Sample records for water pipe smoking

  1. Water pipe smoking and dermatologic consequences.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U

    2015-08-01

    Water pipe smoking is a recently growing addiction worldwide. It has become popular in Africa and the Western World and enfaces a renaissance in Middle East and Asia. The smoking technique leads to a different exposure to potential hazardous compounds compared to cigarette or classical pipe smoking. The common assumption that water pipe smoking is less dangerous to health is not substantiated by scientific data. Non-tobacco-based preparations reduce the exposure to nicotine but may contain equal or even higher concentrations of other toxic compounds. The medical literature on adverse effect of water pipe smoking on skin and oral mucosa is reviewed but future research is a demand. PMID:25677592

  2. Water pipe tobacco smoking among university students in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Mohammed; Khabour, Omar F.; Alkaraki, Almuthanna K.; Eissenberg, Thomas; Alzoubi, Karem H.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Although water pipe tobacco smoking is common in Lebanon and Syria, prevalence in neighboring Jordan is uncertain. The purposes of this study were (a) to assess the prevalence of water pipe tobacco smoking among university students in Jordan and (b) to determine associations between sociodemographic variables and water pipe tobacco smoking in this population. Methods: A trained interviewer administered a questionnaire among randomly selected students at four prominent universities in Jordan. The questionnaire assessed sociodemographic data, personal history of water pipe tobacco use, and attitudes regarding water pipe tobacco smoking. We used logistic regression to determine independent associations between sociodemographic and attitudinal factors and each of two dependent variables: ever use of water pipe and use at least monthly. Results: Of the 548 participants, 51.8% were male and mean age was 21.7 years. More than half (61.1%) had ever smoked tobacco from a water pipe, and use at least monthly was reported by 42.7%. Multivariable analyses controlling for all relevant factors demonstrated significant associations between ever use and only two sociodemographic factors: (a) gender (for women compared with men, odds ratio [OR] = 0.11, 95% CI = 0.07–0.17) and (b) income (for those earning 500–999 Jordanian dinar (JD) monthly vs. <250 JD monthly, OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.31–4.31). There were also significant associations between perception of harm and addictiveness and each outcome. Discussion: Water pipe tobacco smoking is highly prevalent in Jordan. Although use is associated with male gender and upper middle income levels, use is widespread across other sociodemographic variables. Continued surveillance and educational interventions emphasizing the harm and addictiveness of water pipe tobacco smoking may be valuable in Jordan. PMID:20418383

  3. Investigation of mainstream smoke aerosol of the argileh water pipe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Shihadeh

    2003-01-01

    A first-generation smoking machine and protocol have been developed in order to study the mainstream smoke aerosol and elucidate thermal-fluid processes of the argileh water pipe. Results using a common mo'assel tobacco mixture show that, contrary to popular perceptions, the mainstream smoke contains significant amounts of nicotine, “tar” and heavy metals. With a standard smoking protocol of 100 puffs of

  4. Comparison of Nicotine and Carcinogen Exposure with Water pipe and Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Peyton; Abu Raddaha, Ahmad H.; Dempsey, Delia; Havel, Christopher; Peng, Margaret; Yu, Lisa; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Smoking tobacco preparations in a water pipe (hookah) is widespread in many places of the world and is perceived by many as relatively safe. We investigated biomarkers of toxicant exposure with water pipe compared to cigarette smoking. Methods We conducted a cross-over study to assess daily nicotine and carcinogen exposure with water pipe and cigarette smoking in 13 people who were experienced in using both products. Results While smoking an average of 3 water pipe sessions compared to smoking 11 cigarettes per day, water pipe use was associated with a significantly lower intake of nicotine, greater exposure to carbon monoxide and a different pattern of carcinogen exposure compared to cigarette smoking, with greater exposure to benzene and high molecular weight PAHs, but less exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines, 1,3-butadiene and acrolein, acrylonitrile, propylene oxide, ethylene oxide, and low molecular weight PAHs. Conclusions A different pattern of carcinogen exposure might result in a different cancer risk profile between cigarette and water pipe smoking. Of particular concern is the risk of leukemia related to high levels of benzene exposure with water pipe use. Impact Smoking tobacco in water pipes has gained popularity in the United States and around the world. Many believe that water pipe smoking is not addictive and less harmful than cigarette smoking. We provide data on toxicant exposure that will help guide regulation and public education regarding water pipe health risk. PMID:23462922

  5. Nicotine and carcinogen exposure after water pipe smoking in hookah bars

    PubMed Central

    St.Helen, Gideon; Benowitz, Neal L; Dains, Katherine M; Havel, Christopher; Peng, Margaret; Jacob, Peyton

    2014-01-01

    Background Water pipe tobacco smoking is spreading globally and is increasingly becoming popular in the United States, particularly among young people. While many perceive water pipe smoking to be relatively safe, clinical experimental studies indicate significant exposures to tobacco smoke carcinogens following water pipe use. We investigated biomarkers of nicotine intake and carcinogen exposure from water pipe smoking in the naturalistic setting of hookah bars. Methods Fifty-five experienced water pipe users were studied before and after smoking water pipe in their customary way in a hookah bar. Urine samples were analyzed for nicotine, cotinine, the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1- butanol (NNAL), and mercapturic acid metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Results We found an average 73-fold increase in nicotine, 4-fold increase in cotinine, 2-fold increase in NNAL, and 14-91% increase in VOC mercapturic acid metabolites immediately following water pipe smoking. We saw moderate to high correlations between changes in tobacco-specific biomarkers (nicotine, cotinine, and NNAL) and several mercapturic acid metabolites of VOC. Conclusion Water pipe smoking in a hookah bar is associated with significant nicotine intake and carcinogen exposure. Impact Given the significant intake of nicotine and carcinogens, chronic water pipe use could place users at increased risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. PMID:24836469

  6. Prevalence of cigarette and water pipe smoking and their predictors among Iranian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Tavananezhad, Nikta; Karkhaneh, Mahsa

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Introduction: Widespread tobacco use, along with its induced diseases and subsequent deaths, comprise one of the biggest threats to public health in the world. Thus, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of cigarette and water pipe smoking and their predictors among Iranian adolescents. Materials and methods: A total of 1524 adolescent students aged 14-18 years (764 boys and 760 girls) were randomly selected. The participants attended governmental, semi-governmental, and non-governmental schools in the city of Sanandaj, Iran in 2013. Data were collected using the "Sherer General Self-efficacy" and demographic questionnaire. Multivariate Logistic binary regresion analysis was conducted to determine the predictors. Results: The prevalence rates of cigarette and water pipe smoking were 9.5% and 10.4%, respectively. About 3.7% of the adolescents used both cigarette and water pipe and 16% used at least one of these. Compared with girls, prevalence of both cigarette (13.1% vs. 6.4%) and water pipe (13.7% vs. 7.1%) smoking was higher among the boys. Male sex, father's education of secondary school, and use of water pipe were identified as cigarette smoking risk factors, while technical and commercial educational fields and attending non-governmental school were its protective factors. Risk factors of the use of water pipe were currently working, higher age and cigarette smoking, father's education of high school, father's occupation of employee and mother's education of a diploma degree, while higher self-efficacy and attending non-governmental school were its protective factors. Conclusion: The high prevalence of cigarette and water pipe smoking in adolescents continues to rise. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct further studies on effective factors on the onset and continuation of tobacco use. PMID:25470603

  7. Associations Between Initial Water Pipe Tobacco Smoking and Snus Use and Subsequent Cigarette Smoking Results From a Longitudinal Study of US Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James D.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Primack, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Many adolescents and young adults use alternative tobacco products, such as water pipes and snus, instead of cigarettes. OBJECTIVE To assess whether prior water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use among never smokers are risk factors for subsequent cigarette smoking. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We conducted a 2-wave national longitudinal study in the United States among 2541 individuals aged 15 to 23 years old. At baseline (October 25, 2010, through June 11, 2011), we ascertained whether respondents had smoked cigarettes, smoked water pipe tobacco, or used snus. At the 2-year follow-up (October 27, 2012, through March 31, 2013), we determined whether baseline non–cigarette smokers had subsequently tried cigarette smoking, were current (past 30 days) cigarette smokers, or were high-intensity cigarette smokers. We fit multivariable logistic regression models among baseline non–cigarette smokers to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with subsequent cigarette smoking initiation and current cigarette smoking, accounting for established sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. We fit similarly specified multivariable ordinal logistic regression models to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with high-intensity cigarette smoking at follow-up. EXPOSURES Water pipe tobacco smoking and the use of snus at baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Among baseline non–cigarette smokers, cigarette smoking initiation, current (past 30 days) cigarette smoking at follow-up, and the intensity of cigarette smoking at follow-up. RESULTS Among 1596 respondents, 1048 had never smoked cigarettes at baseline, of whom 71 had smoked water pipe tobacco and 20 had used snus at baseline. At follow-up, accounting for behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors, baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use were independently associated with cigarette smoking initiation (adjusted odds ratios: 2.56; 95% CI, 1.46-4.47 and 3.73; 95% CI, 1.43-9.76, respectively), current cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratios: 2.48; 95% CI, 1.01-6.06 and 6.19; 95% CI, 1.86-20.56, respectively), and higher intensity of cigarette smoking (adjusted proportional odds ratios: 2.55; 95% CI, 1.48-4.38 and 4.45; 95% CI, 1.75-11.27, respectively). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Water pipe tobacco smoking and the use of snus independently predicted the onset of cigarette smoking and current cigarette smoking at follow-up. Comprehensive Food and Drug Administration regulation of these tobacco products may limit their appeal to youth and curb the onset of cigarette smoking. PMID:25485959

  8. The growing epidemic of water pipe smoking: health effects and future needs.

    PubMed

    Bou Fakhreddine, Hisham M; Kanj, Amjad N; Kanj, Nadim A

    2014-09-01

    Water pipe smoking (WPS), an old method of tobacco smoking, is re-gaining widespread popularity all over the world and among various populations. Smoking machine studies have shown that the water pipe (WP) mainstream smoke (MSS) contains a wide array of chemical substances, many of which are highly toxic and carcinogenic for humans. The concentrations of some substances exceed those present in MSS of cigarettes. Despite being of low grade, current evidence indicates that WPS is associated with different adverse health effects, not only on the respiratory system but also on the cardiovascular, hematological, and reproductive systems, including pregnancy outcomes. In addition, association between WPS and malignancies, such as lung, oral and nasopharyngeal cancer, has been suggested in different studies and systematic reviews. Despite its long standing history, WPS research still harbors a lot of deficiencies. The magnitude of toxicants and carcinogen exposures, effects on human health, as well as the addiction and dependence potentials associated with WPS need to be studied in well-designed prospective trials. Unfortunately, many of the tobacco control and clean indoor policies have exempted water pipes. World wide awareness among the public, smokers, and policymakers about the potential health effects of WPS is urgently required. Furthermore, stringent policies and laws that control and ban WPS in public places, similar to those applied on cigarettes smoking need to be implemented. PMID:25130679

  9. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of argileh (water pipe or hubble-bubble) and cigarette smoking among pregnant women in Lebanon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Chaaya; S. Jabbour; Z. El-Roueiheb; H. Chemaitelly

    2004-01-01

    Background: Currently, little is known about argileh (water pipe or hubble-bubble) and cigarette smoking among pregnant women in the Arab world, despite emerging evidence on the adverse health effects of argileh smoking and well-established knowledge about the health risks of cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Objectives: The present study assesses pregnant Arab women's knowledge of chemical contents and related harmful effects

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, “tar”, and nicotine in the mainstream smoke aerosol of the narghile water pipe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Shihadeh; Rawad Saleh

    2005-01-01

    A smoking machine protocol and yields for “tar”, nicotine, PAH, and CO are presented for the standard 171-puff steady periodic smoking regimen proposed by Shihadeh et al. [Shihadeh, A., Azar, S., Antonios, C., Haddad, A., 2004b. Towards a topographical model of narghile water-pipe café smoking: A pilot study in a high socioeconomic status neighborhood of Beirut, Lebanon. Pharmacology Biochemistry and

  11. Experimentation with and knowledge regarding water-pipe tobacco smoking among medical students at a major university in Brazil*, **

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Stella Regina; Paceli, Renato Batista; Bussacos, Marco Antônio; Fernandes, Frederico Leon Arrabal; Prado, Gustavo Faibischew; Lombardi, Elisa Maria Siqueira; Terra-Filho, Mário; Santos, Ubiratan Paula

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Water-pipe tobacco smoking is becoming increasingly more common among young people. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the use of water pipes and other forms of tobacco use, including cigarette smoking, among medical students, as well as to examine the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of those students regarding this issue. METHODS: We administered a questionnaire to students enrolled in the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, in São Paulo, Brazil. The respondents were evaluated in their third and sixth years of medical school, between 2008 and 2013. Comparisons were drawn between the two years. RESULTS: We evaluated 586 completed questionnaires. Overall, the prevalence of current cigarette smokers was low, with a decline among males (9.78% vs. 5.26%) and an increase among females (1.43% vs. 2.65%) in the 3rd and 6th year, respectively. All respondents believed that health professionals should advise patients to quit smoking. However, few of the medical students who smoked received physician advice to quit. Experimentation with other forms of tobacco use was more common among males (p<0.0001). Despite their knowledge of its harmful effects, students experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking in high proportions (47.32% and 46.75% of the third- and sixth-year students, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of experimentation with water-pipe tobacco smoking and other forms of tobacco use is high among aspiring physicians. Our findings highlight the need for better preventive education programs at medical schools, not only to protect the health of aspiring physicians but also to help them meet the challenge posed by this new epidemic. PMID:24831393

  12. Smoking water-pipe, chewing nass, and prevalence of heart disease – A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Golestan Cohort Study, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Poustchi, Hossein; Kamangar, Farin; Golozar, Asieh; Etemadi, Arash; Khademi, Hooman; Freedman, Neal D.; Merat, Shahin; Garg, Vaani; Fuster, Valentin; Wakefield, Jon; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Pharoah, Paul; Brennan, Paul; Abnet, Christian C.; Malekzadeh, Reza; Boffetta, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Objective Water-pipe and smokeless tobacco use have been associated with several adverse health outcomes. However, little information is available on the association between water-pipe use and heart disease (HD). Therefore, we investigated the association of smoking water-pipe and chewing nass (a mixture of tobacco, lime, and ash) with prevalent HD. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Baseline data (collected in 2004–2008) from a prospective population-based study in Golestan Province, Iran. Participants 50,045 residents of Golestan (40–75 years old; 42.4% male). Main outcome measures ORs and 95% CIs from multivariate logistic regression models for the association of water-pipe and nass use with HD prevalence. Results A total of 3051 (6.1%) participants reported a history of HD, and 525 (1.1%) and 3726 (7.5%) reported ever water-pipe or nass use, respectively. Heavy water-pipe smoking was significantly associated with HD prevalence (highest level of cumulative use versus never use, OR= 3.75; 95% CI 1.52 – 9.22; P for trend= 0.04). This association persisted when using different cutoff points, when restricting HD to those taking nitrate compound medications, and among never cigarette smokers. There was no significant association between nass use and HD prevalence (highest category of use versus never use, OR= 0.91; 95% CI 0.69 – 1.20). Conclusions Our study suggests a significant association between HD and heavy water-pipe smoking. Although the existing evidence suggesting similar biological consequences of water-pipe and cigarette smoking make this association plausible, results of our study were based on a modest number of water-pipe users and need to be replicated in further studies. PMID:23257174

  13. Use & Misuse of Water-filtered Tobacco Smoking Pipes in the World. Consequences for Public Health, Research & Research Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Chaouachi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Background: The traditional definition of an “epidemic” has been revisited by antismoking researchers. After 400 years, Doctors would have realized that one aspect of an ancient cultural daily practice of Asian and African societies was in fact a “global “epidemic””. This needed further investigation particularly if one keeps in his mind the health aspects surrounding barbecues. Method: Here, up-to-date biomedical results are dialectically confronted with anthropological findings, hence in real life, in order to highlight the extent of the global confusion: from the new definition of an “epidemic” and “prevalence” to the myth of “nicotine “addiction”” and other themes in relation to water filtered tobacco smoking pipes (WFTSPs). Results: We found that over the last decade, many publications, -particularly reviews, “meta-analyses” and “systematic reviews”- on (WFTSPs), have actually contributed to fuelling the greatest mix-up ever witnessed in biomedical research. One main reason for such a situation has been the absolute lack of critical analysis of the available literature and the uncritical use of citations (one seriously flawed review has been cited up to 200 times). Another main reason has been to take as granted a biased smoking robot designed at the US American of Beirut whose measured yields of toxic chemicals may differ dozens of times from others' based on the same “protocol”. We also found that, for more than one decade, two other main methodological problems are: 1) the long-lived unwillingness to distinguish between use and misuse; 2) the consistent unethical rejection of biomedical negative results which, interestingly, are quantitatively and qualitatively much more instructive than the positive ones. Conclusion: the great majority of WFTSP toxicity studies have actually measured, voluntarily or not, their misuse aspects, not the use in itself. This is in contradiction with both the harm reduction and public health doctrines. The publication of negative results should be encouraged instead of being stifled. PMID:25861403

  14. Intermediate Temperature Water Heat Pipe Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devarakonda, Angirasa; Xiong, Daxi; Beach, Duane E.

    2004-01-01

    Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. Water heat pipes are explored in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to above 500 K. The thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of water are reviewed in this temperature range. Test Data are reported for a copper-water heat pipe. The heat pipe was tested under different orientations. Water heat pipes show promise in this temperature range.Fabrication and testing issues are being addressed.

  15. Intermediate Temperature Water Heat Pipe Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devarakonda, Angirasa; Xiong, Da-Xi; Beach, Duane E.

    2005-01-01

    Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. Water heat pipes are explored in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to above 500 K. The thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of water are reviewed in this temperature range. Test data are reported for a copper-water heat pipe. The heat pipe was tested under different orientations. Water heat pipes show promise in this temperature range. Fabrication and testing issues are being addressed.

  16. Tadwadi Morewadi Piped Drinking Water Scheme

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    Tadwadi ­ Morewadi Piped Drinking Water Scheme A Failure Analysis CENTRE FOR TECHNOLOGY of this work includes a failure analysis of the Tadwadi-Morewadi single village drinking water scheme from......................................................................................13 3 Failure Analysis

  17. Identification of Nicotine by Gas Chromatography\\/Mass Spectroscopy Analysis of Smoking Pipe Residue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean M. Rafferty

    2002-01-01

    Ethnographic sources show the spiritual importance of tobacco in Native American Societies. Archaeological evidence, such as Early Woodland Period smoking pipes, indicate that this spiritual function has been maintained for thousands of years. However, ethnobotanical research on the prehistory of tobacco smoking in Eastern North America has been hampered by a lack of direct evidence prior to the Middle Woodland

  18. High Temperature Water Heat Pipe Life Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, William G.; Dussinger, Peter M.; Sarraf, David

    2006-01-01

    NASA is interested in Brayton cycle converters for both nuclear powered spacecraft, and lunar/Mars missions. The radiator to dissipate the waste heat will operate at temperatures in the 400-550 K range. To date, nearly all space radiator systems have used aluminum heat pipes with ammonia working fluid, but these heat pipes are not suitable in the higher temperature range. A Graphite Fiber Reinforced Composites (GFRC) radiator with high temperature water heat pipes is currently under development. Previous short-term life tests indicated that water would be compatible with titanium and Monel heat pipes. This paper presents the results to date of heat pipe life tests with commercially pure titanium, titanium alloys, as well as Monel K500 and Monel 400. To date, the life test pipes have operated successfully at 500 and 550 K. The Monel and CP-Titanium pipes have operated for 11,800 hours, while the titanium alloy pipes have operated for 3,300 hours. The life tests are ongoing.

  19. Water driven turbine/brush pipe cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werlink, Rudy J. (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Assemblies are disclosed for cleaning the inside walls of pipes and tubes. A first embodiment includes a small turbine with angled blades axially mounted on one end of a standoff support. An O-ring for stabilizing the assembly within the pipe is mounted in a groove within the outer ring. A replaceable circular brush is fixedly mounted on the opposite end of the standoff support and can be used for cleaning tubes and pipes of various diameters, lengths and configurations. The turbine, standoff support, and brush spin in unison relative to a hub bearing that is fixedly attached to a wire upstream of the assembly. The nonrotating wire is for retaining the assembly in tension and enabling return of the assembly to the pipe entrance. The assembly is initially placed in the pipe or tube to be cleaned. A pressurized water or solution source is provided at a required flow-rate to propel the assembly through the pipe or tube. The upstream water pressure propels and spins the turbine, standoff support and brush. The rotating brush combined with the solution cleans the inside of the pipe. The solution flows out of the other end of the pipe with the brush rotation controlled by the flow-rate. A second embodiment is similar to the first embodiment but instead includes a circular shaped brush with ring backing mounted in the groove of the exterior ring of the turbine, and also reduces the size of the standoff support or eliminates the standoff support.

  20. Thermal Performance of High Temperature Titanium-Water Heat Pipes by Multiple Heat Pipe Manufacturers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanzi, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Titanium-water heat pipes are being investigated for use in heat rejection systems for lunar and Mars fission surface power systems. Heat pipes provide an efficient and reliable means to transfer heat to a radiator heat rejection system. NASA Glenn Research Center requisitioned nine titanium water heat pipes from three vendors. Each vendor supplied three heat pipes 1.25 cm diameter by 1.1 meter long with each vendor selecting a different wick design. Each of the three heat pipes is slightly different in construction. Additional specifications for the heat pipes included 500 K nominal operating temperature, light weight, and freeze tolerance. The heat pipes were performance tested gravity-aided, in the horizontal position and at elevations against gravity at 450 and 500 K. Performance of the three heat pipes is compared. The heat pipe data will be used to verify models of heat pipe radiators that will be used in future space exploration missions.

  1. Thermal Performance of High Temperature Titanium -- Water Heat Pipes by Multiple Heat Pipe Manufacturers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanzi, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Titanium - water heat pipes are being investigated for use in heat rejection systems for lunar and Mars fission surface power systems. Heat pipes provide an efficient and reliable means to transfer heat to a radiator heat rejection system. NASA Glenn Research Center requisitioned nine titanium water heat pipes from three vendors. Each vendor supplied three heat pipes 1.25 cm diameter by 1.1 meter long with each vendor selecting a different wick design. Each of the three heat pipes is slightly different in construction. Additional specifications for the heat pipes included 500 K nominal operating temperature, light weight, and freeze tolerance. The heat pipes were performance tested gravity-aided, in the horizontal position and at elevations against gravity at 450 K and 500 K. Performance of the three heat pipes is compared. The heat pipe data will be used to verify models of heat pipe radiators that will be used in future space exploration missions.

  2. Mortality in relation to cigarette and pipe smoking: 16 years' observation of 25,000 Swedish men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J M Carstensen; G Pershagen; G Eklund

    1987-01-01

    In a random sample of 25,129 Swedish men who responded to a questionnaire on smoking habits in 1963 the cause specific mortality was followed through 1979. In the cohort, 32% smoked cigarettes, 27% a pipe, and 5% cigars. There were clear covariations (p less than 0.001) between the amount of tobacco smoked and the risk of death due to cancer

  3. Intrusion of Soil Water through Pipe Cracks

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a series of experiments conducted at U.S. EPA?s Test and Evaluation Facility in 2013-2014 to study the intrusion of contaminated soil water into a pipe crack during simulated backflow events. A test rig was used consisting of a 3? x 3? x 3? acrylic soil bo...

  4. Hookah or water pipe smoking has been practiced for over 400 years, and is often a social activity. There are a variety of names for hookahs, including narghile, argileh,

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    to the smoke emitted. Hookah tobacco and smoke contain many toxicants that are known to cause lung cancer, including decreased lung functioning, heart disease and lung cancer. In addition to these health risks that this habit is less harmful than smoking cigarettes, hookah smoke still contains nicotine and has at least

  5. Robot design for leak detection in water-pipe systems

    E-print Network

    Choi, Changrak

    2012-01-01

    Leaks are major problem that occur in the water pipelines all around the world. Several reports indicate loss of around 20 to 30 percent of water in the distribution of water through water pipe systems. Such loss of water ...

  6. Mineralogical Evidence of Galvanic Corrosion in Domestic, Drinking Water Pipes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water distribution system (DWDS) piping contains numerous examples of galvanically-coupled metals (e.g., soldered copper pipe joints, copper-lead pipes joined during partial replacements of lead service lines). The possible role of galvanic corrosion in the release of l...

  7. Optimal operation of water distribution networks under local pipe failures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-mei Tian; G. Y. Fu; Hai-yan Chi; Ye Liu

    2007-01-01

    The optimal operation of water distribution networks under local pipe failures, such as water main breaks, was proposed. Based\\u000a on a hydraulic analysis and a simulation of water distribution networks, a macroscopic model for a network under a local pipe\\u000a failure was established by the statistical regression. After the operation objectives under a local pipe failure were determined,\\u000a the optimal

  8. Page 1 of 62 Redesigning Khardi Rural Piped Water

    E-print Network

    Damani, Om P.

    Page 1 of 62 Redesigning Khardi Rural Piped Water Network Scheme for Sustainability Authors: Varsha for Sustainability....................1 Executive Summary ..................................................................................................9 1.3 Approach and Methodology

  9. Prospective study of effect of switching from cigarettes to pipes or cigars on mortality from three smoking related diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Wald, N. J.; Watt, H. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent to which cigarette smokers who switch to cigars or pipes alter their risk of dying of three-smoking related diseases-lung cancer, ischaemic heart disease, and chronic obstructive lung disease. DESIGN: A prospective study of 21520 men aged 35-64 years when recruited in 1975-82 with detailed history of smoking and measurement of carboxyhaemoglobin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Notification of deaths (to 1993) classified by cause. RESULTS: Pipe and cigar smokers who had switched from cigarettes over 20 years before entry to the study smoked less tobacco than cigarette smokers (8.1 g/day v 20 g/day), but they had the same consumption as pipe and cigar smokers who had never smoked cigarettes (8.1 g) and had higher carboxyhaemoglobin saturations (1.2% v 1.0%, P < 0.001), indicating that they inhaled tobacco smoke to a greater extent. They had a 51% higher risk of dying of the three smoking related diseases than pipe or cigar smokers who had never smoked cigarettes (relative risk 1.51; 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 2.38), a 68% higher risk than lifelong non-smokers (1.68; 1.16 to 2.45), a 57% higher risk than former cigarette smokers who gave up smoking over 20 years before entry (1.57; 1.04 to 2.38), and a 46% lower risk than continuing cigarette smokers (0.54; 0.38 to 0.77). CONCLUSION: Cigarette smokers who have difficulty in giving up smoking altogether are better off changing to cigars or pipes than continuing to smoke cigarettes. Much of the effect is due to the reduction in the quantity of tobacco smoked, and some is due to inhaling less. Men who switch do not, however, achieve the lower risk of pipe and cigar smokers who have never smoked cigarettes. All pipe and cigar smokers have a greater risk of lung cancer than lifelong non-smokers or former smokers. PMID:9224127

  10. ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), HEADER BYPASS PIPE (AT RIGHT), AND PUMPHOUSE FOUNDATIONS. Looking northeast - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. 28. Main water inlet and outlet pipes under central corridor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Main water inlet and outlet pipes under central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  12. FLOW SEPARATION CONDITIONS AT PIPE WALLS OF WATER DISTRIBUTION MAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofilm formations on pipe walls have been found in potable water distribution mains. The biofilm layers contribute to accelerated corrosion rates, increased flow resistance, and formation of encrustations that may deteriorate drinking water quality. Research to evaluate the depe...

  13. 8. SETTLING TANK, WEST SIDE; WATER PIPE FROM INTAKE STRUCTURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. SETTLING TANK, WEST SIDE; WATER PIPE FROM INTAKE STRUCTURE IN FOREGROUND. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  14. Total's solution to deep water pipe line problems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The J-curve pipe laying method, developed by TOTAL C.F.P., has now completed 2,400 full scale dry tests at ACB in Nantes, France. The tests were entirely successful. The main features of the system make it possible to lay pipe in water depths ranging to 3,000 m (9,840 ft) from a dynamically positioned drillship or vessel. By conventional techniques, the limitation is 600 m (about 2,000 ft). The electron beam welding chamber can weld 24 in. piping with a wall thickness of 1.25 in. in three minutes. Ordinarily, welding on the same size pipe would take from one to two hours. With the ''J'' curve laying method the pipe is lowered almost vertically into the water and therefore has no stinger. This prevents stressing the pipes and equipment.

  15. Development of pipe deterioration models for water distribution systems using EPR

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    of Exeter, North Park Road, Exeter EX4 4QF, UK The economic and social costs of pipe failures in water pipe CoD Coefficient of determination di Damage subsequent to failure of pipe i Dp Pipe's nominal model lEPR i Failure rate of pipe i according to EPR model lR i Failure rate of pipe i according

  16. Acoustic Methods for Locating Leaks in Municipal Water Pipe Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osama Hunaidi; Alex Wang; Marc Bracken; Tony Gambino; Charlie Fricke

    The recovery of water loss from leaks in transmission and distribution pipes can provide a solution, at least partially, to water shortages caused by insufficient water resources and \\/ or limited water treatment capacity. This paper introduces a new, low-cost and easy-to-use system that will help water utilities to dramatically improve the effectiveness of locating leaks in all types of

  17. Acoustical wave propagation in buried water filled pipes

    E-print Network

    Kondis, Antonios, 1980-

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents a comprehensive way of dealing with the problem of acoustical wave propagation in cylindrically layered media with a specific application in water-filled underground pipes. The problem is studied in ...

  18. 68. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER PIPES FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER PIPES FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. INTERIOR OF CAST HOUSE LOOKING NORTH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  19. Prioritizing Water Pipe Replacement and Rehabilitation by Evaluating Failure Risk 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Sang Hyun

    2012-02-14

    of residual life of a water pipe (a metal water pipe) ...................................................................... 70 Figure 4.3 Measurements of pec and pic according to years of laying (DIP.../DCIP) ........................................................................................... 73 Figure 4.4 Measurements of pec and pic according to years of laying (SP) ........... 73 Figure 4.5 Histogram of pec and pic according to years of laying (DCIP) ............. 74 xi Page Figure 4.6 Histogram of pec and pic according...

  20. The Acoustical Channel the Transfer Function of Water Pipes

    E-print Network

    Henkel, Werner

    The Acoustical Channel the Transfer Function of Water Pipes Supervisor Prof Werner Henkel Student in impure water, the ultrasound waves are the only means of communication through water for long distance. Severe study of underwater sound propagation dates back to the first and second world war. In that age

  1. Acoustic imaging in a water filled metallic pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Kolbe, W.F.; Turko, B.T.; Leskovar, B.

    1984-04-01

    A method is described for the imaging of the interior of a water filled metallic pipe using acoustical techniques. The apparatus consists of an array of 20 acoustic transducers mounted circumferentially around the pipe. Each transducer is pulsed in sequence, and the echos resulting from bubbles in the interior are digitized and processed by a computer to generate an image. The electronic control and digitizing system and the software processing of the echo signals are described. The performance of the apparatus is illustrated by the imaging of simulated bubbles consisting of thin walled glass spheres suspended in the pipe.

  2. Acoustic imaging in a water filled metallic pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.; Turko, B.T.

    1985-02-01

    A method is described for the imaging of the interior of a water filled metallic pipe using acoustical techniques. The apparatus consists of an array of 20 acoustic transducers mounted circumferentially around the pipe. Each transducer is pulsed in sequence, and the echos resulting from bubbles in the interior are digitized and processed by a computer to generate an image. The electronic control and digitizing system and the software processing of the echo signals are described. The performance of the apparatus is illustrated by the imaging of simulated bubbles consisting of thin walled glass spheres suspended in the pipe.

  3. Lead Water Pipes and Infant Mortality at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troesken, Werner

    2008-01-01

    In 1897, about half of all American municipalities used lead pipes to distribute water. Employing data from Massachusetts, this paper compares infant death rates in cities that used lead water pipes to rates in cities that used nonlead pipes. In the average town in 1900, the use of lead pipes increased infant mortality by 25 to 50 percent.…

  4. 11. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes, stairs, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes, stairs, and pump in pump room. View to SW - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  5. 12. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes and pump ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes and pump in heater room. View to W - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  6. Slip ratio in dispersed viscous oil-water pipe flow

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Iara H.; Yamaguti, Henrique K.B.; de Castro, Marcelo S.; Rodriguez, Oscar M.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering School of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av. Trabalhador Sao Carlense, 400, 13566-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Da Silva, Marco J. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e. V., Institute of Safety Research, PO Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    In this article, dispersed flow of viscous oil and water is investigated. The experimental work was performed in a 26.2-mm-i.d. 12-m-long horizontal glass pipe using water and oil (viscosity of 100 mPa s and density of 860 kg/m{sup 3}) as test fluids. High-speed video recording and a new wire-mesh sensor based on capacitance (permittivity) measurements were used to characterize the flow. Furthermore, holdup data were obtained using quick-closing-valves technique (QCV). An interesting finding was the oil-water slip ratio greater than one for dispersed flow at high Reynolds number. Chordal phase fraction distribution diagrams and images of the holdup distribution over the pipe cross-section obtained via wire-mesh sensor indicated a significant amount of water near to the pipe wall for the three different dispersed flow patterns identified in this study: oil-in-water homogeneous dispersion (o/w H), oil-in-water non-homogeneous dispersion (o/w NH) and Dual continuous (Do/w and Dw/o). The phase slip might be explained by the existence of a water film surrounding the homogeneous mixture of oil-in-water in a hidrofilic-oilfobic pipe. (author)

  7. High Temperature Titanium-Water Heat Pipe Radiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, William G.; Bonner, Richard; Hartenstine, John; Barth, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Space nuclear systems require large area radiators to reject the unconverted heat to space. System optimizations with Brayton cycles lead to radiators with radiator temperatures in the 400 to 550 K range. To date, nearly all space radiator systems have used aluminum/ammonia heat pipes but these components cannot function at the required temperatures. A Graphite Fiber Reinforced Composites (GFRC) radiator with high temperature water heat pipes is currently under development. High temperature GFRC materials have been selected, and will be tested for thermal conductivity and structural properties. Titanium/water and Titanium/Monel heat pipes have been successfully operated at temperatures up to 550 K. Titanium was selected as the baseline envelope material, due to its lower mass and previous experience with bonding titanium into honeycomb panels. Heat pipes were fabricated with a number of different wick designs, including slab and grooved wicks. Since titanium cannot be extruded, the grooves are being fabricated in sintered titanium powder. The paper reports on the radiator design, materials selection, heat pipe to fin bonding, heat pipe design, and experimental results.

  8. Technical safety issues associated with aging and license renewal of BWR (boiling water reactor) piping

    SciTech Connect

    Buescher, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    Time-dependent degradation of the boiling water reactor (BWR) primary coolant piping, recirculation piping main feedwater piping, and steam lines has a significant impact on the safe operation and license renewal of aging plants. This paper discusses the dominant degradation mechanisms active in these piping systems. It discusses intergranular and transgranular stress corrosion cracking in sensitized and nonsensitized stainless steels, effects of fatigue and corrosion fatigue on carbon steel, erosion/corrosion of carbon steel in single-phase (water) and mixed-phase (water/steam) environments, and the effect of hydrogen water chemistry on piping degradation. Finally, this paper identifies the principal technical issues associated with aging of BWR piping.

  9. THE BEHAVIOR OF ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPE UNDER VARIOUS WATER QUALITY CONDITIONS: A PROGRESS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos-cement pipe has had a reputation for resisting attack by aggressive waters that cause corrosion of metal pipe materials. The results of this study suggest that asbestos-cement pipe behaves much like other piping materials, except PVC, that are commonly used for potable w...

  10. Does piped water reduce diarrhea for children in rural India?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jyotsna Jalan; Martin Ravallion

    2003-01-01

    The impacts of public investments that directly improve children's health are theoretically ambiguous given that the outcomes also depend on parentally provided inputs. Using propensity score matching methods, we find that the prevalence and duration of diarrhea among children under five in rural India are significantly lower on average for families with piped water than for observationally identical households without

  11. Lightweight concrete OTEC cold water pipe tests, phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oconnor, J. S.

    1981-03-01

    A one third scale model of a cold water pipe (CWP) for a 40 MW/sub ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plantship was constructed of reinforced lightweight concrete and tested to destruction. Failure occurred at approximately 138 percent of the design load for the once in 100 year storm condition in the Atlantic-1 siting area. The concept of using Neoprene bearing pads to provide flexibility of the joint between pipe segments was also verified. Measured deflections and stresses generally agreed with computer generated predictions and validated the design methods used. It is indicated that a light weight concrete CWP can be built with conventional material, and processes.

  12. Leaky Pipes May Mean Tainted Tap Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... notion that water pressure is enough to keep contaminants out To use the sharing features on this ... forces water out through any leak -- preventing any contaminants from getting in. However, their study finds that ...

  13. Hydrogen evolution in nickel-water heat pipes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. T.

    1973-01-01

    A study was made of the evolution of hydrogen gas in nickel-water heat pipes for the purpose of investigating methods of accelerated life testing. The data were analyzed in terms of a phenomenological corrosion model of heat pipe degradation which incorporates corrosion and oxidation theory and contains parameters which can be determined by experiment. The gas was evolved with a linear time dependence and an exponential temperature dependence with an activation energy of 1.03 x 10 to the minus 19th joules. A flow-rate dependence of the gas evolution was found in the form of a threshold. The results were used to predict usable lifetimes of heat pipes operated at normal operating conditions from results taken under accelerated operating conditions.

  14. Flexible retractable cold water pipe for an ocean thermal energy conversion system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Wenzel; L. C. Trimble

    1985-01-01

    A cold water pipe for an ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) system comprises a tubular membrane made of a fabric such as a canvas, which is substantially impervious to flowing water. A proximal end of the pipe is secured to a surface structure such as a ship, and a distal end of the pipe is extendible from the surface structure

  15. Factors influencing lead and iron release from some Egyptian drinking water pipes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Lasheen; C. M. Sharaby; N. G. El-Kholy; I. Y. Elsherif; S. T. El-Wakeel

    2008-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to assess the effect of stagnation time, pipe age, pipes material and water quality parameters such as pH, alkalinity and chloride to sulfate mass ratio on lead and iron release from different types of water pipes used in Egypt namely polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP) and galvanized iron (GI), by using fill and

  16. Lead Pipe Scale Analysis Using Broad-Beam Argon Ion Milling to Elucidate Drinking Water Corrosion

    EPA Science Inventory

    Herein, we compared the characterization of lead pipe scale removed from a drinking water distribution system using two different cross section methods (conventional polishing and argon ion beam etching). The pipe scale solids were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM...

  17. Smoking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. It is also responsible for many other ... quit, the greater the health benefit. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  18. Reactor Materials Program process water piping indirect failure frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1989-10-30

    Following completion of the probabilistic analyses, the LOCA Definition Project has been subject to various external reviews, and as a result the need for several revisions has arisen. This report updates and summarizes the indirect failure frequency analysis for the process water piping. In this report, a conservatism of the earlier analysis is removed, supporting lower failure frequency estimates. The analysis results are also reinterpreted in light of subsequent review comments.

  19. Pipe cracking in pressurized water reactors with low-pressure borated-water systems. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Theus; J. V. Monter; H. A. Domian

    1983-01-01

    Available reports on the cracking of Type 304 austenitic stainless steel pipes in low-pressure borated-water piping systems of pressurized-water reactors were reviewed. One mutual factor in all of the unexplained failures was an apparent high susceptibility of material to intergranular cracking in the weld-heat-affected zone. This susceptibility to intergranular stress corrosion cracking appears to result from high-base-metal carbon content and

  20. Chlorine decay in drinking-water transmission and distribution systems: pipe service age effect.

    PubMed

    Al-Jasser, A O

    2007-01-01

    Water quality can deteriorate in the transmission and distribution system beyond the treatment plant. Minimizing the potential for biological regrowth can be attained by chlorinating the finished water. While flowing through pipes, the chlorine concentration decreases for different reasons. Reaction with the pipe material itself and the reaction with both the biofilm and tubercles formed on the pipe wall are known as pipe wall demand, which may vary with pipe parameters. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of the service age of pipes on the effective chlorine wall decay constant. Three hundred and two pipe sections of different sizes and eight different pipe materials were collected and tested for their chlorine first-order wall decay constants. The results showed that pipe service age was an important factor that must not be ignored in some pipes such as cast iron, steel, cement-lined ductile iron (CLDI), and cement-lined cast iron (CLCI) pipes especially when the bulk decay is not significant relative to the wall decay. For the range of the 55 years of pipe service age used in this study, effective wall decay constants ranged from a decrease by -92% to an increase by +431% from the corresponding values in the recently installed pipes. The effect of service age on the effective wall decay constants was most evident in cast iron pipes, whereas steel pipes were less affected. Effective chlorine wall decay for CLCI and CLDI pipes was less affected by service age as compared to steel and cast iron pipes. Chlorine wall decay constants for PVC, uPVC, and polyethylene pipes were affected negatively by pipe service age and such effect was relatively small. PMID:17140619

  1. A spatial and temporal analysis for long term renewal of water pipes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A spatial and temporal analysis for long term renewal of water pipes Youssef TLILI*,** , Amir NAFI deals with the problematic of establishing priorities for pipes that should be selected for rehabilitation. The developed approach is based on the discrimination of vulnerable pipes by a spatial

  2. Reducing widespread pipe sharing and risky sex among crystal methamphetamine smokers in Toronto: do safer smoking kits have a potential role to play?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Crystal methamphetamine smoking is associated with many negative health consequences, including the potential for transmission of hepatitis. We examined whether or not a kit for crystal methamphetamine smoking might have some potential to reduce the negative health effects of crystal methamphetamine smoking. Methods Five focus groups were conducted with crystal methamphetamine smokers recruited by community health agencies and youth shelters in Toronto, Canada. Target groups included homeless/street-involved youth, sex workers, men who have sex with men, and youth in the party scene. Participants (n = 32) were asked questions about motivations for crystal methamphetamine use, the process of smoking, health problems experienced, sharing behaviour, risky sexual practices, and the ideal contents of a harm reduction kit. Results Pipe sharing was widespread among participants and was deemed integral to the social experience of smoking crystal methamphetamine. Heated pipes were unlikely to cause direct injuries, but participants mentioned having dry, cracked lips, which may be a vector for disease transmission. Many reported having sex with multiple partners and being less likely to use condoms while on the drug. Demand for harm reduction kits was mixed. Conclusions Changing pipe sharing behaviours may be difficult because many participants considered sharing to be integral to the social experience of smoking crystal methamphetamine. Within the context of a broader health promotion and prevention program, pilot testing of safer smoking kits to initiate discussion and education on the risks associated with sharing pipes and unprotected sex for some communities (e.g., homeless/street-involved youth) is worth pursuing. PMID:22339847

  3. A Cold Water Pipe for an OTEC Pilot Plant: Design Considerations

    E-print Network

    Frandsen, Jannette B.

