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1

Water Pipe Tobacco Smoking Among Middle and High School Students  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined prevalence rates of water pipe tobacco smoking among young people as a first step in assessing the health implications of this form of tobacco use. Methods. We examined water pipe use with data from the 2007 Florida Youth Tobacco Survey, which assessed tobacco-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors among the state's middle and high school students. Results. Four percent of middle school students and 11% of high school students reported ever having used a water pipe. Adolescent boys were significantly more likely than adolescent girls to use water pipes, and African American adolescents were significantly less likely than adolescents from other racial/ethnic backgrounds to do so. Those who indicated ever having tried cigarettes and those who reported positive attitudes toward the social nature of cigarette use were more likely to have tried water pipes. Conclusions. Water pipe use appears to be widespread among middle and high school students. Further research is needed to assess the health risks associated with water pipe tobacco smoking as well as young people's attitudes toward this form of tobacco use. PMID:19762667

Curbow, Barbara A.; Weitz, Jamie R.; Johnson, Tammie M.; Smith-Simone, Stephanie Y.

2009-01-01

2

Cigarette, Water-pipe, and Medwakh Smoking Prevalence Among Applicants to Abu Dhabi's Pre-marital Screening Program, 2011  

PubMed Central

Background: This study assesses self-reported tobacco use prevalence (cigarette, water-pipe, and medwakh) among applicants to Abu Dhabi's Premarital Screening program during 2011. Methods: Premarital Screening data reported to the Health Authority – Abu Dhabi from April to December 2011 were utilized to estimate tobacco use prevalence among applicants. Smoking prevalence was examined by nationality, age group and gender. Results: Overall, 24.7% of Premarital Screening Program applicants were current smokers; 11.5% smoked cigarettes, 5.9% smoked medwakh (hand-held pipe), 4.8% smoked water-pipe and 2.5% smoked a combination (more than one type). Men (19.2%) were more likely than women (3.5%) to be current cigarette smokers. Women were much less likely to smoke medwakh (0.1%) than men (11.5%), with male UAE Nationals having the highest medwakh smoking prevalence (16.1%). The overall prevalence of water-pipe smoking was 6.8% among men and 2.8% for women with the highest water-pipe smoking prevalence (10.2%) among Arab expatriate men. Conclusions: Variations in tobacco use prevalence among Premarital Screening Program applicants reflect preferences for different modes of tobacco consumption by nationality, age group and gender. Enforcement of tobacco control laws, including implementation of clean indoor air laws and tobacco tax increases, and targeted health education programs are required to reduce tobacco consumption and concomitant tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:24404364

Aden, Bashir; Karrar, Sara; Shafey, Omar; Al Hosni, Farida

2013-01-01

3

Hookah or water pipe smoking has been practiced for over 400 years, and is often a social activity. There are a variety of names for hookahs, including narghile, argileh,  

E-print Network

Hookah Hookah or water pipe smoking has been practiced for over 400 years, and is often. Using a hookah to smoke tobacco poses a serious potential health hazard to smokers and others exposed to the smoke emitted. Hookah tobacco and smoke contain many toxicants that are known to cause lung cancer

Oregon, University of

4

49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS...Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. The smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts...inspected at each annual inspection, or any other...

2010-10-01

5

Intermediate Temperature Water Heat Pipe Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. Water heat pipes are explored in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to above 500 K. The thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of water are reviewed in this temperature range. Test Data are reported for a copper-water heat pipe. The heat pipe was tested under different orientations. Water heat pipes show promise in this temperature range.Fabrication and testing issues are being addressed.

Devarakonda, Angirasa; Xiong, Daxi; Beach, Duane E.

2004-01-01

6

Intermediate Temperature Water Heat Pipe Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. Water heat pipes are explored in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to above 500 K. The thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of water are reviewed in this temperature range. Test data are reported for a copper-water heat pipe. The heat pipe was tested under different orientations. Water heat pipes show promise in this temperature range. Fabrication and testing issues are being addressed.

Devarakonda, Angirasa; Xiong, Da-Xi; Beach, Duane E.

2005-01-01

7

Gray Cast-Iron Water Pipe Metallurgy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The results of a,metallographic study of grey,cast iron water pipes are reported. These pipes had been installed between 1885 and 1973 in eight different water systems. Each pipe had been extracted during scheduled maintenance,or failure repairs to provide data for a larger study toproduce,a methodology ,for determining ,the residual life of grey ,cast iron pipes. This metallographic study was

J. M. Rajani

2000-01-01

8

Water flows from slotted pipes  

SciTech Connect

Results of experiments and analyses that determine jet flow distribution from slotted pipes of dimensions typical for OC-OTEC evaporators or condensers are described. For a pipe with a 6.3-cm inside diameter and 0.64-cm wide slot, the measured and predicted jet flow was low and nearly parallel to the pipe at the entrance, and high and perpendicular to the pipe only near the closed end. Slot lengths ranged from 1.5 m to 4.6 m, and inlet flow rates varied from 6 kg/s to 17 kg/s. Friction reduces the pressure in the entrance and intermediate portions of the pipe, while the rapidly decelerating flow produces high pressure recovery as it approaches the closed end. In the region of high flow next to the closed end, the ratio of slot area (slot length times width) to pipe cross-sectional area is less than two. To use a slotted pipe for generating falling jets in an OC-OTEC plant, the slot length should be 1 m or less (for a pipe with a 6.3-cm inside diameter and a 0.64-cm wide slot).

Olson, D.A.

1981-04-01

9

Influence of water flow on pipe inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From various studies by different investigators it has been now well established that a number of cylindrical guided wave modes are sensitive to the pipe wall defects. Several investigations by these authors and other researchers showed that the strengths of the guided waves propagating through a pipe that is placed in air are reduced when the pipe wall defects are encountered. This reduction is expected because the pipe wall defects (gouge, dent, removed metal due to corrosion etc.) alter the pipe geometry, hampering the free propagation of guided wave modes. When water flows through the pipes, the guided wave technique becomes more challenging because the flowing water absorbs part of the propagating acoustic energy. Flowing water may also induce some standing modes. The propagating cylindrical guided wave modes become leaky modes in presence of the flowing water, in other words energy leaks into water. Therefore, the energy detected by a receiver, placed at a large distance from the transmitter, is reduced even for a defect free pipe. Further reduction in the signal strength occurs in presence of defects.

Ahmad, Rais; Banerjee, Sourav; Kundu, Tribikram

2005-05-01

10

Does switching from cigarettes to pipes or cigars reduce tobacco smoke exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoking histories, reported depth of inhalation, number of pipe and cigars (PC) smoked, serum thiocyanate (SCN) and expired air carbon monoxide (CO) levels were examined in PC male smokers enrolled in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). Serum SCN levels for all PC smokers were higher than for non-smokers and lower than for current cigarette smokers. Levels were

Judith K. Ockene; Terry F. Pechacek; Thomas M. Vogt; Kenneth H. Svendsen

1987-01-01

11

Water driven turbine/brush pipe cleaner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assemblies are disclosed for cleaning the inside walls of pipes and tubes. A first embodiment includes a small turbine with angled blades axially mounted on one end of a standoff support. An O-ring for stabilizing the assembly within the pipe is mounted in a groove within the outer ring. A replaceable circular brush is fixedly mounted on the opposite end of the standoff support and can be used for cleaning tubes and pipes of various diameters, lengths and configurations. The turbine, standoff support, and brush spin in unison relative to a hub bearing that is fixedly attached to a wire upstream of the assembly. The nonrotating wire is for retaining the assembly in tension and enabling return of the assembly to the pipe entrance. The assembly is initially placed in the pipe or tube to be cleaned. A pressurized water or solution source is provided at a required flow-rate to propel the assembly through the pipe or tube. The upstream water pressure propels and spins the turbine, standoff support and brush. The rotating brush combined with the solution cleans the inside of the pipe. The solution flows out of the other end of the pipe with the brush rotation controlled by the flow-rate. A second embodiment is similar to the first embodiment but instead includes a circular shaped brush with ring backing mounted in the groove of the exterior ring of the turbine, and also reduces the size of the standoff support or eliminates the standoff support.

Werlink, Rudy J. (inventor)

1995-01-01

12

Thermal Performance of High Temperature Titanium -- Water Heat Pipes by Multiple Heat Pipe Manufacturers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Titanium - water heat pipes are being investigated for use in heat rejection systems for lunar and Mars fission surface power systems. Heat pipes provide an efficient and reliable means to transfer heat to a radiator heat rejection system. NASA Glenn Research Center requisitioned nine titanium water heat pipes from three vendors. Each vendor supplied three heat pipes 1.25 cm diameter by 1.1 meter long with each vendor selecting a different wick design. Each of the three heat pipes is slightly different in construction. Additional specifications for the heat pipes included 500 K nominal operating temperature, light weight, and freeze tolerance. The heat pipes were performance tested gravity-aided, in the horizontal position and at elevations against gravity at 450 K and 500 K. Performance of the three heat pipes is compared. The heat pipe data will be used to verify models of heat pipe radiators that will be used in future space exploration missions.

Sanzi, James L.

2007-01-01

13

Thermal Performance of High Temperature Titanium-Water Heat Pipes by Multiple Heat Pipe Manufacturers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Titanium-water heat pipes are being investigated for use in heat rejection systems for lunar and Mars fission surface power systems. Heat pipes provide an efficient and reliable means to transfer heat to a radiator heat rejection system. NASA Glenn Research Center requisitioned nine titanium water heat pipes from three vendors. Each vendor supplied three heat pipes 1.25 cm diameter by 1.1 meter long with each vendor selecting a different wick design. Each of the three heat pipes is slightly different in construction. Additional specifications for the heat pipes included 500 K nominal operating temperature, light weight, and freeze tolerance. The heat pipes were performance tested gravity-aided, in the horizontal position and at elevations against gravity at 450 and 500 K. Performance of the three heat pipes is compared. The heat pipe data will be used to verify models of heat pipe radiators that will be used in future space exploration missions.

Sanzi, James L.

2007-01-01

14

Prioritizing Water Pipe Replacement and Rehabilitation by Evaluating Failure Risk  

E-print Network

lines delivering water today encounter serious problems. Corrosion has caused deterioration in pipe lines, which contributes rust to drinking, a serious water quality problem. In addition, pipe line failures have caused social issues, such as suspension...

Lee, Sang Hyun

2012-02-14

15

OTEC cold-water pipe research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shelf-mounted Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plants require installation of cold-water pipes (CWP) on slopes of40degto depths of 1000 m. In addition, tower platforms containing OTEC power systems may be located on lesser sloped terrain near shore and exposed to special environmental loading problems affecting foundation design. Shelf-mounted installations require careful attention to site selection and geotechnical considerations for foundation

JOSEPH R. VADUS; BOB J. TAYLOR

1985-01-01

16

Robot design for leak detection in water-pipe systems  

E-print Network

Leaks are major problem that occur in the water pipelines all around the world. Several reports indicate loss of around 20 to 30 percent of water in the distribution of water through water pipe systems. Such loss of water ...

Choi, Changrak

2012-01-01

17

Steam bubble collapse induced water hammer in draining pipes  

SciTech Connect

When hot steam replaces cold condensate in a horizontal or almost horizontal pipe, a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer often results. The effect of condensate drainage velocity and pipe declination on the incidence of steam bubble collapse induced water hammer is investigated experimentally. Declining the pipe more than 2.4{degrees} allows drainage velocities up to 3 ft/sec (1m/s) in a two inch (5 cm) pipe without water hammer. A semi-empirical theory allows extrapolation to other pressures, pipe sizes and inclinations. 4 refs.

Griffith, P.; Silva, R.J.

1991-08-01

18

PIPING FOR COOLANT WATER IS INSTALLED INSIDE REACTOR STRUCTURE PRIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PIPING FOR COOLANT WATER IS INSTALLED INSIDE REACTOR STRUCTURE PRIOR TO EMBEDMENT IN CONCRETE. HIGHER PIPE IS INLET; THE OTHER, THE OUTLET LOOP. INLET PIPE WILL CONNECT TO TOP SECTION OF REACTOR VESSEL. INL NEGATIVE NO. 1287. Unknown Photographer, 1/18/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

19

Phenomena of Pipe Fracture by Freezing Water in Air Conditioner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When water is frozen at some parts inside a pipe, the pressure of water blockaded by growing ice increases unusually and the pipe would be deformed to fracture under a certain circumstance. The behavior of pipe fracture cannot be explained by the volume expansion during phase change that the water is frozen and the ice is growing to the radius direction of pipe. In this study, we have investigated experimentally the behavior of pipe fracture for a plate fin coil in air conditioner about the freezing location, the growing direction of ice, and the change of water pressure and the deformation of pipe in the ice growing process. Moreover, we examined the behavior of water pressure in the ice growing process by numerical analysis. The pressure of water blockaded by growing ice increased to 20 MPa or more. This high water pressure deforms the pipe; the thickness and strength of pipe remarkably decrease at a time of freezing. Therefore, after the deformations of the pipe are repeated by freezing, the pipe could be fractured easily under the normal operating condition.

Chiba, Ryoichi; Shoji, Yoshiaki; Tanino, Masayuki; Izumi, Masaaki

20

pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to present a kinetic numerical scheme for the computations of transient pressurised flows in closed water pipes. Firstly, we detail the mathematical model written as a conservative hyperbolic partial differentiel system of equations, and then we recall how to obtain the corresponding kinetic formulation. Then we build the kinetic scheme ensuring an upwinding of

C. Bourdarias; S. Gerbi

21

Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in cigarette and water pipe smokers.  

PubMed

This study compared the amplitude of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) and latencies of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) among non-smokers, cigarette smokers, water pipe smokers, mixed smokers and ex-smokers. A total of 50 non-smokers, 28 water pipe smokers, 34 pure cigarette smokers, 28 mixed cigarette-water pipe smokers, and 21 ex-smokers were evaluated in this study. Their age ranged from 20 to 40 years. All had normal hearing sensitivity and normal middle ear functions. TEOAEs amplitude and VEMPs were measured for all participants. Results of this study showed that smoking had deleterious effects on the hair cells in the labyrinth. Damage to the outer hair cells was evidenced by the reduced amplitude of the TEOAEs in smokers and ex-smokers when compared with control group. Harm to the saccular hair cells is detected by the increased latency of the VEMPs. Results also suggested that cessation of smoking could not change the profile of TEOAEs or VEMPs. Our results suggested that smoking could have irreversible hazardous effects on the labyrinthine hair cell functions. These effects could be attributed to the impact of nicotine on the microvascular dynamics. PMID:24121784

Mustafa, Mohamed Wael Mohamed

2014-10-01

22

Prospective study of effect of switching from cigarettes to pipes or cigars on mortality from three smoking related diseases.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent to which cigarette smokers who switch to cigars or pipes alter their risk of dying of three-smoking related diseases-lung cancer, ischaemic heart disease, and chronic obstructive lung disease. DESIGN: A prospective study of 21520 men aged 35-64 years when recruited in 1975-82 with detailed history of smoking and measurement of carboxyhaemoglobin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Notification of deaths (to 1993) classified by cause. RESULTS: Pipe and cigar smokers who had switched from cigarettes over 20 years before entry to the study smoked less tobacco than cigarette smokers (8.1 g/day v 20 g/day), but they had the same consumption as pipe and cigar smokers who had never smoked cigarettes (8.1 g) and had higher carboxyhaemoglobin saturations (1.2% v 1.0%, P < 0.001), indicating that they inhaled tobacco smoke to a greater extent. They had a 51% higher risk of dying of the three smoking related diseases than pipe or cigar smokers who had never smoked cigarettes (relative risk 1.51; 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 2.38), a 68% higher risk than lifelong non-smokers (1.68; 1.16 to 2.45), a 57% higher risk than former cigarette smokers who gave up smoking over 20 years before entry (1.57; 1.04 to 2.38), and a 46% lower risk than continuing cigarette smokers (0.54; 0.38 to 0.77). CONCLUSION: Cigarette smokers who have difficulty in giving up smoking altogether are better off changing to cigars or pipes than continuing to smoke cigarettes. Much of the effect is due to the reduction in the quantity of tobacco smoked, and some is due to inhaling less. Men who switch do not, however, achieve the lower risk of pipe and cigar smokers who have never smoked cigarettes. All pipe and cigar smokers have a greater risk of lung cancer than lifelong non-smokers or former smokers. PMID:9224127

Wald, N. J.; Watt, H. C.

1997-01-01

23

FLOW SEPARATION CONDITIONS AT PIPE WALLS OF WATER DISTRIBUTION MAINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Biofilm formations on pipe walls have been found in potable water distribution mains. The biofilm layers contribute to accelerated corrosion rates, increased flow resistance, and formation of encrustations that may deteriorate drinking water quality. Research to evaluate the depe...

24

Experimental Analysis of Natural Frequency of Water Column Due to Water Hammer in Series Pipe Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A propagation of pressure disturbance at water hammer phenomenon in pipe-lines consisting of pipe- sections of different cross-sections is studied. Steel and medium density polyethylene (MDPE) pipes are used. The phenomenon is investigated experimentally using strain gauge pressure transducers. The measured individual pressure wave velocities ci are the same for all steel and for all plastic pipes respectively. The tests

M. Mitosek; M. Chorzelski

25

Screening reactor steam/water piping systems for water hammer  

SciTech Connect

A steam/water system possessing a certain combination of thermal, hydraulic and operational states, can, in certain geometries, lead to a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer. These states, operations, and geometries are identified. A procedure that can be used for identifying whether an unbuilt reactor system is prone to water hammer is proposed. For the most common water hammer, steam bubble collapse induced water hammer, six conditions must be met in order for one to occur. These are: (1) the pipe must be almost horizontal; (2) the subcooling must be greater than 20 C; (3) the L/D must be greater than 24; (4) the velocity must be low enough so that the pipe does not run full, i.e., the Froude number must be less than one; (5) there should be void nearby; (6) the pressure must be high enough so that significant damage occurs, that is the pressure should be above 10 atmospheres. Recommendations on how to avoid this kind of water hammer in both the design and the operation of the reactor system are made.

Griffith, P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1997-09-01

26

Reactor process water (PW) piping inspections, 1984--1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July 1983, the NRC ordered the shutdown of five boiling water reactors (BWR's) because of concerns about reliability of ultrasonic examination for detecting intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). These concerns arose because of leaking piping at Niagara Mohawk's Nine Mile Point which was attributed to IGSCC. The leaks were detected shortly after completion of ultrasonic examinations of the piping.

W. S. Ehrhart; J. B. Elder; R. E. Sprayberry; R. W. Vande Kamp

1990-01-01

27

Reactor process water (PW) piping inspections, 1984--1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July 1983, the NRC ordered the shutdown of five boiling water reactors (BWR`s) because of concerns about reliability of ultrasonic examination for detecting intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). These concerns arose because of leaking piping at Niagara Mohawk`s Nine Mile Point which was attributed to IGSCC. The leaks were detected shortly after completion of ultrasonic examinations of the piping.

W. S. Ehrhart; J. B. Elder; R. E. Sprayberry; R. W. Vande Kamp

1990-01-01

28

Pulsating Viscoelastic Pipe Flow - Water-Hammer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This theoretical study of the effect of viscoelastic material properties of a pipe conveying one-dimensional, non-stationary flow shows that, in addition to exponential attenuation of wave fronts, the disturbance is transformed into a diffusion front whose thickness increases as ?t, and which propagates at a velocity corresponding to the retarded elasticity of the pipe material [E(?)]. The behaviour of pressure

E. Rieutord; A. Blanchard

1979-01-01

29

Prospective study of effect of switching from cigarettes to pipes or cigars on mortality from three smoking related diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To estimate the extent to which cigarette smokers who switch to cigars or pipes alter their risk of dying of three smoking related diseases–lung cancer, ischaemic heart disease, and chronic obstructive lung disease.Design: A prospective study of 21 520 men aged 35-64 years when recruited in 1975-82 with detailed history of smoking and measurement of carboxyhaemoglobin.Main outcome measures: Notification

N J Wald; C Watt H

1997-01-01

30

68. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER PIPES FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

68. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER PIPES FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. INTERIOR OF CAST HOUSE LOOKING NORTH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

31

Acoustical wave propagation in buried water filled pipes  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a comprehensive way of dealing with the problem of acoustical wave propagation in cylindrically layered media with a specific application in water-filled underground pipes. The problem is studied in ...

Kondis, Antonios, 1980-

2005-01-01

32

113. COOLING WATER PIPING INTO COMPRESSORS, NORTHEAST CORNER OF MECHANICAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

113. COOLING WATER PIPING INTO COMPRESSORS, NORTHEAST CORNER OF MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM (201), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

33

25. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE OIL AND WATER PIPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE OIL AND WATER PIPE GALLERY ON LEVEL +77 OF POWERHOUSE #1. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

34

Section A, detail view of cooling water pipe valve on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Section A, detail view of cooling water pipe valve on west slurry wall, looking west. (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York, New York County, NY

35

Section A, view of cooling water pipes and parking garage ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Section A, view of cooling water pipes and parking garage entrance/exit on west slurry wall, looking west. (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York, New York County, NY

36

Steam bubble collapse, water hammer and piping network response  

E-print Network

Work on steam bubble collapse, water hammer and piping network response was carried out in two closely related but distinct sections. Volume I of ,,is report details the experiments and analyses carried out in conjunction ...

Gruel, R.

37

The Lead Industry and Lead Water Pipes "A MODEST CAMPAIGN"  

PubMed Central

Lead pipes for carrying drinking water were well recognized as a cause of lead poisoning by the late 1800s in the United States. By the 1920s, many cities and towns were prohibiting or restricting their use. To combat this trend, the lead industry carried out a prolonged and effective campaign to promote the use of lead pipes. Led by the Lead Industries Association (LIA), representatives were sent to speak with plumbers’ organizations, local water authorities, architects, and federal officials. The LIA also published numerous articles and books that extolled the advantages of lead over other materials and gave practical advice on the installation and repair of lead pipes. The LIA’s activities over several decades therefore contributed to the present-day public health and economic cost of lead water pipes. PMID:18633098

Rabin, Richard

2008-01-01

38

Axisymmetric Weakly Compressible Transient Pipe Flow and Water Hammer Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the partial success of existing theoretical models in explaining certain transient water flow phenomena in a long pipe, they can hardly predict the evolution of strong water hammer, in particular the one downstream the valve caused by its closing (reversed water hammer). We attack this important problem by a new perturbation theory based on the unsteady axisymmetric and compressible

Jie-Zhi Wu; Li-Jun Xuan; Feng Mao

2008-01-01

39

Fluidstructure interaction with pipe-wall viscoelasticity during water hammer  

E-print Network

Fluid­structure interaction with pipe-wall viscoelasticity during water hammer A. Keramat a,b,n,1: Received 1 March 2011 Accepted 2 November 2011 Available online 6 December 2011 Keywords: Water hammer a b s t r a c t Fluid­structure interaction (FSI) due to water hammer in a pipeline which has

Tijsseling, A.S.

40

Smoking and Tobacco Policy Effective Date: August 25, 2014  

E-print Network

also is prohibited. III. EXCEPTIONS Smoking Cessation Products and Electronic Cigarettes Smoking that contain tobacco or nicotine, including cigarettes, cigars, pipes, bidis, kreteks, hookahs, water pipes are permitted. Devices that simulate smoking through inhalation of vapor or aerosol from the device, including e-cigarettes

Ziurys, Lucy M.

41

Initiation of Water Hammer in Horizontal or Nearly-Horizontal Pipes Containing Steam and Subcooled Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water slug formation in a stratified countercurrent flow of steam and subcooled water in a horizontal or nearly horizontal pipe traps a large steam bubble, which then collapses rapidly and causes a water hammer. This water hammer initiating mechanism has ...

R. W. Bjorge

1983-01-01

42

Acoustic imaging in a water filled metallic pipe  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for the imaging of the interior of a water filled metallic pipe using acoustical techniques. The apparatus consists of an array of 20 acoustic transducers mounted circumferentially around the pipe. Each transducer is pulsed in sequence, and the echos resulting from bubbles in the interior are digitized and processed by a computer to generate an image. The electronic control and digitizing system and the software processing of the echo signals are described. The performance of the apparatus is illustrated by the imaging of simulated bubbles consisting of thin walled glass spheres suspended in the pipe.

Kolbe, W.F.; Turko, B.T.; Leskovar, B.

1984-04-01

43

Contamination of piped medical gas supply with water.  

PubMed

The failure of anaesthetic equipment as a result of maintenance is extremely rare. The ingress of water into the flowmeters of an anaesthetic machine from the piped medical air supply is reported and is possibly unique. The piped medical air supply was open to the atmosphere during maintenance. Water condensed in the gas pipeline and this was not noticed during subsequent testing. Water was seen leaking from the orthopaedic air tools used for surgery but was assumed to be from the autoclaving process. Later the same day, when medical air from the piped source was used as part of the gas mixture for a general anaesthetic, water was seen filling the barrel of the flowmeter air control valve. This could have had far-reaching and dangerous consequences for the patient, which were fortunately averted. PMID:10998035

Hay, H

2000-08-01

44

12. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes and pump ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes and pump in heater room. View to W - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

45

Lead Water Pipes and Infant Mortality at the Turn of the Twentieth Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1897, about half of all American municipalities used lead pipes to distribute water. Employing data from Massachusetts, this paper compares infant death rates in cities that used lead water pipes to rates in cities that used nonlead pipes. In the average town in 1900, the use of lead pipes increased infant mortality by 25 to 50 percent.…

Troesken, Werner

2008-01-01

46

Volatile organic components migrating from plastic pipes (HDPE, PEX and PVC) into drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-density polyethylene pipes (HDPE), crossbonded polyethylene pipes (PEX) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes for drinking water were tested with respect to migration of volatile organic components (VOC) to water. The odour of water in contact with plastic pipes was assessed according to the quantitative threshold odour number (TON) concept. A major migrating component from HDPE pipes was 2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenol (2,4-DTBP) which

Ingun Skjevrak; Anne Due; Karl Olav Gjerstad; Hallgeir Herikstad

2003-01-01

47

Modeling MIC copper release from drinking water pipes.  

PubMed

Copper is used for household drinking water distribution systems given its physical and chemical properties that make it resistant to corrosion. However, there is evidence that, under certain conditions, it can corrode and release unsafe concentrations of copper to the water. Research on drinking water copper pipes has developed conceptual models that include several physical-chemical mechanisms. Nevertheless, there is still a necessity for the development of mathematical models of this phenomenon, which consider the interaction among physical-chemical processes at different spatial scales. We developed a conceptual and a mathematical model that reproduces the main processes in copper release from copper pipes subject to stagnation and flow cycles, and corrosion is associated with biofilm growth on the surface of the pipes. We discuss the influence of the reactive surface and the copper release curves observed. The modeling and experimental observations indicated that after 10h stagnation, the main concentration of copper is located close to the surface of the pipe. This copper is associated with the reactive surface, which acts as a reservoir of labile copper. Thus, for pipes with the presence of biofilm the complexation of copper with the biomass and the hydrodynamics are the main mechanisms for copper release. PMID:24398414

Pizarro, Gonzalo E; Vargas, Ignacio T; Pastén, Pablo A; Calle, Gustavo R

2014-06-01

48

Piped Water Supply Scheme based on Upper Vaitarna for tanker fed villages in Mokhada Taluka  

E-print Network

Village Scheme NGO Non Government Organization PWS Piped Water Scheme SVS Single Village Scheme WTP WaterPiped Water Supply Scheme based on Upper Vaitarna for tanker fed villages in Mokhada Taluka Treatment Plant #12;Contents Piped Water Supply Scheme based on Upper Vaitarna for tanker fed villages

Sohoni, Milind

49

Lightweight concrete OTEC cold water pipe tests, phase 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one third scale model of a cold water pipe (CWP) for a 40 MW\\/sub ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plantship was constructed of reinforced lightweight concrete and tested to destruction. Failure occurred at approximately 138 percent of the design load for the once in 100 year storm condition in the Atlantic-1 siting area. The concept of using Neoprene bearing

J. S. Oconnor

1981-01-01

50

Lightweight concrete OTEC cold water pipe tests, phase 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A one third scale model of a cold water pipe (CWP) for a 40 MW/sub ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plantship was constructed of reinforced lightweight concrete and tested to destruction. Failure occurred at approximately 138 percent of the design load for the once in 100 year storm condition in the Atlantic-1 siting area. The concept of using Neoprene bearing pads to provide flexibility of the joint between pipe segments was also verified. Measured deflections and stresses generally agreed with computer generated predictions and validated the design methods used. It is indicated that a light weight concrete CWP can be built with conventional material, and processes.

Oconnor, J. S.

1981-03-01

51

THE BEHAVIOR OF ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPE UNDER VARIOUS WATER QUALITY CONDITIONS: A PROGRESS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Asbestos-cement pipe has had a reputation for resisting attack by aggressive waters that cause corrosion of metal pipe materials. The results of this study suggest that asbestos-cement pipe behaves much like other piping materials, except PVC, that are commonly used for potable w...

52

Development of advanced design, insulation, and installation practices for hot water district heating piping  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first part of this paper, some of the newest design features of hot water district heating piping are described. Emphasis is on polyurethane preinsulated one- and two-pipe elements equipped with a polyethylene jacket pipe. The paper also deals with the newest developments in concrete culvert district heating lines, namely the preinsulated concrete culvert pipe elements with a metal

Huovilainen

1983-01-01

53

Hydrogen evolution in nickel-water heat pipes.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made of the evolution of hydrogen gas in nickel-water heat pipes for the purpose of investigating methods of accelerated life testing. The data were analyzed in terms of a phenomenological corrosion model of heat pipe degradation which incorporates corrosion and oxidation theory and contains parameters which can be determined by experiment. The gas was evolved with a linear time dependence and an exponential temperature dependence with an activation energy of 1.03 x 10 to the minus 19th joules. A flow-rate dependence of the gas evolution was found in the form of a threshold. The results were used to predict usable lifetimes of heat pipes operated at normal operating conditions from results taken under accelerated operating conditions.

