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1

Comparison of Cigarette and Water-Pipe Smoking By Arab and Non-Arab-American Youth  

PubMed Central

Background Water-pipe smoking is a rapidly growing form of tobacco use worldwide. Building on an earlier report of experimentation with cigarette and water-pipe smoking in a U.S. community sample of Arab-American youth aged 14–18 years, this article examines water-pipe smoking in more detail (e.g., smoking history, belief in harmfulness compared to cigarettes, family members in home who smoke water pipes) and compares the water-pipe–smoking behaviors of Arab-American youth with non–Arab-American youth in the same community. Methods A convenience sample of 1872 Arab-American and non–Arab-American high school students from the Midwest completed a 24-item tobacco survey. Data were collected in 2004–2005 and analyzed in 2007–2008. Results Arab-American youth reported lower percentages of ever cigarette smoking (20% vs 39%); current cigarette smoking (7% vs 22%); and regular cigarette smoking (3% vs 15%) than non–Arab-American youth. In contrast, Arab-American youth reported significantly higher percentages of ever water-pipe smoking (38% vs 21%) and current water-pipe smoking (17% vs 11%) than non–Arab-American youth. Seventy-seven percent perceived water-pipe smoking to be as harmful as or more harmful than cigarette smoking. Logistic regression showed that youth were 11.0 times more likely to be currently smoking cigarettes if they currently smoked water pipes. Youth were also 11.0 times more likely to be current water-pipe smokers if they currently smoked cigarettes. If one or more family members smoked water pipes in the home, youth were 6.3 times more likely to be current water-pipe smokers. The effects of ethnicity were reduced as a result of the explanatory value of family smoking. Conclusions Further research is needed to determine the percentages, patterns, and health risks of water-pipe smoking and its relationship to cigarette smoking among all youth. Additionally, youth tobacco prevention/cessation programs need to focus attention on water-pipe smoking in order to further dispel the myth that water-pipe smoking is a safe alternative to cigarette smoking.

Weglicki, Linda S.; Templin, Thomas N.; Rice, Virginia Hill; Jamil, Hikmet; Hammad, Adnan

2008-01-01

2

Comparison of Nicotine and Carcinogen Exposure with Water pipe and Cigarette Smoking  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking tobacco preparations in a water pipe (hookah) is widespread in many places of the world and is perceived by many as relatively safe. We investigated biomarkers of toxicant exposure with water pipe compared to cigarette smoking. Methods We conducted a cross-over study to assess daily nicotine and carcinogen exposure with water pipe and cigarette smoking in 13 people who were experienced in using both products. Results While smoking an average of 3 water pipe sessions compared to smoking 11 cigarettes per day, water pipe use was associated with a significantly lower intake of nicotine, greater exposure to carbon monoxide and a different pattern of carcinogen exposure compared to cigarette smoking, with greater exposure to benzene and high molecular weight PAHs, but less exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines, 1,3-butadiene and acrolein, acrylonitrile, propylene oxide, ethylene oxide, and low molecular weight PAHs. Conclusions A different pattern of carcinogen exposure might result in a different cancer risk profile between cigarette and water pipe smoking. Of particular concern is the risk of leukemia related to high levels of benzene exposure with water pipe use. Impact Smoking tobacco in water pipes has gained popularity in the United States and around the world. Many believe that water pipe smoking is not addictive and less harmful than cigarette smoking. We provide data on toxicant exposure that will help guide regulation and public education regarding water pipe health risk.

Jacob, Peyton; Abu Raddaha, Ahmad H.; Dempsey, Delia; Havel, Christopher; Peng, Margaret; Yu, Lisa; Benowitz, Neal L.

2013-01-01

3

Water-Pipe Tobacco Smoking Among Middle and High School Students in Arizona  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Using a water pipe to smoke tobacco is increasing in prevalence among US college students, and it may also be common among younger adolescents. The purpose of this study of Arizona middle and high school students was to examine the prevalence of water-pipe tobacco smoking, compare water-pipe tobacco smoking with other forms of tobacco use, and determine associations between sociodemographic variables and water-pipe tobacco smoking in this population. METHODS We added items assessing water-pipe tobacco smoking to Arizona’s 2005 Youth Tobacco Survey and used them to estimate statewide water-pipe tobacco smoking prevalence among various demographic groups by using survey weights. We also used multiple logistic regression to determine which demographic characteristics had independent relationships with each of 2 outcomes: ever use of water-pipe to smoke tobacco and water-pipe tobacco smoking in the previous 30 days. RESULTS Median age of the sample was 14. Accounting for survey weights, among middle school students, 2.1% had ever smoked water-pipe tobacco and 1.4% had done so within the previous 30 days. Among those in high school, 10.3% had ever smoked from a water pipe and 5.4% had done so in the previous 30 days, making water-pipe tobacco smoking more common than use of smokeless tobacco, pipes, bidis, and kreteks (clove cigarettes). In multivariate analyses that controlled for covariates, ever smoking of water-pipe tobacco was associated with older age, Asian race, white race, charter school attendance, and lack of plans to attend college. CONCLUSIONS Among Arizona youth, water pipe is the third most common source of tobacco after cigarettes and cigars. Increased national surveillance and additional research will be important for addressing this threat to public health.

Primack, Brian A.; Walsh, Michele; Bryce, Cindy; Eissenberg, Thomas

2010-01-01

4

Carbon monoxide poisoning associated with water pipe smoking.  

PubMed

The water pipe is a means of tobacco consumption widespread in Turkey and Arab countries. We present two patients brought to our emergency department due to a syncopal attack secondary to carbon monoxide toxicity following water pipe use. This rare form of poisoning should be borne in mind by emergency physicians as a differential diagnosis in water pipe smokers. Water pipes should be used where there is adequate ventilation. PMID:21819288

Türkmen, Süha; Eryigit, Umut; Sahin, Aynur; Yeniocak, Selman; Turedi, Suleyman

2011-08-01

5

Smoke Production of Nonmetallic Pipes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The smoke production of nonmetallic pipes was investigated using 'Test Method for Specific Optical Density of Smoke Generated by Solid Materials,' ASTM E 662. The pipe samples consisted of two epoxy resin glass reinforced pipes, two vinyl ester resin glas...

W. H. McLain L. Nash

1995-01-01

6

Cigarette, Water-pipe, and Medwakh Smoking Prevalence Among Applicants to Abu Dhabi's Pre-marital Screening Program, 2011  

PubMed Central

Background: This study assesses self-reported tobacco use prevalence (cigarette, water-pipe, and medwakh) among applicants to Abu Dhabi's Premarital Screening program during 2011. Methods: Premarital Screening data reported to the Health Authority – Abu Dhabi from April to December 2011 were utilized to estimate tobacco use prevalence among applicants. Smoking prevalence was examined by nationality, age group and gender. Results: Overall, 24.7% of Premarital Screening Program applicants were current smokers; 11.5% smoked cigarettes, 5.9% smoked medwakh (hand-held pipe), 4.8% smoked water-pipe and 2.5% smoked a combination (more than one type). Men (19.2%) were more likely than women (3.5%) to be current cigarette smokers. Women were much less likely to smoke medwakh (0.1%) than men (11.5%), with male UAE Nationals having the highest medwakh smoking prevalence (16.1%). The overall prevalence of water-pipe smoking was 6.8% among men and 2.8% for women with the highest water-pipe smoking prevalence (10.2%) among Arab expatriate men. Conclusions: Variations in tobacco use prevalence among Premarital Screening Program applicants reflect preferences for different modes of tobacco consumption by nationality, age group and gender. Enforcement of tobacco control laws, including implementation of clean indoor air laws and tobacco tax increases, and targeted health education programs are required to reduce tobacco consumption and concomitant tobacco-related morbidity and mortality.

Aden, Bashir; Karrar, Sara; Shafey, Omar; Al Hosni, Farida

2013-01-01

7

Water-Pipe Smoking and Metabolic Syndrome: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Water-pipe (WP) smoking has significantly increased in the last decade worldwide. Compelling evidence suggests that the toxicants in WP smoke are similar to that of cigarette smoke. The WP smoking in a single session could have acute harmful health effects even worse than cigarette smoking. However, there is no evidence as such on long term WP smoking and its impact on chronic health conditions particularly cardiovascular and metabolic conditions. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate the relationship between WP smoking and metabolic syndrome (MetS). This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Punjab province of Pakistan using the baseline data of a population-based study – Urban Rural Chronic Diseases Study (URCDS). Information was collected by trained nurses regarding the socio-demographic profile, lifestyle factors including WP smoking, current and past illnesses. A blood sample was obtained for measurement of complete blood count, lipid profile and fasting glucose level. MetS was ascertained by using the International Diabetic Federation’s criteria. We carried out multiple logistic regressions to investigate the association between WP smoking and MetS. Final sample included 2,032 individuals – of those 325 (16.0%) were current WP smokers. Age adjusted-prevalence of MetS was significantly higher among current WP smokers (33.1%) compared with non-smokers (14.8%). Water-pipe smokers were three times more likely to have MetS (OR 3.21, 95% CI 2.38–4.33) compared with non-smokers after adjustment for age, sex and social class. WP smokers were significantly more likely to have hypertriglyceridemia (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.25–2.10), hyperglycaemia (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.37–2.41), Hypertension (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.51–2.51) and abdominal obesity (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.52–2.45). However, there were no significant differences in HDL level between WP smokers and non-smokers. This study suggests that WP smoking has a significant positive (harmful) relationship with MetS and its components.

Shafique, Kashif; Mirza, Saira Saeed; Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Arain, Zain Islam; Khan, Naveed Ahmed; Tareen, Muhammad Farooq; Ahmad, Ishtiaque

2012-01-01

8

Water-Pipe Smoking and Albuminuria: New Dog with Old Tricks  

PubMed Central

Water-pipe (WP) smoking is on rise worldwide for the past few years, particularly among younger individuals. Growing evidence indicates that WP smoking is as harmful as cigarette smoking. To date, most of the research has focused on acute health effects of WP smoking, and evidence remains limited when it comes to chronic health effects in relation to long-term WP smoking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between WP smoking and albuminuria in apparently healthy individuals. This analysis was conducted on data of a population-based cross-sectional study—the Urban Rural Chronic Diseases Study (URCDS). The study sample was recruited from three sites in Pakistan. Trained nurses carried out individual interviews and obtained the information on demographics, lifestyle factors, and past and current medical history. Measurements of complete blood count, lipid profile, fasting glucose level, and 24-hour albuminuria were also made by using blood and urine samples. Albumin excretion was classified into three categories using standard cut-offs: normal excretion, high-normal excretion and microalbuminuria. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between WP smoking and albuminuria. The final analysis included data from 1,626 health individuals, of which 829 (51.0%) were males and 797 (49.0%) females. Of 1,626 individuals, 267 (16.4%) were current WP smokers and 1,359 (83.6%) were non-WP smokers. WP smoking was significantly associated with high-normal albuminuria (OR ?=? 2.33, 95% CI 1.68-3.22, p-value <0.001) and microalbuminuria (OR ?=? 1.75, 95% CI 1.18-2.58, p-value 0.005) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, social class, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. WP smoking was significantly associated with high-normal albuminuria and microalbuminuria when analysis was stratified on hypertension and diabetes mellitus categories. WP smoking has a strong association with albuminuria in apparently healthy individuals. More research is warranted to evaluate the temporality of this association between WP smoking and albuminuria.

Ishtiaque, Iqra; Shafique, Kashif; Ul-Haq, Zia; Shaikh, Abdul Rauf; Khan, Naveed Ali; Memon, Abdul Rauf; Mirza, Saira Saeed; Ishtiaque, Afra

2014-01-01

9

Experimentation with and knowledge regarding water-pipe tobacco smoking among medical students at a major university in Brazil*, **  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Water-pipe tobacco smoking is becoming increasingly more common among young people. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the use of water pipes and other forms of tobacco use, including cigarette smoking, among medical students, as well as to examine the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of those students regarding this issue. METHODS: We administered a questionnaire to students enrolled in the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, in São Paulo, Brazil. The respondents were evaluated in their third and sixth years of medical school, between 2008 and 2013. Comparisons were drawn between the two years. RESULTS: We evaluated 586 completed questionnaires. Overall, the prevalence of current cigarette smokers was low, with a decline among males (9.78% vs. 5.26%) and an increase among females (1.43% vs. 2.65%) in the 3rd and 6th year, respectively. All respondents believed that health professionals should advise patients to quit smoking. However, few of the medical students who smoked received physician advice to quit. Experimentation with other forms of tobacco use was more common among males (p<0.0001). Despite their knowledge of its harmful effects, students experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking in high proportions (47.32% and 46.75% of the third- and sixth-year students, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of experimentation with water-pipe tobacco smoking and other forms of tobacco use is high among aspiring physicians. Our findings highlight the need for better preventive education programs at medical schools, not only to protect the health of aspiring physicians but also to help them meet the challenge posed by this new epidemic.

Martins, Stella Regina; Paceli, Renato Batista; Bussacos, Marco Antonio; Fernandes, Frederico Leon Arrabal; Prado, Gustavo Faibischew; Lombardi, Elisa Maria Siqueira; Terra-Filho, Mario; Santos, Ubiratan Paula

2014-01-01

10

A critique of recent hypotheses on oral (and lung) cancer induced by water pipe (hookah, shisha, narghile) tobacco smoking.  

PubMed

The medical hypothesis that the mainstream smoke (the one inhaled by the user) from "water pipes" (mainly: shisha, hookah, narghile) causes oral cancer is certainly acceptable. However, most of the recent reviews on this issue, including an attempt to develop an hypothesis for hookah carcinogenesis, have not cited key references of the world available literature which, so far, generally do not support such an hypothesis. Besides, the proposal is biased since it is apparently an adaptation of the cigarette model whereas cigarette and hookah smokes are, chemically to start with, completely different. Furthermore, all water pipes, despite their striking varieties and the consequences on the chemical processes, are, according to the same cancer-hypothesis, considered as one. The reason is the use, in the cited mainstream literature, of a nominalism ("waterpipe", often in one word) which does not allow any distinction between devices. This critical article suggests to take into account all the peculiar characteristics into consideration in order to come up with another (or several other) carcinogenesis model(s). "Firmly believ[ing] that water pipe smoking can provoke lung cancer as well as oral cancer", based on what may be seen as a rather reductionist view of the issue, is not enough. PMID:20036075

Chaouachi, Kamal; Sajid, Khan Mohammad

2010-05-01

11

Smoking water-pipe, chewing nass, and prevalence of heart disease - A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Golestan Cohort Study, Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective Water-pipe and smokeless tobacco use have been associated with several adverse health outcomes. However, little information is available on the association between water-pipe use and heart disease (HD). Therefore, we investigated the association of smoking water-pipe and chewing nass (a mixture of tobacco, lime, and ash) with prevalent HD. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Baseline data (collected in 2004–2008) from a prospective population-based study in Golestan Province, Iran. Participants 50,045 residents of Golestan (40–75 years old; 42.4% male). Main outcome measures ORs and 95% CIs from multivariate logistic regression models for the association of water-pipe and nass use with HD prevalence. Results A total of 3051 (6.1%) participants reported a history of HD, and 525 (1.1%) and 3726 (7.5%) reported ever water-pipe or nass use, respectively. Heavy water-pipe smoking was significantly associated with HD prevalence (highest level of cumulative use versus never use, OR= 3.75; 95% CI 1.52 – 9.22; P for trend= 0.04). This association persisted when using different cutoff points, when restricting HD to those taking nitrate compound medications, and among never cigarette smokers. There was no significant association between nass use and HD prevalence (highest category of use versus never use, OR= 0.91; 95% CI 0.69 – 1.20). Conclusions Our study suggests a significant association between HD and heavy water-pipe smoking. Although the existing evidence suggesting similar biological consequences of water-pipe and cigarette smoking make this association plausible, results of our study were based on a modest number of water-pipe users and need to be replicated in further studies.

Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Poustchi, Hossein; Kamangar, Farin; Golozar, Asieh; Etemadi, Arash; Khademi, Hooman; Freedman, Neal D.; Merat, Shahin; Garg, Vaani; Fuster, Valentin; Wakefield, Jon; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Pharoah, Paul; Brennan, Paul; Abnet, Christian C.; Malekzadeh, Reza; Boffetta, Paolo

2013-01-01

12

49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230...Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. The smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts...

2013-10-01

13

49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230.63...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box,...

2009-10-01

14

49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230.63...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box,...

2010-10-01

15

Intermediate Temperature Water Heat Pipe Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. Water heat pipes are explored in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to above 500 K. The thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of water are reviewed in this temperature range. Test Data are reported for a copper-water heat pipe. The heat pipe was tested under different orientations. Water heat pipes show promise in this temperature range.Fabrication and testing issues are being addressed.

Devarakonda, Angirasa; Xiong, Daxi; Beach, Duane E.

2004-01-01

16

Carbon monoxide poisoning in narghile (water pipe) tobacco smokers.  

PubMed

Narghile (water pipe, hookah, shisha, goza, hubble bubble, argeela) is a traditional method of tobacco use. In recent years, its use has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Narghile smoking, compared to cigarette smoking, can result in more smoke exposure and greater levels of carbon monoxide (CO). We present an acutely confused adolescent patient who had CO poisoning after narghile tobacco smoking. She presented with syncope and a carboxyhemoglobin level of 24% and was treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Five additional cases of CO poisoning after narghile smoking were identified during a literature search, with carboxyhemoglobin levels of 20 to 30%. Each patient was treated with oxygen supplementation and did well clinically. In light of the increasing popularity of narghile smoking, young patients presenting with unexplained confusion or nonspecific neurologic symptoms should be asked specifically about this exposure, followed by carboxyhemoglobin measurement. PMID:22417961

La Fauci, Giovanna; Weiser, Giora; Steiner, Ivan P; Shavit, Itai

2012-01-01

17

Hydrogen gas generation in water heat pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water heat pipes were fabricated from 316, 347, and 430 stainless steel, Monel 400, CDA 715, Inconel 600, and Incoloy 800. All of these materials generated varying amounts of hydrogen gas during the first few days of operation. However, as the heat pipes continued to operate, the amount of gas in each heat pipe, excluding 430 stainless steel, decreased by

G. F. Pittinato

1978-01-01

18

High Temperature Water Heat Pipe Life Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA is interested in Brayton cycle converters for both nuclear powered spacecraft, and lunar/Mars missions. The radiator to dissipate the waste heat will operate at temperatures in the 400-550 K range. To date, nearly all space radiator systems have used aluminum heat pipes with ammonia working fluid, but these heat pipes are not suitable in the higher temperature range. A Graphite Fiber Reinforced Composites (GFRC) radiator with high temperature water heat pipes is currently under development. Previous short-term life tests indicated that water would be compatible with titanium and Monel heat pipes. This paper presents the results to date of heat pipe life tests with commercially pure titanium, titanium alloys, as well as Monel K500 and Monel 400. To date, the life test pipes have operated successfully at 500 and 550 K. The Monel and CP-Titanium pipes have operated for 11,800 hours, while the titanium alloy pipes have operated for 3,300 hours. The life tests are ongoing.

Anderson, William G.; Dussinger, Peter M.; Sarraf, David

2006-01-01

19

Water driven turbine/brush pipe cleaner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assemblies are disclosed for cleaning the inside walls of pipes and tubes. A first embodiment includes a small turbine with angled blades axially mounted on one end of a standoff support. An O-ring for stabilizing the assembly within the pipe is mounted in a groove within the outer ring. A replaceable circular brush is fixedly mounted on the opposite end of the standoff support and can be used for cleaning tubes and pipes of various diameters, lengths and configurations. The turbine, standoff support, and brush spin in unison relative to a hub bearing that is fixedly attached to a wire upstream of the assembly. The nonrotating wire is for retaining the assembly in tension and enabling return of the assembly to the pipe entrance. The assembly is initially placed in the pipe or tube to be cleaned. A pressurized water or solution source is provided at a required flow-rate to propel the assembly through the pipe or tube. The upstream water pressure propels and spins the turbine, standoff support and brush. The rotating brush combined with the solution cleans the inside of the pipe. The solution flows out of the other end of the pipe with the brush rotation controlled by the flow-rate. A second embodiment is similar to the first embodiment but instead includes a circular shaped brush with ring backing mounted in the groove of the exterior ring of the turbine, and also reduces the size of the standoff support or eliminates the standoff support.

Werlink, Rudy J.

1995-04-01

20

Water driven turbine/brush pipe cleaner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assemblies are disclosed for cleaning the inside walls of pipes and tubes. A first embodiment includes a small turbine with angled blades axially mounted on one end of a standoff support. An O-ring for stabilizing the assembly within the pipe is mounted in a groove within the outer ring. A replaceable circular brush is fixedly mounted on the opposite end of the standoff support and can be used for cleaning tubes and pipes of various diameters, lengths and configurations. The turbine, standoff support, and brush spin in unison relative to a hub bearing that is fixedly attached to a wire upstream of the assembly. The nonrotating wire is for retaining the assembly in tension and enabling return of the assembly to the pipe entrance. The assembly is initially placed in the pipe or tube to be cleaned. A pressurized water or solution source is provided at a required flow-rate to propel the assembly through the pipe or tube. The upstream water pressure propels and spins the turbine, standoff support and brush. The rotating brush combined with the solution cleans the inside of the pipe. The solution flows out of the other end of the pipe with the brush rotation controlled by the flow-rate. A second embodiment is similar to the first embodiment but instead includes a circular shaped brush with ring backing mounted in the groove of the exterior ring of the turbine, and also reduces the size of the standoff support or eliminates the standoff support.

Werlink, Rudy J. (inventor)

1995-01-01

21

Active heat pipe solar water heating system  

SciTech Connect

An ''active heat pipe'' solar water heating system is described. In its primary mode it transfers solar radiation energy from a high temperature solar evaporator to a low temperature water storage tank. For this mode to work properly, refrigerant must be circulated by a variable speed pump/compressor. It is expected that this system will offer better efficiency than conventional solar water systems and heat pump water heaters. This paper summarizes the benefits of active refrigeration cycle control and presents some simulation results comparing active heat pipe solar water heating systems to conventional systems.

Yoshino, H.; Kasayi, H.; Otsuka, N.; Thompson, P.

1983-08-01

22

Thermal Performance of High Temperature Titanium -- Water Heat Pipes by Multiple Heat Pipe Manufacturers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Titanium - water heat pipes are being investigated for use in heat rejection systems for lunar and Mars fission surface power systems. Heat pipes provide an efficient and reliable means to transfer heat to a radiator heat rejection system. NASA Glenn Research Center requisitioned nine titanium water heat pipes from three vendors. Each vendor supplied three heat pipes 1.25 cm diameter by 1.1 meter long with each vendor selecting a different wick design. Each of the three heat pipes is slightly different in construction. Additional specifications for the heat pipes included 500 K nominal operating temperature, light weight, and freeze tolerance. The heat pipes were performance tested gravity-aided, in the horizontal position and at elevations against gravity at 450 K and 500 K. Performance of the three heat pipes is compared. The heat pipe data will be used to verify models of heat pipe radiators that will be used in future space exploration missions.

Sanzi, James L.

2007-01-01

23

Thermal Performance of High Temperature Titanium - Water Heat Pipes by Multiple Heat Pipe Manufacturers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium - water heat pipes are being investigated for use in heat rejection systems for lunar and Mars fission surface power systems. Heat pipes provide an efficient and reliable means to transfer heat to a radiator heat rejection system. NASA Glenn Research Center requisitioned nine titanium water heat pipes from three vendors. Each vendor supplied three heat pipes 1.25 cm diameter by 1.1 meter long with each vendor selecting a different wick design. Each of the three heat pipes is slightly different in construction. Additional specifications for the heat pipes included 500 K nominal operating temperature, light weight, and freeze tolerance. The heat pipes were performance tested gravity aided, in the horizontal position and elevations against gravity at 450 K and 500 K. Performance of the three heat pipes is compared. The heat pipe data will be used to verify models of heat pipe radiators that will be used in future space exploration missions.

Sanzi, James L.

2007-01-01

24

Mortality in relation to cigarette and pipe smoking: 16 years' observation of 25,000 Swedish men  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a random sample of 25,129 Swedish men who responded to a questionnaire on smoking habits in 1963 the cause specific mortality was followed through 1979. In the cohort, 32% smoked cigarettes, 27% a pipe, and 5% cigars. There were clear covariations (p less than 0.001) between the amount of tobacco smoked and the risk of death due to cancer

J M Carstensen; G Pershagen; G Eklund

1987-01-01

25

An assessment model of water pipe condition using Bayesian inference  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate understanding of the condition of a pipe is important for maintaining acceptable levels of service and providing\\u000a appropriate strategies for maintenance and rehabilitation in water supply systems. Many factors contribute to pipe deterioration.\\u000a To consolidate information on these factors to assess the condition of water pipes, this study employed a new approach based\\u000a on Bayesian configuration against pipe

Chen-wan Wang; Zhi-guang Niu; Hui Jia; Hong-wei Zhang

2010-01-01

26

PIPING FOR COOLANT WATER IS INSTALLED INSIDE REACTOR STRUCTURE PRIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PIPING FOR COOLANT WATER IS INSTALLED INSIDE REACTOR STRUCTURE PRIOR TO EMBEDMENT IN CONCRETE. HIGHER PIPE IS INLET; THE OTHER, THE OUTLET LOOP. INLET PIPE WILL CONNECT TO TOP SECTION OF REACTOR VESSEL. INL NEGATIVE NO. 1287. Unknown Photographer, 1/18/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

27

Mineralogical Evidence of Galvanic Corrosion in Domestic, Drinking Water Pipes  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking water distribution system (DWDS) piping contains numerous examples of galvanically-coupled metals (e.g., soldered copper pipe joints, copper-lead pipes joined during partial replacements of lead service lines). The possible role of galvanic corrosion in the release of l...

28

Prospective study of effect of switching from cigarettes to pipes or cigars on mortality from three smoking related diseases.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent to which cigarette smokers who switch to cigars or pipes alter their risk of dying of three-smoking related diseases-lung cancer, ischaemic heart disease, and chronic obstructive lung disease. DESIGN: A prospective study of 21520 men aged 35-64 years when recruited in 1975-82 with detailed history of smoking and measurement of carboxyhaemoglobin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Notification of deaths (to 1993) classified by cause. RESULTS: Pipe and cigar smokers who had switched from cigarettes over 20 years before entry to the study smoked less tobacco than cigarette smokers (8.1 g/day v 20 g/day), but they had the same consumption as pipe and cigar smokers who had never smoked cigarettes (8.1 g) and had higher carboxyhaemoglobin saturations (1.2% v 1.0%, P < 0.001), indicating that they inhaled tobacco smoke to a greater extent. They had a 51% higher risk of dying of the three smoking related diseases than pipe or cigar smokers who had never smoked cigarettes (relative risk 1.51; 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 2.38), a 68% higher risk than lifelong non-smokers (1.68; 1.16 to 2.45), a 57% higher risk than former cigarette smokers who gave up smoking over 20 years before entry (1.57; 1.04 to 2.38), and a 46% lower risk than continuing cigarette smokers (0.54; 0.38 to 0.77). CONCLUSION: Cigarette smokers who have difficulty in giving up smoking altogether are better off changing to cigars or pipes than continuing to smoke cigarettes. Much of the effect is due to the reduction in the quantity of tobacco smoked, and some is due to inhaling less. Men who switch do not, however, achieve the lower risk of pipe and cigar smokers who have never smoked cigarettes. All pipe and cigar smokers have a greater risk of lung cancer than lifelong non-smokers or former smokers.

Wald, N. J.; Watt, H. C.

1997-01-01

29

ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), HEADER BYPASS PIPE (AT RIGHT), AND PUMPHOUSE FOUNDATIONS. Looking northeast - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

30

Flow Separation Conditions at Pipe Walls of Water Distribution Mains,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biofilm formations on pipe walls have been found in potable water distribution mains. The biofilm layers contribute to accelerated corrosion rates, increased flow resistance, and formation of encrustations that may deteriorate drinking water quality. Rese...

R. G. Eilers R. M. Clark

1988-01-01

31

Metallurgical investigation of material from chill-water piping system  

SciTech Connect

The mechanical properties and microstructures of two steel pipes that were removed from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) chill-water system have been studied. Concerns for low-stress failure of aging pipes prompted a metallurgical investigation to determine the risk of using a cryogenic freeze-plug technique to isolate a section of piping for repair. The two pipes, designated S and L, were low-alloy carbon steel, with microstructures of ferrite and pearlite. Pipe S had a small grain size and a banded microstructure, whereas pipe L had a larger grain size with less pearlite, which was randomly spaced. Pipe S had a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of 0{degree}C, compared to 84{degree}C for pipe L. Because of the high transition temperature and the very low level of the lower shelf, cooling to liquid-nitrogen temperature resulted in a very small margin of safety for these pipes. Therefore, this technique is not recommended for the pipe materials, and caution is advised in applying this technique to any pipe with unknown toughness properties. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Alexander, D.J.

1990-02-01

32

Reactor process water (PW) piping inspections, 1984--1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July 1983, the NRC ordered the shutdown of five boiling water reactors (BWR`s) because of concerns about reliability of ultrasonic examination for detecting intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). These concerns arose because of leaking piping at Niagara Mohawk`s Nine Mile Point which was attributed to IGSCC. The leaks were detected shortly after completion of ultrasonic examinations of the piping.

W. S. Ehrhart; J. B. Elder; R. E. Sprayberry; R. W. Vande Kamp

1990-01-01

33

Reactor process water (PW) piping inspections, 1984--1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July 1983, the NRC ordered the shutdown of five boiling water reactors (BWR's) because of concerns about reliability of ultrasonic examination for detecting intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). These concerns arose because of leaking piping at Niagara Mohawk's Nine Mile Point which was attributed to IGSCC. The leaks were detected shortly after completion of ultrasonic examinations of the piping.

W. S. Ehrhart; J. B. Elder; R. E. Sprayberry; R. W. Vande Kamp

1990-01-01

34

New system for inspecting shallow-water pipe burial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several years there have been a number of incidents where fishing boats struck underwater pipe lines in the shallow, near-shore waters of the Gulf of Mexico. In most cases, the major cause of these incidents has been inadequate pipe line cover. The two most severe accidents occurred in 1987 and 1989. In 1987, the fishing vessel, Sea

Caldwell

1991-01-01

35

High Temperature Water Heat Pipe Life Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA is interested in Brayton cycle converters for both nuclear powered spacecraft, and lunar\\/Mars missions. The radiator to dissipate the waste heat will operate at temperatures in the 400-550 K range. To date, nearly all space radiator systems have used aluminum heat pipes with ammonia working fluid, but these heat pipes are not suitable in the higher temperature range. A

William G. Anderson; Peter M. Dussinger; David Sarraf

2006-01-01

36

High Temperature Water Heat Pipe Life Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA is interested in Brayton cycle converters for both nuclear powered spacecraft, and lunar\\/Mars missions. The radiator to dissipate the waste heat will operate at temperatures in the 400–550 K range. To date, nearly all space radiator systems have used aluminum heat pipes with ammonia working fluid, but these heat pipes are not suitable in the higher temperature range. A

William G. Anderson; Peter M. Dussinger; David Sarraf

2006-01-01

37

68. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER PIPES FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

68. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER PIPES FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. INTERIOR OF CAST HOUSE LOOKING NORTH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

38

Reactor process water (PW) piping inspections, 1984--1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In July 1983, the NRC ordered the shutdown of five boiling water reactors (BWR's) because of concerns about reliability of ultrasonic examination for detecting intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). These concerns arose because of leaking piping...

W. S. Ehrhart J. B. Elder R. E. Sprayberry R. W. Vande Kamp

1990-01-01

39

68. Water Delivery Pipes for Menzie Cone, date unknown Historic ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

68. Water Delivery Pipes for Menzie Cone, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

40

OTEC Cold Water Pipe: Program, Problems, and Procedures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this presentation is to provide a comprehensive overview of the OTEC Cold Water Pipe program. The overview includes a discussion of the technical problems being addressed, the rationale behind the technology development program, and the ana...

T. McGuinness R. S. Scotti

1980-01-01

41

132. Credit JTL. Smaller feeder pipes collecting seepage and water ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

132. Credit JTL. Smaller feeder pipes collecting seepage and water from springs for the Eagle Canyon flume. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

42

Report of ad hoc OTEC cold water pipe committee  

SciTech Connect

Now that the design work on the pilot plant is scheduled to start in the near future, DOE has considered it essential that an overall look be taken at the cold water pipe design process. The VSE Corporation, in its role as a support contractor to DOE, was tasked to organize a small study group to answer the question, Where do we stand on the verification of the computer models of the cold water pipe response by experimental measurements. The committee has studied all the available results of the cold water pipe development program. This report summarizes those results. The development and present capabilities of the computer programs used to calculate the response of a cold water pipe attached to a platform under known at-sea conditions are discussed. The various cold water pipe designs that have been done using the computer programs are summarized. The experiments that have been conducted up to the present time to measure the response of cold water pipes at-sea and in experimental tanks are described. The results of these experiments are presented. The experimental results are compared with the predictions made with the analytical computer programs. Conclusions drawn as a result of this analysis are presented and some recommendations are made. (WHK)

Barr, R.; Giannotti, J.; Deuchler, W.; Scotti, R.; Stadter, J.; Walsh, J. P.; Weiss, R.

1980-02-01

43

The lead industry and lead water pipes "A Modest Campaign".  

PubMed

Lead pipes for carrying drinking water were well recognized as a cause of lead poisoning by the late 1800s in the United States. By the 1920s, many cities and towns were prohibiting or restricting their use. To combat this trend, the lead industry carried out a prolonged and effective campaign to promote the use of lead pipes. Led by the Lead Industries Association (LIA), representatives were sent to speak with plumbers' organizations, local water authorities, architects, and federal officials. The LIA also published numerous articles and books that extolled the advantages of lead over other materials and gave practical advice on the installation and repair of lead pipes. The LIA's activities over several decades therefore contributed to the present-day public health and economic cost of lead water pipes. PMID:18633098

Rabin, Richard

2008-09-01

44

Design, Baseline Results of Irbid Longitudinal, School-Based Smoking Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare patterns of water pipe and cigarette smoking in an eastern Mediterranean country. Methods: In 2008, 1781 out of 1877 seventh graders enrolled in 19 randomly selected schools in Irbid, Jordan, were surveyed. Results: Experimentation with and current water pipe smoking were more prevalent than cigarette smoking (boys: 38.7% vs…

Mzayek, Fawaz; Khader, Yousef; Eissenberg, Thomas; Ward, Kenneth D.; Maziak, Wasim

2011-01-01

45

Contamination of piped medical gas supply with water.  

PubMed

The failure of anaesthetic equipment as a result of maintenance is extremely rare. The ingress of water into the flowmeters of an anaesthetic machine from the piped medical air supply is reported and is possibly unique. The piped medical air supply was open to the atmosphere during maintenance. Water condensed in the gas pipeline and this was not noticed during subsequent testing. Water was seen leaking from the orthopaedic air tools used for surgery but was assumed to be from the autoclaving process. Later the same day, when medical air from the piped source was used as part of the gas mixture for a general anaesthetic, water was seen filling the barrel of the flowmeter air control valve. This could have had far-reaching and dangerous consequences for the patient, which were fortunately averted. PMID:10998035

Hay, H

2000-08-01

46

Influence of Pipe Quality on Corrosion of Galvanized Steel Pipes for Domestic Water Supply.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments were made for the purpose of comparing corrosion in galvanized pipes of eight different makes in hot and cold domestic water. Fittings of two makes and two methods of jointing were also compared. Experiments were made throughout a period of 15...

F. Yding K. Nielsen

1982-01-01

47

Automated detection of surface defects in water and sewer pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automation is gaining momentum in industry, particularly in rehabilitation and inspection works of underground infrastructure facilities. This paper describes a model for automating inspection and identification of surface defects in underground water and sewer pipes. The paper describes the current efforts in identification of surface defects in underground water and sewer mains, and presents an automated system designed to assist

Osama Moselhi; Tariq Shehab-Eldeen

1999-01-01

48

CHARACTERIZING PIPE WALL DEMAND: IMPLICATIONS FOR WATER QUALITY MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

It has become generally accepted that water quality can deteriorate in a distribution system through reactions in the bulk phase and/or at the pipe wall. These reactions may be physical, chemical or microbiological in nature. Perhaps one of the most serious aspects of water qua...

49

12. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes and pump ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes and pump in heater room. View to W - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

50

High Temperature Titanium-Water Heat Pipe Radiator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space nuclear systems require large area radiators to reject the unconverted heat to space. System optimizations with Brayton cycles lead to radiators with radiator temperatures in the 400 to 550 K range. To date, nearly all space radiator systems have used aluminum/ammonia heat pipes but these components cannot function at the required temperatures. A Graphite Fiber Reinforced Composites (GFRC) radiator with high temperature water heat pipes is currently under development. High temperature GFRC materials have been selected, and will be tested for thermal conductivity and structural properties. Titanium/water and Titanium/Monel heat pipes have been successfully operated at temperatures up to 550 K. Titanium was selected as the baseline envelope material, due to its lower mass and previous experience with bonding titanium into honeycomb panels. Heat pipes were fabricated with a number of different wick designs, including slab and grooved wicks. Since titanium cannot be extruded, the grooves are being fabricated in sintered titanium powder. The paper reports on the radiator design, materials selection, heat pipe to fin bonding, heat pipe design, and experimental results.

Anderson, William G.; Bonner, Richard; Hartenstine, John; Barth, Jim

2006-01-01

51

Lead Water Pipes and Infant Mortality at the Turn of the Twentieth Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1897, about half of all American municipalities used lead pipes to distribute water. Employing data from Massachusetts, this paper compares infant death rates in cities that used lead water pipes to rates in cities that used nonlead pipes. In the average town in 1900, the use of lead pipes increased infant mortality by 25 to 50 percent.…

Troesken, Werner

2008-01-01

52

Volatile organic components migrating from plastic pipes (HDPE, PEX and PVC) into drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-density polyethylene pipes (HDPE), crossbonded polyethylene pipes (PEX) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes for drinking water were tested with respect to migration of volatile organic components (VOC) to water. The odour of water in contact with plastic pipes was assessed according to the quantitative threshold odour number (TON) concept. A major migrating component from HDPE pipes was 2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenol (2,4-DTBP) which

Ingun Skjevrak; Anne Due; Karl Olav Gjerstad; Hallgeir Herikstad

2003-01-01

53

Lifetest investigations with stainless steel/water heat pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life tests were conducted on water heat pipes, made from four different alloys of stainless steel, at operation temperatures of 120, 160, 220, and 320 C in a reflux boiler mode for more than 20,000 hr. Other parameters varied during the tests included capillary structure, pretreatment and cleaning of the components, additional oxidation of the inner surface, filling procedures, amoung of liquid change, the number of ventings, and the duration of the reaction runs. The best results were obtained with pipes containing stainless steels with molybdenum alloy additions and with carbon contents of greater than 0.03%; with components which formed a protective surface layer; with the use of double-distilled water that had been ultrasonically degassed; with repeated ventings during the initial reaction run of 500 hr minimum duration; and with the addition of gaseous oxygen into the heat pipe during the reaction run with subsequent venting.

