with moist vapor. Also covered are heat pipes with passive or active control, and the classification of controlled heat pipes according to the function (application) realized. Applications include heat diodes, temperature stabilizers, a heat bridge, a heat flow regulator, and a heat switch.

Vasilev, L. L.; Konev, S. V.; Tomchak, V.; Danelevich, Ia.

1983-07-01

446

Controlled heat pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermodynamic analysis of the operation of controlled heat pipes is presented. Topics covered include a classification of controlled heat pipes; attention is given to heat pipes in the dry saturated vapor regime, with a superheated vapor, with a supercooled liquid phase, with a superheated vapor and a supercooled liquid phase, and with moist vapor. Also covered are heat pipes with passive or active control, and the classification of controlled heat pipes according to the function (application) realized. Applications include heat diodes, temperature stabilizers, a heat bridge, a heat flow regulator, and a heat switch.

Vasilev, L. L.; Konev, S. V.; Tomchak, V.; Danelevich, Ia.

1984-01-01

447

Seismic fragility analysis of buried steel piping at P, L, and K reactors  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of seismic strength of buried cooling water piping in reactor areas is necessary to evaluate the risk of reactor operation because seismic events could damage these buried pipes and cause loss of coolant accidents. This report documents analysis of the ability of this piping to withstand the combined effects of the propagation of seismic waves, the possibility that the piping may not behave in a completely ductile fashion, and the distortions caused by relative displacements of structures connected to the piping.

Wingo, H.E.

1989-10-01

448

"Smoking Wet"  

PubMed Central

Reports have suggested that the use of a dangerously tainted form of marijuana, referred to in the vernacular as “wet” or “fry,” has increased. Marijuana cigarettes are dipped into or laced with other substances, typically formaldehyde, phencyclidine, or both. Inhaling smoke from these cigarettes can cause lung injuries. We report the cases of 2 young adults who presented at our hospital with respiratory failure soon after they had smoked “wet” marijuana cigarettes. In both patients, progressive hypoxemic respiratory failure necessitated rescue therapy with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. After lengthy hospitalizations, both patients recovered with only mild pulmonary function abnormalities. To our knowledge, this is the first 2-patient report of severe respiratory failure and rescue therapy with extracorporeal oxygenation after the smoking of marijuana cigarettes thus tainted. We believe that, in young adults with an unexplained presentation of severe respiratory failure, the possibility of exposure to tainted marijuana cigarettes should be considered.

Gilbert, Christopher R.; Baram, Michael; Cavarocchi, Nicholas C.

2013-01-01

449

Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water\\/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the

P. R. Huebotter; G. A. McLennan

1985-01-01

450

Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water\\/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the

P. R. Huebotter; G. A. McLennan

1984-01-01

451

Durability of polymeric pipes in contact with domestic products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymers are used more and more to make pipes for conduction of water in buildings. There are a lot of advantages in the use of polymers, e.g. flexibility, lightness and lower costs. The polymeric pipes selected for this study were PVC and PE. During a 1-year period they were submitted to various types of conditioning. We used water with some

J. B Aguiar

1999-01-01

452

Spinklerroer i Plast (Plastic Piping for Sprinkler Systems)  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are several proven thermoplastic piping systems on the Swedish market for tap water, domestic hot water and space heating and cooling systems in materials such as PE, PEX, PP, PB, ABS, or CPVC that could be used as sprinkler pipes. The objective of ...