Anderson, W. T.

1973-01-01

54

The Challenge of Providing Safe Water with an Intermittently Supplied Piped Water Distribution System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increasing number of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have access to piped water; however, this water is often not available continuously. 84% of reporting utilities in low-income countries provide piped water for fewer than 24 hours per day (van den Berg and Danilenko, 2010), while no major city in India has continuous piped water supply. Intermittent water supply leaves pipes vulnerable to contamination and forces households to store water or rely on alternative unsafe sources, posing a health threat to consumers. In these systems, pipes are empty for long periods of time and experience low or negative pressure even when water is being supplied, leaving them susceptible to intrusion from sewage, soil, or groundwater. Households with a non-continuous supply must collect and store water, presenting more opportunities for recontamination. Upgrading to a continuous water supply, while an obvious solution to these challenges, is currently out of reach for many resource-constrained utilities. Despite its widespread prevalence, there are few data on the mechanisms causing contamination in an intermittent supply and the frequency with which it occurs. Understanding the impact of intermittent operation on water quality can lead to strategies to improve access to safe piped water for the millions of people currently served by these systems. We collected over 100 hours of continuous measurements of pressure and physico-chemical water quality indicators and tested over 1,000 grab samples for indicator bacteria over 14 months throughout the distribution system in Hubli-Dharwad, India. This data set is used to explore and explain the mechanisms influencing water quality when piped water is provided for a few hours every 3-5 days. These data indicate that contamination occurs along the distribution system as water travels from the treatment plant to reservoirs and through intermittently supplied pipes to household storage containers, while real-time measurements document variability in water quality throughout the 2-8 hour supply period. Our results show that piped water is not always safe water, but that safe water can be achieved in an intermittent supply under certain physical and operational conditions. Intermittent piped water supply is an important constraint on access to safe water in towns and cities in low-income countries, and strategies that improve these existing systems can help urban residents gain access to safe water. References van den Berg, C., and Danilenko, A. (2010). "The IBNET Water Supply and Sanitation Performance Blue Book: The International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities Databook." World Bank Washington, DC.

Kumpel, E.; Nelson, K. L.

2012-12-01

55

Effects of diverse water pipe materials on bacterial communities and water quality in the annular reactor.  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of pipe materials on biofilm accumulation and water quality, an annular reactor with the sample coupons of four pipe materials (steel, copper, stainless steel, and polyvinyl chloride) was operated under hydraulic conditions similar to a real plumbing system for 15 months. The bacterial concentrations were substantially increased in the steel and copper reactors with progression of corrosion, whereas those in stainless steel (STS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) reactors were affected mainly by water temperature. The heterotrophic plate count (HPC) of biofilms was about 100 times higher on steel pipe than other pipes throughout the experiment, with the STS pipe showing the lowest bacterial number at the end of the operation. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences of 176 cultivated isolates revealed that 66.5% was Proteobacteria and the others included unclassified bacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacilli. Regardless of the pipe materials, Sphingomonas was the predominant species in all biofilms. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that steel pipe exhibited the highest bacterial diversity among the metallic pipes, and the DGGE profile of biofilm on PVC showed three additional bands not detected from the profiles of the metallic materials. Environmental scanning electron microscopy showed that corrosion level and biofilm accumulation were the least in the STS coupon. These results suggest that the STS pipe is the best material for plumbing systems in terms of the microbiological aspects of water quality. PMID:21364292

Jang, Hyun-Jung; Choi, Young-June; Ka, Jong-Ok

2011-02-01

56

Comparative analysis of two probabilistic pipe breakage models applied to a real water distribution system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses and compares two probabilistic models described in the literature concerning pipe breakage in a water distribution system. The first model was proposed by Mailhot et al. (Mailhot, A., et al., 2000. Modeling the evolution of the structural state of water pipe networks with brief recorded pipe break histories: methodology and application. Water Resources Research, 36 (10), 3053–3062),

Stefano Alvisi; Marco Franchini

2010-01-01

57

Why do indigenous municipalities in Mexico have worse piped water coverage?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to piped water is highly unequal in Mexico, and indigenous municipalities are particularly disadvantaged. The present article identifies the different factors that contribute to the unequal access to piped water across Mexican municipalities for the period 2000–2005, using regression analyses. The findings show that indigenous populations experience lower piped water coverage than non-indigenous populations, even when one accounts for

Marcela González Rivas

2012-01-01

58

A kinetic scheme for pressurised flows in non uniform closed water pipes  

E-print Network

is lastly performed in the case of a water hammer in an uniform pipe: we compare the numerical resultsA kinetic scheme for pressurised flows in non uniform closed water pipes C. Bourdarias1 , M. Ersoy1- tions of transient pressurised flows in closed water pipe with non uniform sections. Firstly, we detail

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

59

Reactor process water (PW) piping inspections, 1984--1990  

SciTech Connect

In July 1983, the NRC ordered the shutdown of five boiling water reactors (BWR`s) because of concerns about reliability of ultrasonic examination for detecting intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). These concerns arose because of leaking piping at Niagara Mohawk`s Nine Mile Point which was attributed to IGSCC. The leaks were detected shortly after completion of ultrasonic examinations of the piping. At that time, the Dupont plant manager at Savannah River (SR) directed that investigations be performed to determine if similar problems could exist in SR reactors. Investigation determined that all conditions believed necessary for the initiation and propagation of IGSCC in austenitic stainless steel exist in SR reactor process water (PW) systems. Sensitized, high carbon, austenitic stainless steel, a high purity water system with high levels of dissolved oxygen, and the residual stresses associated with welding during construction combine to provide the necessary conditions. A periodic UT inspection program is now in place to monitor the condition of the reactor PW piping systems. The program is patterned after NRC NUREG 0313, i.e., welds are placed in categories based on their history. Welds in upgraded or replacement piping are examined on a standard schedule (at least every five years) while welds with evidence of IGSCC, evaluated as acceptable for service, are inspected at every extended outage (15 to 18 months). This includes all welds in PW systems three inches in diameter and above. Welds are replaced when MSCC exceeds the replacement criteria of more than twenty percent of pipe circumference of fifty percent of through-wall depth. In the future, we intend to perform flow sizing with automated UT techniques in addition to manual sizing to provide more information for comparison with future examinations.

Ehrhart, W.S.; Elder, J.B.; Sprayberry, R.E.; Vande Kamp, R.W.

1990-12-31

60

Reactor process water (PW) piping inspections, 1984--1990  

SciTech Connect

In July 1983, the NRC ordered the shutdown of five boiling water reactors (BWR's) because of concerns about reliability of ultrasonic examination for detecting intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). These concerns arose because of leaking piping at Niagara Mohawk's Nine Mile Point which was attributed to IGSCC. The leaks were detected shortly after completion of ultrasonic examinations of the piping. At that time, the Dupont plant manager at Savannah River (SR) directed that investigations be performed to determine if similar problems could exist in SR reactors. Investigation determined that all conditions believed necessary for the initiation and propagation of IGSCC in austenitic stainless steel exist in SR reactor process water (PW) systems. Sensitized, high carbon, austenitic stainless steel, a high purity water system with high levels of dissolved oxygen, and the residual stresses associated with welding during construction combine to provide the necessary conditions. A periodic UT inspection program is now in place to monitor the condition of the reactor PW piping systems. The program is patterned after NRC NUREG 0313, i.e., welds are placed in categories based on their history. Welds in upgraded or replacement piping are examined on a standard schedule (at least every five years) while welds with evidence of IGSCC, evaluated as acceptable for service, are inspected at every extended outage (15 to 18 months). This includes all welds in PW systems three inches in diameter and above. Welds are replaced when MSCC exceeds the replacement criteria of more than twenty percent of pipe circumference of fifty percent of through-wall depth. In the future, we intend to perform flow sizing with automated UT techniques in addition to manual sizing to provide more information for comparison with future examinations.

Ehrhart, W.S.; Elder, J.B.; Sprayberry, R.E.; Vande Kamp, R.W.

1990-01-01

61

Steam bubble collapse, water hammer and piping network response. Volume II. Piping network response to steam generated water hammer. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional and nuclear power steam systems require the transport of high pressure, high temperature steam and water through complex piping networks. During transient phases of operation, steam and subcooled water can be present simultaneously in a variety of piping and reservoir configurations. Under certain conditions, instabilities in the two phase flows can give rise to water hammer events. Most notable

R. Gruel; W. Hurwitz; P. Huber; P. Griffith

1980-01-01

62

Epoxy Lining for Steel Water Pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

For years, hot-applied coal-tar was the popular lining used by the water industry. The research department of Bethlehem Steel has conducted lengthy and extensive tests into various types of organic coatings, especially epoxy-phenolic, for use as lining material.

S. C. Frye

1974-01-01

63

Composites cold water pipe for ocean thermal energy conversion /OTEC/ systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cold water pipe, 23 feet in diameter by 3,000 feet long, used as part of an ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power plant, is described. The requirements and design concepts for the pipe recommend fiber-reinforced plastic composite construction. Market estimates are for four billion pounds of RP for OTEC cold water pipes.

Trimble, L. C.; Waid, R. L.; Connolly, W. J.

64

Reactor Materials Program process water piping indirect failure frequency  

SciTech Connect

Following completion of the probabilistic analyses, the LOCA Definition Project has been subject to various external reviews, and as a result the need for several revisions has arisen. This report updates and summarizes the indirect failure frequency analysis for the process water piping. In this report, a conservatism of the earlier analysis is removed, supporting lower failure frequency estimates. The analysis results are also reinterpreted in light of subsequent review comments.

Daugherty, W.L.

1989-10-30

65

Lead Pipe Scale Analysis Using Broad-Beam Argon Ion Milling to Elucidate Drinking Water Corrosion  

EPA Science Inventory

Herein, we compared the characterization of lead pipe scale removed from a drinking water distribution system using two different cross section methods (conventional polishing and argon ion beam etching). The pipe scale solids were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM...

66

Augmentation of Rural Piped Water Schemes for Supply of drinking water to tanker fed villages.  

E-print Network

Augmentation of Rural Piped Water Schemes for Supply of drinking water to tanker fed villages-3000mm and biggest reservoirs like Tansa, Vaitarana and Bhatsa for supplying drinking water to Mumbai city. Many solutions have been explored in the past to provide drinking water security to people

Sohoni, Milind

67

Safety considerations for condensation induced water hammer in steam piping system  

SciTech Connect

The phenomenon of condensation induced water hammer may occur when subcooled water and steam interact and form a water slug by rapid steam condensation, and the slug is accelerated through the piping by the full system pressure. The sudden deceleration of the slug by existing liquid in the system, or by any part of the piping system can produce large pressure pulses, that by themselves or in combination with other loads, can rupture the piping system. This paper describes the results of a study on condensation induced water hammer in a specific piping geometry, and lists recommendations that when implemented will prevent piping system failure.

McCall, T.B. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Squarer, D.; Roidt, R.M. [Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1994-06-01

68

Safety considerations for condensation-induced water hammer in steam piping systems  

SciTech Connect

The phenomenon of condensation-induced water hammer may occur when subcooled water and steam interact and form a water slug by rapid steam condensation, and the slug is accelerated through the piping by the full system pressure. The sudden deceleration of the slug by existing liquid in the system or any part of the piping system can produce large pressure pulses that can, by themselves or in combination with other loads, rupture the piping system. This paper describes the results of a study on condensation-induced water hammer in a specific piping geometry and lists recommendations that when implemented will prevent piping system failure.

Squarer, D.; Roidt, R.M.; McCall, T.B.

1994-12-31

69

Passive water hammer in pipes due to flashing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peak water hammer pressures arising from flashing flows passing through flow restrictions have been measured in a variety of experiments. Water hammer pressures up to 60 psig have been measured. A homogeneous, equilibrium theory has been developed and shown to be conservative by a factor three or more in predicting the peak pressures. The most likely reasons for the poor prediction of the peak pressure are: (1) the pressure wave velocity (velocity of sound) is reduced due to small amounts of steam in the pipe probably due to flashing during the starting transient; and (2) thermal non-equilibrium in the flow restriction during flashing.

Wolf, A. R.; Sweeney, E.; Griffith, P.

1991-08-01

70

Passive water hammer in pipes due to flashing  

SciTech Connect

Peak water hammer pressures arising from flashing flows passing through flow restrictions have been measured in a variety of experiments. Water hammer pressures up to 60 psig have been measured. A homogeneous, equilibrium theory has been developed and shown to be conservative by a factor three or more in predicting the peak pressures. The most likely reasons for the poor prediction of the peak pressure are two. (1) The pressure wave velocity (velocity of sound) is reduced due to small amounts of steam in the pipe probably due to flashing during the starting transient. (2) Thermal non-equilibrium in the flow restriction during flashing.

Wolf, A.R.; Sweeney, E.; Griffith, P.

1991-08-01

71

Behavior of cellular glass insulation on a DHC pipe subjected to underground water attack  

SciTech Connect

Cellular glass pipe insulation was tested unjacketed under flooded conditions to simulate underground water attacking an underground pipe in a district heating and cooling system. The pipe`s fluid temperature was tested from 35 F (1.6 C) to 20 F (216 C). The surrounding water was maintained from 46 F (7.7 C) to 100 F (37.7 C) to simulate the possible conduit water temperatures when the system fails. Cellular glass pipe insulation of 2-inch, 3-inch, and 4-inch thicknesses was tested. The insulation demonstrated excellent moisture resistant performance when the pipe temperature was lower than the surrounding water temperature. Cracks developed in the insulation when the pipe temperature was higher than the water temperature, causing a deterioration in insulating performance.

Chyu, M.C. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Zeng, X. [General Motors Corp., Troy, MI (United States). Advanced Technology Vehicles; Ye, L. [Eaton Corp., Rochester Hills, MI (United States). Climate Control Engineering

1998-12-31

72

Axisymmetric Weakly Compressible Transient Pipe Flow and Water Hammer Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the partial success of existing theoretical models in explaining certain transient water flow phenomena in a long pipe, they can hardly predict the evolution of strong water hammer, in particular the one downstream the valve caused by its closing (reversed water hammer). We attack this important problem by a new perturbation theory based on the unsteady axisymmetric and compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The leading-order transient solution is in excellent agreement with the direction simulation of the original N-S equation. We establish a simple relation between the valve motion and adjacent pressure in reversed water hammer, by which the strategy of optimal control of reversed water hammer is analyzed and illustrated.

Wu, Jie-Zhi; Xuan, Li-Jun; Mao, Feng

2008-11-01

73

Avoiding steam bubble collapse-induced water hammer in the auxiliary piping of steam power plants  

SciTech Connect

The mechanisms of steam bubble collapse-induced water hammer are identified for nominally horizontal or inclined pipes. On the basis of these observations, two methods of preventing steam bubble collapse-induced water hammer in nominally horizontal pipes are proposed. They are inclining them and injecting the water at a controlled rate at either the lowest point or injecting the water at several locations. The success of these methods is demonstrated for horizontal pipes and for pipes of other orientations. These ways of preventing steam bubble collapse-induced water hammer are then used to test filling strategies for L''-shaped pipes oriented in practically every way. Both methods are found to work though the application of multiple injection ports and has complications when applied to a complex piping system. The use of the recommended design guidelines for avoiding steam bubble collapse-induced water hammer is demonstrated in an example problem.

Lobo, C.A.O.C. (COPESP, Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Griffith, P. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1994-02-01

74

CHARACTERISATION OF AGED HDPE PIPES FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION: INVESTIGATION OF CRACK DEPTH BY NOL RING  

E-print Network

CHARACTERISATION OF AGED HDPE PIPES FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION: INVESTIGATION OF CRACK DEPTH are used for the transport of drinking water. However, disinfectants in water seem to have a strong impact the ageing effect of the pipe mechanical behaviour. Inspired from the ASTM D 2290-04 standard, Nol Ring tests

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

75

Design and Optimization of Piped Water Supply Scheme based on Upper Vaitarna  

E-print Network

Board MVS Multi Village Scheme NGO Non Government Organization PWS Piped Water Scheme SVS Single VillageDesign and Optimization of Piped Water Supply Scheme based on Upper Vaitarna for tanker fed Scheme WTP Water Treatment Plant #12;2 Contents Abstract

Sohoni, Milind

76

Design and Optimization of Piped Water Network for Tanker Fed Villages in  

E-print Network

Board MVS Multi Village Scheme NGO Non Government Organization PWS Piped Water Scheme SVS Single VillageDesign and Optimization of Piped Water Network for Tanker Fed Villages in Mokhada Taluka Authors Scheme WTP Water Treatment Plant #12;2 Contents Abstract

Damani, Om P.

77

Drag reduction of Newtonian fluid in a circular pipe with a highly water-repellent wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drag reduction phenomena, in which 14% drag reduction of tap water flowing in a 16 mm-diameter pipe occurs in the laminar flow range, have been clarified. Experiments were carried out to measure the pressure drop and the velocity profile of tap water and an aqueous solution of glycerin flowing in pipes with highly water-repellent walls, by using a pressure transducer

Keizo Watanabe; Yanuar Udagawa; Hiroshi Udagawa

1999-01-01

78

Water hammer with fluid-structure interaction in thick-walled pipes A.S. Tijsseling  

E-print Network

1 Water hammer with fluid-structure interaction in thick-walled pipes A.S. Tijsseling Department. The model is based on conventional water-hammer and beam theories. Fluid- structure interaction (FSI. Keywords: Water hammer; Fluid transients; Fluid-structure interaction (FSI); Pipe flow #12;2 1

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

79

Reducing widespread pipe sharing and risky sex among crystal methamphetamine smokers in Toronto: do safer smoking kits have a potential role to play?  

PubMed Central

Background Crystal methamphetamine smoking is associated with many negative health consequences, including the potential for transmission of hepatitis. We examined whether or not a kit for crystal methamphetamine smoking might have some potential to reduce the negative health effects of crystal methamphetamine smoking. Methods Five focus groups were conducted with crystal methamphetamine smokers recruited by community health agencies and youth shelters in Toronto, Canada. Target groups included homeless/street-involved youth, sex workers, men who have sex with men, and youth in the party scene. Participants (n = 32) were asked questions about motivations for crystal methamphetamine use, the process of smoking, health problems experienced, sharing behaviour, risky sexual practices, and the ideal contents of a harm reduction kit. Results Pipe sharing was widespread among participants and was deemed integral to the social experience of smoking crystal methamphetamine. Heated pipes were unlikely to cause direct injuries, but participants mentioned having dry, cracked lips, which may be a vector for disease transmission. Many reported having sex with multiple partners and being less likely to use condoms while on the drug. Demand for harm reduction kits was mixed. Conclusions Changing pipe sharing behaviours may be difficult because many participants considered sharing to be integral to the social experience of smoking crystal methamphetamine. Within the context of a broader health promotion and prevention program, pilot testing of safer smoking kits to initiate discussion and education on the risks associated with sharing pipes and unprotected sex for some communities (e.g., homeless/street-involved youth) is worth pursuing. PMID:22339847

2012-01-01

80

Steam bubble collapse, water hammer and piping network response. Volume II. Piping network response to steam generated water hammer. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Conventional and nuclear power steam systems require the transport of high pressure, high temperature steam and water through complex piping networks. During transient phases of operation, steam and subcooled water can be present simultaneously in a variety of piping and reservoir configurations. Under certain conditions, instabilities in the two phase flows can give rise to water hammer events. Most notable are the water hammers experienced in the feed pipes to steam generator spargers in pressurized water nuclear reactors. This study combined with the work done by Gruel (1980) attempts to analyze the events which occur after the formation of an isolated steam vapor bubble. Experimental and theoretical models are developed to investigate the condensation process leading to steam bubble collapse, the mechanisms involved in the propagation of pressure waves through the pipes, and the resultant fluid-structure interactions.

Gruel, R.; Hurwitz, W.; Huber, P.; Griffith, P.

1980-06-01

81

A trial on performance test method for Cu-water heat pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the increase demand for heat pipes, the establishment of standard methods for the performance test and the performance expression of the heat pipe was requested. Generally, the measurement method for the heat transfer rate of heat pipes is divided into two categories. That is, the heat transfer rate of heat pipe is measured by heat input to the evaporator surface or the quantity of heat removed from the condenser zone. The heat loss to each method described must be determined by circulating some kind of fluid such as water in same size pipe located in the heating unit instead of the heat pipe under actual operating condition before use. The heat transfer rate of Cu-Water heat pipe is measured by means of the measurement method based on the principle of bomb calorimeter. The obtained measuring accuracy may be lower.

Tanaka, Y.; Yamamoto, T.

82

Cool-down and frozen start-up behavior of a grooved water heat pipe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A grooved water heat pipe was tested to study its characteristics during the cool-down and start-up periods. The water heat pipe was cooled down from the ambient temperature to below the freezing temperature of water. During the cool-down, isothermal conditions were maintained at the evaporator and adiabatic sections until the working fluid was frozen. When water was frozen along the entire heat pipe, the heat pipe was rendered inactive. The start-up of the heat pipe from this state was studied under several different operating conditions. The results show the existence of large temperature gradients between the evaporator and the condenser, and the moving of the melting front of the working fluid along the heat pipe. Successful start-up was achieved for some test cases using partial gravity assist. The start-up behavior depended largely on the operating conditions.

Jang, Jong Hoon

1990-01-01

83

The effects of an intermittent piped water network and storage practices on household water quality in Tamale, Ghana  

E-print Network

The United Nations Millennium Development Goals include a target to halve the number of people without access to "improved" water sources, which include piped water supply. However, an "improved" source of water does not ...

Vacs Renwick, Deborah Alexandra

2013-01-01

84

The Analysis of Organotins in Polyvinyl Chloride Pipe and Their Diffusion into Water Over Time  

EPA Science Inventory

Organotins are commonly used as thermal stabilizers in the manufacturing of PVC pipes, which are widely used in drinking water distribution systems. Additives, such as organotins, have been show to leach through PVC pipe into water. While tri-substituted organotin compounds hav...

85

Fiber-reinforced-plastic cold-water-pipe test plan. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tests have been designed to evaluate joint performance and to obtain the engineering properties of Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) that are germane to the development of an OTEC FRP Cold Water Pipe. Both material property tests and tests of cold water pipe joint configurations using FRP are planned. Engineering properties of interest include: ultimate tensile strength, tensile modulus of

W. J. Renoud; J. L. DeVilbiss

1978-01-01

86

Shelf-mounted OTEC cold water pipe experiment gets underway in Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tropical island market has emerged as having the greatest immediate OTEC potential because of the modest need for accessible power and the abundance of large temperature gradients needed for efficient operation. These plants will require the installation of cold water intake pipes on steep slopes to depths of 1000 meters. Cold water pipe installations require careful attention to site

B. J. Taylor; J. R. Vadus

1984-01-01

87

WATER QUALITY AND TREATMENT CONSIDERATIONS FOR CEMENT-LINED AND A-C PIPE  

EPA Science Inventory

Both cement mortar lined (CML) and asbestos-cement pipes (A-C) are widely used in many water systems. Cement linings are also commonly applied in-situ after pipe cleaning, usually to prevent the recurrence of red water or tuberculation problems. Unfortunately, little consideratio...

88

Acoustic Propagation in a Water-Filled Cylindrical Pipe  

SciTech Connect

This study was concerned with the physics of the propagation of a tone burst of high frequency sound in a steel water-filled pipe. The choice of the pulse was rather arbitrary, so that this work in no way can be considered as recommending a particular pulse form. However, the MATLAB computer codes developed in this study are general enough to carry out studies of pulses of various forms. Also, it should be pointed out that the codes as written are quite time consuming. A computation of the complete field, including all 5995 modes, requires several hours on a desktop computer. The time required by such computations as these is a direct consequence of the bandwidths, frequencies and sample rates employed. No attempt was made to optimize these codes, and it is assumed that much can be done in this regard.

Sullivan, E J; Candy, J V

2003-06-01

89

Cold Start of a Radiator Equipped with Titanium-Water Heat Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiator panels utilizing titanium-water heat pipes are being considered for lunar applications. A traditional sandwich structure is envisioned where heat pipes are embedded between two high thermal conductivity face sheets. The heat pipe evaporators are to be thermally connected to the heat source through one or more manifolds containing coolant. Initial radiator operation on the lunar surface would likely follow a cold soak where the water in the heat pipes is purposely frozen. To achieve heat pipe operation, it will be necessary to thaw the heat pipes. One option is to allow the sunlight impinging on the surface at sunrise to achieve this goal. Testing was conducted in a thermal vacuum chamber to simulate the lunar sunrise and additional modeling was conducted to identify steady-state and transient response. It was found that sunlight impinging on the radiator surface at sunrise was insufficient to solely achieve the goal of thawing the water in the heat pipes. However, starting from a frozen condition was accomplished successfully by applying power to the evaporators. Start up in this fashion was demonstrated without evaporator dryout. Concern is raised over thawing thermosyphons, vertical heat pipes operating in a gravity field, with no wick in the condenser section. This paper presents the results of the simulated cold start study and identifies future work to support radiator panels equipped with titanium-water heat pipes.

Jaworske, Donald A.; Sanzi, James L.; Siamidis, John

2008-01-01

90

The compatibility of mild carbon steel and water in a heat pipe application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this experimental investigation was to evaluate the compatibility of water and mild steel as the working fluid and vessel material in a heat pipe application. Heat pipes of 1015 CD steel and 304 stainless steel were fabricated and operated at temperatures ranging from 150 C to 300 C for a period of six months. Results showed that mild steel heat pipes had a lower overall thermal resistance than the stainless steel pipes, and that performance recovery occurs at a greater rate in the mild steel pipes when noncondensible gas is generated. It is concluded that water and mild steel are a satisfactory materials combination in heat pipes in the temperature range investigated.

Feldman, K. T., Jr.; Kenney, D. D.

91

Heat-pipe enhanced solar-assisted heat pump water heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat-pipe enhanced solar-assisted heat pump water heater (HPSAHP) is studied. HPSAHP is a heat pump with dual heat sources that combines the performance of conventional heat pump and solar heat pipe collector. HPSAHP operates in heat-pump mode when solar radiation is low and in heat-pipe mode without electricity consumption when solar radiation is high. HPSAHP can thus achieve high

B. J. Huang; J. P. Lee; J. P. Chyng

2005-01-01

92

Ocean thermal energy conversion cold water pipe at-sea test program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed design for a 10 foot diameter, 1,000 foot long fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) cold water pipe (CWP) was tested a sea aboard a platform. The wall of the pipe was of sandwich construction with FRP facesheets and a core of syntactic foam. In addition to developing the design for the pipe itself, other activities were conducted to support the design effect.

1982-07-01

93

Statistical estimation of water distribution system pipe break risk  

E-print Network

within a 10-year period in Winnipeg, Manitoba. For asbestos cement and cast iron pipes, they obtained a moderate correlation of 0.563 and 0.103 respectively between annual breakage rate and pipe age. McMullen (1982) applied a linear regression model... within a 10-year period in Winnipeg, Manitoba. For asbestos cement and cast iron pipes, they obtained a moderate correlation of 0.563 and 0.103 respectively between annual breakage rate and pipe age. McMullen (1982) applied a linear regression model...

Yamijala, Shridhar

2009-05-15

94

Smart Pipes--Instrumented Water Pipes, Can This Be Made a Reality?  

PubMed Central

Several millions of kilometres of pipes and cables are buried beneath our streets in the UK. As they are not visible and easily accessible, the monitoring of their integrity as well as the quality of their contents is a challenge. Any information of these properties aids the utility owners in their planning and management of their maintenance regime. Traditionally, expensive and very localised sensors are used to provide irregular measurements of these properties. In order to have a complete picture of the utility network, cheaper sensors need to be investigated which would allow large numbers of small sensors to be incorporated into (or near to) the pipe leading to so-called smart pipes. This paper focuses on a novel trial where a short section of a prototype smart pipe was buried using mainly off-the-shelf sensors and communication elements. The challenges of such a burial are presented together with the limitations of the sensor system. Results from the sensors were obtained during and after burial indicating that off-the-shelf sensors can be used in a smart pipes system although further refinements are necessary in order to miniaturise these sensors. The key challenges identified were the powering of these sensors and the communication of the data to the operator using a range of different methods. PMID:22164027

Metje, Nicole; Chapman, David N.; Cheneler, David; Ward, Michael; Thomas, Andrew M.

2011-01-01

95

Transient formation characteristics of temperature stratified flow in a horizontal water pipe with an injection of hot water from a hole of a pipe  

SciTech Connect

Temperature stratified flow was numerically analyzed in a horizontal pipe. Initially cold water is running and developed in a pipe. From a part of a pipe wall, hot water is injected. Subsequent transient velocity and temperature stratification process was numerically analyzed. This process is a model for such transfer phenomena as follows, i.e., blowing of fresh air into a long tunnel, replacing process of hazardous fluids from a pipeline of an industrial plant with safer fluids, ventilation of a large construction house or ducts, transient combustion process in a tunnel or huge duct, transient flow and temperature characteristics in a canal or river with multiple sub channels. These various cases become more complicated and more serious for the larger scale systems. Temperature stratified flow is everywhere established which makes the prediction difficult. This paper presents transient three-dimensional numerical analyses for a horizontal pipe in which laminar cold water runs steadily. Hot water is injected from a lower side corner of a pipe. Model equations consist of fully three-dimensional balance equations in a cylindrical coordinate. Total tube length computed is 10 times of a pipe diameter d{sub 0}. Hot water inlet hole is 0.4d{sub 0} long in an axial direction and {pi}d{sub 0}/8 in a circumferential direction near the entrance of the system. Reynolds number in a pipe is 1000. Reynolds number of the hot water at the injection hole is 447. Grashof number based on the temperature difference is 5 x 10{sup 7} and Pr = 5.41. Transient three-dimensional velocity profiles and isotherms are presented. The instantaneous water temperature represents oscillatory fluctuation depending on the level in a pipe and on the axial distance from the injection hole. For the tube diameter 0.1m, an average temperature arrived a quasi-steady state after 5 minutes with strong temperature stratification even at 1m from an injection hole. Near the injection hole, hot water makes circumferential convection with oscillatory up and down vortex flow in an axial direction. Warmer water makes stratified flow with faster axial velocity near the top of the tube with much slower axial velocity near the bottom of the tube. These fully three-dimensionally complicated flow and temperature stratification characteristics are presented in various ends view and side views of a long pipe. The importance to note the temperature stratified flow is discussed.