Muenzel, W. D.; Kraehling, H.

54

Corrosion of underground water pipes due to acidification of soil and groundwater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The anthropogenic acidification creates changes of soil and groundwater that may contribute to increased corrosion of water pipe systems, buried in the ground. Investigations on the influence of acidification on corrosion of underground water pipes are be...

E. Levlin

1992-01-01

55

Acoustic Propagation in a Water-Filled Cylindrical Pipe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was concerned with the physics of the propagation of a tone burst of high frequency sound in a steel water-filled pipe. The choice of the pulse was rather arbitrary, so that this work in no way can be considered as recommending a particular pul...

E. J. Sullivan J. V. Candy

2003-01-01

56

Polyurethane Elastomer Coated Steel Pipe for Water Service.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bitumen coatings have been utilized for the external protection of steel pipes for water service. It is, however, suggested that bitumen coatings are too soft in summer and too brittle in winter to deal with. New coatings are, therefore, in demand to repl...

T. Takamatsu M. Ishida K. Suzuki Y. Shindo F. Ohtsuki

1984-01-01

57

Frost Protection of Buried Water and Sewage Pipes. Three Articles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two of the articles in this report discuss frost prevention for privately owned water and sewage pipes laid shallow (above the frost penetration level) in bedrock type terrain. The third article contains frost load data in tabular form for all communities...

P. Gunderson

1978-01-01

58

The elimination or control of material problems in water heat pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several different concepts for using solar energy involve the use of heat pipes to transport energy within the systems. Two 347 SS water heat pipes measuring 86.5 cm long were fabricated with one of the pipes containing a 200 mesh 347 SS screen wick. Fourteen additional heat pipes measuring 76 cm long were also fabricated, two from each of the

G. F. Pittinato

1974-01-01

59

THE BEHAVIOR OF ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPE UNDER VARIOUS WATER QUALITY CONDITIONS: A PROGRESS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Asbestos-cement pipe has had a reputation for resisting attack by aggressive waters that cause corrosion of metal pipe materials. The results of this study suggest that asbestos-cement pipe behaves much like other piping materials, except PVC, that are commonly used for potable w...

60

Lightweight concrete OTEC cold water pipe tests, phase 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A one third scale model of a cold water pipe (CWP) for a 40 MW/sub ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plantship was constructed of reinforced lightweight concrete and tested to destruction. Failure occurred at approximately 138 percent of the design load for the once in 100 year storm condition in the Atlantic-1 siting area. The concept of using Neoprene bearing pads to provide flexibility of the joint between pipe segments was also verified. Measured deflections and stresses generally agreed with computer generated predictions and validated the design methods used. It is indicated that a light weight concrete CWP can be built with conventional material, and processes.

Oconnor, J. S.

1981-03-01

61

Water-Saving Study of Urban Domestic Water Based on the Flow Pipe Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waste of domestic water causes the waste of water resource and the increasing sanitary sewage generated. To make the necessary reductions in the volumes of water used and wastewater generated, the water-saving study of urban domestic water based on the optimization design of flow pipe was performed at laboratory scale. Dynamics of the two-dimensional flow in siphonic water closets

Zhi-Wei Peng; Zi-Jian Liu; Dan-Lian Huang; Pan-Yue Zhang

2008-01-01

62

The Challenge of Providing Safe Water with an Intermittently Supplied Piped Water Distribution System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increasing number of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have access to piped water; however, this water is often not available continuously. 84% of reporting utilities in low-income countries provide piped water for fewer than 24 hours per day (van den Berg and Danilenko, 2010), while no major city in India has continuous piped water supply. Intermittent water supply leaves pipes vulnerable to contamination and forces households to store water or rely on alternative unsafe sources, posing a health threat to consumers. In these systems, pipes are empty for long periods of time and experience low or negative pressure even when water is being supplied, leaving them susceptible to intrusion from sewage, soil, or groundwater. Households with a non-continuous supply must collect and store water, presenting more opportunities for recontamination. Upgrading to a continuous water supply, while an obvious solution to these challenges, is currently out of reach for many resource-constrained utilities. Despite its widespread prevalence, there are few data on the mechanisms causing contamination in an intermittent supply and the frequency with which it occurs. Understanding the impact of intermittent operation on water quality can lead to strategies to improve access to safe piped water for the millions of people currently served by these systems. We collected over 100 hours of continuous measurements of pressure and physico-chemical water quality indicators and tested over 1,000 grab samples for indicator bacteria over 14 months throughout the distribution system in Hubli-Dharwad, India. This data set is used to explore and explain the mechanisms influencing water quality when piped water is provided for a few hours every 3-5 days. These data indicate that contamination occurs along the distribution system as water travels from the treatment plant to reservoirs and through intermittently supplied pipes to household storage containers, while real-time measurements document variability in water quality throughout the 2-8 hour supply period. Our results show that piped water is not always safe water, but that safe water can be achieved in an intermittent supply under certain physical and operational conditions. Intermittent piped water supply is an important constraint on access to safe water in towns and cities in low-income countries, and strategies that improve these existing systems can help urban residents gain access to safe water. References van den Berg, C., and Danilenko, A. (2010). "The IBNET Water Supply and Sanitation Performance Blue Book: The International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities Databook." World Bank Washington, DC.

Kumpel, E.; Nelson, K. L.

2012-12-01

63

Acute aluminum encephalopathy in a dialysis center caused by a cement mortar water distribution pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute aluminum encephalopathy in a dialysis center caused by a cement mortar water distribution pipe.BackgroundIn Curaçao, distilled seawater from the water plant was used without further purification for hemodialysis for several decades. A new distribution pipe supplying water to a dialysis center on the island was installed in May 1996. To protect it from corrosion, this pipe was lined on

Kenrick Berend; Gijsbert Van Der Voet; Walther H. Boer

2001-01-01

64

Effects of diverse water pipe materials on bacterial communities and water quality in the annular reactor.  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of pipe materials on biofilm accumulation and water quality, an annular reactor with the sample coupons of four pipe materials (steel, copper, stainless steel, and polyvinyl chloride) was operated under hydraulic conditions similar to a real plumbing system for 15 months. The bacterial concentrations were substantially increased in the steel and copper reactors with progression of corrosion, whereas those in stainless steel (STS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) reactors were affected mainly by water temperature. The heterotrophic plate count (HPC) of biofilms was about 100 times higher on steel pipe than other pipes throughout the experiment, with the STS pipe showing the lowest bacterial number at the end of the operation. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences of 176 cultivated isolates revealed that 66.5% was Proteobacteria and the others included unclassified bacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacilli. Regardless of the pipe materials, Sphingomonas was the predominant species in all biofilms. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that steel pipe exhibited the highest bacterial diversity among the metallic pipes, and the DGGE profile of biofilm on PVC showed three additional bands not detected from the profiles of the metallic materials. Environmental scanning electron microscopy showed that corrosion level and biofilm accumulation were the least in the STS coupon. These results suggest that the STS pipe is the best material for plumbing systems in terms of the microbiological aspects of water quality. PMID:21364292

Jang, Hyun-Jung; Choi, Young-June; Ka, Jong-Ok

2011-02-01

65

Simulation investigation on fluid characteristics of jet pipe water hydraulic servo valve based on CFD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation investigation on fluid characteristics of the water hydraulic jet pipe servo valve (WHJPSV) is conducted through\\u000a a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package FLUENT. In particular, the factors to fluid characteristics\\u000a of WHJPSV are addressed, which include diameter combination of jet pipe and receiver pipe, jet pipe nozzle clearance, angle\\u000a between two jet receiver pipes and deflection angle

Ru-ping Li; Song-lin Nie; Meng-lin Yi; Jun Ruan

2011-01-01

66

Chlorine decay in drinking-water transmission and distribution systems: Pipe service age effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality can deteriorate in the transmission and distribution system beyond the treatment plant. Minimizing the potential for biological regrowth can be attained by chlorinating the finished water. While flowing through pipes, the chlorine concentration decreases for different reasons. Reaction with the pipe material itself and the reaction with both the biofilm and tubercles formed on the pipe wall are

A. O. Al-Jasser

2007-01-01

67

Investigation of an IR technique for detection of wall thinning in service water piping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The service water piping system at nuclear power plants provides cooling for a variety of safety and non-safety related components and systems. Reliability of service water piping systems is a key consideration for safe and reliable plant operations. Conventional inspection techniques for detection of pipe wall thinning usually involve the time- intensive process of ultrasonic thickness measurements, based on a

Paul A. Zayicek; Steven M. Shepard

1997-01-01

68

Epoxy Lining for Steel Water Pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

For years, hot-applied coal-tar was the popular lining used by the water industry. The research department of Bethlehem Steel has conducted lengthy and extensive tests into various types of organic coatings, especially epoxy-phenolic, for use as lining material.

S. C. Frye

1974-01-01

69

Lead Pipe Scale Analysis Using Broad-Beam Argon Ion Milling to Elucidate Drinking Water Corrosion  

EPA Science Inventory

Herein, we compared the characterization of lead pipe scale removed from a drinking water distribution system using two different cross section methods (conventional polishing and argon ion beam etching). The pipe scale solids were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM...

70

Performance of large diameter polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes in water applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes are used in water management utilities to manage safe and efficient water transport. The material's advantages includes strength, flexibility, anti-corrosive properties and easy installation methods. The disadvantages include joint failure, pipe fractures, material contamination and oxidative degradation. This thesis evaluates the use of 24 inch and larger diameter PVC pipes in water management utilities. Center of Undergraduate Infrastructure and Research Education (CUIRE) conducted surveys consisting of questions pertaining to PVC pipe material and installation practices to different water management utilities. While PVC material is most commonly used in pipelines less than 24", the CUIRE responses show that PVC pipes are not the most common type of pipe material in 24" and larger diameters installed in the facilities for various reasons. These reasons are discussed and evaluated in hopes of understanding the material's fallbacks in the piping industry. Finally, future research recommendations are constructed for researchers in the PVC piping industry.

Deshmukh, Pradip P.

71

Reactor Materials Program process water piping indirect failure frequency  

SciTech Connect

Following completion of the probabilistic analyses, the LOCA Definition Project has been subject to various external reviews, and as a result the need for several revisions has arisen. This report updates and summarizes the indirect failure frequency analysis for the process water piping. In this report, a conservatism of the earlier analysis is removed, supporting lower failure frequency estimates. The analysis results are also reinterpreted in light of subsequent review comments.

Daugherty, W.L.

1989-10-30

72

Initiation of water hammer in horizontal or nearly-horizontal pipes containing steam and subcooled water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water slug formation in a stratified countercurrent flow of steam and subcooled water in a horizontal or nearly horizontal pipe which traps a large steam bubble which then collapses rapidly and causes a water hammer is discussed. This water hammer initiating mechanism was studied.

1983-02-01

73

Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... blood vessel disease, stroke and cataracts. Women who smoke have a greater chance of certain pregnancy problems ... die from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Your smoke is also bad for other people - they breathe ...

74

Chlorine decay in drinking-water transmission and distribution systems: pipe service age effect.  

PubMed

Water quality can deteriorate in the transmission and distribution system beyond the treatment plant. Minimizing the potential for biological regrowth can be attained by chlorinating the finished water. While flowing through pipes, the chlorine concentration decreases for different reasons. Reaction with the pipe material itself and the reaction with both the biofilm and tubercles formed on the pipe wall are known as pipe wall demand, which may vary with pipe parameters. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of the service age of pipes on the effective chlorine wall decay constant. Three hundred and two pipe sections of different sizes and eight different pipe materials were collected and tested for their chlorine first-order wall decay constants. The results showed that pipe service age was an important factor that must not be ignored in some pipes such as cast iron, steel, cement-lined ductile iron (CLDI), and cement-lined cast iron (CLCI) pipes especially when the bulk decay is not significant relative to the wall decay. For the range of the 55 years of pipe service age used in this study, effective wall decay constants ranged from a decrease by -92% to an increase by +431% from the corresponding values in the recently installed pipes. The effect of service age on the effective wall decay constants was most evident in cast iron pipes, whereas steel pipes were less affected. Effective chlorine wall decay for CLCI and CLDI pipes was less affected by service age as compared to steel and cast iron pipes. Chlorine wall decay constants for PVC, uPVC, and polyethylene pipes were affected negatively by pipe service age and such effect was relatively small. PMID:17140619

Al-Jasser, A O

2007-01-01

75

Quality control analysis of downtime and time to repair for water supply pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate performance times from a quality engineering perspective for response and repair of pipes at a public utility. The objective is to scientifically determine the pipe that offers the most desirable downtime (DT) and time to repair (TTR). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Four types of water supply pipes – concrete cylinder (CC), cast

Amarjit Singh; Stacy Adachi; Megan Inouye

2011-01-01

76

Evaluating the Economic Residual Life of Water Pipes Using the Proportional Hazards Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a method for evaluating the residual lives of water pipes using the proportional hazards model (PHM) based\\u000a on the economically optimal replacement times of pipes. The survival times, which are used in the proportional hazards modeling\\u000a process, were defined as the economically optimal replacement times of pipes. The break rate of an individual pipe is estimated\\u000a using

Suwan Park; Chang Log Choi; Jeong Hyun Kim; Cheol Ho Bae

2010-01-01

77

Fracture mechanics models developed for piping reliability assessment in light water reactors: piping reliability project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efforts concentrated on modifications of the stratified Monte Carlo code called PRAISE (Piping Reliability Analysis Including Seismic Events) to make it more widely applicable to probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis of nuclear reactor piping. Pipe failures are considered to occur as the result of crack-like defects introduced during fabrication, that escape detection during inspections. The code modifications allow the following

D. O. Harris; E. Y. Lim; D. D. Dedhia; H. H. Woo; C. K. Chou

1982-01-01

78

Why does piped water not reduce diarrhea for children? Evidence from urban Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates why household connections to piped water supply can increase diarrheal diseases among under-5-year-old children. Using a unique mix of household data, microbiological test results and spatial information from urban Yemen it is possible to distinguish the adverse impacts of malfunctioning water pipes from unhygienic household behavior on water pollution and health outcomes. The analysis consists of three

Tobias Lechtenfeld

2012-01-01

79

Drag reduction of Newtonian fluid in a circular pipe with a highly water-repellent wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drag reduction phenomena, in which 14% drag reduction of tap water flowing in a 16 mm-diameter pipe occurs in the laminar flow range, have been clarified. Experiments were carried out to measure the pressure drop and the velocity profile of tap water and an aqueous solution of glycerin flowing in pipes with highly water-repellent walls, by using a pressure transducer

Keizo Watanabe; Yanuar Udagawa; Hiroshi Udagawa

1999-01-01

80

[Tuberculosis and water pipes as source of infection].  

PubMed

Since 1990 the incidence rate of tuberculosis has been increasing in Storstroem County, both in persons born in Denmark and in immigrants/fugitives. The increase in patients born in Denmark has been seen mainly among younger males. Subtypes LC2 and C2 were selected for further investigation of the sources and modes of infection, as the number of infected patients was increasing and the index patients were well known. All contacts were traced and investigated according to the Danish recommendations. In total, 49 patients were treated, and 63 other persons shared their households. By comparison of infected contacts in households with infected patients who had shared a water pipe with a known patient, risk rates of 0.76 and 0.73 were found. When a positive Mantoux test was included, the figures were 0.60 and 0.64, respectively. As risk rates for the two modes of infection were the same, we recommend that the use of water pipes should be included in the routine search for carriers of infection. PMID:16513054

Steentoft, Johnna; Wittendorf, Jeanett; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

2006-02-27

81

Cool-down and frozen start-up behavior of a grooved water heat pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A grooved water heat pipe was tested to study its characteristics during the cool-down and start-up periods. The water heat pipe was cooled down from the ambient temperature to below the freezing temperature of water. During the cool-down, isothermal conditions were maintained at the evaporator and adiabatic sections until the working fluid was frozen. When water was frozen along the entire heat pipe, the heat pipe was rendered inactive. The start-up of the heat pipe from this state was studied under several different operating conditions. The results show the existence of large temperature gradients between the evaporator and the condenser, and the moving of the melting front of the working fluid along the heat pipe. Successful start-up was achieved for some test cases using partial gravity assist. The start-up behavior depended largely on the operating conditions.

Jang, Jong Hoon

1990-12-01

82

Replication of Legionella pneumophila in biofilms of water distribution pipes.  

PubMed

Biofilms similar to those present in water distribution pipes of anthropogenic aquatic systems were simulated in a rotating annular reactor using a non-Legionella community consisting of Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium breve and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The impact of this community and Acanthamoeba castellanii on the replication of Legionella pneumophila was investigated. Despite the presence of 10(7) non-Legionella bacteria, culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results clearly showed that biofilm-associated Legionella bacteria only increased after intracellular replication in A. castellanii. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) staining of biofilm samples revealed that 48 h after addition of amoebae to the reactor, the amoeba population was lysing and replicated Legionella bacteria were released into the bulk water. This study demonstrated that amoebae like A. castellanii can play a crucial role in the increase and spread of L. pneumophila in anthropogenic aquatic systems and thus in the occurrence of Legionnaires' disease. PMID:17644359

Declerck, Priscilla; Behets, Jonas; Margineanu, Anca; van Hoef, Vincent; De Keersmaecker, Brenda; Ollevier, Frans

2009-01-01

83

[Study on the automatic parameters identification of water pipe network model].  

PubMed

Based on the problems analysis on development and application of water pipe network model, the model parameters automatic identification is regarded as a kernel bottleneck of model's application in water supply enterprise. The methodology of water pipe network model parameters automatic identification based on GIS and SCADA database is proposed. Then the kernel algorithm of model parameters automatic identification is studied, RSA (Regionalized Sensitivity Analysis) is used for automatic recognition of sensitive parameters, and MCS (Monte-Carlo Sampling) is used for automatic identification of parameters, the detail technical route based on RSA and MCS is presented. The module of water pipe network model parameters automatic identification is developed. At last, selected a typical water pipe network as a case, the case study on water pipe network model parameters automatic identification is conducted and the satisfied results are achieved. PMID:20329520

Jia, Hai-Feng; Zhao, Qi-Feng

2010-01-01

84

Concentric pipe loop arrangement for pressurized water nuclear reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a nuclear reactor primary coolant system having a reactor vessel, a steam generator, and a reactor coolant pump, a pipe loop arrangement is described comprising: a first pipe connecting an outlet of the reactor vessel with an inlet of the steam generator whereby hot reactor coolant is ducted to the steam generator; a second pipe substantially concentrically mounted within

Veronesi

1988-01-01

85

WATER QUALITY AND TREATMENT CONSIDERATIONS FOR CEMENT-LINED AND A-C PIPE  

EPA Science Inventory

Both cement mortar lined (CML) and asbestos-cement pipes (A-C) are widely used in many water systems. Cement linings are also commonly applied in-situ after pipe cleaning, usually to prevent the recurrence of red water or tuberculation problems. Unfortunately, little consideratio...

86

Development of pipe deterioration models for water distribution systems using EPR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic and social costs of pipe failures in water and wastewater systems are increasing, putting pressure on utility managers to develop annual replacement plans for critical pipes that balance investment with expected benefits in a risk-based management context. In addition to the need for a strategy for solving such a multi-objective problem, analysts and water system managers need reliable

L. Berardi; O. Giustolisi; D. A. Savic

2008-01-01

87

Detection of Escherichia coli in Biofilms from Pipe Samples and Coupons in Drinking Water Distribution Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for direct detection of Escherichia coli on pipe surfaces and coupons in drinking water distribution networks. Old cast iron main pipes were removed from water distribution networks in France, England, Portugal, and Latvia, and E. coli was analyzed in the biofilm. In addition, 44 flat coupons made of cast iron, polyvinyl chloride, or

T. Juhna; D. Birzniece; S. Larsson; D. Zulenkovs; A. Sharipo; N. F. Azevedo; F. Menard-Szczebara; S. Castagnet; C. Feliers; C. W. Keevil

2007-01-01

88

The Analysis of Organotins in Polyvinyl Chloride Pipe and Their Diffusion into Water Over Time  

EPA Science Inventory

Organotins are commonly used as thermal stabilizers in the manufacturing of PVC pipes, which are widely used in drinking water distribution systems. Additives, such as organotins, have been show to leach through PVC pipe into water. While tri-substituted organotin compounds hav...

89

Investigation of an IR technique for detection of wall thinning in service water piping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The service water piping system at nuclear power plants provides cooling for a variety of safety and non-safety related components and systems. Reliability of service water piping systems is a key consideration for safe and reliable plant operations. Conventional inspection techniques for detection of pipe wall thinning usually involve the time- intensive process of ultrasonic thickness measurements, based on a grid system, of the entire pipe length. An alternative to this process may lie in the use of active infrared thermography techniques for detection of thin wall areas in the pipe. Infrared thermography (IR), in a passive mode, has been widely used by utilities for a variety of predictive maintenance applications. For assessment of service water piping, an active IR technique, thermal injection, can be used. Application of this IRNDE technique for material evaluation can provide a rapid screening technique for identification of thin wall areas in service water piping. The EPRI NDE Center participated in a preliminary evaluation of this technology at Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant. Based on the promising results of the Vermont Yankee activity, the Center worked with Thermal Wave Imaging, Inc. in an effort to optimize the IR thermal injection technique for service water piping applications. A series of representative pipe mock-ups were used for evaluation. Subsequent modification of the thermal injection hardware and technique yielded more uniform thermal energy transfer, improved detection capabilities, and increased effective inspection area.

Zayicek, Paul A.; Shepard, Steven M.

1997-04-01

90

Quantification and comparison of marijuana smoking practices: blunts, joints, and pipes.  

PubMed

The quantification method for collecting self-reported marijuana use data is not standardized as it is for alcohol or cigarettes, which presents a methodologic challenge for marijuana use disorder treatment studies. Serum and urine markers of marijuana use have a long half-life, limiting their utility as a clinical trial outcome measure. Structured calendar-based interview procedures can accurately measure the frequency of self-reported marijuana use, but are unable to reliably address issues such as quantity of use or potency. This study compared the quantity and assigned-dollar value among users of blunts, joints, and pipes enrolled in two clinical trials testing pharmacotherapies for marijuana dependence. The timeline follow-back method was modified to incorporate using a surrogate substance to represent marijuana to enable participants to estimate the amount and value used. Blunt users were mostly black and Hispanic, while users of joints and pipes were primarily white. Participants reported that they placed 50% more marijuana in blunts than in joints and placed more than twice the amount of marijuana in blunts than in pipes. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using a surrogate weight estimation procedure to augment calendar-based methods of measuring self-reported marijuana use. Individual variability in use practices limits the utility of this method to estimating within-subject comparisons, rather than between subject comparisons. PMID:20863627

Mariani, John J; Brooks, Daniel; Haney, Margaret; Levin, Frances R

2011-01-15

91

PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. AERIAL TAKEN WHILE SEVERAL PIPE TRENCHES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. AERIAL TAKEN WHILE SEVERAL PIPE TRENCHES REMAINED OPEN. CAMERA FACES EASTERLY. NOTE DUAL PIPES BETWEEN REACTOR BUILDING AND NORTH SIDE OF PROCESS WATER BUILDING. PIPING NEAR WORKING RESERVOIR HEADS FOR RETENTION RESERVOIR. PIPE FROM DEMINERALIZER ENTERS MTR FROM NORTH. SEE ALSO TRENCH FOR COOLANT AIR DUCT AT SOUTH SIDE OF MTR AND LEADING TO FAN HOUSE AND STACK. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2966-A. Unknown Photographer, 7/31/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

92

Atomization in an Air-Water Pipe Flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atomization process at the interface of a liquid layer sheared by a high-velocity gas flow plays a crucial role in mass and momentum tranfer between phases. The knowledge of the characteristics of entrained droplets is a first step towards a better understanding of this phenomenon. We have therefore investigated these characteristics for a horizontal air-water pipe flow using a high-speed camera. This revealed that primary atomization mostly occurs through two mechanisms: bag and ligament breakups, like in the case of a single drop or of a liquid jet sheared by a high-velocity gas stream. We also observed that secondary atomization due to collisions between drops is a frequent phenomenon that may have a greater importance in the reduction of droplets sizes than previously considered in the litterature. Finally, digital image processing allowed us to measure the probability density functions of droplets sizes and velocities, which will be discussed here.

Boulesteix, Sylvain; Ern, Patricia; Charru, Francois

2008-11-01

93

Acoustic Propagation in a Water-Filled Cylindrical Pipe  

SciTech Connect

This study was concerned with the physics of the propagation of a tone burst of high frequency sound in a steel water-filled pipe. The choice of the pulse was rather arbitrary, so that this work in no way can be considered as recommending a particular pulse form. However, the MATLAB computer codes developed in this study are general enough to carry out studies of pulses of various forms. Also, it should be pointed out that the codes as written are quite time consuming. A computation of the complete field, including all 5995 modes, requires several hours on a desktop computer. The time required by such computations as these is a direct consequence of the bandwidths, frequencies and sample rates employed. No attempt was made to optimize these codes, and it is assumed that much can be done in this regard.

Sullivan, E J; Candy, J V

2003-06-01

94

Microbial diversity in biofilms on water distribution pipes of different materials.  

PubMed

The effects of pipe materials on biofilm formation potential (BFP) and microbial communities in biofilms were analyzed. Pipe coupons made of six different materials (CU, copper; CP, chlorinated poly vinyl chloride; PB, polybutylene; PE, polyethylene; SS, stainless steel; ST, steel coated with zinc) were incubated in drinking water, mixed water (inoculated with 10% (v/v) of river water) and drinking water inoculated with Escherichia coli JM109 (E. coli), respectively. The highest BFPs were observed from steel pipes, SS and ST, while CU showed the lowest BFP values. Of the plastic materials, the BFP of CP in drinking water (96 pg ATP/cm(2)) and mixed water (183 pg ATP/cm(2)) were comparable to those of CU, but the other plastic materials, PB and PE, displayed relatively high BFP. The Number of E. coli in the drinking water inoculated with cultures of E. coli strain showed similar trends with BFP values of the pipe coupons incubated in drinking water and mixed water. Molecular analysis of microbial communities indicated the presence of alpha- and beta-proteobacteria, actinobacteria and bacteroidetes in biofilm on the pipe materials. However, the DGGE profile of bacterial 16S rDNA fragments showed significant differences among different materials, suggesting that the pipe materials affect not only BFP but also microbial diversity. Some plastic materials, such as CP, would be suitable for plumbing, particularly for drinking water distribution pipes, due to its low BFP and little microbial diversity in biofilm. PMID:20057102

Yu, J; Kim, D; Lee, T

2010-01-01

95

Pipe break testing of primary loop piping similar to Department of Energy's New Production Reactor-Heavy Water Reactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory is completing a major task for the Department of Energy in the demonstration that the primary piping of the New Production Heavy Water Reactor (NPR-HWR), with its relatively moderate temperature and pressure, should not suffe...

A. B. Poole R. L. Battiste J. A. Clinard W. R. Hendrich

1992-01-01

96

Cold Start of a Radiator Equipped with Titanium-Water Heat Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiator panels utilizing titanium-water heat pipes are being considered for lunar applications. A traditional sandwich structure is envisioned where heat pipes are embedded between two high thermal conductivity face sheets. The heat pipe evaporators are to be thermally connected to the heat source through one or more manifolds containing coolant. Initial radiator operation on the lunar surface would likely follow a cold soak where the water in the heat pipes is purposely frozen. To achieve heat pipe operation, it will be necessary to thaw the heat pipes. One option is to allow the sunlight impinging on the surface at sunrise to achieve this goal. Testing was conducted in a thermal vacuum chamber to simulate the lunar sunrise and additional modeling was conducted to identify steady-state and transient response. It was found that sunlight impinging on the radiator surface at sunrise was insufficient to solely achieve the goal of thawing the water in the heat pipes. However, starting from a frozen condition was accomplished successfully by applying power to the evaporators. Start up in this fashion was demonstrated without evaporator dryout. Concern is raised over thawing thermosyphons, vertical heat pipes operating in a gravity field, with no wick in the condenser section. This paper presents the results of the simulated cold start study and identifies future work to support radiator panels equipped with titanium-water heat pipes.

Jaworske, Donald A.; Sanzi, James L.; Siamidis, John

2008-01-01

97

Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study on Helical Pipe Oil-Water Separator For Deoiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation principle of helical separator is introduced. RNG k-epsiv turbulence model is used to numerically simulate oil-water separation in helical pipe by computation fluid dynamics (CFD). By observing the oil distribution of non-holed helical pipes, holes are opened at the locations that oil aggregated. Oil sprays out of the helical pipe through the holes, which has a good separation

Lixin Zhao; Lei Xu; Zhengrong Hua; Zhanzhao Ma; Huaiyu Cao

2009-01-01

98

Heat-pipe enhanced solar-assisted heat pump water heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat-pipe enhanced solar-assisted heat pump water heater (HPSAHP) is studied. HPSAHP is a heat pump with dual heat sources that combines the performance of conventional heat pump and solar heat pipe collector. HPSAHP operates in heat-pump mode when solar radiation is low and in heat-pipe mode without electricity consumption when solar radiation is high. HPSAHP can thus achieve high

B. J. Huang; J. P. Lee; J. P. Chyng

2005-01-01

99

The physico-chemistry of biofilm-mediated pitting corrosion of copper pipe supplying potable water.  

PubMed

Copper is a generally robust material that has beneficial properties to reduce biofilm formation and pathogen colonisation of pipes supplying potable water. However, a rare pitting corrosion can occur in soft, poorly buffered waters that can lead to pipe failure. This has been shown to be mediated by a copper-tolerant biofilm whose physical and chemical heterogeneity can establish microenvironments for corrosion potentials, causing micro pits that eventually coalesce into large perforations through the pipe wall. Control of the biofilm, for example through reduced cold water or elevated hot water temperatures, can suppress this corrosion phenomenon. PMID:14982168

Keevil, C W

2004-01-01

100

Investigation of organic matter migrating from polymeric pipes into drinking water under different flow manners.  

PubMed

Polymeric pipes, such as unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) pipes, polypropylene random (PPR) pipes and polyethylene (PE) pipes are increasingly used for drinking water distribution lines. Plastic pipes may include some additives like metallic stabilizers and other antioxidants for the protection of the material during its production and use. Thus, some compounds can be released from those plastic pipes and cast a shadow on drinking water quality. This work develops a new procedure to investigate three types of polymer pipes (uPVC, PE and PPR) with respect to the migration of total organic carbon (TOC) into drinking water. The migration test was carried out in stagnant conditions with two types of migration processes, a continuous migration process and a successive migration process. These two types of migration processes are specially designed to mimic the conditions of different flow manners in drinking water pipelines, i.e., the situation of continuous stagnation with long hydraulic retention times and normal flow status with regular water renewing in drinking water networks. The experimental results showed that TOC release differed significantly with different plastic materials and under different flow manners. The order of materials with respect to the total amount of TOC migrating into drinking water was observed as PE > PPR > uPVC under both successive and continuous migration conditions. A higher amount of organic migration from PE and PPR pipes was likely to occur due to more organic antioxidants being used in pipe production. The results from the successive migration tests indicated the trend of the migration intensity of different pipe materials over time, while the results obtained from the continuous migration tests implied that under long stagnant conditions, the drinking water quality could deteriorate quickly with the consistent migration of organic compounds and the dramatic consumption of chlorine to a very low level. Higher amounts of TOC were released under the continuous migration tests. PMID:24592415

Zhang, Ling; Liu, Shuming; Liu, Wenjun

2013-02-01

101

Investigation of organic matter migrating from polymeric pipes into drinking water under different flow manners.  

PubMed

Polymeric pipes, such as unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) pipes, polypropylene random (PPR) pipes and polyethylene (PE) pipes are increasingly used for drinking water distribution lines. Plastic pipes may include some additives like metallic stabilizers and other antioxidants for the protection of the material during its production and use. Thus, some compounds can be released from those plastic pipes and cast a shadow on drinking water quality. This work develops a new procedure to investigate three types of polymer pipes (uPVC, PE and PPR) with respect to the migration of total organic carbon (TOC) into drinking water. The migration test was carried out in stagnant conditions with two types of migration processes, a continuous migration process and a successive migration process. These two types of migration processes are specially designed to mimic the conditions of different flow manners in drinking water pipelines, i.e., the situation of continuous stagnation with long hydraulic retention times and normal flow status with regular water renewing in drinking water networks. The experimental results showed that TOC release differed significantly with different plastic materials and under different flow manners. The order of materials with respect to the total amount of TOC migrating into drinking water was observed as PE > PPR > uPVC under both successive and continuous migration conditions. A higher amount of organic migration from PE and PPR pipes was likely to occur due to more organic antioxidants being used in pipe production. The results from the successive migration tests indicated the trend of the migration intensity of different pipe materials over time, while the results obtained from the continuous migration tests implied that under long stagnant conditions, the drinking water quality could deteriorate quickly with the consistent migration of organic compounds and the dramatic consumption of chlorine to a very low level. Higher amounts of TOC were released under the continuous migration tests. PMID:24352374

Zhang, Ling; Liu, Shuming; Liu, Wenjun

2014-02-01

102

Factors influencing lead and iron release from some Egyptian drinking water pipes.  

PubMed

The major objective of this study is to assess the effect of stagnation time, pipe age, pipes material and water quality parameters such as pH, alkalinity and chloride to sulfate mass ratio on lead and iron release from different types of water pipes used in Egypt namely polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP) and galvanized iron (GI), by using fill and dump method. Low pH increased lead and iron release from pipes. Lead and iron release decreased as pH and alkalinity increased. Lead and iron release increased with increasing chloride to sulfate mass ratio in all pipes. EDTA was used as an example of natural organic matter which may be influence metals release. It is found that lead and iron release increased then this release decreased with time. In general, GI pipes showed to be the most effected by water quality parameters tested and the highest iron release. PVC pipes are the most lead releasing pipes while PP pipes are the least releasing. PMID:18436372

Lasheen, M R; Sharaby, C M; El-Kholy, N G; Elsherif, I Y; El-Wakeel, S T

2008-12-30

103

Scientific-Chemical Viewpoints regarding Smoking: A Science Laboratory for All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes laboratory activity that examines the chemical process of smoking and the components of smoke, of both cigarettes and water pipes (narghiles also known as "hookah"). The aim of this activity is to expose adolescents to the scientific aspects of smoking; and to present the relevance of chemistry in everyday life. (Contains 3…

Blonder, Ron

2008-01-01

104

Design, Fabrication, and Testing of High Capacity High-Temperature Monel\\/Water Heat Pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A development program was completed to demonstrate key technologies required for the JIMO Heat Pipe Radiator. Part of this work included the design, assembly, and performance testing of two favorable wick designs in full length water heat pipes. A parametric study identified CP-2 titanium and Monel K-500 alloys as favorable envelope materials. The design effort also identified two promising wick

John H. Rosenfeld; Bruce L. Drolen; Cheng-Yi Lu

2006-01-01

105

Failure analysis of cracked head spray piping from the Dresden Unit 2 Boiling Water Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several sections of Type 304 stainless steel head spray piping, 6.25 cm (2.5 in.) in diameter, from the Dresden Unit 2 Boiling Water Reactor were examined to determine the nature and causes of coolant leakages detected during hydrostatic tests. Extensive pitting was observed on the outside surface of the piping, and three cracks, all located at a helical stripe apparently

D. R. Diercks; G. M. Dragel

1983-01-01

106

Failure analysis of cooling water pipes used in the condensation system of a gas turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The copper–zinc alloy pipes used in the condensed water system of a power plant failed within a period of 5 to 6 years. Because the service life of such a system was expected to be on the order of 20 years, an investigation was carried out to determine the possible causes for early failure of the pipes. Visual inspection revealed that the

Havva Kazdal Zeytin

2008-01-01

107

Reactor materials program process water piping: K Reactor indirect failure probability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothetical maximum rate loss of coolant accident (LOCA) for the Savannah River Production Reactors is the abrupt double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) of a large process water pipe. This accident is not considered credible in light of the low applied stresses and the inherent ductility of the piping material. The Reactor Materials Program was initiated to provide the technical basis

1988-01-01

108

An experimental study of the utilization of heat pipes for solar water heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the performance of solar domestic hot water systems manufactured with heat pipes. A series of tests were conducted on a number of systems to elicit the most suitable configuration of the system for possible commercialization in Korea. The heat pipe is made with a copper tube and the respective lengths of the evaporator, adiabatic, and condenser sections

Wongee Chun; Yong Heack Kang; Hee Youl Kwak; Young Soo Lee

1999-01-01

109

Effect of Microstructure on Failure Behavior of Light Water Reactor Coolant Piping under Severe Accident Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a severe accident of light water reactors, the reactor coolant system (RCS) piping might be subjected to thermal loads caused by the decay heat of the deposited fission products and the heat transfer from the hot gases, with an internal pressure in some accident sequences. Tests on the RCS piping failure were performed along with high temperature tensile and

Yuhei HARADA; Yu MARUYAMA; Akio MAEDA; Hiroaki SHIBAZAKI; Tamotsu KUDO; Akihide HIDAKA; Kazuichiro HASHIMOTO; Jun SUGIMOTO

1999-01-01

110

A novel sensor for measuring the acoustic pressure in buried plastic water pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic techniques are widely used to locate leaks in buried water pipes. However, difficulties are often encountered when attempting to detect a leak in a plastic pipe, as the leak noise signals attenuate very rapidly away from the leak. Identifying suitable sensors which can be easily deployed and are sufficiently sensitive has been problematic. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) wire ring sensors

J. M. Muggleton; M. J. Brennan; R. J. Pinnington; Y. Gao

2006-01-01

111

Acoustical characteristics of leak signals in plastic water distribution pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustical characteristics of leak signals in plastic pipes were investigated in this study for several types of leaks simulated under controlled conditions at an experimental site. The investigation included the characterization of frequency content of sound or vibration signals as a function of leak type, flow rate, pipe pressure and season, the determination of the attenuation rate, and the variation

Osama Hunaidi; Wing T. Chu

1999-01-01

112

Characteristics of pipe system failures in light water reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical description of pipe system failures is presented. The characteristics of these failures have been derived from reports submitted by the utilities to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In the present study, emphasis has been placed on identifying trends in the incidence of pipe failures and on the statistical characterization of the failure events to include impact on plant availability

S. L. Basin; E. T. Burns

1977-01-01

113

Elimination or control of material problems in water heat pipes. Final report, January 1, 1974March 30, 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

A definition was made of a water heat pipe for use with a parabolic cylindrical solar collector that will operate in the temperature range of ambient to 300°C, and a literature survey was conducted on the problem of noncondensable gas generation in water heat pipes. Heat pipes measuring 76 cm long were fabricated from 316 SS, 347 SS, 430 SS,

Pittinato

1976-01-01

114

Waterpipe smoking, oral cancer and other oral health effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data sourcesMEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI the Web of ScienceStudy selectionArticles in any language that assessed the association between water pipe smoking and any health outcome. Included studies were cohort, case-control and cross-sectional. Studies were excluded if they looked at physiological outcomes, non-tobacco pipe use, or didn't differentiate between this and other smoking habits.Data extraction and synthesisData were abstracted independently by

Saman Warnakulasuriya

2011-01-01

115

[Smoking related behaviours in Izmir].  