2004-01-01

453

Self-cleaning inlet screen to an ocean riser pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long, vertically disposed ocean water upwelling pipe, such as a cold water riser in an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, is fitted at its lower inlet end with a self-cleaning inlet screen. The screen includes a right conical frustum of loose metal netting connected at its larger upper end to the lower end of the pipe. A heavy, negatively

S. B. Wetmore; A. Person

1980-01-01

454

Model for hydraulic networks with evenly distributed demands along pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows how the global gradient method formulated by Todini and Pilati (Todini, E. and Pilati, S., 1987. A gradient algorithm for the analysis of pipe network. In: International conference on computer applications for water supply and distribution, Leicester Polytechnic, UK) can be modified in order to represent user water demand evenly distributed along pipes. It is also shown

Marco Franchini; Stefano Alvisi

2010-01-01

455

Upflow turbulent mixed convection heat transfer in vertical pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work deals with the results of an experimental investigation on heat transfer in water cooled vertical pipes, for thermal–hydraulic conditions ranging from forced convective flow to mixed convective flow. The flow of water in the pipe is upwards.Experimental data confirm the reduction in the heat transfer rate for mixed convection in upward heat flow, mainly due to the

Gian Piero Celata; Francesco Dannibale; Andrea Chiaradia; Maurizio Cumo

1998-01-01

456

Control of lead, copper, and iron pipe corrosion in Boston  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water supplied to the Boston metropolitan area is relatively corrosive to piping materials. Contamination of drinking water by lead is a concern because lead pipe that was used extensively in Boston in the late 1800s and the early 1900s was durable enough to be in service in the late 1970s. This paper describes a program established to monitor and

Peter C. Karalekas Jr.; Christopher R. Ryan; Floyd B. Taylor

1983-01-01

457

IMMUNOTOXICITY OF ORGANOTINS USED AS STABILIZERS IN PVC PIPE  

EPA Science Inventory

Organotins, used as stabilizers in the production of PVC drinking water supply pipe, are known to leach into water, particularly from new pipe. Certain organotins (dibutyl-, dioctyl- and tributyltins) are known to suppress immune function following acute and subchronic exposure o...

458

Use of a novel dual-sensor probe array and electrical resistance tomography for characterization of the mean and time-dependent properties of inclined, bubbly oil-in-water pipe flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An array of dual-sensor conductance probes, which contains a number of dual-sensor probes equispaced across the diameter of an 80 mm pipe, is introduced in this paper for characterizing bubbly oil-in-water pipe flows inclined at angles from 15° to 60° to the vertical. Each dual-sensor probe measures the local axial oil velocity and the local oil volume fraction at the position of the probe. Choosing an averaging interval of 0.05 s, values of the local oil volume fraction and the local oil velocity were measured simultaneously at the different probe positions, enabling the time-dependent structure of the two-phase flow to be investigated. After data processing, time-dependent variations of volume fraction along the pipe were found which are consistent with the presence of intermittent Kelvin-Helmholtz wave structures in the flow. A high-speed dual-plane ERT system was used to measure the axial propagation speed of these Kelvin-Helmholtz waves, using cross correlation. This paper presents results for the measured characteristics of inclined oil-in-water flows including (i) time-averaged and time-dependent oil volume fraction and velocity distributions and (ii) the Kelvin-Helmholtz wave properties including the wave speed, wave amplitude, wavelength and wave frequency.

Zhao, X.; Lucas, G. P.

2011-10-01

459

Trace gas emissions and smoke-induced seed germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dormant seeds of a California chaparral annual were induced to germinate by smoke or paper. Nitrogen oxides induced 100 percent vapors emitted from smoke-treated sand or treated water samples inducing. Smoke germination in a manner similar to smoke germination were comparable in acidity and concentration of nitrate and nitrite to nitrogen dioxide (NOâ)-treated samples. Vapors from smoke-treated and NOâ-treated filter

Jon E. Keeley; C. J. Fotheringham

1997-01-01

460

Improved thermoplastic materials for offshore flexible pipes  

SciTech Connect

Long-term aging tests representative of field operating conditions have been conducted on various thermoplastic materials proposed for the inner tube of flexible pipes for offshore drilling and production applications. In particular, experimental data are provided about the changes of the mechanical properties of selected thermoplastic materials owing to optimized formulation when the pipes are exposed over time to crude oil in the presence of gas and water.