    A Cold Water Pipe for an OTEC Pilot Plant: Design Considerations Kara Silver Abstract Ocean Thermal (HDPE) Cold Water Pipe (CWP) for a floating OTEC pilot plant, presumably in Hawaiian waters to develop this technology, pilot plants are needed to gather operational data, reduce engineering risks

  4. Smoking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fight off illness properly. Back Continue Hookahs and E-Cigarettes It's not only cigarettes that get people dependent ... with the pipe. Also beware of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), which contain cancer-causing chemicals and other toxins, ...

  5. Cool-down and frozen start-up behavior of a grooved water heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Jong Hoon

    1990-01-01

    A grooved water heat pipe was tested to study its characteristics during the cool-down and start-up periods. The water heat pipe was cooled down from the ambient temperature to below the freezing temperature of water. During the cool-down, isothermal conditions were maintained at the evaporator and adiabatic sections until the working fluid was frozen. When water was frozen along the entire heat pipe, the heat pipe was rendered inactive. The start-up of the heat pipe from this state was studied under several different operating conditions. The results show the existence of large temperature gradients between the evaporator and the condenser, and the moving of the melting front of the working fluid along the heat pipe. Successful start-up was achieved for some test cases using partial gravity assist. The start-up behavior depended largely on the operating conditions.

  6. Effects of flow and water chemistry on lead release rates from pipe scales.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yanjiao; Giammar, Daniel E

    2011-12-01

    Lead release from pipe scales was investigated under different water compositions, stagnation times, and flow regimes. Pipe scales containing PbO(2) and hydrocerussite (Pb(3)(OH)(2)(CO(3))(2)) were developed on lead pipes by conditioning the pipes with water containing free chlorine for eight months. Water chemistry and the composition of the pipe scales are two key factors affecting lead release from pipe scales. The water rarely reached equilibrium with pipe scales within one day, which makes solid-water contact time and corrosion product dissolution rates the controlling factors of lead concentrations for the conditions tested. Among five water compositions studied, a solution with orthophosphate had the lowest dissolved lead release rate and highest particulate lead release rate. Free chlorine also decreased the dissolved lead release rate at stagnant conditions. Water flow increased rates of release of both dissolved and particulate lead by accelerating the mass transfer of lead out of the porous pipe scales and by physically destabilizing pipe scales. Dissolved lead comprised the majority of the lead released at both stagnant and laminar flow conditions. PMID:22018527

  7. ``HPTAM'' heat-pipe transient analysis model: an analysis of water heat pipes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Michel Tournier; Mohamed S. El-Genk

    1992-01-01

    Space application of heat pipes in power systems, radiators and thermal management necessitates the understanding of their transient response to changes in input power or sink temperature. ``HPTAM,'' a two-dimensional model, is developed for simulating transient performance of fully thawed liquid-metal and non liquid-metal heat pipes. The model divides the heat pipe into three radial regions: wall, liquid\\/wick, and vapor

  8. Design of Tap Water Pipe's Monitoring System Based on GSM\\/GPRS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min-Song Li; Fen-Fen Zhang

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the whole network architecture of Tap Water Pipe's Monitoring System Based on GSM\\/GPRS, and then analysis the hardware design and software design of the system, through the effective design of the system reached the real-time monitoring and Leakage-Detecting of underground water-pipe system, and improve the maintenance efficiency of the system.

  9. The Analysis of Organotins in Polyvinyl Chloride Pipe and Their Diffusion into Water Over Time

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organotins are commonly used as thermal stabilizers in the manufacturing of PVC pipes, which are widely used in drinking water distribution systems. Additives, such as organotins, have been show to leach through PVC pipe into water. While tri-substituted organotin compounds hav...

  10. Statistical estimation of water distribution system pipe break risk 

    E-print Network

    Yamijala, Shridhar

    2009-05-15

    of pipe breaks in the future and to determine the parameters that most affect the likelihood of pipe breaks. The various statistical models reviewed in this thesis are time linear and time exponential ordinary least squares regression models, proportional...

  11. Statistical estimation of water distribution system pipe break risk

    E-print Network

    Yamijala, Shridhar

    2009-05-15

    of pipe breaks in the future and to determine the parameters that most affect the likelihood of pipe breaks. The various statistical models reviewed in this thesis are time linear and time exponential ordinary least squares regression models, proportional...

  12. Water, Water Everywhere, but What's in the Pipes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoober, Scott

    1997-01-01

    Waterborne diseases like cholera, typhoid, and dysentery are not problematic in the United States. Most industrial and agricultural chemicals are neutralized by existing treatment technology, but cryptosporidium contamination can occur in dysfunctional treatment/filtration systems. Bottled water is no better than tap water. Awareness is better…

  13. Demonstration comparing sound wave attenuation inside pipes containing bubbly water and water droplet fog

    E-print Network

    Sóbester, András

    to hold the contents of the water-filled pipe should it leak. Into this bucket was placed the sound source for the underwater signal. In this case a sonar source (4008-00-01-A, produced by Neptune Sonar LTD.) was used, which (audible sound above 10 kHz--see below), several commercial underwater sound sources are available (such

  14. Cold Start of a Radiator Equipped with Titanium-Water Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Sanzi, James L.; Siamidis, John

    2008-01-01

    Radiator panels utilizing titanium-water heat pipes are being considered for lunar applications. A traditional sandwich structure is envisioned where heat pipes are embedded between two high thermal conductivity face sheets. The heat pipe evaporators are to be thermally connected to the heat source through one or more manifolds containing coolant. Initial radiator operation on the lunar surface would likely follow a cold soak where the water in the heat pipes is purposely frozen. To achieve heat pipe operation, it will be necessary to thaw the heat pipes. One option is to allow the sunlight impinging on the surface at sunrise to achieve this goal. Testing was conducted in a thermal vacuum chamber to simulate the lunar sunrise and additional modeling was conducted to identify steady-state and transient response. It was found that sunlight impinging on the radiator surface at sunrise was insufficient to solely achieve the goal of thawing the water in the heat pipes. However, starting from a frozen condition was accomplished successfully by applying power to the evaporators. Start up in this fashion was demonstrated without evaporator dryout. Concern is raised over thawing thermosyphons, vertical heat pipes operating in a gravity field, with no wick in the condenser section. This paper presents the results of the simulated cold start study and identifies future work to support radiator panels equipped with titanium-water heat pipes.

  15. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study on Helical Pipe Oil-Water Separator For Deoiling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lixin Zhao; Lei Xu; Zhengrong Hua; Zhanzhao Ma; Huaiyu Cao

    2009-01-01

    The separation principle of helical separator is introduced. RNG k-epsiv turbulence model is used to numerically simulate oil-water separation in helical pipe by computation fluid dynamics (CFD). By observing the oil distribution of non-holed helical pipes, holes are opened at the locations that oil aggregated. Oil sprays out of the helical pipe through the holes, which has a good separation

  16. The physico-chemistry of biofilm-mediated pitting corrosion of copper pipe supplying potable water.

    PubMed

    Keevil, C W

    2004-01-01

    Copper is a generally robust material that has beneficial properties to reduce biofilm formation and pathogen colonisation of pipes supplying potable water. However, a rare pitting corrosion can occur in soft, poorly buffered waters that can lead to pipe failure. This has been shown to be mediated by a copper-tolerant biofilm whose physical and chemical heterogeneity can establish microenvironments for corrosion potentials, causing micro pits that eventually coalesce into large perforations through the pipe wall. Control of the biofilm, for example through reduced cold water or elevated hot water temperatures, can suppress this corrosion phenomenon. PMID:14982168

  17. Transient characteristics of a grooved water heat pipe with variable heat load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Jong Hoon

    1990-01-01

    The transient characteristics of a grooved water heat pipe were studied by using variable heat load. First, the effects of the property variations of the working fluid with temperature were investigated by operating the water heat pipe at several different temperatures. The experimental results show that, even for the same heat input profile and heat pipe configuration, the heat pipe transports more heat at higher temperature within the tested temperature range. Adequate liquid return to the evaporator due to decreasing viscosity of the working fluid permits continuous vaporization of water without dry-out. Second, rewetting of the evaporator was studied after the evaporator had experienced dry-out. To rewet the evaporator, the elevation of the condenser end was the most effective way. Without elevating the condenser end, rewetting is not straight-forward even with power turned off unless the heat pipe is kept at isothermal condition for sufficiently long time.

  18. Effect of Microstructure on Failure Behavior of Light Water Reactor Coolant Piping under Severe Accident Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuhei HARADA; Yu MARUYAMA; Akio MAEDA; Hiroaki SHIBAZAKI; Tamotsu KUDO; Akihide HIDAKA; Kazuichiro HASHIMOTO; Jun SUGIMOTO

    1999-01-01

    In a severe accident of light water reactors, the reactor coolant system (RCS) piping might be subjected to thermal loads caused by the decay heat of the deposited fission products and the heat transfer from the hot gases, with an internal pressure in some accident sequences. Tests on the RCS piping failure were performed along with high temperature tensile and

  19. Detonation and Transition to Detonation in Horizontal Water-Filled Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitter, Neal P.; Shepherd, Joseph E.

    2012-11-01

    Detonations and deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) are experimentally studied in horizontal pipes which are partially filled with water. The gas layer above the water is stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen at 1 bar. The detonation wave produces oblique shock waves in the water, which focus at the bottom of the pipe due to the curvature of the walls. This results in peak pressures at the bottom of the pipe that are 4-6 times greater than the peak detonation pressure. Such pressure amplification is measured for water depths of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 0.87, and 0.92 pipe diameters. Focusing of the oblique shock waves is studied further by measuring the circumferential variation of pressure when the water depth is 0.5 pipe diameters, and reasonable agreement with theoretical modeling is found. Failure of the detonation waves was not observed, even for water depths as high as 0.92 pipe diameters. Transition to detonation also occurred at every water height, and transition distance did not vary significantly with water height.

  20. Acoustical characteristics of leak signals in plastic water distribution pipes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osama Hunaidi; Wing T. Chu

    1999-01-01

    Acoustical characteristics of leak signals in plastic pipes were investigated in this study for several types of leaks simulated under controlled conditions at an experimental site. The investigation included the characterization of frequency content of sound or vibration signals as a function of leak type, flow rate, pipe pressure and season, the determination of the attenuation rate, and the variation

  1. Characteristics of pipe system failures in light water reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Basin; E. T. Burns

    1977-01-01

    A statistical description of pipe system failures is presented. The characteristics of these failures have been derived from reports submitted by the utilities to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In the present study, emphasis has been placed on identifying trends in the incidence of pipe failures and on the statistical characterization of the failure events to include impact on plant availability

  2. USING WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS (WSN) FOR DETECTING LEAKAGE IN WATER PIPES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asmidar Abu Bakar; Salman Yussof; Azimah Abdul Ghapar; Mohd Ezanee

    The leakage of underground water pipe used to provide water to every household will lead to great amount of water loss, money, and valuable resources and may cause public health risks. Leakage may occur at different places or components in water distribution network\\/system. Current techniques, which is acoustic leak detection system uses listening devices, leak noise correlators and tethered hydrophones.

  3. CHLORINE DECAY AND BIOFILM STUDIES IN A PILOT SCALE DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION DEAD END PIPE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorine decay experiments using a pilot-scale water distribution dead end pipe system were conducted to define relationships between chlorine decay and environmental factors. These included flow rate, biomass concentration and biofilm density, and initial chlorine concentrations...

  4. Determining the location of buried plastic water pipes from measurements of ground surface vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggleton, J. M.; Brennan, M. J.; Gao, Y.

    2011-09-01

    ‘Mapping the Underworld' is a UK-based project, which aims to create a multi-sensor device that combines complementary technologies for remote buried utility service detection and location. One of the technologies to be incorporated in the device is low-frequency vibro-acoustics, and techniques for detecting buried infrastructure, in particular plastic water pipes, are being investigated. One of the proposed techniques involves excitation of the pipe at some known location with concurrent vibrational mapping of the ground surface in order to infer the location of the remainder of the pipe. In this paper, measurements made on a dedicated pipe rig are reported. Frequency response measurements relating vibrational velocity on the ground to the input excitation were acquired. Contour plots of the unwrapped phase revealed the location of the pipe to within 0.1-0.2 m. Magnitude contour plots revealed the excitation point and also the location of the pipe end. By examining the unwrapped phase gradients along a line above the pipe, it was possible to identify the wave-type within the pipe responsible for the ground surface vibration. Furthermore, changes in the ground surface phase speed computed using this method enabled the location of the end of the pipe to be confirmed.

  5. The importance of temperature in assessing iron pipe corrosion in water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Laurie S; Edwards, Marc

    2002-08-01

    Temperature is expected to play a significant role in the corrosion of iron pipes in drinking water distribution systems. Temperature impacts many parameters that are critical to pipe corrosion including biological activity, physical properties of the solution, thermodynamic and physical properties of corrosion scale, and chemical rates. Moreover, variations in temperature and temperature gradients may give rise to new corrosion phenomena worthy of consideration by water treatment personnel. PMID:12194413

  6. Degradation of specific aromatic compounds migrating from PEX pipes into drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ryssel, Sune Thyge; Arvin, Erik; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Procházková, Zuzana; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2015-09-15

    Nine specific compounds identified to migrate from polyethylene (PE) and cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) to drinking water were investigated for their degradation in drinking water. Three sample types were studied: field samples (collected at consumer taps), PEX pipe water extractions, and water samples spiked with target compounds. Four compounds were quantified in field samples at concentrations of 0.15-8.0 ?g/L. During PEX pipe water extraction 0.42 ± 0.20 mg NVOC/L was released and five compounds quantified (0.5-6.1 ?g/L). The degradation of these compounds was evaluated in PEX-pipe water extractions and spiked samples. 4-ethylphenol was degraded within 22 days. Eight compounds were, however, only partially degradable under abiotic and biotic conditions within the timeframe of the experiments (2-4 weeks). Neither inhibition nor co-metabolism was observed in the presence of acetate or PEX pipe derived NVOC. Furthermore, the degradation in drinking water from four different locations with three different water works was similar. In conclusion, eight out of the nine compounds studied would - if being released from the pipes - reach consumers with only minor concentration decrease during water distribution. PMID:26074190

  7. Clastic Pipes: Proxies of High Water Tables and Strong Ground Motion, Jurassic Carmel Formation, Southern Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatley, David; Chan, Marjorie

    2015-04-01

    Multiple soft sediment deformation features from bed-scale to basin-scale are well preserved within the Jurassic Carmel Formation of Southern Utah. Field mapping reveals thousands of small-scale clastic injectite pipes (10 cm to 10 m diameter, up to 20 m tall) in extremely high densities (up to 500+ pipes per 0.075 square kilometers). The pipes weather out in positive relief from the surrounding host strata of massive sandstone (sabkha) and crossbedded sands with minor conglomerate and shale (fluvial) deposits. The host rock shows both brittle and ductile deformation. Reverse, normal, and antithetical faulting is common with increased frequency, including ring faults, surrounding the pipes. The pipes formed from liquefaction and subsequent fluidization induced by strong ground motion. Down-dropped, graben blocks and ring faults surrounding pipes indicate initial sediment volume increase during pipe emplacement followed by sediment volume decrease during dewatering. Complex crosscutting relationships indicate several injection events where some pipe events reached the surface as sand blows. Multiple ash layers provide excellent stratigraphic and temporal constraints for the pipe system with the host strata deposited between 166 and 164 Ma. Common volcanic fragments and rounded volcanic cobbles occur within sandstone and conglomerate beds, and pipes. Isolated volcanic clasts in massive sandstone indicate explosive volcanic events that could have been the exogenic trigger for earthquakes. The distribution of pipes are roughly parallel to the Middle Jurassic paleoshoreline located in marginal environments between the shallow epicontinental Sundance Sea and continental dryland. At the vertical stratigraphic facies change from dominantly fluvial sediments to dominantly massive sabkha sediments, there is a 1-2 m-thick floodplain mudstone that was a likely seal for underlying, overpressurized sediments. The combination of loose porous sediment at a critical depth of water saturation made the system extremely susceptible to liquefaction. Fluid inclusions of carbonate nodules present on the pipe margins indicate salinity, temperature, and character of possible early diagenetic fluids before significant burial. These inclusions can reveal information about brines from point sources or fed via groundwater. Overall, the combination of clastic pipes and their related soft deformation structures in the host rock provide proxies for the existence of high water table conditions within arid climate regimes and transitional paleoenvironments previously assumed to be devoid of significant amounts of water. The pipe distribution and evidence of multiple injectite events paralleling an ancient paleoshoreline provides basin-scale insights on repeated paleoseismicity and volcanism along the convergent boundary of the Cordilleran.

  8. Clad piping - a novel approach for solving nuclear plant service water and erosion-corrosion problems

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarti, B. [NUTECH Engineers, Inc., Westmont, IL (United States)

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses the application of clad piping components to solve various nuclear plant corrosion problems, such as service water system corrosion and feedwater/condensate/steam erosion-corrosion. This approach uses a carbon steel piping component which has a metallurgically bonded alloy cladding on the ID. Different alloys are available as cladding, from stainless steels to Inconel 625, so that a specific alloy can be selected based on the service requirements. Clad piping components represent a novel approach, as they provide a mechanism to utilize resistant alloys to solve corrosion problems without affecting the plant design. Clad piping products are designed such that the carbon steel backing acts as the pressure boundary and the cladding the corrosion allowance. By selecting the proper carbon steel backing, the clad product can be engineered to allow {open_quotes}like-for-like{close_quotes} component replacement. The wall thickness, weight and stiffness of the piping would remain essentially the same. The thermal expansion coefficient of the bulk piping also remains the same. Thus, the piping design and layout is wholly unaffected, with no structural reanalysis being required. This paper discusses two applications where clad piping products are being applied for solving nuclear power plant corrosion problems. The first is in solving steam/condensate/feedwater erosion-corrosion. The second application is the utilization of Inconel 625 clad piping products for solving service water system corrosion. Clad piping products solve these problems while improving plant operation and performance by basically providing the benefits of the alloy without any of the accompanying disadvantages of redesign.

  9. Impacts of pipe materials on densities of fixed bacterial biomass in a drinking water distribution system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Niquette; Pierre Servais; Raoul Savoir

    2000-01-01

    Densities of fixed bacterial biomass were measured on different pipe materials (PVC, PE, cemented steel, asbestos-cement, cemented cast iron, tarred steel and grey iron) incubated in drinking waters from different sources (ground waters and a surface water) which had different characteristics (temperature, concentration of residual oxidant and content of biodegradable organic matter). Results showed that the densities of bacterial biomass

  10. CONTROLLING ASBESTOS LOSS FROM ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPE IN AGGRESSIVE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A project was conducted to evaluate measures for controlling loss of asbestos fibers from asbestos-cement (A/C) water distribution pipe under aggressive water conditions. During Phase 1, water quality data were analyzed for the distribution system of Bellevue, Washington, which r...

  11. IRON TUBERCULATION: PHYSIO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A SINGLE PIPE FROM A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nature of iron tubercles inside unlined iron pipes of drinking water distribution systems are influenced by water quality and therefore susceptible to changes in water chemistry. The underlying assumption is that tubercles in a system have similar physio-chemical properties. ...

  12. Assimilable organic carbon release, chemical migration, and drinking water impacts of multiple brands of plastic pipes available in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, Matthew

    Increased installation of polymer potable water pipes in United States plumbing systems has created a need to thoroughly evaluate their water quality impacts. Eleven brands of new polymer drinking water pipe were evaluated for assimilable organic carbon (AOC) release at room temperature for 28 days. They included polyvinyl chloride (PVC), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), and cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipes. Three of eight PEX pipe brands exceeded a 100 microg/L AOC threshold for microbial regrowth for the first exposure period and no brands exceeded this value on day 28. No detectable increase in AOC was found for PP and PEX-a1 pipes; the remaining pipe brands contributed marginal AOC levels. Water quality impacts were more fully evaluated for two brands of PEX-b and one brand of PP pipe. PEX pipes released more total organic carbon (TOC), volatile organic compounds (VOC), and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) and caused greater odor than the PP pipe. All three materials showed reductions in these water quality parameters over 30 days. Three PEX pipe field studies revealed that aged systems did not display more intense odors than distribution systems. However, the organic releases from polymer pipes may still alter water quality and contribute to rapid microbial growth, even though the aesthetic impacts are temporary.

  13. VEGETATIVE BARRIERS AFFECT SURFACE WATER QUALITY LEAVING EDGE-OF-FIELD DRAINAGE PIPES IN THE MISSISSIPPI DELTA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three slotted-board riser (SBR) pipes and 3 slotted-inlet (SI) pipes in the Beasley Lake watershed were instrumented to measure water quality and quantity of runoff from their respective cropped areas. One SBR and one SI is a control. Two SBR and 2 SI pipes have a vegetative barrier (VB)planted up...

  14. Evaluation of High Temperature Tensile and Creep Properties of Light Water Reactor Coolant Piping Materials for Severe Accident Analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuhei HARADA; Yu MARUYAMA; Akio MAEDA; Eiichi CHINO; Hiroaki SHIBAZAKI; Tamotsu KUDO; Akihide HIDAKA; Kazuichiro HASHIMOTO; Jun SUGIMOTO

    2000-01-01

    It has been pointed out that the reactor coolant system piping could fail prior to the meltthrough of the reactor pressure vessel in a high pressure sequence of pressurized water reactor severe accidents. In order to apply to the evaluation of the piping failure which influences the subsequent accident progression, models for the strength of piping materials at high temperatures

  15. Sound radiation from a water-filled pipe, radiation into light fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bilong; Pan, Jie; Li, Xiaodong; Tian, Jing

    2002-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the sound radiation from a water-filled exhaust pipe. The pipe opening and a plate attached to it form a vibrating surface for this radiation. Fluid-structural coupling between the pipe and enclosed fluid is included in the system modeling, but light fluid assumption is used for sound radiation into the space above the vibrating surface. In this paper, a numerical study on the n=0 mode in the pipe shows that the wave types associated with this mode have different characteristics in two regions of the nondimensional frequency ?. In the first region of 0pipe is governed by the resonance of each wave type. The fluid and structural waves are strongly coupled in the second region (0.5pipe response and uncoupled mode distributions does not exist. Significant contribution of multiple wave-types to the model energy is evident. The ultimate goal of our system modeling is to illustrate the contribution of all wave types (structural-borne and water-borne waves of the system) to sound radiation from the pipe opening and the attached plate. This paper also demonstrates the effect of these waves and their coupling in the water-filled pipe and across the plate and pipe boundary on the radiated sound pressure. Experimental results obtained in a semi-anechoic room are used to partially validate the theoretical and numerical predictions.

  16. Sound radiation from a water-filled pipe, radiation into light fluid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bilong; Pan, Jie; Li, Xiaodong; Tian, Jing

    2002-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the sound radiation from a water-filled exhaust pipe. The pipe opening and a plate attached to it form a vibrating surface for this radiation. Fluid-structural coupling between the pipe and enclosed fluid is included in the system modeling, but light fluid assumption is used for sound radiation into the space above the vibrating surface. In this paper, a numerical study on the n = 0 mode in the pipe shows that the wave types associated with this mode have different characteristics in two regions of the nondimensional frequency omega. In the first region of 0pipe is governed by the resonance of each wave type. The fluid and structural waves are strongly coupled in the second region (0.5pipe response and uncoupled mode distributions does not exist. Significant contribution of multiple wave-types to the model energy is evident. The ultimate goal of our system modeling is to illustrate the contribution of all wave types (structural-borne and water-borne waves of the system) to sound radiation from the pipe opening and the attached plate. This paper also demonstrates the effect of these waves and their coupling in the water-filled pipe and across the plate and pipe boundary on the radiated sound pressure. Experimental results obtained in a semi-anechoic room are used to partially validate the theoretical and numerical predictions. PMID:12509002

  17. Maternal literacy modifies the effect of toilets and piped water on infant survival in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Esrey, S A; Habicht, J P

    1988-05-01

    The effect of toilets, piped water, and maternal literacy on infant mortality was analyzed using data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey collected in 1976-1977. The effect of toilets and piped water on infant mortality was dependent on whether or not mothers were literate. The impact of having toilets was greater among the illiterate than among the literate, but the impact of piped water was greater among the literate than among the illiterate. The effect on the infant mortality rate for toilets decreased from 130.7 +/- 17.2 deaths in the absence of literate mothers to 76.2 +/- 25.9 deaths in the presence of literate mothers. The reduction in the mortality rate for maternal literacy dropped from 44.4 +/- 14.1 deaths without toilets to -10.1 +/- 23.9 deaths with toilets. Reductions in mortality rates for piped water increased from 16.7 +/- 12.7 deaths without literate mothers to 36.8 +/- 21.0 deaths with literate mothers. Similarly, reductions in the mortality rate for maternal literacy rose from 44.4 +/- 14.1 deaths in the absence of piped water to 64.5 +/- 19.5 deaths in the presence of piped water. The results from a logistic model provided inferences similar to those from ordinary least squares. The authors infer that literate mothers protect their infants especially in unsanitary environments lacking toilets, and that when piped water is introduced, they use it more effectively to practice better hygiene for their infants. PMID:3358408

  18. Evaluation of surface sampling techniques for collection of Bacillus spores on common drinking water pipe materials.

    PubMed

    Packard, Benjamin H; Kupferle, Margaret J

    2010-01-01

    Drinking water utilities may face biological contamination of the distribution system from a natural incident or deliberate contamination. Determining the extent of contamination or the efficacy of decontamination is a challenge, because it may require sampling of the wetted surfaces of distribution infrastructure. This study evaluated two sampling techniques that utilities might use to sample exhumed pipe sections. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), cement-lined ductile iron, and ductile iron pipe coupons (3 cm x 14 cm) cut from new water main piping were conditioned for three months in dechlorinated Cincinnati, Ohio tap water. Coupons were spiked with Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii, a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis. Brushing and scraping were used to recover the inoculated spores from the coupons. Mean recoveries for all materials ranged from 37 +/- 30% to 43 +/- 20% for brushing vs. 24 +/- 10% to 51 +/- 29% for scraping. On cement-lined pipe, brushing yielded a significantly different recovery than scraping. No differences were seen between brushing and scraping the PVC and iron pipe coupons. Mean brushing and scraping recoveries from PVC coupons were more variable than mean recoveries from cement-lined and iron coupons. Spore retention differed between pipe materials and the presence of established biofilms also had an impact. Conditioned PVC coupons (with established biofilms) had significantly lower spore retention (31 +/- 11%) than conditioned cement-lined coupons (61 +/- 14%) and conditioned iron coupons (71 +/- 8%). PMID:20082033

  19. Cigarette Smoking and Drinking Water Source: Correlation with Clinical Features and Pathology of Superficial Bladder Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincenzo Serretta; Vincenzo Altieri; Giuseppe Morgia; Rosalinda Allegro; Antonina Ruggirello; Alessandra Di Lallo; Giuseppe Carrieri; Darvinio Melloni

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Water source and cigarette smoking are related to clinical characteristics and pathology of superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Methods: Tumor number, dimension, G-grade, T-stage, recurrences, cigarette smoking and water supply were recorded in patients harboring Ta–T1 G1–3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Results: Of 577 patients, 61% had multiple and 36% recurrent tumors. Two hundred and

  20. Preliminary observations of using smoke-water to increase low-elevation Beargrass Xerophyllum tenax germination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kern Ewing; Jorge Gutierrez

    2009-01-01

    Through a greenhouse experiment, we found that smoke-water can be an effective restoration tool in germinating bear-grass (Xerophyllum tenax (Pursh) Nutt. [Liliaceae]) seeds. We studied the effects of smoke-water on germination rates of beargrass seeds collected from low-elevation dry forests of the southeastern Olympic Peninsula of Washington State and from a wetland of the western Peninsula. Seeds received a treatment

  1. Seismic characterization of deep-water pipe structures in the Levant Basin, SE Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eruteya, Ovie Emmanuel; Waldmann, Nicolas; Schalev, Dagan; Makovsky, Yizhaq; Ben-Avraham, Zvi

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of a new deep-water (1100 m - 1500 m) high resolution 3D seismic dataset covering part of the central Levant Basin, offshore Israel reveals previously undocumented evidences for subsurface fluid flow in the post-Messinian overburden manifested as pipe structures. Interestingly, these pipe structures are genetically and spatially contextualized east and west of the study area, all emanating from the Messinian evaporite substratum. Pipes in the western group accounts for 83% of the pipe population, are crudely cylindrical, oval to elliptical in planform, with diameter and height ranging ca. 350 m - 2000 m and 320 m - 420 m, respectively. Internal configuration within this group varies from chaotic to concave upward reflections diagnostic of fluid induced collapse. Pipes in the eastern group are seepage pipes appearing conical in shape, with height of ~350 m - 510 m and diameter of 320 m - 420 m. The western group indicates an episode of fluid flow till the mid-Pliocene, compared to late Pliocene in the eastern group where successive mass wasting events during the late Pliocene plugged piping. A conceptual model for the pipes in the western group is proposed to have occurred from subjacent dissolution of the Messinian evaporite under deep-water marine conditions during the Pliocene by vertically focused fluid flow from intra-Messinian realm dissolving the top evaporites and inducing systematic collapse in the overburden. The onset of which may have been triggered by seismicity. Conversely, pipes in the eastern group are proposed to develop from breaching the top evaporite by pressurized fluids that developed from lateral pressure transfer due to differential loading of the overburden and salt tectonics. Most likely, these fluids are biogenic gas since the major gas fields in deep-waters offshore Israel and close to the study area are of this composition. The pipe structures identified in the study area extend the current understanding of fluid flow subsequent to the Messinian salinity crisis event (~5.96 - 5.33 Ma) that affected the entire Mediterranean realm. The spatio-temporal manifestations of these pipe structures may be of potential hazard during deep-water exploration campaigns, field development and possible future sequestration projects in the Levant Basin. Our result may be used as an analogue in other basins to understand subsurface fluid flow dynamics, and also has wider implications for the hydrodynamics of many basins where thick salt layers are widely developed.

  2. Unscreened Water-Diversion Pipes Pose an Entrainment Risk to the Threatened Green Sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris

    PubMed Central

    Mussen, Timothy D.; Cocherell, Dennis; Poletto, Jamilynn B.; Reardon, Jon S.; Hockett, Zachary; Ercan, Ali; Bandeh, Hossein; Kavvas, M. Levent; Cech, Joseph J.; Fangue, Nann A.

    2014-01-01

    Over 3,300 unscreened agricultural water diversion pipes line the levees and riverbanks of the Sacramento River (California) watershed, where the threatened Southern Distinct Population Segment of green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris, spawn. The number of sturgeon drawn into (entrained) and killed by these pipes is greatly unknown. We examined avoidance behaviors and entrainment susceptibility of juvenile green sturgeon (35±0.6 cm mean fork length) to entrainment in a large (>500-kl) outdoor flume with a 0.46-m-diameter water-diversion pipe. Fish entrainment was generally high (range: 26–61%), likely due to a lack of avoidance behavior prior to entering inescapable inflow conditions. We estimated that up to 52% of green sturgeon could be entrained after passing within 1.5 m of an active water-diversion pipe three times. These data suggest that green sturgeon are vulnerable to unscreened water-diversion pipes, and that additional research is needed to determine the potential impacts of entrainment mortality on declining sturgeon populations. Data under various hydraulic conditions also suggest that entrainment-related mortality could be decreased by extracting water at lower diversion rates over longer periods of time, balancing agricultural needs with green sturgeon conservation. PMID:24454967

  3. Heat Transfer Performance and Piping Strategy Study for Chilled Water Systems at Low Cooling Loads 

    E-print Network

    Li, Nanxi 1986-

    2012-12-05

    rate is not the main cause of the low delta-T syndrome in the chilled water system. Possible causes for the piping strategy of the low delta-T syndrome existing in the chilled water system under low flow conditions are studied in this thesis: (1) use...

  4. Biofilms in irrigation pipes affect the microbial quality of irrigation water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation is an essential element in the production of many food crops. Irrigation water is often delivered to fields from surface or subsurface sources via pipe-based systems. Surface waters are known to contain pathogenic microorganisms. Disease outbreaks in crops that are eaten raw (i.e. leafy g...

  5. Life Test Results for Water Heat Pipes Operating at 200 °C to 300 °C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Rosenfeld; Nelson J. Gernert

    2008-01-01

    For lunar or planetary bases to be viable, a robust electric generating system will be required for powering the habitat. Water heat pipes offer an attractive solution for lunar base heat rejection, and would serve as a qualification for them on other long duration missions. Successful operation near the upper end of water operating range is a requirement for the

  6. IRON-CONTAINING COATINGS ON ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPES EXPOSED TO AGGRESSIVE WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coatings containing iron were found on asbestos-cement pipes exposed to a range of water qualities from very aggressive to nonaggressive. Under aggressive water conditions iron coatings had a granular, porous structure that prevented asbestos fibers from being exposed on the surf...

  7. Lead pipe scale analysis using broad-beam argon ion milling to elucidate drinking water corrosion.

    PubMed

    Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N; White, Colin; Lytle, Darren

    2011-04-01

    Herein, we characterized lead pipe scale removed from a drinking water distribution system using argon ion beam etching and a variety of solids analysis approaches. Specifically, pipe scale cross sections and solids were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, and acid digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses. The pipe scale consisted of at least five layers that contained Pb(II) and Pb(IV) minerals, and magnesium, aluminum, manganese, iron, and silicon solids. The outer layer was enriched with crystalline amorphous manganese and iron, giving it a dark orange to red color. The middle layers consisted of hydrocerussite and plattnerite, and the bottom layer consisted primarily of litharge. Over the litharge layer, hydrocerussite crystals were grown vertically away from the pipe wall, which included formations of plattnerite. Significant amounts of trace contaminant vanadium, likely in the form of vanadinite, and copper accumulated in the scale as well. PMID:21281551

  8. Optimal Pipe Size Design for Looped Irrigation Water Supply System Using Harmony Search: Saemangeum Project Area

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Min; Sadollah, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6). The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply. PMID:25874252

  9. [Influence of EPS on silicate corrosion inhibition for copper pipe in soft water].

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Yin

    2008-10-01

    The effects of sodium alginate on silicate corrosion inhibition for copper pipe in simulated soft water were investigated. The results showed that more soluble copper release was occurred when low concentration sodium alginate was in presence. The 1 a aged copper pipe released more soluble copper than the 3 a and 10 a aged copper pipe. The sequence of concentration of soluble copper release was c 1 a > c 3 a, > c 10 a. However, compared to the low concentration sodium alginate, soluble copper released from the 1 a aged copper pipe increased, and the 3 a and 10 a aged copper pipe were inverse when high level sodium alginate was in presence. These phenomena showed that the effect of silicate corrosion inhibition decreased when extracellular polymer substances was dissolved in soft water. Under the conditions of pH 7.5 and sodium alginate 16 mg/L, soluble copper release tend was gradually increase-decrease-gradually run-up which due to the absorption of sodium alginate on the surface of copper surface and the complex interaction between sodium alginate, silicate and copper ions. When the initial pH value was low, compared to the system of no sodium alginate, the soluble copper release distinctly increased in the presence of sodium alginate. The amount of soluble copper released from 1 a copper pipe is higher than that from 3 a and 10 a aged copper pipe, which due to the different components of copper corrosion by-products on the surface of different aged copper pipes and the different solubility of different corrosion by-products. PMID:19143383

  10. Prioritizing Water Pipe Replacement and Rehabilitation by Evaluating Failure Risk

    E-print Network

    Lee, Sang Hyun

    2012-02-14

    .......................................... 71 4.3.1 Maximum Internal and External Corrosion Depth .................... 71 4.3.2 Characteristics of External Pit Growth ...................................... 76 4.3.3 Characteristics of Internal Pit Growth... ............................................................................................... 14 Figure 2.3 Maximum external pitting rate vs. soil resistivity [38] ........................ 17 Figure 2.4 Maximum external pitting depth vs. age of pipes [38] ........................ 18 Figure 2.5 Maximum external pitting rate vs. soil...

  11. Effectiveness of Rinse Water during In-Place Cleaning of Stainless Steel Pipe Lines.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mengyuan; Phinney, David M; Heldman, Dennis R

    2015-07-01

    The 1st step of any Clean-In-Place (CIP) operation is a prerinse with water. The purpose of this step is to remove the bulk of food material remaining in the processing lines after production period has ended. It is known that this prerinse step can be a very water intensive process. The objective of this investigation was to measure the influence of CIP parameters (flow characteristics, water temperature, and contact time) on the effectiveness of prerinse water in removing dairy-based deposits from stainless steel pipe surfaces and to compare the rinse effectiveness of unused to reused rinse water. A pilot-scale CIP system was operated to rinse 304 stainless steel pipe sections of 3 different pipe diameters. The velocity of the rinse water was varied from 0.72 to 2.26 m/s. The rinse water temperatures were 22 °C, 45 °C, and 67 °C. The contact times between rinse water and deposited film were 20 and 60 s. Rinse effectiveness was expressed as the ratio of the amount of protein residue removed from the pipe surface during rinsing, as compared to the magnitude of the initial protein deposit. The rinse effectiveness varied from 73.1% to 94.9% for the range of the CIP parameters investigated. High velocities of rinse water provided a higher level of rinse effectiveness. Increasing the rinse water temperature from 23 °C to 45 °C improved rinse effectiveness significantly (P < 0.05). This impact was not significant when the water temperature was increased from 45 °C to 67 °C and at higher rinse water velocities. Similarly, longer contact time provided less improvement in rinse effectiveness at higher temperatures and velocities as compared to lower temperatures and velocities. There were no significant differences in rinse effectiveness when comparing reused and unused water (normal tap water) within the range of velocities evaluated. PMID:26033417

  12. Pressure drop, flow pattern and local water volume fraction measurements of oil-water flow in pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumara, W. A. S.; Halvorsen, B. M.; Melaaen, M. C.

    2009-11-01

    Oil-water flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes was investigated. The experimental activities were performed using the multiphase flow loop at Telemark University College, Porsgrunn, Norway. The experiments were conducted in a 15 m long, 56 mm diameter, inclinable steel pipe using Exxsol D60 oil (density of 790 kg m-3 and viscosity of 1.64 mPa s) and water (density of 996 kg m-3 and viscosity of 1.00 mPa s) as test fluids. The test pipe inclination was changed in the range from 5° upward to 5° downward. Mixture velocity and inlet water cut vary up to 1.50 m s-1 and 0.975, respectively. The time-averaged cross-sectional distributions of oil and water were measured with a single-beam gamma densitometer. The pressure drop along the test section of the pipe was also measured. The characterization of flow patterns and identification of their boundaries are achieved via visual observations and by analysis of local water volume fraction measurements. The observed flow patterns were presented in terms of flow pattern maps for different pipe inclinations. In inclined flows, dispersions appear at lower mixture velocities compared to the horizontal flows. Smoothly stratified flows observed in the horizontal pipe disappeared in upwardly inclined pipes and new flow patterns, plug flow and stratified wavy flow were observed. The water-in-oil dispersed flow regime slightly shrinks as the pipe inclination increases. In inclined flows, the dispersed oil-in-water flow regime extended to lower mixture velocities and lower inlet water cuts. The present experimental data were compared with the results of a flow-pattern-dependent prediction model, which uses the area-averaged steady-state two-fluid model for stratified flow and the homogeneous model for dispersed flow. The two-fluid model was able to predict the pressure drop and water hold-up for stratified flow. The homogeneous model was not able to predict the pressure profile of dispersed oil-water flow at higher water cuts. The two-fluid model and the homogeneous model over-predict the pressure drop for dual-continuous flow.

  13. Pilot study of the effect of biofilms in irrigation pipes on the microbial water quality of irrigation water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation is an essential element in the production of many food crops. Irrigation water is often delivered to fields from surface or subsurface sources via pipe-based systems. Surface waters are known to contain pathogenic microorganisms. Disease outbreaks in crops that are eaten raw (i.e. leafy g...

  14. Leaching of lead from new unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) pipes into drinking water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Lin, Yi-Pin

    2015-06-01

    Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) pipes have been used in the premise plumbing system due to their high strength, long-term durability, and low cost. uPVC pipes, however, may contain lead due to the use of lead compounds as the stabilizer during the manufacturing process. The release of lead from three locally purchased uPVC pipes was investigated in this study. The effects of various water quality parameters including pH value, temperature, and type of disinfectant on the rate of lead release were examined. The elemental mapping obtained using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) confirmed the presence of lead on the inner surfaces of the uPVC pipes and their surface lead weight percentages were determined. The leachable lead concentration for each pipe was determined using high strength acidic EDTA solutions (pH 4, EDTA?=?100 mg/L). Lead leaching experiments using tap water and reconstituted tape water under static conditions showed that the rate of lead release increased with the decreasing pH value and increasing temperature. In the presence of monochloramine, lead release was faster than that in the presence of free chlorine. PMID:25539706

  15. High Temperature Water Heat Pipes Radiator for a Brayton Space Reactor Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel

    2006-01-01

    A high temperature water heat pipes radiator design is developed for a space power system with a sectored gas-cooled reactor and three Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engines, for avoidance of single point failures in reactor cooling and energy conversion and rejection. The CBC engines operate at turbine inlet and exit temperatures of 1144 K and 952 K. They have a net efficiency of 19.4% and each provides 30.5 kWe of net electrical power to the load. A He-Xe gas mixture serves as the turbine working fluid and cools the reactor core, entering at 904 K and exiting at 1149 K. Each CBC loop is coupled to a reactor sector, which is neutronically and thermally coupled, but hydraulically decoupled to the other two sectors, and to a NaK-78 secondary loop with two water heat pipes radiator panels. The segmented panels each consist of a forward fixed segment and two rear deployable segments, operating hydraulically in parallel. The deployed radiator has an effective surface area of 203 m2, and when the rear segments are folded, the stowed power system fits in the launch bay of the DELTA-IV Heavy launch vehicle. For enhanced reliability, the water heat pipes operate below 50% of their wicking limit; the sonic limit is not a concern because of the water, high vapor pressure at the temperatures of interest (384 - 491 K). The rejected power by the radiator peaks when the ratio of the lengths of evaporator sections of the longest and shortest heat pipes is the same as that of the major and minor widths of the segments. The shortest and hottest heat pipes in the rear segments operate at 491 K and 2.24 MPa, and each rejects 154 W. The longest heat pipes operate cooler (427 K and 0.52 MPa) and because they are 69% longer, reject more power (200 W each). The longest and hottest heat pipes in the forward segments reject the largest power (320 W each) while operating at ~ 46% of capillary limit. The vapor temperature and pressure in these heat pipes are 485 K and 1.97 MPa. By contrast, the shortest water heat pipes in the forward segments operate much cooler (427 K and 0.52 MPa), and reject a much lower power of 45 W each. The radiator with six fixed and 12 rear deployable segments rejects a total of 324 kWth, weights 994 kg and has an average specific power of 326 Wth/kg and a specific mass of 5.88 kg/m2.