PubMed

Introduction: The aim of the study is to determine the people's smoking related behaviours, using tobacco products except cigarette and characteristics about second hand smoke in Izmir. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire including 47 questions was performed to 600 people, who were selected by Turkey Statistics Instutition to present population of Izmir. Results: 53.7% of participants were female and 46.3% was male; the mean age was 41.5 ± 15.6. 232 (39%) were smoking, 257 (42%) never smoked and 111 (19%) quited smoking. The average age for a new smoker is 18.7 ± 6.6; men start smoking earlier than women statistically (p= 0.0001). 10.7% of participants were using tobacco products except cigarette. The smoke cessation percentage of women was statistically significantly higher than men(p= 0.006). 70.7% of active smokers were thinking about quitting. Conclusion: The frequency of smoking was higher than Turkey's avarage in Izmir. The mean age of starting smoking was below 18. There must be extra effort for preventing women and under 18 age who are the targets of tobacco industry from smoking. Use of tobacco products except cigarette, especially water pipe may be an emerging problem for men, high education level and under age of 35 population. Although most of the participants know about their rights of protection from smoke and the harms of second hand smoke, it is worrying to see that children have to face second hand smoke in special ownerships. Most of the smokers think to quit smoking and use medical methods for quitting. The people who think about quitting should be guided to smoking cessation clinics; by this way, the more we use scientific methods for quitting, the more we get high quit rates of smoking. PMID:25038383

Turan, Pakize Ay?e; Ergor, Gül; Turan, Onur; Doganay, Sinem; Kilinc, O?uz

2014-06-01

116

Fracture mechanics models developed for piping reliability assessment in light water reactors: piping reliability project  

SciTech Connect

The efforts concentrated on modifications of the stratified Monte Carlo code called PRAISE (Piping Reliability Analysis Including Seismic Events) to make it more widely applicable to probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis of nuclear reactor piping. Pipe failures are considered to occur as the result of crack-like defects introduced during fabrication, that escape detection during inspections. The code modifications allow the following factors in addition to those considered in earlier work to be treated: other materials, failure criteria and subcritical crack growth characteristic; welding residual and vibratory stresses; and longitudinal welds (the original version considered only circumferential welds). The fracture mechanics background for the code modifications is included, and details of the modifications themselves provided. Additionally, an updated version of the PRAISE user's manual is included. The revised code, known as PRAISE-B was then applied to a variety of piping problems, including various size lines subject to stress corrosion cracking and vibratory stresses. Analyses including residual stresses and longitudinal welds were also performed.

Harris, D.O.; Lim, E.Y.; Dedhia, D.D.; Woo, H.H.; Chou, C.K.

1982-06-01

117

A novel sensor for measuring the acoustic pressure in buried plastic water pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic techniques are widely used to locate leaks in buried water pipes. However, difficulties are often encountered when attempting to detect a leak in a plastic pipe, as the leak noise signals attenuate very rapidly away from the leak. Identifying suitable sensors which can be easily deployed and are sufficiently sensitive has been problematic. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) wire ring sensors have been proposed and demonstrated successfully in laboratory conditions previously. Here it is proposed that the ring sensor is used in a modified configuration: a flexible hose instrumented with the ring sensor is connected to the pipe, via a fire hydrant or other standard access point. Some theoretical modelling has been carried out, which predicts that the acoustic pressure in the main pipe transmits well into the sidebranch, whilst the pressure in the main pipe is largely unaffected. This suggests that PVDF wire located on the sidebranch will effectively monitor the pressure in the main pipe. Moreover, if the sidebranch is sufficiently flexible, substantial sensitivity gains can be made using this configuration compared with locating the wire on the main pipe. Measurements made in the laboratory on a medium density polyethylene (MDPE) finite pipe with a polythene sidebranch connected to it confirm that the acoustic pressure in the main pipe can indeed be measured on the sidebranch. The expected sensitivity gains were not fully realized, and a number of different reasons for this are proposed.

Muggleton, J. M.; Brennan, M. J.; Pinnington, R. J.; Gao, Y.

2006-08-01

118

CHLORINE DECAY AND BIOFILM STUDIES IN A PILOT SCALE DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION DEAD END PIPE SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Chlorine decay experiments using a pilot-scale water distribution dead end pipe system were conducted to define relationships between chlorine decay and environmental factors. These included flow rate, biomass concentration and biofilm density, and initial chlorine concentrations...

119

Cost Estimates: Stress Improvement Remedies for Savannah River Reactor Process Water Pipe Welds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The process water pipes in the Savannah River reactors were made of Type 304 stainless steel. This steel becomes susceptible to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) when sensitized as by welding. IGSCC may initiate in locations under residual o...

G. R. Caskey P. R. Vormelker W. S. Ehrhart

1988-01-01

120

Corrosion of underground water pipes due to acidification by air pollution - Damage frequency analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this investigation is to study how the corrosion of underground water pipes is influenced by acidification generated due to anthropogenic air pollution and the subsequent precipitation which affects the chemical properties of soil and the g...

E. Levlin

1991-01-01

121

Fatigue growth in piping and rpv steels in simulated BWR water environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes results of an experimental testing program focused on establishing the fatigue crack growth behavior of several commercial pressure vessel and piping steels typically used in light water reactors. Testing was done in a simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) primary water environment (1230 psig, 550°F demineralized water). The data obtained were analyzed using linear elastic fracture mechanics principles

D. A. Hale; J. L. Yuen; T. L. Gerber

1978-01-01

122

OTEC-1 Cold Water Pipe Recovery Engineering of Lift and Towing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Department of Energy's ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) test program, OTEC-1, used a 2,250-foot long cold water pipe (CWP) comprised of a bundle of three 4-foot diameter polypropylene pipes. At the conclusion of the test program this CWP was moored vertically in 4,500 feet of water, 20 miles offshore of the island of Hawaii. To eliminate a

D. Tracy; G. Tettlebach; T. McNatt

1984-01-01

123

The effect of piped water on early childhood mortality in Urban Brazil, 1970 to 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of access to piped water on the trends in child mortality and on differentials by income class are analyzed using\\u000a data on surviving children and other variables in samples of urban mothers aged 20–29 in 1970 and 1976. Path analytic regression\\u000a techniques are used to test a recursive model linking the supply and demand for piped water to

Thomas W. Merrick

1985-01-01

124

Benefits trickling away: The health impact of extending access to piped water and sanitation in urban Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the impact of piped water supply and sanitation on health outcomes in urban Yemen using a combination of quasi-experimental methods and results from microbiological water tests. Variations in project roll-out allow separate identification of water and sanitation impacts. Results indicate that access to piped water supply worsens health outcomes when water rationing is frequent, which appears to

Stephan Klasen; Tobias Lechtenfeld; Kristina Meier; Johannes Rieckmann

2012-01-01

125

Iron release from corroded iron pipes in drinking water distribution systems: effect of dissolved oxygen.  

PubMed

Iron release from corroded iron pipes is the principal cause of "colored water" problems in drinking water distribution systems. The corrosion scales present in corroded iron pipes restrict the flow of water, and can also deteriorate the water quality. This research was focused on understanding the effect of dissolved oxygen (DO), a key water quality parameter, on iron release from the old corroded iron pipes. Corrosion scales from 70-year-old galvanized iron pipe were characterized as porous deposits of Fe(III) phases (goethite (alpha-FeOOH), magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)), and maghemite (alpha-Fe(2)O(3))) with a shell-like, dense layer near the top of the scales. High concentrations of readily soluble Fe(II) content was present inside the scales. Iron release from these corroded pipes was investigated for both flow and stagnant water conditions. Our studies confirmed that iron was released to bulk water primarily in the ferrous form. When DO was present in water, higher amounts of iron release was observed during stagnation in comparison to flowing water conditions. Additionally, it was found that increasing the DO concentration in water during stagnation reduced the amount of iron release. Our studies substantiate that increasing the concentration of oxidants in water and maintaining flowing conditions can reduce the amount of iron release from corroded iron pipes. Based on our studies, it is proposed that iron is released from corroded iron pipes by dissolution of corrosion scales, and that the microstructure and composition of corrosion scales are important parameters that can influence the amount of iron released from such systems. PMID:14975659

Sarin, P; Snoeyink, V L; Bebee, J; Jim, K K; Beckett, M A; Kriven, W M; Clement, J A

2004-03-01

126

Life Test Results for Water Heat Pipes Operating at 200 °C to 300 °C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For lunar or planetary bases to be viable, a robust electric generating system will be required for powering the habitat. Water heat pipes offer an attractive solution for lunar base heat rejection, and would serve as a qualification for them on other long duration missions. Successful operation near the upper end of water operating range is a requirement for the application. Results are reported for life tests on water heat pipes that were operated at various temperatures between 200 °C and 300 °C. Tests were conducted on twenty three gravity-assisted water heat pipes. Eleven titanium/water heat pipes and ten Monel/water heat pipes were tested at temperatures above 200 °C. Two cupronickel heat pipes were also assembled and tested. Titanium alloys tested included CP-2 titanium, as well as two beta-titanium alloys, namely 15-3 and Nitinol alloys. Some of the titanium alloy life tests used wicks fabricated from CP-2 titanium screen or porous felt. Monel alloys tested included 400 and K-500 alloys. Some of the Monel heat pipes contained copper/nickel wicks that were fabricated by brazing nickel-plated copper felt metal wicks. Although most of the envelope/material combinations exhibit favorable results at 200 °C, some of the combinations failed at higher temperatures. Causes of failure included stress-creep of envelopes and corrosion at axial or end cap welds. This information represents a significant advance in selection of materials for 200 °C to 300 °C water heat pipes. Life testing work is being continued.

Rosenfeld, John H.; Gernert, Nelson J.

2008-01-01

127

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. Th...

M. R. Guerin

1993-01-01

128

The effect of applying a pipe-joint lubricant to connect ductile iron pipe on off-flavors in drinking water distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was used to help define the contribution to taste and odor problems caused by the application of a pipe-joint lubricant to connect ductile iron pipe in drinking water distribution systems. Tyton Joint Lubricant (TJL) was studied. The lubricant produced odors that are continually oxidized by chlorine or oxygen. The mechanism of oxidative rancidity, one of the major causes

K. E. Wiesenthal; G. Amah; T. Lam; I. H. Suffet

129

CONTROLLING ASBESTOS LOSS FROM ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPE IN AGGRESSIVE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A project was conducted to evaluate measures for controlling loss of asbestos fibers from asbestos-cement (A/C) water distribution pipe under aggressive water conditions. During Phase 1, water quality data were analyzed for the distribution system of Bellevue, Washington, which r...

130

Seasonal factors influencing the failure of buried water reticulation pipes.  

PubMed

While the use of environmental factors in the analysis and prediction of failures of buried reticulation pipes in cold environments has been the focus of extensive work, the same cannot be said for failures occurring on pipes in other (non-freezing) environments. A novel analysis of pipe failures in such an environment is the subject of this paper. An exploratory statistical analysis was undertaken, identifying a peak in failure rates during mid to late summer. This peak was found to correspond to a peak in the rate of circumferential failures, whilst the rate of longitudinal failures remained constant. Investigation into the effect of climate on failure rates revealed that the peak in failure rates occurs due to differential soil movement as the result of shrinkage in expansive soils. PMID:22049766

Gould, S J F; Boulaire, F A; Burn, S; Zhao, X L; Kodikara, J K

2011-01-01

131

Evaluation of High Temperature Tensile and Creep Properties of Light Water Reactor Coolant Piping Materials for Severe Accident Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been pointed out that the reactor coolant system piping could fail prior to the meltthrough of the reactor pressure vessel in a high pressure sequence of pressurized water reactor severe accidents. In order to apply to the evaluation of the piping failure which influences the subsequent accident progression, models for the strength of piping materials at high temperatures

Yuhei HARADA; Yu MARUYAMA; Akio MAEDA; Eiichi CHINO; Hiroaki SHIBAZAKI; Tamotsu KUDO; Akihide HIDAKA; Kazuichiro HASHIMOTO; Jun SUGIMOTO

2000-01-01

132

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Cold Water Pipe At-Sea Test Program  

SciTech Connect

A detailed design for a 10-foot diameter, 1000-foot long fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) cold water pipe (CWP) was tested at-sea aboard an HD and C platform. The wall of the pipe is of sandwich construction with FRP facesheets and a core of syntactic foam. In addition to developing the design for the pipe itself, other activities were conducted to support the design effort. These included: materials testing; instrumentation system specification; fabrication plan; CWP deployment plan; mooring system design and deployment plan; and environmental conditions descriptor and analysis. The objectives of the program to date have been achieved, and the results are summarized in this volume.

Not Available

1982-07-01

133

[Microbial contamination of water by pipe and tubing material. 2. Growth of Legionella pneumophila].  

PubMed

In the 1st communication it was possible to show that some hoses and insufficiently cleaned high grade steel pipe can produce a microbial growth. The growth-promoting effect of materials in the water distribution system for Legionella pneumophila has been discussed before. In this investigation it was tested how L. pneumophila behaves in pipes and hoses with narrow diameter, at temperatures from 35 degrees C to 40 degrees C and over a time of half a year. L. pneumophila could be found in high numbers in the water from PVC, PE, PTFE, rubber and silicon hoses all over the time and regularly in low numbers or occasionally in glass, high-grade steel pipes and PA hose. L. pneumophila could be found only for the first 4 weeks in the copper pipe. PMID:3140536

Schoenen, D; Schulze-Röbbecke, R; Schirdewahn, N

1988-07-01

134

A new heat-pipe type solar domestic hot water system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a new solar hot water system with an integrated heat-pipe is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The new system uses a wickless gravity assisted loop heat-pipe for the heat transfer from the collector–evaporator to the tank through a heat exchanger–condenser. A detailed heat transfer experimental study is performed, focused on the thermal behaviour of the different parts of

Emmanouil Mathioulakis; Vassilis Belessiotis

2002-01-01

135

High Temperature Titanium-Water Heat Pipe Radiator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space nuclear systems require large area radiators to reject the unconverted heat to space. System optimizations with Brayton cycles lead to radiators with radiator temperatures in the 400 to 550 K range. To date, nearly all space radiator systems have used aluminum\\/ammonia heat pipes but these components cannot function at the required temperatures. A Graphite Fiber Reinforced Composites (GFRC) radiator

William G. Anderson; Richard Bonner; John Hartenstine; Jim Barth

2006-01-01

136

High Temperature Water-Titanium Heat Pipe Radiator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space nuclear systems require large area radiators to reject the unconverted heat to space. System optimizations with Brayton cycles lead to radiators with radiator temperatures in the 400 to 550 K range. To date, nearly all space radiator systems have used aluminum\\/ammonia heat pipes but these components cannot function at the required temperatures. A Graphite Fiber Reinforced Composites (GFRC) radiator

William G. Anderson; David B. Sarraf; Scott D. Garner; Jim Barth

137

Evaluation of surface sampling techniques for collection of Bacillus spores on common drinking water pipe materials.  

PubMed

Drinking water utilities may face biological contamination of the distribution system from a natural incident or deliberate contamination. Determining the extent of contamination or the efficacy of decontamination is a challenge, because it may require sampling of the wetted surfaces of distribution infrastructure. This study evaluated two sampling techniques that utilities might use to sample exhumed pipe sections. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), cement-lined ductile iron, and ductile iron pipe coupons (3 cm x 14 cm) cut from new water main piping were conditioned for three months in dechlorinated Cincinnati, Ohio tap water. Coupons were spiked with Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii, a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis. Brushing and scraping were used to recover the inoculated spores from the coupons. Mean recoveries for all materials ranged from 37 +/- 30% to 43 +/- 20% for brushing vs. 24 +/- 10% to 51 +/- 29% for scraping. On cement-lined pipe, brushing yielded a significantly different recovery than scraping. No differences were seen between brushing and scraping the PVC and iron pipe coupons. Mean brushing and scraping recoveries from PVC coupons were more variable than mean recoveries from cement-lined and iron coupons. Spore retention differed between pipe materials and the presence of established biofilms also had an impact. Conditioned PVC coupons (with established biofilms) had significantly lower spore retention (31 +/- 11%) than conditioned cement-lined coupons (61 +/- 14%) and conditioned iron coupons (71 +/- 8%). PMID:20082033

Packard, Benjamin H; Kupferle, Margaret J

2010-01-01

138

CHRYSOTILE ASBESTOS FIBERS IN DRINKING WATER FROM ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPE  

EPA Science Inventory

Chrysotile asbestos fiber counts were compared in drinking water samples taken before and after flow through asbestos-cement pipes in the San Francisco Bay area. The drinking water supplies in that area are chemically nonaggressive by the standard measures. In one major distribut...

139

IRON-CONTAINING COATINGS ON ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPES EXPOSED TO AGGRESSIVE WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Coatings containing iron were found on asbestos-cement pipes exposed to a range of water qualities from very aggressive to nonaggressive. Under aggressive water conditions iron coatings had a granular, porous structure that prevented asbestos fibers from being exposed on the surf...

140

Lead pipe scale analysis using broad-beam argon ion milling to elucidate drinking water corrosion.  

PubMed

Herein, we characterized lead pipe scale removed from a drinking water distribution system using argon ion beam etching and a variety of solids analysis approaches. Specifically, pipe scale cross sections and solids were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, and acid digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses. The pipe scale consisted of at least five layers that contained Pb(II) and Pb(IV) minerals, and magnesium, aluminum, manganese, iron, and silicon solids. The outer layer was enriched with crystalline amorphous manganese and iron, giving it a dark orange to red color. The middle layers consisted of hydrocerussite and plattnerite, and the bottom layer consisted primarily of litharge. Over the litharge layer, hydrocerussite crystals were grown vertically away from the pipe wall, which included formations of plattnerite. Significant amounts of trace contaminant vanadium, likely in the form of vanadinite, and copper accumulated in the scale as well. PMID:21281551

Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N; White, Colin; Lytle, Darren

2011-04-01

141

Stress-related genes define essential steps in the response of maize seedlings to smoke-water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoke from burning vegetation is widely recognised as a germination cue for seed germination and recent reports suggest that\\u000a smoke treatments can improve seedling vigour also. We investigated the effect of smoke-water on seedling vigour and changes\\u000a of the global transcriptome in the early post-germination phase in maize. Application of smoke-water improved the germination\\u000a characteristics and seedling vigour. The transcriptional

Vilmos Soós; Endre Sebestyén; Angéla Juhász; János Pintér; Marnie E. Light; Johannes Van Staden; Ervin Balázs

2009-01-01

142

Steady hydrodynamic loads due to vortex shedding from the OTEC cold water pipe. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report is limited in scope to consideration of the problems caused by vortex shedding from flexible, bluff cylinders in steady current flows, as these problems apply to the OTEC cold water pipe. In particular, the steady deflections caused by the amplified drag forces that accompany vortex-excited oscillations are considered. Emphasis placed upon the discussion of design methods, applications of these methods to practical problems, and comparison with available experimental data. A discussion is given of laboratory and field studies that have been conducted with model OTEC cold water pipes. Various devices that have been developed for the suppression of vortex-excited oscillations also are discussed. A comparison is made of the effectiveness of various suppresion devices and procedures, and practical approaches to implementing their application are presented. The implications of vortex-induced hydrodynamic drag and the suppression of vortex-excited oscillations in OTEC cold water pipe design are discussed briefly.

Griffin, O.M.

1982-01-13

143

Pressure drop, flow pattern and local water volume fraction measurements of oil-water flow in pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil-water flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes was investigated. The experimental activities were performed using the multiphase flow loop at Telemark University College, Porsgrunn, Norway. The experiments were conducted in a 15 m long, 56 mm diameter, inclinable steel pipe using Exxsol D60 oil (density of 790 kg m-3 and viscosity of 1.64 mPa s) and water (density of 996 kg m-3 and viscosity of 1.00 mPa s) as test fluids. The test pipe inclination was changed in the range from 5° upward to 5° downward. Mixture velocity and inlet water cut vary up to 1.50 m s-1 and 0.975, respectively. The time-averaged cross-sectional distributions of oil and water were measured with a single-beam gamma densitometer. The pressure drop along the test section of the pipe was also measured. The characterization of flow patterns and identification of their boundaries are achieved via visual observations and by analysis of local water volume fraction measurements. The observed flow patterns were presented in terms of flow pattern maps for different pipe inclinations. In inclined flows, dispersions appear at lower mixture velocities compared to the horizontal flows. Smoothly stratified flows observed in the horizontal pipe disappeared in upwardly inclined pipes and new flow patterns, plug flow and stratified wavy flow were observed. The water-in-oil dispersed flow regime slightly shrinks as the pipe inclination increases. In inclined flows, the dispersed oil-in-water flow regime extended to lower mixture velocities and lower inlet water cuts. The present experimental data were compared with the results of a flow-pattern-dependent prediction model, which uses the area-averaged steady-state two-fluid model for stratified flow and the homogeneous model for dispersed flow. The two-fluid model was able to predict the pressure drop and water hold-up for stratified flow. The homogeneous model was not able to predict the pressure profile of dispersed oil-water flow at higher water cuts. The two-fluid model and the homogeneous model over-predict the pressure drop for dual-continuous flow.

Kumara, W. A. S.; Halvorsen, B. M.; Melaaen, M. C.

2009-11-01

144

Experimental testing and modeling analysis of solute mixing at water distribution pipe junctions.  

PubMed

Flow dynamics at a pipe junction controls particle trajectories, solute mixing and concentrations in downstream pipes. The effect can lead to different outcomes of water quality modeling and, hence, drinking water management in a distribution network. Here we have investigated solute mixing behavior in pipe junctions of five hydraulic types, for which flow distribution factors and analytical equations for network modeling are proposed. First, based on experiments, the degree of mixing at a cross is found to be a function of flow momentum ratio that defines a junction flow distribution pattern and the degree of departure from complete mixing. Corresponding analytical solutions are also validated using computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) simulations. Second, the analytical mixing model is further extended to double-Tee junctions. Correspondingly the flow distribution factor is modified to account for hydraulic departure from a cross configuration. For a double-Tee(A) junction, CFD simulations show that the solute mixing depends on flow momentum ratio and connection pipe length, whereas the mixing at double-Tee(B) is well represented by two independent single-Tee junctions with a potential water stagnation zone in between. Notably, double-Tee junctions differ significantly from a cross in solute mixing and transport. However, it is noted that these pipe connections are widely, but incorrectly, simplified as cross junctions of assumed complete solute mixing in network skeletonization and water quality modeling. For the studied pipe junction types, analytical solutions are proposed to characterize the incomplete mixing and hence may allow better water quality simulation in a distribution network. PMID:24675269

Shao, Yu; Jeffrey Yang, Y; Jiang, Lijie; Yu, Tingchao; Shen, Cheng

2014-06-01

145

[Asbestos concentrations in drinking water. Asbestos cement pipes and geogenic sources in Austria].  

PubMed

Sources of asbestos in drinking water may be natural deposits or the use of asbestos cement for water distribution. 50 water samples were selected in Austria to detect fibre contamination from either geology or asbestos cement by comparison with control areas and by comparison of raw and treated water. Standardized EPA/BGA methodology with transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and selected area electron diffraction was used to quantify concentrations of different sized amphibole and chrysotile fibres. In 10 areas with asbestos deposits and in 14 areas with use of asbestos cement pipes asbestos concentrations in drinking water were low and not significantly different from 6 control areas (median 32,000 total asbestos fibres per litre). The relative highest concentration was found in an area with natural deposits at the source of the water supply (190,000 per litre). In areas without natural deposits the increase of asbestos concentrations from origin to consumer of water was not significant and unrelated to water aggressiveness, age and length of asbestos cement pipes. This could be mainly due to the fact that in areas with aggressive water asbestos cement pipes have been coated in Austria. A sample from a cistern, however, showed considerable asbestos contamination and raises concern about the use of surface water for room air humidification. PMID:9376056

Neuberger, M; Frank, W; Golob, P; Warbichler, P

1996-03-01

146

Microbiologically induced corrosion of copper pipes in low-pH water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper was to study the influence of microbial biofilms on the high copper levels measured in the drinking water of rural houses. Drinking water parameters and copper pipe surfaces were analysed in the copper plumbing systems of rural and urban houses. The water in rural houses had pH values of 6.2 and alkalinity values of 63mg\\/L

A. Reyes; M. V. Letelier; R. De la Iglesia; B. González; G. Lagos

2008-01-01

147

Particle image velocimetry for characterizing the flow structure of oil–water flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simultaneous flow of oil and water in pipelines is a common occurrence in the chemical and process industry. An experimental investigation of oil–water flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes is presented in this paper. The experiments are performed in a 15m long stainless steel pipe section with internal diameter 56mm at room temperature and atmospheric outlet pressure. Exxsol

W. A. S. Kumara; B. M. Halvorsen; M. C. Melaaen

2010-01-01

148

A study of the microbiological-corrosion products of steel and cast iron pipes in fresh water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological corrosion is one of the most common corrosive processes found in steel, cast iron and other metals placed in soil, sea water and fresh water. We have studied this type of corrosion development process in steel and cast iron pipes. This corrosion process shows tubercular morphology on the inside surface of pipes. Resulting corrosion products have been examined by:

B. Badan; M. Magrini; E. Ramous

1991-01-01

149

The decay of chlorine associated with the pipe wall in water distribution systems.  

PubMed

Free chlorine decay rates in water distribution systems for bulk and wall demands should be modelled separately as they have different functional dependencies. Few good quality determinations of in situ wall demand have been made due to the difficulty of monitoring live systems and due to their complexity. Wall demands have been calculated from field measurements at 11 locations in a distribution system fed from a single source. A methodology for the laboratory determination has been evolved and shown to give results that are similar to the in situ results. Pipe materials were classified as either having high reactivity (unlined iron mains) or low reactivity (PVC, MDPE and cement-lined ductile iron). The results indicate that wall decay rates for the former are limited by chlorine transport and for the latter by pipe material characteristics. The wall decay rate is inversely related to initial chlorine concentration for low reactivity pipes. In general, water velocity increases wall decay rates though the statistical confidence is low for low reactivity pipes. A moderate biofilm coating did not influence the wall decay rate for low reactivity pipes. PMID:12230193

Hallam, N B; West, J R; Forster, C F; Powell, J C; Spencer, I

2002-08-01

150

PVC-piping promotes growth of Ralstonia pickettii in dialysis water treatment facilities.  

PubMed

Biofilms forming inside dialysis water treatment systems are one of the main sources of microbiological contamination. Among the bacteria found in biofilms, Ralstonia pickettii is frequently encountered in dialysis water treatment systems and has been shown to develop extreme oligotrophic talents. In Austria, R. pickettii was exclusively detected in high numbers in dialysis water treatment facilities equipped with chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C) piping. In this laboratory study it was shown that PVC-C effectively promotes growth of R. pickettii biofilms, while residual organic carbon in purified dialysis water is sufficient for promoting substantial growth of planktic R. pickettii. This provides evidence that PVC-C is an unsuitable material for piping in dialysis water treatment systems. PMID:23985526

Dombrowsky, Matthias; Kirschner, Alexander; Sommer, Regina

2013-01-01

151

A COMPARISON OF RESIDENTIAL COPPER PIPES CARRYING HOT AND COLD WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Each year, the U.S. EPA examines numerous lead, iron, and copper pipes pulled from active use in homes and drinking water distribution systems throughout the United States. The intent of the work is to better understand factors that influence the release of metals into drinking ...

152

Failure Analysis of Cracked Head Spray Piping from the Dresden Unit 2 Boiling Water Reactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several sections of Type 304 stainless steel head spray piping, 6.25 cm (2.5 in.) in diameter, from the Dresden Unit 2 Boiling Water Reactor were examined to determine the nature and causes of coolant leakages detected during hydrostatic tests. Extensive ...

D. R. Diercks G. M. Dragel

1983-01-01

153

OTEC cold water pipe design for problems caused by vortex-excited oscillations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to survey recent results pertaining to the vortex-excited oscillations of structures in general and to consider the application of these findings to the design of the OTEC Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion cold water pipe. Practical design calculations are given as examples throughout the various sections of the report. This paper is limited in scope

O GRIFFIN

1981-01-01

154

GAMMA FACILITY, TRA641. PIPING LAYOUT FOR DEMINERALIZED WATER, DRAINS, SUMP. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GAMMA FACILITY, TRA-641. PIPING LAYOUT FOR DEMINERALIZED WATER, DRAINS, SUMP. PICTORIAL VIEW OF CANAL AND LOCATION OF INPUTS AND DRAINS. IDAHO OPERATIONS OFFICE MTR-641-IDO-15P, 10/1954. INL INDEX NO. 531-0641-00-396-110615, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

155

EFFECT OF SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE ON THE STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF POLYETHYLENE PIPES FOR POTABLE WATER CONVEYANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental research is presented aimed at determine the effect of disinfectants on high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipes, commonly employed in modern urban networks for water conveyance. The test campaign is oriented to the analysis of PE100, for alimentary use, with a nominal diameter DN 32. The effect of sodium hypochlorite at a constant concentration of 2.5 ppm is investigated,

D. Castagnetti; E. Dragoni; G. Scirè Mammano; N. Fontani; I Nuccini; V. Sartori

156

A statistical treatment of accelerated life test data for copper-water heat pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical method is proposed to treat accelerated life test data conducted at several elevated temperatures for a sufficient number of commercially available Cu-water heat pipes to predict the operation life. The temperature distribution measurements periodically carried out yield both data sets concerning the temperature drop and the gas column length as measures of noncondensible gas accumulation. The gas analysis

M. Murakami; K. Arai; Y. Kojima

1988-01-01

157

Surface Characterization on Corrosion By-products on Cu in Drinking Water Pipes  

EPA Science Inventory

Copper is widely used in house-hold plumbing due to its anti-corrosion property. However, as water travels within the distribution system into corroded copper pipes, copper may be released into consumer?s tap causing major problems. In an attempt to understand the mechanism and...

158

Predicting the Migration Rate of Dialkyl Organotins from PVC Pipe into Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Organotins (OTs) are additives widely used as thermal and light stabilizers in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. OTs can leach into water flowing through PVC pipes. This work examines the leaching rates of two neurotoxic OTs, dimethyl tin (DMT) and dibutyl tin (DBT), from PVC pi...

159

THE BEHAVIOR OF ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPE UNDER VARIOUS WATER QUALITY CONDITIONS: PART 2, THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Field, pilot-plant, and theoretical studies show that asbestos-cement pipe can be used safely to transport drinking water provided that certain constraints, based on complicated chemical factors, are observed. Natural inhibitory factors, not calcite saturation, are the common pro...

160

Lightweight concrete OTEC cold water pipe tests, Phase II. Special reports  

SciTech Connect

A 1/3-scale model of a cold water pipe (CWP) for a 40 MW/sub e/ (nominal) OTEC plantship was constructed of reinforced lightweight concrete and tested to destruction. Failure occurred at approximately 138% of the design load for the once-in 100-year-storm condition in the Atlantic-1 siting area (5 to 15/sup 0/S, 20 to 30/sup 0/W). The concept of using Neoprene bearing pads to provide flexibility of the joint between pipe segments was also verified. Measured deflections and stresses generally agreed with computer-generated predictions and validated the design methods used.

O'Connor, J.S. (ed.)

1981-03-01

161

Piping benchmark problems for the General Electric Advanced Boiling Water Reactor  

SciTech Connect

To satisfy the need for verification of the computer programs and modeling techniques that will be used to perform the final piping analyses for an advanced boiling water reactor standard design, three benchmark problems were developed. The problems are representative piping systems subjected to representative dynamic loads with solutions developed using the methods being proposed for analysis for the advanced reactor standard design. It will be required that the combined license holders demonstrate that their solutions to these problems are in agreement with the benchmark problem set.

Bezler, P.; DeGrassi, G.; Braverman, J.; Wang, Y.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (US)

1993-08-01

162

[Effect of biofilm on the corrosion and fouling of cast iron pipe for water supply].  

PubMed

The crystalline phase and the element composition in the scales on cast iron pipe for drinking water was identified with XRD and XPS respectively to investigate the effect of biofilm existence on the corrosion and fouling of cast iron pipe. The total iron concentration in the water phase was measured simultaneously. The results showed that on 0-7 d the total iron concentration was higher in the water phase of the group with biofilm growth, but on 15-30 d it was higher in the water phase of the control without biofilm growth. The major peak of XRD patterns for the scales with biofilm growth was characterized as Fe oxide, while for the scales in the control it was always characterized as CaCO3. As presented by XPS atomic ratio, the Ca atomic percentage in the scales with biofilm growth was lower than that in the scales in the control, which might be contributed to the Ca2+ absorption by extracellular polymeric substances or Ca2+ consumption by microorganism growth. In comparison with that in the scales in the control, the iron atomic percentage in the scales with biofilm growth was higher on 7 d, while lower after 7 d. It can be concluded that on 0-7 d the existence of biofilm could promote the corrosion of cast iron pipe while inhibit corrosion after 7 d. The variance of major peak of XRD pattern and XPS atomic ratio indicated that biofilm had important effect on the configuration and composition of the scales of cast iron pipe. The corrosion inhibition of biofilm thus provided a new pathway to control the corrosion of metal pipes in drinking water distribution system. PMID:19402487

Teng, Fei; Guan, Yun-Tao; Li, Sha-Sha; Zhu, Wan-Peng

2009-02-15

163

Evaluation of cracking in steam generator feedwater piping in pressurized water reactor plants  

SciTech Connect

Cracking in feedwater piping was detected near the inlet to steam generators in 15 pressurized water reactor plants. Sections with cracks from nine plants are examined with the objective of identifying the cracking mechanism and assessing various factors that might contribute to this cracking. Using transmission electron microscopy, fatigue striations are observed on replicas of cleaned crack surfaces. Calculations based on the observed striation spacings gave a cyclic stress value of 150 MPa (22 ksi) for one of the major cracks. The direction of crack propagation was invariably related to the piping surface and not to the piping axis. These two factors are consistent with the proposed concept of thermally induced, cyclic, tensile surface stresses and it is concluded that the overriding factor in the cracking problem was the presence of such undocumented cyclic loads.

Goldberg, A.; Streit, R.D.

1981-05-01

164

Erosion corrosion in stainless steel pipe under water vapour two-phase flow conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-speed two-phase water vapour flows in the outlet portion pipes of nuclear power stations. Erosion corrosion experiments of stainless steel were performed by the use of Component Test Loop, in which high-temperature pressurized water vapour is circulated, under test conditions of all volatile treatment with steam phase velocities 10–40m\\/s (steam quality 15%). The erosion corrosion losses were estimated by weight

Mitsutaka H. Koike

2006-01-01

165

Effect of sulfate on the transformation of corrosion scale composition and bacterial community in cast iron water distribution pipes.  

PubMed

The chemical stability of iron corrosion scales and the microbial community of biofilm in drinking water distribution system (DWDS) can have great impact on the iron corrosion and corrosion product release, which may result in "red water" issues, particularly under the situation of source water switch. In this work, experimental pipe loops were set up to investigate the effect of sulfate on the dynamical transformation characteristics of iron corrosion products and bacterial community in old cast iron distribution pipes. All the test pipes were excavated from existing DWDS with different source water supply histories, and the test water sulfate concentration was in the range of 50-350 mg/L. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA was used for bacterial community analysis. The results showed that iron release increased markedly and even "red water" occurred for pipes with groundwater supply history when feed water sulfate elevated abruptly. However, the iron release of pipes with only surface water supply history changed slightly without noticeable color even the feed water sulfate increased multiply. The thick-layered corrosion scales (or densely distributed tubercles) on pipes with surface water supply history possessed much higher stability due to the larger proportion of stable constituents (mainly Fe3O4) in their top shell layer; instead, the rather thin and uniform non-layered corrosion scales on pipes with groundwater supply history contained relatively higher proportion of less stable iron oxides (e.g. ?-FeOOH, FeCO3 and green rust). The less stable corrosion scales tended to be more stable with sulfate increase, which was evidenced by the gradually decreased iron release and the increased stable iron oxides. Bacterial community analysis indicated that when switching to high sulfate water, iron reducing bacteria (IRB) maintained dominant for pipes with stable corrosion scales, while significant increase of sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB), sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron oxidizing bacteria (IOB) was observed for pipes with less stable corrosion scales. PMID:24784453

Yang, Fan; Shi, Baoyou; Bai, Yaohui; Sun, Huifang; Lytle, Darren A; Wang, Dongsheng

2014-08-01

166

Design, Fabrication, and Testing of High Capacity High-Temperature Monel/Water Heat Pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A development program was completed to demonstrate key technologies required for the JIMO Heat Pipe Radiator. Part of this work included the design, assembly, and performance testing of two favorable wick designs in full length water heat pipes. A parametric study identified CP-2 titanium and Monel K-500 alloys as favorable envelope materials. The design effort also identified two promising wick designs Based on porous-walled axially grooves. Several heat pipes of each design were assembled and tested. The heat pipes were tested at temperatures up to 300 °C under several tilt conditions. A sintered groove evaporator design operated at up to 1500 W against gravity at temperatures between 280 °C and 300 °C, and an inverted meniscus evaporator designs operated at up to 1200 W at similar temperature and tilt conditions. Based on the test results, the sintered groove wick design is recommended for further development. One of the heat pipes was also subjected to a startup from an initially frozen condition. A neon inert gas charge of 16 cc was added to the devices to promote successful frozen startup. A favorable response observed from this test provides confidence that the design will survive and operate under a frozen startup condition.

Rosenfeld, John H.; Drolen, Bruce L.; Lu, Cheng-Yi

2006-01-01

167

Effect of disinfectant, water age, and pipe materials on bacterial and eukaryotic community structure in drinking water biofilm.  