Dawans, F.; Jarrin, J.; Hardy, J.

1988-08-01

461

Water temperature effect on upward air-water flow in a vertical pipe: Local measurements database using four-sensor conductivity probes and LDA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental work was carried out to study the effects of temperature variation in bubbly, bubbly to slug transition. Experiments were carried out in an upward air-water flow configuration. Four sensor conductivity probes and LDA techniques was used together for the measurement of bubble parameters. The aim of this paper is to provide a bubble parameter experimental database using four-sensor conductivity probes and LDA technique for upward air-water flow at different temperatures and also show transition effect in different temperatures under the boiling point.

Monrós-Andreu, G.; Chiva, S.; Martínez-Cuenca, R.; Torró, S.; Juliá, J. E.; Hernández, L.; Mondragón, R.

2013-04-01

462

Secondhand Smoke  

MedlinePLUS

... special area of concern. Make sure that your children’s day care center or school is smoke-free. At home Making ... 11, 2012. Wilson KM, Pier JC, Wesgate SC, Cohen JM, Blumkin AK. Second-Hand ... Hospitalized Children. J Pediatr. 2012 Aug 3. Winickoff JP, Friebely ...

463

Secondhand Smoke  

MedlinePLUS

... more than 7,000 chemicals. Hundreds of those chemicals are toxic and about 70 can cause cancer. Health effects of secondhand smoke include Ear infections in children More frequent and severe asthma attacks in children Heart disease and lung cancer in ...

464

Quit Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... snacks ready, like carrots, nuts, apples, or sugar-free gum. Distract yourself with a new activity. If you used to smoke while driving, try something new. Take public transportation or ride with a friend. Take several deep breaths to help you relax. Take this withdrawal ...

465

Asbestos-in-buildings technical bulletin: abatement of asbestos-containing pipe insulation. Technical bulletin  

SciTech Connect

The technical bulletin supplements information in the 1985 guidance document: Guidance for Controlling Asbestos-Containing Materials in Buildings (EPA-560/5-85-024). It addresses one type of ACM: asbestos-containing insulation on steam, hot-water, or cold-water pipes. Detailed procedures are presented for repairing or removing pipe insulation or removing the insulation and pipe together.

Keyes, D.L.

1986-01-01

466

Fatigue Life Characteristics of Waterworks Pipe Welds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fatigue characteristic of a material or a structure is derived from fatigue tests of standard specimens. However, many test results of standard specimens are very different from those of real structures or components because of geometrical effect, surface condition and so on. In this study, fatigue tests with specimens and pipes were carried out to evaluate the fatigue characteristic of a real waterworks pipe. Standard fatigue specimens and non-standard specimens were extracted from a steel pipe used in waterworks system. Also, fatigue tests of real pipes used in water service were carried out. This result was compared with that of standard specimens and non-standard specimens. To evaluate pipe's fatigue characteristics based on life distribution, the statistical analysis method was introduced. Probability density functions of the specimen based on the normal distribution function were obtained from fatigue tests at particular stress levels. These functions were then transformed to probability density functions based on a specific number of cycles to failure. This procedure was also adapted to the pipe's test results. From these results, the fatigue characteristic of waterworks pipe was evaluated.

Park, Jae Sil; Seok, Chang-Sung; Choi, Jung Hun

467

Pipe crawler with stabilizing midsection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pipe crawler is described having a midsection that provides the stability and flexibility to allow the pipe crawler to negotiate curved and uneven segments of piping while traveling through piping systems. The pipe crawler comprises a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly, a midsection with a gimbal at each end for connecting the midsection to the front and

W. T. Zollinger; R. C. Treanor

1994-01-01

468

Pipe crawler with stabilizing midsection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is comprised of a pipe crawler having a midsection that provides the stability and flexibility to allow the pipe crawler to negotiate curved and uneven segments of piping while traveling through piping systems. The pipe crawler comprises a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly, a midsection with a gimbal at each end for connecting the midsection to

W. T. Zollinger; R. C. Treanor

2009-01-01

469

Pipe crawler with stabilizing midsection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pipe crawler having a midsection that provides the stability and flexibty to allow the pipe crawler to negotiate curved and uneven segments of piping while traveling through piping systems. The pipe crawler comprises a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly, a midsection with a gimbal at each end for connecting the midsection to the front and rear leg

William T. Zollinger; Richard C. Treanor

1994-01-01

470

Abrasion resistant heat pipe  

DOEpatents

A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

Ernst, D.M.