Okinotani, Takeshi; Ozoe, Hiroyuki

1999-07-01

96

An experimental study of the utilization of heat pipes for solar water heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the performance of solar domestic hot water systems manufactured with heat pipes. A series of tests were conducted on a number of systems to elicit the most suitable configuration of the system for possible commercialization in Korea. The heat pipe is made with a copper tube and the respective lengths of the evaporator, adiabatic, and condenser sections

Wongee Chun; Yong Heack Kang; Hee Youl Kwak; Young Soo Lee

1999-01-01

97

Failure analysis of cooling water pipes used in the condensation system of a gas turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The copper–zinc alloy pipes used in the condensed water system of a power plant failed within a period of 5 to 6 years. Because the service life of such a system was expected to be on the order of 20 years, an investigation was carried out to determine the possible causes for early failure of the pipes. Visual inspection revealed that the

Havva Kazdal Zeytin

2008-01-01

98

Global Markets, Local Practice: Ottoman-period Clay Pipes and Smoking Paraphernalia from the Red Sea Shipwreck at Sadana Island, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shipwreck archaeology provides unique evidence for trade, commercial relationships, and the day-to-day existence of occupational\\u000a communities defined by residence and employment within the industrial space aboard a ship. These concerns are addressed particularly\\u000a well by finds of utilitarian items such as a small assemblage of 21 clay pipes and three other smoking-related artifacts recently\\u000a excavated from the ca. 1765 Sadana

Cheryl Ward; Uzi Baram

2006-01-01

99

Fracture mechanics models developed for piping reliability assessment in light water reactors: piping reliability project  

SciTech Connect

The efforts concentrated on modifications of the stratified Monte Carlo code called PRAISE (Piping Reliability Analysis Including Seismic Events) to make it more widely applicable to probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis of nuclear reactor piping. Pipe failures are considered to occur as the result of crack-like defects introduced during fabrication, that escape detection during inspections. The code modifications allow the following factors in addition to those considered in earlier work to be treated: other materials, failure criteria and subcritical crack growth characteristic; welding residual and vibratory stresses; and longitudinal welds (the original version considered only circumferential welds). The fracture mechanics background for the code modifications is included, and details of the modifications themselves provided. Additionally, an updated version of the PRAISE user's manual is included. The revised code, known as PRAISE-B was then applied to a variety of piping problems, including various size lines subject to stress corrosion cracking and vibratory stresses. Analyses including residual stresses and longitudinal welds were also performed.

Harris, D.O.; Lim, E.Y.; Dedhia, D.D.; Woo, H.H.; Chou, C.K.

1982-06-01

100

CHLORINE DECAY AND BIOFILM STUDIES IN A PILOT SCALE DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION DEAD END PIPE SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Chlorine decay experiments using a pilot-scale water distribution dead end pipe system were conducted to define relationships between chlorine decay and environmental factors. These included flow rate, biomass concentration and biofilm density, and initial chlorine concentrations...

101

Mitigation of corrosion in service water piping at North Anna Power Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

North Anna Power Station has two 910 MWe pressurized water reactors. Each unit incorporates a closed-cycle nuclear supply system, turbine generator and necessary auxiliaries. Several auxiliary systems, such as component cooling, fire protection, fuel pit cooling and service water are shared between both units. The authors describe the service water system, including piping design and the water sources utilized. An

J. R. Adams; S. M. Alberico

1988-01-01

102

Effect of magnetic water treatment on calcium carbonate precipitation: Influence of the pipe material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this work was to investigate the influence of the material of the pipe, through which scalant water (4mM of CaCO3) was magnetically treated, on the calcium carbonate precipitation process. Tested solutions were exposed to a magnetic field (MF) of 0.16T for 15min with different flow rates (0.54–0.94Lmin?1) and pH (6–7.5). Magnetic water treatment and pipe material

F. Alimi; M. M. Tlili; M. Ben Amor; G. Maurin; C. Gabrielli

2009-01-01

103

Scientific-Chemical Viewpoints regarding Smoking: A Science Laboratory for All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes laboratory activity that examines the chemical process of smoking and the components of smoke, of both cigarettes and water pipes (narghiles also known as "hookah"). The aim of this activity is to expose adolescents to the scientific aspects of smoking; and to present the relevance of chemistry in everyday life. (Contains 3…

Blonder, Ron

2008-01-01

104

Life Test Results for Water Heat Pipes Operating at 200 °C to 300 °C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For lunar or planetary bases to be viable, a robust electric generating system will be required for powering the habitat. Water heat pipes offer an attractive solution for lunar base heat rejection, and would serve as a qualification for them on other long duration missions. Successful operation near the upper end of water operating range is a requirement for the application. Results are reported for life tests on water heat pipes that were operated at various temperatures between 200 °C and 300 °C. Tests were conducted on twenty three gravity-assisted water heat pipes. Eleven titanium/water heat pipes and ten Monel/water heat pipes were tested at temperatures above 200 °C. Two cupronickel heat pipes were also assembled and tested. Titanium alloys tested included CP-2 titanium, as well as two beta-titanium alloys, namely 15-3 and Nitinol alloys. Some of the titanium alloy life tests used wicks fabricated from CP-2 titanium screen or porous felt. Monel alloys tested included 400 and K-500 alloys. Some of the Monel heat pipes contained copper/nickel wicks that were fabricated by brazing nickel-plated copper felt metal wicks. Although most of the envelope/material combinations exhibit favorable results at 200 °C, some of the combinations failed at higher temperatures. Causes of failure included stress-creep of envelopes and corrosion at axial or end cap welds. This information represents a significant advance in selection of materials for 200 °C to 300 °C water heat pipes. Life testing work is being continued.

Rosenfeld, John H.; Gernert, Nelson J.

2008-01-01

105

OTEC Advanced Composite Cold Water Pipe: Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion can exploit natural temperature gradients in the oceans to generate usable forms of energy (for example, cost-competitive baseload electricity in tropical regions such as Hawaii) free from fossil fuel consumption and global warming emissions.The No.1 acknowledged challenge of constructing an OTEC plant is the Cold Water Pipe (CWP), which draws cold water from 1000m depths up to the surface, to serve as the coolant for the OTEC Rankine cycle. For a commercial-scale plant, the CWP is on the order of 10m in diameter.This report describes work done by LMSSC developing the CWP for LM MS2 New Ventures emerging OTEC business. The work started in early 2008 deciding on the minimum-cost CWP architecture, materials, and fabrication process. In order to eliminate what in previous OTEC work had been a very large assembly/deployment risk, we took the innovative approach of building an integral CWP directly from theOTEC platform and down into the water. During the latter half of 2008, we proceeded to a successful small-scale Proof-of-Principles validation of the new fabrication process, at the Engineering Development Lab in Sunnyvale. During 2009-10, under the Cooperative Agreement with the US Dept. of Energy, we have now successfully validated key elements of the process and apparatus at a 4m diameter scale suitable for a future OTEC Pilot Plant. The validations include: (1) Assembly of sandwich core rings from pre-pultruded hollow 'planks,' holding final dimensions accurately; (2) Machine-based dispensing of overlapping strips of thick fiberglass fabric to form the lengthwise-continuous face sheets, holding accurate overlap dimensions; (3) Initial testing of the fabric architecture, showing that the overlap splices develop adequate mechanical strength (work done under a parallel US Naval Facilities Command program); and (4) Successful resin infusion/cure of 4m diameter workpieces, obtaining full wet-out and a non-discernable knitline between successive stepwise infusions.

Dr. Alan Miller; Matthew Ascari

2011-09-12

106

OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) Cold Water Pipe At-Sea Test Program. Phase 2: Suspended pipe test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important step in the development of technology for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) cold water pipes (CWP) is the at-sea testing and subsequent evaluation of a large diameter fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) pipe. Focus was on the CWP since it is the most critical element in any OTEC design. The results of the second phase of the CWP At-Sea Test Program are given. During this phase an 8 foot diameter, 400 foot long sandwich wall FRP syntactic foam configuration CWP test article was developed, constructed, deployed and used for data acquisition in the open ocean near Honolulu, Hawaii. This instrumented CWP as suspended from a moored platform for a three week experiment in April-May, 1983. The CWP represented a scaled version of a 40 megawatt size structure, nominally 30 feet in diameter and 3000 feet long.

McHale, F. A.

1984-08-01

107

Avoiding steam-bubble-collapse-induced water hammers in piping systems  

SciTech Connect

In terms of the frequency of occurrence, steam bubble collapse in subcooled water is the dominant initiating mechanism for water hammer events in nuclear power plants. Water hammer due to steam bubble collapse occurs when water slug forms in stratified horizontal flow, or when steam bubble is trapped at the end of the pipe. These types of water hammer events have been studied experimentally and analytically in order to develop stability maps showing those combinations of filling velocities and liquid subcooling that cause water hammer and those which don't. In developing the stability maps, experiments with different piping orientations were performed in a low pressure laboratory apparatus. Details of these experiments are described, including piping arrangement, test procedures, and test results. Visual tests using a transparent Lexan pipe are also performed to study the flow regimes accompanying the water hammer events. All analytical models were tested by comparison with the corresponding experimental results. Based on these models, and step-by-step approach for each flow geometry is presented for plant designers and engineers to follow in avoiding water hammer induced by steam bubble collapse when admitting cold water into pipes filled with steam. 37 refs., 54 figs., 2 tabs.

Chou, Y.; Griffith, P. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))

1989-10-01

108

Clad piping - a novel approach for solving nuclear plant service water and erosion-corrosion problems  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the application of clad piping components to solve various nuclear plant corrosion problems, such as service water system corrosion and feedwater/condensate/steam erosion-corrosion. This approach uses a carbon steel piping component which has a metallurgically bonded alloy cladding on the ID. Different alloys are available as cladding, from stainless steels to Inconel 625, so that a specific alloy can be selected based on the service requirements. Clad piping components represent a novel approach, as they provide a mechanism to utilize resistant alloys to solve corrosion problems without affecting the plant design. Clad piping products are designed such that the carbon steel backing acts as the pressure boundary and the cladding the corrosion allowance. By selecting the proper carbon steel backing, the clad product can be engineered to allow {open_quotes}like-for-like{close_quotes} component replacement. The wall thickness, weight and stiffness of the piping would remain essentially the same. The thermal expansion coefficient of the bulk piping also remains the same. Thus, the piping design and layout is wholly unaffected, with no structural reanalysis being required. This paper discusses two applications where clad piping products are being applied for solving nuclear power plant corrosion problems. The first is in solving steam/condensate/feedwater erosion-corrosion. The second application is the utilization of Inconel 625 clad piping products for solving service water system corrosion. Clad piping products solve these problems while improving plant operation and performance by basically providing the benefits of the alloy without any of the accompanying disadvantages of redesign.

Chakravarti, B. [NUTECH Engineers, Inc., Westmont, IL (United States)

1992-12-31

109

Rigid-plug elastic-water model for transient pipe flow with entrapped air pocket  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure transients in a rapidly-filling pipe with an entrapped air pocket are investigated analytically. A rigid-plug elastic-water model is developed by applying elastic-water hammer to the majority of the water columns while applying rigid-water analysis to a small portion near the air–water interface. The proposed model is validated by the full elastic-water model and experimental data. It effectively avoids the

Deyou Liu; Ling Zhou; Byran W. Karney; Qinfen Zhang; Chuanqi Ou

2011-01-01

110

Level Set Based Simulations of Two-Phase Oil-Water Flows in Pipes  

E-print Network

Level Set Based Simulations of Two-Phase Oil-Water Flows in Pipes Hyeseon Shim July 31, 2000 Abstract We simulate the axisymmetric pipeline transportation of oil and water numerically under approach for capturing the interface between two liquids (oil and water). A vari- able density projection

Soatto, Stefano

111

CONTROLLING ASBESTOS LOSS FROM ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPE IN AGGRESSIVE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A project was conducted to evaluate measures for controlling loss of asbestos fibers from asbestos-cement (A/C) water distribution pipe under aggressive water conditions. During Phase 1, water quality data were analyzed for the distribution system of Bellevue, Washington, which r...

112

Water hammer with fluidstructure interaction in thick-walled pipes A.S. Tijsseling *  

E-print Network

Water hammer with fluid­structure interaction in thick-walled pipes A.S. Tijsseling * Department. The model is based on conventional water-hammer and beam theories. Fluid­structure interaction (FSI 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Water hammer; Fluid transients; Fluid

Tijsseling, A.S.

113

IRON TUBERCULATION: PHYSIO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A SINGLE PIPE FROM A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The nature of iron tubercles inside unlined iron pipes of drinking water distribution systems are influenced by water quality and therefore susceptible to changes in water chemistry. The underlying assumption is that tubercles in a system have similar physio-chemical properties. ...

114

Effect of underground water attack on the performance of mineral wool pipe insulation  

SciTech Connect

The performance of mineral wool pipe insulation employed to insulate the underground pipes in district heating and cooling systems has been investigated when it is subjected to underground water attack. The pipe fluid temperature was tested from 35 F (1.6 C) to 450 F (232.2 C). The surrounding water was maintained from 46 F (7.7 C) to 100 F (37.7 C) to simulate the possible conduit water temperatures when the system fails. Under heated conditions (pipe temperature higher than water temperature), the effective thermal conductivity of the wet mineral wool insulation can be, depending on the insulation and the surrounding water temperatures, 50 times higher than that of dry insulation. The effective thermal conductivity data of wet insulation were correlated as functions of insulation mean temperature and surrounding water temperature. Correlations have also been developed in the form of a Nusselt number vs. a Rayleigh number. Under cooled test conditions (pipe temperature lower than water temperature), the effective thermal conductivity of saturated mineral wool is about 14 times higher than that of dry mineral wool. For both heated and cooled conditions, after drying, the effective thermal conductivity returned to the value before submersion.

Chyu, M.C. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Zeng, X. [General Motors Corp., Troy, MI (United States). Advanced Technology Vehicles; Ye, L. [Eaton Corp., Rochester Hills, MI (United States). Climate Control Engineering

1998-12-31

115

Dynamic effect of sodium-water reaction in fast flux test facility power addition sodium pipes  

SciTech Connect

The Fast Flux Facility (FFTF) is a demonstration and test facility of the sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. A power addition'' to the facility is being considered to convert some of the dumped, unused heat into electricity generation. Components and piping systems to be added are sodium-water steam generators, sodium loop extensions from existing dump heat exchangers to sodium-water steam generators, and conventional water/steam loops. The sodium loops can be subjected to the dynamic loadings of pressure pulses that are caused by postulated sodium leaks and subsequent sodium-water reaction in the steam generator. The existing FFTF secondary pipes and the new power addition sodium loops were evaluated for exposure to the dynamic effect of the sodium-water reaction. Elastic and simplified inelastic dynamic analyses were used in this feasibility study. The results indicate that both the maximum strain and strain range are within the allowable limits. Several cycles of the sodium-water reaction can be sustained by the sodium pipes that are supported by ordinary pipe supports and seismic restraints. Expensive axial pipe restraints to withstand the sodium-water reaction loads are not needed, because the pressure-pulse-induced alternating bending stresses act as secondary stresses and the pressure pulse dynamic effect is a deformation-controlled quantity and is self-limiting. 14 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Huang, S.N.; Anderson, M.J.

1990-03-01

116

Piping flow erosion in water retaining structures: inferring erosion rates from hole erosion tests and quantifying the failure time  

E-print Network

Piping flow erosion in water retaining structures: inferring erosion rates from hole erosion tests-en-Provence Cedex 5, France E-mail: stephane.bonelli@cemagref.fr Abstract The piping flow erosion process, involving structures. Such a pipe can be imputed to roots or burrows. The coefficient of erosion must be known in order

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

117

Water hammer with fluid–structure interaction in thick-walled pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one-dimensional mathematical model is presented which describes the acoustic behaviour of thick-walled liquid-filled pipes. The model is based on conventional water-hammer and beam theories. Fluid–structure interaction (FSI) is taken into account. The equations governing straight pipes are derived by the cross-sectional integration of axisymmetric two-dimensional basic equations. The resulting FSI four-equation model has small correction terms and factors accounting

A. S. Tijsseling

2007-01-01

118

Evaluation of surface sampling techniques for collection of Bacillus spores on common drinking water pipe materials.  

PubMed

Drinking water utilities may face biological contamination of the distribution system from a natural incident or deliberate contamination. Determining the extent of contamination or the efficacy of decontamination is a challenge, because it may require sampling of the wetted surfaces of distribution infrastructure. This study evaluated two sampling techniques that utilities might use to sample exhumed pipe sections. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), cement-lined ductile iron, and ductile iron pipe coupons (3 cm x 14 cm) cut from new water main piping were conditioned for three months in dechlorinated Cincinnati, Ohio tap water. Coupons were spiked with Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii, a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis. Brushing and scraping were used to recover the inoculated spores from the coupons. Mean recoveries for all materials ranged from 37 +/- 30% to 43 +/- 20% for brushing vs. 24 +/- 10% to 51 +/- 29% for scraping. On cement-lined pipe, brushing yielded a significantly different recovery than scraping. No differences were seen between brushing and scraping the PVC and iron pipe coupons. Mean brushing and scraping recoveries from PVC coupons were more variable than mean recoveries from cement-lined and iron coupons. Spore retention differed between pipe materials and the presence of established biofilms also had an impact. Conditioned PVC coupons (with established biofilms) had significantly lower spore retention (31 +/- 11%) than conditioned cement-lined coupons (61 +/- 14%) and conditioned iron coupons (71 +/- 8%). PMID:20082033

Packard, Benjamin H; Kupferle, Margaret J

2010-01-01

119

Unscreened Water-Diversion Pipes Pose an Entrainment Risk to the Threatened Green Sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris  

PubMed Central

Over 3,300 unscreened agricultural water diversion pipes line the levees and riverbanks of the Sacramento River (California) watershed, where the threatened Southern Distinct Population Segment of green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris, spawn. The number of sturgeon drawn into (entrained) and killed by these pipes is greatly unknown. We examined avoidance behaviors and entrainment susceptibility of juvenile green sturgeon (35±0.6 cm mean fork length) to entrainment in a large (>500-kl) outdoor flume with a 0.46-m-diameter water-diversion pipe. Fish entrainment was generally high (range: 26–61%), likely due to a lack of avoidance behavior prior to entering inescapable inflow conditions. We estimated that up to 52% of green sturgeon could be entrained after passing within 1.5 m of an active water-diversion pipe three times. These data suggest that green sturgeon are vulnerable to unscreened water-diversion pipes, and that additional research is needed to determine the potential impacts of entrainment mortality on declining sturgeon populations. Data under various hydraulic conditions also suggest that entrainment-related mortality could be decreased by extracting water at lower diversion rates over longer periods of time, balancing agricultural needs with green sturgeon conservation. PMID:24454967

Mussen, Timothy D.; Cocherell, Dennis; Poletto, Jamilynn B.; Reardon, Jon S.; Hockett, Zachary; Ercan, Ali; Bandeh, Hossein; Kavvas, M. Levent; Cech, Joseph J.; Fangue, Nann A.

2014-01-01

120

Unscreened water-diversion pipes pose an entrainment risk to the threatened green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris.  

PubMed

Over 3,300 unscreened agricultural water diversion pipes line the levees and riverbanks of the Sacramento River (California) watershed, where the threatened Southern Distinct Population Segment of green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris, spawn. The number of sturgeon drawn into (entrained) and killed by these pipes is greatly unknown. We examined avoidance behaviors and entrainment susceptibility of juvenile green sturgeon (35±0.6 cm mean fork length) to entrainment in a large (>500-kl) outdoor flume with a 0.46-m-diameter water-diversion pipe. Fish entrainment was generally high (range: 26-61%), likely due to a lack of avoidance behavior prior to entering inescapable inflow conditions. We estimated that up to 52% of green sturgeon could be entrained after passing within 1.5 m of an active water-diversion pipe three times. These data suggest that green sturgeon are vulnerable to unscreened water-diversion pipes, and that additional research is needed to determine the potential impacts of entrainment mortality on declining sturgeon populations. Data under various hydraulic conditions also suggest that entrainment-related mortality could be decreased by extracting water at lower diversion rates over longer periods of time, balancing agricultural needs with green sturgeon conservation. PMID:24454967

Mussen, Timothy D; Cocherell, Dennis; Poletto, Jamilynn B; Reardon, Jon S; Hockett, Zachary; Ercan, Ali; Bandeh, Hossein; Kavvas, M Levent; Cech, Joseph J; Fangue, Nann A

2014-01-01

121

A model for unsteady mixed flows in non uniform closed water pipes and a well-balanced finite  

E-print Network

occurs during a water hammer except in recent works [21, 20, 22]. On the other hand the Allievi equationsA model for unsteady mixed flows in non uniform closed water pipes and a well-balanced finite unidirectional model for unsteady mixed flows in non uniform closed water pipes. We introduce a local reference

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

122

IRON-CONTAINING COATINGS ON ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPES EXPOSED TO AGGRESSIVE WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Coatings containing iron were found on asbestos-cement pipes exposed to a range of water qualities from very aggressive to nonaggressive. Under aggressive water conditions iron coatings had a granular, porous structure that prevented asbestos fibers from being exposed on the surf...

123

Steam bubble collapse, water hammer and piping network response. Volume I. Steam bubble collapse and water hammer in piping systems: experiments and analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Water hammer incidents in conventional and nuclear steam systems are an important problem of broad general interest in piping network design and transient operation. Water hammer in PWR steam generator sparger feed lines has, for example, been a recurrent problem when the sparger becomes uncovered during certain operational transients (Creare 1977). The central goal of this research has been to develop experimental data and supporting analyses that will contribute to the evolving understanding of water hammer created by steam bubble entrapment in a pipe containing subcooled liquid. The first objective of this study has been to obtain a body of experimental data on water hammer initiated by steam bubble collapse. These experiments include measurement of pressure transients and high speed films of the process of bubble collapse and impact, and, in conjunction with Hurwitz (1980), records of the resultant pressure wave propagation through a variety of simple piping configurations and measurements of the induced structural response. The data that have been obtained should be useful in benchmarking existing analytic models and numerical codes.

Gruel, R.; Hurwitz, W.; Huber, P.; Griffith, P.

1980-06-01

124

Steady hydrodynamic loads due to vortex shedding from the OTEC cold water pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report is limited in scope to consideration of the problems caused by vortex shedding from flexible, bluff cylinders in steady current flows, as these problems apply to the OTEC cold water pipe. In particular, the steady deflections caused by the amplified drag forces that accompany vortex-excited oscillations are considered. Emphasis placed upon the discussion of design methods, applications of these methods to practical problems, and comparison with available experimental data. A discussion is given of laboratory and field studies that have been conducted with model OTEC cold water pipes. Various devices that have been developed for the suppression of vortex-excited oscillations also are discussed. A comparison is made of the effectiveness of various suppression devices and procedures, and practical approaches to implementing their application are presented. The implications of vortex-induced hydrodynamic drag and the suppression of vortex-excited oscillations in OTEC cold water pipe design are discussed briefly.

Griffin, O. M.

1982-01-01

125

A kinetic scheme for unsteady pressurised flows in closed water pipes  

E-print Network

he aim of this paper is to present a kinetic numerical scheme for the computations of transient pressurised flows in closed water pipes. Firstly, we detail the mathematical model written as a conservative hyperbolic partial differentiel system of equations, and the we recall how to obtain the corresponding kinetic formulation. Then we build the kinetic scheme ensuring an upwinding of the source term due to the topography performed in a close manner described by Perthame et al. using an energetic balance at microscopic level for the Shallow Water equations. The validation is lastly performed in the case of a water hammer in a uniform pipe: we compare the numerical results provided by an industrial code used at EDF-CIH (France), which solves the Allievi equation (the commonly used equation for pressurised flows in pipes) by the method of characteristics, with those of the kinetic scheme. It appears that they are in a very good agreement.

Bourdarias, Christian; Gerbi, Stéphane

2008-01-01

126

Pressure drop, flow pattern and local water volume fraction measurements of oil-water flow in pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil-water flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes was investigated. The experimental activities were performed using the multiphase flow loop at Telemark University College, Porsgrunn, Norway. The experiments were conducted in a 15 m long, 56 mm diameter, inclinable steel pipe using Exxsol D60 oil (density of 790 kg m-3 and viscosity of 1.64 mPa s) and water (density of 996 kg m-3 and viscosity of 1.00 mPa s) as test fluids. The test pipe inclination was changed in the range from 5° upward to 5° downward. Mixture velocity and inlet water cut vary up to 1.50 m s-1 and 0.975, respectively. The time-averaged cross-sectional distributions of oil and water were measured with a single-beam gamma densitometer. The pressure drop along the test section of the pipe was also measured. The characterization of flow patterns and identification of their boundaries are achieved via visual observations and by analysis of local water volume fraction measurements. The observed flow patterns were presented in terms of flow pattern maps for different pipe inclinations. In inclined flows, dispersions appear at lower mixture velocities compared to the horizontal flows. Smoothly stratified flows observed in the horizontal pipe disappeared in upwardly inclined pipes and new flow patterns, plug flow and stratified wavy flow were observed. The water-in-oil dispersed flow regime slightly shrinks as the pipe inclination increases. In inclined flows, the dispersed oil-in-water flow regime extended to lower mixture velocities and lower inlet water cuts. The present experimental data were compared with the results of a flow-pattern-dependent prediction model, which uses the area-averaged steady-state two-fluid model for stratified flow and the homogeneous model for dispersed flow. The two-fluid model was able to predict the pressure drop and water hold-up for stratified flow. The homogeneous model was not able to predict the pressure profile of dispersed oil-water flow at higher water cuts. The two-fluid model and the homogeneous model over-predict the pressure drop for dual-continuous flow.

Kumara, W. A. S.; Halvorsen, B. M.; Melaaen, M. C.

2009-11-01

127

High Temperature Water Heat Pipes Radiator for a Brayton Space Reactor Power System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high temperature water heat pipes radiator design is developed for a space power system with a sectored gas-cooled reactor and three Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engines, for avoidance of single point failures in reactor cooling and energy conversion and rejection. The CBC engines operate at turbine inlet and exit temperatures of 1144 K and 952 K. They have a net efficiency of 19.4% and each provides 30.5 kWe of net electrical power to the load. A He-Xe gas mixture serves as the turbine working fluid and cools the reactor core, entering at 904 K and exiting at 1149 K. Each CBC loop is coupled to a reactor sector, which is neutronically and thermally coupled, but hydraulically decoupled to the other two sectors, and to a NaK-78 secondary loop with two water heat pipes radiator panels. The segmented panels each consist of a forward fixed segment and two rear deployable segments, operating hydraulically in parallel. The deployed radiator has an effective surface area of 203 m2, and when the rear segments are folded, the stowed power system fits in the launch bay of the DELTA-IV Heavy launch vehicle. For enhanced reliability, the water heat pipes operate below 50% of their wicking limit; the sonic limit is not a concern because of the water, high vapor pressure at the temperatures of interest (384 - 491 K). The rejected power by the radiator peaks when the ratio of the lengths of evaporator sections of the longest and shortest heat pipes is the same as that of the major and minor widths of the segments. The shortest and hottest heat pipes in the rear segments operate at 491 K and 2.24 MPa, and each rejects 154 W. The longest heat pipes operate cooler (427 K and 0.52 MPa) and because they are 69% longer, reject more power (200 W each). The longest and hottest heat pipes in the forward segments reject the largest power (320 W each) while operating at ~ 46% of capillary limit. The vapor temperature and pressure in these heat pipes are 485 K and 1.97 MPa. By contrast, the shortest water heat pipes in the forward segments operate much cooler (427 K and 0.52 MPa), and reject a much lower power of 45 W each. The radiator with six fixed and 12 rear deployable segments rejects a total of 324 kWth, weights 994 kg and has an average specific power of 326 Wth/kg and a specific mass of 5.88 kg/m2.

El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel

2006-01-01

128

Electrokinetically enhanced flow and dewatering characteristics of concentrated black coal-water suspensions in pipes  

SciTech Connect

The transportability and dewatering of coal-water mixtures flowing in a pipe may be enhanced by the application of electrokinetic techniques. Previous experimental work by other workers shows a significant reduction in the wall shear stress, and consequently a decrease in pumping energy requirements for the flow of coal-water mixtures in pipes combined with electrodewatering. In this process the pipe wall acts as the cathode and a centrally aligned tube as the anode. The effects of {open_quote}In-pipe electrodewatering{close_quote} on the flow properties and stability of concentrated coal-water mixtures flowing in various alternative anode-cathode arrangements are presented in this paper. The application of an electrical energy flux at the electrode surface (< 6.1 kW/m{sup 2}) in a dewatering section of pipe (L{sub e}=1m) effectively reduces the pumping energy requirements by as much as one order of magnitude. The stability of flow conditions is investigated in a concentric anode-cathode pipe arrangement consisting of a dewatering and a non-dewatering section (L{sub o}). In this system (L{sub o}/L{sub e}) < 4.0. A microscopic study of dilute coal-water suspensions in the presence of a DC electric field revealed the migration of coal particles towards the anode and the structural formation of coal particle chains. The electrorheological behaviour of concentrated coal-water suspensions is examined with the use of a modified coaxial rheometer. The coal fines (d{sub 50}=17.7{mu}m) used in all experiments were produced by milling a low rank bituminous black coal which was followed by a sieving process that eliminated coal particles that were greater than 75{mu}m in size.