PubMed

Availability of safe, pathogen-free drinking water is vital to public health; however, it is impossible to deliver sterile drinking water to consumers. Recent microbiome research is bringing new understanding to the true extent and diversity of microbes that inhabit water distribution systems. The purpose of this study was to determine how water chemistry in main distribution lines shape the microbiome in drinking water biofilms and to explore potential associations between opportunistic pathogens and indigenous drinking water microbes. Effects of disinfectant (chloramines, chlorine), water age (2.3 days, 5.7 days), and pipe material (cement, iron, PVC) were compared in parallel triplicate simulated water distribution systems. Pyrosequencing was employed to characterize bacteria and terminal restriction fragment polymorphism was used to profile both bacteria and eukaryotes inhabiting pipe biofilms. Disinfectant and water age were both observed to be strong factors in shaping bacterial and eukaryotic community structures. Pipe material only influenced the bacterial community structure (ANOSIM test, P < 0.05). Interactive effects of disinfectant, pipe material, and water age on both bacteria and eukaryotes were noted. Disinfectant concentration had the strongest effect on bacteria, while dissolved oxygen appeared to be a major driver for eukaryotes (BEST test). Several correlations of similarity metrics among populations of bacteria, eukaryotes, and opportunistic pathogens, as well as one significant association between mycobacterial and proteobacterial operational taxonomic units, provides insight into means by which manipulating the microbiome may lead to new avenues for limiting the growth of opportunistic pathogens (e.g., Legionella) or other nuisance organisms (e.g., nitrifiers). PMID:24401122

Wang, Hong; Masters, Sheldon; Edwards, Marc A; Falkinham, Joseph O; Pruden, Amy

2014-02-01

168

Effect of pipe corrosion scales on chlorine dioxide consumption in drinking water distribution systems.  

PubMed

Previous studies showed that temperature and total organic carbon in drinking water would cause chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) loss in a water distribution system and affect the efficiency of ClO(2) for Legionella control. However, among the various causes of ClO(2) loss in a drinking water distribution system, the loss of disinfectant due to the reaction with corrosion scales has not been studied in detail. In this study, the corrosion scales from a galvanized iron pipe and a copper pipe that have been in service for more than 10 years were characterized by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The impact of these corrosion scale materials on ClO(2) decay was investigated in de-ionized water at 25 and 45 degrees C in a batch reactor with floating glass cover. ClO(2) decay was also investigated in a specially designed reactor made from the iron and copper pipes to obtain more realistic reaction rate data. Goethite (alpha-FeOOH) and magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) were identified as the main components of iron corrosion scale. Cuprite (Cu(2)O) was identified as the major component of copper corrosion scale. The reaction rate of ClO(2) with both iron and copper oxides followed a first-order kinetics. First-order decay rate constants for ClO(2) reactions with iron corrosion scales obtained from the used service pipe and in the iron pipe reactor itself ranged from 0.025 to 0.083 min(-1). The decay rate constant for ClO(2) with Cu(2)O powder and in the copper pipe reactor was much smaller and it ranged from 0.0052 to 0.0062 min(-1). Based on these results, it can be concluded that the corrosion scale will cause much more significant ClO(2) loss in corroded iron pipes of the distribution system than the total organic carbon that may be present in finished water. PMID:17884130

Zhang, Zhe; Stout, Janet E; Yu, Victor L; Vidic, Radisav

2008-01-01

169

The short pipe path ? safe water, energy & nutrient recovery  

EPA Science Inventory

The step-by-step refinement of our urban water systems has yielded unsustainable, centralized urban water services in many developed regions of the world. These large systems also provide the wrong role model and promote conservative thinking for the rapidly developing regions of...

170

Wireless monitoring of the height of condensed water in steam pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wireless health monitoring system has been developed for determining the height of water condensation in steam pipes. The data acquisition in this system is done remotely using a wireless network system. The developed system is designed to operate in the harsh manhole environment and the pipe temperature of over 200 °C. The test method is an ultrasonic pulse-echo and the hardware that includes a pulser, receiver, a data processor and wireless modem for communication. Data acquisition and signal processing software were developed to determine the water height using adaptive signal processing and data communication that can be controlled while the hardware is installed in a manhole. A statistical decision-making tool is being developed based on the field test data to determine the height of the condensed water height under high noise conditions and other environmental factors.

Lee, Hyeong Jae; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Badescu, Mircea; Dingizian, Arsham; Takano, Nobuyuki; Blosiu, Julian O.

2014-04-01

171

WATER SUPPLY PIPE REPLACEMENT CONSIDERING SUSTAINABLE TRANSITION TO POPULATION DECREASED SOCIETY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social infrastructures are aging and population is decreasing in Japan. The aged social infrastructures should be renewed. At the same time, they are required to be moved into new framework suitable for population decreased societies. Furthermore, they have to continue to supply sufficient services even during transition term that renewal projects are carried out. Authors propose sustainable soft landing management of infrastructures and it is tried to apply to water supply pipe replacement in this study. Methodology to replace aged pipes not only aiming for the new water supply network which suits for population decreased condition but also ensuring supply service and feasibility while the project is carried out was developed. It is applied for a model water supply network and discussions were carried out.

Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Iwasaki, Yoji; Aklog, Dagnachew; Masuda, Takanori

172

EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDY OF THE USE OF ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPE FOR THE DISTRIBUTION OF DRINKING WATER IN ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

Cancer mortality for the population census tracts of Escambia County, Florida, using asbestos-cement (A/C) pipe for public potable water distribution was compared with cancer mortality data collected from census tracts in the same county using other types of piping materials. An ...

173

Epidemiology study of the use of asbestos-cement pipe for the distribution of drinking water in Escambia County, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer mortality for the population census tracts of Escambia County, Florida was compared with cancer mortality data collected from census tracts elsewhere within the same county. In the first group asbestos-cement (AC) pipe was used for public potable water distribution. In the second group other types of piping material are used. The differences in standard mortality ratios for seven cancer

J. R. Millette; G. F. Craun; J. A. Stober; D. F. Kraemer; H. G. Tousignant

1983-01-01

174

DETECTING WATER FLOW BEHIND PIPE IN INJECTION WELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency require that an injection well exhibit both internal and external mechanical integrity. he external mechanical integrity consideration is that there is no significant fluid movement into an underground source of drinking water th...

175

DETECTING WATER FLOW BEHIND PIPE IN INJECTION WELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency require that an injection well exhibit both internal and external mechanical integrity. The external mechanical integrity consideration is that there is no significant fluid movement into an underground source of drinking water ...

176

Temporal variations in the abundance and composition of biofilm communities colonizing drinking water distribution pipes.  

PubMed

Pipes that transport drinking water through municipal drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) are challenging habitats for microorganisms. Distribution networks are dark, oligotrophic and contain disinfectants; yet microbes frequently form biofilms attached to interior surfaces of DWDS pipes. Relatively little is known about the species composition and ecology of these biofilms due to challenges associated with sample acquisition from actual DWDS. We report the analysis of biofilms from five pipe samples collected from the same region of a DWDS in Florida, USA, over an 18 month period between February 2011 and August 2012. The bacterial abundance and composition of biofilm communities within the pipes were analyzed by heterotrophic plate counts and tag pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, respectively. Bacterial numbers varied significantly based on sampling date and were positively correlated with water temperature and the concentration of nitrate. However, there was no significant relationship between the concentration of disinfectant in the drinking water (monochloramine) and the abundance of bacteria within the biofilms. Pyrosequencing analysis identified a total of 677 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (3% distance) within the biofilms but indicated that community diversity was low and varied between sampling dates. Biofilms were dominated by a few taxa, specifically Methylomonas, Acinetobacter, Mycobacterium, and Xanthomonadaceae, and the dominant taxa within the biofilms varied dramatically between sampling times. The drinking water characteristics most strongly correlated with bacterial community composition were concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, total chlorine and monochloramine, as well as alkalinity and hardness. Biofilms from the sampling date with the highest nitrate concentration were the most abundant and diverse and were dominated by Acinetobacter. PMID:24858562

Kelly, John J; Minalt, Nicole; Culotti, Alessandro; Pryor, Marsha; Packman, Aaron

2014-01-01

177

Temporal Variations in the Abundance and Composition of Biofilm Communities Colonizing Drinking Water Distribution Pipes  

PubMed Central

Pipes that transport drinking water through municipal drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) are challenging habitats for microorganisms. Distribution networks are dark, oligotrophic and contain disinfectants; yet microbes frequently form biofilms attached to interior surfaces of DWDS pipes. Relatively little is known about the species composition and ecology of these biofilms due to challenges associated with sample acquisition from actual DWDS. We report the analysis of biofilms from five pipe samples collected from the same region of a DWDS in Florida, USA, over an 18 month period between February 2011 and August 2012. The bacterial abundance and composition of biofilm communities within the pipes were analyzed by heterotrophic plate counts and tag pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, respectively. Bacterial numbers varied significantly based on sampling date and were positively correlated with water temperature and the concentration of nitrate. However, there was no significant relationship between the concentration of disinfectant in the drinking water (monochloramine) and the abundance of bacteria within the biofilms. Pyrosequencing analysis identified a total of 677 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (3% distance) within the biofilms but indicated that community diversity was low and varied between sampling dates. Biofilms were dominated by a few taxa, specifically Methylomonas, Acinetobacter, Mycobacterium, and Xanthomonadaceae, and the dominant taxa within the biofilms varied dramatically between sampling times. The drinking water characteristics most strongly correlated with bacterial community composition were concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, total chlorine and monochloramine, as well as alkalinity and hardness. Biofilms from the sampling date with the highest nitrate concentration were the most abundant and diverse and were dominated by Acinetobacter.

Kelly, John J.; Minalt, Nicole; Culotti, Alessandro; Pryor, Marsha; Packman, Aaron

2014-01-01

178

Corrosion in drinking water pipes: The importance of green rusts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex crystallographic composition of the corrosion products is studied by diffraction methods and results obtained after different pre-treatment of samples are compared. The green rusts are found to be much more abundant in corrosion scales than it has been assumed so far. The characteristic and crystallographic composition of corrosion scales and deposits suspended in steady waters were analyzed by X-ray

Joanna ?wietlik; Urszula Raczyk-Stanis?awiak; Pawe? Piszora; Jacek Nawrocki

179

Construction and testing of ceramic fabric heat pipe with water working fluid  

SciTech Connect

A prototype ceramic fabric/titanium water heat pipe has been constructed and tested; it transported 25 to 80 W of power at 423 K. Component development and testing is continuing with the aim of providing an improved prototype, with a 38-{mu}m stainless steel linear covered by a biaxially-braided Nextel (trademark of the 3M Co., St. Paul Minnesota) sleeve that is approximately 300-{mu}m thick. This fabric has been tested to 800 K, and its emittance is about 0.5 at that temperature. Advanced versions of the water heat pipe will probably require a coating over the ceramic fabric in order to increase this emittance to the 0.8 to 0.9 range. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Antoniak, Z.I.; Webb, B.J.; Bates, J.M.; Cooper, M.F.

1991-01-01

180

Qualification Requirements of Guided Ultrasonic Waves for Inspection of Piping in Light Water Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Guided ultrasonic waves (GUW) are being increasingly used for both NDT and monitoring of piping. GUW offers advantages over many conventional NDE technologies due to the ability to inspect large volumes of piping components without significant removal of thermal insulation or protective layers. In addition, regions rendered inaccessible to more conventional NDE technologies may be more accessible using GUW techniques. For these reasons, utilities are increasingly considering the use of GUWs for performing the inspection of piping components in nuclear power plants. GUW is a rapidly evolving technology and its usage for inspection of nuclear power plant components requires refinement and qualification to ensure it is able to achieve consistent and acceptable levels of performance. This paper will discuss potential requirements for qualification of GUW techniques for the inspection of piping components in light water reactors (LWRs). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has adopted ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code requirements in Sections V, III, and XI for nondestructive examination methods, fabrication inspections, and pre-service and in-service inspections. A Section V working group has been formed to place the methodology of GUW into the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code but no requirements for technique, equipment, or personnel exist in the Code at this time.

Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Doctor, Steven R.; Bond, Leonard J.

2013-08-01

181

Modeling of waste heat recovery by looped water-in-steel heat pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling and simulation of a water-in-steel heat pipe heat recovery system is undertaken in this paper. The heat recovery system consists of a looped two-phase thermosyphon that receives heat from the stack of a gas turbine engine and delivers it to the generator of an NH3?H20 absorption chiller. Variations in the operating temperature as well as evaporator geometry are investigated,

M. Akyurt; N. J. Lamfon; Y. S. H. Najjar; M. H. Habeebullah; T. Y. Alp

1995-01-01

182

Critical stationary efflux of boiling water through a pipe and a nozzle  

SciTech Connect

The formulation and results of a numerical experiment on the stationary critical efflux of boiling water through relatively short pipes (L/D = 3--20, Lapprox. <0.8 m) and channels of the Laval nozzle type under moderate pressures at the inlet to the channel (papprox. <16 MPa) are examined using the thermodynamically equilibrium quasi-one-dimensional one-velocity model of a two-phase bubble flow.

Nigmatulin, B.I.; Soplenkov, K.I.; Blinkov, V.N.

1987-07-01

183

Evaluation and Analysis of Current Compaction Methods for FDOT Pipe Trench Backfills in Areas of High Water Tables.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research project was undertaken to examine the practicality and adequacy of the FDOT specifications regarding compaction methods for pipe trench backfills under high water table. Given the difficulty to determine density and to attain desired degree ...

I. Ahmad J. M. Dye J. D. Mitrani R. A. Baier

1999-01-01

184

OTEC cold water pipe design for problems caused by vortex-excited oscillations  

SciTech Connect

Vortex-excited oscillations of marine structures result in reduced fatigue life, large hydrodynamic forces and induced stresses, and sometimes lead to structural damage and to diestructive failures. The cold water pipe of an OTEC plant is nominally a bluff, flexible cylinder with a large aspect ratio (L/D = length/diameter), and is likely to be susceptible to resonant vortex-excited oscillations. The objective of this report is to survey recent results pertaining to the vortex-excited oscillations of structures in general and to consider the application of these findings to the design of the OTEC cold water pipe. Practical design calculations are given as examples throughout the various sections of the report. This report is limited in scope to the problems of vortex shedding from bluff, flexible structures in steady currents and the resulting vortex-excited oscillations. The effects of flow non-uniformities, surface roughness of the cylinder, and inclination to the incident flow are considered in addition to the case of a smooth cyliner in a uniform stream. Emphasis is placed upon design procedures, hydrodynamic coefficients applicable in practice, and the specification of structural response parameters relevant to the OTEC cold water pipe. There are important problems associated with in shedding of vortices from cylinders in waves and from the combined action of waves and currents, but these complex fluid/structure interactions are not considered in this report.

Griffin, O. M.

1980-03-14

185

Water quality criteria for colored smokes: Solvent Yellow 33, Final report. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

The available data on the environmental fate, aquatic toxicity, and mammalian toxicity of Solvent Yellow 33, a quinoline dye used in colored smoke grenades, were reviewed. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidelines were used in an attempt to generate water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and its use and of human health. 87 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

Davidson, K.A.; Hovatter, P.S.

1987-11-01

186

Elimination or control of material problems in water heat pipes. Annual progress report, January 1December 31, 1974  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the research and development efforts conducted at McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company on water heat pipes from January 1 to December 31, 1974. A definition was made of water heat pipe associated with a parabolic cylindrical solar collector that will operate in the temperature range of ambient to 300°C. A literature survey was conducted on the problem of

Pittinato

1975-01-01

187

Heat transfer to air–water annular flow in a horizontal pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-phase air–water flow and heat transfer in a 25mm internal diameter horizontal pipe were investigated experimentally. The water superficial velocity varied from 24.2m\\/s to 41.5m\\/s and the air superficial velocity varied from 0.02m\\/s to 0.09m\\/s. The aim of the study was to determine the heat transfer coefficient and its connection to flow pattern and liquid film thickness. The flow patterns

R. Zimmerman; M. Gurevich; A. Mosyak; R. Rozenblit; G. Hetsroni

2006-01-01

188

Optimal fund assignment and allocation models for pipe repair maintenance in leaky water distribution networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In pipe repair maintenance operations for leaky water distribution networks in cities, it is usually the practice that whenever pipe leaks are detected, repair actions are undertaken until the funds assigned are exhausted. The allocation of limited repair funds to different pipe sections is normally done without careful quantitative analysis but according to an intuitive rule, whereby the section of the larger leak volume receives the larger share of funds. This paper proposes a new modeling approach to determine optimal repair fund allocation to different sections of a city. A basic periodic-review stochastic demand inventory model is first applied to ascertain the optimal funds to be assigned to a city under an assumption of no fund limitation. The model is then extended to determine the optimal allocation of the limited funds to different sections of a city. The models minimize the expected total system cost composed of repair cost, storage cost (of spare parts and materials), and penalty cost for water loss due to lack of funds. Numerical experiments are then conducted to illustrate the applicability of the proposed models, and the characteristics of the optimal solutions with regard to parameter variations are investigated. Data used in the numerical example are taken from actual data of the secondary network of Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam.

Bach, Nguyen Luong; Fujiwara, Okitsugu; Luong, Huynh Trung

2000-05-01

189

Seasonal Comparison of Observed Water Vapor Enhancement in Prescribed Fire Smoke Plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ measurements of temperature and relative humidity were obtained during multiple prescribed fires in a longleaf pine ecosystem at the Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center at Ichauway, Georgia in July 2008 and January 2009. A 10 m tower was constructed to capture fire front plume conditions, while radiosondes were launched so smoke plume characteristics aloft could be quantified. As soon as significant smoke from the fire was observed, radiosondes were launched downwind of the fire front and ascended directly into the smoke plumes. Radiosondes were also launched before and after each burn to obtain ambient background conditions. These two measurement platforms provide a unique dataset of smoke plume moisture to determine how moisture enhancement from fire smoke alters the dynamics of the plume. Additionally, seasonal variations in ambient environmental conditions seem to have had an impact on increased plume moisture. Comparisons between summer and winter, as well as tower and radiosonde data will be presented. Results show moisture enhancement occurred in both summer and winter prescribed fires, with tower based measurements capturing greater plume moisture than radiosonde measurements. Preliminary results show plume water vapor mixing ratio was on the order of 1-5 g kg-1 and 0.8-1.4 g kg-1 greater in the summer from tower and radiosonde data, respectively.

Kiefer, C. M.; Clements, C. B.; Potter, B. E.; Strenfel, S. J.; Hiers, J. K.

2009-12-01

190

Experimental Testing and Modeling Analysis of Solute Mixing at Water Distribution Pipe Junctions  

EPA Science Inventory

Flow dynamics at a pipe junction controls particle trajectories, solute mixing and concentrations in downstream pipes. Here we have categorized pipe junctions into five hydraulic types, for which flow distribution factors and analytical equations for describing the solute mixing ...

191

Impact of advanced water conservation features and new copper pipe on rapid chloramine decay and microbial regrowth.  

PubMed

Taste and odor issues occurring in new buildings were attributed to rapid loss of chloramine residual, high levels of microbes in the potable water system, and high water age due to use of advanced water conservation devices. Laboratory experiments confirmed that chloramine could decay rapidly in the presence of new copper pipe, providing a possible explanation for the rapid disinfectant loss in the new buildings. Higher temperature and lower pH also accelerated the rate of chloramine decay in copper pipes. The reaction was slowed by the addition of phosphate inhibitor or aluminum, which presumably formed barriers between the pipe wall and the chloramine in the bulk water. Additional research is needed to better understand how to maintain high quality water in buildings while also conserving water. PMID:22153355

Nguyen, Caroline; Elfland, Carolyn; Edwards, Marc

2012-03-01

192

Secondhand Smoke  

MedlinePLUS

... Secondhand smoke Smoking and How To Quit Secondhand smoke What is secondhand smoke? Dangers of secondhand smoke ... More information on secondhand smoke What is secondhand smoke? Secondhand smoke is the smoke from the burning ...

193

The Effects of Mainstream and Sidestream Environmental Tobacco Smoke Composition for Enhanced Condensational Droplet Growth by Water Vapor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although tobacco smoke is well known for its adverse health effects, the hygroscopicity and droplet growth properties of the aerosol have not been thoroughly explored. In this study, cigarette smoke is further characterized and several state-of-art analysis techniques are applied to understand the effects of particle chemistry and hygroscopicity for enhanced condensational growth by water vapor and wet particle deposition.

Xiaochen Tang; Zhongqing Zheng; Heejung S. Jung; Akua Asa-Awuku

2012-01-01

194

Lifetime Prediction of Polyethylene Pipes Transporting Drinking Water in the Presence of Chlorine Dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A kinetic model for lifetime prediction of polyethylene pipes transporting pressurized water disinfected by chlorine dioxide (DOC) has been elaborated. This model is composed of three sub-models: -A system of differential equations, derived from a realistic mechanistic scheme for radical chain oxidation in the presence of DOC of stabilized polyethylene (PE), giving access to the spatial distribution of structural changes in the pipe wall and its evolution against time of exposure -The classical Saito's equation to predict the profiles of average molar masses from the spatial distribution of chain scissions and crosslinking events -An empirical creep equation and an empirical fracture criterion derived from regression curves obtained in pure water. It is assumed that chemical degradation modifies only the time to transition tc between ductile and brittle regimes of failure, and that tc is linked to the weight average molar mass by a power law. By combining these three sub-models, it is possible to predict the time to failure tF under the coupled effects of pressure and chemical degradation. In current use conditions (under 3-12 bars water pressure, at 15 °C, in the presence of 0.15 mg of DOC per liter of water), the model predicts a tF of the order of 15 years against more than 50 years expected lifetime, that agrees well with experimental results.

Colin, X.; Audouin, L.; Verdu, J.

2008-08-01

195

Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 1. Investigation and evaluation of stress corrosion cracking in piping of boiling water reactor plants  

SciTech Connect

IGSCC in BWR piping is occurring owing to a combination of material, environment, and stress factors, each of which can affect both the initiation of a stress-corrosion crack and the rate of its subsequent propagation. In evaluating long-term solutions to the problem, one needs to consider the effects of each of the proposed remedial actions. Mitigating actions to control IGSCC in BWR piping must be designed to alleviate one or more of the three synergistic factors: sensitized material, the convention BWR environment, and high tensile stresses. Because mitigating actions addressing each of these factors may not be fully effective under all anticipated operating conditions, mitigating actions should address two and preferably all three of the causative factors; e.g., material plus some control of water chemistry, or stress reversal plus controlled water chemistry.

Not Available

1984-08-01

196

Investigation of Temperature Fluctuations Caused by Steam-Water Two-Phase Flow in Pressurizer Spray Piping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a PWR plant, a steam-water two-phase flow may possibly exist in the pressurizer spray pipe under a normal operating condition since the flow rate of the spray water is not sufficient to fill the horizontal section of the pipe completely. Initiation of high cycle fatigue cracks is suspected to occur under such thermally stratified two phase flow conditions due to cyclic thermal stress fluctuations caused by oscillations of the water surface. Such oscillations cannot be detected by the measurement of temperature on outer surface of the pipe. In order to clarify the flow and thermal conditions in the pressurizer spray pipe and assess their impact on the pipe structure, an experiment was conducted for a steam-water flow at a low flow rate using a mock-up pressurizer spray pipe. The maximum temperature fluctuation of about 0.2 times of the steam-water temperature difference was observed at the inner wall around water surface in the test section. Visualization tests were conducted to investigate the temperature fluctuation phenomena. It was shown that the fluid temperature fluctuations were not caused by the waves on the water surface, but were caused by liquid temperature fluctuations in water layer below the interface. The influence of small amount of non-condensable gas dissolved in the reactor coolant on the liquid temperature fluctuation phenomena was investigated by injecting air into the experimental loop. The air injection attenuated the liquid temperature fluctuations in the water layer since the condensation was suppressed by the non- condensable gas. It is not expected that wall temperature fluctuation in the actual PWR plant may exceed the temperature equivalent to the fatigue limit stress amplitude when it is assumed to be proportional to the steam-water temperature difference.

Miyoshi, Koji; Nakamura, Akira; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Oumaya, Toru

197

Sensory aspects and water quality impacts of chlorinated and chloraminated drinking water in contact with HDPE and cPVC pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pipes constructed with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) or chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (cPVC) are commonly used in drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing. In this comprehensive investigation, the effects on odor, organic chemical release, trihalomethane (THM) formation, free chlorine demand and monochloramine demand were determined for water exposed to HDPE and cPVC pipes. The study was conducted in accordance with the

Timothy H. Heim; Andrea M. Dietrich

2007-01-01

198

OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) CWP (Cold Water Pipe) Laboratory Test Program. Materials Project Test Report  

SciTech Connect

Fiberglass sandwich wall structures emerged as leading candidates for the OTEC cold water pipe because of their high strength to weight ratio, their flexibility in selecting directional properties, their resistance to electrochemical interaction, their ease of deployment and their relative low cost. A review of the literature established reasonable confidence that FRP laminates could meet the OTEC requirements; however, little information was available on the performance of core materials suitable for OTEC applications. Syntactic foam cores of various composition and density were developed and tested for mechanical properties and seawater absorption.

Not Available

1981-04-01

199

65. FIRE SUPPRESSION PIPES BEHIND FLAME BUCKET. PIPES TO UMBILICAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

65. FIRE SUPPRESSION PIPES BEHIND FLAME BUCKET. PIPES TO UMBILICAL MAST IN LOWER LEFT CORNER; PIPES TO LAUNCHER IN UPPER LEFT CORNER; PIPES TO FLAME BUCKET IN LOWER RIGHT CORNER OF PHOTOGRAPH. POTABLE WATER PIPING IN UPPER RIGHT CORNER OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

200

Indicators for microbiologically induced corrosion of copper pipes in a cold-water plumbing system.  

PubMed

Corrosion damage in the copper cold-water plumbing system of a large building was investigated. An unusual combination of corrosion patterns was found on the inner copper pipe surfaces that were in contact with water. Damage was in the form of shallow cavities, a surface cover or pinprick-like pits. The corrosion system was influenced by thermal treatment and also by cefoxitin dosing. The latter fact in particular is a clear indication of microbiological involvement in this corrosive action. Different parameters, to be measured in standing water (24-h stagnation), are considered typical for this type of corrosion: the detection of Sphingomonas spec. and other species in whose cell wall regions copper can accumulate, a copper content of more than 2 mg/l, oxygen consumption of more than 4 mg/l and an increase in pH. With the help of these indicators, it is possible to recognize microbiologically induced corrosion in copper plumbing systems before pipe perforation occur. PMID:7727024

Arens, P; Tuschewitzki, G J; Wollmann, M; Follner, H; Jacobi, H

1995-01-01

201

Effect of Cu-water nanofluid on the heat transfer by rotating heat pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a study on the effect of using Cu-water nanofluid on the heat transfer by rotating heat pipe (RHP). A mathematical model is presented of the RHP including, vapor velocity, gravity effect and taper angle. The study is carried out at different rotation speeds, RHP temperatures differences (?T) and masses of working fluid of the RHP. Using of Cu-water nanofluid with RHP decreases the liquid film thickness adjacent to its walls and increases the heat transfer by RHP compared with ordinary fluid. The heat transfer by RHP increases with increasing ?T and volume fraction and radius of solid nanoparticles. The maximum heat transfer by RHP at ?T=20 oC and ?=3000rpm increases by about 56% due to using Cu-water nanofluid with volume fraction 0.04 and nanoparticles radius 5nm.

Hassan, Hamdy; Harmand, Souad

2013-10-01

202

The laboratory scaled-down model of a ground-penetrating radar for leak detection of water pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate the potential of a ground-penetrating radar for leak detection of water pipes, well-controlled experiments allowing flexibility of the involved parameters are necessary. To accomplish this purpose, a laboratory scaled-down model of the radar under leak conditions is proposed here. The laboratory system consisted of a dry sand tank, a pipe and a simulated zone of leakage adjacent to the pipe. The size and burial depth of the pipe were scaled down to about 1/6 of the real world condition. An equivalent leakage model was employed using an acrylic plastic box filled with methanol. A support for the model was provided by acrylic plastic plates and tubes with dry sand filling. The electrical properties of the equivalent leakage and support were verified by measuring their complex permittivities. B-scan radar images were displayed by background removal and neighbouring difference of raw data. For three cases of leaky pipes, the images showed the superimposition of nearly symmetric and inverted hyperbolas produced by non-leaky pipes and the blurring effects caused by the leakage. Thereafter, diffraction tomography was also applied to B-scan images to improve resolution of the pipe and leakage zone.

Hyun, Seung-Yeup; Jo, Yu-Sun; Oh, Heon-Cheol; Kim, Se-Yun; Kim, Young-Sik

2007-09-01

203

Secondhand Smoke  

MedlinePLUS

What is Secondhand Smoke? Secondhand smoke is the combination of smoke that comes from a cigarette and smoke breathed out by a smoker. ... smoking, they breathe in secondhand smoke. Is Secondhand Smoke Dangerous? Secondhand smoke is dangerous to anyone who ...

204

Water quality criteria for colored smokes: 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The available data on the environmental fate, aquatic toxicity, and mammalian toxicity of 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone (DDA), and anthraquinone dye used in violet-colored smoke grenades, were reviewed. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidelines were used in an attempt to generate water quality criteria for the protection of human health and of aquatic life and its uses. DDA will readily oxidize to 1,4-diaminoanthraquinone (DAA) in air or during combustion of the smoke grenade. The dye is insoluble in water; however, no information is available concerning its transformation or transport in soil, water, and sediments. No data are available concerning the toxic effects of DDA in aquatic organisms; therefore, a Criterion maximum Concentration and a Criterion Continuous Concentration cannot be determined. Toxicity studies following the USEPA guidelines are recommended. DDA is a weak mutagen in the Salmonella Reversin Assay, but the combustion or oxidation product, DAA is a strong mutagen in the same test. Violet smoke is noncarcinogenic in the SENCAR Mouse Skin Tumor Bioassay. 63 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Davidson, K.A.; Hovatter, P.S.; Ross, R.H.

1988-01-01

205

Piping Cracks in JPDR, (III)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failure analysis was made on samples taken from type 304 stainless steel piping systems (core spray, unloading and feed water pipes) that had cracked in service. In the core spray pipe, large cracks including one penetrating through the wall were found in the upper half of the pipe wall, within the heat-affected zone of the weld joint between the pipe

Yutaka OGAWA; Masami SHINDO; Masahiko KIKUCHI

1979-01-01

206

Effect of sulfate on the transformation of corrosion scale composition and bacterial community in cast iron water distribution pipes  

EPA Science Inventory

The stability of iron corrosion products and the bacterial composition of biofilm in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) could have great impact on the water safety at the consumer ends. In this work, pipe loops were setup to investigate the transformation characteristics ...

207

Microbiology, chemistry and biofilm development in a pilot drinking water distribution system with copper and plastic pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the changes in water quality and formation of biofilms occurring in a pilot-scale water distribution system with two generally used pipe materials: copper and plastic (polyethylene, PE). The formation of biofilms with time was analysed as the number of total bacteria, heterotrophic plate counts and the concentration of ATP in biofilms. At the end of the experiment (after

Markku J. Lehtola; Ilkka T. Miettinen; Minna M. Keinänen; Tomi K. Kekki; Olli Laine; Arja Hirvonen; Terttu Vartiainen; Pertti J. Martikainen

2004-01-01

208

Review of industry efforts to manage pressurized water reactor feedwater nozzle, piping, and feedring cracking and wall thinning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a review of nuclear industry efforts to manage thermal fatigue, flow-accelerated corrosion, and water hammer damage to pressurized water reactor (PWR) feedwater nozzles, piping, and feedrings. The review includes an evaluation of design modifications, operating procedure changes, augmented inspection and monitoring programs, and mitigation, repair and replacement activities. Four actions were taken: (a) review of field experience

V. N. Shah; A. G. Ware; A. M. Porter

1997-01-01

209

Are There Health Risks from the Migration of Chemical Substances from Plastic Pipes into Drinking Water? A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic pipes used to convey hot and cold drinking water are synthetic polymers containing numerous additives that enhance durability, impact strength, and toughness, and resist material degradation. Although some research studies have been conducted to evaluate the type and levels of chemical substances migrating from polymeric materials into drinking water, the potential adverse health effects associated with these compounds in

Bonnie Ransom Stern; Gustavo Lagos

2008-01-01

210

Determination of Benzo[a]pyrene in smoking-flavour agents (water-soluble liquid smoke) by second derivative constant-wavelength synchronous spectrofluorimetry.  

PubMed

We have developed a simple, rapid, inexpensive method for the determination of benzo[a]pyrene (BP, a known carcinogen) in smoking-flavour agents (water-soluble liquid smoke; WSLS). After purification of the WSLS by a single passage through a Sep Pak C18 Plus cartridge, BP in the hexane eluate was determined by second derivative constant-wavelength synchronous spectrofluorimetry. Method precision (RSD < 6%) and recovery ( approximately 92%) were satisfactory, and the detection and quantification limits (1.05 and 2.28 mug kg(-1) respectively) indicated that the current maximum permissible concentration of BP in smoke flavourings (10 mug kg(-1)) can be monitored by this method. PMID:18966532

García Falcón, S; González Amigo, S; Lage Yusty, M A; López de Alda Villaizán, M J; Simal Lozano, J

1996-04-01

211

Co-current air-water flow in downward sloping pipes: Transport of capacity reducing gas pockets in wastewater mains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air-water flow is an undesired condition in many systems for the transportation of water or wastewater. Air in storm water tunnels may get trapped and negatively affect the system. Air pockets in hydropower tunnels or sewers may cause blow-back events and inadmissible pressure spikes. Water pipes and wastewater pressure mains in particular are subject to air pocket formation in downward-sloping

I. W. M. Pothof

2011-01-01

212

In-pipe water quality monitoring in water supply systems under steady and unsteady state flow conditions: a quantitative assessment.  

PubMed

Monitoring the quality of drinking water from the treatment plant to the consumers tap is critical to ensure compliance with national standards and/or WHO guideline levels. There are a number of processes and factors affecting the water quality during transmission and distribution which are little understood. A significant obstacle for gaining a detailed knowledge of various physical and chemical processes and the effect of the hydraulic conditions on the water quality deterioration within water supply systems is the lack of reliable and low-cost (both capital and O & M) water quality sensors for continuous monitoring. This paper has two objectives. The first one is to present a detailed evaluation of the performance of a novel in-pipe multi-parameter sensor probe for reagent- and membrane-free continuous water quality monitoring in water supply systems. The second objective is to describe the results from experimental research which was conducted to acquire continuous water quality and high-frequency hydraulic data for the quantitative assessment of the water quality changes occurring under steady and unsteady-state flow conditions. The laboratory and field evaluation of the multi-parameter sensor probe showed that the sensors have a rapid dynamic response, average repeatability and unreliable accuracy. The uncertainties in the sensor data present significant challenges for the analysis and interpretation of the acquired data and their use for water quality modelling, decision support and control in operational systems. Notwithstanding these uncertainties, the unique data sets acquired from transmission and distribution systems demonstrated the deleterious effect of unsteady state flow conditions on various water quality parameters. These studies demonstrate: (i) the significant impact of the unsteady-state hydraulic conditions on the disinfectant residual, turbidity and colour caused by the re-suspension of sediments, scouring of biofilms and tubercles from the pipe and increased mixing, and the need for further experimental research to investigate these interactions; (ii) important advances in sensor technologies which provide unique opportunities to study both the dynamic hydraulic conditions and water quality changes in operational systems. The research in these two areas is critical to better understand and manage the water quality deterioration in ageing water transmission and distribution systems. PMID:22094001

Aisopou, Angeliki; Stoianov, Ivan; Graham, Nigel J D

2012-01-01

213

Flexible Pipes-Permeation of Methane, Carbon Dioxide and Water Through Tefzel ETFE: Experiments 1996  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The permeation of a mixture of CH4 and CO2 (97% CH4 and 3% CO2) saturated with water vapour through Tefzel has been studied at 950 C and 25 and 50 bars. Tefzel is the Du Pont trademark of an ETFE (ethylenetetrafluorethylene) which is a copolymer of ethylene and tetrafluorethylene. This material might be used as inner plastic lining of flexible pipes. For methane and carbon dioxide, the permeability of Tefzel is higher than the deplasticized PVDF (Polyvinylidenefluoride), but lower than the plasticized PVDF. For water, the situation seems to be the other way round; Tefzel has a lower permeability than deplasticized PVDF. Whether the permeability tests on Tefzel at higher temperatures and pressures will be pursued or not, will be considered by the steering committee of the CAPP project in May.

Wang, Per Arne; Hydro, Norsk

1997-01-01

214

Analysis of cracked core spray piping from the Quad Cities Unit 2 boiling water reactor  

SciTech Connect

The results of a metallurgical analysis of leaking cracks detected in the core spray injection piping of Commonwealth Edison Company's Quad Cities Unit 2 Boiling Water Reactor are described. The cracks were present in a welded 105/sup 0/ elbow assembly in the line, and were found to be caused by intergranular stress corrosion cracking associated with the probable presence of dissolved oxygen in the reactor cooling water and the presence of grain boundary sensitization and local residual stresses induced by welding. The failure is unusual in several respects, including the very large number of cracks (approximately 40) present in the failed component, the axial orientation of the cracks, and the fact that at least one crack completely penetrated a circumferential weld. Virtually all of the cracking occurred in forged material, and the microstructural evidence presented suggests that the orientation of the cracks was influenced by the presence of axially banded delta ferrite in the microstructure of the forged components.

Diercks, D.R.; Gaitonde, S.M.

1982-09-01

215

Flexible ocean upwelling pipe  

DOEpatents

In an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, a cold water riser pipe is releasably supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. The pipe is substantially vertical and has its lower end far below the hull above the ocean floor. The pipe is defined essentially entirely of a material which has a modulus of elasticity substantially less than that of steel, e.g., high density polyethylene, so that the pipe is flexible and compliant to rather than resistant to applied bending moments. The position of the lower end of the pipe relative to the hull is stabilized by a weight suspended below the lower end of the pipe on a flexible line. The pipe, apart from the weight, is positively buoyant. If support of the upper end of the pipe is released, the pipe sinks to the ocean floor, but is not damaged as the length of the line between the pipe and the weight is sufficient to allow the buoyant pipe to come to a stop within the line length after the weight contacts the ocean floor, and thereafter to float submerged above the ocean floor while moored to the ocean floor by the weight. The upper end of the pipe, while supported by the hull, communicates to a sump in the hull in which the water level is maintained below the ambient water level. The sump volume is sufficient to keep the pipe full during heaving of the hull, thereby preventing collapse of the pipe.

Person, Abraham (Los Alamitos, CA)

1980-01-01

216

Pyrosequencing reveals bacterial communities in unchlorinated drinking water distribution system: an integral study of bulk water, suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm.  

PubMed

The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments inside loose deposits structures for bacteria to grow. Moreover, loose deposits protect the associated bacteria from disinfectants, and due to their mobility, the associated bacteria reach taps easily. PMID:24766451

Liu, G; Bakker, G L; Li, S; Vreeburg, J H G; Verberk, J Q J C; Medema, G J; Liu, W T; Van Dijk, J C

2014-05-20

217

Installation Of Service Connections For Sensors Or Transmitters In Buried Water Pipes  

DOEpatents

A system for installing warning units in a buried pipeline. A small hole is drilled in the ground to the pipeline. A collar is affixed to one of the pipes of the pipeline. A valve with an internal passage is connected to the collar. A hole is drilled in the pipe. A warning unit is installed in the pipe by moving the warning unit through the internal passage, the collar, and the hole in the pipe.