  16. Experimental testing and modeling analysis of solute mixing at water distribution pipe junctions.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yu; Jeffrey Yang, Y; Jiang, Lijie; Yu, Tingchao; Shen, Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Flow dynamics at a pipe junction controls particle trajectories, solute mixing and concentrations in downstream pipes. The effect can lead to different outcomes of water quality modeling and, hence, drinking water management in a distribution network. Here we have investigated solute mixing behavior in pipe junctions of five hydraulic types, for which flow distribution factors and analytical equations for network modeling are proposed. First, based on experiments, the degree of mixing at a cross is found to be a function of flow momentum ratio that defines a junction flow distribution pattern and the degree of departure from complete mixing. Corresponding analytical solutions are also validated using computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) simulations. Second, the analytical mixing model is further extended to double-Tee junctions. Correspondingly the flow distribution factor is modified to account for hydraulic departure from a cross configuration. For a double-Tee(A) junction, CFD simulations show that the solute mixing depends on flow momentum ratio and connection pipe length, whereas the mixing at double-Tee(B) is well represented by two independent single-Tee junctions with a potential water stagnation zone in between. Notably, double-Tee junctions differ significantly from a cross in solute mixing and transport. However, it is noted that these pipe connections are widely, but incorrectly, simplified as cross junctions of assumed complete solute mixing in network skeletonization and water quality modeling. For the studied pipe junction types, analytical solutions are proposed to characterize the incomplete mixing and hence may allow better water quality simulation in a distribution network. PMID:24675269

  17. Electrokinetically enhanced flow and dewatering characteristics of concentrated black coal-water suspensions in pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Rozakeas, P.K.; Snow, R.J. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Technology, Victoria (Australia)

    1997-07-01

    The transportability and dewatering of coal-water mixtures flowing in a pipe may be enhanced by the application of electrokinetic techniques. Previous experimental work by other workers shows a significant reduction in the wall shear stress, and consequently a decrease in pumping energy requirements for the flow of coal-water mixtures in pipes combined with electrodewatering. In this process the pipe wall acts as the cathode and a centrally aligned tube as the anode. The effects of {open_quote}In-pipe electrodewatering{close_quote} on the flow properties and stability of concentrated coal-water mixtures flowing in various alternative anode-cathode arrangements are presented in this paper. The application of an electrical energy flux at the electrode surface (< 6.1 kW/m{sup 2}) in a dewatering section of pipe (L{sub e}=1m) effectively reduces the pumping energy requirements by as much as one order of magnitude. The stability of flow conditions is investigated in a concentric anode-cathode pipe arrangement consisting of a dewatering and a non-dewatering section (L{sub o}). In this system (L{sub o}/L{sub e}) < 4.0. A microscopic study of dilute coal-water suspensions in the presence of a DC electric field revealed the migration of coal particles towards the anode and the structural formation of coal particle chains. The electrorheological behaviour of concentrated coal-water suspensions is examined with the use of a modified coaxial rheometer. The coal fines (d{sub 50}=17.7{mu}m) used in all experiments were produced by milling a low rank bituminous black coal which was followed by a sieving process that eliminated coal particles that were greater than 75{mu}m in size.

  18. Normal mode analysis of the dynamic response of the OTEC cold water pipe and platform system to a random seaway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1979-01-01

    A general procedure for a linearized frequency domain analysis of the coupled OTEC cold water pipe (CWP) and ship system in random waves has been developed. The complete dynamic system is considered as composed of two substructures - the ship, represented as a free-floating rigid body, and the CW pipe, idealized by finite elastic beam elements with internal water flow.

  19. A closed-loop control "playback" smoking machine for generating mainstream smoke aerosols.

    PubMed

    Shihadeh, Alan; Azar, Sima

    2006-01-01

    A first generation smoking machine capable of reading and replicating detailed puffing behavior from recorded smoking topography data is presented. Unlike standard smoking machines, which model human puffing behavior as a steady periodic waveform with a fixed puff frequency, volume, and duration, this novel machine generates a mainstream smoke aerosol by automatically "playing-back" puff topography recordings. Because combustion chemistry is highly non-linear, representing real smoking behavior with a smoothed periodic waveform may result in a tobacco smoke aerosol with a significantly different chemical composition and physical properties than that generated by a smoker. The machine presented here utilizes a rapid closed-loop control algorithm coded in Labview to generate smoke aerosols for toxicological assessment and inhalation studies. To illustrate its use, dry particulate matter and carbon monoxide yields generated using the playback and equivalent periodic puffing regimens are compared for a single smoking session by a 26-year-old male narghile water-pipe smoker. It was found that the periodic puffing regimen yielded 20% less carbon monoxide (CO) than the played-back smoking session, indicating that steady periodic smoking regimens, which are widely used in tobacco smoke research, may not produce realistic smoke aerosols. PMID:16796538

  20. PVC-piping promotes growth of Ralstonia pickettii in dialysis water treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Dombrowsky, Matthias; Kirschner, Alexander; Sommer, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms forming inside dialysis water treatment systems are one of the main sources of microbiological contamination. Among the bacteria found in biofilms, Ralstonia pickettii is frequently encountered in dialysis water treatment systems and has been shown to develop extreme oligotrophic talents. In Austria, R. pickettii was exclusively detected in high numbers in dialysis water treatment facilities equipped with chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C) piping. In this laboratory study it was shown that PVC-C effectively promotes growth of R. pickettii biofilms, while residual organic carbon in purified dialysis water is sufficient for promoting substantial growth of planktic R. pickettii. This provides evidence that PVC-C is an unsuitable material for piping in dialysis water treatment systems. PMID:23985526

  1. Corrosion of stainless steel piping in a high manganese fresh water

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, R.E. [Nickel Development Inst., Londonderry, NH (United States); Lutey, R.W. [Buckman Labs., Memphis, TN (United States); Musick, J. [Whitman and Howard, Portland, ME (United States); Pinnow, K.E. [Crucible Research, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tuthill, A.H. [Nickel Development Inst., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    In March of 1993, about two years after startup in early 1991, pinhole leaks were found in the 16 in. (406 mm) type 304L stainless steel (UNS S30403) raw water piping at the Brunswick-Topsham Water District (BTWD) Potable Water Treatment Plant (PWTP) in Brunswick, Maine. The low chloride manganese-containing well water is chlorinated in the pump house. After reaching the plant, the raw water is handled in type 304L stainless steel (UNS S30403) piping. It was initially felt that the corrosion might be the microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) type corrosion described by Tverberg, Pinnow, and Redmerski. Investigation showed that the role of manganese and chlorine differed, in important respects, from that described by Tverberg et. al., and that heat tint scale may have played a significant role in the corrosion that occurred at the BTWD plant.

  2. Removal of pipe coatings; Water-jetting techniques won't damage line pipe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gates

    1989-01-01

    The Pipeline HydroKleaner is described in this paper. It removes coatings from pipelines undergoing renovation. The HydroKleaner has incorporated water-jet techniques into a full circumferential cleaning line travel machine that produces cleaning speeds of 47 sq ft\\/minute. Experience with this technology has demonstrated that, unlike current cleaning methods, water jetting removes the coating and surface corrosion in a single pass

  3. Determination of air/water ratio in pipes by fast neutrons: experiment and Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    AboAlfaraj, Tareq; Abdul-Majid, Samir

    2012-04-01

    Fast neutron dose attenuation from a (252)Cf neutron source is used for the determination of air to water ratio in pipes. Such measurement of the two-phase flow volume fraction is important for many industrial plants such as desalination plants and oil refineries. Fast neutrons penetrate liquid more than slow neutrons or gamma rays. Using diameters from 11.5 cm to 20.76 cm and with wall thicknesses from 0.45 to 1.02 cm, attenuation was independent of pipe wall thicknesses and diameters. Experimental data was in good agreement with values calculated using MCNP codes. The measured neutron flux values decreased with increasing water levels in pipes up to about 14 cm, indicating that our system can be used successfully in desalination plants in pipes of different sizes. The experimental sensitivity was found to be about 0.015 mSv/hcm and the system can be used to measure water level changes down to few millimeters. Use of such a system in fixed positions in the plant can provide information on plant's overall performance and can detect loss of flow immediately before any consequences. A portable system could be designed to measure the air to water ratio in different locations in the plant in a relatively short time. PMID:22277638

  4. Surface Characterization on Corrosion By-products on Cu in Drinking Water Pipes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Copper is widely used in house-hold plumbing due to its anti-corrosion property. However, as water travels within the distribution system into corroded copper pipes, copper may be released into consumer?s tap causing major problems. In an attempt to understand the mechanism and...

  5. A COMPARISON OF RESIDENTIAL COPPER PIPES CARRYING HOT AND COLD WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Each year, the U.S. EPA examines numerous lead, iron, and copper pipes pulled from active use in homes and drinking water distribution systems throughout the United States. The intent of the work is to better understand factors that influence the release of metals into drinking ...

  6. Predicting the Migration Rate of Dialkyl Organotins from PVC Pipe into Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organotins (OTs) are additives widely used as thermal and light stabilizers in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. OTs can leach into water flowing through PVC pipes. This work examines the leaching rates of two neurotoxic OTs, dimethyl tin (DMT) and dibutyl tin (DBT), from PVC pi...

  7. THE BEHAVIOR OF ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPE UNDER VARIOUS WATER QUALITY CONDITIONS: PART 2, THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field, pilot-plant, and theoretical studies show that asbestos-cement pipe can be used safely to transport drinking water provided that certain constraints, based on complicated chemical factors, are observed. Natural inhibitory factors, not calcite saturation, are the common pro...

  8. Effect of biofilm in irrigation pipes on the microbial quality of irrigation water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: To test the hypothesis that microbial quality of irrigation water can be substantially altered by the association of E. coli with pipe lining in irrigation systems. Methods and Results: The sprinkler irrigation system was outfitted with coupons that were extracted before four 2-hour long irri...

  9. Parametric Study of Single-Pipe Diffusers in Stratified Chilled Water Storage Tanks (RP1185)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Song; William P. Bahnfleth; John M. Cimbala

    2004-01-01

    A parametric study was performed of the charging thermal performance of a full-scale pipe diffuser in a single cylindrical stratified chilled water storage tank by applying factorial experimental theory to the results of simulations performed with a validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Dimensional parameters having the potential to influence charging inlet performance were identified and formed into dimensionless groups

  10. Quantitative risk assessment for piped water supplies in Uganda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy Howard; Steve Pedley

    WHO in the revised Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality (WHO, 2003) have moved towards a risk assessment and management approach to securing water safety. The Guidelines outline a preventive management Framework for Safe Drinking-water that comprise five key components: 1. Health based targets based on critical evaluation of health concerns; 2. System assessment to determine whether the water supply chain

  11. A method of extracting smoke from buildings using a water-air jet pump

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. P. Morgan; M. L. Bullen

    1976-01-01

    The authors present a theory that predicts the performance of a water-air jet pump having a high air to water volume flow\\u000a ratio and describe an experiment using such a system. They also discuss the application of such a system to the removal of\\u000a smoke and gases from buildings.

  12. Probability of failure in BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) reactor coolant piping: Volume 2, Pipe failure induced by crack growth and failure of intermediate supports

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, T.; Bumpus, S.E.; Chinn, D.J.; Mensing, R.W.; Holman, G.S.

    1989-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) contracted with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to conduct a study to determine if the probability of occurrence of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) in the major coolant piping systems of nuclear power plants is large enough to warrant the current stringent design requirements of designing against the postulated effects of a DEGB. The study includes both the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) and the BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) plants in the United States. Following the study of PWR plants, a study of BWR reactor coolant piping was performed. The Brunswick Steam Electric Plant at Southport, North Carolina was selected as the pilot plant for the BWR evaluation. The probability of pipe failure in three major coolant pipings was assessed: the recirculation loops, the primary steam lines, and the main feedwater lines. In the case of recirculation loops, both the existing and a proposed replacement system were studied. A probabilistic fracture mechanics approach was used in this study to estimate the crack growth and to assess the crack stability in the piping systems throughout the lifetime of the plant. The effects of the failure of intermediate pipe supports were also examined. The results of the assessment indicated that the probability of occurrence of DEGB due to crack growth and instability is small if the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) is resolved by the use of the replacement system. 33 refs., 41 figs., 32 tabs.

  13. Experimental Performance of R-134a-Filled and Water-Filled Loop Heat Pipe Heat Exchangers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Ong

    2010-01-01

    Experimental investigations were conducted to determine the thermal performances of an R-134a-filled thermosyphon heat pipe heat exchanger (THPHE) and a water-filled loop heat pipe heat exchanger (LHPHE) for hot and cold energy recovery for air conditioning purposes. For such applications, the heat pipe heat exchangers are operated at low temperatures. Both exchangers were operated in the countercurrent flow mode. This

  14. [Effect of biofilm on the corrosion and fouling of cast iron pipe for water supply].

    PubMed

    Teng, Fei; Guan, Yun-Tao; Li, Sha-Sha; Zhu, Wan-Peng

    2009-02-15

    The crystalline phase and the element composition in the scales on cast iron pipe for drinking water was identified with XRD and XPS respectively to investigate the effect of biofilm existence on the corrosion and fouling of cast iron pipe. The total iron concentration in the water phase was measured simultaneously. The results showed that on 0-7 d the total iron concentration was higher in the water phase of the group with biofilm growth, but on 15-30 d it was higher in the water phase of the control without biofilm growth. The major peak of XRD patterns for the scales with biofilm growth was characterized as Fe oxide, while for the scales in the control it was always characterized as CaCO3. As presented by XPS atomic ratio, the Ca atomic percentage in the scales with biofilm growth was lower than that in the scales in the control, which might be contributed to the Ca2+ absorption by extracellular polymeric substances or Ca2+ consumption by microorganism growth. In comparison with that in the scales in the control, the iron atomic percentage in the scales with biofilm growth was higher on 7 d, while lower after 7 d. It can be concluded that on 0-7 d the existence of biofilm could promote the corrosion of cast iron pipe while inhibit corrosion after 7 d. The variance of major peak of XRD pattern and XPS atomic ratio indicated that biofilm had important effect on the configuration and composition of the scales of cast iron pipe. The corrosion inhibition of biofilm thus provided a new pathway to control the corrosion of metal pipes in drinking water distribution system. PMID:19402487

  15. High Temperature Monitoring the Height of Condensed Water in Steam Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Widholm, Scott; Ostlund, Patrick; Blosiu, Julian

    2011-01-01

    An in-service health monitoring system is needed for steam pipes to track through their wall the condensation of water. The system is required to measure the height of the condensed water inside the pipe while operating at temperatures that are as high as 250 deg. C. The system needs to be able to make real time measurements while accounting for the effects of cavitation and wavy water surface. For this purpose, ultrasonic wave in pulse-echo configuration was used and reflected signals were acquired and auto-correlated to remove noise from the data and determine the water height. Transmitting and receiving the waves is done by piezoelectric transducers having Curie temperature that is significantly higher than 250 deg. C. Measurements were made at temperatures as high as 250 deg. C and have shown the feasibility of the test method. This manuscript reports the results of this feasibility study.

  16. Effect of sulfate on the transformation of corrosion scale composition and bacterial community in cast iron water distribution pipes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Shi, Baoyou; Bai, Yaohui; Sun, Huifang; Lytle, Darren A; Wang, Dongsheng

    2014-08-01

    The chemical stability of iron corrosion scales and the microbial community of biofilm in drinking water distribution system (DWDS) can have great impact on the iron corrosion and corrosion product release, which may result in "red water" issues, particularly under the situation of source water switch. In this work, experimental pipe loops were set up to investigate the effect of sulfate on the dynamical transformation characteristics of iron corrosion products and bacterial community in old cast iron distribution pipes. All the test pipes were excavated from existing DWDS with different source water supply histories, and the test water sulfate concentration was in the range of 50-350 mg/L. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA was used for bacterial community analysis. The results showed that iron release increased markedly and even "red water" occurred for pipes with groundwater supply history when feed water sulfate elevated abruptly. However, the iron release of pipes with only surface water supply history changed slightly without noticeable color even the feed water sulfate increased multiply. The thick-layered corrosion scales (or densely distributed tubercles) on pipes with surface water supply history possessed much higher stability due to the larger proportion of stable constituents (mainly Fe3O4) in their top shell layer; instead, the rather thin and uniform non-layered corrosion scales on pipes with groundwater supply history contained relatively higher proportion of less stable iron oxides (e.g. ?-FeOOH, FeCO3 and green rust). The less stable corrosion scales tended to be more stable with sulfate increase, which was evidenced by the gradually decreased iron release and the increased stable iron oxides. Bacterial community analysis indicated that when switching to high sulfate water, iron reducing bacteria (IRB) maintained dominant for pipes with stable corrosion scales, while significant increase of sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB), sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron oxidizing bacteria (IOB) was observed for pipes with less stable corrosion scales. PMID:24784453

  17. Effect of pipe corrosion scales on chlorine dioxide consumption in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Stout, Janet E; Yu, Victor L; Vidic, Radisav

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies showed that temperature and total organic carbon in drinking water would cause chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) loss in a water distribution system and affect the efficiency of ClO(2) for Legionella control. However, among the various causes of ClO(2) loss in a drinking water distribution system, the loss of disinfectant due to the reaction with corrosion scales has not been studied in detail. In this study, the corrosion scales from a galvanized iron pipe and a copper pipe that have been in service for more than 10 years were characterized by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The impact of these corrosion scale materials on ClO(2) decay was investigated in de-ionized water at 25 and 45 degrees C in a batch reactor with floating glass cover. ClO(2) decay was also investigated in a specially designed reactor made from the iron and copper pipes to obtain more realistic reaction rate data. Goethite (alpha-FeOOH) and magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) were identified as the main components of iron corrosion scale. Cuprite (Cu(2)O) was identified as the major component of copper corrosion scale. The reaction rate of ClO(2) with both iron and copper oxides followed a first-order kinetics. First-order decay rate constants for ClO(2) reactions with iron corrosion scales obtained from the used service pipe and in the iron pipe reactor itself ranged from 0.025 to 0.083 min(-1). The decay rate constant for ClO(2) with Cu(2)O powder and in the copper pipe reactor was much smaller and it ranged from 0.0052 to 0.0062 min(-1). Based on these results, it can be concluded that the corrosion scale will cause much more significant ClO(2) loss in corroded iron pipes of the distribution system than the total organic carbon that may be present in finished water. PMID:17884130

  18. Wireless monitoring of the height of condensed water in steam pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Badescu, Mircea; Dingizian, Arsham; Takano, Nobuyuki; Blosiu, Julian O.

    2014-04-01

    A wireless health monitoring system has been developed for determining the height of water condensation in steam pipes. The data acquisition in this system is done remotely using a wireless network system. The developed system is designed to operate in the harsh manhole environment and the pipe temperature of over 200 °C. The test method is an ultrasonic pulse-echo and the hardware that includes a pulser, receiver, a data processor and wireless modem for communication. Data acquisition and signal processing software were developed to determine the water height using adaptive signal processing and data communication that can be controlled while the hardware is installed in a manhole. A statistical decision-making tool is being developed based on the field test data to determine the height of the condensed water height under high noise conditions and other environmental factors.

  19. Role of iron and aluminum coagulant metal residuals and lead release from drinking water pipe materials.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Alisha D; Nguyen, Caroline K; Edwards, Marc A; Stoddart, Amina; McIlwain, Brad; Gagnon, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    Bench-scale experiments investigated the role of iron and aluminum residuals in lead release in a low alkalinity and high (> 0.5) chloride-to-sulfate mass ratio (CSMR) in water. Lead leaching was examined for two lead-bearing plumbing materials, including harvested lead pipe and new lead: tin solder, after exposure to water with simulated aluminum sulfate, polyaluminum chloride and ferric sulfate coagulation treatments with 1-25-?M levels of iron or aluminum residuals in the water. The release of lead from systems with harvested lead pipe was highly correlated with levels of residual aluminum or iron present in samples (R(2) = 0.66-0.88), consistent with sorption of lead onto the aluminum and iron hydroxides during stagnation. The results indicate that aluminum and iron coagulant residuals, at levels complying with recommended guidelines, can sometimes play a significant role in lead mobilization from premise plumbing. PMID:25723068

  20. Do piped water and flush toilets prevent child diarrhea in rural Philippines?

    PubMed

    Capuno, Joseph J; Tan, Carlos Antonio R; Fabella, Vigile Marie

    2015-03-01

    Similar to other developing countries, diarrhea in the Philippines continues to be among the top causes of child mortality and morbidity. In pursuit of its Millennium Development Goals, the Philippine government commits to reduce child deaths and provide water and sanitation services to more rural households by 2015. Applying propensity score matching on the 1993, 1998, 2003, and 2008 rounds of the National Demographic and Health Survey to estimate the average treatment effect on the treated, it is found that the incidence of diarrhea among under-5 children is lower by as much as 4.5% in households with access to piped water and 10% in those with their own flush toilets, relative to comparable households. These findings underscore the need to ensure the quality of drinking water from the pipe or from other improved sources at the point of use, and the provision of improved and own sanitation facilities. PMID:22186402

  1. On the effects of reflections on time delay estimation for leak detection in buried plastic water pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Brennan, M. J.; Joseph, P. F.

    2009-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the way in which wave reflections in a fluid-filled pipe affect the cross-correlation function of two leak noise signals used to detect and locate leaks in buried water pipes. Propagating waves generated by leak noise reverberate in a pipe network system, as they encounter features such as changes in section, and resistance such as valves, and pipe junctions. A theoretical model of a straight pipe with discontinuities, which cause reflections, is developed and incorporated into a model of the cross-correlation function. The reasons why the reflections and the low-pass filtering properties of the pipe can be largely removed by the generalised cross-correlation (GCC) phase transform (PHAT) are determined. Using the analytical model, theoretical predictions of the basic cross-correlation function (BCC) and the GCC PHAT are compared with experimental data from a specially constructed test site in Canada.

  2. Effect of distribution network pipe material on drinking water quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sadiq; T. H. Zaidi; H. Al Muhanna; A. A. Mian

    1997-01-01

    The effect of distribution network material on water quality was evaluated by collecting and analyzing water samples from 40 location in a community in Dhahran. Concentrations of dissolved salts, calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate in the groundwater were higher than the health guidelines. Desalination process brought these parameters within the recommended guidelines. Concentrations of trace metals, except for lead

  3. The short pipe path ? safe water, energy & nutrient recovery

    EPA Science Inventory

    The step-by-step refinement of our urban water systems has yielded unsustainable, centralized urban water services in many developed regions of the world. These large systems also provide the wrong role model and promote conservative thinking for the rapidly developing regions of...

  4. Effect of piped water supply on human water contact patterns in a Schistosoma haematobium-endemic area in Coast Province, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Noda, S; Shimada, M; Muhoho, N D; Sato, K; Kiliku, F B; Gatika, S M; Waiyaki, P G; Aoki, Y

    1997-02-01

    The effect of a piped water supply on human water contact in a Schistosoma haematobium-endemic area in Coast Province, Kenya was studied. After the construction of five community standpipes and one shower unit, there was a 35.1% reduction in the number of people observed using river water, a 44.1% reduction in the frequency of contact with river water, and a 25.4% reduction in the amount of contact. The frequency of river water contact per person also decreased significantly, but the amount of contact per person did not decrease. The total frequency of contact decreased significantly except for washing clothes by the river, washing utensils, and fishing. The frequency per person did not change for most of the activities and significantly increased for washing clothes. The frequency of river water contact in households with high piped water consumption showed a significant decrease compared with those with low piped water consumption. The volume of consumption of piped water was inversely proportional to the distance from the home to the community standpipe. These results indicate that in the study area, the effect of a piped water supply on river water contact behavior was heterologous while the total river water contact decreased significantly, and that the piped water had a beneficial effect on some villagers but very little effect on others. PMID:9080867

  5. DETECTING WATER FLOW BEHIND PIPE IN INJECTION WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency require that an injection well exhibit both internal and external mechanical integrity. The external mechanical integrity consideration is that there is no significant fluid movement into an underground source of drinking water ...

  6. DETECTING WATER FLOW BEHIND PIPE IN INJECTION WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency require that an injection well exhibit both internal and external mechanical integrity. he external mechanical integrity consideration is that there is no significant fluid movement into an underground source of drinking water th...

  7. Happiness on Tap: Piped Water Adoption in Urban Morocco

    E-print Network

    Devoto, Florencia

    2011-04-01

    We study the demand for household water connections in urban Morocco, and the effect of such connections on household welfare. In the northern city of Tangiers, among homeowners without a private connection to the city’s ...

  8. Temporal Variations in the Abundance and Composition of Biofilm Communities Colonizing Drinking Water Distribution Pipes

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, John J.; Minalt, Nicole; Culotti, Alessandro; Pryor, Marsha; Packman, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Pipes that transport drinking water through municipal drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) are challenging habitats for microorganisms. Distribution networks are dark, oligotrophic and contain disinfectants; yet microbes frequently form biofilms attached to interior surfaces of DWDS pipes. Relatively little is known about the species composition and ecology of these biofilms due to challenges associated with sample acquisition from actual DWDS. We report the analysis of biofilms from five pipe samples collected from the same region of a DWDS in Florida, USA, over an 18 month period between February 2011 and August 2012. The bacterial abundance and composition of biofilm communities within the pipes were analyzed by heterotrophic plate counts and tag pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, respectively. Bacterial numbers varied significantly based on sampling date and were positively correlated with water temperature and the concentration of nitrate. However, there was no significant relationship between the concentration of disinfectant in the drinking water (monochloramine) and the abundance of bacteria within the biofilms. Pyrosequencing analysis identified a total of 677 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (3% distance) within the biofilms but indicated that community diversity was low and varied between sampling dates. Biofilms were dominated by a few taxa, specifically Methylomonas, Acinetobacter, Mycobacterium, and Xanthomonadaceae, and the dominant taxa within the biofilms varied dramatically between sampling times. The drinking water characteristics most strongly correlated with bacterial community composition were concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, total chlorine and monochloramine, as well as alkalinity and hardness. Biofilms from the sampling date with the highest nitrate concentration were the most abundant and diverse and were dominated by Acinetobacter. PMID:24858562

  9. Sensory aspects and water quality impacts of chlorinated and chloraminated drinking water in contact with HDPE and cPVC pipe.

    PubMed

    Heim, Timothy H; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2007-02-01

    Pipes constructed with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) or chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (cPVC) are commonly used in drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing. In this comprehensive investigation, the effects on odor, organic chemical release, trihalomethane (THM) formation, free chlorine demand and monochloramine demand were determined for water exposed to HDPE and cPVC pipes. The study was conducted in accordance with the Utility Quick Test (UQT), a migration/leaching protocol for analysis of materials in contact with drinking water. The sensory panel consistently attributed a weak to moderate intensity of a "waxy/plastic/citrus" odor to the water from the HDPE pipes but not the cPVC-contacted water samples. The odor intensity generated by the HDPE pipe remained relatively constant for multiple water flushes, and the odor descriptors were affected by disinfectant type. Water samples stored in both types of pipe showed a significant increase in the leaching of organic compounds when compared to glass controls, with HDPE producing 0.14 microgTOC/cm(2) pipe surface, which was significantly greater than the TOC release from cPVC. Water stored in both types of pipe showed disinfectant demands of 0.1-0.9 microg disinfectant/cm(2) pipe surface, with HDPE exerting more demand than cPVC. No THMs were detected in chlorinated water exposed to the pipes. The results demonstrate the impact that synthetic plumbing materials can have on sensory and chemical water quality, as well as the significant variations in drinking water quality generated from different materials. PMID:17223157

  10. Modeling of waste heat recovery by looped water-in-steel heat pipes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Akyurt; N. J. Lamfon; Y. S. H. Najjar; M. H. Habeebullah; T. Y. Alp

    1995-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of a water-in-steel heat pipe heat recovery system is undertaken in this paper. The heat recovery system consists of a looped two-phase thermosyphon that receives heat from the stack of a gas turbine engine and delivers it to the generator of an NH3?H20 absorption chiller. Variations in the operating temperature as well as evaporator geometry are investigated,

  11. The extractability of phenolic antioxidants into water and organic solvents from polyethylene pipe materials – Part I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Thörnblom; M. Palmlöf; T. Hjertberg

    2011-01-01

    Three commercial anti-oxidant systems have been studied regarding migration and chemical reaction in different polyethylene pipe materials during extraction in organic solvents and in hot water, 95–100 °C, under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Materials made of crosslinked and non-crosslinked high density polyethylene, low density polyethylene and blends thereof were stabilized with different phenolic antioxidants: Irganox 1330, Irganox 1010, and Irganox 1076.

  12. Qualification Requirements of Guided Ultrasonic Waves for Inspection of Piping in Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Doctor, Steven R.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2013-08-01

    Guided ultrasonic waves (GUW) are being increasingly used for both NDT and monitoring of piping. GUW offers advantages over many conventional NDE technologies due to the ability to inspect large volumes of piping components without significant removal of thermal insulation or protective layers. In addition, regions rendered inaccessible to more conventional NDE technologies may be more accessible using GUW techniques. For these reasons, utilities are increasingly considering the use of GUWs for performing the inspection of piping components in nuclear power plants. GUW is a rapidly evolving technology and its usage for inspection of nuclear power plant components requires refinement and qualification to ensure it is able to achieve consistent and acceptable levels of performance. This paper will discuss potential requirements for qualification of GUW techniques for the inspection of piping components in light water reactors (LWRs). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has adopted ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code requirements in Sections V, III, and XI for nondestructive examination methods, fabrication inspections, and pre-service and in-service inspections. A Section V working group has been formed to place the methodology of GUW into the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code but no requirements for technique, equipment, or personnel exist in the Code at this time.

  13. Numerical simulation of flow field in water-pump sump and inlet suction pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayeul-Lainé, A. C.; Bois, G.; Issa, A.

    2010-08-01

    There are several important considerations in the design of a suction supply sump. It is imperative that the amount of turbulence and entrained air be kept to a minimum. Free air-core vortex occurring at a water-intake pipe is an important problem encountered in hydraulic engineering. These vortices may reduce pump performances, have large effects on the operating conditions and lead to increase plant operating costs. Experiments, conducted in order to select best positions of the suction pipe of a water-intake sump, show qualitative results concerning flow disturbances in the pump-intake related to sump geometries and position of the pump intake. The purpose of the paper is to reproduce the flow pattern and confirm the geometrical parameter influences of the flow behavior in such a pump. The numerical model used solves the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and VOF multiphase model for two cases. In the validation of this numerical model, emphasis was placed on the prediction of the number, location, size and strength of the various types of vortices. Previous studies, without simulation of air entrainment, have shown the influence on a single type of mesh with different cell numbers, different intake pipe depths and different water levels, for two turbulence models closure.

  14. Stability of Water Lubricated Flow of Yield Stress Fluid in Sloping Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, A.; Nsom, B.; Decruppe, J.

    2010-06-01

    To facilitate the transport of viscous crudes in a pipe, an immiscible lubricating liquid, usually water, is added. In such configuration, the water migrates into the regions of high shear at the pipe wall where it lubricates the flow. The pumping pressures being balanced by wall shear stresses in the water, the flow therefore requires pressures comparable to pumping water alone, at the same total throughput [1]. So significant savings in pumping power can be derived from this process provided that it is well monitored. Indeed, instabilities usually take place at the oil/water interface and they constitute an important source of energy dissipation. Precisely, a core annular flow is known to undergo a long-wave instability of capillary type, modified by shear occuring at low Reynolds. Above a given critical Reynolds number, the flow is unstable to shorter waves which leads to an emulsification system of water droplets in oil. In present work, an experimental study of the stability of sloping plane Poiseuille flow of well characterized viscoplastic mineral oils lubricated by water was performed. The investigation was carried out by means of image analysis based on spatiotemporal diagrams (STD). Notably indicated are the effects of bed slope, flow rates ratio and oil rheology on flow stability.

  15. Corrosion in drinking water pipes: the importance of green rusts.

    PubMed

    Swietlik, Joanna; Raczyk-Stanis?awiak, Urszula; Piszora, Pawe?; Nawrocki, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Complex crystallographic composition of the corrosion products is studied by diffraction methods and results obtained after different pre-treatment of samples are compared. The green rusts are found to be much more abundant in corrosion scales than it has been assumed so far. The characteristic and crystallographic composition of corrosion scales and deposits suspended in steady waters were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The necessity of the examination of corrosion products in the wet conditions is indicated. The drying of the samples before analysis is shown to substantially change the crystallographic phases originally present in corrosion products. On sample drying the unstable green rusts is converted into more stable phases such as goethite and lepidocrocite, while the content of magnetite and siderite decreases. Three types of green rusts in wet materials sampled from tubercles are identified. Unexpectedly, in almost all corrosion scale samples significant amounts of the least stable green rust in chloride form was detected. Analysis of corrosion products suspended in steady water, which remained between tubercles and possibly in their interiors, revealed complex crystallographic composition of the sampled material. Goethite, lepidocrocite and magnetite as well as low amounts of siderite and quartz were present in all samples. Six different forms of green rusts were identified in the deposits separated from steady waters and the most abundant was carbonate green rust GR(CO(3)(2-))(I). PMID:22082525

  16. Impact of advanced water conservation features and new copper pipe on rapid chloramine decay and microbial regrowth.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Caroline; Elfland, Carolyn; Edwards, Marc

    2012-03-01

    Taste and odor issues occurring in new buildings were attributed to rapid loss of chloramine residual, high levels of microbes in the potable water system, and high water age due to use of advanced water conservation devices. Laboratory experiments confirmed that chloramine could decay rapidly in the presence of new copper pipe, providing a possible explanation for the rapid disinfectant loss in the new buildings. Higher temperature and lower pH also accelerated the rate of chloramine decay in copper pipes. The reaction was slowed by the addition of phosphate inhibitor or aluminum, which presumably formed barriers between the pipe wall and the chloramine in the bulk water. Additional research is needed to better understand how to maintain high quality water in buildings while also conserving water. PMID:22153355

  17. The Effects of Mainstream and Sidestream Environmental Tobacco Smoke Composition for Enhanced Condensational Droplet Growth by Water Vapor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaochen Tang; Zhongqing Zheng; Heejung S. Jung; Akua Asa-Awuku

    2012-01-01

    Although tobacco smoke is well known for its adverse health effects, the hygroscopicity and droplet growth properties of the aerosol have not been thoroughly explored. In this study, cigarette smoke is further characterized and several state-of-art analysis techniques are applied to understand the effects of particle chemistry and hygroscopicity for enhanced condensational growth by water vapor and wet particle deposition.

  18. Experimental Testing and Modeling Analysis of Solute Mixing at Water Distribution Pipe Junctions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flow dynamics at a pipe junction controls particle trajectories, solute mixing and concentrations in downstream pipes. Here we have categorized pipe junctions into five hydraulic types, for which flow distribution factors and analytical equations for describing the solute mixing ...

  19. Simulation of external contamination into water distribution systems through defects in pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, P. A.; Mora, J. J.; García, F. J.; López, G.

    2009-04-01

    Water quality can be defined as a set of properties (physical, biological and chemical) that determine its suitability for human use or for its role in the biosphere. In this contribution we focus on the possible impact on water distribution systems quality of external contaminant fluids entering through defects in pipes. The physical integrity of the distribution system is a primary barrier against the entry of external contaminants and the loss in quality of the treated drinking water, but this integrity can be broken. Deficiencies in physical and hydraulic integrity can lead into water losses, but also into the influx of contaminants through pipes walls, either through breaks coming from external subsoil waters, or via cross connections coming from sewerage or other facilities. These external contamination events (the so called pathogen intrusion phenomenon) can act as a source of income by introducing nutrients and sediments as well as decreasing disinfectant concentrations within the distribution system, thus resulting in a degradation of the distribution water quality. The objective of this contribution is to represent this pathogen intrusion phenomenon. The combination of presence of defects in the infrastructures (equipment failure), suppression and back-siphonage and lack of disinfection is the cause of propagation of contamination in the clean current of water. Intrusion of pathogenic microorganisms has been studied and registered even in well maintained services. Therefore, this situation can happen when negative pressure conditions are achieved in the systems combined with the presence of defects in pipes nearby the suppression. A simulation of the process by which the external fluids can come inside pipes across their defects in a steady-state situation will be considered, by using different techniques to get such a successful modeling, combining numerical and experimental simulations. The proposed modeling process is based on experimental and computational simulations. An analysis of the intrusion behavior considering hydrodynamic and transportation of pollutant phenomena has been developed, comparing the influence of the turbulence consideration and the agreement of both computational and experimental results. This paper is focused on the analysis of such external intrusion phenomenon, the relationship between the income flow and the pressure inside the pipe, depending on the characteristics of the defect and the pressure level, as well as the effect on the water quality of the income substances dispersion. Two different experiments have been developed. In order to represent the intrusion phenomenon in steady state, two suitable assemblies have been implemented in the laboratory. In a lower order of pressures a Venturi tube has been used for generating the depression. In a higher level of pressures, a pumping system has been used. The defect on the pipe has been simulated by a circular hole, and the dispersion of pollutant has been considered by means of salinity as a conservative contaminant. The simulated scenarios of different suppressions can vary from 0.001 to 0.7 bars. The prototypes are also simulated by numerical modeling in two and three dimensions using Computational Fluid Dynamics techniques. For this purpose Fluent 6.3™ has been used, which displays the fields of hydrodynamic components and salinity. After doing a proper calibration process, the contrast made between models will allows us to establish the foundation for further pathogen intrusion simulations in the distribution system. Different turbulent models based on turbulent viscosity and different boundary conditions will also be considered. The agreement between experimental and computational models will be analyzed, and the differences between series of results will be compared, validating thus the use of computational models for representing the pathogen intrusion problem. By both, mathematical and physical models, it is intended to have a better knowledge of quantities that can not be measured, such as velocity fields, aspects of t

  20. Applicability of Related Data, Algorithms, and Models to the Simulation of Ground-Coupled Residential Hot Water Piping in California

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, J.L.; Lutz, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Residential water heating is an important consideration in California?s building energy efficiency standard. Explicit treatment of ground-coupled hot water piping is one of several planned improvements to the standard. The properties of water, piping, insulation, backfill materials, concrete slabs, and soil, their interactions, and their variations with temperature and over time are important considerations in the required supporting analysis. Heat transfer algorithms and models devised for generalized, hot water distribution system, ground-source heat pump and ground heat exchanger, nuclear waste repository, buried oil pipeline, and underground electricity transmission cable applications can be adapted to the simulation of under-slab water piping. A numerical model that permits detailed examination of and broad variations in many inputs while employing a technique to conserve computer run time is recommended.

  1. Epidemiology study of the use of asbestos-cement pipe for the distribution of drinking water in Escambia County, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Millette, J.R.; Craun, G.F.; Stober, J.A.; Kraemer, D.F.; Tousignant, H.G.

    1983-11-01

    Cancer mortality for the population census tracts of Escambia County, Florida was compared with cancer mortality data collected from census tracts elsewhere within the same county. In the first group asbestos-cement (AC) pipe was used for public potable water distribution. In the second group other types of piping material are used. The differences in standard mortality ratios for seven cancer sites among three potential asbestos exposure groups based on the AC pipe usage was tested using an analysis of covariance. Twelve variables representing nonexposure-related influences on disease rates were combined in four independent factors and used as covariates in these analyses. To the level of sensitivity imposed by the limitations of the study no evidence was found for an association between the use of AC pipe for carrying drinking water and deaths due to gastrointestinal and related cancers in Escambia County, Florida. 15 references, 2 figures, 7 tables.

  2. Investigation of Temperature Fluctuations Caused by Steam-Water Two-Phase Flow in Pressurizer Spray Piping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Koji; Nakamura, Akira; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Oumaya, Toru

    In a PWR plant, a steam-water two-phase flow may possibly exist in the pressurizer spray pipe under a normal operating condition since the flow rate of the spray water is not sufficient to fill the horizontal section of the pipe completely. Initiation of high cycle fatigue cracks is suspected to occur under such thermally stratified two phase flow conditions due to cyclic thermal stress fluctuations caused by oscillations of the water surface. Such oscillations cannot be detected by the measurement of temperature on outer surface of the pipe. In order to clarify the flow and thermal conditions in the pressurizer spray pipe and assess their impact on the pipe structure, an experiment was conducted for a steam-water flow at a low flow rate using a mock-up pressurizer spray pipe. The maximum temperature fluctuation of about 0.2 times of the steam-water temperature difference was observed at the inner wall around water surface in the test section. Visualization tests were conducted to investigate the temperature fluctuation phenomena. It was shown that the fluid temperature fluctuations were not caused by the waves on the water surface, but were caused by liquid temperature fluctuations in water layer below the interface. The influence of small amount of non-condensable gas dissolved in the reactor coolant on the liquid temperature fluctuation phenomena was investigated by injecting air into the experimental loop. The air injection attenuated the liquid temperature fluctuations in the water layer since the condensation was suppressed by the non- condensable gas. It is not expected that wall temperature fluctuation in the actual PWR plant may exceed the temperature equivalent to the fatigue limit stress amplitude when it is assumed to be proportional to the steam-water temperature difference.