Rozakeas, P.K.; Snow, R.J. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Technology, Victoria (Australia)

1997-07-01

129

Experimental testing and modeling analysis of solute mixing at water distribution pipe junctions.  

PubMed

Flow dynamics at a pipe junction controls particle trajectories, solute mixing and concentrations in downstream pipes. The effect can lead to different outcomes of water quality modeling and, hence, drinking water management in a distribution network. Here we have investigated solute mixing behavior in pipe junctions of five hydraulic types, for which flow distribution factors and analytical equations for network modeling are proposed. First, based on experiments, the degree of mixing at a cross is found to be a function of flow momentum ratio that defines a junction flow distribution pattern and the degree of departure from complete mixing. Corresponding analytical solutions are also validated using computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) simulations. Second, the analytical mixing model is further extended to double-Tee junctions. Correspondingly the flow distribution factor is modified to account for hydraulic departure from a cross configuration. For a double-Tee(A) junction, CFD simulations show that the solute mixing depends on flow momentum ratio and connection pipe length, whereas the mixing at double-Tee(B) is well represented by two independent single-Tee junctions with a potential water stagnation zone in between. Notably, double-Tee junctions differ significantly from a cross in solute mixing and transport. However, it is noted that these pipe connections are widely, but incorrectly, simplified as cross junctions of assumed complete solute mixing in network skeletonization and water quality modeling. For the studied pipe junction types, analytical solutions are proposed to characterize the incomplete mixing and hence may allow better water quality simulation in a distribution network. PMID:24675269

Shao, Yu; Jeffrey Yang, Y; Jiang, Lijie; Yu, Tingchao; Shen, Cheng

2014-06-01

130

Water-hammer pressure waves interaction at cross-section changes in series in viscoelastic pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of scarcity of both experimental data and numerical models concerning transient behavior of cross-section area changes in pressurized liquid flow, the paper presents laboratory data and numerical simulation of the interaction of a surge wave with a partial blockage by a valve, a single pipe contraction or expansion and a series of pipe contraction/expansion in close proximity.With regard to a single change of cross-section area, laboratory data point out the completely different behavior with respect to one of the partially closed in-line valves with the same area ratio. In fact, for the former the pressure wave interaction is not regulated by the steady-state local head loss. With regard to partial blockages, transient tests have shown that the smaller the length, the more intense the overlapping of pressure waves due to the expansion and contraction in series.Numerically, the need for taking into account both the viscoelasticity and unsteady friction is demonstrated, since the classical water-hammer theory does not simulate the relevant damping of pressure peaks and gives rise to a time shifting between numerical and laboratory data. The transient behavior of a single local head loss has been checked by considering tests carried out in a system with a partially closed in-line valve. As a result, the reliability of the quasi steady-state approach for local head loss simulation has been demonstrated in viscoelastic pipes. The model parameters obtained on the basis of transients carried out in single pipe systems have then been used to simulate transients in the more complex pipe systems. These numerical experiments show the great importance of the length of the small-bore pipe with respect to one of the large-bore pipes. Precisely, until a gradually flow establishes in the small-bore pipe, the smaller such a length, the better the quality of the numerical simulation.

Meniconi, S.; Brunone, B.; Ferrante, M.

2012-08-01

131

Iron release from corrosion scales in old iron/steel drinking water distribution pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron release from corrosion scales in iron/steel pipes is the principal cause of "colored water" problems in drinking water distribution systems. The interaction of corroded iron pipe surfaces with water, however, is not well understood. In this dissertation, the composition and structure of corrosion scales from old iron/steel water distribution pipes was characterized with the objective to understand their role in metal ion release to water under different water quality conditions. Most corrosion scales have characteristic structural features such as a loosely-held top surface layer, a shell-like layer and a porous core. Goethite (alpha-FeOOH), magnetite (Fe3O4), maghemite (gamma-Fe 2O3), lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH), and siderite (FeCO 3) were the primary crystalline phases present in the scales. The composition and structure of corrosion scales was different for scales formed in two dissimilar water distribution systems. Based on findings in this research, it was concluded that iron is released from corroded iron pipes primarily by dissolution of the corrosion scales. The microstructure and composition of corrosion scales are key parameters that determine the amount of iron released from such systems. The role of water quality parameters, such as dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity, and orthophosphates, in decreasing iron release was also evaluated. A conceptual model was developed to address the issues of the formation and growth of iron corrosion scales, and their reactions that lead to colored water problems. According to the model, iron release from corrosion scales can be controlled, in general, by either (a) promoting a denser scale microstructure, or (b) inhibiting dissolution of corrosion scale components. It is anticipated that the conceptual model will be used as a basis for changing water quality to minimize colored water formation, and as a guide for further research.

Sarin, Pankaj

132

Modeling DBPs formation in drinking water in residential plumbing pipes and hot water tanks.  

PubMed

Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in municipal supply water are a concern because of their possible risks to human health. Risk assessment studies often use DBP data in water distribution systems (WDS). However, DBPs in tap water may be different because of stagnation of the water in plumbing pipes (PP) and heating in hot water tanks (HWT). This study investigated occurrences and developed predictive models for DBPs in the PP and the HWT of six houses from three municipal water systems in Quebec (Canada) in a year-round study. Trihalomethanes (THMs) in PP and HWT were observed to be 1.4-1.8 and 1.9-2.7 times the THMs in the WDS, respectively. Haloacetic acid (HAAs) in PP and HWT were observed to be variable (PP/WDS = 0.23-2.24; HWT/WDS = 0.53-2.61). Using DBPs occurrence data from these systems, three types of linear models (main factors; main factors, interactions and higher orders; logarithmic) and two types of nonlinear models (three parameters Logistic and four parameters Weibull) were investigated to predict DBPs in the PP and HWT. Significant factors affecting DBPs formation in the PP and HWT were identified through numerical and graphical techniques. The R(2) values of the models varied between 0.77 and 0.96, indicating excellent predictive ability for THMs and HAAs in the PP and the HWT. The models were found to be statistically significant. The models were validated using additional data. These models can be used to predict DBPs increase from WDS (water entry point of house) to the PP and HWT, and could thereby help gain a better understanding of human exposure to DBPs and their associated risks. PMID:20732706

Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sadiq, Rehan; Serodes, Jean

2011-01-01

133

Remedial measures for condenser quenching in a long water heat pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Double Wall Artery Heat Pipe (DWAHP) program conducted at the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories involves performance testing of various copper-water articles with progressively improved designs. The latest version of the 2 m DWAHP with screen loops in the evaporator grooves, capillary inserts, and unvented adiabatic grooves was tested with eight different modes of cooling in order to extract

R. Ponnappan; M. L. Ramalingam; J. E. Beam; E. T. Mahefkey

1987-01-01

134

GAMMA FACILITY, TRA641. PIPING LAYOUT FOR DEMINERALIZED WATER, DRAINS, SUMP. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GAMMA FACILITY, TRA-641. PIPING LAYOUT FOR DEMINERALIZED WATER, DRAINS, SUMP. PICTORIAL VIEW OF CANAL AND LOCATION OF INPUTS AND DRAINS. IDAHO OPERATIONS OFFICE MTR-641-IDO-15P, 10/1954. INL INDEX NO. 531-0641-00-396-110615, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

135

Predicting the Migration Rate of Dialkyl Organotins from PVC Pipe into Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Organotins (OTs) are additives widely used as thermal and light stabilizers in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. OTs can leach into water flowing through PVC pipes. This work examines the leaching rates of two neurotoxic OTs, dimethyl tin (DMT) and dibutyl tin (DBT), from PVC pi...

136

A COMPARISON OF RESIDENTIAL COPPER PIPES CARRYING HOT AND COLD WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Each year, the U.S. EPA examines numerous lead, iron, and copper pipes pulled from active use in homes and drinking water distribution systems throughout the United States. The intent of the work is to better understand factors that influence the release of metals into drinking ...

137

A kinetic scheme for pressurised flows in non uniform closed water pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to present a kinetic numerical scheme for the computa- tions of transient pressurised flows in closed water pipe with non uniform sections. Firstly, we detail the derivation of the mathematical model in curvilinear coordi- nates and we performe a formal asymptotic analysis. The obtained system is written as a conservative hyperbolic partial differential system

C. Bourdarias; M. Ersoy; S. Gerbi

2009-01-01

138

A kinetic scheme for unsteady pressurised flows in closed water pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to present a kinetic numerical scheme for the computations of transient pressurised flows in closed water pipes. Firstly, we detail the mathematical model written as a conservative hyperbolic partial differentiel system of equations, and the we recall how to obtain the corresponding kinetic formulation. Then we build the kinetic scheme based on an upwinding

Christian Bourdarias; Stéphane Gerbi

2010-01-01

139

A kinetic scheme for unsteady pressurised flows in closed water pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to present a kinetic numerical scheme for the computations of transient pressurised flows in closed water pipes. Firstly, we detail the mathematical model written as a conservative hyperbolic partial differentiel system of equations, and the we recall how to obtain the corresponding kinetic formulation. Then we build the kinetic scheme ensuring an upwinding of

Christian Bourdarias; Stéphane Gerbi

2008-01-01

140

Preliminary observations of using smoke-water to increase low-elevation Beargrass Xerophyllum tenax germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through a greenhouse experiment, we found that smoke-water can be an effective restoration tool in germinating bear-grass (Xerophyllum tenax (Pursh) Nutt. [Liliaceae]) seeds. We studied the effects of smoke-water on germination rates of beargrass seeds collected from low-elevation dry forests of the southeastern Olympic Peninsula of Washington State and from a wetland of the western Peninsula. Seeds received a treatment

Kern Ewing; Jorge Gutierrez

2009-01-01

141

High temperature monitoring the height of condensed water in steam pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An in-service health monitoring system is needed for steam pipes to track through their wall the condensation of water. The system is required to measure the height of the condensed water inside the pipe while operating at temperatures that are as high as 250oC. The system needs to be able to make real time measurements while accounting for the effects of cavitation and wavy water surface. For this purpose, ultrasonic wave in pulse-echo configuration was used and reflected signals were acquired and auto-correlated to remove noise from the data and determine the water height. Transmitting and receiving the waves is done by piezoelectric transducers having Curie temperature that is significantly higher than 250oC. Measurements were made at temperatures as high as 250oC and have shown the feasibility of the test method. This manuscript reports the results of this feasibility study.

Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Badescu, M.; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Widholm, Scott; Ostlund, Patrick; Blosiu, Julian

2011-04-01

142

High Temperature Monitoring the Height of Condensed Water in Steam Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An in-service health monitoring system is needed for steam pipes to track through their wall the condensation of water. The system is required to measure the height of the condensed water inside the pipe while operating at temperatures that are as high as 250 deg. C. The system needs to be able to make real time measurements while accounting for the effects of cavitation and wavy water surface. For this purpose, ultrasonic wave in pulse-echo configuration was used and reflected signals were acquired and auto-correlated to remove noise from the data and determine the water height. Transmitting and receiving the waves is done by piezoelectric transducers having Curie temperature that is significantly higher than 250 deg. C. Measurements were made at temperatures as high as 250 deg. C and have shown the feasibility of the test method. This manuscript reports the results of this feasibility study.

Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Widholm, Scott; Ostlund, Patrick; Blosiu, Julian

2011-01-01

143

Experimental Performance of R-134a-Filled and Water-Filled Loop Heat Pipe Heat Exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental investigations were conducted to determine the thermal performances of an R-134a-filled thermosyphon heat pipe heat exchanger (THPHE) and a water-filled loop heat pipe heat exchanger (LHPHE) for hot and cold energy recovery for air conditioning purposes. For such applications, the heat pipe heat exchangers are operated at low temperatures. Both exchangers were operated in the countercurrent flow mode. This

K. S. Ong

2010-01-01

144

High temperatures health monitoring of the condensed water height in steam pipe systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic probes were designed, fabricated and tested for high temperature health monitoring system. The goal of this work was to develop the health monitoring system that can determine the height level of the condensed water through the pipe wall at high temperature up to 250 °C while accounting for the effects of surface perturbation. Among different ultrasonic probe designs, 2.25 MHz probes with air backed configuration provide satisfactory results in terms of sensitivity, receiving reflections from the target through the pipe wall. A series of tests were performed using the airbacked probes under irregular conditions, such as surface perturbation and surface disturbance at elevated temperature, to qualify the developed ultrasonic system. The results demonstrate that the fabricated air-backed probes combined with advanced signal processing techniques offer the capability of health monitoring of steam pipe under various operating conditions.

Lee, Hyeong Jae; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Takano, Nobuyuki; Ostlund, Patrick; Blosiu, Julian

2013-04-01

145

Development of advanced design, insulation, and installation practices for hot water district heating piping  

SciTech Connect

In the first part of this paper, some of the newest design features of hot water district heating piping are described. Emphasis is on polyurethane preinsulated one- and two-pipe elements equipped with a polyethylene jacket pipe. The paper also deals with the newest developments in concrete culvert district heating lines, namely the preinsulated concrete culvert pipe elements with a metal sheet jacket. In the second part of the paper a method for calculating the economic optimization of preinsulated district heating lines is described. The term ''economic optimization'' means that the sum of investment costs, heat loss costs, and pumping costs of the line during a certain period are minimized when the maximum heat output of the line is known. The optimization program is designed to answer the following important questions: What are the optimum flow-pipe dimensions, how great is the optimum heat conductance (or insulation thickness), and how do various factors influence the results obtained. In the third part, installation practices for different pipeline systems are discussed. Emphasis is on compensating for thermal movements in pipelines. Also compensating or noncompensating methods are discussed. In conclusion, some test methods developed in Finland are presented. Also, Scandinavian and European cooperation and standardization work in the field of district heating is discussed.

Huovilainen, R.

1983-06-01

146

Thermal hydraulics of a feed-water pipe breakage with a back-pressure check valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SOLA-LOOP computer code for transient, nonequilibrium, two-phase flows in networks has been coupled with a dynamic check valve model. Transient back-pressure check valve behavior and fluid dynamic effects in the form of the so called water-hammer are numerically simulated for a feed-water pipe breakage accident. Three tests from the Superheated Steam Reactor Safety Program Project (PHDR) carried out near

J. R. Travis; M. D. Torrey

1985-01-01

147

Water Supply System Performance for Different Pipe Materials Part II: Sensitivity Analysis to Pressure Variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In water supply systems there are many situations during normal operation that induce the occurrence of pressure transients,\\u000a where high pressures are followed by low, sometimes even negative pressures. These transients may cause ruptures in pipes\\u000a creating thus leaks or opportunities for contaminants to enter the water supply system. Thus severe pressures transients should\\u000a be avoided or adequately controlled in

Helena Ramos; Silja Tamminen; Dídia Covas

2009-01-01

148

The short pipe path ? safe water, energy & nutrient recovery  

EPA Science Inventory

The step-by-step refinement of our urban water systems has yielded unsustainable, centralized urban water services in many developed regions of the world. These large systems also provide the wrong role model and promote conservative thinking for the rapidly developing regions of...

149

Impact of concrete and PVC pipes on urban water chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waterways contain a chemical signature of catchment land use, climate and geology. This is increasingly being influenced by the urban landscape and particularly the composition of materials and activities that occur on impervious surfaces. This paper examines the degree and extent of two types of drainage materials, concrete and PVC, on urban water chemistry. This study found that water collected

P. J. Davies; I. A. Wright; O. J. Jonasson; S. J. Findlay

2010-01-01

150

Passive water hammer in pipes due to flashing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peak water hammer pressures arising from flashing flows passing through flow restrictions have been measured in a variety of experiments. Water hammer pressures up to 60 psig have been measured. A homogeneous, equilibrium theory has been developed and shown to be conservative by a factor three or more in predicting the peak pressures. The most likely reasons for the poor

A. R. Wolf; E. Sweeney; P. Griffith

1991-01-01

151

Wireless monitoring of the height of condensed water in steam pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wireless health monitoring system has been developed for determining the height of water condensation in steam pipes. The data acquisition in this system is done remotely using a wireless network system. The developed system is designed to operate in the harsh manhole environment and the pipe temperature of over 200 °C. The test method is an ultrasonic pulse-echo and the hardware that includes a pulser, receiver, a data processor and wireless modem for communication. Data acquisition and signal processing software were developed to determine the water height using adaptive signal processing and data communication that can be controlled while the hardware is installed in a manhole. A statistical decision-making tool is being developed based on the field test data to determine the height of the condensed water height under high noise conditions and other environmental factors.

Lee, Hyeong Jae; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Badescu, Mircea; Dingizian, Arsham; Takano, Nobuyuki; Blosiu, Julian O.

2014-04-01

152

Rigid-plug elastic-water model for transient pipe flow with entrapped air pocket  

SciTech Connect

Pressure transients in a rapidly filling pipe with an entrapped air pocket are investigated analytically. A rigid-plug elastic water model is developed by applying elastic water hammer to the majority of the water column while applying rigid water analysis to a small portion near the air-water interface, which avoids effectively the interpolation error of previous approaches. Moreover, another two simplified models are introduced respectively based on constant water length and by neglecting water elasticity. Verification of the three models is confirmed by experimental results. Calculations show that the simplification of constant water length is feasible for small air pockets. The complete rigid water model is appropriate for cases with large initial air volume. The rigid-plug elastic model can predict all the essential features for the entire range of initial air fraction considered in this study, and it is the effective model for analysis of pressure transients of entrapped air.

Zhou, Ling [Hohai University, China] [Hohai University, China; Liu, Prof. Deyou [Hohai University, China] [Hohai University, China; Karney, Professor Byran W. [University of Toronto, Canada] [University of Toronto, Canada; Zhang, Qin Fen [ORNL] [ORNL; OU, CHANGQI [International Center on Small Hydro Power] [International Center on Small Hydro Power

2011-01-01

153

Happiness on Tap: Piped Water Adoption in Urban Morocco  

E-print Network

We study the demand for household water connections in urban Morocco, and the effect of such connections on household welfare. In the northern city of Tangiers, among homeowners without a private connection to the city’s ...

Devoto, Florencia

2011-04-01

154

Happiness on Tap: Piped Water Adoption in Urban Morocco  

E-print Network

Connecting private dwellings to the water main is expensive and typically cannot be publicly financed. We show that households' willingness to pay for a private connection is high when it can be purchased on credit, not ...

Devoto, Florencia

155

Acoustic attenuation, phase and group velocities in liquid-filled pipes: Theory, experiment, and examples of water and  

E-print Network

radiation damping resulting from sound leakage into the surroundings e.g., from water pipes into soil ;4 with the simulated output from a commercial software package. Given the peculiarities of mercury-filled steel pipes of their studies . Safety considerations preclude validating such a theory with mercury, and so validation

Sóbester, András

156

Turbulent heat transfer to near-critical water in a heated curved pipe under the conditions of mixed convection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical modeling was performed to investigate the developing turbulent flow and heat transfer characteristics of water near the critical point in a curved pipe. The renormalization group (RNG) ?–? model was used to account for the turbulent flow and heat transfer in the curved pipe at a constant wall temperature with or without buoyancy force effect. A control volume finite

L. J. Li; C. X. Lin; M. A. Ebadian

1999-01-01

157

Experimental Study for Heat Transfer Characteristics of High Water-cooled Temperature Gas Pipe in Lignite Boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there are some problems like complex system, large weight of pumping high-temperature pipe and easily damaged heat preservation on three media desiccation of large scale fan mill direct firing pulverizing system. Directed towards these problems, adopting water-cooled high temperature furnace gas pipe to adjustment high gas temperature is proposed, to change three media desiccation into two media desiccation. Heat

Tai Lv; Yang Guo; Kun Lu

2010-01-01

158

Water hammer in piping. January 1970-April 1989 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for January 1970-April 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning explanations for the occurrence of water-hammer, analytical methods to predict the pressure surge rise, and prevention methods. Discussions center on specific piping components such as valves, pipes, tubes, pumps, elbows, fittings, surge tanks, and accumulators. Non-viscous, viscous, two-phase, and two-component fluids are examined. Applications include thermal, nuclear, and hydroelectric power plants, building service water systems, district-heating systems, municipal water mains, and general industrial piping systems. (Contains 264 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1989-04-01

159

OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) Cold Water Pipe At-Sea Test Program Data Analysis Project: Pipe, platform and environmental parameters data reduction and analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An assessment of computer models developed to analyze the structural response of cold water pipes (CWPs) is discussed. The principal aim of the data interpretation phase of the study was to determine the causal relationship between the environment and the barge/CWP response to provide the information required to assess the CWP computer models.

Vega, L. A.; Nilhous, G. C.

1985-08-01

160

Construction and testing of ceramic fabric heat pipe with water working fluid  

SciTech Connect

A prototype ceramic fabric/titanium water heat pipe has been constructed and tested; it transported 25 to 80 W of power at 423 K. Component development and testing is continuing with the aim of providing an improved prototype, with a 38-{mu}m stainless steel linear covered by a biaxially-braided Nextel (trademark of the 3M Co., St. Paul Minnesota) sleeve that is approximately 300-{mu}m thick. This fabric has been tested to 800 K, and its emittance is about 0.5 at that temperature. Advanced versions of the water heat pipe will probably require a coating over the ceramic fabric in order to increase this emittance to the 0.8 to 0.9 range. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Antoniak, Z.I.; Webb, B.J.; Bates, J.M.; Cooper, M.F.

1991-01-01

161

OTEC cold water pipe design for problems caused by vortex-excited oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is to survey recent results pertaining to the vortex-excited oscillations of structures in general and to consider the application of these findings to the design of the OTEC Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion cold water pipe. Practical design calculations are given as examples throughout the various sections of the report. This paper is limited in scope to the problems of vortex shedding from bluff, flexible structures in steady currents and the resulting vortex-excited oscillations. The effects of flow non-uniformities, surface roughness of the cylinder, and inclination to the incident flow are considered in addition to the case of a smooth cylinder in a uniform stream. Emphasis is placed upon design procedures, hydrodynamic coefficients applicable in practice, and the specification of structural response parameters relevant to the OTEC cold water pipe.

Griffin, O. M.

162

Corrosion in drinking water pipes: the importance of green rusts.  

PubMed

Complex crystallographic composition of the corrosion products is studied by diffraction methods and results obtained after different pre-treatment of samples are compared. The green rusts are found to be much more abundant in corrosion scales than it has been assumed so far. The characteristic and crystallographic composition of corrosion scales and deposits suspended in steady waters were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The necessity of the examination of corrosion products in the wet conditions is indicated. The drying of the samples before analysis is shown to substantially change the crystallographic phases originally present in corrosion products. On sample drying the unstable green rusts is converted into more stable phases such as goethite and lepidocrocite, while the content of magnetite and siderite decreases. Three types of green rusts in wet materials sampled from tubercles are identified. Unexpectedly, in almost all corrosion scale samples significant amounts of the least stable green rust in chloride form was detected. Analysis of corrosion products suspended in steady water, which remained between tubercles and possibly in their interiors, revealed complex crystallographic composition of the sampled material. Goethite, lepidocrocite and magnetite as well as low amounts of siderite and quartz were present in all samples. Six different forms of green rusts were identified in the deposits separated from steady waters and the most abundant was carbonate green rust GR(CO(3)(2-))(I). PMID:22082525

Swietlik, Joanna; Raczyk-Stanis?awiak, Urszula; Piszora, Pawe?; Nawrocki, Jacek

2012-01-01

163

Development of co-current air–water flow in a vertical pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the cross-sectional distribution of the gas fraction and bubble size distributions were conducted in a vertical pipe with an inner diameter of 51.2mm and a length of about 3m for air\\/water bubbly and slug flow regimes. The use of a wire-mesh sensor obtained a high resolution of the gas fraction data in space as well as in time.

D. Lucas; E. Krepper; H.-M. Prasser

2005-01-01

164

A new database on the evolution of air–water flows along a large vertical pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive database was obtained for stationary upward air–water flows in a vertical pipe with an inner diameter of 195.3 mm using the wire-mesh sensor technology. During the experiments the sensor was always mounted on the top of the test section while the distance between gas injection and measuring plane was varied to up to 18 different L\\/D by using gas

D. Lucas; M. Beyer; L. Szalinski; P. Schütz

2010-01-01

165

Lightweight concrete OTEC cold water pipe tests, Phase II. Special reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1\\/3-scale model of a cold water pipe (CWP) for a 40 MW\\/sub e\\/ (nominal) OTEC plantship was constructed of reinforced lightweight concrete and tested to destruction. Failure occurred at approximately 138% of the design load for the once-in 100-year-storm condition in the Atlantic-1 siting area (5 to 15°S, 20 to 30°W). The concept of using Neoprene bearing pads to

OConnor

1981-01-01

166

Developmental testing of a concrete Cold Water Pipe for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1\\/3 linear scale model of the lightweight concrete Cold Water Pipe (CWP) for a 40 MW \\/SUB e\\/ (nominal) pilot plantship was fabricated and tested to destruction. The model was 10 ft. in diameter, with 2-inch thick reinforced concrete walls and 3 inch thick post-tensioning channels. It had an overall height of 17 ft. including the scaled hinge region

W. J. Cichanski; J. S. OConnor

1980-01-01

167

Detection, integration and persistence of aeromonads in water distribution pipe biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. within biofilms formed on stainless steel (SS), unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) and glass (GL) substrata was investigated in modified Robbins Devices (MRD) in potable (MRD-p) and recycled (MRD-r) water systems, a Biofilm ReactorY (BR) and a laboratory-scale pipe loop (PL) receiving simulated recycled wastewater. No aeromonads were isolated from the MRD-p whereas 3-10% of SS

A.-M. Bomo; M. V. Storey; N. J. Ashbolt

2004-01-01

168

OTEC cold water pipe design for problems caused by vortex-excited oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problems of vortex shedding from bluff, flexible structures in steady currents and the resulting vortex excited oscillations are investigated. The effects of flow nonuniformities, surface roughness of the cylinder, and inclination to the incident flow are considered in addition to the case of a smooth cylinder in a uniform stream. Emphasis is placed upon design procedures, hydrodynamic coefficients applicable in practice, and the specification of structural response parameters relevant to the OTEC cold water pipe.

Griffin, O. M.

1980-03-01

169

OTEC cold water pipe design for problems caused by vortex-excited oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vortex-excited oscillations of marine structures result in reduced fatigue life, large hydrodynamic forces and induced stresses, and sometimes lead to structural damage and to destructive failures. The cold water pipe of an OTEC plant is nominally a bluff, flexible cylinder with a large aspect ratio (L/D length/diameter), and is likely to be susceptible to resonant vortex-excited oscillations. The objective of this report is to survey recent results pertaining to the vortex-excited oscillations of structures in general and to consider the application of these findings to the design of the OTEC cold water pipe. Practical design calculations are given as examples throughout the various sections of the report. This report is limited in scope to the problems of vortex shedding from bluff, flexible structures in steady currents and the resulting vortex-excited oscillations. The effects of flow non-uniformities, surface roughness of the cylinder, and inclination to the incident flow are considered in addition to the case of a smooth cylinder in a uniform stream. Emphasis is placed upon design procedures, hydrodynamic coefficients applicable in practice, and the specification of structural response parameters relevant to the OTEC cold water pipe. There are important problems associated with the shedding of vortices from cylinders in waves and from the combined action of waves and currents, but these complex fluid/structure interactions are not considered in this report.

Griffin, O. M.

1980-03-01

170

31 CFR 700.14 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Smoking. 700.14 Section 700.14 Money and Finance...CENTER (FLETC) BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 700.14 Smoking. Smoking of cigarettes, cigars and pipes is prohibited...

2011-07-01

171

31 CFR 700.14 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking. 700.14 Section 700.14 Money and Finance...CENTER (FLETC) BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 700.14 Smoking. Smoking of cigarettes, cigars and pipes is prohibited...

2010-07-01

172

31 CFR 700.14 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Smoking. 700.14 Section 700.14 Money and Finance...CENTER (FLETC) BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 700.14 Smoking. Smoking of cigarettes, cigars and pipes is prohibited...

2012-07-01

173

31 CFR 700.14 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Smoking. 700.14 Section 700.14 Money and Finance...CENTER (FLETC) BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 700.14 Smoking. Smoking of cigarettes, cigars and pipes is prohibited...