Burnham, Alan K. (Livermore, CA); Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

2006-02-21

218

Conceptual design study: cold water pipe systems for shelf-mounted OTEC powerplants. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study considers the conceptual design and installation aspects of CWP systems for shelf-mounted OTEC power plants in Puerto Rico and Hawaii. CWP systems using FRP (Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic) and steel have been designed: FRP, because the buoyancy of the pipe can be controlled by varying the core thickness; and steel, because of decades of successful use as a structural material in offshore applications. A marine railway approach was chosen for installation of the CWP. Two methods for pulling the track for the railway down the pipe fairway to final location are presented. The track is then permanently fastened to the sloping seabed with piles installed by a remotely controlled cart that rides on the track itself, thus minimizing deep water control problems. Both the marine railway and the shelf-mounted platform that houses the OTEC power plant must have an anodic or equivalent corrosion protection system, which would require the same inspection and maintenance procedures as currently used for offshore oil production platforms.

Not Available

1981-02-01

219

Well logging interpretation of production profile in horizontal oil-water two phase flow pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the complicated distribution of local velocity and local phase hold up along the radial direction of pipe in horizontal oil-water two phase flow, it is difficult to measure the total flow rate and phase volume fraction. In this study, we carried out dynamic experiment in horizontal oil-water two phases flow simulation well by using combination measurement system including turbine flowmeter with petal type concentrating diverter, conductance sensor and flowpassing capacitance sensor. According to the response resolution ability of the conductance and capacitance sensor in different range of total flow rate and water-cut, we use drift flux model and statistical model to predict the partial phase flow rate, respectively. The results indicate that the variable coefficient drift flux model can self-adaptively tone the model parameter according to the oil-water two phase flow characteristic, and the prediction result of partial phase flow rate of oil-water two phase flow is of high accuracy.

Zhai, Lu-Sheng; Jin, Ning-De; Gao, Zhong-Ke; Zheng, Xi-Ke

2012-03-01

220

Speciation and distribution of vanadium in drinking water iron pipe corrosion by-products.  

PubMed

Vanadium (V) when ingested from drinking water in high concentrations (>15 ?g L(-1)) is a potential health risk and is on track to becoming a regulated contaminant. High concentrations of V have been documented in lead corrosion by-products as Pb(5)(V(5+)O(4))(3)Cl (vanadinite) which, in natural deposits is associated with iron oxides/oxyhydroxides, phases common in iron pipe corrosion by-products. The extent of potential reservoirs of V in iron corrosion by-products, its speciation, and mechanism of inclusion however are unknown. The aim of this study is to assess these parameters in iron corrosion by-products, implementing synchrotron-based ?-XRF mapping and ?-XANES along with traditional physiochemical characterization. The morphologies, mineralogies, and chemistry of the samples studied are superficially similar to typical iron corrosion by-products. However, we found V present as discrete grains of Pb(5)(V(5+)O(4))(3)Cl likely embedded in the surface regions of the iron corrosion by-products. Concentrations of V observed in bulk XRF analysis ranged from 35 to 899 mg kg(-1). We calculate that even in pipes with iron corrosion by-products with low V concentration, 100 mg kg(-1), as little as 0.0027% of a 0.1-cm thick X 100-cm long section of that corrosion by-product needs to be disturbed to increase V concentrations in the drinking water at the tap to levels well above the 15 ?g L(-1) notification level set by the State of California and could adversely impact human health. In addition, it is likely that large reservoirs of V are associated with iron corrosion by-products in unlined cast iron mains and service branches in numerous drinking water distribution systems. PMID:20863549

Gerke, Tammie L; Scheckel, Kirk G; Maynard, J Barry

2010-11-01

221

Speciation and distribution of vanadium in drinking water iron pipe corrosion by-products  

SciTech Connect

Vanadium (V) when ingested from drinking water in high concentrations (> 15 {micro}g L{sup -1}) is a potential health risk and is on track to becoming a regulated contaminant. High concentrations of V have been documented in lead corrosion by-products as Pb{sub 5}(V{sup 5+}O{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl (vanadinite) which, in natural deposits is associated with iron oxides/oxyhydroxides, phases common in iron pipe corrosion by-products. The extent of potential reservoirs of V in iron corrosion by-products, its speciation, and mechanism of inclusion however are unknown. The aim of this study is to assess these parameters in iron corrosion by-products, implementing synchrotron-based {mu}-XRF mapping and {mu}-XANES along with traditional physiochemical characterization. The morphologies, mineralogies, and chemistry of the samples studied are superficially similar to typical iron corrosion by-products. However, we found V present as discrete grains of Pb{sub 5}(V{sup 5+}O{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl likely embedded in the surface regions of the iron corrosion by-products. Concentrations of V observed in bulk XRF analysis ranged from 35 to 899 mg kg{sup -1}. We calculate that even in pipes with iron corrosion by-products with low V concentration, 100 mg kg{sup -1}, as little as 0.0027% of a 0.1-cm thick X 100-cm long section of that corrosion by-product needs to be disturbed to increase V concentrations in the drinking water at the tap to levels well above the 15 {micro}g L{sup -1} notification level set by the State of California and could adversely impact human health. In addition, it is likely that large reservoirs of V are associated with iron corrosion by-products in unlined cast iron mains and service branches in numerous drinking water distribution systems.

Gerke, Tammie L.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Maynard, J. Barry (EPA); (UCIN)

2010-11-12

222

Identification of significant problems related to light water reactor piping systems  

SciTech Connect

Work on the project was divided into three tasks. In Task 1, past surveys of LWR piping system problems and recent Licensee Event Report summaries are studied to identify the significant problems of LWR piping systems and the primary causes of these problems. Pipe cracking is identified as the most recurring problem and is mainly due to the vibration of pipes due to operating pump-pipe resonance, fluid-flow fluctuations, and vibration of pipe supports. Research relevant to the identified piping system problems is evaluated. Task 2 studies identify typical LWR piping systems and the current loads and load combinations used in the design of these systems. Definitions of loads are reviewed. In Task 3, a comparative study is carried out on the use of nonlinear analysis methods in the design of LWR piping systems. The study concludes that the current linear-elastic methods of analysis may not predict accurately the behavior of piping systems under seismic loads and may, under certain circumstances, result in nonconservative designs. Gaps at piping supports are found to have a significant effect on the response of the piping systems.

None

1980-07-01

223

Fracture mechanics and full scale pipe break testing for DOE's New Production Reactor-Heavy Water Reactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is completing a major task for the Department of Energy (DOE) in the demonstration that the primary piping of the New Production Reactor-Heavy Water Reactor (NPR-HWR), with its relatively moderate temperature and press...

A. B. Poole J. A. Clinard R. L. Battiste W. R. Hendrich

1992-01-01

224

Structural evaluation report of piping and support structure for design-changed hot-water layer system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After hot-water layer system had been installed, the verification tests to reduce the radiation level at the top of reactor pool were performed many times. The major goal of this report is to assess the structural integrity on the piping and the support s...

J. S. Ryu

1998-01-01

225

Cracking in stabilized austenitic stainless steel piping of German boiling water reactors—characteristic features and root cause  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cracks have been found in the welds of piping systems made from stabilized austenitic stainless steels in German boiling water reactors (BWR). In the course of the intensive failure analysis metallographic examinations, microstructural investigations by electron microscopy, corrosion experiments and welding tests have been performed. The results show that cracking under the given medium conditions is due to intergranular stress

M. Erve; U. Wesseling; R. Kilian; R. Hardt; G. Brümmer; V. Maier; U. Ilg

1997-01-01

226

Conceptual Design Study. Cold Water Pipe Systems for Shelf-Mounted OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) Powerplants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic purpose of this study was to generate promising conceptual cold water pipe (CWP) designs and installation methods for 40 MW (33 ft. dia. CWP) to 100 MW (70 ft. dia. CWP) OTEC power plants fixed to the island shelf in Puerto Rico or Hawaii. As a ...

1981-01-01

227

Singing Corrugated Pipes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents theoretical and experimental observations made with a musical toy called Hummer consisting of a corrugated flexible plastic tube about three-feet long and one-inch diam open at both ends. Included are descriptions of three new instruments: the Water Pipe, the Gas-Pipe Corrugahorn Bugle, and the Gas-Pipe Blues Corrugahorn. (CC)

Crawford, Frank S.

1974-01-01

228

The effect of applying a pipe-joint lubricant to connect ductile iron pipe on off-flavors in drinking water distribution systems.  

PubMed

This study was used to help define the contribution to taste and odor problems caused by the application of a pipe-joint lubricant to connect ductile iron pipe in drinking water distribution systems. Tyton Joint Lubricant (TJL) was studied. The lubricant produced odors that are continually oxidized by chlorine or oxygen. The mechanism of oxidative rancidity, one of the major causes of food spoilage is the apparent mechanism of oxidation. The odors produced by the lubricant were characterized by a Flavor Profile Analysis (FPA) panel as well as GC/MS and Sensory GC analysis. The most common odors perceived in the TJL water samples for the first six days were waxy/oily and soapy odors with a rancid oil, odor note. The waxy/oily and soapy odors decreased with time in the chlorine medium as the rancid oily odor note increased. Numerous aldehydes, ketones, alcohols and borneol compounds, produced from the lubricants, were tentatively identified and linked to the odors perceived by the FPA panel. PMID:15237630

Wiesenthal, K E; Amah, G; Lam, T; Suffet, I H

2004-01-01

229

Using probabilistic modeling to evaluate human exposure to organotin in drinking water transported by polyvinyl chloride pipe.  

PubMed

The leaching of organotin (OT) heat stabilizers from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes used in residential drinking water systems may affect the quality of drinking water. These OTs, principally mono- and di-substituted species of butyltins and methyltins, are a potential health concern because they belong to a broad class of compounds that may be immune, nervous, and reproductive system toxicants. In this article, we develop probability distributions of U.S. population exposures to mixtures of OTs encountered in drinking water transported by PVC pipes. We employed a family of mathematical models to estimate OT leaching rates from PVC pipe as a function of both surface area and time. We then integrated the distribution of estimated leaching rates into an exposure model that estimated the probability distribution of OT concentrations in tap waters and the resulting potential human OT exposures via tap water consumption. Our study results suggest that human OT exposures through tap water consumption are likely to be considerably lower than the World Health Organization (WHO) "safe" long-term concentration in drinking water (150 microg/L) for dibutyltin (DBT)--the most toxic of the OT considered in this article. The 90th percentile average daily dose (ADD) estimate of 0.034 +/- 2.92 x 10(-4)microg/kg day is approximately 120 times lower than the WHO-based ADD for DBT (4.2 microg/kg day). PMID:19886947

Fristachi, Anthony; Xu, Ying; Rice, Glenn; Impellitteri, Christopher A; Carlson-Lynch, Heather; Little, John C

2009-11-01

230

Experimental study on transition of flow pattern and phase distribution in upward air–water two-phase flow along a large vertical pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the dependency of gas–liquid two-phase flow on pipe scale, the transition characteristics of flow pattern and phase distribution were studied experimentally in upward air–water two-phase flow along a large vertical pipe (inner diameter D: 0.2 m, the ratio of pipe length to diameter L\\/D: 61.5). The experiments were conducted under the flow rate: 0.03 m\\/s ?

Akira Ohnuki; Hajime Akimoto

2000-01-01

231

Piezometric pressure measurements for water flow in a pipe with electrified inner surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach to pipe flow improvement is presented on the basis of positive electric voltages applied to the pipe. The\\u000a flow improvement is measured by piezometry. A common problem, connected with all forms of transport of fluids in pipes, is\\u000a loss of pressure due to the friction, i.e. piezometric pressure loss. If the friction depends upon the fluid and

M. Waskaas

2006-01-01

232

Determination of Gas and Water Volume Fraction in Oil Water Gas Pipe Flow Using Neural Networks Based on Dual Modality Densitometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The models of dual modality densitometry were developed. It can be used for measuring the gas volume fraction and water volume\\u000a fraction in oil water gas pipe flow. The models are complex. In order to solve models, it often uses simplified models. This\\u000a reduces measurement precision. The method of measuring gas and water volume fraction using neural networks was presented.

Chunguo Jing; Guangzhong Xing; Bin Liu; Qiuguo Bai

2006-01-01

233

Pipe selection guide  

SciTech Connect

Four parameters are used to define a particular pipe: inside diameter, wall thickness, material, and ends. The factors influencing pipe selection are limited to fluid pressure, temperature, chemistry, flow rate, and cost. Other pipe parameters and factors that influence pipe selection and design are mentioned, and, where appropriate, the user is warned that at some stage in the project these factors must be dealt with. It is assumed that the objective is the direct application of geothermal water at temperatures lower than 200/sup 0/F and with 12-in. or smaller pipe. When considering friction losses for sizing purposes, only straight pipe is considered. A discussion of the characteristics and attributes of readily available pipe is included to aid in making a preliminary selection. Energy loss from buried pipe is considered.

Sanders, R.D.

1982-04-01

234

Finite element analysis for creep failure of coolant pipe in light water reactor due to local heating under severe accident condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

During severe accident of a light water reactor (LWR), the piping of the reactor cooling system would be damaged when the piping is subjected to high internal pressure and very high temperature, resulted from high temperature gas generated in a reactor core and decay heat released from the deposit of fission products. It is considered that, under such a condition,

Seiya Hagihara; Noriyuki Miyazaki

2008-01-01

235

Long-term study of migration of volatile organic compounds from cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipes and effects on drinking water quality.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to investigate migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipes used for drinking water produced by different production methods, and to evaluate their potential risk for human health and/or influence on aesthetic drinking water quality. The migration tests were carried out in accordance with EN-1420-1, and VOCs were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The levels of VOC migrating from new PEX pipes were generally low, and decreasing with time of pipe use. No association was found between production method of PEX pipes and concentration of migration products. 2,4-di-tert-butyl phenol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) were two of the major individual components detected. In three new PEX pipes, MTBE was detected in concentrations above the recommended US EPA taste and odour value for drinking water, but decreased below this value after 5 months in service. However, the threshold odour number (TON) values for two pipes were similar to new pipes even after 1 year in use. For seven chemicals for which conclusions on potential health risk could be drawn, this was considered of no or very low concern. However, odour from some of these pipes could negatively affect drinking water for up to 1 year. PMID:21976195

Lund, Vidar; Anderson-Glenna, Mary; Skjevrak, Ingun; Steffensen, Inger-Lise

2011-09-01

236

The elimination or control of material problems in water heat pipes. Quarterly progress report, No. 3, 1 Jul30 Sep 1974  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is designed to determine the most effective combination of materials, fabrication methods, and operating procedures for a water heat pipe that will provide satisfactory performance when used as a local absorption, solar-thermal energy collector. Fourteen heat pipes measuring 76 cm long, 2 each from 316 SS, 347 SS, 430 SS, Monel 400, Inconel 600, CDA 715, and Incoloy

Pittinato

1974-01-01

237

A MIXTURE OF ORGANOTINS FOUND IN POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) PIPE IS NOT IMMUNOTOXIC TO SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS WHEN GIVEN IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Organotin compounds used in PVC pipe production are of concern to the U.S. EPA because they leach from supply pipes into drinking water and are reported multisystem toxicants. We assessed immune functions in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to the mixture of organotins used in P...

238

Ground deformation at Campi Flegrei caldera using long water pipe tiltmeters and sea level gauges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Campi Flegrei is a caldera complex located in the Campanian plain region of southern Italy, 15 km west of the city of Naples, and forms part of the Roman co-magmatic province which is a volcanic chain that characterizes the western coast of the country. The Campi Flegrei caldera was generated by several collapses produced by strong explosive eruptions. The main caldera at Campi Flegrei is 12 - 15km across and its rim is thought to have been formed during the catastrophic eruption, occurred 39 ky ago ca. which produced a deposit referred to as the Campanian Ignimbrite. Campi Flegrei area periodically experiences significant unrest episodes which include ground deformations, the so-called "bradisismo", recorded both by marine terraces, archaeological record and harbour structures. Following the last eruption (Monte Nuovo, 1538) a general subsidence has been interrupted by episodes of uplift, the most recent of which occurred in 1970-72 and 1982-84. In the past decade subsidence has been arrested and has been replaced by intermittent episodes of inflation with short time duration and various maximum amplitude. They occurred in 1989, 1994, 2000, 2004, 2005-06, 2009 and 2011 with duration of few months and maximum amplitude ranging between 3 and 11 cm. Since 2008 an array of water-pipe tiltmeters with lengths between 28 m and 278 m in tunnels on the flanks of the region of maximum inflation has been installed to avoid problems common to the traditional tiltmeters. The tiltmeters record inflation episodes upon which are superimposed local load tides, with amplitudes roughly an order of magnitude greater than the solid Earth body tides. In addition to the tides, the tiltmeters record a line spectrum of seiches in the Bay of Naples and in the Tyrrenian sea. We use data recorded by three tide gauges in the Bay of Pozzuoli to compare water pipe data with sea level to extract astronomical tidal components and seiches periods particularly between 20 minutes and 56 minutes that could constitute local loading frequencies recorded clearly by tide gauges and tiltmeters. The comparison between these two kind of data enables a more sensitive definition of the low level uplift with an accuracy of 1% for nanoradiant tilts in the period range 10 minutes to 10 hours with a long term tilt stability of approximately 0.1 µradian/yr

Scarpa, R.; Capuano, P.; Tammaro, U.; Bilham, R.

2012-04-01

239

Supercritical water oxidation of colored smoke, dye, and pyrotechnic compositions. Phase 1, Final report  

SciTech Connect

The US military stockpile has large quantities of obsolete munitions awaiting disposal. Although suitable means for the safe dismantlement of much of this stockpile have been identified, there are still considerable quantities of specialty materials for which existing methods have been deemed inappropriate from an environmental standpoint. Among these munitions are colored spotting dyes and a wide assortment of pyrotechnics, including colored smokes and flares. In open bum or incineration treatment processes these materials produce large quantities of toxic, and possibly carcinogenic, gases and particulate matter. The U.S Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ is interested in developing a method of treatment that will dispose of these munitions without the difficulties identified above. This report examines the feasibility of supercritical water oxidation, an emerging waste treatment technology, to process these materials. Four colored dyes and one pyrotechnic smoke composition were processed in a flow reactor, and the effluent was analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the processing. The tests showed that all of these materials could by oxidized to much less hazardous compounds in less than 10 seconds with a destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) typically > 99.5%. Two technical issues were identified as needing more attention in Phase II of this project: formation of sulfate and chloride salt deposits within the flow reactor and corrosion of the materials of construction.

Rice, S.F.; LaJeunesse, C.A.; Hanush, R.G.; Aiken, J.D.; Johnston, S.C.

1994-01-01

240

Supercritical water oxidation of colored smoke, dye, and pyrotechnic compositions. Final report: Pilot plant conceptual design  

SciTech Connect

The existing demilitarization stockpile contains large quantities of colored smoke, spotting dye, and pyrotechnic munitions. For many years, these munitions have been stored in magazines at locations within the continental United States awaiting completion of the life-cycle. The open air burning of these munitions has been shown to produce toxic gases that are detrimental to human health and harmful to the environment. Prior efforts to incinerate these compositions have also produced toxic emissions and have been unsuccessful. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a rapidly developing hazardous waste treatment method that can be an alternative to incineration for many types of wastes. The primary advantage SCWO affords for the treatment of this selected set of obsolete munitions is that toxic gas and particulate emissions will not occur as part of the effluent stream. Sandia is currently designing a SCWO reactor for the US Army Armament Research, Development & Engineering Center (ARDEC) to destroy colored smoke, spotting dye, and pyrotechnic munitions. This report summarizes the design status of the ARDEC reactor. Process and equipment operation parameters, process flow equations or mass balances, and utility requirements for six wastes of interest are developed in this report. Two conceptual designs are also developed with all process and instrumentation detailed.

LaJeunesse, C.A.; Chan, Jennifer P.; Raber, T.N.; Macmillan, D.C.; Rice, S.F.; Tschritter, K.L.

1993-11-01

241

Signal Coherence and Improved Bandwidth in Kilometer-Scale Water-Pipe Tilt-Meters for Monitoring Slow Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slow earthquakes have been detected by GPS networks in numerous subduction zones but signals are frequently close to detection levels. Although strain-meters and tilt-meters possess a thousandfold higher resolution (~ 1 nstrain & 1 nrad), noise levels in these instruments tend to be site specific and it is sometimes considered necessary to instal clusters to distinguish tectonic signal from local noise. This approach to strain measurement can more than double the cost of initial installation. We report here first results from a half-km-long water pipe tiltmeter in which a test for signal coherence is an inherent product of the geometry of the instrument. An appealing feature of water-pipe tiltmeters is that they cost 25% less than a borehole strain-meter, assume long good long term stability within days of installation, and unlike the decade-longevity of borehole systems, have an indefinite life span. In a Michelson tilt-meter, tilt of the earth's surface is manifest as a rise in water level at one end of the pipe and an equal and opposite reduction in water level at the other. In newly installed tiltmeters in the Cascadia region we have introduced a central transducer that effectively provides two 250-m-long independent measures of tilt in each 500 m long pipe, and hence a measure of signal coherence for little extra cost. Data from each sensor are telemetered via radio modem to a remote computer at rates of 1-6 samples/minute. Initial results from four 500 m long water pipes installed in the Cascadia region, reveal that a secular drift level of better than 0.1 microradian/yr is established within a week of installation and that the two half-tiltmeters track each other closely at all periods. Noise levels are frequency dependent and vary form 0.2 nrad at hourly periods to 100 nrad at yearly periods. Atmospheric and aperiodic ocean loading appears to be the largest souce of noise at periods of several days to weeks in the bandwidth where slow earthquakes are anticipated. One disadvantage of long water pipe tilt meters is that they cannot faithfully record tilts with periods shorter than their fundamental resonant modes (20-30 minutes). We report first results from a hybrid tiltmeter installed in the Andaman islands that uses a 2.5 cm diameter pipe within a 15 cm half-filled water pipe to extend the useful bandwidth to 2 minutes. Water level changes in the two independent tiltmeters are monitored by meniscus float sensors. The meniscus float consists of a 15 cm diameter polypropylene disk weighing 31 gm, perforated by more than 200 holes, and held at the water surface by surface tension equivalent to that experienced by a 1.4 m diameter float. The vertical position of the float is monitored relative to a 10 m deep vertical pile using a 3 mm range LVDT.

Bilham, R.; Suszek, N.; Flake, R.; Szeliga, W.; Melbourne, T.

2005-12-01

242

Cigarette smoking among female students in five medical and nonmedical colleges  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking, knowledge about the ill effects of smoking on health, and the influence of family members’ smoking habits among Saudi female students. Methods This is a type of cross-sectional study. A sample of 1,070 female students was selected by a nonrandom and convenient sampling method from five colleges (Medicine, Business and Administration, Computer Sciences, Education, and Languages and Translation) of King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to determine the personal, social, and educational characteristics of the respondents. In addition, questions about their smoking types, status, duration of smoking, knowledge about the ill effects of smoking, daily cigarette consumption, and reasons for quitting smoking were included. Results The students’ response rate was 85%. The prevalence of current smoking was 4.3% and 5.6% for cigarettes and water-pipes, respectively, whereas 3.9% of the participants were ex-smokers. The prevalence of current smoking was highest in the College of Business and Administration (10.81%) and lowest in the College of Medicine (0.86%). The majority (77%) of the smokers’ parents (current and ex-smokers) were also smokers. More than half (54%) of the smokers started their smoking habit for entertainment, and 44.4% of the participants did not know that smoking causes serious health problems. The most common factors for quitting smoking were health concerns (54%), religious beliefs (29%), and parent’s advice (17%). Conclusion The study concludes that the prevalence of smoking varies in different subject streams and that family and friends have a great influence on individuals starting or stopping smoking. Extensive health education programs are needed to educate young women on the health hazards of smoking and help stop them from smoking.

Abdulghani, Hamza M; Alrowais, Norah A; Alhaqwi, Ali I; Alrasheedi, Ahmed; Al-Zahir, Mohammed; Al-Madani, Ahmed; Al-Eissa, Abdulaziz; Al-Hakmi, Bader; Takroni, Redwan; Ahmad, Farah

2013-01-01

243

Experimental and analytical study of water pipe's rupture for damage identification purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A malfunction, local damage or sudden pipe break of a pipeline system can trigger significant flow variations. As shown in the paper, pressure variations and pipe vibrations are two strongly correlated parameters. A sudden change in the flow velocity and pressure of a pipeline system can induce pipe vibrations. Thus, based on acceleration data, a rapid detection and localization of a possible damage may be carried out by inexpensive, nonintrusive monitoring techniques. To illustrate this approach, an experiment on a single pipe was conducted in the laboratory. Pressure gauges and accelerometers were installed and their correlation was checked during an artificially created transient flow. The experimental findings validated the correlation between the parameters. The interaction between pressure variations and pipe vibrations was also theoretically justified. The developed analytical model explains the connection among flow pressure, velocity, pressure wave propagation and pipe vibration. The proposed method provides a rapid, efficient and practical way to identify and locate sudden failures of a pipeline system and sets firm foundations for the development and implementation of an advanced, new generation Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system for continuous health monitoring of pipe networks.

Papakonstantinou, Konstantinos G.; Shinozuka, Masanobu; Beikae, Mohsen

2011-03-01

244

Innovative technology summary report: High-speed clamshell pipe cutter  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site C Reactor Technology Demonstration Group demonstrated the High-Speed Clamshell Pipe Cutter technology, developed and marketed by Tri Tool Inc. (Rancho Cordova, California). The models demonstrated are portable, split-frame pipe lathes that require minimal radial and axial clearances for severing and/or beveling in-line pipe with ranges of 25 cm to 41 cm and 46 cm to 61 cm nominal diameter. The radial clearance requirement from the walls, floors, or adjacent pipes is 18 cm. The lathes were supplied with carbide insert conversion kits for the cutting bits for the high-speed technique that was demonstrated. Given site-specific factors, this demonstration showed the cost of the improved technology to be approximately 30% higher than the traditional (baseline) technology (oxyacetylene torch) cost of $14,400 for 10 cuts of contaminated 41-cm and 61-cm-diameter pipe at C Reactor. Actual cutting times were faster than the baseline technology; however, moving/staging the equipment took longer. Unlike the baseline torch, clamshell lathes do not involve applied heat, flames, or smoke and can be operated remotely, thereby helping personal exposures to be as low as reasonably achievable. The baseline technology was demonstrated at the C Reactor north and south water pipe tunnels August 19--22, 1997. The improved technology was demonstrated in the gas pipe tunnel December 15--19.

NONE

1998-09-01

245

Basic cost equations to estimate unit production costs for RO desalination and long-distance piping to supply water to tourism-dominated arid coastal regions of Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

An arid climate with limited water resources and a growing tourism industry lead to water shortages in many coastal zones. Due to increasing demand, alternatives have to be found, e.g. desalination and long-distance water piping (equal to or further than 30 km), ecological sanitation, wastewater reuse or water demand management. This paper presents a cost comparison for two options to

A. Lamei; P. van der Zaag; E. von Münch

2008-01-01

246

Secondhand Smoke  

MedlinePLUS

Secondhand Smoke What is secondhand smoke? Secondhand smoke (SHS) is also known as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). SHS is a mixture of 2 forms of smoke that ... harmful chemicals in your body. Why is secondhand smoke a problem? Secondhand smoke causes cancer Secondhand smoke ( ...

247

Cement-lined pipes for water lubricated transport of heavy oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents different strategies for preventing oil from fouling the walls of core-annular flow pipelines and also for restart from an unexpected pipeline shut-down. The most promising of these strategies is to use cement-lined pipes. Experiments presented here show that hydrated cement-lined pipes are highly oleophobic and therefore resist fouling for long term. A pilot scale cement-lined core-annular flow

Michael S. Arney; Geraldo S. Ribeiro; Emilio Guevara; Runyan Bai; Daniel D. Joseph

1996-01-01

248

Secondhand Smoke  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC.gov . Smoking & Tobacco Use Share Compartir Secondhand Smoke (SHS) Facts Secondhand Smoke Fact Sheets Overview Health ... lung cancer among nonsmokers. 1 Estimates of Secondhand Smoke Exposure When a nonsmoker breathes in secondhand smoke, ...

249

Indoor secondhand tobacco smoke emission levels in six Lebanese cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTo date, Lebanon has failed to enact comprehensive clean indoor air laws despite ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which calls for the protection of non-smokers from exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). Complicating the problem of SHS exposure in Lebanon is the widespread use of the tobacco water-pipe. While most research on SHS has involved cigarette

Georges Saade; Andrew B Seidenberg; Vaughan W Rees; Zaher Otrock; Gregory N Connolly

2010-01-01

250

49 CFR 397.13 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Smoking. 397.13 Section 397.13 Transportation...AND PARKING RULES General § 397.13 Smoking. No person may smoke or carry a lighted cigarette, cigar, or pipe on or within 25 feet...

2010-10-01

251

31 CFR 700.14 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking. 700.14 Section 700.14 Money and Finance...FLETC) BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 700.14 Smoking. Smoking of cigarettes, cigars and pipes is prohibited in all FLETC...

2010-07-01

252

31 CFR 700.14 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Smoking. 700.14 Section 700.14 Money and Finance...FLETC) BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 700.14 Smoking. Smoking of cigarettes, cigars and pipes is prohibited in all FLETC...

2009-07-01

253

49 CFR 397.13 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Smoking. 397.13 Section 397.13 Transportation...AND PARKING RULES General § 397.13 Smoking. No person may smoke or carry a lighted cigarette, cigar, or pipe on or within 25 feet...

2009-10-01

254

Insituform Pipe Rehabilation, Construction Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report covers the construction evaluation of a pipe rehabilitation project where INSITUFORM was used. INSITUFORM is a manufacturer's name for a pipe relining process which uses cold water inversion to propel a thermo-setting resin coated polyester fib...

B. Yedinak K. Highlands

1986-01-01

255

Hookah Smoking Popular Among Well-Heeled Teens  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hookah Smoking Popular Among Well-Heeled Teens: Survey Survey ... school seniors now say they have smoked a hookah pipe, a new survey shows. A form of ...

256

Farm Water Supply and Sanitation--Pipe, Plumbing, Skills and Symbols. Student Materials. V.A. III. V-D-1, V-D-2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use by individuals enrolled in vocational agricultural classes, these student materials deal with farm water supply, sanitation, and plumbing skills. Topics covered in the unit are maintaining the farm water supply; repairing faucets and valves, leaks in pipes and storage tanks, and water closets; clearing clogged drains and traps;…

Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

257

Review of industry efforts to manage pressurized water reactor feedwater nozzle, piping, and feedring cracking and wall thinning  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a review of nuclear industry efforts to manage thermal fatigue, flow-accelerated corrosion, and water hammer damage to pressurized water reactor (PWR) feedwater nozzles, piping, and feedrings. The review includes an evaluation of design modifications, operating procedure changes, augmented inspection and monitoring programs, and mitigation, repair and replacement activities. Four actions were taken: (a) review of field experience to identify trends of operating events, (b) review of technical literature, (c) visits to PWR plants and a PWR vendor, and (d) solicitation of information from 8 other countries. Assessment of field experience is that licensees have apparently taken sufficient action to minimize feedwater nozzle cracking caused by thermal fatigue and wall thinning of J-tubes and feedwater piping. Specific industry actions to minimize the wall-thinning in feedrings and thermal sleeves were not found, but visual inspection and necessary repairs are being performed. Assessment of field experience indicates that licensees have taken sufficient action to minimize steam generator water hammer in both top-feed and preheat steam generators. Industry efforts to minimize multiple check valve failures that have allowed backflow of steam from a steam generator and have played a major role in several steam generator water hammer events were not evaluated. A major finding of this review is that analysis, inspection, monitoring, mitigation, and replacement techniques have been developed for managing thermal fatigue and flow-accelerated corrosion damage to feedwater nozzles, piping, and feedrings. Adequate training and appropriate applications of these techniques would ensure effective management of this damage.

Shah, V.N.; Ware, A.G.; Porter, A.M.

1997-03-01

258

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF A PULSATING HEAT PIPE USING FC72, ETHANOL, AND WATER AS WORKING FLUIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental studies were performed on a pulsating heat pipe (PHP), consisting of a heating section, an adiabatic section, and a condensation section incorporating a heat sink. The capillary tube used in this study has an inside diameter of 1.18 mm and a wall thickness of 0.41 mm. The experiments were conducted under the condition of pure natural convection, for heating

X. M. Zhang

2004-01-01

259

OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) CWP (Cold Water Pipe) Laboratory Test Program. Ocean System Operations Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ocean system operation in waves was measured in 1:110 scale model tests and compared to code predictions. Scaled models tested were of a modified version of the APL plantship with discharge pipes, the Lockheed mooring system parameters, and three separate...

1981-01-01

260

Acoustic Analysis for a Steam Dome and Pipings of a 1,100 MWe-Class Boiling Water Reactor  

SciTech Connect

For the integrity evaluation of steam dryers in up-rated nuclear power plants, we have applied acoustic analysis to a nuclear power plant steam dome and main steam pipings. We have selected a 1,100 MWe-class boiling water reactor as a subject of the analysis. We have constructed a three-dimensional finite element model, and conducted acoustic analyses. The analysis result suggested that the origin of steam pressure pulsation in high frequency range was due to vortex shedding at standpipes. (authors)

Yasumi, Kitajima; Masanobu, Watanabe; Keiji, Matsunaga; Tsuyoshi, Hagiwara [Power and Industrial Systems Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corporation 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8523 (Japan)

2006-07-01

261

An experimental study on the performance of a stainless steel-water loop heat pipe under natural cooling condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aiming to improve the thermal characteristics of modern electronics, we experimentally study the performance of a stainless steel/water loop heat pipe (LHP) under natural cooling condition. The LHP heat transfer performance, including start-up performance, temperature oscillation and total thermal resistance at different heat loads and with different incline angles have been investigated systematically. Experimental results show that at an optimal heat load (i.e. 60 W) and with the LHP being inclined 60° to the horizontal plane, the total thermal resistance is lowered to be ˜0.24 K/W, and the temperature of evaporator could be controlled steadily at around 90°C.

Wang, Yiwei; Cen, Jiwen; Jiang, Fangming; Zhu, Xiong

2014-02-01

262

Water flow measurement in large bore pipes: an experimental comparison between two different types of insertion flowmeters.  

PubMed

In this paper the metrological behavior of two different insertion flowmeters (magnetic and turbine types) in large water pipes is described. A master-slave calibration was carried out in order to estimate the overall uncertainty of the tested meters. The experimental results show that (i) the magnetic insertion tested flowmeter performs the claimed accuracy (+/- 2%) within all the flow range (20:1); (ii) the insertion turbine tested meter, instead, reaches the claimed accuracy just in the upper zone of the flow range. PMID:12708537

Cascetta, Furio; Palombo, Adolfo; Scalabrini, Gianfranco

2003-04-01

263

Biofilm formation and multiplication of Legionella in a model warm water system with pipes of copper, stainless steel and cross-linked polyethylene.  

PubMed

Legionella pneumophila was grown in a model warm water system with pipes of copper (Cu), stainless steel (SS) and cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) during recirculation of tap water at 25--35 degrees C. Subsequently, domestic use of warm (37 degrees C) water was simulated using tap water with a low AOC concentration (<10 microg C/L). Two times each week the temperature of the water in the electric heaters (not in the pipes) was elevated to 70 degrees C for 30 min. ATP concentrations in the water sampled from the pipes over a 2-year period were significantly different for the pipe materials, with median values of 2.1 ng/l (Cu), 2.5 ng/l (SS) and 4.5 ng/l (PEX), respectively. Median values of the biofilm concentration were similar on Cu and SS (about 630 pg ATP/cm(2)) and 1870 pg ATP/cm(2) on PEX. Legionella multiplied in these biofilms and median values of Legionella concentrations in water were 1500 CFU/l (Cu) and about 4300 CFU/l for SS and PEX. Legionella to ATP ratios in water had median values of about 0.8 CFU/pg. Hot water flushing (70 degrees C) of the pipes on day 552, followed by 2 weeks of recirculation at 37 degrees C, caused strongly increased concentrations of ATP (up to 300 ng/l) and Legionella (>10(7)CFU/l), with about 100 CFU/pg ATP. Concentrations declined to original levels within 1 week of domestic water use, etc. Legionella concentrations in water and biofilms were at the same levels for all materials after 2 years. Hence, copper temporarily limited the growth of Legionella under the applied conditions and a rapid biomass development strongly increased the Legionella to ATP ratio. PMID:16019051

van der Kooij, Dick; Veenendaal, Harm R; Scheffer, Will J H

2005-08-01

264

Effects of phosphate addition on biofilm bacterial communities and water quality in annular reactors equipped with stainless steel and ductile cast iron pipes.  

PubMed

The impact of orthophosphate addition on biofilm formation and water quality was studied in corrosion-resistant stainless steel (STS) pipe and corrosion-susceptible ductile cast iron (DCI) pipe using cultivation and culture-independent approaches. Sample coupons of DCI pipe and STS pipe were installed in annular reactors, which were operated for 9 months under hydraulic conditions similar to a domestic plumbing system. Addition of 5 mg/L of phosphate to the plumbing systems, under low residual chlorine conditions, promoted a more significant growth of biofilm and led to a greater rate reduction of disinfection by-products in DCI pipe than in STS pipe. While the level of THMs (trihalomethanes) increased under conditions of low biofilm concentration, the levels of HAAs (halo acetic acids) and CH (chloral hydrate) decreased in all cases in proportion to the amount of biofilm. It was also observed that chloroform, the main species of THM, was not readily decomposed biologically and decomposition was not proportional to the biofilm concentration; however, it was easily biodegraded after the addition of phosphate. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences of 102 biofilm isolates revealed that Proteobacteria (50%) was the most frequently detected phylum, followed by Firmicutes (10%) and Actinobacteria (2%), with 37% of the bacteria unclassified. Bradyrhizobium was the dominant genus on corroded DCI pipe, while Sphingomonas was predominant on non-corroded STS pipe. Methylobacterium and Afipia were detected only in the reactor without added phosphate. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that the diversity of species in biofilm tended to increase when phosphate was added regardless of the pipe material, indicating that phosphate addition upset the biological stability in the plumbing systems. PMID:22367933

Jang, Hyun-Jung; Choi, Young-June; Ro, Hee-Myong; Ka, Jong-Ok

2012-02-01

265

Reducing stress in contained pipes  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly, chemical-process-industries plants are conveying fluids in contained pipes. These pipes inside pipes improve operational and environmental safety by keeping leaks from escaping into the plant, if the pipes are indoors, or into the soil, air or water if they are outdoors. Du Pont recently installed two contained-piping systems in one of its Wilmington, Del., facilities. The lines are made from fiberglass-reinforced vinyl ester, with 3-in.-dia. carrier pipes and 6-in.-dia. containment pipes. Heat from flowing liquid makes the carrier pipes expand, which causes them to move laterally inside the containment pipe. When flow stops, the temperature drops and the carrier pipes contract. To limit carrier-pipe movement, DuPont planned to install donut-shaped support at the ends of straight-run sections. However, a computerized analysis found that the supports cause high stress in the carrier pipes. The paper describes the solution that Du Pont found to reduce the stress on the piping and prolong the service life of the pipes.