1984-10-23

471

Heat pipe effect in porous medium  

SciTech Connect

In this thesis a parametric study of the thermal and hydrologic characteristics of the fractured porous tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada was conducted. The effects of different fracture and matrix properties including permeability, thermal conductivity, specific heat, porosity, and tortuosity on heat pipe performance in the vicinity of the waste package were observed. Computer simulations were carried out using TOUGH code on a Cray YMP-2 supercomputer. None of the fracture parameters affected the heat pipe performance except the mobility of the liquid in the fracture. Matrix permeability and thermal conductivity were found to have significant effect on the heat pipe performance. The effect of mass injection was studied for liquid water and air injected at the fracture boundary. A high rate of mass injection was required to produce any effect on the heat pipe. The fracture-matrix equilibrium is influenced by the matrix permeability and the matrix thermal conductivity.

Joseph, M.

1992-12-01

472

Riser pipe elevator  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for storing and retrieving a riser pipe, comprising the steps of: providing an upright annular magazine comprised of an inside annular wall and an outside annular wall, the magazine having an open top; storing the riser pipe in a substantially vertically oriented position within the annular magazine; and moving the riser pipe upwardly through the open top of the annular magazine at an angle to the vertical along at least a portion of the length of the riser pipe.

Bennett, W.; Jimenez, A.F.

1987-09-08

473

Numerical analysis of transient two phase flow in heat pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents numerical simulation of the physical phenomena in heat pipe. The vapour dynamics of working fluid is considered in the numerical analysis of the heat pipe. A two-phase analysis is carried out for the heat pipe. The compressible flow equations for vapour-phase interaction with water particle phase are solved by a finite volume technique. A three stage Runge-Kutta

R. C. Mehta; T. Jayachandran

1996-01-01

474

Influence of moisture absorption on creep of GRP composite pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to study the influence of moisture absorption on long-term creep behavior of composite pipes. These pipes are used in water transportation which has an effect on the mechanical properties and on the polymeric composite matrix. Glass-reinforced thermosetting plastics (GRP) pipes are typically tested under ring deflection and\\/or internal pressure conditions. In this study, experimental

R. M. Guedes; Alcides Sá; Hugo Faria

2007-01-01

475

Smoking and vascular risk: are all forms of smoking harmful to all types of vascular disease?  

PubMed

Smoking, both active and passive, is an established vascular risk factor. The present narrative review considers the effects of different forms of smoking (i.e. cannabis, cigar, pipe, smokeless tobacco and cigarette) on cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, the impact of smoking on several vascular risk factors [e.g. hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidaemia and haemostasis] and on vascular diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD), peripheral arterial disease (PAD), abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) and carotid arterial disease, is discussed. The adverse effects of all forms of smoking and the interactions between smoking and established vascular risk factors highlight the importance of smoking cessation in high-risk patients in terms of both primary and secondary vascular disease prevention. Healthcare providers should discourage people (especially the young) from becoming smokers, strongly encourage all vascular patients to stop smoking and support those who decide to quit by pharmaceutical and psychological interventions. In high-risk populations such as patients with CHD, DM and/or PAD, smoking cessation should always be a part of a multifactorial treatment to reduce vascular risk. PMID:23453194