2013-07-01

174

Detection of Escherichia coli in Biofilms from Pipe Samples and Coupons in Drinking Water Distribution Networks?  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for direct detection of Escherichia coli on pipe surfaces and coupons in drinking water distribution networks. Old cast iron main pipes were removed from water distribution networks in France, England, Portugal, and Latvia, and E. coli was analyzed in the biofilm. In addition, 44 flat coupons made of cast iron, polyvinyl chloride, or stainless steel were placed into and continuously exposed to water on 15 locations of 6 distribution networks in France and Latvia and examined after 1 to 6 months exposure to the drinking water. In order to increase the signal intensity, a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) 15-mer probe was used in the FISH screening for the presence or absence of E. coli on the surface of pipes and coupons, thus reducing occasional problems of autofluorescence and low fluorescence of the labeled bacteria. For comparison, cells were removed from the surfaces and examined with culture-based or enzymatic (detection of ?-d-glucuronidase) methods. An additional verification was made by using PCR. Culture method indicated presence of E. coli in one of five pipes, whereas all pipes were positive with the FISH methods. E. coli was detected in 56% of the coupons using PNA FISH, but no E. coli was detected using culture or enzymatic methods. PCR analyses confirmed the presence of E. coli in samples that were negative according to culture-based and enzymatic methods. The viability of E. coli cells in the samples was demonstrated by the cell elongation after resuscitation in low-nutrient medium supplemented with pipemidic acid, suggesting that the cells were present in an active but nonculturable state, unable to grow on agar media. E. coli contributed to ca. 0.001 to 0.1% of the total bacterial number in the samples. The presence and number of E. coli did not correlate with any of physical and/or chemical characteristic of the drinking water (e.g., temperature, chlorine, or biodegradable organic matter concentration). We show here that E. coli is present in the biofilms of drinking water networks in Europe. Some of the cells are metabolically active but are often not detected due to limitations of traditionally used culture-based methods, indicating that biofilm should be considered as a reservoir that must be investigated further in order to evaluate the risk for human health. PMID:17720845

Juhna, T.; Birzniece, D.; Larsson, S.; Zulenkovs, D.; Sharipo, A.; Azevedo, N. F.; Menard-Szczebara, F.; Castagnet, S.; Feliers, C.; Keevil, C. W.

2007-01-01

175

Construction and early test results of waste transport in piping systems served by ULF water closets  

E-print Network

with Cut Off Saw. . . . . 12 14 14 15 16 14 Jet Pump and Flow Loop Setup. 15 Test Media provided by ASPE. 16 17 16 High Density Foamed Latex Test Media Provided by Monster Makers Inc 18 17 "Water Wigglers" Test Media. 19 18 Discharge Piping... in Long Drains. Kannan's objective was to explore the outcome of ULF effect on transport performance using mixed media. Kannan compared four water closets using test media consisting of "3 artificial sponges (3/4" X 3/4" X 2"), 3 natural sponges (2...

Carrier, Jonathan Gerald

2012-06-07

176

Thermal hydraulics of a feed-water pipe breakage with a back-pressure check valve  

SciTech Connect

The SOLA-LOOP computer code for transient, nonequilibrium, two-phase flows in networks has been coupled with a dynamic check valve model. Transient back-pressure check valve behavior and fluid dynamic effects in the form of the so called water-hammer are numerically simulated for a feed-water pipe breakage accident. Three tests from the Superheated Steam Reactor Safety Program Project (PHDR) carried out near Frankfurt, West Germany are analyzed, and the calculated transient back-pressure check valve behavior and fluid dynamics effects are found to be in excellent agreement with the experimentally measured data. 5 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

Travis, J.R.; Torrey, M.D.

1985-01-01

177

Conceptual design study: Cold water pipe systems for self-mounted OTEC powerplants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conceptual design and installation aspects of cold water pipes (CWP) systems for shelf mounted OTEC power plants in Puerto Rico and Hawaii are considered. The CWP systems using Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) and steel were designed; the FRP, can be controlled by varying the core thickness; and steel is used as a structural material in offshore applications. A marine railway approach was chosen for installation of the CWP. Two methods for pulling the track for the railway down the pipe fairway to its final location are presented. The track is permanently fastened to the sloping seabed with piles installed by a remotely controlled cart that rides on the track itself. Both the marine railway and the shelf mounted platform that houses the OTEC power plant require an anodic or equivalent corrosion protection system.

1981-02-01

178

Experimental Testing and Modeling Analysis of Solute Mixing at Water Distribution Pipe Junctions  

EPA Science Inventory

Flow dynamics at a pipe junction controls particle trajectories, solute mixing and concentrations in downstream pipes. Here we have categorized pipe junctions into five hydraulic types, for which flow distribution factors and analytical equations for describing the solute mixing ...

179

The association between distance to water pipes and water bodies positive for anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the urban community of Malindi, Kenya  

PubMed Central

The increasing risk of mosquito-borne diseases in African urban environments has been partly attributed to failed planning and resource underdevelopment. Though engineered systems may reduce mosquito proliferation, there are few studies describing this relationship. This study investigates how engineered systems such as roads and piped water systems affect the odds of anopheline immatures (i.e., larvae and pupae) occurring in water bodies located in Malindi, Kenya. Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Giles), An. arabiensis (Patton), and An. merus (Dointz) were identified in urban Malindi, with Anopheles gambiae s.s. being the predominant species identified. The Breslow-Day test was used to explore interactions among independent variables. Logistic regression was used to test whether water bodies positive for anopheline immatures are associated with engineered systems, while controlling for potential confounding and interaction effects associated with urban water body characteristics. Water bodies more than 100 m from water pipes were 13 times more likely to have anopheline immatures present, compared to water bodies that were less than 100 m from water pipes (OR = 13.54, 95% CI: 3.15 – 58.23). Roads were not significantly associated with water bodies positive for anopheline immatures. Statistical interaction was detected between water body substrate type and distance to water pipes. This study provides insight into how water pipes influence the distribution of water bodies positive with immature anophelines in urban environments. PMID:18260524

Impoinvil, Daniel E.; Keating, Joseph; Chowdhury, Rinku Roy; Duncan, Robert; Cardenas, Gabriel; Ahmad, Sajjad; Mbogo, Charles M.; Githure, John I.; Beier, John C.

2009-01-01

180

A parametric study and a guide chart to avoid condensation-induced water hammer in a horizontal pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental and analytical studies on the condensation-induced water hammer (CIWH) for steam-water countercurrent flow in a nearly horizontal circular pipe have been performed. A total of 17 experimental data for the onset of slugging, which is assumed to be the precursor of the CIWH, have been obtained for various flow rates of water. Incorporating the most recent correlations of

Moon-Hyun Chun; Seon-Oh Yu

2000-01-01

181

Performance of fibrous glass pipe insulation subjected to underground water attack  

SciTech Connect

The performance of fibrous glass pipe insulation used in district heating and cooling subjected to underground water attack has been investigated. The insulation was tested at pipe fluid temperatures from 35 F (1.6 C) to 450 F (232.2 C). The surrounding water was maintained at temperatures from 46 F (7.7 C) to 100 F (37.7 C) to simulate the possible conduit water temperatures when the system fails. The results presented include the effective thermal conductivity, the time required for moisture absorption, the drying rate, and the extent which the insulation can be dried out once the source of moisture is removed. It was found that the effective thermal conductivity of the wet fiberglass insulation can be from 52 to 185 times higher than that of dry insulation, depending on the insulation and the surrounding water temperatures. Both dimensional and dimensionless correlations were developed for the heat transfer data of wet insulation. After drying, the thermal conductivity of the fiberglass insulation reverted to the value before submersion.

Chyu, M.C. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Zeng, X.; Ye, L. [Nartron Corp., Reed City, MI (United States)

1997-12-31

182

Epidemiology study of the use of asbestos-cement pipe for the distribution of drinking water in Escambia County, Florida.  

PubMed Central

Cancer mortality for the population census tracts of Escambia County, FL, which use asbestos-cement (AC) pipe for public potable water distribution, was compared with cancer mortality data collected from census tracts in the same county where other types of piping materials are used. An analysis of covariance was run to test for differences in standard mortality ratios for seven cancer sites among three potential asbestos exposure groups based on AC pipe usage. Twelve variables representing nonexposure-related influences on disease rates were combined in four independent factors and used as covariates in these analyses. No evidence for an association between the use of AC pipe for carrying drinking water and deaths due to gastrointestinal and related cancers was found. The limitations on the sensitivity of the analysis are discussed. PMID:6559131

Millette, J R; Craun, G F; Stober, J A; Kraemer, D F; Tousignant, H G; Hildago, E; Duboise, R L; Benedict, J

1983-01-01

183

Applicability of Related Data, Algorithms, and Models to the Simulation of Ground-Coupled Residential Hot Water Piping in California  

SciTech Connect

Residential water heating is an important consideration in California?s building energy efficiency standard. Explicit treatment of ground-coupled hot water piping is one of several planned improvements to the standard. The properties of water, piping, insulation, backfill materials, concrete slabs, and soil, their interactions, and their variations with temperature and over time are important considerations in the required supporting analysis. Heat transfer algorithms and models devised for generalized, hot water distribution system, ground-source heat pump and ground heat exchanger, nuclear waste repository, buried oil pipeline, and underground electricity transmission cable applications can be adapted to the simulation of under-slab water piping. A numerical model that permits detailed examination of and broad variations in many inputs while employing a technique to conserve computer run time is recommended.

Warner, J.L.; Lutz, J.D.

2006-01-01

184

Water quality criteria for colored smokes: Solvent Yellow 33, Final report. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

The available data on the environmental fate, aquatic toxicity, and mammalian toxicity of Solvent Yellow 33, a quinoline dye used in colored smoke grenades, were reviewed. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidelines were used in an attempt to generate water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and its use and of human health. 87 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

Davidson, K.A.; Hovatter, P.S.

1987-11-01

185

Investigation of Temperature Fluctuations Caused by Steam-Water Two-Phase Flow in Pressurizer Spray Piping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a PWR plant, a steam-water two-phase flow may possibly exist in the pressurizer spray pipe under a normal operating condition since the flow rate of the spray water is not sufficient to fill the horizontal section of the pipe completely. Initiation of high cycle fatigue cracks is suspected to occur under such thermally stratified two phase flow conditions due to cyclic thermal stress fluctuations caused by oscillations of the water surface. Such oscillations cannot be detected by the measurement of temperature on outer surface of the pipe. In order to clarify the flow and thermal conditions in the pressurizer spray pipe and assess their impact on the pipe structure, an experiment was conducted for a steam-water flow at a low flow rate using a mock-up pressurizer spray pipe. The maximum temperature fluctuation of about 0.2 times of the steam-water temperature difference was observed at the inner wall around water surface in the test section. Visualization tests were conducted to investigate the temperature fluctuation phenomena. It was shown that the fluid temperature fluctuations were not caused by the waves on the water surface, but were caused by liquid temperature fluctuations in water layer below the interface. The influence of small amount of non-condensable gas dissolved in the reactor coolant on the liquid temperature fluctuation phenomena was investigated by injecting air into the experimental loop. The air injection attenuated the liquid temperature fluctuations in the water layer since the condensation was suppressed by the non- condensable gas. It is not expected that wall temperature fluctuation in the actual PWR plant may exceed the temperature equivalent to the fatigue limit stress amplitude when it is assumed to be proportional to the steam-water temperature difference.

Miyoshi, Koji; Nakamura, Akira; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Oumaya, Toru

186

Velocity and stage data collected in a laboratory flume for water-surface slope determination using a pipe manometer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) hydrologists and ecologist are conducting studies to quantify vegetative flow resistance in order to improve numerical models of surface-water flow in the Florida Everglades. Water-surface slope is perhaps the most difficult of the flow resistance parameters to measure in the Everglades due to the very low gradients of the topography and flow. In an effort to measure these very small slopes, a unique pipe manometer was developed for the local measurement of water-surface slopes on the order of 1 centimeter per kilometer (cm/km). According to theory, a very precise measurement of centerline velocity obtained inside the pipe manometer should serve as a unique proxy for water-surface slope in the direction of the pipe axis. In order to confirm this theoretical relationship and calibrate the pipe manometer, water-surface elevation and pipe centerline velocity data were simultaneously measured in a set of experiments carried out in the tilting flume at the USGS Hydraulic Laboratory Facility at Stennis Space Center, Mississippi. A description of the instrumentation and methods used to evaluate this technique for measuring water-surface slope as well as a summary of the entire data set is presented.

Lee, Jonathan K.; Visser, H. M.; Jenter, H. L.; Duff, M. P.

2000-01-01

187

Indicators for microbiologically induced corrosion of copper pipes in a cold-water plumbing system.  

PubMed

Corrosion damage in the copper cold-water plumbing system of a large building was investigated. An unusual combination of corrosion patterns was found on the inner copper pipe surfaces that were in contact with water. Damage was in the form of shallow cavities, a surface cover or pinprick-like pits. The corrosion system was influenced by thermal treatment and also by cefoxitin dosing. The latter fact in particular is a clear indication of microbiological involvement in this corrosive action. Different parameters, to be measured in standing water (24-h stagnation), are considered typical for this type of corrosion: the detection of Sphingomonas spec. and other species in whose cell wall regions copper can accumulate, a copper content of more than 2 mg/l, oxygen consumption of more than 4 mg/l and an increase in pH. With the help of these indicators, it is possible to recognize microbiologically induced corrosion in copper plumbing systems before pipe perforation occur. PMID:7727024

Arens, P; Tuschewitzki, G J; Wollmann, M; Follner, H; Jacobi, H

1995-01-01

188

65. FIRE SUPPRESSION PIPES BEHIND FLAME BUCKET. PIPES TO UMBILICAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

65. FIRE SUPPRESSION PIPES BEHIND FLAME BUCKET. PIPES TO UMBILICAL MAST IN LOWER LEFT CORNER; PIPES TO LAUNCHER IN UPPER LEFT CORNER; PIPES TO FLAME BUCKET IN LOWER RIGHT CORNER OF PHOTOGRAPH. POTABLE WATER PIPING IN UPPER RIGHT CORNER OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

189

Effect of sulfate on the transformation of corrosion scale composition and bacterial community in cast iron water distribution pipes  

EPA Science Inventory

The stability of iron corrosion products and the bacterial composition of biofilm in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) could have great impact on the water safety at the consumer ends. In this work, pipe loops were setup to investigate the transformation characteristics ...

190

On the Acoustic Filtering of the Pipe and Sensor in a Buried Plastic Water Pipe and its Effect on Leak Detection: An Experimental Investigation  

PubMed Central

Acoustic techniques have been used for many years to find and locate leaks in buried water distribution systems. Hydrophones and accelerometers are typically used as sensors. Although geophones could be used as well, they are not generally used for leak detection. A simple acoustic model of the pipe and the sensors has been proposed previously by some of the authors of this paper, and their model was used to explain some of the features observed in measurements. However, simultaneous measurements of a leak using all three sensor-types in controlled conditions for plastic pipes has not been reported to-date and hence they have not yet been compared directly. This paper fills that gap in knowledge. A set of measurements was made on a bespoke buried plastic water distribution pipe test rig to validate the previously reported analytical model. There is qualitative agreement between the experimental results and the model predictions in terms of the differing filtering properties of the pipe-sensor systems. A quality measure for the data is also presented, which is the ratio of the bandwidth over which the analysis is carried out divided by the centre frequency of this bandwidth. Based on this metric, the accelerometer was found to be the best sensor to use for the test rig described in this paper. However, for a system in which the distance between the sensors is large or the attenuation factor of the system is high, then it would be advantageous to use hydrophones, even though they are invasive sensors. PMID:24658622

Almeida, Fabricio; Brennan, Michael; Joseph, Phillip; Whitfield, Stuart; Dray, Simon; Paschoalini, Amarildo

2014-01-01

191

Water pipes and E-cigarettes: new faces of an ancient enemy.  

PubMed

In a world grappling with tobacco addiction, the hookah (water-pipe) and the electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) are creating new problems. Apart from posing the inherent danger of nicotine addiction, they both seem to be wolves cloaked in the sheep-skin of consumer-perceived safety, at least in comparison to the cigarette. However it seems that the e-cigarette may have a role in a nicotine-replacement therapy. There has been a wave of interest around the world in analysing these phenomena. The following review discusses the current data regarding the hookah and the e-cigarette. A PubMed, Medline and Google search using the keywords'sheesha', 'hookah', water-pipe', 'electronic cigarette', 'e-cigarette', 'vapers' was carried out.The studies carried out between 2007-2013 were included in this review. Information available in the public domain on internet websites was included to study the perception of the lay consumer regarding the hookah and the e-cigarette. PMID:25327035

Dagaonkar, Rucha S; Udwadi, Zarir F

2014-04-01

192

Analysis on shock wave speed of water hammer of lifting pipes for deep-sea mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water hammer occurs whenever the fluid velocity in vertical lifting pipe systems for deep-sea mining suddenly changes. In this work, the shock wave was proven to play an important role in changing pressures and periods, and mathematical and numerical modeling technology was presented for simulated transient pressure in the abnormal pump operation. As volume concentrations were taken into account of shock wave speed, the experiment results about the pressure-time history, discharge-time history and period for the lifting pipe system showed that: as its concentrations rose up, the maximum transient pressure went down, so did its discharges; when its volume concentrations increased gradually, the period numbers of pressure decay were getting less and less, and the corresponding shock wave speed decreased. These results have highly coincided with simulation results. The conclusions are important to design lifting transporting system to prevent water hammer in order to avoid potentially devastating consequences, such as damage to components and equipment and risks to personnel.

Zhou, Zhi-jin; Yang, Ning; Wang, Zhao

2013-04-01

193

Narghile (water pipe) smoking among university students in Jordan: prevalence, pattern and beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Narghile is becoming the favorite form of tobacco use by youth globally. This problem has received more attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of narghile use among students in three public Jordanian universities; to assess their beliefs about narghile's adverse health consequences; and to evaluate their awareness

Najla S Dar-Odeh; Faris G Bakri; Mahmoud K Al-Omiri; Hamzeh M Al-Mashni; Hazem A Eimar; Ameen S Khraisat; Shatha MK Abu-Hammad; Abdul-Aziz F Dudeen; Mohamed Nur Abdallah; Samer M Zied Alkilani; Louai Al-Shami; Osama A Abu-Hammad

2010-01-01

194

Using Flexible Pipe (poly-pipe) with Surface Irrigation  

E-print Network

out (Fig. 2). roll of poly-pipe is needed, connect the rolls with a corrugated pipe (Figs. 5a, 5b and 5c). Be sure to roll each end back on itself (as previously described) be- fore strapping it to the supply pipe (Fig. 4a). Figure 2. Poly-pipe set... rubber straps to connect the poly-pipe to the supplying pipe. Figure 5a. Connecting two rolls of poly-pipe. Figure 5b. Using a corrugated PVC pipe to connect two rolls of poly-pipe. Figure 5c. Making a tight con- nection to avoid water leaks. Figure 3...

Peries, Xavier; Enciso, Juan

2005-10-05

195

Installation Of Service Connections For Sensors Or Transmitters In Buried Water Pipes  

DOEpatents

A system for installing warning units in a buried pipeline. A small hole is drilled in the ground to the pipeline. A collar is affixed to one of the pipes of the pipeline. A valve with an internal passage is connected to the collar. A hole is drilled in the pipe. A warning unit is installed in the pipe by moving the warning unit through the internal passage, the collar, and the hole in the pipe.

Burnham, Alan K. (Livermore, CA); Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

2006-02-21

196

Reactor Materials Program -- weldment component toughness of SRS PWS piping materials. [Process Water System  

SciTech Connect

The mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel materials from the reactor systems in the unirradiated (baseline) and the irradiated conditions have been developed previously for structural and fracture analyses of the pressure boundary of the SRS reactor Process Water System (PWS) components. Individual mechanical specimen test results were compiled into three separate weldment components or regions, namely, the base, weld, and weld heat-affected-zone (HAZ), for two orientations (L-C and C-L) with respect to the pipe axis of the source materials and for two test temperatures of 25 and 125[degrees]C. Twelve separate categories were thus defined to assess the effect of test conditions on the mechanical properties and to facilitate selection of properties for structural and fracture analyses. The testing results show high fracture toughness of the materials and support the demonstration of PWS pressure boundary structural integrity under all conditions of reactor operation. The fracture toughness of a fourth weldment component, namely, the weld fusion line region, has been measured to evaluate the potential for a region of low toughness in the interface between the Type 308 stainless steel weld metal and the Type 304 stainless steel pipe. The testing details and results of the weld fusion line toughness are contained in this report.

Sindelar, R.L.

1993-02-01

197

Resistance properties of coal-water slurry flowing through local piping fittings  

SciTech Connect

Local resistance characteristics of coal-water slurry (CWS) flowing through three types of piping components, namely gradual contractions, sudden contractions and 90 horizontal bends, were investigated at a transportation test facility. The results show that CWS exhibits different rheological behaviors, i.e., the shear-thinning, Newtonian, and shear-thicken, at different shear rates. When CWS flows through the gradual contractions, the local pressure loss firstly decreases to a minimum, and then increases as the gradual contraction angle ({theta}) increases. When the CWS flow through the sudden contractions, with the increase of pipe diameter ratio ({beta}), the local pressure loss increases for the two kinds of CWS, SHEN-HUA (S-H) CWS and YAN-ZHOU (Y-Z) CWS whose mass concentration range from 57% to 59% and 59% to 62%, respectively. For 90 horizontal bends, there is an optimal value of the bend diameter ratio (Rc/D) at which the local pressure loss is the least. Furthermore, the local resistance coefficient (K) in the empirical correlations is determined from the experimental data. The correlations show that as Re increases, K of the three fittings declines quickly at first. However, with further increase in Re, K shows different behaviors for the three fittings due to the special rheological property of CWS at higher shear rates. The factors of {theta}, {beta} and Rc/D have minor effects on K. (author)

Liu, Meng; Duan, Yu Feng [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Sipailou, Nanjing 210096 (China)

2009-07-15

198

Resistance properties of coal-water slurry flowing through local piping fittings  

SciTech Connect

Local resistance characteristics of coal-water slurry (CWS) flowing through three types of piping components, namely gradual contractions, sudden contractions and 90 horizontal bends, were investigated at a transportation test facility. The results show that CWS exhibits different rheological behaviors, i.e., the shear-thinning, Newtonian, and shear-thicken, at different shear rates. When CWS flows through the gradual contractions, the local pressure loss firstly decreases to a minimum, and then increases as the gradual contraction angle {theta} increases. When the CWS flow through the sudden contractions, with the increase of pipe diameter ratio {beta}, the local pressure loss increases for the two kinds of CWS, SHEN-HUA (S-H) CWS and YAN-ZHOU (Y-Z) CWS whose mass concentration range from 57% to 59% and 59% to 62%, respectively. For 90 horizontal bends, there is an optimal value of the bend diameter ratio (Rc/D) at which the local pressure loss is the least. Furthermore, the local resistance coefficient (K) in the empirical correlations is determined from the experimental data. The correlations show that as Re increases, K of the three fittings declines quickly at first. However, with further increase in Re, K shows different behaviors for the three fittings due to the special rheological property of CWS at higher shear rates. The factors of theta, beta and Rc/D have minor effects on K.

Meng, L.; Duan, Y.F. [South East University, Nanjing (China). School of Energy & Environment

2009-07-15

199

Identification of significant problems related to light water reactor piping systems  

SciTech Connect

Work on the project was divided into three tasks. In Task 1, past surveys of LWR piping system problems and recent Licensee Event Report summaries are studied to identify the significant problems of LWR piping systems and the primary causes of these problems. Pipe cracking is identified as the most recurring problem and is mainly due to the vibration of pipes due to operating pump-pipe resonance, fluid-flow fluctuations, and vibration of pipe supports. Research relevant to the identified piping system problems is evaluated. Task 2 studies identify typical LWR piping systems and the current loads and load combinations used in the design of these systems. Definitions of loads are reviewed. In Task 3, a comparative study is carried out on the use of nonlinear analysis methods in the design of LWR piping systems. The study concludes that the current linear-elastic methods of analysis may not predict accurately the behavior of piping systems under seismic loads and may, under certain circumstances, result in nonconservative designs. Gaps at piping supports are found to have a significant effect on the response of the piping systems.

None

1980-07-01

200

Speciation and distribution of vanadium in drinking water iron pipe corrosion by-products  

SciTech Connect

Vanadium (V) when ingested from drinking water in high concentrations (> 15 {micro}g L{sup -1}) is a potential health risk and is on track to becoming a regulated contaminant. High concentrations of V have been documented in lead corrosion by-products as Pb{sub 5}(V{sup 5+}O{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl (vanadinite) which, in natural deposits is associated with iron oxides/oxyhydroxides, phases common in iron pipe corrosion by-products. The extent of potential reservoirs of V in iron corrosion by-products, its speciation, and mechanism of inclusion however are unknown. The aim of this study is to assess these parameters in iron corrosion by-products, implementing synchrotron-based {mu}-XRF mapping and {mu}-XANES along with traditional physiochemical characterization. The morphologies, mineralogies, and chemistry of the samples studied are superficially similar to typical iron corrosion by-products. However, we found V present as discrete grains of Pb{sub 5}(V{sup 5+}O{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl likely embedded in the surface regions of the iron corrosion by-products. Concentrations of V observed in bulk XRF analysis ranged from 35 to 899 mg kg{sup -1}. We calculate that even in pipes with iron corrosion by-products with low V concentration, 100 mg kg{sup -1}, as little as 0.0027% of a 0.1-cm thick X 100-cm long section of that corrosion by-product needs to be disturbed to increase V concentrations in the drinking water at the tap to levels well above the 15 {micro}g L{sup -1} notification level set by the State of California and could adversely impact human health. In addition, it is likely that large reservoirs of V are associated with iron corrosion by-products in unlined cast iron mains and service branches in numerous drinking water distribution systems.

Gerke, Tammie L.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Maynard, J. Barry (EPA); (UCIN)

2010-11-12

201

Steam bubble condensation in sub-cooled water in case of co-current vertical pipe flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of a steam-water flow in a vertical pipe of 195.3mm inner diameter was studied using novel wire-mesh sensors for high-pressure\\/high-temperature operation (max 7MPa\\/286°C). Tests were carried out at pressures of 1 and 2MPa under nearly adiabatic conditions as well as with slightly sub-cooled water (6K at max). Steam was injected into sub-cooled water and condensed during the upwards

Dirk Lucas; Horst-Michael Prasser

2007-01-01

202

Volatile organic compounds in natural biofilm in polyethylene pipes supplied with lake water and treated water from the distribution network.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was investigation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in natural biofilm inside polyethylene (HDPE) pipelines at continuously flowing water. VOC in biofilm may contribute to off-flavour episodes in drinking water. The pipelines were supplied with raw lake water and treated water from the distribution network. Biofilm was established at test sites located at two different drinking water distribution networks and their raw water sources. A whole range of volatile compounds were identified in the biofilm, including compounds frequently associated with cyanobacteria and algae, such as ectocarpene, dictyopterene A and C', geosmin, beta-ionone and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. In addition, volatile amines, dimethyldisulphide and 2-nonanone, presumably originating from microorganisms growing in the biofilm, were identified. C8-compounds such as 1-octen-3-one and 3-octanone were believed to be products from microfungi in the biofilm. Degradation products from antioxidants such as Irgafos 168, Irganox 1010 and Irganox 1076 used in HDPE pipes, corresponding to 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol and 2,6-di-tert-butylbenzoquinone, were present in the biofilm. PMID:16139326

Skjevrak, Ingun; Lund, Vidar; Ormerod, Kari; Herikstad, Hallgeir

2005-10-01

203

An investigation of the use of asbestos cement pipe for public water supply and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer in Connecticut, 1935-1973.  

PubMed

The age adjusted sex specific incidence data for stomach, colon, and rectal cancer for Connecticut townships for the period 1935 to 1973 were used to investigate whether asbestos cement pipe usage for domestic drinking water is associated with gastrointestinal cancer. The townships were grouped according to the Assessment of Exposure (AOE) and Risk Factor (RF) for asbestos. These are composite indices of asbestos exposure including factors relating to the age of the pipe, the ability of water to leach asbestos from the pipe, and the length of pipes used by the population. No association was noted between these asbestos risk scores and gastrointestinal tumor incidence. PMID:623099

Harrington, J M; Craun, G F; Meigs, J W; Landrigan, P J; Flannery, J T; Woodhull, R S

1978-02-01

204

Numerical simulation of radiant floor cooling system: The effects of thermal resistance of pipe and water velocity on the performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the existing floor heating system, the radiant floor cooling system can be used as an alternative to the conventional all-air cooling systems. In this paper, a numerical model for the radiant floor cooling system is built using finite volume method. The objective of this study is to research the effects of the thermal resistance of pipe and water velocity

Xing Jin; Xiaosong Zhang; Yajun Luo; Rongquan Cao

2010-01-01

205

THE PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE OF BIOFILM SLIME IN DRINKING WATER PIPES: CREATING HIDEOUTS FOR THE PATHOGENIC UNDERWORLD OF MICROBIOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Biofilms consist of many species of bacteria, protozoa, and other microbes living together on almost any type of moist surface. Within drinking water distribution systems, biofilms grow readily on the inner walls of pipes, even in the presence of chlorine disinfectants. Some mi...

206

Infrared Thermography applied to measurement of Heat transfer coefficient of water in a pipe heated by Joule effect  

E-print Network

Infrared Thermography applied to measurement of Heat transfer coefficient of water in a pipe heated by Joule effect by P. Leblay*, J.-F. Henry**, D. Caron**, D. Leducq*, A. Bontemps*** and L. Fournaison has been developed based on periodic excitation by Joule effect and infrared thermography measurement

Boyer, Edmond

207

Strategic rehabilitation planning of piped water networks using multi-criteria decision analysis.  