Not Available

1993-07-01

266

Flow accelerated corrosion of carbon steel feeder pipes from pressurized heavy water reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed investigation of a number of feeder pipes received from Rajasthan Atomic Power Station Unit 2 (RAPS#2) after en-masse feeder pipe replacement after 15.67 Effective Full Power Years (EFPYs) was carried out. Investigations included ultrasonic thickness measurement by ultrasonic testing, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, chemical analysis and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Results showed that maximum thickness reduction of the feeder had occurred downstream and close to the weld in 32 NB (1.25?/32.75 mm ID) elbows. Rate of Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) was measured to be higher in the lower diameter feeder pipes due to high flow velocity and turbulence. Weld regions had thinned to a lower extent than the parent material due to higher chromium content in the weld. A weld protrusion has been shown to add to the thinning due to FAC and lead to faster thinning rate at localized regions. Surface morphology of inner surface of feeder had shown different size scallop pattern over the weld and parent material. Inter-granular cracks were also observed along the weld fusion line and in the parent material in 32 NB outlet feeder elbow.

Singh, J. L.; Kumar, Umesh; Kumawat, N.; Kumar, Sunil; Kain, Vivekanand; Anantharaman, S.; Sinha, A. K.

2012-10-01

267

Surface analysis and depth profiling of corrosion products formed in lead pipes used to supply low alkalinity drinking water.  

PubMed

Modern analytical techniques have been applied to investigate the nature of lead pipe corrosion products formed in pH adjusted, orthophosphate-treated, low alkalinity water, under supply conditions. Depth profiling and surface analysis have been carried out on pipe samples obtained from the water distribution system in Glasgow, Scotland, UK. X-ray diffraction spectrometry identified basic lead carbonate, lead oxide and lead phosphate as the principal components. Scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry revealed the crystalline structure within the corrosion product and also showed spatial correlations existed between calcium, iron, lead, oxygen and phosphorus. Elemental profiling, conducted by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and secondary neutrals mass spectrometry (SNMS) indicated that the corrosion product was not uniform with depth. However, no clear stratification was apparent. Indeed, counts obtained for carbonate, phosphate and oxide were well correlated within the depth range probed by SIMS. SNMS showed relationships existed between carbon, calcium, iron, and phosphorus within the bulk of the scale, as well as at the surface. SIMS imaging confirmed the relationship between calcium and lead and suggested there might also be an association between chloride and phosphorus. PMID:14982163

Davidson, C M; Peters, N J; Britton, A; Brady, L; Gardiner, P H E; Lewis, B D

2004-01-01

268

Provision of private, piped water and sewerage connections and directly observed handwashing of mothers in a peri-urban community of Lima, Peru  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To estimate the association between improved water and sanitation access and handwashing of mothers living in a peri-urban community of Lima, Peru. METHODS We observed 27 mothers directly, before and after installation of private, piped water and sewerage connections in the street just outside their housing plots, and measured changes in the proportion of faecal-hand contamination and hand-to-mouth transmission events with handwashing. RESULTS After provision of water and sewerage connections, mothers were approximately two times more likely to be observed washing their hands within a minute of defecation, compared with when they relied on shared, external water sources and non-piped excreta disposal (RR = 2.14, 95% CI = 0.99–4.62). With piped water and sewerage available at housing plots, handwashing with or without soap occurred within a minute after 48% (10/21) of defecation events and within 15 min prior to 8% (11/136) of handling food events. CONCLUSIONS Handwashing increased following installation of private, piped water and sewerage connections, but its practice remained infrequent, particularly before food-related events. Infrastructural interventions should be coupled with efforts to promote hygiene and ensure access to water and soap at multiple on-plot locations convenient to mothers.

Oswald, William E.; Hunter, Gabrielle C.; Kramer, Michael R.; Leontsini, Elli; Cabrera, Lilia; Lescano, Andres G.; Gilman, Robert H.

2014-01-01

269

Water-quality data collected to determine the presence, source, and concentration of lead in the drinking water supply at Pipe Spring National Monument, northern Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pipe Spring National Monument in northern Arizona contains historically significant springs. The groundwater source of these springs is the same aquifer that presently is an important source of drinking water for the Pipe Spring National Monument facilities, the Kaibab Paiute Tribe, and the community of Moccasin. The Kaibab Paiute Tribe monitored lead concentrations from 2004 to 2009; some of the analytical results exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action level for treatment technique for lead of 15 parts per billion. The National Park Service and the Kaibab Paiute Tribe were concerned that the local groundwater system that provides the domestic water supply might be contaminated with lead. Lead concentrations in water samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from three springs, five wells, two water storage tanks, and one faucet were less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action level for treatment technique. Lead concentrations of rock samples representative of the rock units in which the local groundwater resides were less than 22 parts per million.

Macy, Jamie P.; Sharrow, David; Unema, Joel

2013-01-01

270

Comparison of Particle Image Velocimetry and Laser Doppler Anemometry measurement methods applied to the oil–water flow in horizontal pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a comparison of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) measurement methods was made applied to oil–water two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe. The experiments were conducted in a 15 m long, 56 mm diameter stainless steel pipe using Exxsol D60 oil (density 790 kg\\/m3 and viscosity 1.64 mPa s) and water (density 996 kg\\/m3 and viscosity 1.0 mPa s) as

W. A. S. Kumara; G. Elseth; B. M. Halvorsen; M. C. Melaaen

2010-01-01

271

Effect of pH on the concentrations of lead and trace contaminants in drinking water: a combined batch, pipe loop and sentinel home study.  

PubMed

High lead levels in drinking water are still a concern for households serviced by lead pipes in many parts of North America and Europe. This contribution focuses on the effect of pH on lead concentrations in drinking water delivered through lead pipes. Though this has been addressed in the past, we have conducted a combined batch, pipe loop and sentinel study aiming at filling some of the gaps present in the literature. Exhumed lead pipes and water quality data from the City of London's water distribution system were used in this study. As expected, the lead solubility of corrosion scale generally decreased as pH increased; whereas dissolution of other accumulated metals present in the corrosion scale followed a variety of trends. Moreover, dissolved arsenic and aluminum concentrations showed a strong correlation, indicating that the aluminosilicate phase present in the scale accumulates arsenic. A significant fraction of the total lead concentration in water was traced to particulate lead. Our results indicate that particulate lead is the primary contributor to total lead concentration in flowing systems, whereas particulate lead contribution to total lead concentrations for stagnated systems becomes significant only at high water pH values. PMID:21458838

Kim, Eun Jung; Herrera, Jose E; Huggins, Dan; Braam, John; Koshowski, Scott

2011-04-01

272

Theater of Operations Water Supply--Feasibility of Manufacturing and Using Plastic Pipe in the Theater of Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study determined the feasibility of manufacturing and using plastic piping systems in theater of operations facilities. Available plastic pipe, fitting production, fabrication methods, and equipment were reviewed. Concepts were developed for extruding...

W. J. Mikucki

1973-01-01

273

Automated ultrasonic inspection of IGSCC in DOE production reactor process water piping  

SciTech Connect

Inspection of nuclear power components has always presented difficulties to the nondestructive testing (NDT) industry from a time consumption and radiation exposure standpoint. Recent advances in computerized NDT equipment have improved the situation to some extent; however, the need for high reliability, precision, reproducibility, and clear permanent documentation are indispensable requirements that can only be met by automatic inspection and recording systems. The Savannah River Plant's inspection program of over 1000 IGSCC-susceptible welds is one of the most complete in the country and offers educational insight into ultrasonic examination technology of thin-wall stainless steel pipe welds.

Harrison, J.M.; Sprayberry, R.; Ehrhart, W.

1987-01-01

274

Recorded seismic response of a base-isolated steel bridge carrying a steel water pipe  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A set of strong motion records was obtained from the base-isolated Santa Ana River Pipeline Bridge during the magnitude 5.9 Whittier Narrows, California, earthquake of October 1, 1987. The analysis of the records show that the level of excitation was not strong enough to fully activate the base isolators. The dominant modes of the response are the translations of the abutment-bridge-pipe system in the longitudinal and transverse directions, and the bending of the steel truss between supports in the vertical direction.

Safak, E.; Brady, A. G.

1989-01-01

275

Preliminary investigation of structural controls of ground-water movement in Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pipe Spring National Monument, near the border of Arizona and Utah, includes several low-discharge springs that are the primary natural features of the monument. The National Park Service is concerned about the declines in spring discharge. Seismic-refraction and frequency-domain electromagnetic-induction methods were employed in an attempt to better understand the relation between spring discharge and geologic structure. The particular method used for the seismic-refraction surveys was unable to resolve structural features in the monument. Electromagnetic surveys delineated differences in apparent conductivity of the shallow subsurface deposits. The differences are attributable to differences in saturation, lithology, and structure of these deposits.

Truini, Margot; Fleming, John B.; Pierce, Herb A.

2004-01-01

276

Analysis of cracked core spray injection line piping from the Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 boiling water reactors  

SciTech Connect

Elbow assemblies and adjacent piping from the loops A and B core spray injection lines of Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 Boiling Water Reactors have been examined in order to determine the nature and causes of coolant leakages and flaw indications detected during hydrostatic tests and subsequent ultrasonic inspections. The elbow assemblies were found to contain multiple intergranular cracks in the weld heat-affected zones. The cracking was predominantly axial in orientation in the forged elbow and wedge components, whereas mixed axial and circumferential cracking was seen in the wrought piping pieces. In at least two instances, axial cracks completely penetrated the circumferential weld joining adjacent components. Based upon the observations made in the present study, the failures were attributed to intergranular stress corrosion cracking caused by the weld-induced sensitized microstructure and residual stresses present; dissolved oxygen in the reactor coolant apparently served as the corrosive species. The predominantly axial orientation of the cracks present in the forged components is believed to be related to the banded microstructure present in these components. The metallographic studies reported are supplemented by x-radiography, chemical analysis and mechanical test results, determinations of the degree of sensitization present, and measurements of weld metal delta ferrite content.

Diercks, D.R.

1983-12-01

277

Characterization of biofilm and corrosion of cast iron pipes in drinking water distribution system with UV/Cl2 disinfection.  

PubMed

The effect of UV/Cl2 disinfection on the biofilm and corrosion of cast iron pipes in drinking water distribution system were studied using annular reactors (ARs). Passivation occurred more rapidly in the AR with UV/Cl2 than in the one with Cl2 alone, decreasing iron release for higher corrosivity of water. Based on functional gene, pyrosequencing assays and principal component analysis, UV disinfection not only reduced the required initial chlorine dose, but also enhanced denitrifying functional bacteria advantage in the biofilm of corrosion scales. The nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) Dechloromonas exhibited the greatest corrosion inhibition by inducing the redox cycling of iron to enhance the precipitation of iron oxides and formation of Fe3O4 in the AR with UV/Cl2, while the rhizobia Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium, and the NRB Sphingomonas, Brucella producing siderophores had weaker corrosion-inhibition effect by capturing iron in the AR with Cl2. These results indicated that the microbial redox cycling of iron was possibly responsible for higher corrosion inhibition and lower effect of water Larson-Skold Index (LI) changes on corrosion. This finding could be applied toward the control of water quality in drinking water distribution systems. PMID:24859195

Zhu, Ying; Wang, Haibo; Li, Xiaoxiao; Hu, Chun; Yang, Min; Qu, Jiuhui

2014-09-01

278

Probability of failure in BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) reactor coolant piping: Volume 2, Pipe failure induced by crack growth and failure of intermediate supports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) contracted with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to conduct a study to determine if the probability of occurrence of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) in the major coolant piping systems of nuclear power plants is large enough to warrant the current stringent design requirements of designing against the postulated effects of a DEGB.

T. Lo; S. E. Bumpus; D. J. Chinn; R. W. Mensing; G. S. Holman

1989-01-01

279

The detrimental danger of water-pipe (Hookah) transcends the hazardous consequences of general health to the driving behavior  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether the consumption of tobacco used in Water-Pipe by drivers increases the risk of a motor vehicle collision as a consequence of hypoxia. Design Analytical case–control study. Data sources Seventy exclusive Water-Pipe smokers (Experimental Group - EG) - mean age ± SD: 29.47?±?10.45?years; mean number of weekly WPS, (6.9?±?3.7); mean duration of WPS (WPS) is (7.5?±?2.1?years) - and thirty non-smoker (Control Group – CG; mean age ± SD: 36.33?±?13.92?years) were recruited during 2011 from two Arab villages located in the Galilee, northern Israel. Methods We performed a case–control study exclusively among Water-Pipe smokers with an appropriate non smokers control group. Demographic questionnaire, Pulse Oxymeter for blood oxygenation measure and a driver simulator for measuring various participants driving behaviors were utilized. Statistical analysis for analyzing the different variables, Pearson’s x2 analysis for the comparison of categorical variables, continuous variable is compared using Student’s t-test and for testing the correlation between the different variables and bivariate correlation analysis were applied. Results In the (EG) following WPS, we observed increase in the pulse rate - from 80 to 95 (t?=?11.84, p?

2012-01-01

280

Defect characterization in pipe-to-pipe welds in large diameter stainless steel piping  

SciTech Connect

Metallurgical evaluation of pipe-to-pipe welds in large-diameter, Type 304 stainless steel piping used to construct the moderator/coolant water systems for Savannah River Site reactors has demonstrated that small weld defects found in this 1950-vintage system do not compromise the integrity of the system. The weld defects were too small for detection by the pre-service standard radiographic inspection, but were found through systematic ultrasonic testing (UT) and penetrant testing (PT) evaluations of piping that had been removed during upgrades to the piping system. The defects include lack of weld penetration, slag inclusions, and other weld metal discontinuities. These discontinuities typically did not propagate during more than 35 years of service. The defects examined were too small and isolated to degrade the mechanical properties of the pipe-to-pipe weldments and therefore did not compromise the integrity of the piping system. 14 refs., 7 figs.

Rawl, D.E. Jr.; West, S.L.; Wheeler, D.A.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

1990-01-01

281

Heat Pipes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the construction, function, and applications of heat pipes. Suggests using the heat pipe to teach principles related to heat transfer and gives sources for obtaining instructional kits for this purpose. (GS)

Lewis, J.

1975-01-01

282

Pipe Dreams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of attention to plumbing in college facilities, offering examples from various campuses. Addresses preventive maintenance, technology, and piping materials, including the debate between cast iron and PVC for drain pipes. (EV)

Milshtein, Amy

2002-01-01

283

Experimental Investigation into the Transient Performance of a Titanium-Water Loop Heat Pipe Subjected to a Steady-Periodic Acceleration Field (Preprint).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research was to experimentally investigate the transient operating characteristics of a titanium-water loop heat pipe subjected to a combined steady-state evaporator input heat rate and a steady-periodic acceleration field. For this ...

D. L. Courson H. Jiang J. D. Scofield K. L. Yerkes

2013-01-01

284

Seismic evaluation by comparative analysis of the confinement heat removal, process water, and modified cross-tie header piping systems in reactor building 105-L, Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the seismic evaluation of three piping systems located in Reactor Building 105-L at the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. The analysis was performed for E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (Du Pont) for the seismic qualification of the piping systems, according to the 1967 Housner criteria, and to recommend actions, which should be taken by Du Pont, to ensure the complete seismic adequacy of these systems. The following systems were analyzed: confinement heat removal system (CHRS); process water system (PWS); and modified cross-tie header system (CTHS).

Wong, P.W.

1982-09-01

285

Heat pipe life and processing study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The merit of adding water to the reflux charge in chemically and solvent cleaned aluminum/slab wick/ammonia heat pipes was evaluated. The effect of gas in the performance of three heat pipe thermal control systems was found significant in simple heat pipes, less significant in a modified simple heat pipe model with a short wickless pipe section. Use of gas data for the worst and best heat pipes of the matrix in a variable conductance heat pipe model showed a 3 C increase in the source temperature at full on condition after 20 and 246 years, respectively.

Antoniuk, D.; Luedke, E. E.

1979-01-01

286

Radiological hazards of Narghile (hookah, shisha, goza) smoking: activity concentrations and dose assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narghile (hookah, shisha, goza, “water-pipe”) smoking has become fashionable worldwide. Its tobacco pastes, known as moassel and jurak, are not standardized and generally contain about 30–50% (sometimes more) tobacco, molasses\\/juice of sugarcane, various spices and dried fruits (particularly in jurak) and, in the case of moassel, glycerol and flavoring essences. Tobacco contains minute amounts of radiotoxic elements such as 210Pb,

Ashraf E. M. Khater; Nawal S. Abd El-Aziz; Hamed A. Al-Sewaidan; Kamal Chaouachi

2008-01-01

287

Permeation of organic compounds through ductile iron pipe gaskets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ductile iron (DI) pipes have been used for the conveyance of drinking water in drinking water distribution systems over the past several decades. It has been estimated that almost half of all new water mains installed in North America are DI pipes. Although DI pipe itself is resistant to chemical permeation, the polymeric gaskets that join and seal the pipe

Chu-lin Cheng

2009-01-01

288

A study on the characteristics of upward air-water two-phase flow in a large diameter pipe  

SciTech Connect

An adiabatic upward co-current air-water two-phase flow in a vertical large diameter pipe (inner diameter, D: 0.2m, ratio of pipe length to diameter, L/D: 60.5) was experimentally investigated under various inlet conditions. Flow regimes were visually observed, carefully analyzed and classified into five, i.e. undisturbed bubbly, agitated bubbly, churn bubbly, churn slug and churn froth. Void fraction, bubble frequency, Sauter mean diameter, interfacial area concentration (IAC) and interfacial direction were measured with four-sensor optical probes. Both the measured void fraction and the measured IAC demonstrated radial core-peak distributions in most of the flow regimes and radial wall peak in the undisturbed bubbly flow only. The bubble frequency also showed a wall-peak radial distribution only when the bubbles were small in diameter and the flow was in the undisturbed bubbly flow. The Sauter mean diameter of bubbles did not change much in the radial direction in undisturbed bubbly, agitated bubbly and churn bubbly flows and showed a core-peak radial distribution in the churn slug flow due to the existence of certain amount of large and deformed bubbles in this flow regime. The measurements of interfacial direction showed that the main and the secondary bubbly flow could be displayed by the main flow peak and the secondary flow peak, respectively, in the probability density function (PDF) of the interfacial directional angle between the interfacial direction and the z-axis, {eta}{sub zi}. The local average {eta}{sub zi }at the bubble front or rear hemisphere ({eta}{sub zi}{sup F} and {eta}{sub zi}{sup R}) reflected the local bubble movement and was in direct connection with the flow regimes. Based on the analysis, the authors classified the flow regimes in the vertical large diameter pipe quantitatively by the cross-sectional area-averaged {eta}{sub zi }at bubbly front hemisphere ({eta}{sub zi}{sup F}-bar). Bubbles in the undisturbed bubbly flow moved in a vertical way with some swerving motions and those in other flow regimes moved along the lateral secondary flow with an averaging net upward velocity. (author)

Shen, Xiuzhong; Saito, Yasushi; Mishima, Kaichiro [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Nakamura, Hideo [Nuclear Safety Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

2006-10-15

289

Effect of pipe corrosion scales on chlorine dioxide consumption in drinking water distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies showed that temperature and total organic carbon in drinking water would cause chlorine dioxide (ClO2) loss in a water distribution system and affect the efficiency of ClO2 for Legionella control. However, among the various causes of ClO2 loss in a drinking water distribution system, the loss of disinfectant due to the reaction with corrosion scales has not been

Zhe Zhang; Janet E. Stout; Victor L. Yu; Radisav Vidic

2008-01-01

290

Qualification requirements of guided ultrasonic waves for inspection of piping in light water reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is anticipated that guided ultrasonic wave (GUW) techniques will eventually see widespread application in the nuclear power industry as there are several near-term and future needs that could benefit from the availability of GUW technologies. Already, GUW techniques are receiving consideration for inspecting buried piping at nuclear power plants and future applications may include several Class 1 and 2 components. To accept the results of a nondestructive examination of safety critical components, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that the examinations be performed using qualified equipment, personnel, and procedures. As the use of GUW techniques becomes more frequent, qualification may be required. Performance demonstration has been the approach to qualifying conventional NDE methods in the nuclear power industry. This paper highlights potential issues and research needs associated with facilitating GUW qualification for the nuclear power industry. Parametric studies of essential inspection parameters are necessary to understand their influence on inspection performance. The large volume sampling capability introduces several challenges for qualifying GUW techniques including the quantification of performance, potential interference caused by the presence of multiple flaws in the inspection region, and the practicality of manufacturing several large qualification specimens. Computer simulation may have a significant role in reducing the experimental burden associated with qualifying GUW techniques for nuclear power plant examinations.

Meyer, R. M.; Ramuhalli, P.; Doctor, S. R.; Bond, L. J.

2013-01-01

291

Qualification requirements of guided ultrasonic waves for inspection of piping in light water reactors  

SciTech Connect

It is anticipated that guided ultrasonic wave (GUW) techniques will eventually see widespread application in the nuclear power industry as there are several near-term and future needs that could benefit from the availability of GUW technologies. Already, GUW techniques are receiving consideration for inspecting buried piping at nuclear power plants and future applications may include several Class 1 and 2 components. To accept the results of a nondestructive examination of safety critical components, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that the examinations be performed using qualified equipment, personnel, and procedures. As the use of GUW techniques becomes more frequent, qualification may be required. Performance demonstration has been the approach to qualifying conventional NDE methods in the nuclear power industry. This paper highlights potential issues and research needs associated with facilitating GUW qualification for the nuclear power industry. Parametric studies of essential inspection parameters are necessary to understand their influence on inspection performance. The large volume sampling capability introduces several challenges for qualifying GUW techniques including the quantification of performance, potential interference caused by the presence of multiple flaws in the inspection region, and the practicality of manufacturing several large qualification specimens. Computer simulation may have a significant role in reducing the experimental burden associated with qualifying GUW techniques for nuclear power plant examinations.

Meyer, R. M.; Ramuhalli, P.; Doctor, S. R. [Applied Physics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Bond, L. J. [Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

2013-01-25

292

Analysis of Piping Systems for Life Extension of Heavy Water Plants in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy water production in India has achieved many milestones in the past. Two of the successfully running heavy water plants are on the verge of completion of their design life in the near future. One of these two plants, situated at Kota, is a hydrogen sulfide based plant and the other one at Tuticorin is an ammonia-based plant. Various exercises

Rajesh K. Mishra; R. S. Soni; H. S. Kushwaha; V. Venkat Raj

2002-01-01

293

Power plant releasing smoke  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Power plants are a well-known source of pollution. They drain directly into bodies of water such as the ocean. In addition, they burn fossil fuels to create energy. The smoke that results causes acid rain and global warming.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-12

294

Pressure Drop for Oil-Water Two-phase Flow in Horizontal Pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure drops were measured during the co-current flow of a mechanical oil and tap water in 40 mm inner diameter horizontal test section made from organic glass. Measurements is conducted were made for the oil superficial velocity ranges from 0.04 to 1.2 m/s and the water superficial velocity from 0.04 to 2.2 m/s. The volume fraction of water in the oil-water mixture changes from 0.05 to 0.976. The frictional pressure loss of oil-water two-phase flow was also studied experimentally and theoretically. The main finding is the frictional pressure loss of oil-water two-phase flow in flow ranges corresponding to flow pattern. Two fluid model was explored to calculate the frictional pressure loss for stratified flow pattern. Homogeneous model was used to predict the fictional pressure loss for oil-dispersed stratified, oil-dispersed and oil annular flow regimes. For three-layer flow regime, a correlation between flow parameters and the two-phase pressure drop reference to water phase was proposed. The model predictions are in good agreement with experiment data.

Liu, W. H.; Guo, L. J.

2010-03-01

295

The Politics of Pipes: The Persistence of Small Water Networks in Post-Privatization Manila  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project examines the politics of water provision in low-income areas of large, developing cities. In the last two decades, water privatization has become a global paradigm, emerging as a potential means for addressing the urban water crisis. In Manila, the site of the world's largest water privatization project, service to low-income areas has improved significantly in the post-privatization era. But whereas expansion of a water utility typically involves the replacement of informal providers, the experience in Manila demonstrates that the rapid connection of low-income areas actually hinges, in part, on the selective inclusion and exclusion of these smaller actors. Based on an ethnography of the private utilities and community-based providers, I use the persistence of small water networks as a lens for exploring the limits of water privatization in Manila. I focus on what I call micro-networks---community-built infrastructure that extends the formal, private utilities into low-income neighborhoods that the utilities do not wish to serve directly. In such a setup, the utility provides water only as far as the community boundary; beyond that, the micro-network operator constructs internal infrastructure, monitors for leakage and theft, and collects bills. But while these communities may gain access to safer water, they are also subject to higher costs and heightened disciplinary measures. By tracing the ways in which the utilities selectively use micro-networks to manage sub-populations, I show how the utilities make low-income spaces more governable. Delegating localized water management to micro-network operators depoliticizes the utilities' roles, shifting the sociopolitical difficulties of water provision to community organizations, while allowing the utilities to claim that these areas are served. This research leads to three related arguments. First, the persistence of small water networks highlights lingering inequities in access to water, for micro-network consumers are subject to disparities in cost, materials, and personal freedoms. Though Manila's water privatization project has resulted in significant improvements to the centralized system, its success must be tempered by the inequalities that remain. Second, the two utilities are largely able to shape both the geographies of water access and the production of knowledge. For this reason, the utilities typically use micro-networks where cost recovery may be difficult---such as in areas with uncertain land tenure or where higher levels of nonpayment are perceived---while including these areas in their aggregate coverage statistics. Third, the presence of multiple providers of water and other basic services blurs the boundaries between public, private, and community. But that blurriness serves to consolidate the private utilities' power, while increasing the opacity by which citizens navigate processes related to urban water provision. The persistence of micro-networks thus allows us to understand the ways in which low-income spaces are made more governable. By focusing on this peri-urban frontier, this project asserts that differentiation and discipline serve simultaneously as tools of governance and as points of contestation. What emerges is a waterscape consisting not of one type of privatization---where service and access are uniformly provided---but multiple, coexisting, and differentiated privatizations.

Cheng, Deborah

296

Heat Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phoenix Refrigeration Systems, Inc.'s heat pipe addition to the Phoenix 2000, a supermarket rooftop refrigeration/air conditioning system, resulted from the company's participation in a field test of heat pipes. Originally developed by NASA to control temperatures in space electronic systems, the heat pipe is a simple, effective, heat transfer system. It has been used successfully in candy storage facilities where it has provided significant energy savings. Additional data is expected to fully quantify the impact of the heat pipes on supermarket air conditioning systems.

1991-01-01

297

Heat Pipe Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar Fundamentals, Inc.'s hot water system employs space-derived heat pipe technology. It is used by a meat packing plant to heat water for cleaning processing machinery. Unit is complete system with water heater, hot water storage, electrical controls and auxiliary components. Other than fans and a circulating pump, there are no moving parts. System's unique design eliminates problems of balancing, leaking, corroding, and freezing.

1988-01-01

298

Evaluation of Opportunities to Improve Structural Inspection Capabilities for Water Mains: Large Diameter Cast Iron Pipe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cost-effective structural inspection can be an important component of effective condition assessment and asset management of water conveyance infrastructure. Structural inspection involves collecting data about meta-stable and/or transient indicators of t...

2013-01-01

299

Explosive Welding of Pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe. Model experiments with pipes having radii R = 57 mm confirmed results of the calculations and the possibility in principle to weld pipes by explosion with use of water as filler. Reduction of pipe diameter after dynamic loading and explosive welding was ˜2%.

Burtseva, Olga

2007-06-01

300

Experimental Results for Low-Temperature Silicon Micromachined Micro Heat Pipe Arrays Using Water and Methanol as Working Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental test facility was constructed to test and verify the operation of two parallel arrays of anisotropicalfy micromachined (etched) micro heal pipes (MHPs) on a single crystalline (100) semiconductor silicon wafer, A micro heat pipe is a small-scale device used to transport energy from a heat source to a heat sink in nearly isothermal operation. The individual MHP was

Bassam Badran; Frank M. Gerner; Padmaja Ramadas; Thurman Henderson; Karl W. Baker

1997-01-01

301

Statistical evaluation of light water reactor piping damping data for use in PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of studies used to quantify, on a statistical basis, one of the parameters (piping system damping) input to probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) analyses of nuclear structures. Damping data were selected from tests in which the piping had been vibrated at levels representative of at least moderate severity seismic or hydrodynamic transients. These data, representing 27

A. G. Ware

1988-01-01

302

Joint use of long water pipe tiltmeters and sea level gauges for monitoring ground deformation at Campi Flegrei caldera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Campi Flegrei caldera, located in the Campanian Plain, Southern Italy, 15 km west of the city of Naples, is a nested, resurgent, and restless structure in the densely inhabited Neapolitan area. The main caldera at Campi Flegrei is 12 - 15 km across and its rim is thought to have been formed during the catastrophic eruption, occurred 39 ky ago ca., which produced a deposit referred to as the Campanian Ignimbrite. The volcanic hazards posed by this caldera and the related risk are extremely high, because of its explosive character and the about 1.5 million people living within the caldera. Campi Flegrei area periodically experiences significant unrest episodes which include ground deformations, the so-called 'bradisismo'. Following the last eruption (Monte Nuovo, 1538) a general subsidence has been interrupted by episodes of uplift, the most recent of which occurred in 1970-72 and 1982-84. Since 1950 the caldera is showing signs of unrest with ground uplift, seismicity, and composition variation of fumarole fluids. In particular, subsidence has been replaced by intermittent episodes of inflation with short time duration and various maximum amplitude. They occurred in 1989, 1994, 2000, 2005-06, 2008-09 and 2011-2014 with duration of few months and maximum amplitude ranging between 3 and 18 cm., approximately. In the last years an array of water-pipe tiltmeters with lengths between 28 m and 278 m in tunnels on the flanks of the region of maximum inflation has been installed to avoid problems common to the traditional tiltmeters. The tiltmeters record inflation episodes upon which are superimposed local load tides and the effects of the seiches in the Bay of Naples and in the Tyrrhenian sea. We use data recorded by three tide gauges in the Bay of Pozzuoli (Pozzuoli, Miseno, Nisida) to compare water pipe data with sea level to extract astronomical tidal components (diurnal and semidiurnal) and seiches periods (particularly between 20 minutes and 56 minutes) that could constitute local loading frequencies recorded clearly by tide gauges and tiltmeters. We perform an analysis of the amplitude stability of seiches amplitudes. After the removal of the tides and seiches component we compare tilt residual and sea level trend for the same periods of time. The comparison between these two kind of data enables a more sensitive definition of the low level uplift with an accuracy of 1% for nanoradiant tilts in the period range 10 minutes to 10 hours with a long term tilt stability of approximately 0.1 microradiant/yr.

Scarpa, Roberto; Capuano, Paolo; Tammaro, Umberto; Bilham, Roger

2014-05-01

303

In-pipe water quality monitoring in water supply systems under steady and unsteady state flow conditions: A quantitative assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring the quality of drinking water from the treatment plant to the consumers tap is critical to ensure compliance with national standards and\\/or WHO guideline levels. There are a number of processes and factors affecting the water quality during transmission and distribution which are little understood. A significant obstacle for gaining a detailed knowledge of various physical and chemical processes

Angelina Aisopou; Ivan Stoianov; Nigel J. D. Graham

304

Tippy Tap Plus Piping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Tippy Tap hand-washing station is an inexpensive and effective device used extensively in the developing world. One shortcoming of the homemade device is that it must be manually refilled with water and therefore is of limited use in high-traffic areas. In this activity, student teams design, prototype and test piping systems to transport water from a storage tank to an existing Tippy Tap hand-washing station, thereby creating a more efficient hand-washing station. Through this example service-learning engineering project, students learn basic fluid dynamic principles that are needed for creating efficient piping systems.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder,

305

The decay of chlorine associated with the pipe wall in water distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free chlorine decay rates in water distribution systems for bulk and wall demands should be modelled separately as they have different functional dependencies. Few good quality determinations of in situ wall demand have been made due to the difficulty of monitoring live systems and due to their complexity. Wall demands have been calculated from field measurements at 11 locations in

N. B Hallam; J. R West; C. F Forster; J. C Powell; I Spencer

2002-01-01

306

Field Demonstration of Emerging Pipe Wall Integrity Assessment Technologies for Large Cast Iron Water Mains - Paper  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,000-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast-iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Se...

307

CHARACTERIZATION OF LOCALIZED CORROSION OF COPPER PIPES USED IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Localized corrosion of copper, or "copper pitting" in water distribution tubing is a large problem at many utilities. Pitting can lead to pinhole leaks less than a year. Tubing affected by copper pitting will often fail in ultiple locations, resulting in a frustrating situation ...

308

EVALUATION OF OPPORTUNITIES TO IMPROVE STRUCTURAL INSPECTION CAPABILITIES FOR WATER MAINS: LARGE DIAMETER CAST IRON PIPE  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA and other organizations have projected that a large portion of the United States? aging water conveyance infrastructure will reach the end of its service life in the next several decades. EPA has identified asset management as a critical factor in efficiently addre...

309

Uncoupled axial, flexural, and circumferential pipe–soil interaction analyses of partially supported jointed water mains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pipelines used in the distribution of potable water are a vital part of everyday life. The pipelines buried in soil-backfill are exposed to different deleterious reactions; as a result, the design factor of safety may be significantly degraded and, consequently, pipelines may fail prematurely. Proactive pipeline management, which entails optimal maintenance, repair, or replacement strategies, helps increase the longevity of

Balvant Rajani; Solomon Tesfamariam

2004-01-01

310

Flexible Pipes-Permeation of Methane, Carbon Dioxide and Water Through Tefzel ETFE: Experiments 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The permeation of a mixture of CH4 and CO2 (97% CH4 and 3% CO2) saturated with water vapour through Tefzel has been studied at 950 C and 25 and 50 bars. Tefzel is the Du Pont trademark of an ETFE (ethylenetetrafluorethylene) which is a copolymer of ethyle...

P. A. Wang N. Hydro

1997-01-01

311

The Effect of Water Chemistry on the Release of Iron from Pipe Walls  

EPA Science Inventory

Colored water problems originating from distribution system materials may be reduced by controlling corrosion, iron released from corrosion scales, and better understanding of the form and properties of the iron particles. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect...

312

OTEC cold water pipe: a survey of available shell analysis computer programs and implications of hydrodynamic loadings  

SciTech Connect

The design and analysis of the cold water pipe (CWP) is one of the most important technological problems to be solved in the OTEC ocean engineering program. Analytical computer models have to be developed and verified in order to provide an engineering approach for the OTEC CWP with regards to environmental factors such as waves, currents, platform motions, etc., and for various structural configurations and materials such as rigid wall CWP, compliant CWP, stockade CWP, etc. To this end, Analysis and Technology, Inc. has performed a review and evaluation of shell structural analysis computer programs applicable to the design of an OTEC CWP. Included in this evaluation are discussions of the hydrodynamic flow field, structure-fluid interaction and the state-of-the-art analytical procedures for analysis of offshore structures. The analytical procedures which must be incorporated into the design of a CWP are described. A brief review of the state-of-the-art for analysis of offshore structures and the need for a shell analysis for the OTEC CWP are included. A survey of available shell computer programs, both special purpose and general purpose, and discussions of the features of these dynamic shell programs and how the hydrodynamic loads are represented within the computer programs are included. The hydrodynamic loads design criteria for the CWP are described. An assessment of the current state of knowledge for hydrodynamic loads is presented. (WHK)

Pompa, J.A.; Allik, H.; Webman, K.; Spaulding, M.

1979-02-01

313

Effects of disinfectant and biofilm on the corrosion of cast iron pipes in a reclaimed water distribution system.  

PubMed

The effects of disinfection and biofilm on the corrosion of cast iron pipe in a model reclaimed water distribution system were studied using annular reactors (ARs). The corrosion scales formed under different conditions were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the bacterial characteristics of biofilm on the surface were determined using several molecular methods. The corrosion scales from the ARs with chlorine included predominantly ?-FeOOH and Fe2O3, while CaPO3(OH)·2H2O and ?-FeOOH were the predominant phases after chloramines replaced chlorine. Studies of the consumption of chlorine and iron release indicated that the formation of dense oxide layers and biofilm inhibited iron corrosion, causing stable lower chlorine decay. It was verified that iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB) such as Sediminibacterium sp., and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) such as Shewanella sp., synergistically interacted with the corrosion product to prevent further corrosion. For the ARs without disinfection, ?-FeOOH was the predominant phase at the primary stage, while CaCO3 and ?-FeOOH were predominant with increasing time. The mixed corrosion-inducing bacteria, including the IRB Shewanella sp., the IOB Sediminibacterium sp., and the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) Limnobacter thioxidans strain, promoted iron corrosion by synergistic interactions in the primary period, while anaerobic IRB became the predominant corrosion bacteria, preventing further corrosion via the formation of protective layers. PMID:22209261

Wang, Haibo; Hu, Chun; Hu, Xuexiang; Yang, Min; Qu, Jiuhui

2012-03-15

314

Heat transfer mechanism of miniature loop heat pipe with water-copper nanofluid: thermodynamics model and experimental study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to ensure the normal work of electronic product, the thermal management is of key importance. Miniature loop heat pipe (mLHP) is a promising device of heat transfer for electronic products. Cu-water nanofluid with different concentration is used as working material in mLHP. Experiments are conducted to investigate its heat transfer performance. The heat flux owing to thermal diffusion is calculated. It is found that this heat flux and the boiling temperature are non-monotonic function of concentration of nanoparticle. Turning concentration appears at about 1.5 wt%. Differential equation of thermal diffusion produced by micro movement of nanoparticle is established in this paper. Average speed formula for nanoparticles is derived and slope of the curve of phase equilibrium is obtained. Based on the theoretical research in this paper, enhanced heat transfer mechanism of nanofluid is analyzed. The facts that heat flux owing to thermal diffusion and boiling temperature are all associated with nanoparticle concentration are also well explained with the aid of the derived theory in this paper.

Wang, Xiao-wu; Wan, Zhen-ping; Tang, Yong

2013-07-01

315

Acoustic attenuation, phase and group velocities in liquid-filled pipes: Theory, experiment, and examples of water and mercury.  