Katsiki, N; Papadopoulou, S K; Fachantidou, A I; Mikhailidis, D P

2013-02-28

476

Test and evaluation of aluminum drill pipe for deep-water coring: design and use of heavy-wall drilling joints for bending stress reduction. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report includes two papers dealing with means of extending the drill string depth capability and lowering stresses at the top of the drill string. The first paper reports on the operational use of a 2000 foot section of aluminum drill pipe in a mixed aluminum\\/steel drill string. The report also discusses metallurgical laboratory tests and assesses the potential of

1984-01-01

477

Test and Evaluation of Aluminum Drill Pipe for Deep Water Coring: Design and Use of Heavy Wall Drilling Joints for Bending Stress Reduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report includes two papers dealing with means of extending the drill string depth capability and lowering stresses at the top of the drill string. The first paper reports on the operational use of a 2000 foot section of aluminum drill pipe in a mixed ...

M. N. A. Peterson

1984-01-01

478

UNDERSTANDING CHLORINE AND CHLORAMINE DECAY KINETICS IN OLD CAST IRON PIPES, 2. CONVERSION FROM CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT TO MICROFILTRATION IN A SMALL WATER SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

This insitu pipe loop study was designed to determine the disinfectant kinetics associated with very old unlined cast iron pipelines with both chlorine and chloramination residuals. An abandoned 90-year-old unlined cast iron pipeline about 2000 ft long was acclimated to conduct a...

479

Allergenic fungi and actinomycetes in smoking materials and their health implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Street marijuana, commercial cigarettes and pipe tobaccos were studied for the presence of fungi and actinomycetes associated with hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Aspergillus species and thermophilic actinomycetes were isolated from the smoking materials. In addition, Aspergillus fumigatus spores were isolated from marijuana smoke, indicating the potential hazard involved in developing serious disease. Precipitin antibodies against fungi, particularly Aspergillus, showed a higher prevalence

V. P. Kurup; A. Resnick; S. L. Kagen; S. H. Cohen; J. N. Fink

1983-01-01

480

The heat pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat pipe is a device having a high thermal conductance which utilizes the transport of a vapour and rejection of latent heat to achieve efficient thermal energy transport. The theory of heat pipes is well developed. Their use in applications involving temperatures in the cryogenic regime, and with development units running as high as 2000 degrees C, shows that

P. D. Dunn; D. A. Reay

1973-01-01

481

Insulated Pipe Clamp Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired becau...

M. J. Anderson L. L. Hyde S. E. Wagner L. K. Severud

1980-01-01

482

Splayed mirror light pipes  

SciTech Connect

An expression is given for the transmission of the rectangular-section mirror light pipe. The expression is used to model throughputs for simulated solar conditions over a calender year. It is found that the splaying of a mirror light pipe results in a significant increase in throughputs particularly in winter months. (author)

Swift, P.D. [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

2010-02-15

483

Heat transfer pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat transfer pipe for use in a heat exchanger such as air conditioner, freezer and boiler is disclosed wherein grooves are formed in the inner wall surface of the pipe, which are by far finer in size than the grooves that have been provided for the purpose of increasing the heat transfer area in general, and slanting relative to

K. Fujie; M. Itoh; T. Innami; H. Kimura; W. Nakayama; T. Yanagida

1977-01-01

484

Inspecting flexible pipe  

SciTech Connect

Construction characteristics of flexible pipe, including composite structure of alternating layers of material, polymer and gas permeation and structural prevention of explosive deformation (ED) are reviewed. The author contrasts bonded and nonbonded construction in order to relate flexible pipe's complex behavior to an inspection method.