PubMed

To overcome the difficulties of strategic asset management of water distribution networks, a pipe failure and a rehabilitation model are combined to predict the long-term performance of rehabilitation strategies. Bayesian parameter estimation is performed to calibrate the failure and replacement model based on a prior distribution inferred from three large water utilities in Switzerland. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and scenario planning build the framework for evaluating 18 strategic rehabilitation alternatives under future uncertainty. Outcomes for three fundamental objectives (low costs, high reliability, and high intergenerational equity) are assessed. Exploitation of stochastic dominance concepts helps to identify twelve non-dominated alternatives and local sensitivity analysis of stakeholder preferences is used to rank them under four scenarios. Strategies with annual replacement of 1.5-2% of the network perform reasonably well under all scenarios. In contrast, the commonly used reactive replacement is not recommendable unless cost is the only relevant objective. Exemplified for a small Swiss water utility, this approach can readily be adapted to support strategic asset management for any utility size and based on objectives and preferences that matter to the respective decision makers. PMID:24321248

Scholten, Lisa; Scheidegger, Andreas; Reichert, Peter; Mauer, Max; Lienert, Judit

2014-02-01

208

Heat recovery from a hot-water store: Effect of parts of the immersed heat-exchanger's pipe being thermally insulated  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coiled finned-pipe heat exchanger was employed to extract heat rapidly, from a 90-litre hot-water charged tank, the water being initially at approximately 80°C. Free-convective buoyancy movements of the water around the outside of this coiled pipe (which was totally immersed in the store) occurred as a result of mains supply cold water (at 20°C) being forced internally through the

R. Mote; D. Probert; D. Nevrala

1992-01-01

209

Fracture mechanics and full scale pipe break testing for the Department of Environment's New Production Reactor-Heavy Water Reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is completing a major task for the Department of Energy (DOE) in the demonstration that the primary piping of the New Production Heavy Water Reactor (NPR-HWR), with its relatively moderate temperature and pressure, should not suffer an instantaneous Double-Ended-Guillotine-Break (DEGB) under design basis loadings and conditions. The growth of possible small preexisting defects in the piping wall was estimated over a plant life of 60 years. This worst case flaw was then evaluated using fracture mechanics methods. J estimation methods and tearing instability approximations used in this analysis are discussed in this paper. It was established that this worst case flaw would increase in size by at least 14 times before pipe instability during an earthquake would even begin to be possible. The fatigue crack growth analysis is discussed in this paper.

Poole, A. B.

210

Visualization of Flow in Pressurizer Spray Line Piping and Estimation of Thermal Stress Fluctuation Caused by Swaying of Water Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pressurizer spray line of PWR plants cools reactor coolant by injecting water into pressurizer. Since the continuous spray flow rate during commercial operation of the plant is considered insufficient to fill the pipe completely, there is a concern that a water surface exists in the pipe and may periodically sway. In order to identify the flow regimes in spray line piping and assess their impact on pipe structure, a flow visualization experiment was conducted. In the experiment, air was used substituted for steam to simulate the gas phase of the pressurizer, and the flow instability causing swaying without condensation was investigated. With a full-scale mock-up made of acrylic, flow under room temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions was visualized, and possible flow regimes were identified based on the results of the experiment. Three representative patterns of swaying of water surface were assumed, and the range of thermal stress fluctuation, when the surface swayed instantaneously, was calculated. With the three patterns of swaying assumed based on the visualization experiment, it was confirmed that the thermal stress amplitude would not exceed the fatigue endurance limit prescribed in the Japanese Design and Construction Code.

Oumaya, Toru; Nakamura, Akira; Onojima, Daisuke; Takenaka, Nobuyuki

211

EAST CAROLINA UNIVERSITY Policy Statement on Smoking  

E-print Network

EAST CAROLINA UNIVERSITY Policy Statement on Smoking (Revised 1/12/2009) Authority: Issued Health Science Complex. II. Smoking Restrictions Smoking (use or possession of a lighted cigarette, lighted cigar, lighted pipe, or any other lighted tobacco product) must not occur within the no smoking

212

Technology development plan: Geotechnical survey systems for OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview is given of current and developing technologies and techniques for performing geotechnical investigations for siting and designing Cold Water Pipes (CWP) for shelf-resting Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants. The geotechnical in situ tools used to measure the required parameters and the equipment/systems used to deploy these tools are identified. The capabilities of these geotechnical tools and deployment systems are compared to the data requirements for the CWP foundation/anchor design, and shortfalls are identified. For the last phase of geotechnical data gathering for design, a drillship will be required to perform soil boring work, to obtain required high quality sediment samples for laboratory dynamic testing, and to perform deep penetration in situ tests. To remedy shortfalls and to reduce the future OTEC CWP geotechnical survey costs, it is recommended that a seafloor resting machine be developed to advance the friction cone penetrometer, and also probably a pressuremeter, to provide geotechnical parameters to shallow subseafloor penetrations on slopes of 35 deg and in water depths to 1300 m.

Valent, Philip J.; Riggins, Michael

1989-04-01

213

Water quality analysis of the piped water supply in Tamale, Ghana  

E-print Network

The United Nation's Millennium Development Goal Target 7.C is to "halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water". While the UN claimed to have met this goal, studies ...

Hansen, Allison Jean

2014-01-01

214

Public health and pipe breaks in water distribution systems: analysis with internet search volume as a proxy.  

PubMed

Drinking water distribution infrastructure has been identified as a factor in waterborne disease outbreaks and improved understanding of the public health risks associated with distribution system failures has been identified as a priority area for research. Pipe breaks may pose a risk, as their occurrence and repair can result in low or negative pressure, potentially allowing contamination of drinking water from adjacent soils. However, measuring this phenomenon is challenging because the most likely health impact is mild gastrointestinal (GI) illness, which is unlikely to result in a doctor or hospital visit. Here we present a novel method that uses data mining techniques and internet search volume to assess the relationship between pipe breaks and symptoms of GI illness in two U.S. cities. Weekly search volume for the terms diarrhea and vomiting was used as the response variable with the number of pipe breaks in each city as a covariate as well as additional covariates to control for seasonal patterns, search volume persistence, and other sources of GI illness. The fit and predictive accuracy of multiple regression and data mining techniques were compared, with the best performance obtained using random forest and bagged regression tree models. Pipe breaks were found to be an important and positively correlated predictor of internet search volume in multiple models in both cities, supporting previous investigations that indicated an increased risk of GI illness from distribution system disturbances. PMID:24495984

Shortridge, Julie E; Guikema, Seth D

2014-04-15

215

Geochemistry of waters in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes region, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Meteoric waters from cold springs and streams outside of the 1912 eruptive deposits filling the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) and in the upper parts of the two major rivers draining the 1912 deposits have similar chemical trends. Thermal springs issue in the mid-valley area along a 300-m lateral section of ash-flow tuff, and range in temperature from 21 to 29.8??C in early summer and from 15 to 17??C in mid-summer. Concentrations of major and minor chemical constituents in the thermal waters are nearly identical regardless of temperature. Waters in the downvalley parts of the rivers draining the 1912 deposits are mainly mixtures of cold meteoric waters and thermal waters of which the mid-valley thermal spring waters are representative. The weathering reactions of cold waters with the 1912 deposits appear to have stabilized and add only subordinate amounts of chemical constituents to the rivers relative to those contributed by the thermal waters. Isotopic data indicate that the mid-valley thermal spring waters are meteoric, but data is inconclusive regarding the heat source. The thermal waters could be either from a shallow part of a hydrothermal system beneath the 1912 vent region or from an incompletely cooled, welded tuff lens deep in the 1912 ash-flow sheet of the upper River Lethe area. Bicarbonate-sulfate waters resulting from interaction of near-surface waters and the cooling 1953-1968 southwest Trident plug issue from thermal springs south of Katmai Pass and near Mageik Creek, although the Mageik Creek spring waters are from a well-established, more deeply circulating hydrothermal system. Katmai caldera lake waters are a result of acid gases from vigorous drowned fumaroles dissolving in lake waters composed of snowmelt and precipitation. ?? 1992.

Keith, T.E.C.; Thompson, J.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; White, L.D.

1992-01-01

216

A MIXTURE OF ORGANOTINS FOUND IN POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) PIPE IS NOT IMMUNOTOXIC TO SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS WHEN GIVEN IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Organotin compounds used in PVC pipe production are of concern to the U.S. EPA because they leach from supply pipes into drinking water and are reported multisystem toxicants. We assessed immune functions in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to the mixture of organotins used in P...

217

Water hammer in pressurized polyethylene pipes: conceptual model and experimental analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the dynamic effects of pipe wall viscoelasticity on hydraulic transients. These effects have been observed in transient data collected from two polyethylene (PE) pipe systems. The first is a 270 m pipeline, 50 mm diameter, at Imperial College London, and the second is the world's longest experimental PE pipeline, 1.3 km long, 110 mm diameter, buried underground

Dídia Covas; Ivan Stoianov; Helena Ramos; Nigel Graham; ?edo Maksimovi?; David Butler

2004-01-01

218

Implementation of water safety plan for a large-piped water supply system.  

PubMed

A water safety plan for the city of Nagpur was developed by the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) and Nagpur Municipal Corporation (NMC). Possible hazards were identified through field visits. Based on this, an improvement plan was drawn up to suggest corrective actions and a time frame for implementation. The findings of this study are being used to modify or repair components of the water supply system and upgrade management procedures. This paper highlights the lessons learnt during implementation of the WSP and the key challenges faced. PMID:24816594

Nijhawan, Anisha; Jain, Priyanka; Sargaonkar, Aabha; Labhasetwar, Pawan Kumar

2014-09-01

219

[Extraction of inosinic acid in smoked Katsuwonus pelamis based on water].  

PubMed

A novel method for the extraction of inosinic acid in Smoked Katsuwonus pelamis based on water was developed. The inosinic acid was extracted by 95 degrees C water for 5 min. The subsequent analysis of inosinic acid was achieved on an Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with the mobile phase of methanol-50 mmol/L ammonium acetate (5: 95, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min at 30 degrees C. The detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. The results showed that the linear range for inosinic acid in Smoked Katsuwonus pelamis was between 1.0 mg/L and 120.0 mg/L with the limit of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) of 4 mg/kg and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N = 10) of 12 mg/kg. At the spiked levels of 0.40, 2.00, 4.00 g/kg (n = 3), the recoveries ranged from 84.6% to 100.2% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 1.00% and 6.12%. Compared with traditional extraction method by perchloric acid, the extraction efficiency was improved by 37.0%. The novel method is safe, stable and accurate for the determination of inosinic acid in Smoked Katsuwonus pelamis, which can also be applied to the determination of inosinic acid in other foods and deserved to be spread. PMID:22679840

Wang, Tingting; Chen, Yihui; Hu, Minjie; Li, Xuezhen

2012-02-01

220

Genotoxicity evaluation of two kinds of smoke-water and 3,7-dimethyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one.  

PubMed

Smoke, smoke-water and aerosols have a stimulatory effect on seed germination and growth vigour of many seedlings, making them potentially useful for different purposes, provided they do not pose a health risk. Therefore, the genotoxicity of two kinds of smoke-water and 3,7-dimethyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one, a variant of the most active smoke compound (3-methyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one) was evaluated using the Vitotox assay. Smoke-water extracts were obtained from burning leaves: Themeda triandra (smoke-water Tt) and a mix of Themeda triandra and Passerina vulgaris (smoke-water Kb). No genotoxic effect was observed for any of the three samples. However, the three samples are toxic at the highest concentrations (3,7-dimethyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one, 2 ppm; smoke-water Tt, dilutions 1 : 1, 1 : 2, 1 : 4; smoke-water Kb, dilution 1 : 1) without addition of S9 mix. Both the butenolide 3,7-dimethyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one and smoke-water Tt are also toxic at high doses in the presence of S9 (2 ppm and dilutions 1 : 1 and 1 : 2, respectively), but not smoke-water Kb. Thus, from these results, no genotoxicity of these three samples can be assumed, which is accordance with the previous tests performed with 3-methyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one and a smoke-water. PMID:20809549

Trinh, Cécile; Gevaert, Lieven; Kohout, Ladislav; Van Staden, Johannes; Verschaeve, Luc

2010-08-01

221

Transient temperature responses of hydronic radiant floor heating system by different pipe embedding depth and water supply condition.  

PubMed

"Ondol" is a Korean unique heating system. It is a specific radiant floor heating system using combustion heat of briquette or timber in Korea. Such traditional "Ondol" is changed to radiant heating system with pipe-coil embedded in the floor or slab. This study has contributed to the understandings of the transient behaviours of Ondol-heated floor panels and enclosure exposed to this type of heating system. The result is that the water supply temperature had a large effect on the rate of increase in floor surface and room air temperature. But, in spite of a higher water supply temperature, the heat flow rate was not increased considerably. The shallow pipe embedding depths, of course, result in a low heat flow rate. PMID:8373479

Chung, K S; Sohn, J Y; Baik, Y K; Kang, J S

1993-07-01

222

Jeffrey E. Harris, September 15, 1997, Page 1 Cigarette Smoking Practices, Smoking-Related Diseases,  

E-print Network

Jeffrey E. Harris, September 15, 1997, Page 1 Cigarette Smoking Practices, Smoking-Related Diseases and burial benefits by spouses of deceased veterans. My analysis considers only cigarette smoking-related disease and disability; a more complete study would include the effects of smoking cigar and pipe tobacco

Gabrieli, John

223

Use of a GIS-based hybrid artificial neural network to prioritize the order of pipe replacement in a water distribution network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology based on the integration of a seismic-based artificial neural network (ANN) model and a geographic information\\u000a system (GIS) to assess water leakage and to prioritize pipeline replacement is developed in this work. Qualified pipeline\\u000a break-event data derived from the Taiwan Water Corporation Pipeline Leakage Repair Management System were analyzed. “Pipe\\u000a diameter,” “pipe material,” and “the number of magnitude-3?+?

Cheng-I Ho; Min-Der Lin; Shang-Lien Lo

2010-01-01

224

Supercritical water oxidation of colored smoke, dye, and pyrotechnic compositions. Phase 1, Final report  

SciTech Connect

The US military stockpile has large quantities of obsolete munitions awaiting disposal. Although suitable means for the safe dismantlement of much of this stockpile have been identified, there are still considerable quantities of specialty materials for which existing methods have been deemed inappropriate from an environmental standpoint. Among these munitions are colored spotting dyes and a wide assortment of pyrotechnics, including colored smokes and flares. In open bum or incineration treatment processes these materials produce large quantities of toxic, and possibly carcinogenic, gases and particulate matter. The U.S Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ is interested in developing a method of treatment that will dispose of these munitions without the difficulties identified above. This report examines the feasibility of supercritical water oxidation, an emerging waste treatment technology, to process these materials. Four colored dyes and one pyrotechnic smoke composition were processed in a flow reactor, and the effluent was analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the processing. The tests showed that all of these materials could by oxidized to much less hazardous compounds in less than 10 seconds with a destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) typically > 99.5%. Two technical issues were identified as needing more attention in Phase II of this project: formation of sulfate and chloride salt deposits within the flow reactor and corrosion of the materials of construction.

Rice, S.F.; LaJeunesse, C.A.; Hanush, R.G.; Aiken, J.D.; Johnston, S.C.

1994-01-01

225

Supercritical water oxidation of colored smoke, dye, and pyrotechnic compositions. Final report: Pilot plant conceptual design  

SciTech Connect

The existing demilitarization stockpile contains large quantities of colored smoke, spotting dye, and pyrotechnic munitions. For many years, these munitions have been stored in magazines at locations within the continental United States awaiting completion of the life-cycle. The open air burning of these munitions has been shown to produce toxic gases that are detrimental to human health and harmful to the environment. Prior efforts to incinerate these compositions have also produced toxic emissions and have been unsuccessful. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a rapidly developing hazardous waste treatment method that can be an alternative to incineration for many types of wastes. The primary advantage SCWO affords for the treatment of this selected set of obsolete munitions is that toxic gas and particulate emissions will not occur as part of the effluent stream. Sandia is currently designing a SCWO reactor for the US Army Armament Research, Development & Engineering Center (ARDEC) to destroy colored smoke, spotting dye, and pyrotechnic munitions. This report summarizes the design status of the ARDEC reactor. Process and equipment operation parameters, process flow equations or mass balances, and utility requirements for six wastes of interest are developed in this report. Two conceptual designs are also developed with all process and instrumentation detailed.

LaJeunesse, C.A.; Chan, Jennifer P.; Raber, T.N.; Macmillan, D.C.; Rice, S.F.; Tschritter, K.L.

1993-11-01

226

Assessing the Spatial Distribution of Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure via Public Drinking Water Pipes Using Geographic Information Systems  

PubMed Central

Objectives Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a powerful tool for assessing exposure in epidemiologic studies. We used GIS to determine the geographic extent of contamination by perfluorooctanoic acid, C8 (PFOA) that was released into the environment from the DuPont Washington Works Facility located in Parkersburg, West Virginia. Methods Paper maps of pipe distribution networks were provided by six local public water districts participating in the community cross-sectional survey, the C8 Health Project. Residential histories were also collected in the survey and geocoded. We integrated the pipe networks and geocoded addresses to determine which addresses were serviced by one of the participating water districts. The GIS-based water district assignment was then compared to the participants' self-reported source of public drinking water. Results There were a total of 151,871 addresses provided by the 48,800 participants of the C8 Health Project that consented to geocoding. We were able to successfully geocode 139,067 (91.6%) addresses, and of these, 118,209 (85.0%) self-reported water sources were confirmed using the GIS-based method of water district assignment. Furthermore, the GIS-based method corrected 20,858 (15.0%) self-reported public drinking water sources. Over half (54%) the participants in the lowest GIS-based exposure group self-reported being in a higher exposed water district. Conclusions Not only were we able to correct erroneous self-reported water sources, we were also able to assign water districts to participants with unknown sources. Without the GIS-based method, the reliance on only self-reported data would have resulted in exposure misclassification. PMID:24010064

Hoffman, Kate; Fletcher, Tony

2013-01-01

227

Farm Water Supply and Sanitation--Pipe, Plumbing, Skills and Symbols. Student Materials. V.A. III. V-D-1, V-D-2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use by individuals enrolled in vocational agricultural classes, these student materials deal with farm water supply, sanitation, and plumbing skills. Topics covered in the unit are maintaining the farm water supply; repairing faucets and valves, leaks in pipes and storage tanks, and water closets; clearing clogged drains and traps;…

Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

228

Assessment of the microbial integrity, sensu G.S. Wilson, of piped and bottled drinking water in the condition as ingested  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second half of the 20th century witnessed substantial progress in the assurance and verification of microbiological integrity, i.e., safety and sensory quality, of drinking water. Enteropathogenic agents, such as particular viruses and protozoa, not previously identified as transmitted by industrially provided water supplies, were demonstrated to cause disease outbreaks, when ingested with piped water. The potential harm posed by

David A. A Mossel; Corry B Struijk

2004-01-01

229

Does shisha smoking affect blood pressure and heart rate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  The aim of this investigation was to explore the correlation of shisha smoking with blood pressure and heart rate values.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects and methods  This is a randomized cross-sectional epidemiological study involving a total of 14,310 adults selected from various regions\\u000a of Jordan. Well-trained pharmacy students interviewed participants in outpatient settings. The frequencies of water-pipe-smoking\\u000a males and females in the sample were

Saafan A. Al-Safi; Nehad M. Ayoub; Mosa’b A. Albalas; Imad Al-Doghim; Faisal H Aboul-Enein

2009-01-01

230

Characterisation of the fatigue properties of cast irons used in the water industry and the effect on pipe strength and performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an on going programme to characterise the residual properties and understand the failure mechanisms of in-service grey cast iron water pipes, the fatigue crack propagation behaviour of grey cast iron samples has been studied. Specimens were sourced from three ex-service pipes. For each pipe the microstructure and composition were characterised and the fracture toughness was determined. The fatigue behaviour was investigated in terms of the crack growth rate (da/dN) as a function of the applied stress intensity factor range. Clear differences in the fatigue behaviour of the samples from different pipes were observed. The result from these investigations, which indicate that microstructural differences play a role in mechanical behaviour, will support the development of asset management tools for use in the water industry.

Mohebbi, H.; Jesson, D. A.; Mulheron, M. J.; Smith, P. A.

2009-08-01

231

A case study to detect the leakage of underground pressureless cement sewage water pipe using GPR, electrical, and chemical data.  

PubMed

The exploration and determination of leakage of underground pressureless nonmetallic pipes is difficult to deal with. A comprehensive method combining Ground Penetrating Rader (GPR), electric potential survey and geochemical survey is introduced in the leakage detection of an underground pressureless nonmetallic sewage pipe in this paper. Theoretically, in the influencing scope of a leakage spot, the obvious changes of the electromagnetic properties and the physical-chemical properties of the underground media will be reflected as anomalies in GPR and electrical survey plots. The advantages of GPR and electrical survey are fast and accurate in detection of anomaly scope. In-situ analysis of the geophysical surveys can guide the geochemical survey. Then water and soil sampling and analyzing can be the evidence for judging the anomaly is caused by pipe leakage or not. On the basis of previous tests and practical surveys, the GPR waveforms, electric potential curves, contour maps, and chemical survey results are all classified into three types according to the extent or indexes of anomalies in orderto find out the leakage spots. When three survey methods all show their anomalies as type I in an anomalous spot, this spot is suspected as the most possible leakage location. Otherwise, it will be down grade suspected point. The suspect leakage spots should be confirmed by referring the site conditions because some anomalies are caused other factors. The excavation afterward proved that the method for determining the suspected location by anomaly type is effective and economic. Comprehensive method of GRP, electric potential survey, and geochemical survey is one of the effective methods in the leakage detection of underground nonmetallic pressureless pipe with its advantages of being fast and accurate. PMID:11917994

Liu, Guanqun; Jia, Yonggang; Liu, Hongjun; Qiu, Hanxue; Qiu, Dongling; Shan, Hongxian

2002-03-01

232

Heat Pipe Materials Compatibility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental program to evaluate noncondensable gas generation in ammonia heat pipes was completed. A total of 37 heat pipes made of aluminum, stainless steel and combinations of these materials were processed by various techniques, operated at different temperatures and tested at low temperature to quantitatively determine gas generation rates. In order of increasing stability are aluminum/stainless combination, all aluminum and all stainless heat pipes. One interesting result is the identification of intentionally introduced water in the ammonia during a reflux step as a means of surface passivation to reduce gas generation in stainless-steel/aluminum heat pipes.

Eninger, J. E.; Fleischman, G. L.; Luedke, E. E.

1976-01-01

233

31 CFR 700.14 - Smoking.  

...Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Smoking. 700.14 Section 700.14 Money and Finance...CENTER (FLETC) BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 700.14 Smoking. Smoking of cigarettes, cigars and pipes is prohibited in...

2014-07-01

234

Acoustic Analysis for a Steam Dome and Pipings of a 1,100 MWe-Class Boiling Water Reactor  

SciTech Connect

For the integrity evaluation of steam dryers in up-rated nuclear power plants, we have applied acoustic analysis to a nuclear power plant steam dome and main steam pipings. We have selected a 1,100 MWe-class boiling water reactor as a subject of the analysis. We have constructed a three-dimensional finite element model, and conducted acoustic analyses. The analysis result suggested that the origin of steam pressure pulsation in high frequency range was due to vortex shedding at standpipes. (authors)

Yasumi, Kitajima; Masanobu, Watanabe; Keiji, Matsunaga; Tsuyoshi, Hagiwara [Power and Industrial Systems Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corporation 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8523 (Japan)

2006-07-01

235

Stop inhaling smoke: prevent coronary heart disease.  

PubMed

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was rare a century ago and was diagnosed in few living patients prior to 1925. By 1950, it was the most common heart problem seen by clinicians. Thought at first to have been overlooked, there were many explanations offered for its neglect. Smoking, hypertension, and elevated cholesterol are associated with AMI, but of these only smoking should be considered a cause. Hypertension and hypercholesterolemia may be co-effects, perhaps of inflammation stimulated in the lung and blood vessels by smoking and air pollution, thus affecting vessels and arteries subjected to systemic blood pressure. Air pollution--the 20th century's other "big smoke"--deserves consideration as a 2nd cause. Auto exhaust blankets the world's cities. It consists of smoke and other effluents of petroleum vaporization and combustion that emanate from the crankcases and exhaust pipes of trucks and automobiles. The major living spaces (conurbations) of the world now imitate and exceed Los Angeles in their levels of air pollution. Auto exhaust gases fit the timeline, and their increasing amounts parallel the worldwide rise in coronary heart disease. Increasing doses of these chemicals imitate cigarette smoke and stimulate inflammation in the lungs. They appear to be absorbed into the blood, where they cause inflammation in blood vessels, increased blood pressure, and clogged coronary arteries. Avoidance is the obvious solution. Quit inhaling cigarette smoke and motor vehicle exhaust. The benefits have been shown and can be proved by intervention. The quest for clean air is hygienic-like avoiding water contaminated with feces was 150 yr ago. Clear air must be made a moral right. Its attainment requires a major revolution in priorities for energy use and lifestyle. Two types of smoke must be avoided. The world's most lethal disease. PMID:12899206

Kilburn, Kaye H

2003-02-01

236

Practical piping handbook  

SciTech Connect

A reference book on pipes, pipe fitting, and pipe treatment in the petroleum and natural gas industries is presented. The contents include: standard piping terminology; piping codes and standards; pipe manufacturing sizes; metallic piping; non-metallic piping; lined and coated piping systems; pipe tracing and jacketing; fittings and flanges; piping connections; valves; pipe expansion devices; flexible piping; piping specialties; pipe supports and restraints; insulation for piping; shop fabrication of piping; field installation of piping; construction tools and equipment; nondestructive and destructive testing; pipe cleaning; and comparative piping costs. (JMT)

Mendel, O.

1981-01-01

237

Flow accelerated corrosion of carbon steel feeder pipes from pressurized heavy water reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed investigation of a number of feeder pipes received from Rajasthan Atomic Power Station Unit 2 (RAPS#2) after en-masse feeder pipe replacement after 15.67 Effective Full Power Years (EFPYs) was carried out. Investigations included ultrasonic thickness measurement by ultrasonic testing, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, chemical analysis and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Results showed that maximum thickness reduction of the feeder had occurred downstream and close to the weld in 32 NB (1.25?/32.75 mm ID) elbows. Rate of Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) was measured to be higher in the lower diameter feeder pipes due to high flow velocity and turbulence. Weld regions had thinned to a lower extent than the parent material due to higher chromium content in the weld. A weld protrusion has been shown to add to the thinning due to FAC and lead to faster thinning rate at localized regions. Surface morphology of inner surface of feeder had shown different size scallop pattern over the weld and parent material. Inter-granular cracks were also observed along the weld fusion line and in the parent material in 32 NB outlet feeder elbow.

Singh, J. L.; Kumar, Umesh; Kumawat, N.; Kumar, Sunil; Kain, Vivekanand; Anantharaman, S.; Sinha, A. K.

2012-10-01

238

Performance and reliability analysis of water distribution systems under cascading failures and the identification of crucial pipes.  

PubMed

As a mean of supplying water, Water distribution system (WDS) is one of the most important complex infrastructures. The stability and reliability are critical for urban activities. WDSs can be characterized by networks of multiple nodes (e.g. reservoirs and junctions) and interconnected by physical links (e.g. pipes). Instead of analyzing highest failure rate or highest betweenness, reliability of WDS is evaluated by introducing hydraulic analysis and cascading failures (conductive failure pattern) from complex network. The crucial pipes are identified eventually. The proposed methodology is illustrated by an example. The results show that the demand multiplier has a great influence on the peak of reliability and the persistent time of the cascading failures in its propagation in WDS. The time period when the system has the highest reliability is when the demand multiplier is less than 1. There is a threshold of tolerance parameter exists. When the tolerance parameter is less than the threshold, the time period with the highest system reliability does not meet minimum value of demand multiplier. The results indicate that the system reliability should be evaluated with the properties of WDS and the characteristics of cascading failures, so as to improve its ability of resisting disasters. PMID:24551102

Shuang, Qing; Zhang, Mingyuan; Yuan, Yongbo

2014-01-01

239

Modeling and testing of reactive contaminant transport in drinking water pipes: chlorine response and implications for online contaminant detection.  

PubMed

A modified one-dimensional Danckwerts convection-dispersion-reaction (CDR) model is numerically simulated to explain the observed chlorine residual loss for a "slug" of reactive contaminants instantaneously introduced into a drinking water pipe of assumed no or negligible wall demand. In response to longitudinal dispersion, a contaminant propagates into the bulk phase where it reacts with disinfectants in the water. This process generates a U-shaped pattern of chlorine residual loss in a time-series concentration plot. Numerical modeling indicates that the residual loss curve geometry (i.e., slope, depth, and width) is a function of several variables such as axial Péclet number, reaction rate constants, molar fraction of the fast- and slow-reacting contaminants, and the quasi-steady-state chlorine decay inside the "slug" which serves as a boundary condition of the CDR model. Longitudinal dispersion becomes dominant for less reactive contaminants. Pilot-scale pipe flow experiments for a non-reactive sodium fluoride tracer and the fast-reacting aldicarb, a pesticide, were conducted under turbulent flow conditions (Re=9020 and 25,000). Both the experimental results and the CDR modeling are in agreement showing a close relationship among the aldicarb contaminant "slug", chlorine residual loss and its variations, and a concentration increase of chloride as the final reaction product. Based on these findings, the residual loss curve and its geometry are useful tools to identify the presence of a contaminant "slug" and infer its reactive properties in adaptive contaminant detections. PMID:17991507

Jeffrey Yang, Y; Goodrich, James A; Clark, Robert M; Li, Sylvana Y

2008-03-01

240

Water Quality Variability in a Bioswell and Concrete Drainage Pipe, Southwest Lincoln, Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u0009The goal of this project is to evaluate the effectiveness of bioswells in protecting water quality from urban runoff. The hypothesis tested in this project is that water in bioswells improves water quality. Water quality in both a bioswell and an underground concrete lined ditch, both containing ground and surface water, were tested for certain water quality parameters. These parameters

Jessica Shortino

2009-01-01

241

Pipe Dreams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of attention to plumbing in college facilities, offering examples from various campuses. Addresses preventive maintenance, technology, and piping materials, including the debate between cast iron and PVC for drain pipes. (EV)

Milshtein, Amy

2002-01-01

242

The detrimental danger of water-pipe (Hookah) transcends the hazardous consequences of general health to the driving behavior  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether the consumption of tobacco used in Water-Pipe by drivers increases the risk of a motor vehicle collision as a consequence of hypoxia. Design Analytical case–control study. Data sources Seventy exclusive Water-Pipe smokers (Experimental Group - EG) - mean age ± SD: 29.47?±?10.45?years; mean number of weekly WPS, (6.9?±?3.7); mean duration of WPS (WPS) is (7.5?±?2.1?years) - and thirty non-smoker (Control Group – CG; mean age ± SD: 36.33?±?13.92?years) were recruited during 2011 from two Arab villages located in the Galilee, northern Israel. Methods We performed a case–control study exclusively among Water-Pipe smokers with an appropriate non smokers control group. Demographic questionnaire, Pulse Oxymeter for blood oxygenation measure and a driver simulator for measuring various participants driving behaviors were utilized. Statistical analysis for analyzing the different variables, Pearson’s x2 analysis for the comparison of categorical variables, continuous variable is compared using Student’s t-test and for testing the correlation between the different variables and bivariate correlation analysis were applied. Results In the (EG) following WPS, we observed increase in the pulse rate - from 80 to 95 (t?=?11.84, p?