PubMed

Del Grosso's [Acustica 24, 299-311 (1971)] formulation, which predicts the phase speed of propagating axisymmetric modes inside a liquid-filled tube, is here extended to the complex domain in order to predict the attenuation, as well as the sound speed, of the modes as a function of frequency. Measurements of the sound speeds and the attenuations of the modes were performed in a water-filled Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) tube of internal radius, b=4.445 cm, in the range of the wavenumber-radius product, k(1)b, from 2 to 10. Parts of three or four modes were investigated and the measured sound speeds and the damping of the modes were compared with the theoretical predictions. The theory was then used to estimate the modal sound speeds and attenuations in a stainless-steel pipe filled with mercury having the same dimensions as are used in the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee. PMID:21110559

Baik, Kyungmin; Jiang, Jian; Leighton, Timothy G

2010-11-01

316

An experimental study on developing air-water two-phase flow along a large vertical pipe: effect of air injection method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flow structure in a developing air-water two-phase flow was investigated experimentally along a large vertical pipe (inner diameter, Dh: 0.48 m, ratio of length of flow path L to Dh: about 4.2). Two air injection methods (porous sinter injection and nozzle injection) were adopted to realize an extremely different flow structure in the developing region. The flow rate condition

A. Ohnuki; H. Akimoto

1996-01-01

317

Experimental on two sensors combination used in horizontal pipe gas-water two-phase flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas-water two phase flow phenomenon widely exists in production and living and the measurement of it is meaningful. A new type of long-waist cone flow sensor has been designed to measure two-phase mass flow rate. Six rings structure of conductance probe is used to measure volume fraction and axial velocity. The calibration of them have been made. Two sensors have been combined in horizontal pipeline experiment to measure two-phase flow mass flow rate. Several model of gas-water two-phase flow has been discussed. The calculation errors of total mass flow rate measurement is less than 5% based on the revised homogeneous flow model.

Wu, Hao; Dong, Feng

2014-04-01

318

Turbine-Driven Pipe-Cleaning Brush  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple pipe-cleaning device includes small turbine wheel axially connected, by standoff, to circular brush. Turbine wheel turns on hub bearing attached to end of upstream cable. Turbine-and-brush assembly inserted in pipe with cable trailing upstream and brush facing downstream. Water or cleaning solution pumped through pipe. Cable held at upstream end, so it holds turbine and brush in pipe at location to be cleaned. Flow in pipe turns turbine, which turns wheel, producing desired cleaning action. In addition to brushing action, device provides even mixing of cleaning solution in pipe.

Werlink, Rudy J.; Rowell, David E.

1994-01-01

319

INTERIOR VIEW WITH LADLE FILLING A PONT A MOUSSON PIPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH LADLE FILLING A PONT A MOUSSON PIPE CASTING MACHINE (EITHER NO. 2 OR NO. 3) FOR PRODUCTION OF AN 8 INCH FASTTITE PIPE USED FOR GAS AND WATER TRANSMISSION. THIS FRENCH-MADE CASTING MACHINE MAKES 4, 6, 8, 10, AND 12 INCH PIPE. THE MACHINE CAN MAKE 48 EIGHT INCH PIPE AN HOUR AND UP TO 60 FOUR INCH PIPE PER HOUR. - American Cast Iron Pipe Company, Mixer Building, 1501 Thirty-first Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

320

Smoking Cessation  

MedlinePLUS

... Pregnancy Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Products Health Disparities Tobacco Industry and Products Federal Tax Increase Tobacco Ingredient Reporting ... Youth Tobacco Prevention Celebrities Against Smoking Tobacco-Free Sports Initiative Global Tobacco Control Spotlight About GTSS GTSS ...

321

Direct steam generation in parallel pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-phase flow in parallel pipes is associated with the application of direct steam generation (DSG) by solar heating using parabolic troughs focusing solar power. In this process water is fed into parallel pipes from a common manifold. Owing to local cloud cover or difference in the focusing quality, each pipe may receive a different heating power. In this case the

Sivan Natan; Dvora Barnea; Yehuda Taitel

2003-01-01

322

Applying Ultrasonic Phased Array Technology to Examine Austenitic Coarse-Grained Structures for Light Water Reactor Piping  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory is evaluating the capabilities and limitations of phased array (PA) technology to detect service-type flaws in coarse-grained austenitic piping structures. The work is being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Research. This paper presents initial work involving the use of PA technology to determine the effectiveness of detecting and accurately characterizing flaws on the far-side of austenitic piping welds.

Anderson, Michael T.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.

2003-12-18

323

Piping Flexibility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA computer program aids Hudson Engineering Corporation, Houston, Texas, in the design and construction of huge petrochemical processing plants like the one shown, which is located at Ju'aymah, Saudi Arabia. The pipes handling the flow of chemicals are subject to a variety of stresses, such as weight and variations in pressure and temperature. Hudson Engineering uses a COSMIC piping flexibility analysis computer program to analyze stresses and unsure the necessary strength and flexibility of the pipes. This program helps the company realize substantial savings in reduced engineering time.

1978-01-01

324

[Youth Smoking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of the newsletter "Prevention Forum" focuses on smoking among adolescents. The articles are as follows: (1) "Where There's Smoke--Will Prevention Put Out the Fire?" (Joanne Burgess), an overview of the Surgeon General's report "Preventing Tobacco Use among Young People," including interviews with prevention and anti-smoking activists;…

Stare, Russell K., Ed.

1994-01-01

325

Asia Smoke  

article title:  Smoke from Asian Fires Traverses the Pacific     ... Russia and northeast China, and produced a large amount of smoke that rose to form a thick layer of tiny atmospheric particles, or ... northern portion of the Pacific Ocean, the thickness of the smoke passing over an area south of the Aleutian Islands was measured by the ...

2013-04-16

326

Fatal nosocomial Legionnaires' disease: relevance of contamination of hospital water supply by temperature-dependent buoyancy-driven flow from spur pipes.  

PubMed

The investigation, epidemiology, and effectiveness of control procedures during an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease involving three immunosuppressed patients are described. The source of infection appeared to be a network of fire hydrant spurs connected directly to the incoming hospital mains water supply. Removal of these hydrants considerably reduced, but failed to eliminate, contamination of water storage facilities. As an emergency control procedure the incoming mains water was chlorinated continuously. Additional modifications to improve temperature regulation and reduce stagnation also failed to eliminate the legionellae. A perspex test-rig was constructed to model the pre-existing hospital water supply and storage system. This showed that through the hydraulic mechanism known as 'temperature buoyancy', contaminated water could be efficiently and quickly exchanged between a stagnant spur pipe and its mains supply. Contamination of hospital storage tanks from such sources has not previously been considered a risk factor for Legionnaires' disease. We recommend that hospital water storage tanks are supplied by a dedicated mains pipe without spurs. PMID:8005217

Patterson, W J; Seal, D V; Curran, E; Sinclair, T M; McLuckie, J C

1994-06-01

327

Fatal nosocomial Legionnaires' disease: relevance of contamination of hospital water supply by temperature-dependent buoyancy-driven flow from spur pipes.  

PubMed Central

The investigation, epidemiology, and effectiveness of control procedures during an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease involving three immunosuppressed patients are described. The source of infection appeared to be a network of fire hydrant spurs connected directly to the incoming hospital mains water supply. Removal of these hydrants considerably reduced, but failed to eliminate, contamination of water storage facilities. As an emergency control procedure the incoming mains water was chlorinated continuously. Additional modifications to improve temperature regulation and reduce stagnation also failed to eliminate the legionellae. A perspex test-rig was constructed to model the pre-existing hospital water supply and storage system. This showed that through the hydraulic mechanism known as 'temperature buoyancy', contaminated water could be efficiently and quickly exchanged between a stagnant spur pipe and its mains supply. Contamination of hospital storage tanks from such sources has not previously been considered a risk factor for Legionnaires' disease. We recommend that hospital water storage tanks are supplied by a dedicated mains pipe without spurs.

Patterson, W. J.; Seal, D. V.; Curran, E.; Sinclair, T. M.; McLuckie, J. C.

1994-01-01

328

Reduction in pressure drop for pipe flow due to applied electric potentials to the pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

For all forms of transport of fluids in pipes, there is loss of pressure due to the friction. It has been shown that an electrical\\u000a potential applied to the pipe wall can reduce water flow friction. Piezometric pressure loss over the 13.1 m slanting epoxy\\u000a coated pipe made of steel, through which water was flowing, decreased when pipe was exposed

M. Waskaas; V. Daujotis; K. E. Wolden; R. Raudonis; D. Plausinaitis

2008-01-01

329

Environmental design criteria for the 1/3 scale OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipe At-Sea Test Site off Honolulu, Hawaii  

SciTech Connect

A fully instrumented At-Sea Test of a 1/3 scale OTEC cold water pipe (CWP) will be carried out. The future prototype for this 1/3 scale model is envisioned to be the OTEC Pilot Plant design in the 10 to 40 megawatt-electric size range with an estimated CWP diameter of about 30 ft and an overall vertical length of about 3000 ft. Thus the 1/3 scale CWP consists of a pipe about 10 ft in diameter and 1000 ft long. The selected At-Sea Test site is located at 21/sup 0/15.5'N latitude and 157/sup 0/54.6'W longitude off Honolulu, Hawaii. In order to expedite development of the design of the 1/3 scale At-Sea Test CWP/Platform/Mooring System the report provides environmental design criteria data at the proposed At-Sea Test site evaluated from available historic data.

Not Available

1982-01-01

330

ANALYSIS OF THE LEACHING EFFICIENCY OF INHIBITED WATER AND TANK SIMULANT IN REMOVING RESIDUES ON THERMOWELL PIPES  

SciTech Connect

A key component for the accelerated implementation and operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is the recovery of Tank 48H. Tank 48H is a type IIIA tank with a maximum capacity of 1.3 million gallons. Video inspection of the tank showed that a film of solid material adhered to the tank internal walls and structures between 69 inch and 150 inch levels. From the video inspection, the solid film thickness was estimated to be 1mm, which corresponds to {approx}33 kg of TPB salts (as 20 wt% insoluble solids) (1). This film material is expected to be easily removed by single-rinse, slurry pump operation during Tank 48H TPB disposition via aggregation processing. A similar success was achieved for Tank 49H TPB dispositioning, with slurry pumps operating almost continuously for approximately 6 months, after which time the tank was inspected and the film was found to be removed. The major components of the Tank 49H film were soluble solids - Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} (Hydrated Sodium Carbonate, aka: Trona), Al(OH){sub 3} (Aluminum Hydroxide, aka: Gibbsite), NaTPB (Sodium Tetraphenylborate), NaNO{sub 3} (Sodium Nitrate) and NaNO{sub 2} (Sodium Nitrite) (2). Although the Tank 48H film is expected to be primarily soluble solids, it may not behave the same as the Tank 49H film. There is a risk that material on the internal surfaces of Tank 48H could not be easily removed. As a risk mitigation activity, the chemical composition and leachability of the Tank 48H film are being evaluated prior to initiating tank aggregation. This task investigated the dissolution characteristics of Tank 48H solid film deposits in inhibited water and DWPF recycle. To this end, SRNL received four separate 23-inch long thermowell-conductivity pipe samples which were removed from the tank 48H D2 risers in order to determine: (1) the thickness of the solid film deposit, (2) the chemical composition of the film deposits, and (3) the leaching behavior of the solid film deposit in inhibited water (IW) and in DWPF recycle simulant (3).

Fondeur, F.; White, T.; Oji, L.; Martino, C.; Wilmarth, B.

2011-10-20

331

Heat Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than $57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was $28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

1990-01-01

332

Explosive welding of pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water. Model experiments with pipes having radii R = 57 mm confirmed results of the calculations and the possibility in principle to weld pipes by explosion with use of water as filler.

Drennov, O.; Burtseva, O.; Kitin, A.

2006-08-01

333

Piping reliability analysis of AHWR down-comer piping using PFM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics (PFM) is widely used for the reliability assessment of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) piping. In PFM, the methods of fracture mechanics and structural reliability theory are combined for assessing the reliability of components, which contain cracks. In this work, reliability assessment of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) down-comer piping is done using PFM. AHWR down-comer piping is

P. A. Jadhav; Rastogi Rohit; Bhasin Vivek; K. K. Vaze

2010-01-01

334

Heat Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat Pipes were originally developed by NASA and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory during the 1960s to dissipate excessive heat build- up in critical areas of spacecraft and maintain even temperatures of satellites. Heat pipes are tubular devices where a working fluid alternately evaporates and condenses, transferring heat from one region of the tube to another. KONA Corporation refined and applied the same technology to solve complex heating requirements of hot runner systems in injection molds. KONA Hot Runner Systems are used throughout the plastics industry for products ranging in size from tiny medical devices to large single cavity automobile bumpers and instrument panels.

1996-01-01

335

Bag Pipe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore sound by constructing their very own bagpipe instrument. Learners use PVC pipe, a ziploc bag, rubber tubing, rubber bands, a plastic bottle, and a rubber glove to build their bagpipe. Note: a drill is required, but is not included in the cost of materials.

Workshop, Environmental S.

2011-01-01

336

Social Smoking  

PubMed Central

Background Social smoking is increasingly prevalent and poses a challenge to traditional cessation practices. Tobacco companies conducted extensive research on social smokers long before health authorities did and marketed products to promote this smoking behavior. Purpose Research is described and mechanisms identified that are used to promote social smoking to help improve cessation strategies in this growing group. Evidence acquisition Searches from 2006 to 2008 of previously secret tobacco industry documents using keywords social smoker, light smoker, casual smoker, youth smoker, and occasional smoker, followed by snowball searching. Data analysis was conducted in 2008. Evidence synthesis Tobacco industry research identified characteristics of social smokers that include: (1) denial of personal nicotine addiction; (2) self-categorization as a nonsmoker; (3) propensity for decreased tobacco use in response to smoke-free laws; (4) variations in age, education, ethnicity, and socioeconomic backgrounds; and (5) a perceived immunity to personal health effects of tobacco but fear of consequences to others. Tobacco companies developed marketing strategies aimed at social smokers, including “non–habit forming” cigarettes. Conclusions Previously considered a transient behavior, social smoking is also a stable consumption pattern. Focused clinical questions to detect social smoking are needed and may include, “Have you smoked any cigarettes or used any tobacco products in the past month?” as opposed to “Are you a smoker?” Clinicians should recognize that social smokers might be motivated to quit after education on the dangers of secondhand smoke rather than on personal health risks or with pharmacotherapy.

Schane, Rebecca E.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Ling, Pamela M.

2009-01-01

337

Learn about Smoke Alarms  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Campaigns Smoke Alarms Smoke Alarms Learn about smoke alarms This page may contain links to non- ... to you » Why should I have a working smoke alarm? A properly installed and maintained smoke alarm ...

338

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment  

SciTech Connect

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

Guerin, M.R.

1993-01-01

339

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment  

SciTech Connect

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

Guerin, M.R.

1993-06-01

340

REDUCED COST SEWER PIPE RELINING USING ULTRASONIC TAPE LAMINATION - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

Water and sewerage pipe rehabilitation represents a critical and expensive infrastructure issue. Although systems currently are available for relining existing pipes and constructing new lined pipes, the proposed advanced technology will improve the quality while substantia...

341

Smoking and How to Quit  

MedlinePLUS

... July 19, 2014 - Many Young Adults Misinformed About Hookahs' Harms -- More than half surveyed said the water ... of the nicotine-delivery devices July 7, 2014 - Hookah Smoking Popular Among Well-Heeled Teens: Survey -- Survey ...

342

Heat pipe technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bibliography of heat pipe technology to provide a summary of research projects conducted on heat pipes is presented. The subjects duscussed are: (1) heat pipe applications, (2) heat pipe theory, (3) design and fabrication, (4) testing and operation, (5) subject and author index, and (6) heat pipe related patents.

1972-01-01

343

PPI HANDBOOK OF POLYETHYLENE PIPING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1960's, just a few years after its first introduction, PE piping has been increasingly used for various marine applications such as effluent outfalls, river and lake crossings, and fresh and salt-water intakes. Immunity to galvanic corrosion is a major reason for selecting PE. The combination of air and water, but particularly seawater, can be very corrosive to

MARINE INSTALLATIONS

344

Studies on Ductile Unstable Fracture of Piping Materials in Light Water Reactors. 3. Fracture Behavior of Through-Wall or Part-Through Cracked Tension Specimens Machined from 24-Inch Diameter Carbon Steel Pipe at Room Temperature.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

LWR pressure boundary piping shall be designed considering the dynamic effect of postulated double-ended guillotine break (DEGB). However, the DEGB accident is extremely unlikely, so that leak before break (LBB) concept instead has been introduced in some...

K. Onizawa K. Shibata Y. Yasuda T. Ohba T. Kawamura

1987-01-01

345

System for Testing Thermal Insulation of Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and method have been developed for measuring the rates of leakage of heat into pipes carrying liquids, the purpose of the measurements being to quantify the thermal performance of the insulation system. The apparatus is designed primarily for testing pipes used to carry cryogenic liquids, but can also be used for measuring the thermal performance of other insulated pipes or piping systems. The basic measurement principle is straightforward: The outer surface of the pipe insulation is maintained at a fixed warmer temperature. The interior of the pipe is maintained in a narrow fixed lower-temperature range by means of a regular liquid (e.g., water) that is pumped through the pipe at a known flow rate or a cryogenic liquid (e.g., nitrogen) that is saturated at atmospheric pressure and replenished until steady-state conditions are achieved. In the case of water or another liquid pumped through, the inlet and outlet temperatures are measured and heat-leak power is calculated as the mass flow rate of the liquid multiplied by the specific heat of the liquid multiplied by the inlet-to-outlet temperature rise of the liquid. In the case of liquid nitrogen or another low-temperature boiling liquid, the heat-leak power is calculated as the rate of boil-off multiplied by the latent heat of vaporization of the liquid. Then the thermal-insulation performance of the pipe system can be calculated as a function of the measured heat-leak power, the inner and outer boundary temperatures, and the dimensions of the pipe. The apparatus can test as many as three pipes simultaneously. The pipes can have inner diameters up to .15 cm and outer diameters up to .20 cm. The lengths of the pipes may vary; typical lengths are of the order of 18 m. Two thermal guard boxes . one for each end of the pipe(s) under test . are used to make the inlet and outlet fluid connections to the pipe(s) (see figure). The connections include bellows that accommodate thermal expansion and contraction of the pipes. The guard boxes and pipe(s) are positioned so that the pipe(s) slope upward from the upstream to the downstream end at an angle of at least 2 . The upward slope allows vapor bubbles to accumulate at the downstream end. The thermal guard boxes keep the ends of the pipes at the lower interior temperature to prevent spurious lengthwise leakage of heat into the pipes. It is important to prevent this spurious heat leakage because, if it were allowed to occur, it could contribute a large error in the measured heat-leak power. The upstream thermal guard box includes a heat exchanger through which liquid flowing into the pipe(s) is subcooled to the saturation temperature corresponding to the ambient pressure. Conversely, this heat exchanger can also be used to warm the flowing liquid to a desired fixed temperature. The apparatus includes a temperature control device that is placed around each pipe under test. Each device is operated under thermostatic control to maintain the outer surface of the pipe insulation at the specified test temperature. All measurements are recorded on a portable data-acquisition system.

Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, Stanislaw D.; Nagy, Zoltan F.

2003-01-01

346

Radiological hazards of Narghile (hookah, shisha, goza) smoking: activity concentrations and dose assessment.  

PubMed

Narghile (hookah, shisha, goza, "water-pipe") smoking has become fashionable worldwide. Its tobacco pastes, known as moassel and jurak, are not standardized and generally contain about 30-50% (sometimes more) tobacco, molasses/juice of sugarcane, various spices and dried fruits (particularly in jurak) and, in the case of moassel, glycerol and flavoring essences. Tobacco contains minute amounts of radiotoxic elements such as (210)Pb, (210)Po and uranium, which are inhaled via smoking. Only very few data have been published on the concentrations of natural radionuclides in narghile tobacco mixtures. Consequently, the aim of this study was to draw first conclusions on the potential hazards of radioactivity in moassel tobacco in relation to narghile smoking. The results indicate the existence of a wide range in the radioactivity contents where the average (range) activity concentrations of (238)U, (234)Th (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (232)Th and (40)K, in Bq/kg dry weight were 55 (19-93), 11 (3-23), 3 (1.2-8), 14 (3-29), 13 (7-32), 7 (4-10) and 719 (437-1044)Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. The average concentrations of natural radionuclides in moassel tobacco pastes are comparable to their concentration in Greek cigarettes and tobacco leaves, and lower than that of Brazilian tobacco leaves. The distribution pattern of these radionuclides after smoking, between smoke, ash and filter, is unknown, except for (210)Po during cigarette smoking and from one existing study during moassel smoking. Radiological dose assessment due to intake of natural radionuclides was calculated and the possible radio-toxicity of the measured radionuclides is briefly discussed. PMID:18768240

Khater, Ashraf E M; Abd El-Aziz, Nawal S; Al-Sewaidan, Hamed A; Chaouachi, Kamal

2008-12-01

347

Pipe-to-Pipe Impact Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the program is to generate experimental data to evaluate the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's requirements for predicting impact damage. These state that upon impact between two pipes it shall be assumed that the moving pipe will: rupture ...

M. C. C. Bampton J. M. Alzheimer F. A. Simonen

1982-01-01

348

Smoking and Infertility  

MedlinePLUS

... Website of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Smoking and infertility Can smoking affect my ability to have a child? Most ... complication rates are also increased with smoking. Will smoking affect my eggs or sperm? Chemicals (such as ...

349

All about Quitting Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... quit-smoking class or join a support group. All About Quitting Smoking American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800– ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 3/14 Toolkit No. 7: All About Quitting Smoking continued Diabetes and Smoking: Double ...

350

OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipe at-sea test program. Volume 2.F.: Environmental design criteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prototype for one third scale model is envisioned to be the OTEC Pilot Plant design in the 10/40 MWe size range with an estimated CWP diameter of about 30 feet and an overall vertical length of about 3,000 feet. Thus the one third scale CWP consists of pipe about 10 feet in diameter and 1,000 feet long. A side selection evaluation was initiated to establish a site which would meet both the logistic requirement for construction and operation, provide adequate wave wind climate required for the test validation and finally exhibit bottom slope and sediment layer characteristics adequate for the mooring system, as confirmed by geophysical surveys.

1982-07-01

351

Optimal diameter selection for pipe networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to the least cost design of water distribution networks has been developed. The method is based on traditional techniques of pipe network analysis by computer; initially assumed pipe diameters are successively adjusted using an optimization technique which is based on a cost function incorporating the various capital and operating costs. Final design total costs for a given

Ronald E. Featherstone; Karim K. El-Jumaily

1983-01-01

352

Analysis of flow in pipe networks. R  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utah State University provides engineers and students with an overview of the various digital computer methods of pipe network analyses. Analyses of flow rates and pressures in pipe networks are needed whenever significant changes in patterns or magnitudes of demands or supplies occur in municipal water or natural-gas distribution systems. These changes occur whenever new residential subdivisions or industries attach

Jeppson

1976-01-01

353

Modeling and testing of reactive contaminant transport in drinking water pipes: Chlorine response and implications for online contaminant detection  

EPA Science Inventory

Reactive contaminants introduced to chlorinated drinking water can cause water quality change directly related to their reactivity and other physiochemical properties. This general principle is further developed and utilized in a proposed real-time event adaptive detection, iden...

354

Smoke Mask  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

2003-01-01

355

Smoking cessation.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. It is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the developed world. Smoking is a chronic relapsing disease. Optimal treatment includes nonpharmacologic support, together with pharmacotherapy. All clinicians should be comfortable with the use of nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, and varenicline. Second-line therapies can be used by those familiar with their use. Effective use of these medications requires their integration into an effective management plan, which is likely to be a long-term undertaking, involving several cycles of remission and relapse. PMID:24507844

Rennard, Stephen I; Daughton, David M

2014-03-01

356

Smoking increases the cold pressor mediated arterial stiffness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoking is one of the major risk factors to cardiovascular diseases. To assess the changes of vascular stiffness by smoking, smoking (smoking index > 300) and non-smoking groups (n=20 each group, all male) were exposed to a cold pressor test (CPT; ice water hand immersion) and brachial and ankle blood pressure (Bp), ankle-brachial index (ABI), and brachial-ankle pulse wave

Atsushi Nishiyama; Yoshito Kurata; Osamu Niikawa; Hiroshi Mohri; Motoo Tsushima

2003-01-01

357

THE EFFECT OF CHLORIDE AND ORTHOPHOSPHATE ON THE RELEASE OF IRON FROM A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CAST IRON PIPE  

EPA Science Inventory

"Colored water" describes the appearance of drinking water that contains suspended particulate iron although the actual suspension color may be light yellow to red depending on water chemistry and particle properties. The release of iron from distribution system materials such a...

358

DEVELOPED LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPE USING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the analysis of water distribution networks, the design parameters are the lengths, diameters, and the coefficients friction of a pipe. Although some of these parameters such as the pipe lengths and the pipe diameters would remain the same at different points but the coefficients friction would change during the life of network and therefore they can be treated as

M. Sahu; Kishanjit Kumar Khatua; Kanhu Charan Patra; T. Naik

359

INTERIOR VIEW WITH LADLE FILLING A PONT A MOUSSON PIPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH LADLE FILLING A PONT A MOUSSON PIPE CASTING MACHINE (EITHER NO. 2 OR NO. 3) FOR PRODUCTION OF AN 8 INCH FASTTITE PIPE USED FOR GAS AND WATER TRANSMISSION. - American Cast Iron Pipe Company, Mixer Building, 1501 Thirty-first Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

360

COPPER-INDUCED CORROSION OF GALVANIZED STEEL PIPE  

EPA Science Inventory

An investigation was conducted to determine the cause(s) of rapid pitting failure of galvanized steel pipe used in consumer plumbing systems. The presence of copper in water and the character of the galvanized steel pipe were factors examined in detail. Pipe manufactured in Korea...

361

Drag reduction in turbulent pipe flow by applied electric potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach to drag reduction is presented on the basis of applied positive electric potentials to a pipe. This has been studied by measuring the pressure drop over a 13.1 m epoxy-coated pipe made of carbon steel, through which water was flowing under conditions of constant flow rate. Potentials were applied between the pipe and the counter electrode located

Magne Waskaas; Vytautas Daujotis; Kjell Wolden; Rimantas Raudonis; Deivis Plausinaitis

2006-01-01

362

The Sacred Calf Pipe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tells how the author learned of and recorded the list of Sioux tribe members who have kept the White Buffalo Calf Pipe. Reviews the legend surrounding the origin of the pipe and describes the succession of pipe-keepers and how they inherit the pipe. (Author/AEM)

Simms, Thomas E.

1987-01-01

363

Shield For Flexible Pipe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cylindrical shield designed to fit around flexible pipe to protect nearby workers from injury and equipment from damage if pipe ruptures. Designed as pressure-relief device. Absorbs impact of debris ejected radially from broken flexible pipe. Also redirects flow of pressurized fluid escaping from broken pipe onto flow path allowing for relief of pressure while minimizing potential for harm.

Ponton, Michael K.; Williford, Clifford B.; Lagen, Nicholas T.

1995-01-01

364

Vapor spill pipe monitor  

DOEpatents

The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

1983-06-23

365

77 FR 13079 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...pipes are intended for the conveyance of water, steam, petrochemicals, chemicals, oil products, natural gas and other liquids...pipes is for use in pressure piping systems by refineries, petrochemical plants, and chemical plants, as well as in power...

2012-03-05

366

77 FR 27428 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...pipes are intended for the conveyance of water, steam, petrochemicals, chemicals, oil products, natural gas and other liquids...pipes is for use in pressure piping systems by refineries, petrochemical plants, and chemical plants, as well as in power...

2012-05-10

367

76 FR 39852 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...pipes are intended for the conveyance of water, steam, petrochemicals, chemicals, oil products, natural gas and other liquids...pipes is for use in pressure piping systems by refineries, petrochemical plants, and chemical plants, as well as in power...

2011-07-07

368

78 FR 63164 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...pipes are intended for the conveyance of water, steam, petrochemicals, chemicals, oil products, natural gas and other liquids...certified pipes is in pressure piping systems by refineries, petrochemical plants, and chemical plants. Other applications are...

2013-10-23

369

76 FR 66688 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...pipes are intended for the conveyance of water, steam, petrochemicals, chemicals, oil products, natural gas and other liquids...pipes is for use in pressure piping systems by refineries, petrochemical plants, and chemical plants, as well as in power...

2011-10-27

370

78 FR 64475 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...standard, line, and pressure pipes produced, or equivalent...standard, line, or pressure pipe applications and...currently classifiable under the subheadings 7304...such as oil, gas, or water pipeline, or utility...distribution systems. Seamless pressure pipes are intended...

2013-10-29

371

JR fracture properties of SA508-1a ferritic steels and SA312TP347 austenitic steels for pressurized water reactor’s (PWR) primary coolant piping  

Microsoft Academic Search

J-R fracture resistance of SA508-1a and SA312-TP347 steels, which are both rather peculiar as PWR primary coolant piping materials, were evaluated for application of leak-before-break methodology to the design basis of nuclear power plant piping. Archive materials from various heats of both steel pipes showed apparent heat-to-heat variations in ductile fracture resistance at the operating temperature 316°C. The SA508-1a ferritic

B. S. Lee; Y. J. Oh; J. H. Yoon; I. H. Kuk; J. H. Hong

2000-01-01

372

Analysis of Distribution System and Domestic Service Line Pipe Deposits to Understand Water Treatment/Metal Release Relationships  

EPA Science Inventory

This project puts the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) into a unique position of being able to bring analytical tools to bear to solve or anticipate future drinking water infrastructure water quality and metallic or cement material performance problems, for which little...

373

Damage to buried water supply pipelines in the chichi (Taiwan) earthquake and apreliminary evaluation of seismic resistance of pipe joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a brief description of the damage to the public water supply pipelines in the central Taiwan area due to the strong earthquake shock (M=7.3) on September 21, 1999. Field investigation of water supply systems near the earthquake epicenter was conducted, and results were summarized as: (1) the intensive faulting movement was irresistible to the pipeline system; (2)

Shaun H. Lin

2000-01-01

374

CO2 EuroPipe study of the occurrence of free water in dense phase CO 2 transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

For carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), various specifications of the water content in CO2 have been given. These specifications range from 40 to 500 ppm. Unfortunately, little has been published on the rationale behind these concentration limits. The present lack of clarity on the dryness requirements is undesirable, because eventually, we must come to a water content standard for CCS

Luuk Buit; Mohammad Ahmad; Wim Mallon; Fred Hage

2011-01-01

375

GPR characterization of buried tanks and pipes  

SciTech Connect

Ray-based numerical simulations of monostatic and bistatic GPR responses for several tank and pipe configurations reveal the potential for noninvasive diagnostic evaluations. Examples include discrimination of the material from which a tank is constructed, its size, contents, fluid levels, and shape changes. Ambiguities occur when different configurations give similar responses, and evaluations become less reliable as noise increases. Simulations are able to reproduce the salient features of field GPR data recorded over a metal pipe, and over plastic pipes filled with air, fresh water, and salt water.

Zeng, X.; McMechan, G.A. [Univ. of Texas, Richardson, TX (United States). Center for Lithospheric Studies] [Univ. of Texas, Richardson, TX (United States). Center for Lithospheric Studies

1997-05-01

376

Insulated pipe clamp design  

SciTech Connect

Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. The design considerations and methods along with the development tests are presented. Special considerations to guard against adverse cracking of the insulation material, to maintain the clamp-pipe stiffness desired during a seismic event, to minimize clamp restraint on the pipe during normal pipe heatup, and to resist clamp rotation or spinning on the pipe are emphasized.

Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

1980-01-01

377

Smoke Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the photo, Fire Chief Jay Stout of Safety Harbor, Florida, is explaining to young Richard Davis the workings of the Honeywell smoke and fire detector which probably saved Richard's life and that of his teen-age brother. Alerted by the detector's warning, the pair were able to escape their burning home. The detector in the Davis home was one of 1,500 installed in Safety Harbor residences in a cooperative program conducted by the city and Honeywell Inc.

1979-01-01

378

21. Overflow pipe in filtration bed. Located at each corner ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. Overflow pipe in filtration bed. Located at each corner of the bed, the pipes drain off any excess water and maintain a limit on water depth. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

379

Smoking Programs for Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The youth smoking problem is discussed and assistance is provided for teachers in developing smoking prevention and cessation programs. Four chapters serve as guides to understanding and working with the youth smoking problem. "Teenage Smoking in America" reviews trends in teenage smoking behavior and the factors that influence the initiation of…

Ellis, Bernard H., Jr., Ed.; And Others

380

46 CFR 182.445 - Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Diesel fill pipes and sounding pipes may terminate at the top of... (g) Where a flexible fill pipe section is necessary, suitable...salt water, petroleum oils, heat and vibration, may be used. Such hose must overlap metallic pipe ends at the least 11/2...

2013-10-01

381

46 CFR 119.445 - Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Diesel fill pipes and sounding pipes may terminate at the top of... (f) Where a flexible fill pipe section is necessary, suitable...salt water, petroleum oils, heat and vibration, may be used. Such hose must overlap metallic pipe ends at least 1.5 times...

2013-10-01

382

Prediction of the remaining lifetime of polyethylene pipes after up to 30 years in use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastics pipes made of polyethylene (PE) play an outstanding role in gas and water supply. While for modern pipe grades typical lifetimes of 50 years are taken for granted and service times of 100 years are discussed, pipes made of PE with a lower performance have been used for decades. As the repair and rehabilitation of existing pipe systems involve

A. Frank; G. Pinter; R. W. Lang

2009-01-01

383

33 CFR 157.122 - Piping, valves, and fittings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...122 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... (g) Each hydrant valve for water washing in the piping of a COW...system for cargo tanks has a steam heater used when water washing, it must be located...

2013-07-01

384

Modelling of Urban Water Flow - Coupling Surface and Pipe Flow. The State of The Eureka Projekt Risursim  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenge of serving the cities with efficient drainage networks and waste water systems is increasingly getting larger as the cities grow. Urban flooding, sewer over- flow and rainfall impact are high priority issues in most countries. The German and Norwegian EUREKA-Project RISURSIM (Risk management for urban drainage systems simulation and optimization) headed by ITWM focuses these problems. The overall

K.-P. Nieschulz

2002-01-01

385

Arsenic Accumulation and Release Studies Using a Cast Iron Pipe Section from a Drinking Water Distribution System  

EPA Science Inventory

The tendency of iron solid surfaces to adsorb arsenic and other ions is well known and has become the basis for several drinking water treatment approaches that remove these contaminants. It is reasonable to assume that iron-based solids, such as corrosion deposits present in dri...

386

Pipe performance analysis with nonparametric regression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asbestos cement (AC) water mains were installed extensively in North America, Europe, and Australia during 1920s-1980s and subject to a high breakage rate in recent years in some utilities. It is essential to understand how the influential factors contribute to the degradation and failure of AC pipes. The historical failure data collected from twenty utilities are used in this study to explore the correlation between pipe condition and its working environment. In this paper, we applied four nonparametric regression methods to model the relationship between pipe failure represented by average break rates and influential variables including pipe age and internal and external working environmental parameters. The nonparametric regression models do not take a predetermined form but it needs information derived from data. The feasibility of using a nonparametric regression model for the condition assessment of AC pipes is investigated and understood.

Liu, Zheng; Hu, Yafei; Wu, Wei

2011-03-01

387

The role of pipes in carbon transfer in and from peatlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural pipes are tunnels or conduits for water within soils and are often greater than 10 cm in diameter. Such natural pipes have been reported in most types of northern peatlands and have been observed to play an important role in water transfers within peat systems. However, until now no-one has studied carbon exports from natural pipe waters in deep

J. Holden; R. P. Smart; P. J. Chapman; A. J. Baird; M. F. Billett

2009-01-01

388

Smoking hazards (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Smoking cigarettes puts a person at risk for emphysema, lung cancer and other health problems. Second-hand smoke (smoke from a nearby cigarette) may also contribute to these diseases, especially among ...

389

Depression and Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... Tools » Depression Basics » Depression and Smoking Depression and Smoking Why is depression more common in smokers? Nobody ... towards a healthier, new lifestyle. Start Today Quitting Smoking Happens one craving at a time. one monday ...

390

Smoking and Musculoskeletal Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Tabaquismo y la salud músculo-esquelética . Impact of Smoking on Health Smoking remains the number one cause of preventable death. ... live 7 to 10 years less than nonsmokers. Smoking is linked to heart and respiratory diseases and ...

391

Insulation for Piping.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A foamed insulation for cryogenic pipe lines comprised of a pair of preformed, semicircular foamed insulation half-sections is described. The faying surfaces are coated with a polyurethane adhesive and bonded together about the pipe. The faying surfaces o...

G. Lerma

1975-01-01

392

Flexible Pipe Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conference proceedings contain 12 papers. The topics covered are: Technology, products and offshore applications; Steel reinforced elastomer pipes - Design approach and performance characteristics; Flexible pipe installation techniques; Gullfaks ''A''...

1986-01-01

393

Miniature Heat Pipes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Small Business Innovation Research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to Thermacore Inc. have fostered the company work on devices tagged 'heat pipes' for space application. To control the extreme temperature ranges in space, heat pipes are import...

1997-01-01

394

77 FR 50465 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...standard, line, or pressure pipe applications...the merchandise under review is dispositive...Uses: Seamless pressure pipes are intended...conveyance of water, steam, petrochemicals...conveyance of water. Seamless pipes...of ASTM A-106 pressure pipes and triple...material to be sold under ASTM...

2012-08-21

395

30. DETAIL OF PIPE FEED SYSTEM TO CLASSIFIER, LOOKING EAST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. DETAIL OF PIPE FEED SYSTEM TO CLASSIFIER, LOOKING EAST. THIS PIPE WAS MOUNTED ALONG THE JOISTS AT TOP, ALIGNING WITH THE TWO SMALLER PIPES PROTRUDING DOWNWARD FROM THE JOISTS. THESE PIPES CONVEYED PULP MATERIAL FROM THE STAMP APRONS ON THE UPPER FLOOR TO THE CLASSIFIER, SEEN IN THE DISTANCE AT CENTER. THE STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS AT CENTER LEFT WREE ADDED AS PART OF THE MILL STABILIZATION BY THE PARK SERVICE IN 1993-4. THIS WOUND AND RIVITED PIPE IS IDENTICAL TO THE 23-MILE PIPELINE THAT CONVEYED WATER TO THE MILL FROM TELESCOPE PEAK. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

396

Heat pipes. [technology utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and use of heat pipes are described, including space requirements and contributions. Controllable heat pipes, and designs for automatically maintaining a selected constant temperature, are discussed which would add to the versatility and usefulness of heat pipes in industrial processing, manufacture of integrated circuits, and in temperature stabilization of electronics.

1975-01-01

397

Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke  

MedlinePLUS

... Tobacco Use Share Compartir Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke Secondhand Smoke Fact Sheets Overview Secondhand Smoke Causes ... in the 2014 Surgeon General’s Report 4 Secondhand Smoke Causes Cardiovascular Disease Exposure to secondhand smoke has ...

398

Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs  

MedlinePLUS

... safe way to smoke marijuana. How can smoking marijuana damage my lungs? Tobacco smoke of any kind ... symptoms can I get that tells me smoking marijuana is affecting my lungs? Marijuana smoke (like tobacco) ...