Neffgen, J.M. (Pag-O-Flex A/S (NO))

1990-11-01

485

Loop heat pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are two-phase heat-transfer devices with capillary pumping of a working fluid. They possess all the main advantages of conventional heat pipes, but owing to the original design and special properties of the capillary structure are capable of transferring heat efficiency for distances up to several meters at any orientation in the gravity field, or to several

Yu. F. Maydanik

2005-01-01

486

Extendable pipe crawler  

DOEpatents

A pipe crawler is described having a front leg assembly and a back leg assembly connected together by two air cylinders, each leg assembly having four extendable legs and a pair of actuators for sliding the extendable legs radially outward to increase the range of the legs when the pipe crawler enters a section of a pipe having a larger diameter. The crawler crawls by inchworm'-like motion, the front leg assembly and back leg assembly alternately engaging and disengaging the wall of the pipe to hold the pipe crawler as the air cylinders alternately advance the front leg assembly and bring up the rear leg assembly. The pair of actuators of each leg assembly are parallel, adjacent and opposing acting so that each slides two adjacent extendable legs radially outward. 5 figures.

Hapstack, M.

1991-05-28

487

Extendable pipe crawler  

DOEpatents

A pipe crawler having a front leg assembly and a back leg assembly connected together by two air cylinders, each leg assembly having four extendable legs and a pair of actuators for sliding the extendable legs radially outward to increase the range of the legs when the pipe crawler enters a section of a pipe having a larger diameter. The crawler crawls by "inchworm"-like motion, the front leg assembly and back leg assembly alternately engaging and disengaging the wall of the pipe to hold the pipe crawler as the air cylinders alternately advance the front leg assembly and bring up the rear leg assembly. The pair of actuators of each leg assembly are parallel, adjacent and opposing acting so that each slides two adjacent extendable legs radially outward.

Hapstack, Mark (North Augusta, SC)

1991-01-01

488

33 CFR 127.1601 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Smoking. 127.1601 Section 127.1601 Navigation and Navigable...Liquefied Hazardous Gas Fire Protection § 127.1601 Smoking. Each operator of a waterfront facility handling LHG...

2013-07-01

489

33 CFR 127.613 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Smoking. 127.613 Section 127.613 Navigation and Navigable...Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.613 Smoking. In the marine transfer area for LNG, the operator...

2013-07-01

490

Prediction of pressure drop in multiphase horizontal pipe flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical correlations were tested against reliable two phase pipe flow data for the prediction of pressure drop. Correlations are recommended for the prediction with stratified and annular type flows. When these correlations were adapted to three phase gas–water–oil pipe flow in general they predicted for intermittent slug type flows. Momentum balance models could not be successfully adapted to the prediction

P. L. Spedding; E. Benard; G. F. Donnelly

2006-01-01

491

Uncertainty Analysis of Leak Rate Calculation through Pipes and Slits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a numerical investigation of the two-phase critical flows of initially subcooled or saturated water through pipes and slits are reported. The study of such flows is relevant to the prediction of leak rates through cracks or breaks in high energy piping systems. Calculation results are compared to the reported experimental data. Effects of flow parameters such as the

K. S. Chang

1999-01-01

492

Heat Pipe Cooling of an Aerospace Foam Mold Manufacturing Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A passive heat pipe cooling system was developed to cool a Bendix foam mold used to manufacture aerospace foam parts. The cooling system consists of ten copper-water heat pipes with cooling fins implanted into the aluminum mold and cooled by a domestic si...

D. R. Hahn K. T. Feldman P. L. Marjon

1980-01-01

493

Avoid freeze-up of steam traps and their piping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the problem of keeping steam traps free of ice in cold weather. The topics of the article include piping configurations and trap types that contribute to freezing, freeze damage, obstructions in piping, insulation of lines to retard freezing, common manifolds for heating of condensate, draining of low points, temperature-actuated devices, and water hammer damage.

OKeefe

1993-01-01

494

Avoid freeze-up of steam traps and their piping  

SciTech Connect

This article addresses the problem of keeping steam traps free of ice in cold weather. The topics of the article include piping configurations and trap types that contribute to freezing, freeze damage, obstructions in piping, insulation of lines to retard freezing, common manifolds for heating of condensate, draining of low points, temperature-actuated devices, and water hammer damage.

O'Keefe, W.

1993-12-01

495