  3. Tilt angle dependence of backscattering enhancements from organ pipe modes of open water-filled cylinders: Measurements and models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Curtis F. Osterhoudt; Philip L. Marston

    2003-01-01

    A simple target for simulating narrow low-frequency resonances of cylinders is an open metal pipe completely filled with water. We have previously described how the high-Q organ-pipe modes having a pressure node near each end are easily observed in backscattering experiments with small cylinders [C. F. Osterhoudt and P. L. Marston, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 2773 (2001)]. The resonance

  4. Effect of Ca 2+and Mg 2+ on corrosion and scaling of galvanized steel pipe in simulated geothermal water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kun-hu Wu; Li-qun Zhu; Wei-ping Li; Hui-cong Liu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of scaling ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+) on corrosion and scaling processes of galvanized steel pipe in geothermal water are presented. Spherical corrosion products and needle-shaped scale coexisted on the pipe surface. The concentration of Zn2+ and OH? affected the nuclei formation of scale. The corrosion products and scale were identified as Zn(OH)2, ZnO, CaCO3 and

  5. Water pipe flow simulation using improved virtual particles on smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, E. S.; Yeak, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a meshless method used widely to solve problems such as fluid flows. Due to its meshless property, it is ideal to solve problems on complex geometry. In this paper, boundary treatment were implied for the rectangular pipe flow simulations using SPH. The repulsive force is applied to the boundary particles along with the improved virtual particles on different geometry alignment. The water flow is solved using incompressible SPH and will be examined throughout the simulation. Results from this simulation will be compared with single layered virtual particles. Based on the result of the study, it is found that the improved virtual particles is more accurate and stable.

  6. Temperature and pressure transducer based on FBG for large diameter water pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintela, Antonio; Pallol, María. J.; Roufael, Hany S.; Martínez, Oscar; San Emeterio, José D.; López-Higuera, José M.

    2014-05-01

    A specific temperature and pressure optical fiber transducer is presented in this paper. By using a customized fiber reinforced plastic membrane with embedded Fiber Bragg Gratings, the fluid pressure and temperatures changes are converted in optical wavelength displacements. The membrane and the transducer custom design allows a suitable measurand discrimination. The transducer is implemented, characterized and calibrated. Its feasibility to be used on large diameter water pipes has been successfully validated by means of field trials. Many of these transducers will be optically multiplexed to monitoring these infrastructures.

  7. Acoustic Signal Processing for Pipe Condition Assessment (WaterRF Report 4360)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Unique to prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP), individual wire breaks create an excitation in the pipe wall that may vary in response to the remaining compression of the pipe core. This project was designed to improve acoustic signal processing for pipe condition assessment...

  8. Effect of sulfate on the transformation of corrosion scale composition and bacterial community in cast iron water distribution pipes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The stability of iron corrosion products and the bacterial composition of biofilm in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) could have great impact on the water safety at the consumer ends. In this work, pipe loops were setup to investigate the transformation characteristics ...

  9. Are There Health Risks from the Migration of Chemical Substances from Plastic Pipes into Drinking Water? A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonnie Ransom Stern; Gustavo Lagos

    2008-01-01

    Plastic pipes used to convey hot and cold drinking water are synthetic polymers containing numerous additives that enhance durability, impact strength, and toughness, and resist material degradation. Although some research studies have been conducted to evaluate the type and levels of chemical substances migrating from polymeric materials into drinking water, the potential adverse health effects associated with these compounds in

  10. Acoustic attenuation, phase and group velocities in liquid-filled pipes: Theory, experiment, and examples of water and

    E-print Network

    Sóbester, András

    radiation damping resulting from sound leakage into the surroundings e.g., from water pipes into soil ;4, and examples of water and mercury Kyungmin Baik,a Jian Jiang, and Timothy G. Leightonb Institute of Sound-filled tube, is here extended to the complex domain in order to predict the attenuation, as well as the sound

  11. Characterization of the critical transition from annular to wavy-stratified flow for oil-water mixtures in horizontal pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Luigi P. M.; Guilizzoni, Manfredo; Sotgia, Giorgio M.

    2012-11-01

    The transition from annular to wavy-stratified oil-water adiabatic flow within horizontal pipes is experimentally analyzed, and a semiempirical model is proposed. The transition is referred to as critical because it occurs suddenly, giving rise to a sharp and strong increase in the pressure drop due to the contact of the high-viscosity oil with the pipe wall. This could lead to a dangerous accident in pipelines. Experimental runs were performed on eight test sections of both Plexiglas® and Pyrex® pipes with internal diameters ranging from 21.5 to 50 mm, using tap water and oil with viscosity about 880 times higher than that of water. On the basis of pressure drop measurement and flow pattern visualization, the transition boundary between annular and wavy-stratified flow was analytically determined and compared with flow pattern maps.

  12. On the Acoustic Filtering of the Pipe and Sensor in a Buried Plastic Water Pipe and its Effect on Leak Detection: An Experimental Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Fabrício; Brennan, Michael; Joseph, Phillip; Whitfield, Stuart; Dray, Simon; Paschoalini, Amarildo

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic techniques have been used for many years to find and locate leaks in buried water distribution systems. Hydrophones and accelerometers are typically used as sensors. Although geophones could be used as well, they are not generally used for leak detection. A simple acoustic model of the pipe and the sensors has been proposed previously by some of the authors of this paper, and their model was used to explain some of the features observed in measurements. However, simultaneous measurements of a leak using all three sensor-types in controlled conditions for plastic pipes has not been reported to-date and hence they have not yet been compared directly. This paper fills that gap in knowledge. A set of measurements was made on a bespoke buried plastic water distribution pipe test rig to validate the previously reported analytical model. There is qualitative agreement between the experimental results and the model predictions in terms of the differing filtering properties of the pipe-sensor systems. A quality measure for the data is also presented, which is the ratio of the bandwidth over which the analysis is carried out divided by the centre frequency of this bandwidth. Based on this metric, the accelerometer was found to be the best sensor to use for the test rig described in this paper. However, for a system in which the distance between the sensors is large or the attenuation factor of the system is high, then it would be advantageous to use hydrophones, even though they are invasive sensors. PMID:24658622

  13. On the acoustic filtering of the pipe and sensor in a buried plastic water pipe and its effect on leak detection: an experimental investigation.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Fabrício; Brennan, Michael; Joseph, Phillip; Whitfield, Stuart; Dray, Simon; Paschoalini, Amarildo

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic techniques have been used for many years to find and locate leaks in buried water distribution systems. Hydrophones and accelerometers are typically used as sensors. Although geophones could be used as well, they are not generally used for leak detection. A simple acoustic model of the pipe and the sensors has been proposed previously by some of the authors of this paper, and their model was used to explain some of the features observed in measurements. However, simultaneous measurements of a leak using all three sensor-types in controlled conditions for plastic pipes has not been reported to-date and hence they have not yet been compared directly. This paper fills that gap in knowledge. A set of measurements was made on a bespoke buried plastic water distribution pipe test rig to validate the previously reported analytical model. There is qualitative agreement between the experimental results and the model predictions in terms of the differing filtering properties of the pipe-sensor systems. A quality measure for the data is also presented, which is the ratio of the bandwidth over which the analysis is carried out divided by the centre frequency of this bandwidth. Based on this metric, the accelerometer was found to be the best sensor to use for the test rig described in this paper. However, for a system in which the distance between the sensors is large or the attenuation factor of the system is high, then it would be advantageous to use hydrophones, even though they are invasive sensors. PMID:24658622

  14. Flexible ocean upwelling pipe

    DOEpatents

    Person, Abraham (Los Alamitos, CA)

    1980-01-01

    In an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, a cold water riser pipe is releasably supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. The pipe is substantially vertical and has its lower end far below the hull above the ocean floor. The pipe is defined essentially entirely of a material which has a modulus of elasticity substantially less than that of steel, e.g., high density polyethylene, so that the pipe is flexible and compliant to rather than resistant to applied bending moments. The position of the lower end of the pipe relative to the hull is stabilized by a weight suspended below the lower end of the pipe on a flexible line. The pipe, apart from the weight, is positively buoyant. If support of the upper end of the pipe is released, the pipe sinks to the ocean floor, but is not damaged as the length of the line between the pipe and the weight is sufficient to allow the buoyant pipe to come to a stop within the line length after the weight contacts the ocean floor, and thereafter to float submerged above the ocean floor while moored to the ocean floor by the weight. The upper end of the pipe, while supported by the hull, communicates to a sump in the hull in which the water level is maintained below the ambient water level. The sump volume is sufficient to keep the pipe full during heaving of the hull, thereby preventing collapse of the pipe.

  15. Secondhand Smoke | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    Secondhand smoke (SHS), also known as environmental tobacco smoke, is a mixture of the sidestream smoke released by a smoldering cigarette, pipe, or cigar, and the mainstream smoke exhaled by a smoker. Like mainstream smoke, SHS is a complex mixture containing thousands of chemicals, including formaldehyde, cyanide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, and nicotine. More than 250 of the chemicals in tobacco smoke are known to be harmful, and at least 69 are known to cause cancer.

  16. Flexible Pipes-Permeation of Methane, Carbon Dioxide and Water Through Tefzel ETFE: Experiments 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Per Arne; Hydro, Norsk

    1997-01-01

    The permeation of a mixture of CH4 and CO2 (97% CH4 and 3% CO2) saturated with water vapour through Tefzel has been studied at 950 C and 25 and 50 bars. Tefzel is the Du Pont trademark of an ETFE (ethylenetetrafluorethylene) which is a copolymer of ethylene and tetrafluorethylene. This material might be used as inner plastic lining of flexible pipes. For methane and carbon dioxide, the permeability of Tefzel is higher than the deplasticized PVDF (Polyvinylidenefluoride), but lower than the plasticized PVDF. For water, the situation seems to be the other way round; Tefzel has a lower permeability than deplasticized PVDF. Whether the permeability tests on Tefzel at higher temperatures and pressures will be pursued or not, will be considered by the steering committee of the CAPP project in May.

  17. Speciation and distribution of vanadium in drinking water iron pipe corrosion by-products.

    PubMed

    Gerke, Tammie L; Scheckel, Kirk G; Maynard, J Barry

    2010-11-01

    Vanadium (V) when ingested from drinking water in high concentrations (>15 ?g L(-1)) is a potential health risk and is on track to becoming a regulated contaminant. High concentrations of V have been documented in lead corrosion by-products as Pb(5)(V(5+)O(4))(3)Cl (vanadinite) which, in natural deposits is associated with iron oxides/oxyhydroxides, phases common in iron pipe corrosion by-products. The extent of potential reservoirs of V in iron corrosion by-products, its speciation, and mechanism of inclusion however are unknown. The aim of this study is to assess these parameters in iron corrosion by-products, implementing synchrotron-based ?-XRF mapping and ?-XANES along with traditional physiochemical characterization. The morphologies, mineralogies, and chemistry of the samples studied are superficially similar to typical iron corrosion by-products. However, we found V present as discrete grains of Pb(5)(V(5+)O(4))(3)Cl likely embedded in the surface regions of the iron corrosion by-products. Concentrations of V observed in bulk XRF analysis ranged from 35 to 899 mg kg(-1). We calculate that even in pipes with iron corrosion by-products with low V concentration, 100 mg kg(-1), as little as 0.0027% of a 0.1-cm thick X 100-cm long section of that corrosion by-product needs to be disturbed to increase V concentrations in the drinking water at the tap to levels well above the 15 ?g L(-1) notification level set by the State of California and could adversely impact human health. In addition, it is likely that large reservoirs of V are associated with iron corrosion by-products in unlined cast iron mains and service branches in numerous drinking water distribution systems. PMID:20863549

  18. Installation Of Service Connections For Sensors Or Transmitters In Buried Water Pipes

    DOEpatents

    Burnham, Alan K. (Livermore, CA); Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    2006-02-21

    A system for installing warning units in a buried pipeline. A small hole is drilled in the ground to the pipeline. A collar is affixed to one of the pipes of the pipeline. A valve with an internal passage is connected to the collar. A hole is drilled in the pipe. A warning unit is installed in the pipe by moving the warning unit through the internal passage, the collar, and the hole in the pipe.

  19. Investigation of factors affecting the accumulation of vinyl chloride in polyvinyl chloride piping used in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Walter, Ryan K; Lin, Po-Hsun; Edwards, Marc; Richardson, Ruth E

    2011-04-01

    Plastic piping made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and chlorinated PVC (CPVC), is being increasingly used for drinking water distribution lines. Given the formulation of the material from vinyl chloride (VC), there has been concern that the VC (a confirmed human carcinogen) can leach from the plastic piping into drinking water. PVC/CPVC pipe reactors in the laboratory and tap samples collected from consumers homes (n = 15) revealed vinyl chloride accumulation in the tens of ng/L range after a few days and hundreds of ng/L after two years. While these levels did not exceed the EPA's maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2 ?g/L, many readings that simulated stagnation times in homes (overnight) exceeded the MCL-Goal of 0 ?g/L. Considerable differences in VC levels were seen across different manufacturers, while aging and biofilm effects were generally small. Preliminary evidence suggests that VC may accumulate not only via chemical leaching from the plastic piping, but also as a disinfection byproduct (DBP) via a chlorine-dependent reaction. This is supported from studies with CPVC pipe reactors where chlorinated reactors accumulated more VC than dechlorinated reactors, copper pipe reactors that accumulated VC in chlorinated reactors and not in dechlorinated reactors, and field samples where VC levels were the same before and after flushing the lines where PVC/CPVC fittings were contributing. Free chlorine residual tests suggest that VC may be formed as a secondary, rather than primary, DBP. Further research and additional studies need to be conducted in order to elucidate reaction mechanisms and tease apart relative contributions of VC accumulation from PVC/CPVC piping and chlorine-dependent reactions. PMID:21420710

  20. Identification of significant problems related to light water reactor piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-07-01

    Work on the project was divided into three tasks. In Task 1, past surveys of LWR piping system problems and recent Licensee Event Report summaries are studied to identify the significant problems of LWR piping systems and the primary causes of these problems. Pipe cracking is identified as the most recurring problem and is mainly due to the vibration of pipes due to operating pump-pipe resonance, fluid-flow fluctuations, and vibration of pipe supports. Research relevant to the identified piping system problems is evaluated. Task 2 studies identify typical LWR piping systems and the current loads and load combinations used in the design of these systems. Definitions of loads are reviewed. In Task 3, a comparative study is carried out on the use of nonlinear analysis methods in the design of LWR piping systems. The study concludes that the current linear-elastic methods of analysis may not predict accurately the behavior of piping systems under seismic loads and may, under certain circumstances, result in nonconservative designs. Gaps at piping supports are found to have a significant effect on the response of the piping systems.

  1. Volatile organic compounds in natural biofilm in polyethylene pipes supplied with lake water and treated water from the distribution network.

    PubMed

    Skjevrak, Ingun; Lund, Vidar; Ormerod, Kari; Herikstad, Hallgeir

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this work was investigation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in natural biofilm inside polyethylene (HDPE) pipelines at continuously flowing water. VOC in biofilm may contribute to off-flavour episodes in drinking water. The pipelines were supplied with raw lake water and treated water from the distribution network. Biofilm was established at test sites located at two different drinking water distribution networks and their raw water sources. A whole range of volatile compounds were identified in the biofilm, including compounds frequently associated with cyanobacteria and algae, such as ectocarpene, dictyopterene A and C', geosmin, beta-ionone and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. In addition, volatile amines, dimethyldisulphide and 2-nonanone, presumably originating from microorganisms growing in the biofilm, were identified. C8-compounds such as 1-octen-3-one and 3-octanone were believed to be products from microfungi in the biofilm. Degradation products from antioxidants such as Irgafos 168, Irganox 1010 and Irganox 1076 used in HDPE pipes, corresponding to 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol and 2,6-di-tert-butylbenzoquinone, were present in the biofilm. PMID:16139326

  2. Tilt angle dependence of backscattering enhancements from organ pipe modes of open water-filled cylinders: Measurements and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterhoudt, Curtis F.; Marston, Philip L.

    2003-04-01

    A simple target for simulating narrow low-frequency resonances of cylinders is an open metal pipe completely filled with water. We have previously described how the high-Q organ-pipe modes having a pressure node near each end are easily observed in backscattering experiments with small cylinders [C. F. Osterhoudt and P. L. Marston, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 2773 (2001)]. The resonance occurs because of the strong reflection of internal acoustic waves from the open ends of the pipe [H. Levine and J. Schwinger, Phys. Rev. 73, 383-406 (1948)]. In the present research, the dependence of the backscattering amplitude on the orientation of the cylinder is measured and modeled. The tilt angle dependence is affected by the symmetry of the organ pipe mode. An approximation was also developed for the backscattering amplitude at high Q resonances based on energy conservation, reciprocity, and the optical theorem. While this analysis applies to cylinders suspended in water away from boundaries, the organ-pipe modes studied may be useful for investigating scattering processes for buried or partially buried cylinders. [Research supported in part by ONR.

  3. Detection of water leaks in supply pipes using continuous wave sensor operating at 2.45 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bimpas, Matthaios; Amditis, Angelos; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos

    2010-03-01

    An innovative sensor technique has been developed to detect water leaks in supply pipes, especially in cases where the existing prevailing methods do not offer reliable solution, such as in PVC pipelines or for minor leaks. The presented system uses a Continuous Wave (CW) Doppler sensing unit operating at 2.45 GHz, consisting of a low power transmitter, a homodyne receiver and a digital signal processing unit. The operation principle is the detection of the Doppler frequency shift of the reflected electromagnetic wave by slightly moving water that leaks out of a pipe. A first prototype has already been developed and tested in test sites as well as in real water leaking conditions. The system has additionally been compared to the commercially available water leaking methods, verifying its reliability and accuracy in the detection of water leaks.

  4. Underground piping handbook

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peggs

    1985-01-01

    This book provides the information required to design and prepare construction drawings, and to install, inspect, test, and commission buried piping. Both pressure and gravity piping are covered, including water, steam, gases, and sewers. Directed primarily toward underground industrial piping systems, this is a succinct, well-organized compilation of practical knowledge. Checklists, examples, tables, charts, nomographs, short cuts, and helpful hints

  5. A Comparison of Analysis Methods of Pipe Failure Characteristics Based on Maintenance Records of Water Distribution System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Yi; Tian Yimei

    2010-01-01

    The characteristic data applied for establishing predicting models of pipe failure in water distribution system (WDS) should be examined and screened in the first place. The effects of different way of data processing based on a series on maintenance records are compared, which includes a classification method by Bayesian theorem, a hypothesis testing by analysis of variance and an association

  6. THE PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE OF BIOFILM SLIME IN DRINKING WATER PIPES: CREATING HIDEOUTS FOR THE PATHOGENIC UNDERWORLD OF MICROBIOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofilms consist of many species of bacteria, protozoa, and other microbes living together on almost any type of moist surface. Within drinking water distribution systems, biofilms grow readily on the inner walls of pipes, even in the presence of chlorine disinfectants. Some mi...

  7. Cracking in stabilized austenitic stainless steel piping of German boiling water reactors—characteristic features and root cause

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Erve; U. Wesseling; R. Kilian; R. Hardt; G. Brümmer; V. Maier; U. Ilg

    1997-01-01

    Cracks have been found in the welds of piping systems made from stabilized austenitic stainless steels in German boiling water reactors (BWR). In the course of the intensive failure analysis metallographic examinations, microstructural investigations by electron microscopy, corrosion experiments and welding tests have been performed. The results show that cracking under the given medium conditions is due to intergranular stress

  8. A STUDY ON THE CORROSION PREDICTION ABOUT SURFACE OF WATER DISTRIBUTION PIPES USING MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, Akira; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Arai, Yasuhiro; Inakazu, Toyono; Tamura, Satoshi; Ashida, Hiroshi

    In this study, the general corrosion of water distribution pipes which shows the spread of outside cor rosion was analyzed using the field survey data which was collected by Tokyo Waterworks Bureau. At first, the factor relevance structure map was constructed using correlation analysis. Installation period and polyethylene sleeve were important factors for general corrosion. In addition, correlation between the survey data about soil environment such as pH and general corrosion was confirmed. Secondly, the diagnostic model for understanding general corrosion without digging out was constructed using quantification theory. As the result, the diagnostication of general corrosion was made possible by the survey data about installation period and polyethylene sleeve. Finally, using regression analysis, the transition over time of general corrosion was compared according to the condition of polyethylene sleeve and soil environment. Additionally, the uncertainness of general corrosion in future was grasped by extended prediction.

  9. Analysis of Piping Systems for Life Extension of Heavy Water Plants in India

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Rajesh K.; Soni, R.S.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Raj, V. Venkat [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai - 400 085 (India)

    2002-07-01

    Heavy water production in India has achieved many milestones in the past. Two of the successfully running heavy water plants are on the verge of completion of their design life in the near future. One of these two plants, situated at Kota, is a hydrogen sulfide based plant and the other one at Tuticorin is an ammonia-based plant. Various exercises have been planned with an aim to assess the fatigue usage for the various components of these plants in order to extend their life. Considering the process parameters and the past history of the plant performance, critical piping systems and equipment are identified. Analyses have been carried out for these critical piping systems for mainly two kinds of loading, viz. sustained loads and the expansion loads. Static analysis has been carried out to find the induced stress levels due to sustained as well as thermal expansion loading as per the design code ANSI B31.3. Due consideration has been given to the design corrosion allowance while evaluating the stresses due to sustained loads. At the locations where the induced stresses (S{sub L}) due to the sustained loads are exceeding the allowable limits (S{sub h}), exercises have been carried out considering the reduced corrosion allowance value. This strategy is adopted in view of the fact that the thickness measurements carried out at site at various critical locations show a very low rate of corrosion. It has been possible to qualify the system with reduced corrosion allowance values however, it is recommended to keep that location under periodic monitoring. The strategy adopted for carrying out analysis for thermal expansion loading is to qualify the system as per the code allowable value (S{sub a}). If the stresses are more than the allowable value, credit of liberal allowable value as suggested in the code i.e., with the addition of the term (S{sub h}-S{sub L}) to the term 0.25 S{sub h}, has been taken. However, if at any location, it is found that thermal stress is high, fatigue analysis has been carried out. This is done using the provisions of ASME Code Section VIII, Div. 2 by evaluating the cumulative fatigue usage factor. Results of these exercises reveal that the piping systems of both of these plants are in a very healthy state. Based on these exercises, it has been concluded that the life of the plants can be safely extended further with enhanced in-service inspection provisions. (authors)

  10. Using probabilistic modeling to evaluate human exposure to organotin in drinking water transported by polyvinyl chloride pipe.

    PubMed

    Fristachi, Anthony; Xu, Ying; Rice, Glenn; Impellitteri, Christopher A; Carlson-Lynch, Heather; Little, John C

    2009-11-01

    The leaching of organotin (OT) heat stabilizers from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes used in residential drinking water systems may affect the quality of drinking water. These OTs, principally mono- and di-substituted species of butyltins and methyltins, are a potential health concern because they belong to a broad class of compounds that may be immune, nervous, and reproductive system toxicants. In this article, we develop probability distributions of U.S. population exposures to mixtures of OTs encountered in drinking water transported by PVC pipes. We employed a family of mathematical models to estimate OT leaching rates from PVC pipe as a function of both surface area and time. We then integrated the distribution of estimated leaching rates into an exposure model that estimated the probability distribution of OT concentrations in tap waters and the resulting potential human OT exposures via tap water consumption. Our study results suggest that human OT exposures through tap water consumption are likely to be considerably lower than the World Health Organization (WHO) "safe" long-term concentration in drinking water (150 microg/L) for dibutyltin (DBT)--the most toxic of the OT considered in this article. The 90th percentile average daily dose (ADD) estimate of 0.034 +/- 2.92 x 10(-4)microg/kg day is approximately 120 times lower than the WHO-based ADD for DBT (4.2 microg/kg day). PMID:19886947

  11. Visualization of Flow in Pressurizer Spray Line Piping and Estimation of Thermal Stress Fluctuation Caused by Swaying of Water Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oumaya, Toru; Nakamura, Akira; Onojima, Daisuke; Takenaka, Nobuyuki

    The pressurizer spray line of PWR plants cools reactor coolant by injecting water into pressurizer. Since the continuous spray flow rate during commercial operation of the plant is considered insufficient to fill the pipe completely, there is a concern that a water surface exists in the pipe and may periodically sway. In order to identify the flow regimes in spray line piping and assess their impact on pipe structure, a flow visualization experiment was conducted. In the experiment, air was used substituted for steam to simulate the gas phase of the pressurizer, and the flow instability causing swaying without condensation was investigated. With a full-scale mock-up made of acrylic, flow under room temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions was visualized, and possible flow regimes were identified based on the results of the experiment. Three representative patterns of swaying of water surface were assumed, and the range of thermal stress fluctuation, when the surface swayed instantaneously, was calculated. With the three patterns of swaying assumed based on the visualization experiment, it was confirmed that the thermal stress amplitude would not exceed the fatigue endurance limit prescribed in the Japanese Design and Construction Code.

  12. Supercritical water oxidation of colored smoke, dye, and pyrotechnic compositions. Final report: Pilot plant conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    LaJeunesse, C.A.; Chan, Jennifer P.; Raber, T.N.; Macmillan, D.C.; Rice, S.F.; Tschritter, K.L.

    1993-11-01

    The existing demilitarization stockpile contains large quantities of colored smoke, spotting dye, and pyrotechnic munitions. For many years, these munitions have been stored in magazines at locations within the continental United States awaiting completion of the life-cycle. The open air burning of these munitions has been shown to produce toxic gases that are detrimental to human health and harmful to the environment. Prior efforts to incinerate these compositions have also produced toxic emissions and have been unsuccessful. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a rapidly developing hazardous waste treatment method that can be an alternative to incineration for many types of wastes. The primary advantage SCWO affords for the treatment of this selected set of obsolete munitions is that toxic gas and particulate emissions will not occur as part of the effluent stream. Sandia is currently designing a SCWO reactor for the US Army Armament Research, Development & Engineering Center (ARDEC) to destroy colored smoke, spotting dye, and pyrotechnic munitions. This report summarizes the design status of the ARDEC reactor. Process and equipment operation parameters, process flow equations or mass balances, and utility requirements for six wastes of interest are developed in this report. Two conceptual designs are also developed with all process and instrumentation detailed.

  13. Supercritical water oxidation of colored smoke, dye, and pyrotechnic compositions. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, S.F.; LaJeunesse, C.A.; Hanush, R.G.; Aiken, J.D.; Johnston, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    The US military stockpile has large quantities of obsolete munitions awaiting disposal. Although suitable means for the safe dismantlement of much of this stockpile have been identified, there are still considerable quantities of specialty materials for which existing methods have been deemed inappropriate from an environmental standpoint. Among these munitions are colored spotting dyes and a wide assortment of pyrotechnics, including colored smokes and flares. In open bum or incineration treatment processes these materials produce large quantities of toxic, and possibly carcinogenic, gases and particulate matter. The U.S Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ is interested in developing a method of treatment that will dispose of these munitions without the difficulties identified above. This report examines the feasibility of supercritical water oxidation, an emerging waste treatment technology, to process these materials. Four colored dyes and one pyrotechnic smoke composition were processed in a flow reactor, and the effluent was analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the processing. The tests showed that all of these materials could by oxidized to much less hazardous compounds in less than 10 seconds with a destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) typically > 99.5%. Two technical issues were identified as needing more attention in Phase II of this project: formation of sulfate and chloride salt deposits within the flow reactor and corrosion of the materials of construction.

  14. Installation of 66kV XLPE power-optical fiber composite submarine cable and water pipe for the Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Y.; Kuroshima, T.; Takeuchi, M. [Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway Co. (Japan)] [Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway Co. (Japan); Sanpei, T.; Suzuki, S.; Ishikura, S.; Inoue, H.; Uematsu, T. [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd. (Japan)] [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    1995-07-01

    The manufacturing and the installation of the optical fiber composite submarine cable and water pipe for the Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway were completed in 1993. It was the Japanese longest 66kV XLPE power-optical fiber composite submarine cable and the first application of optical fiber composite submarine water pipe composed of two hollow galvanized steel armor wires inserted with optical fiber to monitor and control of construction sites. This paper describes the application and development of the hollow steel armor wire with optical fiber ribbon and the features of construction and installation of the optical fiber composite submarine cable and water pipe.

  15. Seismic re-evaluation of piping systems of heavy water plant, Kota

    E-print Network

    Mishra, R; Soni, R S; Venkat-Raj, V

    2002-01-01

    Heavy Water Plant, Kota is the first indigenous heavy water plant built in India. The plant started operation in the year 1985 and it is approaching the completion of its originally stipulated design life. In view of the excellent record of plant operation for the past so many years, it has been planned to carry out various exercises for the life extension of the plant. In the first stage, evaluation of operation stresses was carried out for the process critical piping layouts and equipment, which are connected with 25 process critical nozzle locations, identified based on past history of the plant performance. Fatigue life evaluation has been carried out to fmd out the Cumulative Usage Factor, which helps in arriving at a decision regarding the life extension of the plant. The results of these exercises have been already reported separately vide BARC/200I /E/O04. In the second stage, seismic reevaluation of the plant has been carried out to assess its ability to maintain its integ:rity in case of a seismic e...

  16. Practical piping handbook

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mendel

    1981-01-01

    A reference book on pipes, pipe fitting, and pipe treatment in the petroleum and natural gas industries is presented. The contents include: standard piping terminology; piping codes and standards; pipe manufacturing sizes; metallic piping; non-metallic piping; lined and coated piping systems; pipe tracing and jacketing; fittings and flanges; piping connections; valves; pipe expansion devices; flexible piping; piping specialties; pipe supports

  17. Biodeterioration of asbestos cement (AC) pipe in drinking water distribution systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dunling Wang; Roy Cullimore; Yafei Hu; Rudaba Chowdhury

    2011-01-01

    Various types of microorganisms have been found to inhabit the inner surfaces of asbestos cement (AC) pipe and their activities can cause significant structural damage. They cause a patina to form on the inside surface of AC pipes as a distinctively continuous coating, commonly 2–5 mm in thickness and generally pigmented as yellow, orange, brown or black depending on the metallic

  18. Water-copper nanofluid application in an open loop pulsating heat pipe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger R. Riehl; Nadjara dos Santos

    Several investigations have pointed the operational behavior of passive thermal control devices such as loop heat pipes (LHPs) and pulsating heat pipes (PHPs) in the past, which have cleared many points related to their design. However, an interesting aspect related to passive thermal control devices that operate by means of capillary forces to pump the working fluid have gained attention

  19. Innovative technology summary report: High-speed clamshell pipe cutter

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The Hanford Site C Reactor Technology Demonstration Group demonstrated the High-Speed Clamshell Pipe Cutter technology, developed and marketed by Tri Tool Inc. (Rancho Cordova, California). The models demonstrated are portable, split-frame pipe lathes that require minimal radial and axial clearances for severing and/or beveling in-line pipe with ranges of 25 cm to 41 cm and 46 cm to 61 cm nominal diameter. The radial clearance requirement from the walls, floors, or adjacent pipes is 18 cm. The lathes were supplied with carbide insert conversion kits for the cutting bits for the high-speed technique that was demonstrated. Given site-specific factors, this demonstration showed the cost of the improved technology to be approximately 30% higher than the traditional (baseline) technology (oxyacetylene torch) cost of $14,400 for 10 cuts of contaminated 41-cm and 61-cm-diameter pipe at C Reactor. Actual cutting times were faster than the baseline technology; however, moving/staging the equipment took longer. Unlike the baseline torch, clamshell lathes do not involve applied heat, flames, or smoke and can be operated remotely, thereby helping personal exposures to be as low as reasonably achievable. The baseline technology was demonstrated at the C Reactor north and south water pipe tunnels August 19--22, 1997. The improved technology was demonstrated in the gas pipe tunnel December 15--19.

  20. Transient temperature responses of hydronic radiant floor heating system by different pipe embedding depth and water supply condition.

    PubMed

    Chung, K S; Sohn, J Y; Baik, Y K; Kang, J S

    1993-07-01

    "Ondol" is a Korean unique heating system. It is a specific radiant floor heating system using combustion heat of briquette or timber in Korea. Such traditional "Ondol" is changed to radiant heating system with pipe-coil embedded in the floor or slab. This study has contributed to the understandings of the transient behaviours of Ondol-heated floor panels and enclosure exposed to this type of heating system. The result is that the water supply temperature had a large effect on the rate of increase in floor surface and room air temperature. But, in spite of a higher water supply temperature, the heat flow rate was not increased considerably. The shallow pipe embedding depths, of course, result in a low heat flow rate. PMID:8373479

  1. Leak detection in water-filled plastic pipes through the application of tuned wavelet transforms to Acoustic Emission signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Majid Ahadi; Mehrdad Sharif Bakhtiar

    2010-01-01

    A new method to detect leakage in a water-filled plastic pipe is proposed. In this method, a leakage signal-signature in time domain is first captured by monitoring the Short Time Fourier Transforms (STFT) of AE (Acoustic Emission) signals over a relatively long time-interval. The captured signal is then used to find a mother wavelet (tuned wavelet) for the best signal

  2. Acoustic Analysis for a Steam Dome and Pipings of a 1,100 MWe-Class Boiling Water Reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kitajima Yasumi; Watanabe Masanobu; Matsunaga Keiji; Hagiwara Tsuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    For the integrity evaluation of steam dryers in up-rated nuclear power plants, we have applied acoustic analysis to a nuclear power plant steam dome and main steam pipings. We have selected a 1,100 MWe-class boiling water reactor as a subject of the analysis. We have constructed a three-dimensional finite element model, and conducted acoustic analyses. The analysis result suggested that

  3. The Politics of the Pipe: Clay Pipes and Tobacco Consumption in Galway, Ireland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra Hartnett

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, clay pipes and the historical record are used to explore the illicit importation of tobacco in seventeenth-century Galway, Ireland. This is part of a wider tradition of the politics of smoking, including the proliferation of the clay pipe, the widespread smuggling of tobacco, and the overtly political nineteenth-century pipes that touted nationalist emblems. Here, the juxtaposition of

  4. Water quality criteria for colored smokes: Solvent Green 3: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, K.A.; Hovatter, P.S.

    1987-12-01

    The available data on the environmental fate, aquatic toxicity, and mammalian toxicity of Solvent Green 3, an anthraquinone dye used in colored smoke grenades, were reviewed. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidelines were used in an attempt to generate water quality criteria for the protection of human health and of aquatic life and its uses. Sufficient data to determine the toxicity of Solvent Green 3 in freshwater aquatic organisms are lacking. The 96-hr TL/sub 50/ for Pimephales promelas is >100 mg/L. Solvent Green 3, at a concentration of 10 mg/L, causes a transient reduction in growth of the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum. No data are available concerning the chronic toxicity or bioaccumulation of Solvent Green 3 in aquatic organisms. No data are available on any of the toxicity parameters for Solvent Green 3 in humans. No data on the pharmacokinetics of Solvent Green 3 administered orally in laboratory animals are available. Solvent Green 3 has a low order of toxicity whether administered by the oral, dermal, or inhalation route. The acute oral LD/sub 50/ is >3.16 g/kg in rats, but may be as high as 15 g/kg, >1 g/kg in dogs, and 10 g/kg in rabbits. Sufficient pertinent data were not available for deriving a water quality criterion for the protection of human health. 83 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Assessment of the microbial integrity, sensu G.S. Wilson, of piped and bottled drinking water in the condition as ingested

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. A Mossel; Corry B Struijk

    2004-01-01

    The second half of the 20th century witnessed substantial progress in the assurance and verification of microbiological integrity, i.e., safety and sensory quality, of drinking water. Enteropathogenic agents, such as particular viruses and protozoa, not previously identified as transmitted by industrially provided water supplies, were demonstrated to cause disease outbreaks, when ingested with piped water. The potential harm posed by

  6. Farm Water Supply and Sanitation--Pipe, Plumbing, Skills and Symbols. Student Materials. V.A. III. V-D-1, V-D-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Designed for use by individuals enrolled in vocational agricultural classes, these student materials deal with farm water supply, sanitation, and plumbing skills. Topics covered in the unit are maintaining the farm water supply; repairing faucets and valves, leaks in pipes and storage tanks, and water closets; clearing clogged drains and traps;…

  7. Assessing the Spatial Distribution of Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure via Public Drinking Water Pipes Using Geographic Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Kate; Fletcher, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a powerful tool for assessing exposure in epidemiologic studies. We used GIS to determine the geographic extent of contamination by perfluorooctanoic acid, C8 (PFOA) that was released into the environment from the DuPont Washington Works Facility located in Parkersburg, West Virginia. Methods Paper maps of pipe distribution networks were provided by six local public water districts participating in the community cross-sectional survey, the C8 Health Project. Residential histories were also collected in the survey and geocoded. We integrated the pipe networks and geocoded addresses to determine which addresses were serviced by one of the participating water districts. The GIS-based water district assignment was then compared to the participants' self-reported source of public drinking water. Results There were a total of 151,871 addresses provided by the 48,800 participants of the C8 Health Project that consented to geocoding. We were able to successfully geocode 139,067 (91.6%) addresses, and of these, 118,209 (85.0%) self-reported water sources were confirmed using the GIS-based method of water district assignment. Furthermore, the GIS-based method corrected 20,858 (15.0%) self-reported public drinking water sources. Over half (54%) the participants in the lowest GIS-based exposure group self-reported being in a higher exposed water district. Conclusions Not only were we able to correct erroneous self-reported water sources, we were also able to assign water districts to participants with unknown sources. Without the GIS-based method, the reliance on only self-reported data would have resulted in exposure misclassification. PMID:24010064

  8. Review of industry efforts to manage pressurized water reactor feedwater nozzle, piping, and feedring cracking and wall thinning

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, V.N.; Ware, A.G.; Porter, A.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents a review of nuclear industry efforts to manage thermal fatigue, flow-accelerated corrosion, and water hammer damage to pressurized water reactor (PWR) feedwater nozzles, piping, and feedrings. The review includes an evaluation of design modifications, operating procedure changes, augmented inspection and monitoring programs, and mitigation, repair and replacement activities. Four actions were taken: (a) review of field experience to identify trends of operating events, (b) review of technical literature, (c) visits to PWR plants and a PWR vendor, and (d) solicitation of information from 8 other countries. Assessment of field experience is that licensees have apparently taken sufficient action to minimize feedwater nozzle cracking caused by thermal fatigue and wall thinning of J-tubes and feedwater piping. Specific industry actions to minimize the wall-thinning in feedrings and thermal sleeves were not found, but visual inspection and necessary repairs are being performed. Assessment of field experience indicates that licensees have taken sufficient action to minimize steam generator water hammer in both top-feed and preheat steam generators. Industry efforts to minimize multiple check valve failures that have allowed backflow of steam from a steam generator and have played a major role in several steam generator water hammer events were not evaluated. A major finding of this review is that analysis, inspection, monitoring, mitigation, and replacement techniques have been developed for managing thermal fatigue and flow-accelerated corrosion damage to feedwater nozzles, piping, and feedrings. Adequate training and appropriate applications of these techniques would ensure effective management of this damage.

  9. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePLUS

    ... thirdhand smoke or residual tobacco smoke . Tobacco smoke residue is still being studied. Particles that settle out ... yet unknown, the cancer-causing effects of smoke residue would likely be small compared with direct exposure ...

  10. Water flow measurement in large bore pipes: an experimental comparison between two different types of insertion flowmeters.

    PubMed

    Cascetta, Furio; Palombo, Adolfo; Scalabrini, Gianfranco

    2003-04-01

    In this paper the metrological behavior of two different insertion flowmeters (magnetic and turbine types) in large water pipes is described. A master-slave calibration was carried out in order to estimate the overall uncertainty of the tested meters. The experimental results show that (i) the magnetic insertion tested flowmeter performs the claimed accuracy (+/- 2%) within all the flow range (20:1); (ii) the insertion turbine tested meter, instead, reaches the claimed accuracy just in the upper zone of the flow range. PMID:12708537

  11. Piping flow erosion in water retaining structures: inferring erosion rates from hole erosion tests and quantifying the failure time

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    parameters of piping failure: the coefficient of erosion, and the maximum pipe diameter prior to roof (earth-dams, dykes, levees) result from overtopping and piping. The breach due to failure generates, the statistics of failure of embankment dams indicates that improvement in the understanding of piping

  12. Submersible Survey Along the Honolulu Sea Water Air Conditioning LLC Pipe Route to Provide Data

    E-print Network

    , University of Hawaii 2Honolulu Seawater Air Conditioning, LLC KOK & Pisces V #12;2 HSWAC Pipe Route Survey Methods 40 m survey corridors Dive Length (m) Area (m2) Area (ha) P5-711 937 2,811 0.2811 P4-207 5,116 15

  13. Distribution of Asellus aquaticus and microinvertebrates in a non-chlorinated drinking water supply system--effects of pipe material and sedimentation.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Sarah C B; Nissen, Erling; Arvin, Erik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-05-01

    Danish drinking water supplies based on ground water without chlorination were investigated for the presence of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, microinvertebrates (<2 mm) and annelida. In total, 52 water samples were collected from fire hydrants at 31 locations, and two elevated tanks (6000 and 36,000 m(3)) as well as one clean water tank at a waterworks (700 m(3)) were inspected. Several types of invertebrates from the phyla: arthropoda, annelida (worms), plathyhelminthes (flatworms) and mollusca (snails) were found. Invertebrates were found at 94% of the sampling sites in the piped system with A. aquaticus present at 55% of the sampling sites. Populations of A. aquaticus were present in the two investigated elevated tanks but not in the clean water tank at a waterworks. Both adult and juvenile A. aquaticus (length of 2-10 mm) were found in tanks as well as in pipes. A. aquaticus was found only in samples collected from two of seven investigated distribution zones (zone 1 and 2), each supplied directly by one of the two investigated elevated tanks containing A. aquaticus. Microinvertebrates were distributed throughout all zones. The distribution pattern of A. aquaticus had not changed considerably over 20 years when compared to data from samples collected in 1988-89. Centrifugal pumps have separated the distribution zones during the whole period and may have functioned as physical barriers in the distribution systems, preventing large invertebrates such as A. aquaticus to pass alive. Another factor characterising zone 1 and 2 was the presence of cast iron pipes. The frequency of A. aquaticus was significantly higher in cast iron pipes than in plastic pipes. A. aquaticus caught from plastic pipes were mainly single living specimens or dead specimens, which may have been transported passively trough by the water flow, while cast iron pipes provided an environment suitable for relatively large populations of A. aquaticus. Sediment volume for each sample was measured and our study described for the first time a clear connection between sediment volume and living A. aquaticus since living A. aquaticus were nearly only found in samples with sediment contents higher than 100 ml/m(3) sample. Presence of A. aquaticus was not correlated to turbidity of the water. Measurements by ATP, heterotrophic plate counting and Colilert(®) showed that the microbial quality of the water was high at all locations with or without animals. Four other large Danish drinking water supplies were additionally sampled (nine pipe samples and one elevated tank), and invertebrates were found in all systems, three of four containing A. aquaticus, indicating a nationwide occurrence. PMID:21507451

  14. Performance and Reliability Analysis of Water Distribution Systems under Cascading Failures and the Identification of Crucial Pipes

    PubMed Central

    Shuang, Qing; Zhang, Mingyuan; Yuan, Yongbo

    2014-01-01

    As a mean of supplying water, Water distribution system (WDS) is one of the most important complex infrastructures. The stability and reliability are critical for urban activities. WDSs can be characterized by networks of multiple nodes (e.g. reservoirs and junctions) and interconnected by physical links (e.g. pipes). Instead of analyzing highest failure rate or highest betweenness, reliability of WDS is evaluated by introducing hydraulic analysis and cascading failures (conductive failure pattern) from complex network. The crucial pipes are identified eventually. The proposed methodology is illustrated by an example. The results show that the demand multiplier has a great influence on the peak of reliability and the persistent time of the cascading failures in its propagation in WDS. The time period when the system has the highest reliability is when the demand multiplier is less than 1. There is a threshold of tolerance parameter exists. When the tolerance parameter is less than the threshold, the time period with the highest system reliability does not meet minimum value of demand multiplier. The results indicate that the system reliability should be evaluated with the properties of WDS and the characteristics of cascading failures, so as to improve its ability of resisting disasters. PMID:24551102

  15. Water heat pipe frozen startup and shutdown transients with internal temperature, pressure and visual observations 

    E-print Network

    Reinarts, Thomas Raymond

    1989-01-01

    section is shown in Figure 5. A CENCO-MEGAVAC vacuum pump is attached to the heat pipe to remove non-condensable gases. A similar vacuum pump is attached to a filter flask 22 CL E E 'D 4l CO OI Ol E 0 a 0 CCI CI IO III Q Cl O O IO Cl...-50-100-200-250 watts. . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Section 3: Frozen Startup Number 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Section 4: Frozen Startup Number 2...