399

Do Workplace Smoking Bans Reduce Smoking?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years workplace smoking policies have become increasingly prevalent and restrictive. Using data from two large-scale national surveys, we investigate whether these policies reduce smoking. Our estimates suggest that workplace bans reduce smoking prevalence by 5 percentage points and daily consumption among smokers by 10 percent. Although workers with better health habits are more likely to work at firms

William N. Evans; Matthew C. Farrelly; Edward Montgomery

1999-01-01

400

Pipe Line Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The array of tanks, pipes and valves in the photo below is a petroleum tank farm in Georgia, part of a petrochemical pipe line system that moves refined petroleum products from Texas and Louisiana to the mid-Eastern seaboard. The same pipes handle a number of different products, such as gasoline, kerosene, jet fuel or fuel oil. The fluids are temporarily stored in tanks, pumped into the pipes in turn and routed to other way stations along the pipe line. The complex job of controlling, measuring and monitoring fuel flow is accomplished automatically by a computerized control and communications system which incorporates multiple space technologies.

1978-01-01

401

Seismic fragility analysis of buried steel piping at P, L, and K reactors  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of seismic strength of buried cooling water piping in reactor areas is necessary to evaluate the risk of reactor operation because seismic events could damage these buried pipes and cause loss of coolant accidents. This report documents analysis of the ability of this piping to withstand the combined effects of the propagation of seismic waves, the possibility that the piping may not behave in a completely ductile fashion, and the distortions caused by relative displacements of structures connected to the piping.

Wingo, H.E.

1989-10-01

402

The impact of blocking natural peat pipes on dissolved organic carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural pipes transport water and aquatic carbon through peatlands. In 2010 pipes were blocked on Keighley Moor in northern England as part of a peatland restoration programme aimed at reducing water discolouration and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release into stream waters used for potable water supply. Blocked and open pipes were monitored for water quality between June 2012 and October 2013. The DOC, water colour, conductivity and pH were not significantly different between open pipes and water flowing from areas where pipe blocking had occurred. A before-after control-treatment experiment was devised at another peatland site - Moor House World Biosphere Reserve in northern England. Here, the areas around six pipes were monitored for water quality, discharge, water tables, and overland flow. Four of the pipes were then blocked while monitoring continued on all six pipes. The Moor House investigation suggests that the overall effects of blocking on water colour and DOC in the following summer were small (5 % decrease in absorbance at 254 nm but 7 % increase in absorbance at 400 nm, and 2 % decrease in DOC relative to open pipe controls). There were large (40-117 %) local increases in colour and DOC in overland flow but decreases in soil water (7-10 %) relative to the areas around open pipes. Water tables rose by a few cm upslope of the pipe dams. However, downslope, water tables fell by a similar amount, thereby potentially counteracting any water quality benefits resulting from shallower water tables upslope. Pipe blocking is expensive, and our results to date suggest that any water quality benefits are outweighed by the cost of blocking. However, in highly-degraded sites where pipes are rapidly expanding to form gullies, pipe blocking may be useful as part of a larger suite of measures to help reduce peat erosion.

Holden, Joseph; Baird, Andy; Parry, Lauren; Chapman, Pippa; Palmer, Sheila; Wallage, Zoe; Wynne, Hannah

2014-05-01

403

The effect of advanced treatment on chlorine decay in metallic pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were run to measure what effect advanced treatment might have on the kinetics of chlorine and chloramine decay in metallic pipes that comprise many drinking water distribution systems. A recirculating loop of 6-in diameter unlined ductile iron pipe was used to simulate turbulent flow conditions in a pipe with significant corrosion and tubercle buildup. Conventionally treated test water was

Lewis A. Rossman

2006-01-01

404

Fatigue Life Characteristics of Waterworks Pipe Welds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fatigue characteristic of a material or a structure is derived from fatigue tests of standard specimens. However, many test results of standard specimens are very different from those of real structures or components because of geometrical effect, surface condition and so on. In this study, fatigue tests with specimens and pipes were carried out to evaluate the fatigue characteristic of a real waterworks pipe. Standard fatigue specimens and non-standard specimens were extracted from a steel pipe used in waterworks system. Also, fatigue tests of real pipes used in water service were carried out. This result was compared with that of standard specimens and non-standard specimens. To evaluate pipe's fatigue characteristics based on life distribution, the statistical analysis method was introduced. Probability density functions of the specimen based on the normal distribution function were obtained from fatigue tests at particular stress levels. These functions were then transformed to probability density functions based on a specific number of cycles to failure. This procedure was also adapted to the pipe's test results. From these results, the fatigue characteristic of waterworks pipe was evaluated.

Park, Jae Sil; Seok, Chang-Sung; Choi, Jung Hun

405

Neue Verlegetechniken durch Einsatz waermegedaemmter kompensierender Muffenrohre aus duktilem Gusseisen sowie rationeller Verfahren beim Verlegen von Anschlussleitungen. Schlussbericht. (New piping techniques through insulated, compensating ductile cast iron socket pipes and efficient laying of supply pipes. Final report).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Easy-to-manufacture cast iron district heating pipes considerably reduce the cost of pipe construction. Mounting of the proven rubber joint socket ends used on drinking water pipes is less time-consuming and less expensive. Provided proper socket end desi...

A. Zeller

1993-01-01

406

Involvement in plastic pipe  

SciTech Connect

Vested with the responsibility of writing plastic pipe standards, ASTM's Subcommittee D20.17 on Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings (later reorganized as a full committee, F-17) compiled many of the test methods and standards now accepted by local, state, and federal agencies. One of the most comprehensive piping specifications under F-17's jurisdiction covers gas-pressure piping materials including cellusone acetate butyrate, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, high- and normal-impact polyvinyl chloride, a variety of polyethylenes, and polybutylene. All of these materials have been used for gas distribution service, some dating back to 1942. As of 1982, figures show that 200,000 miles of all sizes of plastic gas pipe for both gas services and mains have been installed, representing 16.5% of the total gas distribution system in the US. From a handful of early pioneers, the number of utilities using plastic pipe now stands at 933.

Buczala, G.S.; Walker, R.P.

1983-08-01

407

Deployable Heat Pipe Radiator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1.2- by 1.8-m variable conductance heat pipe radiator was designed, built, and tested. The radiator has deployment capability and can passively control Freon-21 fluid loop temperatures under varying loads and environments. It consists of six grooved variable conductance heat pipes attached to a 0.032-in. aluminum panel. Heat is supplied to the radiator via a fluid header or a single-fluid flexible heat pipe header. The heat pipe header is an artery design that has a flexible section capable of bending up to 90 degrees. Radiator loads as high as 850 watts were successfully tested. Over a load variation of 200 watts, the outlet temperature of the Freon-21 fluid varied by 7 F. An alternate control system was also investigated which used a variable conductance heat pipe header attached to the heat pipe radiator panel.

Edelstein, F.

1975-01-01

408

Miniature Heat Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small Business Innovation Research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to Thermacore Inc. have fostered the company work on devices tagged "heat pipes" for space application. To control the extreme temperature ranges in space, heat pipes are important to spacecraft. The problem was to maintain an 8-watt central processing unit (CPU) at less than 90 C in a notebook computer using no power, with very little space available and without using forced convection. Thermacore's answer was in the design of a powder metal wick that transfers CPU heat from a tightly confined spot to an area near available air flow. The heat pipe technology permits a notebook computer to be operated in any position without loss of performance. Miniature heat pipe technology has successfully been applied, such as in Pentium Processor notebook computers. The company expects its heat pipes to accommodate desktop computers as well. Cellular phones, camcorders, and other hand-held electronics are forsible applications for heat pipes.

1997-01-01

409

Abrasion resistant heat pipe  

DOEpatents

A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

Ernst, D.M.

1984-10-23

410

Abrasion resistant heat pipe  

DOEpatents

A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

Ernst, Donald M. (Leola, PA)

1984-10-23

411

Self propelled dynamically positioned reel pipe laying ship  

SciTech Connect

A self propelled reel pipe laying ship having forward, midship and stern sections, and having a reel mounted at the midship section thereof about a substantially horizontal axis of rotation extending transversely of the ship, such that the load of the reel is distributed downwardly and outwardly substantially in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the ship, the ship further including pipe conditioning means located at the stern section for movement about a pivot axis extending substantially parallel to the rotational axis of the reel and (A) radius control means for imparting a substantially uniform curve to the pipe after it is unspooled from the reel, (B) straightening means for imparting a reverse bending force to the pipe opposite the curvature imparted to the pipe by the reel, and (C) means for guiding the pipe into the water after it emerges from the straightening means; and means for pivoting the pipe conditioning means about its pivot axis to adjust the pipe entry angle at which pipe enters the water after passing through the pipe guide means.

Feldman, N.; Radu, E.J.; Talbot, W.J.; Uyeda, S.T.

1982-08-24

412

Heat pipe effect in porous medium  

SciTech Connect

In this thesis a parametric study of the thermal and hydrologic characteristics of the fractured porous tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada was conducted. The effects of different fracture and matrix properties including permeability, thermal conductivity, specific heat, porosity, and tortuosity on heat pipe performance in the vicinity of the waste package were observed. Computer simulations were carried out using TOUGH code on a Cray YMP-2 supercomputer. None of the fracture parameters affected the heat pipe performance except the mobility of the liquid in the fracture. Matrix permeability and thermal conductivity were found to have significant effect on the heat pipe performance. The effect of mass injection was studied for liquid water and air injected at the fracture boundary. A high rate of mass injection was required to produce any effect on the heat pipe. The fracture-matrix equilibrium is influenced by the matrix permeability and the matrix thermal conductivity.

Joseph, M.

1992-12-01

413

Heat pipe investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The OAO-C spacecraft has three circular heat pipes, each of a different internal design, located in the space between the spacecraft structural tube and the experiment tube, which are designed to isothermalize the structure. Two of the pipes are used to transport high heat loads, and the third is for low heat loads. The test problems deal with the charging of the pipes, modifications, the mobile tilt table, the position indicator, and the heat input mechanisms. The final results showed that the techniques used were adequate for thermal-vacuum testing of heat pipes.

Marshburn, J. P.

1972-01-01

414

Internal pipe attachment mechanism  

DOEpatents

An attachment mechanism is described for repairing or extending fluid carrying pipes, casings, conduits, etc. utilizing one-way motion of spring tempered fingers to provide a mechanical connection between the attachment mechanism and the pipe. The spring tempered fingers flex to permit insertion into a pipe to a desired insertion depth. The mechanical connection is accomplished by reversing the insertion motion and the mechanical leverage in the fingers forces them outwardly against the inner wall of the pipe. A seal is generated by crushing a sealing assembly by the action of setting the mechanical connection. 6 figures.

Bast, R.M.; Chesnut, D.A.; Henning, C.D.; Lennon, J.P.; Pastrnak, J.W.; Smith, J.A.

1994-12-13

415

Erosion–corrosion of stainless steel pipes under two-phase flow with steam quality 26%  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-speed, two-phase, water vapour flows in the outlet pipes of power reactors.Erosion–corrosion experiments of stainless steel pipes were performed by the use of a component test loop, in which high-temperature, pressurized water vapour is circulated. Small pipe specimens were fixed in the pipes, and erosion–corrosion testing was performed under a two-phase flow of 28.8t\\/h with steam quality 26%. Erosion–corrosion losses

Mitsutaka H. Koike

2005-01-01

416

Erosion corrosion of stainless steel pipes under two-phase flow with steam quality 26%  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-speed, two-phase, water vapour flows in the outlet pipes of power reactors. Erosion corrosion experiments of stainless steel pipes were performed by the use of a component test loop, in which high-temperature, pressurized water vapour is circulated. Small pipe specimens were fixed in the pipes, and erosion corrosion testing was performed under a two-phase flow of 28.8 t\\/h with steam

Mitsutaka H. Koike

2005-01-01

417

Efficient adsorption refrigerators integrated with heat pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several novel ideas to use heat pipes in adsorption water chiller or ice maker are presented in this paper. Experimental results have shown that the adsorption refrigerators are very efficient. The first example of such systems is a small scale silica gel–water adsorption water chiller with cooling power rated as 10kW; the system could be powered by 60–100°C hot water,

R. Z. Wang

2008-01-01

418

Hot water saver. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hot Water Saver consists of a cylinder mounted at the water heater in the cold water inlet pipe and a crossover pipe connecting the hot and cold water pipes at the most distant point of use from the water heater. The cylinder contains a piston with a rod connected to the upper side which extends through the top of

Haws

1984-01-01

419

Hot Water Saver. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hot Water Saver consists of a cylinder mounted at the water heater in the cold water inlet pipe and a crossover pipe connecting the hot and cold water pipes at the most distant point of use from the water heater. The cylinder contains a piston with a ...

S. K. Haws

1984-01-01

420

Reference Piping Design Stress Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A history of the piping stress analysis is presented, tracing the work done from the conceptual stage to the final reference design layout. The piping stress analysis of the final reference design piping layout is also presented.

S. Mathias S. Westerman

1973-01-01

421

Solar greenhouse and warm room with a spiral piping system for hot water and a low-cost building-construction method. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project involved the construction of two small buildings, each mounted on skids, so that, if desired, they could be moved to various sites to demonstrate the following energy proposals: the use of a combination greenhouse and warm room as an addition to an older house for an economical heating solution; the use of PB (polybutylene) black flexible pipe as

Peckworth

1983-01-01

422

UNDERSTANDING CHLORINE AND CHLORAMINE DECAY KINETICS IN OLD CAST IRON PIPES, 2. CONVERSION FROM CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT TO MICROFILTRATION IN A SMALL WATER SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

This insitu pipe loop study was designed to determine the disinfectant kinetics associated with very old unlined cast iron pipelines with both chlorine and chloramination residuals. An abandoned 90-year-old unlined cast iron pipeline about 2000 ft long was acclimated to conduct a...

423

Smoking and Asthma (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... effects of tobacco smoke. The Dangers of Secondhand Smoke Secondhand smoke is a well-known asthma trigger. ... in the house or car. Continue Exposure to Smoke Outside the Home Even if no one in ...

424

Health Threat from Wildfire Smoke  

MedlinePLUS

... FACT SHEET Share Compartir Health Threat From Wildfire Smoke Smoke from wildfires is a mixture of gases ... heart and lung diseases. How to tell if smoke is affecting you Smoke can causeâ?? Coughing A ...

425

Cardiac Rehabilitation and Quitting Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... smoking and heart disease . Getting Ready To Quit Smoking Congratulations! Congratulations! Quitting smoking is one of the best things you can ... add years to your life. People who quit smoking generally live longer than people who continue to ...

426

Young Adult Smoking Behavior  

PubMed Central

Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking.

Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

2009-01-01

427

The heat pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat pipe is a device having a high thermal conductance which utilizes the transport of a vapour and rejection of latent heat to achieve efficient thermal energy transport. The theory of heat pipes is well developed. Their use in applications involving temperatures in the cryogenic regime, and with development units running as high as 2000 degrees C, shows that

P. D. Dunn; D. A. Reay

1973-01-01

428

Loop heat pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are two-phase heat-transfer devices with capillary pumping of a working fluid. They possess all the main advantages of conventional heat pipes, but owing to the original design and special properties of the capillary structure are capable of transferring heat efficiency for distances up to several meters at any orientation in the gravity field, or to several

Yu. F. Maydanik

2005-01-01

429

Heat pipe technology issues  

SciTech Connect

Critical high temperature, high power applications in space nuclear power designs are near the current state of the art of heat pipe technology in terms of power density, operating temperature, and lifetime. Recent heat pipe development work at Los Alamos National Laboratory has involved performance testing of typical space reactor heat pipe designs to power levels in excess of 19 kW/cm/sup 2/ axially and 300 W/cm/sup 2/ radially at temperatures in the 1400 to 1500 K range. Operation at conditions in the 10 kW/cm/sup 2/ range has been sustained for periods of up to 1000 hours without evidence of performance degradation. The effective length for heat transport in these heat pipes was from 1.0 to 1.5 M. Materials used were molybdenum alloys with lithium employed as the heat pipe operating fluid. Shorter, somewhat lower power, molybdenum heat pipes have been life tested at Los Alamos for periods of greater than 25,000 hours at 1700 K with lithium and 20,000 hours at 1500/sup 0/K with sodium. These life test demonstrations and the attendant performance limit investigations provide an experimental basis for heat pipe application in space reactor design and represent the current state-of-the-art of high temperature heat pipe technology.

Merrigan, M.A.

1984-04-01

430

Apparatus for cleaning pipe  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for cleaning pipe having a pipe interior, the apparatus comprising: a rigid, longitudinally extending stem; a motor stationarily mounted on the stem; an outer body which surrounds the motor; drive means for connecting the motor to the outer body; a power coupling connected to the stem for supplying power to the motor.

Allison, A.; Tarsha, S.; McMillan, J.S.

1992-02-25

431

Resisting Pressures to Smoke.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Familiarizes students with strategies to resist the pressures to begin cigarette smoking emanating from peers, parental models, and media advertising. Scenes are role-played by junior high school students and adults in natural settings where smoking may o...

1994-01-01

432

Smoking and Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... I also quit smoking additional substances such as marijuana? A: It is critical that patients quit smoking all substances before surgery, including marijuana. They can have the same detrimental effects on ...

433

Smoking and Tobacco Use  

MedlinePLUS

... U.S. Surgeon General â?? Tobacco Initiative HHS â?? Tobacco Control and Prevention Initiative CDC â?? Office on Smoking and Health  VA â?? Tobacco and Health VA â?? HIV Provider Smoking Cessation ...

434

Up in Smoke.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research on adolescent smoking and nicotine addiction. Finds, for example, that smoking is linked to depression. Describes five stages of nicotine addiction. Offers tips for prevention. (Contains 12 references.) (PKP)

Black, Susan

2002-01-01

435

Heat pipe development status  

SciTech Connect

Test heat pipes have been operated in the 1400 K to 1700 K range for periods in excess of 20,000 hours with the objective of understanding and controlling corrosion and failure mechanisms. The results of a post test analysis of one of these heat pipes that was operated for 25,216 hours at 1700 K are reviewed and the implications for heat pipe lifetime discussed. An in-process report of an investigation of transient heat pipe behavior is presented. This investigation is being conducted as a result of restart problems encountered during life test of a 2 m. radiation cooled heat pipe. The results of a series of shut-down tests from power and temperature are given and probable causes of the restart problem discussed.

Merrigan, M.A.

1984-01-01

436

Pipe wiper system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes improvement in a pipe wiper assembly for stripping fluid from the outer surface of a well string. The assembly comprises: a container having side walls, a pair of pipe wiper blades situated within the container and movable between an open position, wherein they are disassociated from the well string, and a closed position, wherein they are pressed against the well string. The improvement comprises: a frame situated within the container, for limited horizontal movement therein, having a horizontal guideway to accept the pipe wiper blades for movement from opposite sides of the well string between the open and the closed positions; a pair of fluid power cylinder assemblies for each of the pipe wiper blades, mounted on the frame, arranged for linking the frame and the pipe wiper blade for movement between the open and the closed positions; and flexible means, connected to the fluid power cylinder assembly, for supplying fluid power thereto.

Reddock, J.A.

1991-01-08

437

Extendable pipe crawler  

DOEpatents

A pipe crawler is described having a front leg assembly and a back leg assembly connected together by two air cylinders, each leg assembly having four extendable legs and a pair of actuators for sliding the extendable legs radially outward to increase the range of the legs when the pipe crawler enters a section of a pipe having a larger diameter. The crawler crawls by inchworm'-like motion, the front leg assembly and back leg assembly alternately engaging and disengaging the wall of the pipe to hold the pipe crawler as the air cylinders alternately advance the front leg assembly and bring up the rear leg assembly. The pair of actuators of each leg assembly are parallel, adjacent and opposing acting so that each slides two adjacent extendable legs radially outward. 5 figures.

Hapstack, M.

1991-05-28

438

Smoking and Pancreatic Disease  

PubMed Central

Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. However, the mechanisms through which it causes the diseases remain unknown. In the present manuscript we reviewed the latest knowledge gained on the effect of cigarette smoke and smoking compounds on cell signaling pathways mediating both diseases. We also reviewed the effect of smoking on the pancreatic cell microenvironment including inflammatory cells and stellate cells.

Edderkaoui, Mouad; Thrower, Edwin

2014-01-01

439

Genetics and smoking behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulating data support the role of genetic factors in smoking initiation, progression to tobacco dependence, and smoking\\u000a persistence. This review summarizes current research on the heritability of tobacco use phenotypes and genetic association\\u000a studies of smoking-related behaviors. Although progress has been made in genetics research on smoking behavior, many studies\\u000a have methodological limitations, including insufficient samples for detecting gene-gene and

Robert A. Schnoll; Terrance A. Johnson; Caryn Lerman

2007-01-01

440

Uncertainty Analysis of Leak Rate Calculation through Pipes and Slits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a numerical investigation of the two-phase critical flows of initially subcooled or saturated water through pipes and slits are reported. The study of such flows is relevant to the prediction of leak rates through cracks or breaks in high energy piping systems. Calculation results are compared to the reported experimental data. Effects of flow parameters such as the

K. S. Chang

1999-01-01

441

Note: A passively cooled heat pipe for spectroscopy.  

PubMed

We have developed and characterized a heat pipe for lithium spectroscopy, which is cooled only by air-convection, although its operating temperature is 330 °C: its construction is simple, of moderate cost and it is very reliable. A thermal model proves that heat-pipes without water cooling can be used up to considerably higher temperatures. PMID:24182182

Gillot, J; Lemarchand, C; Braud, I; Decamps, B; Gauguet, A; Vigué, J; Büchner, M

2013-10-01

442

Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

Huebotter, Paul R. (Western Springs, IL); McLennan, George A. (Downers Grove, IL)

1985-01-01

443

Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

Huebotter, P.R.; McLennan, G.A.

1984-08-30

444

Avoid freeze-up of steam traps and their piping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the problem of keeping steam traps free of ice in cold weather. The topics of the article include piping configurations and trap types that contribute to freezing, freeze damage, obstructions in piping, insulation of lines to retard freezing, common manifolds for heating of condensate, draining of low points, temperature-actuated devices, and water hammer damage.

OKeefe

1993-01-01

445

Turbulent Hydraulic Penetration from Turbulent Pipe Flow into Stagnant Columns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental investigation was conducted on the depth of mixing of water from turbulent pipe flow into a vertically oriented pipe deadleg or stagnant column. The depth of turbulent penetration or mixing length (ML) was correlated as a function of the p...

G. R. Bloom

1978-01-01

446

ORGANIC AND ORGANOTIN COMPOUNDS LEACHED FROM PVC AND CPVC PIPE  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary objective of this research program was to determine whether organotins, contained in heat stabilizers of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) pipe, and other organics present in pipe sealing cement solvents may leach into potable water su...

447

Correlation of entrainment for annular flow in horizontal pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two correlations of measurements of entrainment for annular flow in horizontal pipes are presented for liquids with viscosities close to that of water. Entrainment is considered to result from a balance between the rate of atomization of the liquid layer flowing along the pipe wall and the rate of deposition of drops. At low gas velocities, gravitational settling controls the

Lei Pan; Thomas J. Hanratty

2002-01-01

448

Copper-Induced Corrosion of Galvanized Steel Pipe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was conducted to determine the cause(s) of rapid pitting failure of galvanized steel pipe used in consumer plumbing systems. The presence of copper in water and the character of the galvanized steel pipe were factors examined in detail. P...

K. P. Fox C. N. Tate G. P. Treweek R. Trussell A. E. Bowers

1986-01-01

449

Smoking and Asthma  

MedlinePLUS

... and Whoa! A Quick Guide to Healthy Eating Smoking and Asthma KidsHealth > Teens > Drugs & Alcohol > Tobacco > Smoking and Asthma Print A A A Text Size ... family photo albums full of pictures with people smoking at all kinds of events, from kids' birthday ...

450

Cigarette smoking and asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoking and asthma. C. Suppli Ulrik, P. Lange. Cigarette smoking is a well-know health hazard, probably not least for patients suffering from asthma. This review gives a short overview concerning the effects of passive and active smoking on the inception and out- come with regard to longitudinal changes in lung function and mortality for patients with asthma. Substantial evidence

C. Suppli Ulrik; P. Lange

2001-01-01

451

Smoking in Nursing Homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nursing home social workers were surveyed to determine nursing home smoking policies and the effect these policies may have on resident and staff interaction. Data analyses suggest that in the past five years there has been a trend toward facilities becoming smoke-free. Facilities that permit smoking face greater conflicts between residents and staff. Social workers are expected to be resident

Geri Adler; Michael Greeman; Sue Rickers; Michael Kuskowski

1997-01-01

452

Parental Smoking Affects Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research done by workers at Harvard Medical School suggests that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can impair breathing in children ages five through nine. Lung flow rates (breathing ability) decreased for children with smoking parents, and significantly if the children also smoke. (MA)

Science News, 1978

1978-01-01

453

Smoking cessation in pregnancy.  

PubMed Central

Smoking during pregnancy harms the fetus, newborn infant, young child, and mother. Smoking during the last two trimesters greatly increases the risk of stillbirth, spontaneous abortion, premature delivery, neonatal death, and low birth weight. Risk is in direct proportion to cigarette smoke exposure.

Brown, D. C.

1996-01-01

454

Teen smoking cessation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in adolescent smoking cessation has increased dramatically over the past several years, as researchers and practitioners have acknowledged the high rates of adolescents who smoke regularly and the low probability that adolescents who are regular smokers will stop on their own. The evidence base behind smoking cessation interventions for adolescents is also now starting to grow, but unfortunately the

R Mermelstein

2003-01-01

455

Water Transmission Pipelines- An Updated Design Guide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will discuss the current design practices for the primary water transmission products in the US: steel pipe, concrete pressure pipe and ductile iron pipe. It details a more efficient approach to the design of pipe materials and the preparation of equal alternate specifications. Today's steel, concrete and ductile iron pipe industries utilize the Pressure Class Design approach. The

Richard D. Mielke

456

Hot Leg Piping Materials Issues  

SciTech Connect

With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) the reactor outlet piping was recognized to require a design that utilizes internal insulation (Reference c). The initial pipe design suggested ceramic fiber blanket as the insulation material based on requirements associated with service temperature capability within the expected range, very low thermal conductivity, and low density. Nevertheless, it was not considered to be well suited for internal insulation use because its very high surface area and proclivity for holding adsorbed gases, especially water, would make outgassing a source of contaminant gases in the He-Xe working fluid. Additionally, ceramic fiber blanket insulating materials become very friable after relatively short service periods at working temperatures and small pieces of fiber could be dislodged and contaminate the system. Consequently, alternative insulation materials were sought that would have comparable thermal properties and density but superior structural integrity and greatly reduced outgassing. This letter provides technical information regarding insulation and materials issues for the Hot Leg Piping preconceptual design developed for the Project Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP).

V. Munne

2006-07-19

457

Leaks in pipe networks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Leak detection in water-distribution systems can be accomplished by solving an inverse problem using measurements of pressure and/or flow. The problem is formulated with equivalent orifice areas of possible leaks as the unknowns. Minimization of the difference between measured and calculated heads produces a solution for the areas. The quality of the result depends on number and location of the measurements. A sensitivity matrix is key to deciding where to make measurements. Both location and magnitude of leaks are sensitive to the quantity and quality of pressure measurements and to how well the pipe friction parameters are known. The overdetermined problem (more measurements than suspected leaks) gives the best results, but some information can be derived from the underdetermined problem. The variance of leak areas, based on the quality of system characteristics and pressure data, indicates the likely accuracy of the results. The method will not substitute for more traditional leak surveys but can serve as a guide and supplement.

Pudar, Ranko, S.; Liggett, James, A.

1992-01-01

458

THE ENERGY CRISIS - DESIGNING WITH PVC AND HDPE PIPES: ENERGY SAVINGS AND CONSERVATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South African plastics pipe industry assists with economic and social development through the supply of pipe systems for potable water and the provision of sanitation. At the same time, the worlds, and indeed South Africa's energy crisis, has brought into focus the increasing need for energy and material efficient pipeline materials. The pipe industry faces a number of important

M. A. Osry

459

Perforation of ABS pipes by boring bivalve Martesia striata: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) pipes are considered to be immune for boring organisms. However, inspection of the offshore cooling water conduits of Lumut combined cycle power plant, Malaysia show that ABS pipes may not necessarily be immune for wood boring pholads, Martesia striata. M. striata caused heavy damage by drilling holes in ABS pipes used (about 5 years) for transportation

H. A. Jenner; S. Rajagopal; G. Van der Velde; M. S. Daud

2003-01-01

460

A Test to Determine the Bending Moment Resistance of Rigid Pipes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cost of pipe failures in sewerage and water supply pipelines in England and Wales is estimated at about pounds stirling 40m per annum, (1975 prices). In the various instances of pipe failure investigated by TRRL rigid pipes of up to 300 mm diameter se...

G. Brennan

1978-01-01

461

Novel Innovative Concept for Self-Drying of the Insulation of Cold Piping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The self-drying concept for the insulation of cold piping is based on the wicking action of a hydrophillic fabric which is wound around the pipe and ex tended through the slot of the tubular insulation mantel. If the dew point of the am bient air is below the temperature of the surface of the pipe, water vapour will diffuse through

Vagn Korsgaard

1994-01-01

462

INTERIOR SURFACE OF GALVANIZED STEEL PIPE: A POTENTIAL FACTOR IN CORROSION RESISTANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the differences found in zinc coatings of galvanized pipes manufactured in the United States, Korea, and Australia. Zinc thickness and finish varied with the type of pipe. In an ongoing pilot study, these pipes are being exposed to water containing various con...

463

Data analysis and laboratory investigation of the behaviour of pipes buried in reactive clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buried pipe failures due to ground movement is a common problem which leads to the loss of water or gas supply in urban areas. Statistical analysis of pipe asset data indicates that pipe failure is correlated to ground movement caused by the shrinking and swelling of reactive soils due to seasonal climatic variations. This problem was studied in a large

Derek Chan

464

AN ANALYSIS OF MOLTEN-CORIUM-INDUCED FAILURE OF DRAIN PIPES IN BWR MARK II CONTAINMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has focussed on mechanistic simulation and analysis of potential failure modes for inpedestal drywell drain pipes in the Limerick1 and WNP-22 boiling water nuclear reactor (BWR) MARK 11 containments. Physical phenomena related to surface tension breakdown, heatup, melting, ablation, crust formation and failure, core material relocation into drain pipes with simultaneous melting of pipe walls were modeled, and

RUSI P. TALEYARKHAN; MICHAEL Z. PODOWSKI

1995-01-01

465

Gas pipe explorer robot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas pipe explorer formed of a plurality of connecting elements, and an articulation element between the connected elements. The connected elements include drive capabilities, and the articulation element allows the connected elements to traverse gas pipes of arbitrary shapes and sizes. A sensor may sends the characteristics of the gas pipe, and the communication element may send back those sends characteristics. The communication can be wired, over a tether connecting the device to a remote end. Alternatively, the connection can be wireless, driven by either a generator or a battery.

Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

2004-01-01

466

Formation and general characteristics of environmental tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

The primary source of environmental tobacco smoke is the the smoke released directly from the tips of cigarettes between puffs; the sidestream smoke. Sidestream smoke is formed under different conditions than is mainstream smoke. It is enriched in alkaline constituents, contains greater quantities of vapor phase water, exhibits a smaller particle size, and is less affected by smoking conditions and cigarette design. Upon dilution in ambient air, particle size decreases due to evaporation thus redistributing many constituents from the particle phase to the vapor phase. Commonly found concentrations of ETS particulates matter, nicotine, and carbon monoxide in indoor environments are 50-200 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, 2-20 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, and 2-6 ppM, respectively. Physical composition and chemical concentration vary both spatially and temporally as determined in large part by smoking severity and degree of ventilation. 22 refs., 4 tabs.

Guerin, M.R.

1988-01-01

467

[Smoking history worldwide--cigarette smoking, passive smoking and smoke free environment in Switzerland].  

PubMed

After the invention of the cigarette 1881 the health consequences of active smoking were fully known only in 1964. Since 1986 research findings allow increasingly stronger conclusions about the impact of passive smoking on health, especially for lung cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease in adults and children and the sudden infant death syndrome. On the basis of current consumption patterns, approximately 450 million adults will be killed by smoking between 2000 and 2050. At least half of these adults will die between age 30 and 69. Cancer and total deaths due to smoking have fallen so far only in men in high-income countries but will rise globally unless current smokers stop smoking before or during middle age. Higher taxes, regulations on smoking, including 100 % smoke free indoor spaces, and information for consumers could avoid smoking-associated deaths. Irland was 2004 the first country worldwide introducing smoke free bars and restaurants with positive effects on compliance, health of employees and business. In the first year after the introduction these policies have resulted in a 10 - 20 % reduction of acute coronary events. In Switzerland smoke free regulations have been accepted by popular vote first in the canton of Ticino in 2006 and since then in 15 more cantons. The smoking rate dropped from 33 to 27 % since 2001. PMID:20687040

Brändli, Otto

2010-08-01

468

Automated Ultrasonic Pipe Weld Inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This article contains an overview on automated ultrasonic w eld inspection for various pipe types. Some inspection steps might by carried out with portable t est equipment (e.g. pipe end test), but the weld inspection in all internationally relevant specif ications must be automated. The pipe geometry, the production process, and the further pipe usage determine if ND T

Wolfram A. Karl; Peter SCHULTE; Michael JOSWIG; Rainer KATTWINKEL

469

Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

1994-01-01

470

Experimenting with a "Pipe" Whistle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple pipe whistle can be made using pieces of PVC pipe. The whistle can be used to measure the resonant frequencies of open or closed pipes. A slightly modified version of the device can be used to also investigate the interesting dependence of the sound frequencies produced on the orifice-to-edge distance. The pipe whistle described here…

Stafford, Olga

2012-01-01

471

Two modelling approaches to water-quality simulation in a flooded iron-ore mine (Saizerais, Lorraine, France): a semi-distributed chemical reactor model and a physically based distributed reactive transport pipe network model.  

PubMed

The flooding of abandoned mines in the Lorraine Iron Basin (LIB) over the past 25 years has degraded the quality of the groundwater tapped for drinking water. High concentrations of dissolved sulphate have made the water unsuitable for human consumption. This problematic issue has led to the development of numerical tools to support water-resource management in mining contexts. Here we examine two modelling approaches using different numerical tools that we tested on the Saizerais flooded iron-ore mine (Lorraine, France). A first approach considers the Saizerais Mine as a network of two chemical reactors (NCR). The second approach is based on a physically distributed pipe network model (PNM) built with EPANET 2 software. This approach considers the mine as a network of pipes defined by their geometric and chemical parameters. Each reactor in the NCR model includes a detailed chemical model built to simulate quality evolution in the flooded mine water. However, in order to obtain a robust PNM, we simplified the detailed chemical model into a specific sulphate dissolution-precipitation model that is included as sulphate source/sink in both a NCR model and a pipe network model. Both the NCR model and the PNM, based on different numerical techniques, give good post-calibration agreement between the simulated and measured sulphate concentrations in the drinking-water well and overflow drift. The NCR model incorporating the detailed chemical model is useful when a detailed chemical behaviour at the overflow is needed. The PNM incorporating the simplified sulphate dissolution-precipitation model provides better information of the physics controlling the effect of flow and low flow zones, and the time of solid sulphate removal whereas the NCR model will underestimate clean-up time due to the complete mixing assumption. In conclusion, the detailed NCR model will give a first assessment of chemical processes at overflow, and in a second time, the PNM model will provide more detailed information on flow and chemical behaviour (dissolved sulphate concentrations, remaining mass of solid sulphate) in the network. Nevertheless, both modelling methods require hydrological and chemical parameters (recharge flow rate, outflows, volume of mine voids, mass of solids, kinetic constants of the dissolution-precipitation reactions), which are commonly not available for a mine and therefore call for calibration data. PMID:18037533

Hamm, V; Collon-Drouaillet, P; Fabriol, R

2008-02-19

472

Two modelling approaches to water-quality simulation in a flooded iron-ore mine (Saizerais, Lorraine, France): A semi-distributed chemical reactor model and a physically based distributed reactive transport pipe network model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flooding of abandoned mines in the Lorraine Iron Basin (LIB) over the past 25 years has degraded the quality of the groundwater tapped for drinking water. High concentrations of dissolved sulphate have made the water unsuitable for human consumption. This problematic issue has led to the development of numerical tools to support water-resource management in mining contexts. Here we examine two modelling approaches using different numerical tools that we tested on the Saizerais flooded iron-ore mine (Lorraine, France). A first approach considers the Saizerais Mine as a network of two chemical reactors (NCR). The second approach is based on a physically distributed pipe network model (PNM) built with EPANET 2 software. This approach considers the mine as a network of pipes defined by their geometric and chemical parameters. Each reactor in the NCR model includes a detailed chemical model built to simulate quality evolution in the flooded mine water. However, in order to obtain a robust PNM, we simplified the detailed chemical model into a specific sulphate dissolution-precipitation model that is included as sulphate source/sink in both a NCR model and a pipe network model. Both the NCR model and the PNM, based on different numerical techniques, give good post-calibration agreement between the simulated and measured sulphate concentrations in the drinking-water well and overflow drift. The NCR model incorporating the detailed chemical model is useful when a detailed chemical behaviour at the overflow is needed. The PNM incorporating the simplified sulphate dissolution-precipitation model provides better information of the physics controlling the effect of flow and low flow zones, and the time of solid sulphate removal whereas the NCR model will underestimate clean-up time due to the complete mixing assumption. In conclusion, the detailed NCR model will give a first assessment of chemical processes at overflow, and in a second time, the PNM model will provide more detailed information on flow and chemical behaviour (dissolved sulphate concentrations, remaining mass of solid sulphate) in the network. Nevertheless, both modelling methods require hydrological and chemical parameters (recharge flow rate, outflows, volume of mine voids, mass of solids, kinetic constants of the dissolution-precipitation reactions), which are commonly not available for a mine and therefore call for calibration data.

Hamm, V.; Collon-Drouaillet, P.; Fabriol, R.

2008-02-01

473

Improved Thin, Flexible Heat Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible heat pipes of an improved type are fabricated as layers of different materials laminated together into vacuum- tight sheets or tapes. In comparison with prior flexible heat pipes, these flexible heat pipes are less susceptible to leakage. Other advantages of these flexible heat pipes, relative to prior flexible heat pipes, include high reliability and greater ease and lower cost of fabrication. Because these heat pipes are very thin, they are highly flexible. When coated on outside surfaces with adhesives, these flexible heat pipes can be applied, like common adhesive tapes, to the surfaces of heat sinks and objects to be cooled, even if those surfaces are curved.

Rosenfeld, John H.; Gernert, Nelson J.; Sarraf, David B.; Wollen, Peter J.; Surina, Frank C.; Fale, John E.

2004-01-01

474

Parental Anti-Smoking Socialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study of 600 families concentrates on the influence of parental anti-smoking socialization by examining both (a) the effects of eight indicators of anti-