2012-01-01

243

Numerical simulation of water hammer in low pressurized pipe: comparison of SimHydraulics and Lax-Wendroff method with experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Article describes simulation of unsteady flow during water hammer with two programs, which use different numerical approaches to solve ordinary one dimensional differential equations describing the dynamics of hydraulic elements and pipes. First one is Matlab-Simulink-SimHydraulics, which is a commercial software developed to solve the dynamics of general hydraulic systems. It defines them with block elements. The other software is called HYDRA and it is based on the Lax-Wendrff numerical method, which serves as a tool to solve the momentum and continuity equations. This program was developed in Matlab by Brno University of Technology. Experimental measurements were performed on a simple test rig, which consists of an elastic pipe with strong damping connecting two reservoirs. Water hammer is induced with fast closing the valve. Physical properties of liquid and pipe elasticity parameters were considered in both simulations, which are in very good agreement and differences in comparison with experimental data are minimal.

Himr, D.

2013-04-01

244

FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF INNOVATIVE CONDITION ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR WATER MAINS: ACOUSTIC PIPE WALL ASSESSMENT, INTERNAL INSPECTION, AND EXTERNAL INSPECTIONVOLUME 1: TECHNICAL REPORT AND VOLUME 2: APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

Nine pipe wall integrity assessment technologies were demonstrated on a 76-year-old, 2,057-ft-long portion of a cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY. This activity was part of a series of field demonstrations of innovative leak detection/location and condi...

245

Experimental Investigation into the Transient Performance of a Titanium-Water Loop Heat Pipe Subjected to a Steady-Periodic Acceleration Field (Preprint).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research was to experimentally investigate the transient operating characteristics of a titanium-water loop heat pipe subjected to a combined steady-state evaporator input heat rate and a steady-periodic acceleration field. For this ...

D. L. Courson, H. Jiang, J. D. Scofield, K. L. Yerkes

2013-01-01

246

PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF PROKARYOTIC AND EUKAROYOTIC MICROOORGANISMS IN A DRINKING WATER PIPE LOOP SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Within potable water distribution systems, opportunistic pathogens such as Legionella species infect protozoa, gaining protection from disinfectant residuals. Analyzing the prokaryotic and eukaryotic populations in distribution system water provides a basis for understanding the...

247

PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC MICROORGANISMS IN A DRINKING WATER PIPE LOOP SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Within potable water distribution systems, opportunistic pathogens such as Legionella species infect protozoa, gaining protection from disinfectant residuals. Analyzing the prokaryotic and eukaryotic populations in distribution system water provides a basis for understanding the...

248

Analysis and design of an in-pipe system for water leak detection  

E-print Network

Leaks are a major factor for unaccounted water losses in almost every water distribution network. Pipeline leak may result, for example, from bad workmanship or from any destructive cause, due to sudden changes of pressure, ...

Chatzigeorgiou, Dimitris M

2010-01-01

249

Heat pipe life and processing study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The merit of adding water to the reflux charge in chemically and solvent cleaned aluminum/slab wick/ammonia heat pipes was evaluated. The effect of gas in the performance of three heat pipe thermal control systems was found significant in simple heat pipes, less significant in a modified simple heat pipe model with a short wickless pipe section. Use of gas data for the worst and best heat pipes of the matrix in a variable conductance heat pipe model showed a 3 C increase in the source temperature at full on condition after 20 and 246 years, respectively.

Antoniuk, D.; Luedke, E. E.

1979-01-01

250

Qualification requirements of guided ultrasonic waves for inspection of piping in light water reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is anticipated that guided ultrasonic wave (GUW) techniques will eventually see widespread application in the nuclear power industry as there are several near-term and future needs that could benefit from the availability of GUW technologies. Already, GUW techniques are receiving consideration for inspecting buried piping at nuclear power plants and future applications may include several Class 1 and 2 components. To accept the results of a nondestructive examination of safety critical components, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that the examinations be performed using qualified equipment, personnel, and procedures. As the use of GUW techniques becomes more frequent, qualification may be required. Performance demonstration has been the approach to qualifying conventional NDE methods in the nuclear power industry. This paper highlights potential issues and research needs associated with facilitating GUW qualification for the nuclear power industry. Parametric studies of essential inspection parameters are necessary to understand their influence on inspection performance. The large volume sampling capability introduces several challenges for qualifying GUW techniques including the quantification of performance, potential interference caused by the presence of multiple flaws in the inspection region, and the practicality of manufacturing several large qualification specimens. Computer simulation may have a significant role in reducing the experimental burden associated with qualifying GUW techniques for nuclear power plant examinations.

Meyer, R. M.; Ramuhalli, P.; Doctor, S. R.; Bond, L. J.

2013-01-01

251

Hookah (Shisha, Narghile) Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). A Critical Review of the Relevant Literature and the Public Health Consequences  

PubMed Central

Hookah (narghile, shisha, “water-pipe”) smoking is now seen by public health officials as a global tobacco epidemic. Cigarette Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is classically understood as a combination of Side-Stream Smoke (SSS) and Exhaled Main-Stream Smoke (EMSS), both diluted and aged. Some of the corresponding cigarette studies have served as the scientific basis for stringent legislation on indoor smoking across the world. Interestingly, one of the distinctive traits of the hookah device is that it generates almost no SSS. Indeed, its ETS is made up almost exclusively by the smoke exhaled by the smoker (EMSS), i.e. which has been filtered by the hookah at the level of the bowl, inside the water, along the hose and then by the smoker’s respiratory tract itself. The present paper reviews the sparse and scattered scientific evidence available about hookah EMSS and the corresponding inferences that can be drawn from the composition of cigarette EMSS. The reviewed literature shows that most of hookah ETS is made up of EMSS and that the latter qualitatively differs from MSS. Keeping in mind that the first victim of passive smoking is the active smoker her/himself, the toxicity of hookah ETS for non-smokers should not be overestimated and hyped in an unscientific way. PMID:19440416

Chaouachi, Kamal

2009-01-01

252

Heat Transfer Performance and Piping Strategy Study for Chilled Water Systems at Low Cooling Loads  

E-print Network

drops to 1ft/s, laminar flow occurs; this further decreases the heat transfer rate on the water side. However, the cooling coil effectiveness increases with the drop of water flow rate, which compensates for the influence of the heat transfer...

Li, Nanxi 1986-

2012-12-05

253

Analysis of Piping Systems for Life Extension of Heavy Water Plants in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy water production in India has achieved many milestones in the past. Two of the successfully running heavy water plants are on the verge of completion of their design life in the near future. One of these two plants, situated at Kota, is a hydrogen sulfide based plant and the other one at Tuticorin is an ammonia-based plant. Various exercises

Rajesh K. Mishra; R. S. Soni; H. S. Kushwaha; V. Venkat Raj

2002-01-01

254

Heat Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phoenix Refrigeration Systems, Inc.'s heat pipe addition to the Phoenix 2000, a supermarket rooftop refrigeration/air conditioning system, resulted from the company's participation in a field test of heat pipes. Originally developed by NASA to control temperatures in space electronic systems, the heat pipe is a simple, effective, heat transfer system. It has been used successfully in candy storage facilities where it has provided significant energy savings. Additional data is expected to fully quantify the impact of the heat pipes on supermarket air conditioning systems.

1991-01-01

255

Pressure Drop for Oil-Water Two-phase Flow in Horizontal Pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure drops were measured during the co-current flow of a mechanical oil and tap water in 40 mm inner diameter horizontal test section made from organic glass. Measurements is conducted were made for the oil superficial velocity ranges from 0.04 to 1.2 m/s and the water superficial velocity from 0.04 to 2.2 m/s. The volume fraction of water in the oil-water mixture changes from 0.05 to 0.976. The frictional pressure loss of oil-water two-phase flow was also studied experimentally and theoretically. The main finding is the frictional pressure loss of oil-water two-phase flow in flow ranges corresponding to flow pattern. Two fluid model was explored to calculate the frictional pressure loss for stratified flow pattern. Homogeneous model was used to predict the fictional pressure loss for oil-dispersed stratified, oil-dispersed and oil annular flow regimes. For three-layer flow regime, a correlation between flow parameters and the two-phase pressure drop reference to water phase was proposed. The model predictions are in good agreement with experiment data.

Liu, W. H.; Guo, L. J.

2010-03-01

256

The Politics of Pipes: The Persistence of Small Water Networks in Post-Privatization Manila  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project examines the politics of water provision in low-income areas of large, developing cities. In the last two decades, water privatization has become a global paradigm, emerging as a potential means for addressing the urban water crisis. In Manila, the site of the world's largest water privatization project, service to low-income areas has improved significantly in the post-privatization era. But whereas expansion of a water utility typically involves the replacement of informal providers, the experience in Manila demonstrates that the rapid connection of low-income areas actually hinges, in part, on the selective inclusion and exclusion of these smaller actors. Based on an ethnography of the private utilities and community-based providers, I use the persistence of small water networks as a lens for exploring the limits of water privatization in Manila. I focus on what I call micro-networks---community-built infrastructure that extends the formal, private utilities into low-income neighborhoods that the utilities do not wish to serve directly. In such a setup, the utility provides water only as far as the community boundary; beyond that, the micro-network operator constructs internal infrastructure, monitors for leakage and theft, and collects bills. But while these communities may gain access to safer water, they are also subject to higher costs and heightened disciplinary measures. By tracing the ways in which the utilities selectively use micro-networks to manage sub-populations, I show how the utilities make low-income spaces more governable. Delegating localized water management to micro-network operators depoliticizes the utilities' roles, shifting the sociopolitical difficulties of water provision to community organizations, while allowing the utilities to claim that these areas are served. This research leads to three related arguments. First, the persistence of small water networks highlights lingering inequities in access to water, for micro-network consumers are subject to disparities in cost, materials, and personal freedoms. Though Manila's water privatization project has resulted in significant improvements to the centralized system, its success must be tempered by the inequalities that remain. Second, the two utilities are largely able to shape both the geographies of water access and the production of knowledge. For this reason, the utilities typically use micro-networks where cost recovery may be difficult---such as in areas with uncertain land tenure or where higher levels of nonpayment are perceived---while including these areas in their aggregate coverage statistics. Third, the presence of multiple providers of water and other basic services blurs the boundaries between public, private, and community. But that blurriness serves to consolidate the private utilities' power, while increasing the opacity by which citizens navigate processes related to urban water provision. The persistence of micro-networks thus allows us to understand the ways in which low-income spaces are made more governable. By focusing on this peri-urban frontier, this project asserts that differentiation and discipline serve simultaneously as tools of governance and as points of contestation. What emerges is a waterscape consisting not of one type of privatization---where service and access are uniformly provided---but multiple, coexisting, and differentiated privatizations.

Cheng, Deborah

257

Heat Pipe Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar Fundamentals, Inc.'s hot water system employs space-derived heat pipe technology. It is used by a meat packing plant to heat water for cleaning processing machinery. Unit is complete system with water heater, hot water storage, electrical controls and auxiliary components. Other than fans and a circulating pump, there are no moving parts. System's unique design eliminates problems of balancing, leaking, corroding, and freezing.

1988-01-01

258

Analysis of the Leaching Efficiency of Inhibited Water and Tank Simulant in Removing Residues on Thermowell Pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cleaning protocol was determined and modeled, using the shrinking core model, for the removal of a solid residue coating thermowell pipes contained in the riser of a Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tank (Tank 48H). The solid residues on two sets of thermowell pipe samples removed from the D2 riser in SRS Tank 48H were characterized by high performance

F. F. FONDEUR; T. L. WHITE; L. N. OJI; C. J. MARTINOW; R. WILMARTH

2012-01-01

259

Joint use of long water pipe tiltmeters and sea level gauges for monitoring ground deformation at Campi Flegrei caldera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Campi Flegrei caldera, located in the Campanian Plain, Southern Italy, 15 km west of the city of Naples, is a nested, resurgent, and restless structure in the densely inhabited Neapolitan area. The main caldera at Campi Flegrei is 12 - 15 km across and its rim is thought to have been formed during the catastrophic eruption, occurred 39 ky ago ca., which produced a deposit referred to as the Campanian Ignimbrite. The volcanic hazards posed by this caldera and the related risk are extremely high, because of its explosive character and the about 1.5 million people living within the caldera. Campi Flegrei area periodically experiences significant unrest episodes which include ground deformations, the so-called 'bradisismo'. Following the last eruption (Monte Nuovo, 1538) a general subsidence has been interrupted by episodes of uplift, the most recent of which occurred in 1970-72 and 1982-84. Since 1950 the caldera is showing signs of unrest with ground uplift, seismicity, and composition variation of fumarole fluids. In particular, subsidence has been replaced by intermittent episodes of inflation with short time duration and various maximum amplitude. They occurred in 1989, 1994, 2000, 2005-06, 2008-09 and 2011-2014 with duration of few months and maximum amplitude ranging between 3 and 18 cm., approximately. In the last years an array of water-pipe tiltmeters with lengths between 28 m and 278 m in tunnels on the flanks of the region of maximum inflation has been installed to avoid problems common to the traditional tiltmeters. The tiltmeters record inflation episodes upon which are superimposed local load tides and the effects of the seiches in the Bay of Naples and in the Tyrrhenian sea. We use data recorded by three tide gauges in the Bay of Pozzuoli (Pozzuoli, Miseno, Nisida) to compare water pipe data with sea level to extract astronomical tidal components (diurnal and semidiurnal) and seiches periods (particularly between 20 minutes and 56 minutes) that could constitute local loading frequencies recorded clearly by tide gauges and tiltmeters. We perform an analysis of the amplitude stability of seiches amplitudes. After the removal of the tides and seiches component we compare tilt residual and sea level trend for the same periods of time. The comparison between these two kind of data enables a more sensitive definition of the low level uplift with an accuracy of 1% for nanoradiant tilts in the period range 10 minutes to 10 hours with a long term tilt stability of approximately 0.1 microradiant/yr.

Scarpa, Roberto; Capuano, Paolo; Tammaro, Umberto; Bilham, Roger

2014-05-01

260

Semi-analytical prediction of hydraulic resistance and heat transfer for pipe and channel flows of water at supercritical pressure  

SciTech Connect

Within the Generation IV International Forum the Supercritical Water Reactor is investigated. For its core design and safety analysis the efficient prediction of flow and heat transfer parameters such as the wall-shear stress and the heat-transfer coefficient for pipe and channel flows is needed. For circular pipe flows a numerical model based on the one-dimensional conservation equations of mass, momentum end energy in the radial direction is presented, referred to as a 'semi-analytical' method. An accurate, high-order numerical method is employed to evaluate previously derived analytical solutions of the governing equations. Flow turbulence is modeled using the algebraic approach of Prandtl/van-Karman, including a model for the buffer layer. The influence of wall roughness is taken into account by a new modified numerical damping function of the turbulence model. The thermo-hydraulic properties of water are implemented according to the international standard of 1997. This method has the potential to be used within a sub-channel analysis code and as wall-functions for CFD codes to predict the wall shear stress and the wall temperature. The present study presents a validation of the method with comparison of model results with experiments and multi-dimensional computational (CFD) studies in a wide range of flow parameters. The focus is laid on forced convection flows related to reactor design and near-design conditions. It is found, that the method can accurately predict the wall temperature even under deterioration conditions as they occur in the selected experiments (Yamagata el al. 1972 at 24.5 MPa, Ornatski et al. 1971 at 25.5 and Swenson et al. 1963 at 22.75 MPa). Comparison of the friction coefficient under high heat flux conditions including significant viscosity and density reductions near the wall with various correlations for the hydraulic resistance will be presented; the best agreement is achieve with the correlation of Pioro et al. 2004. It is concluded, that the semi-analytical prediction method is accurate and efficient for forced convection flows even at high heat fluxes. The wall-roughness height is identified as an important model parameter. (authors)

Laurien, E. [Univ. of Stuttgart, Inst. for Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems IKE, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany)

2012-07-01

261

INITIAL RESULTS ON USE OF SUBCRITICAL WATER FOR EXTRACTION AND FRACTIONATION OF ORGANIC AEROSOL FROM WOOD SMOKE AND DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE AND APPLICATION OF TOXICITY TESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, subcritical water was used for the extraction and fractionation of organic atmospheric particulate. Two types of carbonaceous aerosol, diesel exhaust particulate (a relatively nonpolar matrix) and wood smoke particulate (a polar matrix), were sequentially extracted using subcritical water at temperatures ranging from 25°C to 300°C. The importance of each fraction was evaluated using two bacterial systems, the

Alena Kubátová; Mayia M. Fernandez; Matthew J. Picklo; John R. Gallagher; Steven B. Hawthorne

262

Quit Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... updated on: August 18, 2014 The Basics Quitting smoking is one of the most important things you ... to be active with your family and friends. Smoking hurts almost every part of the body. Smoking ...

263

Mycobacterium avium complex in day care hot water systems, and persistence of live cells and DNA in hot water pipes.  

PubMed

The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a group of opportunistic human pathogens that may thrive in engineered water systems. MAC has been shown to occur in drinking water supplies based on surface water, but less is known about the occurrence and persistence of live cells and DNA in public hot water systems based on groundwater. In this study, we examined the occurrence of MAC in hot water systems of public day care centers and determined the persistence of live and dead M. avium cells and naked DNA in model systems with the modern plumbing material cross-linked polyethylene (PEX). The occurrence of MAC and co-occurrence of Legionella spp. and Legionella pneumophila were determined using cultivation and qPCR. Co-occurrences of MAC and Legionella were detected in water and/or biofilms in all hot water systems at temperatures between 40 and 54 °C. Moderate correlations were observed between abundance of culturable MAC and that of MAC genome copies, and between MAC and total eubacterial genome copies. No quantitative relationship was observed between occurrence of Legionella and that of MAC. Persistence in hot water of live and dead M. avium cells and naked DNA was studied using PEX laboratory model systems at 44 °C. Naked DNA and DNA in dead M. avium cells persisted for weeks. Live M. avium increased tenfold in water and biofilms on PEX. The results suggest that water and biofilms in groundwater-based hot water systems can constitute reservoirs of MAC, and that amplifiable naked DNA is relatively short-lived, whereas PEX plumbing material supports persistence and proliferation of M. avium. PMID:24272032

Bukh, Annette S; Roslev, Peter

2014-04-01

264

Field Demonstration of Emerging Pipe Wall Integrity Assessment Technologies for Large Cast Iron Water Mains - Paper  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,000-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast-iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Se...

265

FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EMERGING PIPE WALL INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR LARGE CAST IRON WATER MAINS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,500-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Septembe...

266

Fluid-structure interaction with pipe-wall viscoelasticity during water hammer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) due to water hammer in a pipeline which has viscoelastic wall behaviour is studied. Appropriate governing equations are derived and numerically solved. In the numerical implementation of the hydraulic and structural equations, viscoelasticity is incorporated using the Kelvin-Voigt mechanical model. The equations are solved by two different approaches, namely the Method of Characteristics - Finite Element Method

A. Keramat; A. S. Tijsseling; Q. Hou; A. Ahmadi

2011-01-01

267

EVALUATION OF OPPORTUNITIES TO IMPROVE STRUCTURAL INSPECTION CAPABILITIES FOR WATER MAINS: LARGE DIAMETER CAST IRON PIPE  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA and other organizations have projected that a large portion of the United States? aging water conveyance infrastructure will reach the end of its service life in the next several decades. EPA has identified asset management as a critical factor in efficiently addre...

268

CHARACTERIZATION OF LOCALIZED CORROSION OF COPPER PIPES USED IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Localized corrosion of copper, or "copper pitting" in water distribution tubing is a large problem at many utilities. Pitting can lead to pinhole leaks less than a year. Tubing affected by copper pitting will often fail in ultiple locations, resulting in a frustrating situation ...

269

Flexible Pipes-Permeation of Methane, Carbon Dioxide and Water Through Tefzel ETFE: Experiments 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The permeation of a mixture of CH4 and CO2 (97% CH4 and 3% CO2) saturated with water vapour through Tefzel has been studied at 950 C and 25 and 50 bars. Tefzel is the Du Pont trademark of an ETFE (ethylenetetrafluorethylene) which is a copolymer of ethyle...

P. A. Wang, N. Hydro

1997-01-01

270

Mineralogical and Molecular Microbial Characterization of a Lead Pipe Removed from a Drinking Water Distribution System  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) Lead and Copper Rule established an action level for lead of 0.0 15 mg/L in a 1 liter first draw sample at the consumer's tap. Lead corrosion and solubility in drinking water distribution systems are largely controlled by the fo...

271

Avoiding water hammer/fluid transients in nuclear piping systems by controlled filling. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A variety of geometries and operating procedures that lead to steam bubble collapse induced water hammers have been explored experimentally. Construction guidelines that will eliminate the problem at the design stage have been proposed and methods for predicting the pressure signatures proposed.

Not Available

1991-12-31

272

Avoiding water hammer/fluid transients in nuclear piping systems by controlled filling  

SciTech Connect

A variety of geometries and operating procedures that lead to steam bubble collapse induced water hammers have been explored experimentally. Construction guidelines that will eliminate the problem at the design stage have been proposed and methods for predicting the pressure signatures proposed.

Not Available

1991-01-01

273

Tippy Tap Plus Piping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Tippy Tap hand-washing station is an inexpensive and effective device used extensively in the developing world. One shortcoming of the homemade device is that it must be manually refilled with water and therefore is of limited use in high-traffic areas. In this activity, student teams design, prototype and test piping systems to transport water from a storage tank to an existing Tippy Tap hand-washing station, thereby creating a more efficient hand-washing station. Through this example service-learning engineering project, students learn basic fluid dynamic principles that are needed for creating efficient piping systems.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder,

274

Cigar Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Cigar Smoking Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) Many people view cigar smoking as more sophisticated and less dangerous than cigarette ...

275

Comparison between wire-mesh sensor and ultra-fast X-ray tomograph for an air–water flow in a vertical pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison between ultra-fast X-ray CT and a wire-mesh sensor is presented. The measurements were carried out in a vertical pipe of 42 mm inner diameter, which was supplied with an air–water mixture. Both gas and liquid superficial velocities were varied. The X-ray CT delivered 263 frames per second, while the wire-mesh sensor was operated at a frequency four times higher.

H.-M. Prasser; M. Misawa; I. Tiseanu

2005-01-01

276

Piping Flexibility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA computer program aids Hudson Engineering Corporation, Houston, Texas, in the design and construction of huge petrochemical processing plants like the one shown, which is located at Ju'aymah, Saudi Arabia. The pipes handling the flow of chemicals are subject to a variety of stresses, such as weight and variations in pressure and temperature. Hudson Engineering uses a COSMIC piping flexibility analysis computer program to analyze stresses and unsure the necessary strength and flexibility of the pipes. This program helps the company realize substantial savings in reduced engineering time.

1978-01-01

277

INTERIOR VIEW WITH LADLE FILLING A PONT A MOUSSON PIPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH LADLE FILLING A PONT A MOUSSON PIPE CASTING MACHINE (EITHER NO. 2 OR NO. 3) FOR PRODUCTION OF AN 8 INCH FASTTITE PIPE USED FOR GAS AND WATER TRANSMISSION. THIS FRENCH-MADE CASTING MACHINE MAKES 4, 6, 8, 10, AND 12 INCH PIPE. THE MACHINE CAN MAKE 48 EIGHT INCH PIPE AN HOUR AND UP TO 60 FOUR INCH PIPE PER HOUR. - American Cast Iron Pipe Company, Mixer Building, 1501 Thirty-first Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

278

Applying Ultrasonic Phased Array Technology to Examine Austenitic Coarse-Grained Structures for Light Water Reactor Piping  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory is evaluating the capabilities and limitations of phased array (PA) technology to detect service-type flaws in coarse-grained austenitic piping structures. The work is being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Research. This paper presents initial work involving the use of PA technology to determine the effectiveness of detecting and accurately characterizing flaws on the far-side of austenitic piping welds.

Anderson, Michael T.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.

2003-12-18

279

Quitting Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

280

46 CFR 56.10-5 - Pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...also § 56.60-20.) (1) Copper and brass pipe for water and steam service may...temperatures to 406 °F. (2) Copper and brass pipe for air may be used in accordance...pounds per square inch. (5) Copper, brass, or aluminum pipe or tube shall not...

2012-10-01

281

46 CFR 56.10-5 - Pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...also § 56.60-20.) (1) Copper and brass pipe for water and steam service may...temperatures to 406 °F. (2) Copper and brass pipe for air may be used in accordance...pounds per square inch. (5) Copper, brass, or aluminum pipe or tube shall not...

2013-10-01

282

46 CFR 56.10-5 - Pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...also § 56.60-20.) (1) Copper and brass pipe for water and steam service may...temperatures to 406 °F. (2) Copper and brass pipe for air may be used in accordance...pounds per square inch. (5) Copper, brass, or aluminum pipe or tube shall not...

2011-10-01

283

Heat pipes for sun energy conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat pipes fabricated from copper and employing organic fluids or water as the working fluid have been developed for use with solar collectors. The gravity pipes were tested for operation at angles of inclination from 0 to 90 deg. A porous structure (glass wool) was adopted to assure efficient circulation of the fluid. Data for heat pipes tested with acetone,

Z. Murgu; D. Murgu; L. Cojocaru; M. Huzum; E. Tvardochlieb

1978-01-01

284

Refrigerant piping  

SciTech Connect

The piping design of an air conditioning system is a critical element in the proper performance of the system. It involves an extremely complex relationship in the flow of refrigerant oil through the various parts of the system. The factor that must be considered in a piping design are the inter-relationships between velocity, pressure, friction and density, as well as the related variables required for proper fluid flow. These variables and relationships can be expressed in long mathematical equations, performance charts, and pressure drop tables for fluid flow through the piping. The improper design and sizing of refrigerant piping in a sealed system may result in loss of system efficiency that could lead to a los of overall system capacity as well as eventual failure of components of the system.

Puzio, H. [Sussex County Vocational Technical School, Sparta, NJ (United States)

1996-10-01

285

Heat pipe heat exchanger design considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typical heat pipe heat exchangers (HPHX) are described, along with their advantages, uses, and some problems in HPHX design, and a computer HPHX analysis program is discussed with required input data. The computer program is being developed for analysis of heat exchange performance by finned-tube HPHX and thread-puddle-artery heat pipes. Copper-water heat pipes and carbon steel-Dowtherm A heat pipes are

K. T. Feldman; D. C. Lu

1976-01-01

286

Research of sorption processes using chemical water purification sludge for nitrogen and sulfur oxides contained in smoke gases emitted from a thermal power station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of the use of chemical water purification sludge of the Kazan Thermal Power Plant-1 as a sorbent for treatment of smoke gases is considered. The sorption capacity was studied, the sorption isotherm was obtained, and an adsorber with a fixed layer of sludge and acting periodically was analyzed.

Nikolaeva, L. A.

2013-04-01

287

Heat Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than $57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was $28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

1990-01-01

288

Patterns and predictors of tobacco smoking cessation: A hospital-based study of pregnant women in Lebanon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary\\u000a Objectives:  To describe patterns of cigarette and narghile (hubble-bubble or water-pipe) smoking before and during pregnancy and identify\\u000a predictors of successful smoking cessation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods:  A survey was conducted on 4 660 pregnant women who delivered single live births between September 1st, 2001 and December 31st,\\u000a 2002 at five hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon. Women were classified into four groups according to patterns

Kalid Yunis; Hind Beydoun; Pascale Nakad; Mustafa Khogali; Faysal Shatila; Hala Tamim

2007-01-01

289

Smoking cessation.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and smoking cessation is the most effective means of stopping the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Worldwide, approximately a billion people smoke cigarettes and 80% reside in low-income and middle-income countries. Though in the United States there has been a substantial decline in cigarette smoking since 1964, when the Surgeon General's report first reviewed smoking, smoking remains widespread in the United States today (about 23% of the population in 2001). Nicotine is addictive, but there are now effective drugs and behavioral interventions to assist people to overcome the addiction. Available evidence shows that smoking cessation can be helped with counseling, nicotine replacement, and bupropion. Less-studied interventions, including hypnosis, acupuncture, aversive therapy, exercise, lobeline, anxiolytics, mecamylamine, opioid agonists, and silver acetate, have assisted some people in smoking cessation, but none of those interventions has strong research evidence of efficacy. To promote smoking cessation, physicians should discuss with their smoking patients "relevance, risk, rewards, roadblocks, and repetition," and with patients who are willing to attempt to quit, physicians should use the 5-step system of "ask, advise, assess, assist, and arrange." An ideal smoking cessation program is individualized, accounting for the reasons the person smokes, the environment in which smoking occurs, available resources to quit, and individual preferences about how to quit. The clinician should bear in mind that quitting smoking can be very difficult, so it is important to be patient and persistent in developing, implementing, and adjusting each patient's smoking-cessation program. One of the most effective behavioral interventions is advice from a health care professional; it seems not to matter whether the advice is from a doctor, respiratory therapist, nurse, or other clinician, so smoking cessation should be encouraged by multiple clinicians. However, since respiratory therapists interact with smokers frequently, we believe it is particularly important for respiratory therapists to show leadership in implementing smoking cessation. PMID:14651764

Marlow, Scott P; Stoller, James K

2003-12-01

290

Piping Connector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In Stennis Space Center's Component Test Facility, piping lines carry rocket propellants and high pressure cryogenic fuels. When the lines are chilled to a pretest temperature of 400 degrees below zero, ordinary piping connectors can leak. Under contract to Stennis, Reflange, Inc. developed the T-Con connector, which included a secondary seal that tolerates severe temperature change. Because of the limited need for the large and expensive T-Con product, Reflange also developed the less costly E-Con, a smaller more compact design with the same technical advantages as the T-Con.