  16. Flow accelerated corrosion of carbon steel feeder pipes from pressurized heavy water reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, J. L.; Kumar, Umesh; Kumawat, N.; Kumar, Sunil; Kain, Vivekanand; Anantharaman, S.; Sinha, A. K.

    2012-10-01

    Detailed investigation of a number of feeder pipes received from Rajasthan Atomic Power Station Unit 2 (RAPS#2) after en-masse feeder pipe replacement after 15.67 Effective Full Power Years (EFPYs) was carried out. Investigations included ultrasonic thickness measurement by ultrasonic testing, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, chemical analysis and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Results showed that maximum thickness reduction of the feeder had occurred downstream and close to the weld in 32 NB (1.25?/32.75 mm ID) elbows. Rate of Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) was measured to be higher in the lower diameter feeder pipes due to high flow velocity and turbulence. Weld regions had thinned to a lower extent than the parent material due to higher chromium content in the weld. A weld protrusion has been shown to add to the thinning due to FAC and lead to faster thinning rate at localized regions. Surface morphology of inner surface of feeder had shown different size scallop pattern over the weld and parent material. Inter-granular cracks were also observed along the weld fusion line and in the parent material in 32 NB outlet feeder elbow.

  17. Water-quality data collected to determine the presence, source, and concentration of lead in the drinking water supply at Pipe Spring National Monument, northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.; Sharrow, David; Unema, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Pipe Spring National Monument in northern Arizona contains historically significant springs. The groundwater source of these springs is the same aquifer that presently is an important source of drinking water for the Pipe Spring National Monument facilities, the Kaibab Paiute Tribe, and the community of Moccasin. The Kaibab Paiute Tribe monitored lead concentrations from 2004 to 2009; some of the analytical results exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action level for treatment technique for lead of 15 parts per billion. The National Park Service and the Kaibab Paiute Tribe were concerned that the local groundwater system that provides the domestic water supply might be contaminated with lead. Lead concentrations in water samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from three springs, five wells, two water storage tanks, and one faucet were less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action level for treatment technique. Lead concentrations of rock samples representative of the rock units in which the local groundwater resides were less than 22 parts per million.

  18. Hookah (Shisha, Narghile) Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). A Critical Review of the Relevant Literature and the Public Health Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Chaouachi, Kamal

    2009-01-01

    Hookah (narghile, shisha, “water-pipe”) smoking is now seen by public health officials as a global tobacco epidemic. Cigarette Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is classically understood as a combination of Side-Stream Smoke (SSS) and Exhaled Main-Stream Smoke (EMSS), both diluted and aged. Some of the corresponding cigarette studies have served as the scientific basis for stringent legislation on indoor smoking across the world. Interestingly, one of the distinctive traits of the hookah device is that it generates almost no SSS. Indeed, its ETS is made up almost exclusively by the smoke exhaled by the smoker (EMSS), i.e. which has been filtered by the hookah at the level of the bowl, inside the water, along the hose and then by the smoker’s respiratory tract itself. The present paper reviews the sparse and scattered scientific evidence available about hookah EMSS and the corresponding inferences that can be drawn from the composition of cigarette EMSS. The reviewed literature shows that most of hookah ETS is made up of EMSS and that the latter qualitatively differs from MSS. Keeping in mind that the first victim of passive smoking is the active smoker her/himself, the toxicity of hookah ETS for non-smokers should not be overestimated and hyped in an unscientific way. PMID:19440416

  19. The Pipe vs. The Shed: Waste Water compared with Natural Hydrology in an Urban Setting

    E-print Network

    Lather, Alaska; Wozniak, Monika

    2011-01-01

    unknown. EBMUD Waste Water Treatment Process and Pollutants:waste and groundwater, storm water and food scraps), which is then anaerobically digested in the treatmentwaste water/sewer water can be pumped into the wetland at which point treatment

  20. Effect of pH on the concentrations of lead and trace contaminants in drinking water: a combined batch, pipe loop and sentinel home study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jung; Herrera, Jose E; Huggins, Dan; Braam, John; Koshowski, Scott

    2011-04-01

    High lead levels in drinking water are still a concern for households serviced by lead pipes in many parts of North America and Europe. This contribution focuses on the effect of pH on lead concentrations in drinking water delivered through lead pipes. Though this has been addressed in the past, we have conducted a combined batch, pipe loop and sentinel study aiming at filling some of the gaps present in the literature. Exhumed lead pipes and water quality data from the City of London's water distribution system were used in this study. As expected, the lead solubility of corrosion scale generally decreased as pH increased; whereas dissolution of other accumulated metals present in the corrosion scale followed a variety of trends. Moreover, dissolved arsenic and aluminum concentrations showed a strong correlation, indicating that the aluminosilicate phase present in the scale accumulates arsenic. A significant fraction of the total lead concentration in water was traced to particulate lead. Our results indicate that particulate lead is the primary contributor to total lead concentration in flowing systems, whereas particulate lead contribution to total lead concentrations for stagnated systems becomes significant only at high water pH values. PMID:21458838

  1. Development and testing of non-bonded flexible pipe for high temperature/high pressure/deep water/dynamic sour service applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kalman, M.; Belcher, J.; Chen, B.; Fraser, D.; Ethridge, A.; Loper, C.

    1996-12-31

    Non-bonded flexible risers are a critical element of floating systems for offshore oil and gas production. This paper reviews product innovations and prototype testing of risers developed to cope with severe environments. Full scale dynamic test results with combined tension, bending, internal pressure and heating, and with these structural loads combined with sour production fluids introduced into the bore of the pipe are presented. The loading conditions for the tests were based on floating production systems in North Sea environments. End fittings must assure a leak tight transition to subsea and surface facilities when subjected to the pipe applied loads, thermal cycling during startup and shutdowns, and changing of the fluid barrier material properties over the service life. The results of analyses and tests conducted to verify the integrity of the end fitting with thermal cycling and fluid barrier changes due to the high temperature production fluids is presented. Conventional flexible pipe employs carbon steel for axial and hoop structural reinforcement. In deeper water, the tension loads induced by pipe weight increase stress levels in the pipe structure and deck and installation loads. As pipe stresses increase, larger cross sectional areas of the steel members are required, further increasing the weight. To reduce the unit weight, while retaining the required strength levels, composite materials have been developed to replace the steel tensile armor. The composite consists of carbon fibers in a thermoplastic matrix. Tests to verify the suitability of the material in the flexible pipe annulus environment and to evaluate the performance of the composite pipe structure are presented.

  2. Defect characterization in pipe-to-pipe welds in large diameter stainless steel piping

    SciTech Connect

    Rawl, D.E. Jr.; West, S.L.; Wheeler, D.A.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Metallurgical evaluation of pipe-to-pipe welds in large-diameter, Type 304 stainless steel piping used to construct the moderator/coolant water systems for Savannah River Site reactors has demonstrated that small weld defects found in this 1950-vintage system do not compromise the integrity of the system. The weld defects were too small for detection by the pre-service standard radiographic inspection, but were found through systematic ultrasonic testing (UT) and penetrant testing (PT) evaluations of piping that had been removed during upgrades to the piping system. The defects include lack of weld penetration, slag inclusions, and other weld metal discontinuities. These discontinuities typically did not propagate during more than 35 years of service. The defects examined were too small and isolated to degrade the mechanical properties of the pipe-to-pipe weldments and therefore did not compromise the integrity of the piping system. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Characterization of biofilm and corrosion of cast iron pipes in drinking water distribution system with UV/Cl2 disinfection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Wang, Haibo; Li, Xiaoxiao; Hu, Chun; Yang, Min; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-09-01

    The effect of UV/Cl2 disinfection on the biofilm and corrosion of cast iron pipes in drinking water distribution system were studied using annular reactors (ARs). Passivation occurred more rapidly in the AR with UV/Cl2 than in the one with Cl2 alone, decreasing iron release for higher corrosivity of water. Based on functional gene, pyrosequencing assays and principal component analysis, UV disinfection not only reduced the required initial chlorine dose, but also enhanced denitrifying functional bacteria advantage in the biofilm of corrosion scales. The nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) Dechloromonas exhibited the greatest corrosion inhibition by inducing the redox cycling of iron to enhance the precipitation of iron oxides and formation of Fe3O4 in the AR with UV/Cl2, while the rhizobia Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium, and the NRB Sphingomonas, Brucella producing siderophores had weaker corrosion-inhibition effect by capturing iron in the AR with Cl2. These results indicated that the microbial redox cycling of iron was possibly responsible for higher corrosion inhibition and lower effect of water Larson-Skold Index (LI) changes on corrosion. This finding could be applied toward the control of water quality in drinking water distribution systems. PMID:24859195

  4. Analysis of cracked core spray injection line piping from the Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Diercks, D.R.

    1983-12-01

    Elbow assemblies and adjacent piping from the loops A and B core spray injection lines of Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 Boiling Water Reactors have been examined in order to determine the nature and causes of coolant leakages and flaw indications detected during hydrostatic tests and subsequent ultrasonic inspections. The elbow assemblies were found to contain multiple intergranular cracks in the weld heat-affected zones. The cracking was predominantly axial in orientation in the forged elbow and wedge components, whereas mixed axial and circumferential cracking was seen in the wrought piping pieces. In at least two instances, axial cracks completely penetrated the circumferential weld joining adjacent components. Based upon the observations made in the present study, the failures were attributed to intergranular stress corrosion cracking caused by the weld-induced sensitized microstructure and residual stresses present; dissolved oxygen in the reactor coolant apparently served as the corrosive species. The predominantly axial orientation of the cracks present in the forged components is believed to be related to the banded microstructure present in these components. The metallographic studies reported are supplemented by x-radiography, chemical analysis and mechanical test results, determinations of the degree of sensitization present, and measurements of weld metal delta ferrite content.

  5. Supercritical water oxidation of colored smoke, dye, and pyrotechnic compositions. Final report: Pilot plant conceptual design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. LaJeunesse; Jennifer P. Chan; T. N. Raber; D. C. Macmillan; S. F. Rice; K. L. Tschritter

    1993-01-01

    The existing demilitarization stockpile contains large quantities of colored smoke, spotting dye, and pyrotechnic munitions. For many years, these munitions have been stored in magazines at locations within the continental United States awaiting completion of the life-cycle. The open air burning of these munitions has been shown to produce toxic gases that are detrimental to human health and harmful to

  6. Seasonal Comparison of Observed Water Vapor Enhancement in Prescribed Fire Smoke Plumes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Kiefer; C. B. Clements; B. E. Potter; S. J. Strenfel; J. K. Hiers

    2009-01-01

    In situ measurements of temperature and relative humidity were obtained during multiple prescribed fires in a longleaf pine ecosystem at the Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center at Ichauway, Georgia in July 2008 and January 2009. A 10 m tower was constructed to capture fire front plume conditions, while radiosondes were launched so smoke plume characteristics aloft could be quantified.

  7. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePLUS

    Secondhand smoke is a mixture of the smoke that comes from the burning end of a cigarette, cigar, ... about 70 can cause cancer. Health effects of secondhand smoke include Ear infections in children More frequent and ...

  8. Preliminary investigation of structural controls of ground-water movement in Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Fleming, John B.; Pierce, Herb A.

    2004-01-01

    Pipe Spring National Monument, near the border of Arizona and Utah, includes several low-discharge springs that are the primary natural features of the monument. The National Park Service is concerned about the declines in spring discharge. Seismic-refraction and frequency-domain electromagnetic-induction methods were employed in an attempt to better understand the relation between spring discharge and geologic structure. The particular method used for the seismic-refraction surveys was unable to resolve structural features in the monument. Electromagnetic surveys delineated differences in apparent conductivity of the shallow subsurface deposits. The differences are attributable to differences in saturation, lithology, and structure of these deposits.

  9. The detrimental danger of water-pipe (Hookah) transcends the hazardous consequences of general health to the driving behavior

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the consumption of tobacco used in Water-Pipe by drivers increases the risk of a motor vehicle collision as a consequence of hypoxia. Design Analytical case–control study. Data sources Seventy exclusive Water-Pipe smokers (Experimental Group - EG) - mean age ± SD: 29.47?±?10.45?years; mean number of weekly WPS, (6.9?±?3.7); mean duration of WPS (WPS) is (7.5?±?2.1?years) - and thirty non-smoker (Control Group – CG; mean age ± SD: 36.33?±?13.92?years) were recruited during 2011 from two Arab villages located in the Galilee, northern Israel. Methods We performed a case–control study exclusively among Water-Pipe smokers with an appropriate non smokers control group. Demographic questionnaire, Pulse Oxymeter for blood oxygenation measure and a driver simulator for measuring various participants driving behaviors were utilized. Statistical analysis for analyzing the different variables, Pearson’s x2 analysis for the comparison of categorical variables, continuous variable is compared using Student’s t-test and for testing the correlation between the different variables and bivariate correlation analysis were applied. Results In the (EG) following WPS, we observed increase in the pulse rate - from 80 to 95 (t?=?11.84, p?

  10. WORKING CHARACTERISCS OF A COMPACT SOLAR HOT WATER SYSTEM WITH HEAT PIPES DURING STARTUP AND GEYSER BOILING PERIODS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel L. Abreu; Jorge A. Skiavine; Sergio Colle

    Heat pipes are widely used in solar heating systems. Two-phase closed thermosyphon (TPCT) heat pipes are characterized by their constructive simplicity and by gravity pumping of the working fluid inside the pipes. Because solar flat plate collectors are installed on tilted surfaces to maximize the performance along the year, it is possible to use TCPTs in their manufacture. The performance

  11. Probability of failure in BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) reactor coolant piping: Volume 2, Pipe failure induced by crack growth and failure of intermediate supports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Lo; S. E. Bumpus; D. J. Chinn; R. W. Mensing; G. S. Holman

    1989-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) contracted with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to conduct a study to determine if the probability of occurrence of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) in the major coolant piping systems of nuclear power plants is large enough to warrant the current stringent design requirements of designing against the postulated effects of a DEGB.

  12. Heat Pipes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction, function, and applications of heat pipes. Suggests using the heat pipe to teach principles related to heat transfer and gives sources for obtaining instructional kits for this purpose. (GS)

  13. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF INNOVATIVE CONDITION ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR WATER MAINS: ACOUSTIC PIPE WALL ASSESSMENT, INTERNAL INSPECTION, AND EXTERNAL INSPECTIONVOLUME 1: TECHNICAL REPORT AND VOLUME 2: APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nine pipe wall integrity assessment technologies were demonstrated on a 76-year-old, 2,057-ft-long portion of a cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY. This activity was part of a series of field demonstrations of innovative leak detection/location and condi...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1125 - Pipes, fittings, and valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Pipes, fittings, and valves. 154.1125 Section 154.1125 Shipping...Firefighting § 154.1125 Pipes, fittings, and valves. (a) Each pipe, fitting, and valve for each water spray system must meet Part...

  15. 46 CFR 154.1125 - Pipes, fittings, and valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Pipes, fittings, and valves. 154.1125 Section 154.1125 Shipping...Firefighting § 154.1125 Pipes, fittings, and valves. (a) Each pipe, fitting, and valve for each water spray system must meet Part...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1125 - Pipes, fittings, and valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Pipes, fittings, and valves. 154.1125 Section 154.1125 Shipping...Firefighting § 154.1125 Pipes, fittings, and valves. (a) Each pipe, fitting, and valve for each water spray system must meet Part...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1125 - Pipes, fittings, and valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Pipes, fittings, and valves. 154.1125 Section 154.1125 Shipping...Firefighting § 154.1125 Pipes, fittings, and valves. (a) Each pipe, fitting, and valve for each water spray system must meet Part...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1125 - Pipes, fittings, and valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Pipes, fittings, and valves. 154.1125 Section 154.1125 Shipping...Firefighting § 154.1125 Pipes, fittings, and valves. (a) Each pipe, fitting, and valve for each water spray system must meet Part...

  19. Title: University Smoking Policy Code: 1-300-010

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianyu

    the health risks of secondhand, or passive, smoke by linking this type of smoke to 3,000 lung cancer deaths cigar, cigarette, pipe, or other tobacco product or smoking equipment. Hazardous areas include certain. The University's Faculty/Staff Assistance Program offers a program called Fresh Start, the American Cancer

  20. Heat pipe life and processing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoniuk, D.; Luedke, E. E.

    1979-01-01

    The merit of adding water to the reflux charge in chemically and solvent cleaned aluminum/slab wick/ammonia heat pipes was evaluated. The effect of gas in the performance of three heat pipe thermal control systems was found significant in simple heat pipes, less significant in a modified simple heat pipe model with a short wickless pipe section. Use of gas data for the worst and best heat pipes of the matrix in a variable conductance heat pipe model showed a 3 C increase in the source temperature at full on condition after 20 and 246 years, respectively.

  1. Seismic evaluation by comparative analysis of the confinement heat removal, process water, and modified cross-tie header piping systems in reactor building 105-L, Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, P.W.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents the results of the seismic evaluation of three piping systems located in Reactor Building 105-L at the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. The analysis was performed for E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (Du Pont) for the seismic qualification of the piping systems, according to the 1967 Housner criteria, and to recommend actions, which should be taken by Du Pont, to ensure the complete seismic adequacy of these systems. The following systems were analyzed: confinement heat removal system (CHRS); process water system (PWS); and modified cross-tie header system (CTHS).

  2. Study of Secondhand Smoke Levels Pre and Post Implementation of the Comprehensive Smoking Ban in Mumbai

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Aditi; Kudtarkar, Priyanka; Dhaware, Dhanashri; Chowgule, Rohini

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This research was undertaken with the aim of assessing the indoor air quality in popular hospitality venues, as also to evaluate the effectiveness of the nationwide comprehensive public smoking ban. The analysis was split into two halves – baseline study taken up prior to implementation of the said ban on 2nd October 2008, and the follow-up study after it came into effect. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five venues including five restaurants, fourteen resto-bars, two hookah (smoking water-pipe) cafes and four pubs were selected using a mix of random, convenience and purposeful sampling. Particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements at these venues were made using TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. Results: The average PM2.5 level in venues where smoking was permitted prior to implementation of ban was found to be 669.95 ?g/m3 in the baseline study. Post ban, the average PM2.5 level in same test venues reduced to 240.8 ?g/m3. The hookah cafes were an exception as the average PM2.5 levels exceeded the permissible limits before as well as post ban. Conclusion: The baseline study showed that the hospitality venues had hazardous levels of PM2.5 particles arising from second-hand smoke prior to smoking ban. These decreased by a maximum of 64% after the law took effect. A substantial improvement in air quality at these venues post implementation of the smoking ban indicated the effectiveness of the law. PMID:21031108

  3. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF PROKARYOTIC AND EUKAROYOTIC MICROOORGANISMS IN A DRINKING WATER PIPE LOOP SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within potable water distribution systems, opportunistic pathogens such as Legionella species infect protozoa, gaining protection from disinfectant residuals. Analyzing the prokaryotic and eukaryotic populations in distribution system water provides a basis for understanding the...

  4. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC MICROORGANISMS IN A DRINKING WATER PIPE LOOP SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within potable water distribution systems, opportunistic pathogens such as Legionella species infect protozoa, gaining protection from disinfectant residuals. Analyzing the prokaryotic and eukaryotic populations in distribution system water provides a basis for understanding the...

  5. Heat Transfer Performance and Piping Strategy Study for Chilled Water Systems at Low Cooling Loads

    E-print Network

    Li, Nanxi 1986-

    2012-12-05

    The temperature differential of chilled water is an important factor used for evaluating the performance of a chilled water system. A low delta-T may increase the pumping energy consumption and increase the chiller energy consumption. The system...

  6. Analysis and design of an in-pipe system for water leak detection

    E-print Network

    Chatzigeorgiou, Dimitris M

    2010-01-01

    Leaks are a major factor for unaccounted water losses in almost every water distribution network. Pipeline leak may result, for example, from bad workmanship or from any destructive cause, due to sudden changes of pressure, ...

  7. Volatile organic compounds in natural biofilm in polyethylene pipes supplied with lake water and treated water from the distribution network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingun Skjevrak; Vidar Lund; Kari Ormerod; Hallgeir Herikstad

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work was investigation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in natural biofilm inside polyethylene (HDPE) pipelines at continuously flowing water. VOC in biofilm may contribute to off-flavour episodes in drinking water. The pipelines were supplied with raw lake water and treated water from the distribution network. Biofilm was established at test sites located at two different drinking

  8. Exhaust odor and smoke reduction of stationary DI diesel engines to acceptable level by water-scrubbing and air-dilution system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murari Mohon Roy; Riaz Parvez; Rabiul Islam Sarker

    2011-01-01

    A simple low-cost exhaust gas aftertreatment system called water-scrubbing and air-dilution system was developed in this study. The water-scrubbing and air-dilution system was investigated on a stationary direct injection (DI) diesel engine to reduce exhaust odor and smoke to acceptable level under variable engine running conditions. Diesel exhaust was diluted with air and washed by sprayed water and passed through

  9. Experimental investigation of counter current air-water flow in a large diameter vertical pipe with inners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besagni, Giorgio; Guédon, Gaël; Inzoli, Fabio

    2014-11-01

    Counter current two phase flow is encountered in a wide variety of industrial applications. This paper describes the experimental results obtained in a circular column of 240 mm diameter with two inner pipes. The counter current flow studied concerns an upward flow of air and a downward flow of water at ambient temperature and pressure. The following range of operating conditions was analysed: superficial air velocities up to 23 cm/s and superficial water velocities up to – 11 cm/s, corresponding to a global air volume fractions (gas holdup) up to 29%. The experimental investigation concerned (i) flow visualization, (ii) local data from a double fibre optical probe and (iii) gas holdup measurements. The images obtained from an optical camera were used to observe the general flow patterns. The data obtained from the double fibre optical probe were used to study the local flow characteristics. In particular, the local void fractions, the bubble velocities, the bubble mean diameters and the bubble diameter distributions and are presented and discussed. The bed expansion technique was used to obtain the gas holdup measurements for every operating condition. The gas holdup measurements are discussed, compared with existing correlations and used for investigating the flow regime transitions. Finally, the gas holdup and the local void fraction measurements data are compared and used for understanding the local hydrodynamics.

  10. Analysis of Piping Systems for Life Extension of Heavy Water Plants in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh K. Mishra; R. S. Soni; H. S. Kushwaha; V. Venkat Raj

    2002-01-01

    Heavy water production in India has achieved many milestones in the past. Two of the successfully running heavy water plants are on the verge of completion of their design life in the near future. One of these two plants, situated at Kota, is a hydrogen sulfide based plant and the other one at Tuticorin is an ammonia-based plant. Various exercises

  11. THE OCCURRENCE OF CONTAMINANT ACCUMULATION IN LEAD PIPE SCALES FROM DOMESTIC DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work has shown that contaminants, such as Al, As and Ra, can accumulate in drinking water distribution system solids. The release of accumulated contaminants back into the water supply could result in elevated levels at consumers? taps, and current monitoring practices d...

  12. Tobacco and tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Wynder, E L; Hoffmann, D

    1976-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a causal relation between smoking of cigarettes and cancer of the lung in man. Women smokers, cigar, and pipe smokers also face an increased risk for lung cancer. Prospective and retrospective studies have found a correlation between smoking of cigarettes, cigars, and pipes and cancer of the oral cavity, larynx, and esophagus and for cigarette smokers increased risks to develop cancer of the pancreas, kidney, and urinary bladder. Dose responses have been established between number of cigarettes smoked and cancer of the respiratory and upper digestive tract. Tobacco chewers face an increased risk for cancer of the mouth and esophagus. Tobacco smoke has induced tumors of the lung in the dogs and of the larynx of hamsters. The particulate matter of the smoke is carcinogenic to the skin of mice and rabbits, and the bronchi and connective tissue of rats. In tobacco smoke were identified tumor initiators, tumor promoters, cocarcinogens and organ specific carcinogens. Chewing tobacco is a tumor promoting agent and contains traces of tobacco specific and carcinogenic nitrosamines. Ten to 15 yr after giving up smoking the ex-smoker faces the same low risk to develop cancer of the upper digestive tract, the lung, the pancreas, and the urinary tract as the nonsmoker. It should be our goal, therefore, to prevent young people from starting the smoking habit and to convince the smoker to quit smoking. So far, we can report no success in terms of decreasing smoking habits among younger people. On the other hand, we can take satisfaction from the fact that antismoking propaganda has had an effect on college educated males, that among the population as a whole, there is a considerable number of exsmokers; that smoking cessation clinics do prove cost effective and if they were to become part of every health care center, they could help a large number of heavy smokers who cannot seem to stop smoking on their own. We can also report that there has been a significant reduction in the tar yield of American cigarettes, a reduction which we hope will continue; that the tumorigenic activity of tobacco as measured in animal studies, has decreased; and that as a consequence of the above, the risk of lung cancer and other tobacco-related cancers among smokers of these cigarettes is lower than in years past. It is unlikely that man will ever be able to inhale smoke components as harmless as unpolluted air, but as long as we have a society which accepts this habit and as long as people find satisfaction in smoking, we must work towards the day when tobacco-related cancers and other diseases will be reduced to a minimum. With the world wide coperation of the scientific community, the Departments of Agriculture, and the tobacco industry, it is our hope that this goal will be achieved. PMID:982079

  13. Semi-analytical prediction of hydraulic resistance and heat transfer for pipe and channel flows of water at supercritical pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Laurien, E. [Univ. of Stuttgart, Inst. for Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems IKE, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Within the Generation IV International Forum the Supercritical Water Reactor is investigated. For its core design and safety analysis the efficient prediction of flow and heat transfer parameters such as the wall-shear stress and the heat-transfer coefficient for pipe and channel flows is needed. For circular pipe flows a numerical model based on the one-dimensional conservation equations of mass, momentum end energy in the radial direction is presented, referred to as a 'semi-analytical' method. An accurate, high-order numerical method is employed to evaluate previously derived analytical solutions of the governing equations. Flow turbulence is modeled using the algebraic approach of Prandtl/van-Karman, including a model for the buffer layer. The influence of wall roughness is taken into account by a new modified numerical damping function of the turbulence model. The thermo-hydraulic properties of water are implemented according to the international standard of 1997. This method has the potential to be used within a sub-channel analysis code and as wall-functions for CFD codes to predict the wall shear stress and the wall temperature. The present study presents a validation of the method with comparison of model results with experiments and multi-dimensional computational (CFD) studies in a wide range of flow parameters. The focus is laid on forced convection flows related to reactor design and near-design conditions. It is found, that the method can accurately predict the wall temperature even under deterioration conditions as they occur in the selected experiments (Yamagata el al. 1972 at 24.5 MPa, Ornatski et al. 1971 at 25.5 and Swenson et al. 1963 at 22.75 MPa). Comparison of the friction coefficient under high heat flux conditions including significant viscosity and density reductions near the wall with various correlations for the hydraulic resistance will be presented; the best agreement is achieve with the correlation of Pioro et al. 2004. It is concluded, that the semi-analytical prediction method is accurate and efficient for forced convection flows even at high heat fluxes. The wall-roughness height is identified as an important model parameter. (authors)

  14. Tippy Tap Plus Piping

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    The Tippy Tap hand-washing station is an inexpensive and effective device used extensively in the developing world. One shortcoming of the homemade device is that it must be manually refilled with water and therefore is of limited use in high-traffic areas. In this activity, student teams design, prototype and test piping systems to transport water from a storage tank to an existing Tippy Tap hand-washing station, thereby creating a more efficient hand-washing station. Through this example service-learning engineering project, students learn basic fluid dynamic principles that are needed for creating efficient piping systems.

  15. Mycobacterium avium complex in day care hot water systems, and persistence of live cells and DNA in hot water pipes.

    PubMed

    Bukh, Annette S; Roslev, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a group of opportunistic human pathogens that may thrive in engineered water systems. MAC has been shown to occur in drinking water supplies based on surface water, but less is known about the occurrence and persistence of live cells and DNA in public hot water systems based on groundwater. In this study, we examined the occurrence of MAC in hot water systems of public day care centers and determined the persistence of live and dead M. avium cells and naked DNA in model systems with the modern plumbing material cross-linked polyethylene (PEX). The occurrence of MAC and co-occurrence of Legionella spp. and Legionella pneumophila were determined using cultivation and qPCR. Co-occurrences of MAC and Legionella were detected in water and/or biofilms in all hot water systems at temperatures between 40 and 54 °C. Moderate correlations were observed between abundance of culturable MAC and that of MAC genome copies, and between MAC and total eubacterial genome copies. No quantitative relationship was observed between occurrence of Legionella and that of MAC. Persistence in hot water of live and dead M. avium cells and naked DNA was studied using PEX laboratory model systems at 44 °C. Naked DNA and DNA in dead M. avium cells persisted for weeks. Live M. avium increased tenfold in water and biofilms on PEX. The results suggest that water and biofilms in groundwater-based hot water systems can constitute reservoirs of MAC, and that amplifiable naked DNA is relatively short-lived, whereas PEX plumbing material supports persistence and proliferation of M. avium. PMID:24272032

  16. In-pipe water quality monitoring in water supply systems under steady and unsteady state flow conditions: A quantitative assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelina Aisopou; Ivan Stoianov; Nigel J. D. Graham

    Monitoring the quality of drinking water from the treatment plant to the consumers tap is critical to ensure compliance with national standards and\\/or WHO guideline levels. There are a number of processes and factors affecting the water quality during transmission and distribution which are little understood. A significant obstacle for gaining a detailed knowledge of various physical and chemical processes

  17. Assessment of US shipbuilding current capability to build a commercial OTEC platform and a cold water pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Komelasky, M. C. [ed.

    1980-03-01

    Lowry and Hoffman Associates Inc. (LHA) performed for ORI an analysis of the shipbuilding requirements for constructing an OTEC plant, and the available shipyard assets which could fulfill these requirements. In addition, several shipyards were queried concerning their attitudes towards OTEC. In assessing the shipbuilding requirements for an OTEC plant, four different platform configurations were studied and four different designs of the cold water pipe (CWP) were examined. The platforms were: a concrete ship design proposed by Lockheed; concrete spar designs with internal heat exchangers (IHE) (Rosenblatt) and external heat exchangers (XHE) (Lockheed); and a steel ship design proposed by Gibbs and Cox. The types of materials examined for CWP construction were: steel, fiber reinforced plastic (FPR), elastomer, and concrete. The report is organized io three major discussion areas. All the construction requirements are synthesized for the four platforms and CWPs, and general comments are made concerning their availability in the US. Specific shipbuilders facilities are reviewed for their applicability to building an OTEC plant, an assessment of the shipyards general interest in the OTEC program is presented providing an insight into their nearterm commercial outlook. The method of determining this interest will depend largely on a risk analysis of the OTEC system. Also included are factors which may comprise this analysis, and a methodology to ascertain the risk. In the appendices, various shipyard specifications are presented, shipyard assessment matrices are given, graphs of various shipyard economic outlooks are provided, and definitions of the risk factors are listed. (WHK)

  18. Effects of disinfectant and biofilm on the corrosion of cast iron pipes in a reclaimed water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibo; Hu, Chun; Hu, Xuexiang; Yang, Min; Qu, Jiuhui

    2012-03-15

    The effects of disinfection and biofilm on the corrosion of cast iron pipe in a model reclaimed water distribution system were studied using annular reactors (ARs). The corrosion scales formed under different conditions were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the bacterial characteristics of biofilm on the surface were determined using several molecular methods. The corrosion scales from the ARs with chlorine included predominantly ?-FeOOH and Fe2O3, while CaPO3(OH)·2H2O and ?-FeOOH were the predominant phases after chloramines replaced chlorine. Studies of the consumption of chlorine and iron release indicated that the formation of dense oxide layers and biofilm inhibited iron corrosion, causing stable lower chlorine decay. It was verified that iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB) such as Sediminibacterium sp., and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) such as Shewanella sp., synergistically interacted with the corrosion product to prevent further corrosion. For the ARs without disinfection, ?-FeOOH was the predominant phase at the primary stage, while CaCO3 and ?-FeOOH were predominant with increasing time. The mixed corrosion-inducing bacteria, including the IRB Shewanella sp., the IOB Sediminibacterium sp., and the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) Limnobacter thioxidans strain, promoted iron corrosion by synergistic interactions in the primary period, while anaerobic IRB became the predominant corrosion bacteria, preventing further corrosion via the formation of protective layers. PMID:22209261

  19. Experimental investigation of convective heat transfer agumentation using Al2O3/water nanofluid in circular pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavan, Durgeshkumar; Pise, Ashok T.

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, experimental study is performed to investigate convective heat transfer and flow characteristics of nanofluids through a circular tube. The heat transfer coefficient and friction factor of the ?-Al2O3-water nanofluid flowing through a pipe of 10 mm inner ID and 1 m in length, with constant wall temperature under turbulent flow conditions are investigated. Experiments are conducted with 30 nm size ?-Al2O3 nanoparticle with a volume fraction between 0.1 and to 1.0 and Reynolds number between 8,000 and 14,000. Experimental results emphasize the heat transfer enhancement with the increase in a Reynolds number or nanoparticle volume fraction. The maximum enhancement of 36 % in the heat transfer coefficient for a Reynolds number of 8,550, by using nanofluid with 1.0 vol% was observed compared with base fluid. Experimental measurement also shows the considerable increase in the pressure drop with small addition of nanoparticles in base fluid. Experimental results of nanofluids were compared with existing convective heat transfer correlations in the turbulent regime. Comparison shows that Maiga's correlation has close agreement with experimental results in comparison with Dittus Boelter correlation.

  20. Quit Smoking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... death and disease in the United States. Smoking causes: Lung cancer and many other types of cancer Heart disease ... SIDS) In adults, breathing in secondhand smoke can cause heart disease, stroke, and lung cancer. How can I quit smoking? Start by thinking ...

  1. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePLUS

    ... toxic chemicals known to cause cancer. Secondhand smoke causes lung cancer in people who have never smoked themselves. Heart disease. Breathing secondhand smoke makes it more likely that you will get heart ... can cause coughing‚ extra phlegm‚ wheezing‚ and shortness of breath. ...

  2. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EMERGING PIPE WALL INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR LARGE CAST IRON WATER MAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,500-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Septembe...

  3. Speciation And Distribution Of Vanadium In Drinking Water Iron Pipe Corrosion By-Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vanadium (V) when ingested from drinking water in high concentrations (> 15 µg L-1) is a potential health risk and is on track to becoming a regulated contaminant. High concentrations of V have been documented in lead corrosion by-products as Pb5(V5+...

  4. Field Demonstration of Emerging Pipe Wall Integrity Assessment Technologies for Large Cast Iron Water Mains - Paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,000-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast-iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Se...

  5. Development and manufacturing of a more cost-effective heat pipe solar water heater. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. T. Jr

    1984-01-01

    A one year research and development project was conducted with NMERDI and Energy Engineering, Inc. (EEI) support to improve the design, manufacturing, testing, certification, shipping and installation of the heatpipe (tm) Passive Solar Water Heater. The objectives of the project were to develop a more cost-effective heatpipe (tm) system and the machines and manufacturing processes needed to produce it in

  6. Mineralogical and Molecular Microbial Characterization of a Lead Pipe Removed from a Drinking Water Distribution System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) Lead and Copper Rule established an action level for lead of 0.0 15 mg/L in a 1 liter first draw sample at the consumer's tap. Lead corrosion and solubility in drinking water distribution systems are largely controlled by the fo...

  7. The Effect of Water Chemistry on the Release of Iron from Pipe Walls

    EPA Science Inventory

    Colored water problems originating from distribution system materials may be reduced by controlling corrosion, iron released from corrosion scales, and better understanding of the form and properties of the iron particles. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect...

  8. The Adsorption of Arsenic on Iron Pipes in Water Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to remain compliant with the U.S. EPA?s Lead and Copper rule, it is pivotal to understand the relationship between factors affecting lead release in drinking water distribution systems. Lead solids were synthesized in cell experiments using a pH range of 6-11 with both 1...

  9. Experimental on two sensors combination used in horizontal pipe gas-water two-phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao; Dong, Feng

    2014-04-01

    Gas-water two phase flow phenomenon widely exists in production and living and the measurement of it is meaningful. A new type of long-waist cone flow sensor has been designed to measure two-phase mass flow rate. Six rings structure of conductance probe is used to measure volume fraction and axial velocity. The calibration of them have been made. Two sensors have been combined in horizontal pipeline experiment to measure two-phase flow mass flow rate. Several model of gas-water two-phase flow has been discussed. The calculation errors of total mass flow rate measurement is less than 5% based on the revised homogeneous flow model.

  10. Non-Markovian model for the study of pitting corrosion in a water pipe system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, A. C. P.; Vaveliuk, P.; Moret, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    The main studies on pitting consist in proposing Markovian stochastic models, based on the statistics of extreme values and focused on growing the depth of wells, especially the deepest one. We show that a non-Markovian model, described by a nonlinear Fokker-Planck (nFP) equation, properly depicts the time evolution of a distribution of depth values of pits that were experimentally obtained. The solution of this equation in a steady-state regime is a q-Gaussian distribution, i.e. a long-tail probability distribution that is the main characteristic of a nonextensive statistical mechanics. The proposed model, that is applied to data from four inspections conducted on a section of a line of regular water service in power water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants, is in agreement with experimental results.

  11. Heat pipe heat exchanger design considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. T. Feldman; D. C. Lu

    1976-01-01

    Typical heat pipe heat exchangers (HPHX) are described, along with their advantages, uses, and some problems in HPHX design, and a computer HPHX analysis program is discussed with required input data. The computer program is being developed for analysis of heat exchange performance by finned-tube HPHX and thread-puddle-artery heat pipes. Copper-water heat pipes and carbon steel-Dowtherm A heat pipes are

  12. Experimental performance of a waste heat recovery and utilization system with a looped water-in-steel heat pipe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Habeebullah; M. Akyurt; Y. S. H. Najjar; A. K. El-Kalay

    1998-01-01

    An experimental facility is described for the recovery, by means of heat-pipes, of waste-heat from exhaust gases, and the utilization of the recovered energy to cool ambient air. To this end, heat of combustion gases, generated in a stainless-steel combustion chamber, is recovered from the stack by means of a heat-pipe system. The recovered heat is utilized to run a

  13. Piping Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Burns & McDonnell provide architectural and engineering services in planning, design and construction of a wide range of projects all over the world. In design analysis, company regularly uses COSMIC computer programs. In computer testing piping design of a power plant, company uses Pipe Flexibility Analysis Program (MEL-21) to analyze stresses due to weight, temperature, and pressure found in proposed piping systems. Individual flow rates are put into the computer, then computer calculates the pressure drop existing across each component; if needed, design corrections or adjustments can be made and rechecked.

  14. Parental Smoking Cessation and Adolescent Smoking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurie Chassin; Clark Presson; Jennifer Rose; Steven J. Sherman; Justin Prost

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relation of parent smoking cessation to adolescent smoking and test its potential mediators. Method: Participants were 446 adolescents and their parents who completed a computerized measure of implicit attitudes toward smoking and questionnaires assessing smoking, parenting, and explicit attitudes. Results: Parental smoking cessation was associated with less adolescent smoking, except when the other parent currently smoked.

  15. Emerging heat pipe applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Basuilis; D. J. Formiller

    1978-01-01

    The article discusses the application of heat pipes in various industrial, military, and space projects. Several types of heat pipes are described, including simple cylindrical heat pipes, switching heat pipes, thermal diodes, variable conductance heat pipes, and vapor chambers. Potential future applications of heat pipes are identified in the fields of electronics, spacecraft thermal control, heat pipe recovery systems, and

  16. Heat transfer in pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbach, T.

    1985-04-01

    The heat transfer from hot water to a cold copper pipe in laminar and turbulent flow condition is determined. The mean flow through velocity in the pipe, relative test length and initial temperature in the vessel were varied extensively during tests. Measurements confirm Nusselt's theory for large test lengths in laminar range. A new equation is derived for heat transfer for large starting lengths which agrees satisfactorily with measurements for large starting lengths. Test results are compared with the new Prandtl equation for heat transfer and correlated well. Test material for 200- and to 400-diameter test length is represented at four different vessel temperatures.

  17. Heat transfer in pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbach, T.

    1985-01-01

    The heat transfer from hot water to a cold copper pipe in laminar and turbulent flow condition is determined. The mean flow through velocity in the pipe, relative test length and initial temperature in the vessel were varied extensively during tests. Measurements confirm Nusselt's theory for large test lengths in laminar range. A new equation is derived for heat transfer for large starting lengths which agrees satisfactorily with measurements for large starting lengths. Test results are compared with the new Prandtl equation for heat transfer and correlated well. Test material for 200- and to 400-diameter test length is represented at four different vessel temperatures.

  18. Secondary smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, P. A.

    1993-06-01

    The open literature on secondary smoke formation, prediction, and classification is briefly reviewed. This review was limited to the open literature in order to promote the widest possible discussion within the AGARD engineering community. The recently completed PEP WG 21 proposal for smoke classification is presented. Secondary smoke is defined and the physics of condensation of vapor onto droplets is reviewed. The basis for the existing droplet condensation models is discussed and the existing methodology for predicting secondary smoke light attenuation and scattering is presented. Test data taken to establish the initial conditions for heterogeneous nucleation in rocket plumes is presented. Comparisons between secondary smoke predictions and flight data are presented. The state of the art of secondary smoke modeling is discussed and suggestions are made for improvements.

  19. Explosive Welding of Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drennov, Oleg; Drennov, Andrey; Burtseva, Olga

    2013-06-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. Explosive welding of cylindrical surfaces is performed by launching of welded layer along longitudinal axis of construction. During this procedure, it is required to provide reliable resistance against radial convergent strains. The traditional method is application of fillers of pipe cavity, which are dense cylindrical objects having special designs. However, when connecting pipes consecutively in pipelines by explosive welding, removal of the fillers becomes difficult and sometimes impossible. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe.

  20. Measurement of the oil holdup for a two-phase oil-water flow through a sudden contraction in a horizontal pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, L. P. M.; Guilizzoni, M.; Sotgia, G. M.; Bortolotti, S.; Pavan, L.

    2014-04-01

    Oil-water two-phase flow experiments were conducted in a horizontal duct made of Plexiglas® to determine the holdup of oil by means of the quick closing valves technique, using mineral oil (viscosity: 0.838 Pa s at 20 °C density: 890 kg m-3) and tap water. The duct presents a sudden contraction, with contraction ratio of 0.64. About 200 tests were performed by varying the flow rates of the phases. Flow patterns were investigated for both the up- and downstream pipe. Due to the relatively high value of the contraction ratio, it was not observed any relevant variation of the flow patterns across the sudden contraction. Data were then compared with predictions of a specific correlation for oil-water flow and some correlations for gas-water flow. A drift-flux model was also applied to determine the distribution parameter. The results agree quite well with flow pattern visualization.

  1. Secondhand Smoke Quiz

    MedlinePLUS

    Home » Quit Smoking » Second Hand Smoke Quiz Secondhand Smoke Quiz Secondhand Smoke Quiz 1. Secondhand smoke is: a) Smoke that is breathed out by the smoker b) Pollution from smoke stacks and car exhaust c) Smoke that comes from the burning end of a cigarette ...

  2. Smoking and Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Stop Smoking > About Smoking > Facts & Figures Smoking and Older Adults Older smokers are at greater risks from smoking ... health. 1 Key Facts About Tobacco Use Among Older Adults Today's generation of older Americans had smoking rates ...

  3. Impact of elevated Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) concentrations of reverse osmosis membrane desalinated seawater on the stability of water pipe materials.

    PubMed

    Liang, Juan; Deng, Anqi; Xie, Rongjing; Gomez, Mylene; Hu, Jiangyong; Zhang, Jufang; Ong, Choon Nam; Adin, Avner

    2014-03-01

    Hardness and alkalinity are known factors influencing the chemical stability of desalinated water. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) on corrosion and/or scale formation on the surface of different water distribution pipe materials under tropical conditions. The corrosion rates of ductile iron, cast iron and cement-lined ductile iron coupons were examined in reverse osmosis (RO) membrane desalinated seawater which was remineralised using different concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). The changes in water characteristics and the coupon corrosion rates were studied before and after the post-treatment. The corrosion mechanisms and corrosion products were examined using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction, respectively. We found that the combination of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (60/40 mg/L as CaCO3) resulted in lower corrosion rates than all other treatments for the three types of pipe materials, suggesting that Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) combination improves the chemical stability of desalinated seawater rather than Ca(2+) only. PMID:24642429

  4. Piping Connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In Stennis Space Center's Component Test Facility, piping lines carry rocket propellants and high pressure cryogenic fuels. When the lines are chilled to a pretest temperature of 400 degrees below zero, ordinary piping connectors can leak. Under contract to Stennis, Reflange, Inc. developed the T-Con connector, which included a secondary seal that tolerates severe temperature change. Because of the limited need for the large and expensive T-Con product, Reflange also developed the less costly E-Con, a smaller more compact design with the same technical advantages as the T-Con.

  5. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Gravel-less Pipe

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2000-04-10

    Two-compartment septic tank Soil absorption field Gravel-less pipe On-site wastewater treatment systems Gravel-less pipe Bruce Lesikar and Russell Persyn Extension Agricultural Engineering Specialist, Extension Assistant-Water Conservation... systems, except that gravel-less pipes are surrounded by geotextile fabric instead of gravel. A gravel-less pipe system includes: 3 A treatment device, generally a septic tank, but it can be an advanced treatment system. 3 Gravel-less pipe, which is made...

  6. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Gravel-less Pipe 

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2000-04-10

    Two-compartment septic tank Soil absorption field Gravel-less pipe On-site wastewater treatment systems Gravel-less pipe Bruce Lesikar and Russell Persyn Extension Agricultural Engineering Specialist, Extension Assistant-Water Conservation... systems, except that gravel-less pipes are surrounded by geotextile fabric instead of gravel. A gravel-less pipe system includes: 3 A treatment device, generally a septic tank, but it can be an advanced treatment system. 3 Gravel-less pipe, which is made...

  7. Repair of underground buried pipes with resin transfer molding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dai Gil Lee; Woo Seok Chin; Jae Wook Kwon; Ae Kwon Yoo

    2002-01-01

    Repairing and replacing of worn-out underground pipes, such as sewer pipes, water-supply pipes, gas pipes, and communication cables by excavating not only cause traffic congestion but also produce large amount of waste. Also, the operation requires heavy equipments and longer operating time and high cost.In this study, the repairing–reinforcing process of underground pipes with glass fiber fabric polymer composites using

  8. REDUCED COST SEWER PIPE RELINING USING ULTRASONIC TAPE LAMINATION - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water and sewerage pipe rehabilitation represents a critical and expensive infrastructure issue. Although systems currently are available for relining existing pipes and constructing new lined pipes, the proposed advanced technology will improve the quality while substantia...

  9. Inspection of prestressed concrete pressure pipe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Atherton; K. J. Morton; B. J. Mergelas; X. Kong

    2000-01-01

    A new electromagnetic technique for inspecting prestressed concrete pressure pipe (CPP) for broken prestressing wires is described. CPP is used for water supply lines, power station cooling loops and waste water force lines. The smaller lined cylinder pipes have diameters 400–1200 mm. They have a thin steel cylinder with an inner centrifugally cast concrete core 25–50 mm thick. After curing,

  10. Inspection of prestressed concrete pressure pipe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Atherton; K. J. Morton; B. J. Mergelas; X. Kong

    2000-01-01

    A new electromagnetic technique for inspecting prestressed concrete pressure pipe (CPP) for broken prestressing wires is described. CPP is used for water supply lines, power station cooling loops and waste water force lines. The smaller lined cylinder pipes have diameters 400-1200 mm. They have a thin steel cylinder with an inner centrifugally cast concrete core 25-50 mm thick. After curing,

  11. Health hazards of smoke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Breysse

    1984-01-01

    The health hazards involved in the burning of forest fuels are described. The chemical compounds discharged into the atmosphere include carbon monoxide, total suspended particulates, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and water vapor. Polycyclic organic materials are also given off. Many of these are absorbed in, or adsorbed on, condensing smoke particles. Penetration of these particles into the lung increases the chemicals'

  12. Hydrological connectivity of soil pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, J.

    2003-04-01

    Natural soil pipes are common in many parts of the world and particularly in blanket peat uplands yet there are problems in finding and defining soil pipe networks which are often located deep within the peat. Pipeflow can contribute a large proportion of runoff to the river systems in these upland environments and may significantly influence catchment sediment and solute yield. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) technology has recently been developed for non-destructive identification and mapping of soil pipes in peat catchments. While GPR can identify subsurface cavities, it cannot alone determine hydrological connectivity between one cavity and another. This poster presents results from an experiment to test the ability of GPR to establish hydrological connectivity between pipes through use of a tracer solution. Tracers such as sodium chloride were injected at a constant rate into an open pipe cavity. The GPR was moved across the test area downslope. The resultant radargrams were analysed and significantly increased reflectance was observed from a selection of cavities downslope. It was thus possible to determine hydrological connectivity of soil pipes within a dense pipe network across a hillslope without ground disturbance. In addition, tracers were added to the peat surface upslope of known pipe networks. It was possible to then trace the movement of water across and through the hillslope by using GPR to establish the connectivity of a range of flowpaths. Often pipe networks were supplied with water from overland flow entering through cracks and openings where the soil pipe was near the peat surface. Downslope, pipeflow contributed not only directly to streamflow but also to overland flow and near-surface throughflow on the hillslope. The same water that was within a pipe network at four metres depth could become near-surface throughflow outside of the pipe network a few metres down slope. These data allow the first three-dimensional picture of subsurface hydrological pathways to be developed for blanket peat catchments. The improved understanding of flowpath connectivity will be important for understanding solutional and particulate denudation and hydrological and geomorphological model development.

  13. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español ... Secondhand Smoke KidsHealth > Teens > Food & Fitness > Sports > ...

  14. 46 CFR 56.10-5 - Pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...brass pipe for water and steam service may be used...square inch and for design temperatures to 406 °F. (2...be used for water and steam service within the design limits of stress and temperature indicated in ASME...

  15. Pipe failure prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun hua Tian; Jing Xiao; Jin Huang; Felipe Albertao

    2011-01-01

    Preventa tive pipe maintenance is a key activity in pipe asset management. Central to such activity is a precise pipe failure (burstJIeakage) prediction. Here a statistical pipe failure prediction approach is proposed based on the massive data including pipe physical property, environmental factor, operational condition, historical failure records, and etc. Considering the biased training cases, survival analysis model is adopted

  16. Heat pipe technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A bibliography of heat pipe technology to provide a summary of research projects conducted on heat pipes is presented. The subjects duscussed are: (1) heat pipe applications, (2) heat pipe theory, (3) design and fabrication, (4) testing and operation, (5) subject and author index, and (6) heat pipe related patents.

  17. Smoke and mirrors: a fiber optic smoke sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitesel, Henry K.; Overby, John K.; Ransford, Michael J.; Tatem, Patricia A.

    1994-11-01

    Smoke detectors in general, are usually threshold devices that frequently experience false alarms. Optical smoke detectors usually depend on the measurement of optical power absorption and scattering across an air gap and are usually threshold devices. Fiber optic sensor technology offers potential improvements for existing smoke detector technology. We have developed a new smoke sensor design based on wavelength selective absorption and scattering that generates a continuous measurement of smoke density. This technique provides first order compensation for water and dirt coatings on the optical surfaces and for optical power and ambient light changes. The sensor has a 2 inch sensing region and utilizes multimode technology with an 850 nanometer LED source. Experimental models of the fiber optic smoke sensors were tested successfully in our laboratory and on the ex-USS SHADWELL. Operational performance advantages of the fiber optic smoke sensor are expected in the areas of monitoring visibility, reducing false alarms, improving reliability, and continuous measurement of smoke density; this will improve fire detection capability and will assist in developing fire fighting strategy. Application of the sensors are planned for the shipboard environment to provide sensor input to new damage control management systems.

  18. Effect of temperature, WPS (water-phase salt) and phenolic contents on4 Listeria monocytogenes growth rates on cold-smoked salmon and evaluation5

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    monocytogenes growth rates on cold-smoked salmon and evaluation5 of secondary models.6 M. Cornu1* , A. Beaufort1 and phenolic20 smoke compounds on the growth rate of L. monocytogenes in cold-smoked salmon were21 investigated, through physico-chemical analyses, challenge tests on surface of cold-smoked22 salmon at 4°C and 8°C

  19. All about Quitting Smoking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... quit-smoking class or join a support group. All About Quitting Smoking American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800– ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 3/14 Toolkit No. 7: All About Quitting Smoking continued Diabetes and Smoking: Double ...

  20. Smoking during Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... It's been added to your dashboard . Smoking during pregnancy Smoking is bad for you. It can cause ... your baby’s life. How can smoking affect your pregnancy? Women who smoke during pregnancy are more likely ...

  1. Experimental study on the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flow in horizontal pipes.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadhrami, Luai M; Shaahid, S M; Tunde, Lukman O; Al-Sarkhi, A

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flows in 2.25 ID horizontal pipe at different flow conditions. The effects of water cuts, liquid and gas velocities on flow patterns and pressure gradients have been studied. The experiments have been conducted at 20 °C using low viscosity Safrasol D80 oil, tap water and air. Superficial water and oil velocities were varied from 0.3 m/s to 3 m/s and air velocity varied from 0.29 m/s to 52.5 m/s to cover wide range of flow patterns. The experiments were performed for 10% to 90% water cuts. The flow patterns were observed and recorded using high speed video camera while the pressure drops were measured using pressure transducers and U-tube manometers. The flow patterns show strong dependence on water fraction, gas velocities, and liquid velocities. The observed flow patterns are stratified (smooth and wavy), elongated bubble, slug, dispersed bubble, and annular flow patterns. The pressure gradients have been found to increase with the increase in gas flow rates. Also, for a given superficial gas velocity, the pressure gradients increased with the increase in the superficial liquid velocity. The pressure gradient first increases and then decreases with increasing water cut. In general, phase inversion was observed with increase in the water cut. The experimental results have been compared with the existing unified Model and a good agreement has been noticed. PMID:24523645

  2. Experimental Study on the Flow Regimes and Pressure Gradients of Air-Oil-Water Three-Phase Flow in Horizontal Pipes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.; Shaahid, S. M.; Tunde, Lukman O.; Al-Sarkhi, A.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flows in 2.25 ID horizontal pipe at different flow conditions. The effects of water cuts, liquid and gas velocities on flow patterns and pressure gradients have been studied. The experiments have been conducted at 20°C using low viscosity Safrasol D80 oil, tap water and air. Superficial water and oil velocities were varied from 0.3?m/s to 3?m/s and air velocity varied from 0.29?m/s to 52.5?m/s to cover wide range of flow patterns. The experiments were performed for 10% to 90% water cuts. The flow patterns were observed and recorded using high speed video camera while the pressure drops were measured using pressure transducers and U-tube manometers. The flow patterns show strong dependence on water fraction, gas velocities, and liquid velocities. The observed flow patterns are stratified (smooth and wavy), elongated bubble, slug, dispersed bubble, and annular flow patterns. The pressure gradients have been found to increase with the increase in gas flow rates. Also, for a given superficial gas velocity, the pressure gradients increased with the increase in the superficial liquid velocity. The pressure gradient first increases and then decreases with increasing water cut. In general, phase inversion was observed with increase in the water cut. The experimental results have been compared with the existing unified Model and a good agreement has been noticed. PMID:24523645

  3. Smoke Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

  4. THE EFFECT OF CHLORIDE, SULFATE, BICARBONATE AND ORTHOPHOSPHATE ON THE RELEASE OF IRON FROM A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PIPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    “Colored water” describes the appearance of drinking water that contains suspended particulate iron where the actual suspension color may range from light yellow to red due to water chemistry and particle properties. This iron can originate from the source water and f...

  5. Composite material heat pipe radiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gernert, Nelson J.; Sarraf, David B.; Guenther, Richard J.; Hurlbert/, Kathryn Miller

    1996-03-01

    Organic matrix composite material is recognized for its significant strength to weight ratio when compared to metal and consequently was investigated for reducing the mass of heat pipes for future space missions. The particular heat pipe that was constructed and tested was made from an organic matrix composite material applied to a linear of titanium tubing spun to foil thickness (0.076 mm). The thin liner transitioned to heavier-walled ends which allowed the tubing to be sealed using conventional welding. More specifically, the heat pipe was 1.14 m long, 24 mm in diameter and had a mass of 0.165 kg. Water was the working fluid. The heat pipe was tested in a Thermacore thermal vacuum chamber under hot and cold wall operating conditions. The heat load dissipated ranged from 10 to 60 watts. Heat pipe operating temperatures varied from 278 K to 403 K. After testing, the heat pipe was delivered to NASA JSC where future thermal vacuum chamber tests are planned.

  6. DEVELOPED LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPE USING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sahu; Kishanjit Kumar Khatua; Kanhu Charan Patra; T. Naik

    In the analysis of water distribution networks, the design parameters are the lengths, diameters, and the coefficients friction of a pipe. Although some of these parameters such as the pipe lengths and the pipe diameters would remain the same at different points but the coefficients friction would change during the life of network and therefore they can be treated as

  7. 46 CFR 182.450 - Vent pipes for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...cross sectional area of the vent pipe and permit cleaning or renewal... (g) Where a flexible vent pipe section is necessary, suitable...salt water, petroleum oils, heat and vibration, may be used. Such hose must overlap metallic pipe ends at least 11/2...

  8. 46 CFR 119.450 - Vent pipes for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...cross sectional area of the vent pipe and permit cleaning or renewal... (e) Where a flexible vent pipe section is necessary, suitable...salt water, petroleum oils, heat and vibration, may be used. Such hose must overlap metallic pipe ends at least 1.5 times...

  9. INTERNAL CORROSION AND CORROSION PROTECTION OF GAS PIPES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morlet

    1960-01-01

    Studies are reported of atmospheric corrosion of pipes, after storage of ; the pipes and submission of the pipes to hydraulic testing; of corrosion caused ; by Oâ in the transport of refined coal gas, afld by HâS in the ; transport of unrefined coal gas; and of the corrosive effects of carbonic gas, ; water vapor, and pressure. Means

  10. 76 FR 66688 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ...pipes are intended for the conveyance of water, steam, petrochemicals, chemicals, oil products, natural gas and other liquids...pipes is for use in pressure piping systems by refineries, petrochemical plants, and chemical plants, as well as in power...

  11. 77 FR 27428 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ...pipes are intended for the conveyance of water, steam, petrochemicals, chemicals, oil products, natural gas and other liquids...pipes is for use in pressure piping systems by refineries, petrochemical plants, and chemical plants, as well as in power...

  12. 78 FR 63164 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ...pipes are intended for the conveyance of water, steam, petrochemicals, chemicals, oil products, natural gas and other liquids...certified pipes is in pressure piping systems by refineries, petrochemical plants, and chemical plants. Other applications are...

  13. 77 FR 13079 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ...pipes are intended for the conveyance of water, steam, petrochemicals, chemicals, oil products, natural gas and other liquids...pipes is for use in pressure piping systems by refineries, petrochemical plants, and chemical plants, as well as in power...

  14. 76 FR 39852 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ...pipes are intended for the conveyance of water, steam, petrochemicals, chemicals, oil products, natural gas and other liquids...pipes is for use in pressure piping systems by refineries, petrochemical plants, and chemical plants, as well as in power...

  15. 77 FR 46385 - Certain Small Diameter Seamless Carbon and Alloy Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ...pipes are intended for the conveyance of water, steam, petrochemicals, chemicals, oil products, natural gas and other liquids...certified pipes is in pressure piping systems by refineries, petrochemical plants and chemical plants. Other applications are in...

  16. Curing and Smoking Poultry

    E-print Network

    Denton, James H.

    1999-11-10

    , reduces water activity of the muscle tissue and inhibits certain bacteria. Nitrite is the ingredient that gives cured meat its characteristic flavor and reddish-pink color. Nitrite also extends the shelf life of cured meats by prevent- ing the growth... of both spoilage bacteria and anaero- bic bacteria (bacteria that grow only in the absence of oxygen) such as Clostridium botulinum , which causes botulism poisoning. This property allows cured and smoked meats to be marketed in the vacuum packages...

  17. Modeling and testing of reactive contaminant transport in drinking water pipes: Chlorine response and implications for online contaminant detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reactive contaminants introduced to chlorinated drinking water can cause water quality change directly related to their reactivity and other physiochemical properties. This general principle is further developed and utilized in a proposed real-time event adaptive detection, iden...

  18. NOAA OTEC CWP (National Oceanic and Atmospherc Adminstration Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Cold Water Pipe) At-Sea Test. Volume 2. Plots of the power spectra for selected channels (Part 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-15

    The report is a preliminary analysis of the data collected during the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Cold Water Pipe At-Sea Test. The report includes the following items: (1) Sensor factors and offsets and the data processing algorithms used to convert the recorded sensor measurements from electrical units to engineering units. The mean, standard deviation, and root-mean-square (RMS) are tabulated for each channel converted. (2) Plots of the power spectra estimates obtained from a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis of selected channels. (3) Plots of selected sensor measurements as a function of time; and (4) Plots of bending strain along the pipe using statistics and values presented in the other volumes. The plots displaying bending strain along the abscissa axis and pipe depth along the ordinate axis. The mean, RMS, maximum, and minimum values at each depth are shown in each plot.

  19. NOAA OTEC CWP (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminstration Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Cold Water Pipe) At-Sea Test. Volume 2. Plots of the power spectra for selected channels (Part 4)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-15

    The report is a preliminary analysis of the data collected during the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Cold Water Pipe At-Sea Test. The report includes the following items: (1) Sensor factors and offsets and the data processing algorithms used to convert the recorded sensor measurements from electrical units to engineering units. The mean, standard deviation, and root-mean-square (RMS) are tabulated for each channel converted. (2) Plots of the power spectra estimates obtained from a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis of selected channels. (3) Plots of selected sensor measurements as a function of time; and (4) Plots of bending strain along the pipe using statistics and values presented in the other volumes. The plots displaying bending strain along the abscissa axis and pipe depth along the ordinate axis. The mean, RMS, maximum, and minimum values at each depth are shown in each plot.

  20. Development of an Escherichia coli K12-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay and DNA isolation suited to biofilms associated with iron drinking water pipe corrosion products.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jingrang; Gerke, Tammie L; Buse, Helen Y; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2014-12-01

    A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay (115 bp amplicon) specific to Escherichia coli K12 with an ABI(TM) internal control was developed based on sequence data encoding the rfb gene cluster. Assay specificity was evaluated using three E. coli K12 strains (ATCC W3110, MG1655 & DH1), 24 non-K12 E. coli and 23 bacterial genera. The biofilm detection limit was 10(3) colony-forming units (CFU) E. coli K12 mL(-1), but required a modified protocol, which included a bio-blocker Pseudomonas aeruginosa with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid buffered to pH 5 prior to cell lysis/DNA extraction. The novel protocol yielded the same sensitivity for drinking water biofilms associated with Fe3O4 (magnetite)-coated SiO2 (quartz) grains and biofilm-surface iron corrosion products from a drinking water distribution system. The novel DNA extraction protocol and specific E. coli K12 assay are sensitive and robust enough for detection and quantification within iron drinking water pipe biofilms, and are particularly well suited for studying enteric bacterial interactions within biofilms. PMID:25473986

  1. THE EFFECT OF CHLORIDE AND ORTHOPHOSPHATE ON THE RELEASE OF IRON FROM A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CAST IRON PIPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    "Colored water" describes the appearance of drinking water that contains suspended particulate iron although the actual suspension color may be light yellow to red depending on water chemistry and particle properties. The release of iron from distribution system materials such a...

  2. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

    1983-06-23

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

  3. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, G. M.; McRae, T. G.

    1983-06-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote IR gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote IR sensor which measures the gas composition.

  4. Pipe protection bibliography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    Pipes and pipelines are being used for an ever widening range of materials, for increasing flows and in harsher applications. There is also more legal and social pressure to reduce the hazards associated with handling materials in pipes. All of this increases the demand for improved pipe reliability. Two of the major preventable causes of pipe failure are corrosion and

  5. Quality of Piped and Stored Water in Households with Children Under Five Years of Age Enrolled in the Mali Site of the Global Enteric Multi-Center Study (GEMS)

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Kelly K.; Sow, Samba O.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Nataro, James P.; Farag, Tamer H.; Tamboura, Boubou; Doumbia, Mama; Sanogo, Doh; Diarra, Drissa; O'Reilly, Ciara E.; Mintz, Eric; Panchalingam, Sandra; Wu, Yukun; Blackwelder, William C.; Levine, Myron M.

    2013-01-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene information was collected during a matched case-control study of moderate and severe diarrhea (MSD) among 4,096 children < 5 years of age in Bamako, Mali. Primary use of piped water (conditional odds ratio [cOR] = 0.45; 0.34–0.62), continuous water access (cOR = 0.30; 0.20–0.43), fetching water daily (cOR = 0.77; 0.63–0.96), and breastfeeding (cOR = 0.65; 0.49–0.88) significantly reduced the likelihood of MSD. Fetching water in > 30 minutes (cOR = 2.56; 1.55–4.23) was associated with MSD. Piped tap water and courier-delivered water contained high (> 2 mg/L) concentrations of free residual chlorine and no detectable Escherichia coli. However, many households stored water overnight, resulting in inadequate free residual chlorine (< 0.2 mg/L) for preventing microbial contamination. Coliforms and E. coli were detected in 48% and 8% of stored household water samples, respectively. Although most of Bamako's population enjoys access to an improved water source, water quality is often compromised during household storage. PMID:23836570

  6. Green-blue water in the city: quantification of impact of source control versus end-of-pipe solutions on sewer and river floods.

    PubMed

    De Vleeschauwer, K; Weustenraad, J; Nolf, C; Wolfs, V; De Meulder, B; Shannon, K; Willems, P

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization and climate change trends put strong pressures on urban water systems. Temporal variations in rainfall, runoff and water availability increase, and need to be compensated for by innovative adaptation strategies. One of these is stormwater retention and infiltration in open and/or green spaces in the city (blue-green water integration). This study evaluated the efficiency of three adaptation strategies for the city of Turnhout in Belgium, namely source control as a result of blue-green water integration, retention basins located downstream of the stormwater sewers, and end-of-pipe solutions based on river flood control reservoirs. The efficiency of these options is quantified by the reduction in sewer and river flood frequencies and volumes, and sewer overflow volumes. This is done by means of long-term simulations (100-year rainfall simulations) using an integrated conceptual sewer-river model calibrated to full hydrodynamic sewer and river models. Results show that combining open, green zones in the city with stormwater retention and infiltration for only 1% of the total city runoff area would lead to a 30 to 50% reduction in sewer flood volumes for return periods in the range 10-100 years. This is due to the additional surface storage and infiltration and consequent reduction in urban runoff. However, the impact of this source control option on downstream river floods is limited. Stormwater retention downstream of the sewer system gives a strong reduction in peak discharges to the receiving river. However due to the difference in response time between the sewer and river systems, this does not lead to a strong reduction in river flood frequency. The paper shows the importance of improving the interface between urban design and water management, and between sewer and river flood management. PMID:25500472

  7. PWR secondary system pipe thinning

    SciTech Connect

    Shor, S.W.W.; Osbourne, M.R. (Bechtel Western Power Corp., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Wilzbach, J.H.; Freid, S.H. (Bechtel Power Corp., Los Angeles, CA (USA))

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power plants have been experiencing significant thinning of pipe walls from wet steam at least since 1962, when a leak occurred in an extraction line at Dresden Unit 2. Many plants have had valves and piping dow-stream of valves damaged by flashing water. However, it was not until Surry Unit 2 experienced a dramatic pipe rupture in December 1986 at the suction of a feedwater pump that thinning in high energy lnes carrying only liquid water attracted widespread attention, although a similar failure had occurred in a pipe on the discharge side of a heater drain pump at Trojan about 20 months earlier.Seven months after the Surry incident the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a bulletin (IEB 87-01) requiring utilities to report their programs to identify and control erosion-corrosion. The NRC also sent out a questionnaire to collect information on the secondary water chemistry of PWRS. Analysis of their responses indicates that not only is erosion-corrosion widespread but that there is need for an easy way to understand its causes in a particular plant, evaluate alternative actions for its correction and arrive at practical, cost-effective programs to control it. This paper suggests how to fill that need in ways that will stop or nearly stop the progress of wall thinning and provide convincing evidence that it has been arrested. Specifically, it identifies water chemistry changes as the most cost-effective way to arrest widespread erosion-corrosion.

  8. Modeling of pulsating heat pipes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard C. Givler; Mario J. Martinez

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a computer model that describes the behavior of pulsating heat pipes (PHP). The purpose of the project was to develop a highly efficient (as compared to the heat transfer capability of solid copper) thermal groundplane (TGP) using silicon carbide (SiC) as the substrate material and water as the working fluid. The objective of this

  9. JR fracture properties of SA508-1a ferritic steels and SA312TP347 austenitic steels for pressurized water reactor’s (PWR) primary coolant piping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. Lee; Y. J. Oh; J. H. Yoon; I. H. Kuk; J. H. Hong

    2000-01-01

    J-R fracture resistance of SA508-1a and SA312-TP347 steels, which are both rather peculiar as PWR primary coolant piping materials, were evaluated for application of leak-before-break methodology to the design basis of nuclear power plant piping. Archive materials from various heats of both steel pipes showed apparent heat-to-heat variations in ductile fracture resistance at the operating temperature 316°C. The SA508-1a ferritic

  10. Smoking and vascular risk: are all forms of smoking harmful to all types of vascular disease?

    PubMed

    Katsiki, N; Papadopoulou, S K; Fachantidou, A I; Mikhailidis, D P

    2013-05-01

    Smoking, both active and passive, is an established vascular risk factor. The present narrative review considers the effects of different forms of smoking (i.e. cannabis, cigar, pipe, smokeless tobacco and cigarette) on cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, the impact of smoking on several vascular risk factors [e.g. hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidaemia and haemostasis] and on vascular diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD), peripheral arterial disease (PAD), abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) and carotid arterial disease, is discussed. The adverse effects of all forms of smoking and the interactions between smoking and established vascular risk factors highlight the importance of smoking cessation in high-risk patients in terms of both primary and secondary vascular disease prevention. Healthcare providers should discourage people (especially the young) from becoming smokers, strongly encourage all vascular patients to stop smoking and support those who decide to quit by pharmaceutical and psychological interventions. In high-risk populations such as patients with CHD, DM and/or PAD, smoking cessation should always be a part of a multifactorial treatment to reduce vascular risk. PMID:23453194

  11. GPR characterization of buried tanks and pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, X.; McMechan, G.A. [Univ. of Texas, Richardson, TX (United States). Center for Lithospheric Studies] [Univ. of Texas, Richardson, TX (United States). Center for Lithospheric Studies

    1997-05-01

    Ray-based numerical simulations of monostatic and bistatic GPR responses for several tank and pipe configurations reveal the potential for noninvasive diagnostic evaluations. Examples include discrimination of the material from which a tank is constructed, its size, contents, fluid levels, and shape changes. Ambiguities occur when different configurations give similar responses, and evaluations become less reliable as noise increases. Simulations are able to reproduce the salient features of field GPR data recorded over a metal pipe, and over plastic pipes filled with air, fresh water, and salt water.

  12. 21. Overflow pipe in filtration bed. Located at each corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Overflow pipe in filtration bed. Located at each corner of the bed, the pipes drain off any excess water and maintain a limit on water depth. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  13. SIMULATION OF A MAJOR PIPE RUPTURE IN A PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR TYPE PLANT. Technical Report No. 58

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. McGoff; S. J. Rodgers; J. B. McDonough

    1957-01-01

    Pressurized water at 550 deg F and 1100 psig containing the isotopes Na\\/; sup 24\\/, I¹³¹, and Y⁹° tracers was discharged into a vapor container ; to simulate a primary system rupture of a Pressurized Water Reactor type plant. ; Four runs were investigated to determine the degree of contaminant escape from ; the vapor container under conditions for minimum

  14. The Occurrence of Contaminant Accumulation in Lead Pipe Scales from Domestic Drinking Water Distribution Systems-ABSTRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work has shown that contaminants such as Al, As and Ra, can accumulate in drinking water distribution system solids. The release of accumulated contaminants back into the water supply could conceivably result in elevated levels at consumers? taps. The current regulatory...

  15. Demonstration and evaluation of an innovative water main rehabilitation technology: Cured-in-Place Pipe (CIPP) lining

    EPA Science Inventory

    As many water utilities are seeking new and innovative rehabilitation technologies to extend the life of their water distribution systems, information on the capabilities and applicability of new technologies is not always readily available from an independent source. The U.S. E...

  16. Simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their chlorination by-products in drinking water and the coatings of water pipes by automated solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tillner, Jocelyn; Hollard, Caroline; Bach, Cristina; Rosin, Christophe; Munoz, Jean-François; Dauchy, Xavier

    2013-11-01

    In this study, an automated method for the simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their chlorination by-products in drinking water was developed based on online solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main focus was the optimisation of the solid-phase microextraction step. The influence of the agitation rate, type of fibre, desorption time, extraction time, extraction temperature, desorption temperature, and solvent addition was examined. The method was developed and validated using a mixture of 17 PAHs, 11 potential chlorination by-products (chlorinated and oxidised PAHs) and 6 deuterated standards. The limit of quantification was 10 ng/L for all target compounds. The validated method was used to analyse drinking water samples from three different drinking water distribution networks and the presumably coal tar-based pipe coatings of two pipe sections. A number of PAHs were detected in all three networks although individual compositions varied. Several PAH chlorination by-products (anthraquinone, fluorenone, cyclopenta[d,e,f]phenanthrenone, 3-chlorofluoranthene, and 1-chloropyrene) were also found, their presence correlating closely with that of their respective parent compounds. Their concentrations were always below 100 ng/L. In the coatings, all PAHs targeted were detected although concentrations varied between the two coatings (76-12,635 mg/kg and 12-6295 mg/kg, respectively). A number of chlorination by-products (anthraquinone, fluorenone, cyclopenta[d,e,f]phenanthrenone, 3-chlorofluoranthene, and 1-chloropyrene) were also detected (from 40 to 985 mg/kg), suggesting that the reaction of PAHs with disinfectant agents takes place in the coatings and not in the water phase after migration. PMID:24094751

  17. 46 CFR 119.445 - Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Diesel fill pipes and sounding pipes may terminate at the top of... (f) Where a flexible fill pipe section is necessary, suitable...salt water, petroleum oils, heat and vibration, may be used. Such hose must overlap metallic pipe ends at least 1.5 times...

  18. 46 CFR 182.445 - Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Diesel fill pipes and sounding pipes may terminate at the top of... (g) Where a flexible fill pipe section is necessary, suitable...salt water, petroleum oils, heat and vibration, may be used. Such hose must overlap metallic pipe ends at the least 11/2...

  19. Insulated pipe clamp design

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. The design considerations and methods along with the development tests are presented. Special considerations to guard against adverse cracking of the insulation material, to maintain the clamp-pipe stiffness desired during a seismic event, to minimize clamp restraint on the pipe during normal pipe heatup, and to resist clamp rotation or spinning on the pipe are emphasized.

  20. A Spatio-Temporal exploratory analysis of pipe-failure incidents in the Water Distribution Network of Limassol, Cyprus 

    E-print Network

    Gagatsis, Anastasios

    2011-08-10

    This paper presents the first attempt to the use of Geographic Information Systems technology in the Water Distribution Networks of Cyprus. A variety of exploratory, statistical and visualization techniques were used in order to identify patterns...

  1. In-service monitoring and fractographic inspection of ultrasonic indications on a feed water suction pipe of the Gundremmingen nuclear power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Hofstötter; H. P. Keller; M. Trobitz; M. Walkmann

    2001-01-01

    Radiographic and ultrasonic examinations of three pipes of the Gundremmingen nuclear power plant revealed cracks with a maximum depth of about 2 mm on the inside of the pipes with a wall thickness of 7.1 mm. For continued service until replacement two representative areas were monitored for crack growth by means of the potential drop method. As crack growth during

  2. Using Flexible Pipe (poly-pipe) with Surface Irrigation 

    E-print Network

    Peries, Xavier; Enciso, Juan

    2005-10-05

    Aimed at farmers and irrigators who want to irrigate their crops using flexible plastic pipes (commonly called "poly-pipe), this publication highlights (1) advantages of using poly-pipe, (2) factors to consider in selecting such pipe, and (3...

  3. INTERIOR VIEW WITH PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 24' PIPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 24' PIPE AND OPERATOR JOHNNY NIXON. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  4. INTERIOR VIEW WITH PIPE CASTING MACHINE EXTRUDING A 24' PIPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH PIPE CASTING MACHINE EXTRUDING A 24' PIPE AND OPERATOR JOHNNY NIXON. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  5. Parental Smoking Exposure and Adolescent Smoking Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Stephen E.; Rende, Richard; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P.; Niaura, Raymond S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a multigenerational study of smoking risk, the objective was to investigate the intergenerational transmission of smoking by examining if exposure to parental smoking and nicotine dependence predicts prospective smoking trajectories among adolescent offspring. METHODS: Adolescents (n = 406) ages 12 to 17 and a parent completed baseline interviews (2001–2004), and adolescents completed up to 2 follow-up interviews 1 and 5 years later. Baseline interviews gathered detailed information on parental smoking history, including timing and duration, current smoking, and nicotine dependence. Adolescent smoking and nicotine dependence were assessed at each time point. Latent Class Growth Analysis identified prospective smoking trajectory classes from adolescence into young adulthood. Logistic regression was used to examine relationships between parental smoking and adolescent smoking trajectories. RESULTS: Four adolescent smoking trajectory classes were identified: early regular smokers (6%), early experimenters (23%), late experimenters (41%), and nonsmokers (30%). Adolescents with parents who were nicotine-dependent smokers at baseline were more likely to be early regular smokers (odds ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.05–1.33) and early experimenters (odds ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 1.04–1.25) with each additional year of previous exposure to parental smoking. Parents’ current non-nicotine–dependent and former smoking were not associated with adolescent smoking trajectories. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to parental nicotine dependence is a critical factor influencing intergenerational transmission of smoking. Adolescents with nicotine-dependent parents are susceptible to more intense smoking patterns and this risk increases with longer duration of exposure. Research is needed to optimize interventions to help nicotine-dependent parents quit smoking early in their children’s lifetime to reduce these risks. PMID:24819567

  6. Visual Simulation of Smoke Ronald Fedkiw

    E-print Network

    Fedkiw, Ron

    of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is devoted to the simulation of gases and other fluids such as water. OnlyVisual Simulation of Smoke Ronald Fedkiw£ Stanford University Jos StamÝ Aliaswavefront Henrik Wann simulation for computer graphics applications. The method pro- posed here exploits physics unique to smoke

  7. Visual Simulation of Smoke Ronald Fedkiw

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is devoted to the simulation of gases and other fluids such as water. OnlyVisual Simulation of Smoke Ronald Fedkiw Stanford University Jos Stam ¡ Aliaswavefront Henrik simulation for computer graphics applications. The method pro- posed here exploits physics unique to smoke

  8. Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.D.; Vansant, J.H.

    1984-10-02

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  9. Pipe performance analysis with nonparametric regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng; Hu, Yafei; Wu, Wei

    2011-04-01

    Asbestos cement (AC) water mains were installed extensively in North America, Europe, and Australia during 1920s-1980s and subject to a high breakage rate in recent years in some utilities. It is essential to understand how the influential factors contribute to the degradation and failure of AC pipes. The historical failure data collected from twenty utilities are used in this study to explore the correlation between pipe condition and its working environment. In this paper, we applied four nonparametric regression methods to model the relationship between pipe failure represented by average break rates and influential variables including pipe age and internal and external working environmental parameters. The nonparametric regression models do not take a predetermined form but it needs information derived from data. The feasibility of using a nonparametric regression model for the condition assessment of AC pipes is investigated and understood.

  10. Smoking Awareness and Practices of Urban Pre-School and First Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shute, Robert E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A study was done to determine and describe the level of preschoolers' and first-graders' awareness, attitudes, and practices regarding cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. Data strongly reflected the fact that parents and older siblings are very influential in the eventual choices of young children to smoke or not to smoke. (JN)

  11. Allergenic fungi and actinomycetes in smoking materials and their health implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Kurup; A. Resnick; S. L. Kagen; S. H. Cohen; J. N. Fink

    1983-01-01

    Street marijuana, commercial cigarettes and pipe tobaccos were studied for the presence of fungi and actinomycetes associated with hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Aspergillus species and thermophilic actinomycetes were isolated from the smoking materials. In addition, Aspergillus fumigatus spores were isolated from marijuana smoke, indicating the potential hazard involved in developing serious disease. Precipitin antibodies against fungi, particularly Aspergillus, showed a higher prevalence

  12. Effects of microbial redox cycling of iron on cast iron pipe corrosion in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibo; Hu, Chun; Zhang, Lili; Li, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min

    2014-11-15

    Bacterial characteristics in corrosion products and their effect on the formation of dense corrosion scales on cast iron coupons were studied in drinking water, with sterile water acting as a reference. The corrosion process and corrosion scales were characterized by electrochemical and physico-chemical measurements. The results indicated that the corrosion was more rapidly inhibited and iron release was lower due to formation of more dense protective corrosion scales in drinking water than in sterile water. The microbial community and denitrifying functional genes were analyzed by pyrosequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCR), respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the bacteria in corrosion products played an important role in the corrosion process in drinking water. Nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) Acidovorax and Hydrogenophaga enhanced iron corrosion before 6 days. After 20 days, the dominant bacteria became NRB Dechloromonas (40.08%) with the protective corrosion layer formation. The Dechloromonas exhibited the stronger corrosion inhibition by inducing the redox cycling of iron, to enhance the precipitation of iron oxides and formation of Fe3O4. Subsequently, other minor bacteria appeared in the corrosion scales, including iron-respiring bacteria and Rhizobium which captured iron by the produced siderophores, having a weaker corrosion-inhibition effect. Therefore, the microbially-driven redox cycling of iron with associated microbial capture of iron caused more compact corrosion scales formation and lower iron release. PMID:25150521

  13. The decline of smoking in British portraiture

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, N; Thomson, G

    2004-01-01

    Methods: A compact disc produced by the National Portrait Gallery in London, UK, was systematically searched for artworks produced in the years 1950 to 1999. A "smoking portrayal" in an artwork was defined as having a cigarette, cigar or pipe in the mouth or hand of a named individual. Results: Out of 1063 artworks included in the analysis, 53 portrayed smoking by identifiable individuals (5.0%). The rate of portrayal was highest in the 1950s (10%) and 1960s (11%) and then declined sharply thereafter (p value for trend < 0.00001). Smoking virtually disappeared from portraiture in the 1990s (at 0.6%). The median age of the smokers portrayed was significantly higher in the 1970 to 1999 period when compared to the 1950 to 1969 period. Conclusions: The decline of smoking in this collection of portraiture is consistent with the decline in smoking in the UK over these decades, but contrasts with trends for increasing smoking portrayal described elsewhere for film and television. PMID:14985574

  14. 30. DETAIL OF PIPE FEED SYSTEM TO CLASSIFIER, LOOKING EAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. DETAIL OF PIPE FEED SYSTEM TO CLASSIFIER, LOOKING EAST. THIS PIPE WAS MOUNTED ALONG THE JOISTS AT TOP, ALIGNING WITH THE TWO SMALLER PIPES PROTRUDING DOWNWARD FROM THE JOISTS. THESE PIPES CONVEYED PULP MATERIAL FROM THE STAMP APRONS ON THE UPPER FLOOR TO THE CLASSIFIER, SEEN IN THE DISTANCE AT CENTER. THE STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS AT CENTER LEFT WREE ADDED AS PART OF THE MILL STABILIZATION BY THE PARK SERVICE IN 1993-4. THIS WOUND AND RIVITED PIPE IS IDENTICAL TO THE 23-MILE PIPELINE THAT CONVEYED WATER TO THE MILL FROM TELESCOPE PEAK. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  15. Slumping and related turbidity currents along proposed OTEC cold-water-pipe route resulting from hurricane Iwa

    SciTech Connect

    Dengler, A.T.; Noda, E.K.; Normark, W.R.; Wilde, P.

    1984-05-01

    An array of current/temperature/depth sensors off the west coast of Oahu, Hawaii recorded strong downslope water flow and resulting downslope displacement of the sensors during the passage of Hurricane Iwa. These real-time records give valuable insights for ocean engineering design off steep-sided volcanic islands for events that are generally only inferred from geologic evidence.

  16. Arsenic Accumulation and Release Studies Using a Cast Iron Pipe Section from a Drinking Water Distribution System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The tendency of iron solid surfaces to adsorb arsenic and other ions is well known and has become the basis for several drinking water treatment approaches that remove these contaminants. It is reasonable to assume that iron-based solids, such as corrosion deposits present in dri...

  17. Field Demonstration of Innovative Leak Detection/Location in Conjunction with Pipe Wall Thickness Testing for Water Mains

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,000-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Se...

  18. Assessment of the microbial integrity, sensu G.S. Wilson, of piped and bottled drinking water in the condition as ingested.

    PubMed

    Mossel, David A A; Struijk, Corry B

    2004-05-01

    The second half of the 20th century witnessed substantial progress in the assurance and verification of microbiological integrity, i.e., safety and sensory quality, of drinking water. Enteropathogenic agents, such as particular viruses and protozoa, not previously identified as transmitted by industrially provided water supplies, were demonstrated to cause disease outbreaks, when ingested with piped water. The potential harm posed by carry-over of orally toxic metabolites of organisms, producing 'algal' (cyanophytic) blooms, was considered. In addition, earlier observations on the colonization of attenuated drinking water bodies by a variety of oligotrophic Gram-negative bacteria were confirmed and extended. This new evidence called for updating both water purification technologies and analytical methodology, serving to verify that goals had been attained. For the former purpose, the hazard analysis empowering control of critical practices (HACCP) strategy, introduced about 1960 in industrial food processing, was successfully adopted. Elimination, devitalization or barrier technologies for the more recently identified water-borne pathogens were elaborated, taking account of the hazard of production of chlorinated compounds with alleged adverse health effects. Biofilm formation throughout water distribution networks was brought under control by strict limitation of concentrations of compounds, assimilable by oligotrophic bacteria. Upon acknowledging that direct detection tests for pathogens were futile, because of their most sporadic and erratic distribution, Schardinger's marker organism concept was anew embraced, rigorously revised and substantially enlarged. Misleading designations, like searches for 'faecal coliforms' were replaced by boundary testing for Escherichia coli and appropriate Enterococcus spp. In addition, though still to be perfected, detection protocols for relevant bacteriophages or index viruses and, to a certain extent, also for spores of aerobic and anaerobic sporing rods were also elaborated. In all monitoring account was taken of sublethally injured target organisms, surviving purification technologies, though not deprived of their ecological significance. A need remains for a rigorously standardized operating procedure (SOP) for colony counts of psychrotrophic, oligotrophic Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria ('heterotrophic plate count'), which constitute a useful criterion of indicator value. As in the contemporary HACCP approach to food safety, guidelines for assessing success or failure in control of integrity (Water Safety Objectives) were empirically elaborated. These rely on surveys on water samples, originating from drinking water supplies, previously verified as complying with longitudinally integrated HACCP-based purification technologies. Structured Academic dissemination of these innovations, through professional microbiologists to operator and executive levels, is recommended. Web based Distance Learning MSc Programmes, like the one, since the academic year 2003-2004, offered by the University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK, may contribute to such endeavours. Though the complete Course is centered around Food Safety, the Modules in-Residence Practicals and Science and Technology of Drinking Water can be studied as an entity while being employed. PMID:15145596

  19. Do Workplace Smoking Bans Reduce Smoking?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William N. Evans; Matthew C. Farrelly; Edward Montgomery

    1999-01-01

    In recent years workplace smoking policies have become increasingly prevalent and restrictive. Using data from two large-scale national surveys, we investigate whether these policies reduce smoking. Our estimates suggest that workplace bans reduce smoking prevalence by 5 percentage points and daily consumption among smokers by 10 percent. Although workers with better health habits are more likely to work at firms

  20. Pipe Insulation Economies 

    E-print Network

    Schilling, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Pipe Insulation Economies is a computer program written in IBM basic to simplify the economic insulation thickness for an insulated pipe. Many articles have been written on this subject, from simple nomographs to a small book written in 1976...

  1. Geysering inhibitor pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, F. S.

    1973-01-01

    Smaller concentric pipe is welded to main pipe beginning above bottom of isolation valve and terminating in storage tank at top. There is continuous circulation of fluid which maintains fluid temperature below boiling temperature of liquid oxygen.

  2. Ceramic heat pipe development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrigan, M.

    1980-12-01

    Progress in developing ceramic heat pipe recuperators for recovering heat from industrial processing furnaces is reported. Information is included on the design, materials procurement, fabrication, materials testing, performance testing, performance and cost of ceramic heat pipes, especially tungsten-coated silicon carbide and Sic-W-Mo heat pipes.

  3. Ceramic heat pipe development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Merrigan

    1980-01-01

    Progress in developing ceramic heat pipe recuperators for recovering heat from industrial processing furnaces is reported. Information is included on the design, materials procurement, fabrication, materials testing, performance testing, performance and cost of ceramic heat pipes, especially tungsten-coated silicon carbide and Sic-W-Mo heat pipes.

  4. Heat pipe technology issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Merrigan

    1984-01-01

    Critical high temperature, high power applications in space nuclear power designs are near the current state of the art of heat pipe technology in terms of power density, operating temperature, and lifetime. Recent heat pipe development work at Los Alamos National Laboratory involved performance testing of typical space reactor heat pipe designs to power levels in excess of 19 kW\\/cm(2)

  5. Peach bottom recirculation piping replacement ALARA program

    SciTech Connect

    Englesson, G.A.; Hilsmeier, A.E.; Mann, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    In late 1983, Philadelphia Electric Company (PECo) began detailed planning to replace the recirculation, residual heat removal, and part of the reactor water cleanup piping of the Peach Bottom Unit 2 reactor. Included in this work was an estimate of the collective exposure expected during piping replacement. That initial estimate, 1945 man-rem, is compared with the actual collective dose incurred during the piping replacement program. Also included are the exposures incurred during two additional tasks (safe end replacement and recirculation pump disassembly and decontamination) not considered in the initial estimate.

  6. Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R. Huebotter; George A. McLennan

    1985-01-01

    The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water\\/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the

  7. Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Huebotter; G. A. McLennan

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water\\/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the

  8. Predictive complexation models of the impact of natural organic matter and cations on scaling in cooling water pipes: A case study of power generation plants in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosire, G. O.; Ngila, J. C.; Mbugua, J. M.

    This work discusses simulative models of Ca and Mg complexation with natural organic matter (NOM), in order to control the incidence of scaling in pipes carrying cooling water at the Eskom power generating stations in South Africa. In particular, the paper reports how parameters such as pH and trace element levels influence the distribution of scaling species and their interactions, over and above mineral phase saturation indices. In order to generate modelling inputs, two experimental scenarios were created in the model solutions: Firstly, the trace metals Cu, Pb and Zn were used as markers for Ca and Mg complexation to humic acid and secondly the effect of natural organic matter in cooling water was determined by spiking model solutions. Labile metal ions and total elements in model solutions and water samples were analysed by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), respectively. ICP-OES results revealed high levels of K, Na, S, Mg and Ca and low levels of trace elements (Cd, Se, Pb, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Al and Zn) in the cooling water samples. Using the Tipping and Hurley's database WHAM in PHREEQC format (T_H.DAT), the total elemental concentrations were run as inputs on a PHREEQC code, at pH 6.8 and defined charge as alkalinity (as HCO3-) For model solutions, PHREEQC inputs were based on (i) free metal differences attributed to competitive effect of Ca and the effect of Ca + Mg, respectively; (ii) total Ca and Mg used in the model solutions and (iii) alkalinity described as hydrogen carbonate. Anodic stripping peak heights were used to calculate the concentration of the free/uncomplexed/labile metal ions (used as tracers) in the model solutions. The objective of modelling was to describe scaling in terms of saturation indices of mineral phases. Accordingly, the minerals most likely to generate scale were further simulated (over a range of pH (3-10) to yield results that mimicked changing pH. Speciation calculations of Cu2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ generated azurite, cerrusite and smithsonite mineral phases, which showed positive saturation indices at higher pH, hence increased potential to precipitate (form scale). The derived predictive models would act as a useful management tool and henceforth aid to avoid unnecessary costs due to the consequences of scaling.

  9. Pipe Line Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The array of tanks, pipes and valves in the photo below is a petroleum tank farm in Georgia, part of a petrochemical pipe line system that moves refined petroleum products from Texas and Louisiana to the mid-Eastern seaboard. The same pipes handle a number of different products, such as gasoline, kerosene, jet fuel or fuel oil. The fluids are temporarily stored in tanks, pumped into the pipes in turn and routed to other way stations along the pipe line. The complex job of controlling, measuring and monitoring fuel flow is accomplished automatically by a computerized control and communications system which incorporates multiple space technologies.

  10. PIPE LEAKAGE - FUTURE CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stewart Burn; Dhammika DeSilva; Matthias Eiswirth; Osama Hunaidi; Andrew Speers; Julian Thornton

    1999-01-01

    Pipe leakage in Australia is perceived to be a major problem by many water authorities, both from an environmental point of view, as well as the associated costs that are incurred due to overdesign of our sewerage systems (to cope with wet weather loads) and the treatment of additional potable water that is lost due to leakage. This paper discusses

  11. Development of a combined ultrasonic and eddy current inspection system for examination of the internal surfaces of water-filled austenitic piping

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, R.; Bauer, R. [Siemens KWU, Erlangen (Germany); Persson, I. [Vattenfall, Ringhals (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    After October 1993, Swedish BWR power plant operators will be required to present an inspection concept which will facilitate the nondestructive examination of recirculation system piping. According to the pertinent Swedish codes and standards, such inspections will be required to focus on internal pipe surfaces. Since it is impossible for external inspections to cover all essential areas with the necessary degree of sensitivity (geometry, beam attenuation), Siemens-KWU was commissioned to develop an inspection system which combines ultrasonic search units and eddy current probes to produce the required degree of examination sensitivity. A pipe crawler was developed to transport the inspection unit. This device can be used for the inspection of circumferential and longitudinal pipe welds, nozzle-to-pipe welds and RPV nozzle-to-shell welds. Special probes designed to fulfill inspection and manipulation requirements were developed for the inspection of the 30 welds in the recirculation system. The ultrasonic equipment which forms part of the inspection unit uses SIALOK hardware, and the eddy current equipment is based on the MIZ 18 system.

  12. A Comparison of the Results of the Numerical Analysis and the Physical Behavior of a Pipe Buried in Reactive Clay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaminda P. K. Gallage; J. K. Kodikara; Derek Chan; Paul Davis

    Buried water and gas pipe systems form part of critical infrastructure providing essential services to the community. In many global population centres including in Australia, this vital infrastructure has been installed several decades ago, and dealing with frequent pipe failures become a major problem. There are clear evidences that pipe failures significantly depend on pipe strains induced by seasonal temperature

  13. Studies on split heat pipe type adsorption ice-making test unit for fishing boats: Choice of heat pipe medium and experiments under unsteady heating sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. W. Wang; R. Z. Wang; Z. S. Lu; C. J. Chen

    2006-01-01

    The split heat pipe type compound adsorption ice maker for fishing boats not only has the advantage of large volume cooling density but also has the advantage of less power consumption and high heat transfer performance. The available heat pipe media for the split heat pipe type compound adsorption ice maker, which are methanol, acetone and water are studied and

  14. Hydrogen Piping Experience in Chevron

    E-print Network

    , 2" hydrogen piping failure) 4 #12;5 Hydrogen piping experience largely from hydroprocessing plantsHydrogen Piping Experience in Chevron Refining Ned Niccolls Materials Engineer Chevron Energy perspectives from long term use of hydrogen piping in refining. Piping specifications and practices. The (few

  15. Modular axial grooved heat pipes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Koch; H. Kreeb; M. Perdu

    1976-01-01

    A modular axial grooved heat pipe system operable between 100 and 400 K was developed. Accent was placed on typical space application problems such as assembly of two heat pipes (interface problems), circular heat pipes, construction of radiators, long life behavior, and cryogenic heat pipes. Results of performance tests on this heat pipe system designed for a space radiator to

  16. Heat pipe effect in porous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, M.

    1992-12-01

    In this thesis a parametric study of the thermal and hydrologic characteristics of the fractured porous tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada was conducted. The effects of different fracture and matrix properties including permeability, thermal conductivity, specific heat, porosity, and tortuosity on heat pipe performance in the vicinity of the waste package were observed. Computer simulations were carried out using TOUGH code on a Cray YMP-2 supercomputer. None of the fracture parameters affected the heat pipe performance except the mobility of the liquid in the fracture. Matrix permeability and thermal conductivity were found to have significant effect on the heat pipe performance. The effect of mass injection was studied for liquid water and air injected at the fracture boundary. A high rate of mass injection was required to produce any effect on the heat pipe. The fracture-matrix equilibrium is influenced by the matrix permeability and the matrix thermal conductivity.

  17. Deployable Heat Pipe Radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1975-01-01

    A 1.2- by 1.8-m variable conductance heat pipe radiator was designed, built, and tested. The radiator has deployment capability and can passively control Freon-21 fluid loop temperatures under varying loads and environments. It consists of six grooved variable conductance heat pipes attached to a 0.032-in. aluminum panel. Heat is supplied to the radiator via a fluid header or a single-fluid flexible heat pipe header. The heat pipe header is an artery design that has a flexible section capable of bending up to 90 degrees. Radiator loads as high as 850 watts were successfully tested. Over a load variation of 200 watts, the outlet temperature of the Freon-21 fluid varied by 7 F. An alternate control system was also investigated which used a variable conductance heat pipe header attached to the heat pipe radiator panel.

  18. Miniature Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Small Business Innovation Research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to Thermacore Inc. have fostered the company work on devices tagged "heat pipes" for space application. To control the extreme temperature ranges in space, heat pipes are important to spacecraft. The problem was to maintain an 8-watt central processing unit (CPU) at less than 90 C in a notebook computer using no power, with very little space available and without using forced convection. Thermacore's answer was in the design of a powder metal wick that transfers CPU heat from a tightly confined spot to an area near available air flow. The heat pipe technology permits a notebook computer to be operated in any position without loss of performance. Miniature heat pipe technology has successfully been applied, such as in Pentium Processor notebook computers. The company expects its heat pipes to accommodate desktop computers as well. Cellular phones, camcorders, and other hand-held electronics are forsible applications for heat pipes.

  19. Cigarette smoke composition. Part 2. Method for determining major components in smoke of cigarettes that heat instead of burn tobacco.

    PubMed

    Borgerding, M F; Milhous, L A; Hicks, R D; Giles, J A

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for determining major constituents in the smoke of a cigarette that heats, but does not burn, tobacco. Dual, simultaneous separations are performed in a single gas chromatographic oven to determine water, glycerol, nicotine, and propylene glycol in a rapid and cost-effective manner. A materials balance of new cigarette smoke total particulate matter was attempted from both Cambridge filter and electrostatic precipitation smoke collection data. Serious deficiencies were found when Cambridge filter smoke collection was applied for this purpose. Electrostatic precipitation smoke collection eliminated these problems. The data obtained by electrostatic precipitation smoke collection indicate that water, glycerol, nicotine, and propylene glycol make up about 94% of new cigarette smoke total particulate matter. PMID:2211484

  20. General parenting, anti-smoking socialization and smoking onset

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy Otten; Rutger C. M. E. Engels; Regina J. J. M. van den Eijnden

    2008-01-01

    A theoretical model was tested in which general parenting and parental smoking predicted anti-smoking socialization, which in turn predicted adolescent smoking onset. Partici- pants were 4351 Dutch adolescents between 13 and 15 years of age. In the model, strictness and psychological autonomy granting were related to lower likelihood of smoking onset, and parental smoking was positively related to smoking onset.

  1. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, D.M.

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  2. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, Donald M. (Leola, PA)

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  3. Pipe crawler apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hovis, Gregory L. (North Augusta, SC); Erickson, Scott A. (Augusta, GA); Blackmon, Bruce L. (Aiken, SC)

    2002-01-01

    A pipe crawler apparatus particularly useful for 3-inch and 4-inch diameter pipes is provided. The pipe crawler apparatus uses a gripping apparatus in which a free end of a piston rod is modified with a bearing retaining groove. Bearings, placed within the groove, are directed against a camming surface of three respective pivoting support members. The non-pivoting ends of the support members carry a foot-like gripping member that, upon pivoting of the support member, engages the interior wall of the pipe.

  4. Internal pipe attachment mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Bast, R.M.; Chesnut, D.A.; Henning, C.D.; Lennon, J.P.; Pastrnak, J.W.; Smith, J.A.

    1994-12-13

    An attachment mechanism is described for repairing or extending fluid carrying pipes, casings, conduits, etc. utilizing one-way motion of spring tempered fingers to provide a mechanical connection between the attachment mechanism and the pipe. The spring tempered fingers flex to permit insertion into a pipe to a desired insertion depth. The mechanical connection is accomplished by reversing the insertion motion and the mechanical leverage in the fingers forces them outwardly against the inner wall of the pipe. A seal is generated by crushing a sealing assembly by the action of setting the mechanical connection. 6 figures.

  5. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  6. Heat Pipes and Heat Rejection Component Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanzi, James L.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    Titanium-water heat pipes are being evaluated for use in the heat rejection system for space fission power systems. The heat rejection syst em currently comprises heat pipes with a graphite saddle and a composite fin. The heat input is a pumped water loop from the cooling of the power conversion system. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has been life testing titanium-water heat pipes as well as eval uating several heat pipe radiator designs. The testing includes thermal modeling and verification of model, material compatibility, frozen startup of heat pipe radiators, and simulating low-gravity environments. Future thermal testing of titanium-water heat pipes includes low-g ravity testing of thermosyphons, radiation testing of heat pipes and fin materials, water pump performance testing, as well as Small Busine ss Innovation Research funded deliverable prototype radiator panels.

  7. Curing and Smoking Poultry 

    E-print Network

    Denton, James H.

    1999-11-10

    Cured and smoked poultry is a taste-tempting treat. Easy directions lead the reader step-by-step through the process of selecting poultry, preparing and injecting the brine, soaking and draining the carcass, and smoking the poultry....

  8. Pulmonary effects of smoking.

    PubMed

    Patel, D R; Homnick, D N

    2000-10-01

    The problems of tobacco addiction have evolved over centuries. The possible relationship between smoking and oral cancer was recognized as early as the 19th century. The use of tobacco results in an estimated 4 million deaths each year worldwide. Approximately 3,000 adolescents start smoking every day; 4.5 million children and adolescents smoke cigarettes; 1 million use smokeless tobacco. This article reviews the effects of environmental tobacco smoke and primary smoking on lung health and maturation and the pathophysiology of smoking-related pulmonary disease. Smoking prevention and timely smoking cessation will significantly reduce the risk of not only lung diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, chronic bronchitis, asthma, etc.) but also suboptimal lung growth during preadolescent and adolescent years. PMID:11060554

  9. Up in Smoke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews research on adolescent smoking and nicotine addiction. Finds, for example, that smoking is linked to depression. Describes five stages of nicotine addiction. Offers tips for prevention. (Contains 12 references.) (PKP)

  10. Smoking hazards (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cigarettes puts a person at risk for emphysema, lung cancer and other health problems. Second-hand smoke (smoke from a nearby cigarette) may also contribute to these diseases, especially among ...

  11. Second Hand Smoke: Danger

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from exposure to secondhand smoke since 1964. Smokefree Laws Save Lives, But Many Not Protected In the ... plus the District of Columbia have passed comprehensive laws to protect nonsmokers by prohibiting smoking in indoor ...

  12. Learn about Smoke Alarms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... smoke alarms can I buy? There are many brands of smoke alarms on the market, but they ... outreach materials you can use to help increase awareness about fires in your community. National Fire Protection ...

  13. Factors Affecting Smoking Tendency and Smoking Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Nissim Ben; Zion, Uri Ben

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure the relative effect of relevant explanatory variable on smoking tendency and smoking intensity. Design/methodology/approach: Using survey data collected by the Israeli Bureau of Statistics in 2003-2004, a probit procedure is estimated for analyzing factors that affect the probability of being a…

  14. Water Transmission Pipelines- An Updated Design Guide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D. Mielke

    This paper will discuss the current design practices for the primary water transmission products in the US: steel pipe, concrete pressure pipe and ductile iron pipe. It details a more efficient approach to the design of pipe materials and the preparation of equal alternate specifications. Today's steel, concrete and ductile iron pipe industries utilize the Pressure Class Design approach. The

  15. Jamaican red clay tobacco pipes 

    E-print Network

    Heidtke, Kenan Paul

    1992-01-01

    -made earthenware tobacco pipes has only been undertaken in the last few years. These red clay pipes occur at several colonial sites in North America, the Caribbean, and South America. This thesis will be a detailed study of the red clay pipes found in Jamaica... used on the pipes, and to offer possible explanations for the markings and stylistic attributes of the pipes. Locally made earthenware pipes from other colonial sites in the New World will also be examined to identify possible parallels...

  16. Smoking and Asthma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A Guy's Guide to Body Image Smoking and Asthma KidsHealth > Teens > Drugs & Alcohol > Tobacco > Smoking and Asthma Print A A A Text Size What's in ... the health problems it causes. If you have asthma, smoking is especially risky because of the damage ...

  17. Teenage smoking in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, T O

    1999-10-01

    China's production and consumption of cigarettes have ranked first in the world. One of every three cigarettes manufactured in the world is consumed in China. Three of every five Chinese smokers begin smoking at the age of 15-20 years. Teenage smoking is increasingly becoming a problem in modern China. At least 50 million of the children now living in China will be killed by smoking. Therefore China's top priority in control of smoking is to educate the youth against smoking so as to prevent them from starting and reduce the overall number of new smokers. Adults smoke; children follow. Thus a major feature of China's smoking control efforts has been the mobilization of primary school children to advise their parents to stop smoking. The goal of the Chinese Association on Smoking and Health is to achieve a male (age 15+) smoking rate below 58% and a female (age 15+) smoking rate below 5% by the year 2000. Although the number of smoke-free schools is on the increase and many more teenagers are quitting, China still has a long way to go. PMID:10527532

  18. Smoking and Social Interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panu Poutvaaray; Lars-H. R. Siemers

    2007-01-01

    We study the social interaction of non-smokers and smokers as a sequential game, incorporating insights from social psychology and experimental economics into an economic model. Social norms affect human behavior such that non-smokers do not ask smokers to stop smoking and stay with them, even though disutility from smoking exceeds utility from social interaction. Overall, smoking is unduly often accepted

  19. Smoking and social interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panu Poutvaara; Lars-H. R. Siemers

    2008-01-01

    We study the social interaction of non-smokers and smokers as a sequential game, incorporating insights from social psychology and experimental economics into an economic model. Social norms affect human behavior such that non-smokers do not ask smokers in their midst to stop smoking, even though the disutility from smoking exceeds the utility from social interaction. Overall, the level of smoking

  20. Parental Smoking Affects Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Research done by workers at Harvard Medical School suggests that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can impair breathing in children ages five through nine. Lung flow rates (breathing ability) decreased for children with smoking parents, and significantly if the children also smoke. (MA)

  1. Smoking, health and ageing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vittorio Nicita-Mauro; Giorgio Basile; Giuseppe Maltese; Claudio Nicita-Mauro; Sebastiano Gangemi; Calogero Caruso

    2008-01-01

    On March 19, 2008 a Symposium on Pathophysiology of Ageing and Age-Related diseases was held in Palermo, Italy. Here, the lecture of V. Nicita-Mauro on Smoking, health and ageing is summarized. Smoking represents an important ageing accelerator, both directly by triggering an inflammatory responses, and indirectly by favoring the occurrence of several diseases where smoking is a recognized risk factor.

  2. UNDERSTANDING CHLORINE AND CHLORAMINE DECAY KINETICS IN OLD CAST IRON PIPES, 2. CONVERSION FROM CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT TO MICROFILTRATION IN A SMALL WATER SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This insitu pipe loop study was designed to determine the disinfectant kinetics associated with very old unlined cast iron pipelines with both chlorine and chloramination residuals. An abandoned 90-year-old unlined cast iron pipeline about 2000 ft long was acclimated to conduct a...

  3. Investigation of the heat pipe arrays for convective electronic cooling

    E-print Network

    Howard, Alicia Ann Harris

    1993-01-01

    module utilized ten circular aluminum fins mounted on the condenser end of each heat pipe to enhance heat rejection, while the second contained only the sixteen copper/water heat pipes. The effects of flow velocity, input power, and base plate...

  4. Piping and woody plants in peatlands: Cause or effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Joseph

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, evidence to show that Calluna species are one causative factor of piping in blanket peat catchments. Ground-penetrating radar survey on 960 plots illustrated that piping was prevalent throughout blanket peats. However, soil pipe occurrence was significantly higher where bare peat (149 pipes/km) or Calluna (87 pipes/km) were present compared to other species (67 pipes/km). A case study catchment where there was an altitudinal limit to Calluna provided some control over potential factors that may lead to an association between piping and Calluna. Under the controlled conditions of topographic index, peat depth, and water table, piping was greater under the Calluna-covered peat than under other vegetation covers. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that 10 years worth of rainfall was enough to almost double the proportion of macropore flow occurring in recently colonized Calluna peatlands. This suggests that given enough water and time, the woody Calluna plants result in water being preferentially channeled through the upper peat. Improvements are therefore required in our understanding of the relationships between peatland plant nutrient and water supply and the feedbacks between ecosystem functioning and landform development. These results are also important given the propensity to encourage Calluna growth for game bird enhancement in many northern peatlands.

  5. Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Huebotter, P.R.; McLennan, G.A.

    1984-08-30

    The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

  6. Note: A passively cooled heat pipe for spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gillot, J; Lemarchand, C; Braud, I; Decamps, B; Gauguet, A; Vigué, J; Büchner, M

    2013-10-01

    We have developed and characterized a heat pipe for lithium spectroscopy, which is cooled only by air-convection, although its operating temperature is 330 °C: its construction is simple, of moderate cost and it is very reliable. A thermal model proves that heat-pipes without water cooling can be used up to considerably higher temperatures. PMID:24182182

  7. Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Huebotter, Paul R. (Western Springs, IL); McLennan, George A. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1985-01-01

    The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

  8. Investigation of the heat pipe arrays for convective electronic cooling 

    E-print Network

    Howard, Alicia Ann Harris

    1993-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical investigation was conducted to evaluate a heat pipe convective cooling device consisting of sixteen small copper/water heat pipes mounted vertically in a 4x4 array 25.4 mm square. The analytical portion...

  9. SATURATED-SUBCOOLED STRATIFIED FLOW IN HORIZONTAL PIPES

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Schultz

    2010-08-01

    Advanced light water reactor systems are designed to use passive emergency core cooling systems with horizontal pipes that provide highly subcooled water from water storage tanks or passive heat exchangers to the reactor vessel core under accident conditions. Because passive systems are driven by density gradients, the horizontal pipes often do not flow full and thus have a free surface that is exposed to saturated steam and stratified flow is present.

  10. Smoking Rain Clouds over the Amazon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. O. Andreae; D. Rosenfeld; P. Artaxo; A. A. Costa; G. P. Frank; K. M. Longo; M. A. F. Silva-Dias

    2004-01-01

    Heavy smoke from forest fires in the Amazon was observed to reduce cloud droplet size and so delay the onset of precipitation from 1.5 kilometers above cloud base in pristine clouds to more than 5 kilometers in polluted clouds and more than 7 kilometers in pyro-clouds. Suppression of low-level rainout and aerosol washout allows transport of water and smoke to

  11. Iron release from corroded iron pipes in drinkingwater distribution systems: effect of dissolved oxygen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Sarina; V. L. Snoeyink; J. Bebee; K. K. Jim; W. M. Krivena Beckett; J. A. Clement

    Iron release from corroded iron pipes is the principal cause of ''colored water'' problems in drinkingwater distribution systems. The corrosion scales present in corroded iron pipes restrict the flow of water, and can also deteriorate the water quality. This research was focused on understandingthe effect of dissolved oxyg en (DO), a key water quality parameter, on iron release from the

  12. Thermal analysis of a piston cooling system with reciprocating heat pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Y.; Wang, Q. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-04-01

    The reciprocating heat pipe is a very promising technology in engine piston cooling, especially for heavy-duty diesel engines. The concept of the reciprocating heat pipe is verified through the experimental observation of a transparent heat pipe and by thermal testing of a copper/water reciprocating heat pipe. A comparative thermal analysis on the reciprocating heat pipe and gallery cooling systems is performed. The approximate analytical results show that the piston ring groove temperature can be significantly reduced using heat pipe cooling technology, which could contribute to an increase in engine thermal efficiency and a reduction in environmental pollution.

  13. Heat pipe technology issues

    SciTech Connect

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1984-04-01

    Critical high temperature, high power applications in space nuclear power designs are near the current state of the art of heat pipe technology in terms of power density, operating temperature, and lifetime. Recent heat pipe development work at Los Alamos National Laboratory has involved performance testing of typical space reactor heat pipe designs to power levels in excess of 19 kW/cm/sup 2/ axially and 300 W/cm/sup 2/ radially at temperatures in the 1400 to 1500 K range. Operation at conditions in the 10 kW/cm/sup 2/ range has been sustained for periods of up to 1000 hours without evidence of performance degradation. The effective length for heat transport in these heat pipes was from 1.0 to 1.5 M. Materials used were molybdenum alloys with lithium employed as the heat pipe operating fluid. Shorter, somewhat lower power, molybdenum heat pipes have been life tested at Los Alamos for periods of greater than 25,000 hours at 1700 K with lithium and 20,000 hours at 1500/sup 0/K with sodium. These life test demonstrations and the attendant performance limit investigations provide an experimental basis for heat pipe application in space reactor design and represent the current state-of-the-art of high temperature heat pipe technology.

  14. Loop heat pipes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. F. Maydanik

    2005-01-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are two-phase heat-transfer devices with capillary pumping of a working fluid. They possess all the main advantages of conventional heat pipes, but owing to the original design and special properties of the capillary structure are capable of transferring heat efficiency for distances up to several meters at any orientation in the gravity field, or to several

  15. Jolliet project proves flexible pipe for deepwater development

    SciTech Connect

    Tillinghast, W.S. (Conoco Inc., Houston, TX (US)); Lecomte, H.; Sturdevant, L.A.; Cranham, P. (Coflexip and Services Inc., Houston, TX (US))

    1991-11-11

    This paper reports on the flexible-pipe export system for Conoco Inc.'s Jolliet project in the Gulf of Mexico which is the deepest flexible pipe and riser ever installed. The project saw, as well, the first use of flexible pipe risers with a tension-leg well platform (TLWP) or a tension-leg platform (TLP). Also, during the installation, large-diameter flexible pipe was abandoned in deepwater under threat of an approaching hurricane. The pipe was later retrieved and installation completed. The deepwater pipeline system on Conoco's Jolliet field in the Gulf of Mexico consists of one process-gas line and one oil-water emulsion line. Flexible pipe was used for a large portion of both lines. The flexible pipe was installed from the TLWP to approximately 6 miles away where subsea connections were made to conventional rigid steel pipelines. These flexible pipes were installed in water depths ranging from 930 to 1760 ft in rough sea bed conditions. Flexible pipe risers were suspended from the TLWP in a simple quaternary configuration.

  16. Analysis of cost effective pipe insulation requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Winiarski, D.W.; Somasundaram, S.

    1997-06-01

    The proposed BRS/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1989R contains updated requirements for pipe insulation thicknesses developed on the basis of technical and economic principles. These requirements were determined based on computer simulations of the annual energy flow through the insulation, first cost assumptions for the insulation, and economic assumptions of discount rate and energy escalation rate. In later work, the same tools were used to analyze the sensitivity of the cost-effective insulation level for piping insulation to variations in operating hours, ambient temperature, fluid temperature, and economic assumptions. These analyses were carried out using cost data for pipe insulation averaged across several sources. The results of the sensitivity study showed that system operating hours is a critical parameter in determining the cost-effective pipe insulation thicknesses. Although there is a lack of reliable sources of typical operating hour data for heating systems, anecdotal information suggests that while most smaller, building level systems are operated only during a heating season, many site-wide steam and hot water heating systems are operated year round and insulation levels on these systems should reflect both the pipe size and the different operating schedules. In addition, the analysis showed that because of differences in private and Federal sector economics, the cost-effective pipe insulation levels appropriate for the private sector are often substantially different from those that are appropriate for the Federal sector.

  17. Heat pipe development status

    SciTech Connect

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Test heat pipes have been operated in the 1400 K to 1700 K range for periods in excess of 20,000 hours with the objective of understanding and controlling corrosion and failure mechanisms. The results of a post test analysis of one of these heat pipes that was operated for 25,216 hours at 1700 K are reviewed and the implications for heat pipe lifetime discussed. An in-process report of an investigation of transient heat pipe behavior is presented. This investigation is being conducted as a result of restart problems encountered during life test of a 2 m. radiation cooled heat pipe. The results of a series of shut-down tests from power and temperature are given and probable causes of the restart problem discussed.

  18. Formation and general characteristics of environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The primary source of environmental tobacco smoke is the the smoke released directly from the tips of cigarettes between puffs; the sidestream smoke. Sidestream smoke is formed under different conditions than is mainstream smoke. It is enriched in alkaline constituents, contains greater quantities of vapor phase water, exhibits a smaller particle size, and is less affected by smoking conditions and cigarette design. Upon dilution in ambient air, particle size decreases due to evaporation thus redistributing many constituents from the particle phase to the vapor phase. Commonly found concentrations of ETS particulates matter, nicotine, and carbon monoxide in indoor environments are 50-200 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, 2-20 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, and 2-6 ppM, respectively. Physical composition and chemical concentration vary both spatially and temporally as determined in large part by smoking severity and degree of ventilation. 22 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Perforation of ABS pipes by boring bivalve Martesia striata: a case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Jenner; S. Rajagopal; G. Van der Velde; M. S. Daud

    2003-01-01

    Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) pipes are considered to be immune for boring organisms. However, inspection of the offshore cooling water conduits of Lumut combined cycle power plant, Malaysia show that ABS pipes may not necessarily be immune for wood boring pholads, Martesia striata. M. striata caused heavy damage by drilling holes in ABS pipes used (about 5 years) for transportation

  20. A Study of Transition to Turbulence for Incompressible Pipe Flow using a

    E-print Network

    Patriksson, Michael

    A Study of Transition to Turbulence for Incompressible Pipe Flow using a Spectral Finite Element and Reynolds. From his experiments on the stability of flow in a pipe [11], Reynolds observed that instability of the water in the pipe, the Reynolds num­ ber Ua=š, exceeded a certain value, depending on the experimental

  1. 46 CFR 182.445 - Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...pipe section is necessary, suitable flexible tubing or hose having high resistance to salt water, petroleum oils, heat and vibration, may be used. Such hose must overlap metallic pipe ends at the least 11/2 times the pipe diameter and must be...

  2. 46 CFR 119.445 - Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...pipe section is necessary, suitable flexible tubing or hose having high resistance to salt water, petroleum oils, heat and vibration, may be used. Such hose must overlap metallic pipe ends at least 1.5 times the pipe diameter and must be secured...

  3. 46 CFR 182.445 - Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...pipe section is necessary, suitable flexible tubing or hose having high resistance to salt water, petroleum oils, heat and vibration, may be used. Such hose must overlap metallic pipe ends at the least 11/2 times the pipe diameter and must be...

  4. Effect of structural character of gold nanoparticles in nanofluid on heat pipe thermal performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Y. Tsai; H. T. Chien; P. P. Ding; B. Chan; T. Y. Luh; P. H. Chen

    2004-01-01

    Nanofluid is employed as working medium for conventional circular heat pipe. The nanofluid used in the present study is an aqueous solution of various-sized gold nanoparticles. The thermal resistance of heat pipe with nanofluid or with DI water was measured. The heat pipe was designed as a heat spreader for CPU in a notebook or a desktop PC. At a

  5. 30 CFR 75.1101-12 - Equivalent dry-pipe system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalent dry-pipe system. 75.1101-12 Section...Protection § 75.1101-12 Equivalent dry-pipe system. Where water sprinkler...freezing temperatures prevail, an equivalent dry-pipe system may be...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1101-12 - Equivalent dry-pipe system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalent dry-pipe system. 75.1101-12 Section...Protection § 75.1101-12 Equivalent dry-pipe system. Where water sprinkler...freezing temperatures prevail, an equivalent dry-pipe system may be...

  7. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    PubMed

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because smokers need to be aware of the dangers of smoking. Health education projects and public information should address the hazards of smoking and discourage smoking from becoming the social norm. PMID:12314496

  8. Machined Titanium Heat-Pipe Wick Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Minnerly, Kenneth G.; Gernert, Nelson J.

    2009-01-01

    Wick structures fabricated by machining of titanium porous material are essential components of lightweight titanium/ water heat pipes of a type now being developed for operation at temperatures up to 530 K in high-radiation environments. In the fabrication of some prior heat pipes, wicks have been made by extruding axial grooves into aluminum unfortunately, titanium cannot be extruded. In the fabrication of some other prior heat pipes, wicks have been made by in-situ sintering of metal powders shaped by the use of forming mandrels that are subsequently removed, but in the specific application that gave rise to the present fabrication method, the required dimensions and shapes of the heat-pipe structures would make it very difficult if not impossible to remove the mandrels due to the length and the small diameter. In the present method, a wick is made from one or more sections that are fabricated separately and assembled outside the tube that constitutes the outer heat pipe wall. The starting wick material is a slab of porous titanium material. This material is machined in its original flat configuration to form axial grooves. In addition, interlocking features are machined at the mating ends of short wick sections that are to be assembled to make a full-length continuous wick structure. Once the sections have been thus assembled, the resulting full-length flat wick structure is rolled into a cylindrical shape and inserted in the heatpipe tube (see figure). This wick-structure fabrication method is not limited to titanium/water heat pipes: It could be extended to other heat pipe materials and working fluids in which the wicks could be made from materials that could be pre-formed into porous slabs.

  9. Cadmium in tobacco and its fate during smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Petering, H.G.; Menden, E.E.; Michael, L.W.

    1988-01-01

    Using a smoking machine, reference cigarettes, a commercial brand of nonfilter 85-millimeter cigarettes, a medium-priced cigar, and a popular brand of pipe tobacco, both wet-ashing and dry-ashing procedures were carried out to determine the cadmium content to which smokers were being exposed. Cigarettes varied from 1.31 to 1.28 micrograms (microg) of cadmium per cigarette, which corresponded to 1.17 to 1.62 microg per gram (g) of cigarette. For cigar tobacco a total of 1.86 microg/g was found and in pipe tobacco the content was 0.93 microg/g. Only 6 to 7% of the cadmium in the smoked portion of the cigarette appeared in the tar, while the unsmoked butts were enriched with 10 to 27% of the cadmium of the smoked portions. The authors suggest that the remaining cadmium, 50 to 55%, is lost in the sidestream during smoking and between puffs. This indicated that not only is the one smoking at risk from cadmium exposure, but so are the others present in the vicinity.

  10. Parental Anti-Smoking Socialization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William W. Hale; III; W. H. J. Meeus; Rutger C. M. E. Engels

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 600 families concentrates on the influence of parental anti-smoking socialization by examining both (a) the effects of eight indicators of anti-smoking socialization on adolescent smoking and (b) the influence of parental smoking on the effectiveness of their anti-smoking socialization. Robust differences between smoking and non-smoking parents demonstrated that both kinds of families hold different norms and

  11. Leaks in pipe networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pudar, Ranko S.; Liggett, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Leak detection in water-distribution systems can be accomplished by solving an inverse problem using measurements of pressure and/or flow. The problem is formulated with equivalent orifice areas of possible leaks as the unknowns. Minimization of the difference between measured and calculated heads produces a solution for the areas. The quality of the result depends on number and location of the measurements. A sensitivity matrix is key to deciding where to make measurements. Both location and magnitude of leaks are sensitive to the quantity and quality of pressure measurements and to how well the pipe friction parameters are known. The overdetermined problem (more measurements than suspected leaks) gives the best results, but some information can be derived from the underdetermined problem. The variance of leak areas, based on the quality of system characteristics and pressure data, indicates the likely accuracy of the results. The method will not substitute for more traditional leak surveys but can serve as a guide and supplement.

  12. Inspection of prestressed concrete pressure pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, D. L.; Morton, K. J.; Mergelas, B. J.; Kong, X.

    2000-05-01

    A new electromagnetic technique for inspecting prestressed concrete pressure pipe (CPP) for broken prestressing wires is described. CPP is used for water supply lines, power station cooling loops and waste water force lines. The smaller lined cylinder pipes have diameters 400-1200 mm. They have a thin steel cylinder with an inner centrifugally cast concrete core 25-50 mm thick. After curing, high strength prestressing wire is spirally wound, under high tension, onto the steel cylinder. A protective mortar coating is then impacted. Embedded-cylinder pipes have diameters 1.2-7 m. Their construction is similar but they have an additional 80-130 mm layers of concrete cast outside the steel cylinder before the prestressing wire is wound on. The pitch and gage of the wire is chosen to ensure that the concrete is always under compression. The new inspection technique uses a combination of remote field eddy current and transformer coupling effects to detect broken prestressing wires. The tools can access large pipes through small diameter man holes. They can detect single or multiple breaks in the prestressing wire at any point on the circumference and are drawn through a pipe at walking speed. The principles of operation and inspection results are described.

  13. Performance analysis of wick-assisted heat pipe solar collector and comparison with experimental results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Azad

    2009-01-01

    The performance of heat pipe solar collector is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The system employs wick-assisted\\u000a heat pipe for the heat transfer from the absorber (evaporator) to a heat exchanger (condenser). The heat pipe is made with\\u000a a copper tube and the evaporator section is finned with aluminium plate. Theoretical model predicts the outlet water from\\u000a heat exchanger, heat pipe

  14. Assessment of LWR piping design loading based on plant operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Svensson, P. O.

    1980-08-01

    The objective of this study has been to: (1) identify current Light Water Reactor (LWR) piping design load parameters, (2) identify significant actual LWR piping loads from plant operating experience, (3) perform a comparison of these two sets of data and determine the significance of any differences, and (4) make an evaluation of the load representation in current LWR piping design practice, in view of plant operating experience with respect to piping behavior and response to loading.

  15. Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy, Child Behavior Problems, and Adolescent Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griesler, Pamela C.; Kandel, Denise B.; Davies, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Used longitudinal sample of 187 mother-child dyads to examine the role of child behavior problems in explaining the effect of maternal prenatal smoking on adolescent daughters' smoking. Found that maternal prenatal smoking retained a unique effect on girls' current smoking with controls for current maternal smoking, child behavior problems, and…

  16. Automated Ultrasonic Pipe Weld Inspection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfram A. Karl; Peter SCHULTE; Michael JOSWIG; Rainer KATTWINKEL

    Summary This article contains an overview on automated ultrasonic w eld inspection for various pipe types. Some inspection steps might by carried out with portable t est equipment (e.g. pipe end test), but the weld inspection in all internationally relevant specif ications must be automated. The pipe geometry, the production process, and the further pipe usage determine if ND T

  17. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

  18. Gas pipe explorer robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A gas pipe explorer formed of a plurality of connecting elements, and an articulation element between the connected elements. The connected elements include drive capabilities, and the articulation element allows the connected elements to traverse gas pipes of arbitrary shapes and sizes. A sensor may sends the characteristics of the gas pipe, and the communication element may send back those sends characteristics. The communication can be wired, over a tether connecting the device to a remote end. Alternatively, the connection can be wireless, driven by either a generator or a battery.

  19. KENTUCKY STRAIGHT PIPES REPORT, DECEMBER 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    The poor sanitary conditions and water pollution problems EPA observed in the Kentucky counties of Harlan, Martin, Bath, and Montgomery were of the highest concern. The widespread scale of both the straight pipe issues as well as package plant wastewater problems present an envir...

  20. USE OF ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concerning the use of asbestos-cement (A/C) pipe for the distribution of drinking water, the status of the ingested asbestos health research underway in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is briefly described. At the present time there are no U.S. standards for asbestos in ...

  1. How many ways can a pipe leak?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vakhtang Putkaradze

    2001-01-01

    When an underwater oil pipe develops a long crack along its surface, the oil rushes out setting the outer water in motion. How many ways can the flow of two fluids be established? I derive analytic solutions of Navier-Stokes equations describing this problem. I show that there are many (most probably infinite number) of flows for each set of parameter

  2. Passive ice freezing-releasing heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Gorski, Anthony J. (Lemont, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

    1982-01-01

    A heat pipe device has been developed which permits completely passive ice formation and periodic release of ice without requiring the ambient temperature to rise above the melting point of water. This passive design enables the maximum amount of cooling capacity to be stored in the tank.

  3. PIPE FLOW IMPACTS ON EPHEMERAL GULLY EROSION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rills and ephemeral gullies are major sources of sediment yet their development is not well understood. Lateral flow through soil pipes over water-restricting horizons has been postulated to initiate the development and head cut migration of ephemeral gullies. The objective was to determine the effe...

  4. Improved Thin, Flexible Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Gernert, Nelson J.; Sarraf, David B.; Wollen, Peter J.; Surina, Frank C.; Fale, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Flexible heat pipes of an improved type are fabricated as layers of different materials laminated together into vacuum- tight sheets or tapes. In comparison with prior flexible heat pipes, these flexible heat pipes are less susceptible to leakage. Other advantages of these flexible heat pipes, relative to prior flexible heat pipes, include high reliability and greater ease and lower cost of fabrication. Because these heat pipes are very thin, they are highly flexible. When coated on outside surfaces with adhesives, these flexible heat pipes can be applied, like common adhesive tapes, to the surfaces of heat sinks and objects to be cooled, even if those surfaces are curved.

  5. 32. Piping under central corridor of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Piping under central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  6. 31. Piping under central corridor of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Piping under central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  7. Design of a Novel In-Pipe Reliable Leak Detector

    E-print Network

    Chatzigeorgiou, Dimitris

    Leakage is the major factor for unaccounted losses in every pipe network around the world (oil, gas, or water). In most cases, the deleterious effects associated with the occurrence of leaks may present serious economical ...

  8. 30. WAIALEIA STREAM CROSSING (30") LOOKING UPSTREAM. PIPE IS EXPOSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. WAIALEIA STREAM CROSSING (30") LOOKING UPSTREAM. PIPE IS EXPOSED AT LEFT OF CONCRETE STRUCTURE. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  9. 31. ELEVATED PIPELINE CLIMBING TOWARDS KALAWAO. PIPE CAN BE SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. ELEVATED PIPELINE CLIMBING TOWARDS KALAWAO. PIPE CAN BE SEEN EXPOSED AT TOP OF ROCK WALL. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  10. Heat pipe cooling of an aerospace foam mold manufacturing process

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, D.R.; Feldman, K.T.; Marjon, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    A passive heat pipe cooling system was developed to cool a Bendix foam mold used to manufacture aerospace foam parts. The cooling system consists of ten copper-water heat pipes with cooling fins implanted into the aluminum mold and cooled by a domestic size fan blowing ambient air. The number and location of the heat pipes was determined to provide the most effective cooling and mold isothermalization based on experimental measurements of mold temperatures during the exothermic foaming process and from practical considerations of the mold geometry and use. Performance tests were cnducted on an individual heat pipe and on the ten heat pipes implanted in the mold. Both exothermic foam heating and internal electrical heat input were used in the experiments. The experimental test results indicate that the heat pipe cooling system with a fan is four to six times faster than free convection cooling of the mold with no heat pipes or fan and nearly twice as fast as cooling by the fan only. Similarly fast increases in mold heating time in the cure furnace could be realized if the heat pipes are used during this part of the production process. The heat pipes also cool hot spots in the mold and help isothermalize the mold so that better quality foam parts should be produced.

  11. Attention, memory, and cigarette smoking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shirley C. Peeke; Harman V. S. Peeke

    1984-01-01

    Four experiments tested the effects of smoking one cigarette on verbal memory and attention. In Experiment I, 18 men were tested under three conditions in a repeated-measures design (pretrial smoking, posttrial smoking, no smoking). Recall of a 50-word list was tested immediately and after intervals of 10 and 45 min. Pretrial smoking resulted in improved recall 10 and 45 min

  12. Smoking Rain Clouds over the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Rosenfeld, D.; Artaxo, P.; Costa, A. A.; Frank, G. P.; Longo, K. M.; Silva-Dias, M. A. F.

    2004-02-01

    Heavy smoke from forest fires in the Amazon was observed to reduce cloud droplet size and so delay the onset of precipitation from 1.5 kilometers above cloud base in pristine clouds to more than 5 kilometers in polluted clouds and more than 7 kilometers in pyro-clouds. Suppression of low-level rainout and aerosol washout allows transport of water and smoke to upper levels, where the clouds appear ``smoking'' as they detrain much of the pollution. Elevating the onset of precipitation allows invigoration of the updrafts, causing intense thunderstorms, large hail, and greater likelihood for overshooting cloud tops into the stratosphere. There, detrained pollutants and water vapor would have profound radiative impacts on the climate system. The invigorated storms release the latent heat higher in the atmosphere. This should substantially affect the regional and global circulation systems. Together, these processes affect the water cycle, the pollution burden of the atmosphere, and the dynamics of atmospheric circulation.

  13. Smoking rain clouds over the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Andreae, M O; Rosenfeld, D; Artaxo, P; Costa, A A; Frank, G P; Longo, K M; Silva-Dias, M A F

    2004-02-27

    Heavy smoke from forest fires in the Amazon was observed to reduce cloud droplet size and so delay the onset of precipitation from 1.5 kilometers above cloud base in pristine clouds to more than 5 kilometers in polluted clouds and more than 7 kilometers in pyro-clouds. Suppression of low-level rainout and aerosol washout allows transport of water and smoke to upper levels, where the clouds appear "smoking" as they detrain much of the pollution. Elevating the onset of precipitation allows invigoration of the updrafts, causing intense thunderstorms, large hail, and greater likelihood for overshooting cloud tops into the stratosphere. There, detrained pollutants and water vapor would have profound radiative impacts on the climate system. The invigorated storms release the latent heat higher in the atmosphere. This should substantially affect the regional and global circulation systems. Together, these processes affect the water cycle, the pollution burden of the atmosphere, and the dynamics of atmospheric circulation. PMID:14988556

  14. Smoking and skin disease.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-06-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic wounds. Most likely, alteration of inflammatory cell function and extracellular matrix turnover caused by smoking-induced oxidative stress are involved in the pathophysiologic mechanisms. PMID:20532469

  15. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-print Network

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

  16. Electrohydrodynamic heat pipe experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.; Perry, M. P.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments with two electrohydrodynamic heat pipes are reported. Both devices employ an electromechanical flow structure for axial liquid flow and a capillary wicking structure for (1) collection of condensed liquid at the cooled end and (2) distribution of this liquid at the heated end. One device has circumferential grooving for the capillary structure and the other has feltmetal wicking. The experiments successfully demonstrate the electrohydrodynamic heat pipe concept. Compatibility of the two circumferential wick structures with an axial electromechanical flow structure is also demonstrated. A significant mismatch of the capillary groove and electrohydrodynamic pumping capabilities results in severe hydrodynamic burn-out limiting in the first heat pipe. Both devices have very poor over-all thermal conductances of the order of 1-2 W/deg C, reflecting the generally poor heat-transfer properties of the dielectric working fluids required in electrohydrodynamic heat pipes.

  17. Miniature pipe crawler tractor

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, M.D.; Anderson, M.O.; Ferrante, T.A.; Willis, W.D.

    2000-03-14

    A pipe crawler tractor may comprise a half tractor assembly having a first base drive wheel, a second base drive wheel, and a top drive wheel. The drive wheels are mounted in spaced-apart relation so that the top drive wheel is positioned between the first and second base drive wheels. The mounting arrangement is also such that the first and second base drive wheels contact the inside surface of the pipe at respective first and second positions and so that the top drive wheel contacts the inside surface of the pipe at a third position, the third position being substantially diametrically opposed to the first and second positions. A control system connected to the half tractor assembly controls the rotation of the first base wheel, the second base wheel, and the top drive wheel to move the half tractor assembly within the pipe.

  18. Heat Pipe Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The heat pipe was developed to alternately cool and heat without using energy or any moving parts. It enables non-rotating spacecraft to maintain a constant temperature when the surface exposed to the Sun is excessively hot and the non Sun-facing side is very cold. Several organizations, such as Tropic-Kool Engineering Corporation, joined NASA in a subsequent program to refine and commercialize the technology. Heat pipes have been installed in fast food restaurants in areas where humid conditions cause materials to deteriorate quickly. Moisture removal was increased by 30 percent in a Clearwater, FL Burger King after heat pipes were installed. Relative humidity and power consumption were also reduced significantly. Similar results were recorded by Taco Bell, which now specifies heat pipe systems in new restaurants in the Southeast.

  19. Focused Smoking: An Unequivocable Safe Alternative to Rapid Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Gail; Horan, John J.

    1978-01-01

    Rapid smoking is generally considered to be the most effective single treatment strategy for the behavioral control of smoking. Unfortunately, its safety has recently been questioned. A new procedure termed "focused smoking" poses absolutely no health hazard. (Author)

  20. Smoke movement in buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. McGuire

    1967-01-01

    Smoke is a major killer of building occupants in times of fire. How does it spread throughout a building and reach untenable\\u000a accumulations before temperatures become dangerously high? In this, the first of two articles, the author discusses the movement\\u000a of smoke. In the second, he will deal with methods for controlling the movement of smoke in buildings.

  1. The role of soil pipes as a slope runoff mechanism, Subarctic Yukon, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Carey; M.-K. Woo

    2000-01-01

    Pipeflow in subarctic slopes provides a preferential runoff mechanism that bypasses the soil matrix, rapidly conveying water to the stream. Extensive soil piping occurs in the central Wolf Creek basin, Yukon, at the interface of the organic and mineral horizons. Flow in these pipes are ephemeral, transmitting water only when the water table is within or above the zone where

  2. Freezable heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, Donald M. (Leola, PA); Sanzi, James L. (Lancaster, PA)

    1981-02-03

    A heat pipe whose fluid can be repeatedly frozen and thawed without damage to the casing. An additional part is added to a conventional heat pipe. This addition is a simple porous structure, such as a cylinder, self-supporting and free standing, which is dimensioned with its diameter not spanning the inside transverse dimension of the casing, and with its length surpassing the depth of maximum liquid.

  3. Silicon Heat Pipe Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Karl Y.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Sunada, Eric T.; Bae, Youngsam; Miller, Jennifer R.; Beinsford, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Improved methods of heat dissipation are required for modern, high-power density electronic systems. As increased functionality is progressively compacted into decreasing volumes, this need will be exacerbated. High-performance chip power is predicted to increase monotonically and rapidly with time. Systems utilizing these chips are currently reliant upon decades of old cooling technology. Heat pipes offer a solution to this problem. Heat pipes are passive, self-contained, two-phase heat dissipation devices. Heat conducted into the device through a wick structure converts the working fluid into a vapor, which then releases the heat via condensation after being transported away from the heat source. Heat pipes have high thermal conductivities, are inexpensive, and have been utilized in previous space missions. However, the cylindrical geometry of commercial heat pipes is a poor fit to the planar geometries of microelectronic assemblies, the copper that commercial heat pipes are typically constructed of is a poor CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) match to the semiconductor die utilized in these assemblies, and the functionality and reliability of heat pipes in general is strongly dependent on the orientation of the assembly with respect to the gravity vector. What is needed is a planar, semiconductor-based heat pipe array that can be used for cooling of generic MCM (multichip module) assemblies that can also function in all orientations. Such a structure would not only have applications in the cooling of space electronics, but would have commercial applications as well (e.g. cooling of microprocessors and high-power laser diodes). This technology is an improvement over existing heat pipe designs due to the finer porosity of the wick, which enhances capillary pumping pressure, resulting in greater effective thermal conductivity and performance in any orientation with respect to the gravity vector. In addition, it is constructed of silicon, and thus is better suited for the cooling of semiconductor devices.

  4. Experimental investigation of coarse particle conveying in pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasak, Pavel; Chara, Zdenek; Konfrst, Jiri; Krupi?ka, Jan

    2015-05-01

    The advanced knowledge of particle-water mixture flow behaviour is important for safe, reliable, and economical design and operation of the freight pipelines. The effect of the mixture velocity and concentration on the coarse particle - water mixtures flow behaviour was experimentally investigated on an experimental pipe loop of inner diameter D = 100 mm with horizontal, vertical, and inclined pipe sections. Narrow particle size distribution basalt pebbles were used as model of coarse-grained solid particles. The radiometric method was used to measure particle concentration distribution in pipe cross-section. Mixture flow behaviour and particles motion along the pipe invert were studied in a pipe viewing section. The study revealed that the coarse particlewater mixtures in the horizontal and inclined pipe sections were significantly stratified. The particles moved principally in a layer close to the pipe invert. However, for higher and moderate flow velocities the particles moved also in the central part of the pipe cross-section, and particle saltation was found to be dominant mode of particle conveying.

  5. Household smoking bans and adolescents' perceived prevalence of smoking and social acceptability of smoking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carey Conley Thomson; Michael Siegel; Jonathan Winickoff; Lois Biener; Nancy A. Rigotti

    2005-01-01

    ObjectivesHousehold smoking bans might decrease the visibility of cigarette smoking and communicate nonsmoking social norms and parental attitudes to youths, which may serve as mediators to reduce smoking initiation. Whether they have these effects even if parents smoke or do not otherwise communicate strong disapproval of smoking to their children is not clear. We tested these hypotheses in multi-level analyses.

  6. Advanced materials for flexible pipe construction

    SciTech Connect

    Kalman, M.D.; Belcher, J.R.; Plaia, J.R. [Wellstream Company, L.P., Panama City, FL (United States). Dept. of Engineering

    1995-10-01

    New materials have been developed for use in the construction of non-bonded flexible pipe for offshore oil and gas production in sever environmental conditions. Internal environmental conditions include high conveyed fluid temperatures with sour and waxy production fluids. External environmental conditions include low water temperatures and water depths of up to 2,000 m. In this paper, the results of test to verify the suitability of materials developed by Wellstream and its vendors specifically for these severe applications is presented.

  7. Smoking in Movies and Increased Smoking Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Song, Anna V.; Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study assessed whether smoking in the movies was associated with smoking in young adults. Methods A national web-enabled cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults, aged 18–25, was performed between September and November 2005. Logistic regression and path analysis using probit regression were used to assess relationships between exposure to smoking in the movies and smoking behavior. Analysis was completed in December 2006. Results Exposure to smoking in the movies predicted current smoking. The adjusted odds of current smoking increased by a factor of 1.21 for each quartile increase in exposure to smoking (p<0.01) in the movies, reaching 1.77 for the top exposure quartile. The unadjusted odds of established smoking (100+ cigarettes with current smoking) increased by 1.23 per quartile (p<0.001) of exposure, reaching 1.86 for the top quartile. This effect on established smoking was mediated by two factors related to smoking in the movies: positive expectations about smoking and exposure to friends and relatives who smoked, with positive expectations accounting for about two thirds of the effect. Conclusions The association between smoking in the movies and young adult smoking behavior exhibited a dose–response relationship; the more a young adult was exposed to smoking in the movies, the more likely he or she would have smoked in the past 30 days or have become an established smoker. PMID:17950405

  8. In Vitro Contamination of Hair by Marijuana Smoke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jana Thorspecken; Gisela Skopp; Lucia Potsch

    Background: The deposition of cannabinoids on\\/into hair from environmental smoke can be considered as a potential source of drug findings in hair. We studied external uptake of cannabinoids from marijuana smoke, investigating possible influencing factors on drug up- take and the efficiency of decontamination procedures. Methods: Strands of a natural hair sample were moist- ened with water, greased with sebum

  9. Resolution of thermal striping issue downstream of a horizontal pipe elbow in stratified pipe flow. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.; Kasza, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    A thermally stratified pipe flow produced by a thermal transient when passing through a horizontal elbow as a result of secondary flow gives rise to large thermal fluctuations on the inner curvature wall of the downstream piping. These fluctuations were measured in a specially instrumented horizontal pipe and elbow system on a test set-up using water in the Mixing Components Technology Facility (MCTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This study is part of a larger program which is studying the influence of thermal buoyancy on general reactor component performance. This paper discusses the influence of pipe flow generated thermal oscillations on the thermal stresses induced in the pipe walls. The instrumentation was concentrated around the exit plane of the 90/sup 0/ sweep elbow, since prior tests had indicated that the largest thermal fluctuations would occur within about one hydraulic diameter downstream of the elbow exit. The thermocouples were located along the inner curvature of the piping and measured the near surface fluid temperature. The test matrix involved thermal downramps under turbulent flow conditions.

  10. Will anticipatory eye movements towards the objects upon hearing the verb (e.g. `smoke') reflect scene-specific event relations?

    E-print Network

    DeAngelis, Gregory

    Results Will anticipatory eye movements towards the objects upon hearing the verb (e.g. `smoke to the contrastive agent. Anticipatory eye movements are sensitive to the event-based relationships between agents so that the businessman could plausibly smoke either the pipe or the cigarette. We suggest

  11. Smoking in Africa: the coming epidemic.

    PubMed

    Taha, A; Ball, K

    1982-01-01

    This discussion describes the development of tobacco smoking in Africa, the increase in consumption, and how tobacco use is promoted. It also presents evidence to show that smoking-related diseases similar to those seen in Western nations may be emerging. Tobacco was first introduced into Africa in the 16th century by the Turks who brought it into Egypt. The smoking habits of today's Africans are governed by local custom and economic status. Cigarette smoking is replacing the traditional pipe (hookah), although the latter is still used, particularly in rural areas. The prevalence of smoking is higher in urban than rural areas. Traditionally, only men smoked, but the proportion of women smokers is now rising. Smoking is also increasing among African children and adolescents. Cigarette consumption was examined in the 6 African countries from which statistics were available. In all of them, it rose steeply between 1967-76 and actually doubled in Libya and Ethiopia. In Egypt domestic cigarette sales increased by 23% between 1976-78, but sales of imported cigarettes rose by 25% in 1 year alone. Consumption of imported cigarettes is rising in many African countries. Between 1965-76 the volume of tobacco imports almost doubled. Cigarette smuggling is common in some African countries and may account for about 1/3 of total cigarette consumption in the Sudan. Some African countries are expanding tobacco agriculture so that they can supply their own needs. Nigeria has increased tobacco cultivation by about 10% a year to meet local dmeands. Zaire's imports of tobacco increased by about 30% between 1969-73 but now expects to become self sufficient in tobacco production. Tanzania's tobacco output incrased 7-fold between 1962-74 and will continue to grow through the help of the International Development Association. Cigarettes are heavily promoted in Africa. The advertisements present smoking as socially desirable by showing young, happy people and by relating it to manliness and success. Smoking-related diseases have already made their appearance in Africa. The 2 most common types of cancer in the Natal Bantu are lung and esophageal tumors. Lung cancer in Natal men has increased 6-fold and in women about 5-fold over the past 11 years. Other studies from southern Africa show much higher smoking rates in patients with lung cancer than in controls. The incidence of esophageal cancer in blacks in Durban, South Africa, and Zimbabwe is among the highest in the world. Other suggestive associations with cigarette smoking in African subjects are bladder cancer, myocardial infarction, and chronic bronchitis. Many Western governments and health authorities now try to persuade people not to smoke, and in some developed countries consumption has already begun to fall. As a result, tobacco companies have started to diversify and intensify promotion of cigarettes and the growth of tobacco in the 3rd world. PMID:12179604

  12. Synthetic smoke with acrolein but not HCl produces pulmonary edema

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, C.A.; Barkin, P.W.; Jung, W.; Trautman, E.; Lamborghini, D.; Herrig, N.; Burke, J.

    1988-03-01

    The chemical toxins in smoke and not the heat are responsible for the pulmonary edema of smoke inhalation. We developed a synthetic smoke composed of carbon particles (mean diameter of 4.3 microns) to which toxins known to be in smoke, such as HCl or acrolein, could be added one at a time. We delivered synthetic smoke to dogs for 10 min and monitored extravascular lung water (EVLW) accumulation thereafter with a double-indicator thermodilution technique. Final EVLW correlated highly with gravimetric values (r = 0.93, P less than 0.01). HCl in concentrations of 0.1-6 N when added to heated carbon (120 degrees C) and cooled to 39 degrees C produced airway damage but no pulmonary edema. Acrolein, in contrast, produced airway damage but also pulmonary edema, whereas capillary wedge pressures remained stable. Low-dose acrolein smoke (less than 200 ppm) produced edema in two of five animals with a 2- to 4-h delay. Intermediate-dose acrolein smoke (200-300 ppm) always produced edema at an average of 147 +/- 57 min after smoke, whereas high-dose acrolein (greater than 300 ppm) produced edema at 65 +/- 16 min after smoke. Thus acrolein but not HCl, when presented as a synthetic smoke, produced a delayed-onset, noncardiogenic, and peribronchiolar edema in a roughly dose-dependent fashion.

  13. Visual simulation of smoke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Fedkiw; Jos Stam; Henrik Wann Jensen

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new approach to numerical smoke simulation for computer graphics applications. The method proposed here exploits physics unique to smoke in order to design a numerical method that is both fast and efficient on the relatively coarse grids traditionally used in computer graphics applications (as compared to the much finer grids used in the computational

  14. Smoking and Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R B Godwin-Austen; P N Lee; M G Marmot; G M Stern

    1982-01-01

    In a case control study of the relationship between smoking habits and Parkinson's disease a negative association was demonstrated with a relative risk of 0 x 52. A history of smoking up to 20 years earlier was associated with a risk of developing Parkinson's disease equal to about half that in non-smokers. The type of disease, age of onset and

  15. Adolescent smoking in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tsung O

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is a serious health problem in China, not only in adults but also in adolescents. The Chinese government is walking a tightrope, trying to balance prevention of diseases from smoking prohibition against revenue collection from the tobacco industry. PMID:17904665

  16. Smoking and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Peggy

    2013-03-01

    The potential role of smoking in breast cancer risk has been the subject of over 100 publications, numerous scientific reviews, and animated debate. Tobacco exposure is a well-established cause of lung cancer, and is thought to account for nearly one third of all cancer deaths. Tobacco smoke contains thousands of chemicals, many of which are known to be mammary carcinogens. Although not initially thought to be a tobacco-related cancer, over the last several decades evidence has been accumulating on the role of both active smoking and secondhand smoking in the etiology of breast cancer. The human health evidence has been systematically evaluated not only by several independent researchers but also by several expert agency panels including those of the U.S. Surgeon General, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the California Environmental Protection Agency, and a coalition of Canadian health agencies. Although the assessments have varied with time and across reviewers, the most recent weight of the evidence has suggested a potentially casual role for active smoking and breast cancer, particularly for long-term heavy smoking and smoking initiation at an early age. The role of secondhand smoking and breast cancer is less clear, although there has been some suggestion for an increased risk for premenopausal breast cancer. Recent studies evaluating the possible modifying role of polymorphisms in genes involved in the metabolism of tobacco products, particularly NAT2, have contributed another dimension to these assessments, although to date that evidence remains equivocal. PMID:23179580

  17. Peers and adolescent smoking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly Kobus

    2003-01-01

    There is a considerable body of empirical research that has identified adolescent peer relationships as a primary factor involved in adolescent cigarette smoking. Despite this large research base, many questions remain unanswered about the mechanisms by which peers affect youths' smoking behavior. Understanding these processes of influence is key to the development of prevention and inter- vention programs designed to

  18. Smoke Detectors and Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Fire Prevention and Control Administration (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This manual, one of a series for use in public education, provides an in-depth review of the current status of state and local smoke detector legislation. First, for the community considering a smoke detector law or ordinance, six decision points are discussed: which residential occupancy sub-classes will be affected; what the time factors are for…

  19. Smoke-Free Olympics

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

    2008-01-30

    for the enthusiastic smoker. Despite an ambitious promise from the government of a "smoke-free Olympics" the market here is 350 million... and growing. So when a restaurant chain called Meizhou Dongpo responded to a call to make restaurants smoke-free, they quickly...

  20. The Smoking Gun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, Alice

    1994-01-01

    Examines the complex public debate over the risks of passive smoking that includes the issues of individual choice, personal space, community, social norms, and morality. Discusses the composition of ETS (gases and particulates that disperse into the air when a smoker smokes) and the efforts of tobacco lobbies. (LZ)

  1. Hypnotic Treatment of Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastien, Samuel A., IV; Kessler, Marc

    Prior studies of hypnotic treatment of smoking have reported abstinence rates of between 17 and 88 percent at six months, but few have investigated procedures or forms of suggestions. To compare the effectiveness of positive and negative hypnotic suggestions and self-hypnosis for cessation of smoking, 32 subjects were assigned to one of four…

  2. Environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material in indoor air which results from tobacco smoking. Early work on the chemistry of ETS and on estimates of the resulting human exposure relied heavily on studies of sidestream smoke, on the characterization of highly contaminated environments, and on the use of contained experimental atmospheres. It had also been common practice to equate ETS with mainstream smoke for purposes of risk assessments. More recent work has identified potentially important differences between the properties of ETS and those of mainstream smoke. Recent work has also included major surveys of commonly encountered smoking and nonsmoking environments for their indoor air concentrations of, particularly, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and/or respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP). Studies have also now been reported which address the general composition of the particulate and vapor phases of ETS and which measure concentrations of trace and miscellaneous constituents of tobacco smoke in indoor air. The data demonstrate that tobacco smoking clearly contributes to indoor air contamination but that the contribution is often less than was previously assumed for the more-commonly encountered environments. The data also identify difficulties in the use of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and RSP as surrogate measures of ETS as a whole. This paper summarizes recent observation concerning the measurement and concentrations of ETS constituents in indoor air.

  3. Environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1992-12-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material in indoor air which results from tobacco smoking. Early work on the chemistry of ETS and on estimates of the resulting human exposure relied heavily on studies of sidestream smoke, on the characterization of highly contaminated environments, and on the use of contained experimental atmospheres. It had also been common practice to equate ETS with mainstream smoke for purposes of risk assessments. More recent work has identified potentially important differences between the properties of ETS and those of mainstream smoke. Recent work has also included major surveys of commonly encountered smoking and nonsmoking environments for their indoor air concentrations of, particularly, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and/or respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP). Studies have also now been reported which address the general composition of the particulate and vapor phases of ETS and which measure concentrations of trace and miscellaneous constituents of tobacco smoke in indoor air. The data demonstrate that tobacco smoking clearly contributes to indoor air contamination but that the contribution is often less than was previously assumed for the more-commonly encountered environments. The data also identify difficulties in the use of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and RSP as surrogate measures of ETS as a whole. This paper summarizes recent observation concerning the measurement and concentrations of ETS constituents in indoor air.

  4. Parental smoking and children's attention to smoking cues.

    PubMed

    Lochbuehler, Kirsten; Otten, Roy; Voogd, Hubert; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-07-01

    Research has shown that children with smoking parents are more likely to initiate smoking than children with non-smoking parents. So far, these effects have been explained through genetic factors, modelling and norm-setting processes. However, it is also possible that parental smoking affects smoking initiation through automatic cognitive processes. Therefore, we examined whether children with a smoking parent focus longer, faster and more often on smoking cues. The children were given two movie clips to watch, during which their attention to smoking cues was assessed with eye-tracking technology. Results showed that children with a smoking parent focused more often and longer on smoking cues compared with children with non-smoking parents. No correlations between attentional bias and explicit smoking cognitions were found. In conclusion, results suggest that parental smoking affects children's attention to smoking cues. These findings may indicate that parental smoking instigates automatic cognitive processes in children who have not experimented with smoking, and possibly even before explicit smoking cognitions become more favourable. PMID:22371194

  5. Glass-heat-pipe evacuated-tube solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.D.; VanSant, J.H.

    1981-08-06

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  6. Thermo-Physical Properties of Intermediate Temperature Heat Pipe Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Duane E. (Technical Monitor); Devarakonda, Angirasa; Anderson, William G.

    2005-01-01

    Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. The paper reports further evaluation of potential heat pipe fluids in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to 700 K in continuation of two recent reports. More thermo-physical property data are examined. Organic, inorganic, and elemental substances are considered. The evaluation of surface tension and other fluid properties are examined. Halides are evaluated as potential heat pipe fluids. Reliable data are not available for all fluids and further database development is necessary. Many of the fluids considered are promising candidates as heat pipe fluids. Water is promising as a heat pipe fluid up to 500 to 550 K. Life test data for thermo-chemical compatibility are almost non-existent.

  7. Thermo-Physical Properties of Intermediate Temperature Heat Pipe Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devarakonda, Angirasa; Anderson, William G.

    2004-01-01

    Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. The paper reports further evaluation of potential heat pipe fluids in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to 700 K in continuation of two recent reports. More thermo-physical property data are examined. Organic, inorganic and elemental substances are considered. The evaluation of surface tension and other fluid properties are examined. Halides are evaluated as potential heat pipe fluids. Reliable data are not available for all fluids and further database development in necessary. Many of the fluids considered are promising candidates as heat pipe fluids. Water is promising as a heat pipe fluid up to 500-550 K. Life test data for thermo-chemical compatibility are almost non-existent.

  8. Flavored Tobacco Use Among Canadian Students in Grades 9 Through 12: Prevalence and Patterns From the 2010–2011 Youth Smoking Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Rashid; Hammond, David; Manske, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study examined patterns of use of flavored tobacco products in a nationally generalizable sample of Canadian students in grades 9 through 12 after the implementation of a national ban on certain flavored tobacco products. Methods Data from the 2010–2011 Youth Smoking Survey, a nationally generalizable sample of Canadian students in grades 9 through 12 (n = 31,396), were used to examine tobacco product use. Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in use of flavored tobacco products (cigarettes, pipes, little cigars or cigarillos, cigars, roll-your-own cigarettes, bidis, smokeless tobacco, water pipes, and blunt wraps) by sociodemographic and regional characteristics. Results Approximately 52% of young tobacco users used flavored products in the previous 30 days. Flavored tobacco use varied by product type and ranged from 32% of cigarette smokers reporting menthol smoking to 70% of smokeless tobacco users reporting using flavored product in the previous 30 days. The percentage of last-30-day users who used flavored tobacco was significantly higher in Quebec than in Ontario and significantly higher among youths who received weekly spending money than among those who received no money. Conclusion More than half of tobacco users in grades 9 through 12 in Canada use flavored tobacco, despite a national ban on certain flavored tobacco products. PMID:24945240

  9. STUDY ON TEMPERATURE FIELD ROUND VERTICAL BURIED PIPE OF GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP IN INTERMITTENT OPERATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Songtao; T. Yu; W. Gang; S. Zhigang

    Heat transfer between soil and cooling water in buried pipes is presented, thus ground source heat pump can realize the transfer from low-grade energy to high-grade energy. We tested Water temperature and flow rate of the buried pipe of Ground source heat pump system under intermittent operation condition in Qingdao, temperature field of vertical buried double-U pipes is analyzed by

  10. PREDICTING CHLORINE RESIDUAL LOSSES IN UNLINED METALLIC PIPES (POSTER)

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is substantial evidence that as water moves through a water distribution system its quality can deteriorate through interactions between the bulk phase and the pipe wall. One of the most serious aspects of water quality deterioration, in a network, is the loss of disinfect...

  11. PREDICTING CHLORINE RESIDUAL LOSSES IN UNLINED METALIC PIPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is substantial evidence that as water moves through a water distribution system its quality can deteriorate through interactions between the bulk phase and the pipe wall. One of the most serious aspects of water quality deterioration, in a network, is the loss of disinfect...

  12. PREDICTING CHLORINE RESIDUAL LOSSES IN UNLINED METALLIC PIPES (PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is substantial evidence that as water moves through a water distribution system its quality can deteriorate through interactions between the bulk phase and the pipe wall. One of the most serious aspects of water quality deterioration, in a network, is the loss of disinfecta...

  13. Draft December 6, 2003 OCCURRENCE OF DISSOLUTION PIPES

    E-print Network

    Borchers, Brian

    vulnerable for ground water contamination from hazardous materials stored on the desert floor. On the other hand the pipes may lead to an overall increase of regional ground water recharge. #12;3 INTRODUCTION and their possible enhancement of downward water fluxes may make desert sites underlain by indurated calcic horizons

  14. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    DOEpatents

    Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  15. Apparatus for moving a pipe inspection probe through piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.; Appel, D.K.; Lewis, G.W.

    1995-07-18

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for controllably moving devices for cleaning or inspection through piping systems, including piping systems with numerous piping bends therein, by using hydrostatic pressure of a working fluid introduced into the piping system. The apparatus comprises a reservoir or other source for supplying the working fluid to the piping system, a launch tube for admitting the device into the launcher and a reversible, positive displacement pump for controlling the direction and flow rate of the working fluid. The device introduced into the piping system moves with the flow of the working fluid through the piping system. The launcher attaches to the valved ends of a piping system so that fluids in the piping system can recirculate in a closed loop. The method comprises attaching the launcher to the piping system, supplying the launcher with working fluid, admitting the device into the launcher, pumping the working fluid in the direction and at the rate desired so that the device moves through the piping system for pipe cleaning or inspection, removing the device from the launcher, and collecting the working fluid contained in the launcher. 8 figs.

  16. Cigarettes and cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Burns, D M

    1991-12-01

    Tobacco use was widespread in the New World by the time of the first voyage of Columbus; however, it is only in the last century that the use of tobacco as cigarettes has been prevalent. The milder tobacco and more acidic smoke of cigarettes lead to the deeper inhalation of tobacco into the lung with resultant deposition and absorption of the addicting, toxic, and carcinogenic components of the smoke. More than 4000 individual constituents have been identified in cigarette smoke, and the relative concentrations of these constituents vary widely between brands of cigarettes. Tar yield, a measure of the total particulate matter of the smoke, varies markedly with the characteristics of the cigarette manufacture and with the pattern of inhalation. As a result, tar is not a good measure of the dose of toxic or carcinogenic agents received by the individual smoker. The particle size of cigarette smoke is in the range that will lead to deposition in the airways and alveoli of the lung, and many of the gas-phase constituents are absorbed across the alveolar capillary membrane. The irritant agents in the smoke cause acute and chronic changes in lung structure and function that may result in greater retention of carcinogens within the lung and increased vulnerability of the lung to the effects of these carcinogens. Carcinogens and other constituents of cigarette smoke are also absorbed into the blood and metabolized to active forms through microsomal enzyme systems induced by cigarette smoke. The cellular influx of neutrophils and alveolar macrophages that is part of the inflammatory response may be the precursor of the alveolar wall destruction that results in emphysema. The prevalence of smoking is not uniformly distributed across the population. Men began smoking in large numbers very early in the century, but women began to smoke in large number only at the time of the Second World War. Men born after 1930 have been less likely to take up smoking than their older counterparts. The prevalence of smoking is currently declining in both men and women. PMID:1747982

  17. The Collection of Ice in Jet A-1 Fuel Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, Thomas C.

    Ice collection and blockages in fuel systems have been of interest to the aerospace community since their discovery in the late 1950's when a B-52 crashed. A recent growth of interest was provoked by several incidents that occurred within the last few years. This study seeks to understand the underlying principles of ice growth in fuel flow systems. Tests were performed in a recirculated fuel system with a fuel tank that held approximately 115 gallons of Jet A-1 fuel and ice accumulation was observed in two removable test pipes. The setup was in an altitude chamber capable of -60 °F and the experiments involved full scale flow components. Initially, tests were done to better understand the system and variables that effected accumulation. First, initial conditions within the test pipes were varied. Next, pipe geometry, pipe surface properties, initial water content of the fuel and heat transfer from the fuel pipe were varied. As a result of the tests, observations were made about other effects involved in the study. The effects include: the result of sequentially run tests, the effect of the fuel on the freezing temperature of the entrained water, the effect of ice accumulation on pipe welds, and the effect of the test pipe entrance and exit flow conditions on ice accumulation. The results of initial tests were qualitative. Later quantitative tests were done to demonstrate the dependence of temperature, Reynolds number, and heat transfer on ice accumulation. Tests were quantified with a pressure increase across the pipe sections that was normalized by the expected theoretical initial pressure. As a result of these tests the effect of contamination in the fuel was revealed. For ease of reference, the initial tests were called "stage I" and the later tests were called "stage II". The results of stage I showed that accumulation of soft ice was greatest when a layer of hard ice had initially formed on the pipe surface. Stainless steel collected more ice than Teflon® and there was a lack of a preferential accumulation region downstream of a pipe bend. A greater heat transfer from the pipe increased ice accumulation for aluminum that was made rough with 80 grit sand paper, and for Teflon®. Water was shown to collect in the pipe system as the number of tests increased and the freeze temperature of either the hard or soft ice was about 0 °C. Finally, results of "stage I" tests showed that stainless steel pipe welds were a preferred sight for ice to accumulate. Repeatability was done first in stage II and the normalized pressure increase for two 3/42 un-insulated pipe tests were within 7%. Normalized pressure increase across a pipe was shown to increase as Reynolds number decreased. A 50% increase in Reynolds number led to a 40% decrease in characteristic normalized pressure increase (CNPI). Tests were done at three temperatures and ice accumulated the most at -11 °C. The CNPI at -11 °C was about three times greater than the CNPI at -7.4 °C and about sixty times greater than the CNPI at -19.4 C. A greater heat transfer from the fuel pipe increased ice accumulation. For the amount of time that the tests ran, the total normalized pressure increase was about .9 greater for an un-insulated pipe than for an insulated pipe. Contamination in the fuel increased the amount of soft ice that collected in the system. The CNPI for the more contaminated fuel was more than double the case with less contaminated fuel. Possible solutions for the prevention or decrease of ice accumulation in aircraft fuel systems based on the results of this study are insulated pipes, a change in the type of pipe material, a higher fuel flow rate and cleaner fuel. The fuel temperature could also be altered to avoid temperatures where the most ice accumulates.

  18. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A Review Abstract This report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  19. Need to Smoke in the Context of Workplace Smoking Bans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Borland; N. Owen

    1995-01-01

    Background. Workplace smoking bans are now widespread in a number of countries and are generally well accepted by smokers. Little is known about smokers who do not cope well with smoking bans. Method. A survey of 669 smokers was conducted 2 years after the introduction of a workplace smoking ban. Variables associated with four different levels of need to smoke

  20. Smoke movement and smoke control on merchant ships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Klote; R. H. Zile

    1982-01-01

    The basic concepts of smoke movement and smoke control with emphasis upon shipboard applicability are discussed. A report of simulated smoke movement tests performed on two merchant vessels is presented. Based upon these test results potential methods of smoke control for merchant vessels are discussed. Recommendations are made for future study.