1994-01-01

291

OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) Cold Water Pipe At-Sea Test Program Data Analysis Project: Users guide for the NOAA/ROTECF and NOAA/TRW computer models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Additional guidelines for the use of the Cold-Water-Pipe computer models NOAA/TRW and NOAA/ROTECF are provided. The primary intent is to correct and upgrade the user manuals with errata sheets and to provide an updated listing of the source codes. It is recommended that users be familiar with the hydrodynamic and structural aspects of floating vessels and the representation of ocean thermal energy conversion pipes as beams of equivalent structural properties.

Vega, L. A.; Nihous, G. C.

1985-06-01

292

Hydrogeologic setting and hydrologic data of the Smoke Creek Desert basin, Washoe County, Nevada, and Lassen County, California, water years 1988-90  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Smoke Creek Desert is a potential source of water for urban development in Washoe County, Nevada. Hydrogeologic data were collected from 1988 to 1990 to learn more about surface- and ground-water flow in the basin. Impermeable rocks form a boundary to ground-water flow on the east side of the basin and at unknown depths at the base of the flow system. Permeable volcanic rocks on the west and north sides of the basin represent a previously unrecognized aquifer and provide potential avenues for interbasin flow. Geophysical data indicate that basin-fill sediments are about 2,000 feet thick near the center of the basin. The geometry of the aquifers, however, remains largely unknown. Measurements of water levels, pressure head, flow rate, water temperature, and specific conductance at 19 wells show little change from 1988 to 1990. Chemically, ground water begins as a dilute sodium and calcium bicarbonate water in the mountain blocks, changes to a slightly saline sodium bicarbonate solution beneath the alluvial fans, and becomes a briny sodium chloride water near the playa. Concentrations of several inorganic constituents in the briny water near the playa commonly exceed Nevada drinking-water standards. Ground water in the Honey Lake basin and Smoke Creek Desert basin has similar stable-isotope composition, except near Sand Pass. If interbasin flow takes place, it likely occurs at depths greater than 400-600 feet beneath Sand Pass or through volcanic rocks to the north of Sand Pass. Measure- ments of streamflow indicate that about 2,800 acre-feet/year discharged from volcanic rocks to streamflow and a minimum of 7.300 acre-feet/year infiltrated and recharged unconsolidated sediments near Smoke, Buffalo, and Squaw Creeks during the period of study. Also about 1,500 acre-feet per year was lost to evapotranspiration along the channel of Smoke Creek, and about 1,680 acre-feet per year of runoff from Smoke, Buffalo, and Squaw Creeks was probably lost to evaporation from the playa.

Maurer, D.K.

1993-01-01

293

Resolution of thermal striping issue downstream of a horizontal pipe elbow in stratified pipe flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermally stratified pipe flow produced by a thermal transient when passing through a horizontal elbow as a result of secondary flow gives rise to large thermal fluctuations on the inner curvature wall of the downstream piping. These fluctuations were measured in a specially instrumented horizontal pipe and elbow system on a test set-up using water in the Mixing Components

T. M. Kuzay; K. E. Kasza

1985-01-01

294

Bag Pipe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore sound by constructing their very own bagpipe instrument. Learners use PVC pipe, a ziploc bag, rubber tubing, rubber bands, a plastic bottle, and a rubber glove to build their bagpipe. Note: a drill is required, but is not included in the cost of materials.

Workshop, Environmental S.

2011-01-01

295

Fires and smoke in Korea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite detected several fires burning in South Korea on June 6, 2002. The smoke is blanketing both South and North Korea, and may be mingling with smoke from other fires in China. Beneath the haze, colored water at the southern tip of the Peninsula suggests sediment or phytoplankton in the coastal waters.

2002-01-01

296

Impact of elevated Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) concentrations of reverse osmosis membrane desalinated seawater on the stability of water pipe materials.  

PubMed

Hardness and alkalinity are known factors influencing the chemical stability of desalinated water. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) on corrosion and/or scale formation on the surface of different water distribution pipe materials under tropical conditions. The corrosion rates of ductile iron, cast iron and cement-lined ductile iron coupons were examined in reverse osmosis (RO) membrane desalinated seawater which was remineralised using different concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). The changes in water characteristics and the coupon corrosion rates were studied before and after the post-treatment. The corrosion mechanisms and corrosion products were examined using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction, respectively. We found that the combination of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (60/40 mg/L as CaCO3) resulted in lower corrosion rates than all other treatments for the three types of pipe materials, suggesting that Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) combination improves the chemical stability of desalinated seawater rather than Ca(2+) only. PMID:24642429

Liang, Juan; Deng, Anqi; Xie, Rongjing; Gomez, Mylene; Hu, Jiangyong; Zhang, Jufang; Ong, Choon Nam; Adin, Avner

2014-03-01

297

Stop smoking support programs  

MedlinePLUS

Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...

298

Experimental investigation of bendable heat pipes using sintered copper felt wick  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using sintered copper felt wicks for developing bendable heat pipes was demonstrated by fabricating two copper-water heat pipes. This work highlights a study of the effect bending has on the performance of these heat pipes from their nominal straight geometry. Flexible and pre-bent heat pipes have been studied and successfully demonstrated in the past. Bendable heat pipes,

Dhananjay D. Odhekar; Daniel K. Harris

2006-01-01

299

46 CFR 154.1125 - Pipes, fittings, and valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...fittings, and valves. (a) Each pipe, fitting, and valve for each...the cargo area. (d) Each pipe, fitting, and valve for the...galvanized steel or galvanized iron pipe. (e) Each water spray...water spray system must have a dirt strainer that is located at...

2011-10-01

300

Heat pipe technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bibliography of heat pipe technology to provide a summary of research projects conducted on heat pipes is presented. The subjects duscussed are: (1) heat pipe applications, (2) heat pipe theory, (3) design and fabrication, (4) testing and operation, (5) subject and author index, and (6) heat pipe related patents.

1972-01-01

301

Smoke Management for Prescribed Burning  

E-print Network

from wildland fires are carbon dioxide and water vapor. (photo John Weir). #12;2 Smoke Management of oxygen and fuel. There are four stages of combustion, and the amount of fuel consumed as well as the amount of smoke produced is distinctive for each stage. · pre-ignition: when fuel particles are initially

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

302

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment  

SciTech Connect

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

Guerin, M.R.

1993-06-01

303

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment  

SciTech Connect

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

Guerin, M.R.

1993-01-01

304

Smoking and Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... ENews Home > Stop Smoking > About Smoking > Facts & Figures Smoking and Older Adults Older smokers are at greater ... of age currently smoked. 3 Health Effects of Smoking An estimated 438,000 Americans die each year ...

305

OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipe at-sea test program data analysis project. Comparisons between measured and predicted barge and pipe response: Evaluation of the NOAA/ROTECF and NOAA/TRW computer models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simulation of the at-sea test conditions with computer models is considered. The NOAA/ROTECF model simulates a coupled barge/pipe system driven by waves and currents in the frequency domain (standard-deviation parameters are considered). The NOAA/TRW model simulates a pipe driven by user-specified barge motions, waves, and currents in the time domain (parameters as a function of time are considered).

Vega, L. A.; Nihous, G. C.

1985-10-01

306

Experimental study on the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flow in horizontal pipes.  

PubMed

An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flows in 2.25 ID horizontal pipe at different flow conditions. The effects of water cuts, liquid and gas velocities on flow patterns and pressure gradients have been studied. The experiments have been conducted at 20 °C using low viscosity Safrasol D80 oil, tap water and air. Superficial water and oil velocities were varied from 0.3 m/s to 3 m/s and air velocity varied from 0.29 m/s to 52.5 m/s to cover wide range of flow patterns. The experiments were performed for 10% to 90% water cuts. The flow patterns were observed and recorded using high speed video camera while the pressure drops were measured using pressure transducers and U-tube manometers. The flow patterns show strong dependence on water fraction, gas velocities, and liquid velocities. The observed flow patterns are stratified (smooth and wavy), elongated bubble, slug, dispersed bubble, and annular flow patterns. The pressure gradients have been found to increase with the increase in gas flow rates. Also, for a given superficial gas velocity, the pressure gradients increased with the increase in the superficial liquid velocity. The pressure gradient first increases and then decreases with increasing water cut. In general, phase inversion was observed with increase in the water cut. The experimental results have been compared with the existing unified Model and a good agreement has been noticed. PMID:24523645

Al-Hadhrami, Luai M; Shaahid, S M; Tunde, Lukman O; Al-Sarkhi, A

2014-01-01

307

Experimental Study on the Flow Regimes and Pressure Gradients of Air-Oil-Water Three-Phase Flow in Horizontal Pipes  

PubMed Central

An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flows in 2.25 ID horizontal pipe at different flow conditions. The effects of water cuts, liquid and gas velocities on flow patterns and pressure gradients have been studied. The experiments have been conducted at 20°C using low viscosity Safrasol D80 oil, tap water and air. Superficial water and oil velocities were varied from 0.3?m/s to 3?m/s and air velocity varied from 0.29?m/s to 52.5?m/s to cover wide range of flow patterns. The experiments were performed for 10% to 90% water cuts. The flow patterns were observed and recorded using high speed video camera while the pressure drops were measured using pressure transducers and U-tube manometers. The flow patterns show strong dependence on water fraction, gas velocities, and liquid velocities. The observed flow patterns are stratified (smooth and wavy), elongated bubble, slug, dispersed bubble, and annular flow patterns. The pressure gradients have been found to increase with the increase in gas flow rates. Also, for a given superficial gas velocity, the pressure gradients increased with the increase in the superficial liquid velocity. The pressure gradient first increases and then decreases with increasing water cut. In general, phase inversion was observed with increase in the water cut. The experimental results have been compared with the existing unified Model and a good agreement has been noticed. PMID:24523645

Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.; Shaahid, S. M.; Tunde, Lukman O.; Al-Sarkhi, A.

2014-01-01

308

System for Testing Thermal Insulation of Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and method have been developed for measuring the rates of leakage of heat into pipes carrying liquids, the purpose of the measurements being to quantify the thermal performance of the insulation system. The apparatus is designed primarily for testing pipes used to carry cryogenic liquids, but can also be used for measuring the thermal performance of other insulated pipes or piping systems. The basic measurement principle is straightforward: The outer surface of the pipe insulation is maintained at a fixed warmer temperature. The interior of the pipe is maintained in a narrow fixed lower-temperature range by means of a regular liquid (e.g., water) that is pumped through the pipe at a known flow rate or a cryogenic liquid (e.g., nitrogen) that is saturated at atmospheric pressure and replenished until steady-state conditions are achieved. In the case of water or another liquid pumped through, the inlet and outlet temperatures are measured and heat-leak power is calculated as the mass flow rate of the liquid multiplied by the specific heat of the liquid multiplied by the inlet-to-outlet temperature rise of the liquid. In the case of liquid nitrogen or another low-temperature boiling liquid, the heat-leak power is calculated as the rate of boil-off multiplied by the latent heat of vaporization of the liquid. Then the thermal-insulation performance of the pipe system can be calculated as a function of the measured heat-leak power, the inner and outer boundary temperatures, and the dimensions of the pipe. The apparatus can test as many as three pipes simultaneously. The pipes can have inner diameters up to .15 cm and outer diameters up to .20 cm. The lengths of the pipes may vary; typical lengths are of the order of 18 m. Two thermal guard boxes . one for each end of the pipe(s) under test . are used to make the inlet and outlet fluid connections to the pipe(s) (see figure). The connections include bellows that accommodate thermal expansion and contraction of the pipes. The guard boxes and pipe(s) are positioned so that the pipe(s) slope upward from the upstream to the downstream end at an angle of at least 2 . The upward slope allows vapor bubbles to accumulate at the downstream end. The thermal guard boxes keep the ends of the pipes at the lower interior temperature to prevent spurious lengthwise leakage of heat into the pipes. It is important to prevent this spurious heat leakage because, if it were allowed to occur, it could contribute a large error in the measured heat-leak power. The upstream thermal guard box includes a heat exchanger through which liquid flowing into the pipe(s) is subcooled to the saturation temperature corresponding to the ambient pressure. Conversely, this heat exchanger can also be used to warm the flowing liquid to a desired fixed temperature. The apparatus includes a temperature control device that is placed around each pipe under test. Each device is operated under thermostatic control to maintain the outer surface of the pipe insulation at the specified test temperature. All measurements are recorded on a portable data-acquisition system.

Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, Stanislaw D.; Nagy, Zoltan F.

2003-01-01

309

Solar greenhouse and warm room with a spiral piping system for hot water and a low-cost building-construction method. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This project involved the construction of two small buildings, each mounted on skids, so that, if desired, they could be moved to various sites to demonstrate the following energy proposals: the use of a combination greenhouse and warm room as an addition to an older house for an economical heating solution; the use of PB (polybutylene) black flexible pipe as a solar water heating collector housed in the above solar area; and the use of COST FREE BUILDING BLOCKS made from readily available recycled waste material, namely empty steel and tin cans, repacked in used corrugated cartons. These blocks, laid up into a wall, using glue instead of mortar, make an excellent core wall that can later be covered with protective surfacing, perhaps a rigid foam plastic surface.

Peckworth, R.H.

1983-01-01

310

OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipe at-sea test program. Volume 2.F.: Environmental design criteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prototype for one third scale model is envisioned to be the OTEC Pilot Plant design in the 10/40 MWe size range with an estimated CWP diameter of about 30 feet and an overall vertical length of about 3,000 feet. Thus the one third scale CWP consists of pipe about 10 feet in diameter and 1,000 feet long. A side selection evaluation was initiated to establish a site which would meet both the logistic requirement for construction and operation, provide adequate wave wind climate required for the test validation and finally exhibit bottom slope and sediment layer characteristics adequate for the mooring system, as confirmed by geophysical surveys.

1982-07-01

311

Is Smoking Delayed Smoking Averted?  

Microsoft Academic Search

of the agreement's clauses con- cern restrictions on tobacco ad- vertising, promotion, and sales to young people. The focus is simi- larly reflected in the close atten- tion tobacco use analysts pay to changes in annual data on pat- terns of cigarette smoking among youths. Educating young people and helping them to make rational decisions in regard to smoking is

Sherry Glied

312

Perturbation dynamics in unsteady pipe flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with perturbed unsteady laminar flows in a pipe. Three types of flows are considered: a flow accelerated from rest; a flow in a pipe generated by the controlled motion of a piston; and a water hammer flow where the transient is generated by the instantaneous closure of a valve. Methods of linear stability theory are used to

M. Zhao; M. S. Ghidaoui; A. A. Kolyshkin

2007-01-01

313

NOAA OTEC CWP (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Cold Water Pipe) at-sea test. Volume 3, part 1: Tabulation of the power spectra for selected channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data collected during the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Cold Water Pipe At-Sea Test was analyzed. Data presented included: (1)sensor factors and off sets and the data processing algorithms used to convert the recorded sensor measurements from electrical units to engineering units; (2) plots of the power spectra estimates obtained from a fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis of selected channels; (3) plots of selected sensor measurements as a function of time; and (4) plots of bending strain along the pipe. The mean, root-mean-square (RMS) maximum, and minimum values at each depth are shown in each plot.

1983-11-01

314

NOAA OTEC CWP (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Cold Water Pipe) at-sea test. Volume 3: Additional tabulation of the power spectra, part 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data collected during the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Cold Water Pipe At Sea Test are analyzed. Also included are the following ittems: (1) sensor factors and offsets, and the data processing algorithms used to convert the recorded sensor measurements from electrical to engineering units; (2) plots of the power spectra estimates obtained from a fast fourier transform (FFT) analysis of selected channels; (3) plots of selected sensor measurements as a function of time; and (4) plots of bending strain along the pipe using statistics and values presented.

1983-12-01

315

Vapor spill pipe monitor  

DOEpatents

The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

1983-06-23

316

INTERIOR VIEW WITH LADLE FILLING A PONT A MOUSSON PIPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH LADLE FILLING A PONT A MOUSSON PIPE CASTING MACHINE (EITHER NO. 2 OR NO. 3) FOR PRODUCTION OF AN 8 INCH FASTTITE PIPE USED FOR GAS AND WATER TRANSMISSION. - American Cast Iron Pipe Company, Mixer Building, 1501 Thirty-first Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

317

Automated Assessment Tool for the Depth of Pipe Deterioration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defects in underground pipeline images are indicative of the condition of buried infrastructures like sewers and water mains. This paper entitled automated assessment Tool for the depth of pipe deterioration presents a three step method which is a simple, robust and efficient one to detect defects in the underground concrete pipes. It identifies and extracts defect-like structures from pipe images

P. Swarnalatha; Madhuri Kota; Nagarjuna Reddy Resu; G. Srivasanth

2009-01-01

318

Effect of water-soluble fraction of cigarette smoke on human aortic endothelial cells--a proteomic approach.  

PubMed

Proteomic analysis is an important investigative tool used to systematically explore cellular proteins that are responsive to adverse environmental challenges. Tobacco smoking is the second major cause of death in the world. In this study, we utilized two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS) technologies to explore protein changes in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) in response to cigarette smoke extracts (CSE). Among 389 individual proteins resolved using 2-DE, 43 had a 2- to 3-fold change in levels as measured by spot intensity and 32 had more than a 3-fold change. Sixteen of the 32 spots with sufficient amount of proteins were excised for identification by performing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-MS analysis. Using a peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) to search the nrNCBI database, we identified all these 16 proteins, which were either increased (n = 9) or decreased (n = 7) after CSE treatment. All these proteins have known functions, however, none have been reported to be altered after CSE treatment. The findings from our study suggest that utilizing a systemic investigative tool, such as the proteomic approach using 2-DE, may play an important role in discovering novel molecular mechanisms for cigarette smoking-induced pathological changes. Further investigation following the systemic discoveries must be further examined as they may potentially lead to new therapeutic approaches to smoking-induced diseases - a health issue affecting everyone in the world. PMID:15868486

Raveendran, M; Senthil, D; Utama, B; Shen, Y; Wang, J; Zhang, Y; Wang, X L

2005-01-01

319

CO2 EuroPipe study of the occurrence of free water in dense phase CO 2 transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

For carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), various specifications of the water content in CO2 have been given. These specifications range from 40 to 500 ppm. Unfortunately, little has been published on the rationale behind these concentration limits. The present lack of clarity on the dryness requirements is undesirable, because eventually, we must come to a water content standard for CCS

Luuk Buit; Mohammad Ahmad; Wim Mallon; Fred Hage

2011-01-01

320

Damage to buried water supply pipelines in the chichi (Taiwan) earthquake and apreliminary evaluation of seismic resistance of pipe joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a brief description of the damage to the public water supply pipelines in the central Taiwan area due to the strong earthquake shock (M=7.3) on September 21, 1999. Field investigation of water supply systems near the earthquake epicenter was conducted, and results were summarized as: (1) the intensive faulting movement was irresistible to the pipeline system; (2)

Shaun H. Lin

2000-01-01

321

Analysis of Distribution System and Domestic Service Line Pipe Deposits to Understand Water Treatment/Metal Release Relationships  

EPA Science Inventory

This project puts the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) into a unique position of being able to bring analytical tools to bear to solve or anticipate future drinking water infrastructure water quality and metallic or cement material performance problems, for which little...

322

Quality of Piped and Stored Water in Households with Children Under Five Years of Age Enrolled in the Mali Site of the Global Enteric Multi-Center Study (GEMS)  

PubMed Central

Water, sanitation, and hygiene information was collected during a matched case-control study of moderate and severe diarrhea (MSD) among 4,096 children < 5 years of age in Bamako, Mali. Primary use of piped water (conditional odds ratio [cOR] = 0.45; 0.34–0.62), continuous water access (cOR = 0.30; 0.20–0.43), fetching water daily (cOR = 0.77; 0.63–0.96), and breastfeeding (cOR = 0.65; 0.49–0.88) significantly reduced the likelihood of MSD. Fetching water in > 30 minutes (cOR = 2.56; 1.55–4.23) was associated with MSD. Piped tap water and courier-delivered water contained high (> 2 mg/L) concentrations of free residual chlorine and no detectable Escherichia coli. However, many households stored water overnight, resulting in inadequate free residual chlorine (< 0.2 mg/L) for preventing microbial contamination. Coliforms and E. coli were detected in 48% and 8% of stored household water samples, respectively. Although most of Bamako's population enjoys access to an improved water source, water quality is often compromised during household storage. PMID:23836570

Baker, Kelly K.; Sow, Samba O.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Nataro, James P.; Farag, Tamer H.; Tamboura, Boubou; Doumbia, Mama; Sanogo, Doh; Diarra, Drissa; O'Reilly, Ciara E.; Mintz, Eric; Panchalingam, Sandra; Wu, Yukun; Blackwelder, William C.; Levine, Myron M.

2013-01-01

323

Insulated pipe clamp design  

SciTech Connect

Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. The design considerations and methods along with the development tests are presented. Special considerations to guard against adverse cracking of the insulation material, to maintain the clamp-pipe stiffness desired during a seismic event, to minimize clamp restraint on the pipe during normal pipe heatup, and to resist clamp rotation or spinning on the pipe are emphasized.

Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

1980-01-01

324

Smoking and Infertility  

MedlinePLUS

... Website of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Smoking and infertility Can smoking affect my ability to have a child? Most ... complication rates are also increased with smoking. Will smoking affect my eggs or sperm? Chemicals (such as ...

325

Smoking and HIV  

MedlinePLUS

... 28, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 803 Smoking and HIV WHY IS SMOKING MORE DANGEROUS FOR ... It can also worsen liver problems like hepatitis. Smoking and Side Effects People with HIV who smoke ...

326

All about Quitting Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... quit-smoking class or join a support group. All About Quitting Smoking American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800– ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 3/14 Toolkit No. 7: All About Quitting Smoking continued Diabetes and Smoking: Double ...

327

Smoking during Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... It's been added to your dashboard . Smoking during pregnancy Smoking is bad for you. It can cause ... your baby’s life. How can smoking affect your pregnancy? Women who smoke during pregnancy are more likely ...

328

Investigations of sand–water induced erosive wear of AISI 304L stainless steel pipes by pilot-scale and laboratory-scale testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The repair costs of erosion damage caused by solid particle impingement from transporting slurries and other particle-laden liquids in pipes can be extremely high. In the absence of accurate predictive models, routine monitoring of the pipe wall thickness or the use of sacrificial coupons are required to warn of erosion damage or impending loss of containment. Apart from advantages for

R. J. K. Wood; T. F. Jones

2003-01-01

329

Smoking cessation.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. It is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the developed world. Smoking is a chronic relapsing disease. Optimal treatment includes nonpharmacologic support, together with pharmacotherapy. All clinicians should be comfortable with the use of nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, and varenicline. Second-line therapies can be used by those familiar with their use. Effective use of these medications requires their integration into an effective management plan, which is likely to be a long-term undertaking, involving several cycles of remission and relapse. PMID:24507844

Rennard, Stephen I; Daughton, David M

2014-03-01

330

Smoking control and smoking rate: implications for worksite smoking cessation.  

PubMed

Amount of control of smoking at three comparable chemical plants was associated with smoking rates. Using a self-report survey, smoking rates were assessed at the three plants. Company authorities were asked about smoking control policy and the extent to which smoking was controlled at each of the three plants was observed. A judgment was made that one plant had a very strict smoking control policy while the other two had moderate policies of control. Smoking rate was then compared for each of the three companies. The company with the strongest smoking control policy had a significantly lower mean rate of smoking than the other two companies. Smoking control may serve to facilitate cessation on the worksite. PMID:1924617

Dawley, L T; Dawley, H H; Glasgow, R E; Correa, P; Rice, J

1991-06-01

331

Arsenic Accumulation and Release Studies Using a Cast Iron Pipe Section from a Drinking Water Distribution System  

EPA Science Inventory

The tendency of iron solid surfaces to adsorb arsenic and other ions is well known and has become the basis for several drinking water treatment approaches that remove these contaminants. It is reasonable to assume that iron-based solids, such as corrosion deposits present in dri...

332

Field Demonstration of Innovative Leak Detection/Location in Conjunction with Pipe Wall Thickness Testing for Water Mains  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,000-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Se...

333

Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector  

DOEpatents

A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

McConnell, Robert D. (Lakewood, CO); Vansant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

1984-01-01

334

Relationships between cloud droplet effective radius, liquid water content, and droplet concentration for warm clouds in Brazil embedded in biomass smoke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Smoke, Clouds, and Radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) project, the microphysical properties of over 1000 warm, nonprecipitating, clouds were measured from the University of Washington research aircraft. The clouds were partially embedded in the continental-scale, smoky haze that envelops much of Brazil during the biomass-burning season. For the entire data set, the most universal parameterization for the effective cloud droplet radius (reff) is as a function of the ratio of cloud liquid water content (LWC) to droplet concentration (essentially the volume mean radius, rv); this agrees with previous studies under less polluted conditions. Comparisons of SCAR-B data with data from the east coast of the United States and clean oceanic areas show that the reff-rv relationship is similar in all three cases, suggesting that even the extreme case of clouds impacted by large biomass fires can be treated similarly to more typical clouds. Beyond a certain ambient concentration of accumulation-mode particles (˜3000-4000 cm-3), cloud drop number concentrations for cumulus clouds in Brazil were almost constant, so that further increases in the ambient particle concentration did not change reff and reff correlates well with LWC alone. For example, a cumulus cloud, which capped a particularly large smoke plume with total particle concentrations >150,000 cm-3, had the same reff-LWC relationship as other clouds in the region where the ambient particle concentrations were ˜3000 cm-3. In this study the values of reff for cumulus clouds in Brazil affected by smoke were between 3 and 8 ?m, compared to 9 to 14 ?m inferred from satellite measurements of cloud reflectivity at 3.7 ?m by Kaufman and Fraser [1997].

Reid, Jeffrey S.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Rangno, Arthur L.; Hegg, Dean A.

1999-03-01

335

33 CFR 157.122 - Piping, valves, and fittings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...122 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... (g) Each hydrant valve for water washing in the piping of a COW...system for cargo tanks has a steam heater used when water washing, it must be located...

2013-07-01

336

33 CFR 157.122 - Piping, valves, and fittings.  

...122 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... (g) Each hydrant valve for water washing in the piping of a COW...system for cargo tanks has a steam heater used when water washing, it must be located...

2014-07-01

337

On the shape of stress corrosion cracks in sensitized Type 304 SS in Boiling Water Reactor primary coolant piping at 288 °C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evolution of the shape of surface cracks in sensitized Type 304 SS in Boiling Water Reactor primary coolant circuit piping at the reactor operating temperature of 288 °C is explored as a function of various environmental variables, such as electrochemical potential (ECP), solution conductivity, flow velocity, and multiplier for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) standard exchange current density (SECD), using the coupled environment fracture model (CEFM). For this work, the CEFM was upgraded by incorporating Shoji's model for calculating the crack tip strain rate and more advanced expressions were used for estimating the stress intensity factor for semi-elliptical surface cracks. This revised CEFM accurately predicts the dependence of the crack growth rate on stress intensity factor and offers an alternative explanation for the development of semi-elliptical cracks than that provided by fracture mechanics alone. The evolution of surface crack semi-elliptical shape depends strongly upon various environmental variables identified above, and the CEFM predicts that the minor axis of the ellipse should be oriented perpendicular to the surface, in agreement with observation. The development of the observed semi-elliptical cracks with the minor axis perpendicular to the surface is therefore attributed to the dependence of the crack growth rate on the electrochemical crack length.

Lee, Sang-Kwon; Kramer, Daniel; Macdonald, Digby D.

2014-11-01

338

Pipe-to-pipe impact program  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the tests and analyses performed as part of the Pipe-to-Pipe Impact (PTPI) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This work was performed to assist the NRC in making licensing decisions regarding pipe-to-pipe impact events following postulated breaks in high energy fluid system piping. The report scope encompasses work conducted from the program's start through the completion of the initial hot oil tests. The test equipment, procedures, and results are described, as are analytic studies of failure potential and data correlation. Because the PTPI Program is only partially completed, the total significance of the current test results cannot yet be accurately assessed. Therefore, although trends in the data are discussed, final conclusions and recommendations will be possible only after the completion of the program, which is scheduled to end in FY 1984.

Alzheimer, J.M.; Bampton, M.C.C.; Friley, J.R.; Simonen, F.A.

1984-06-01

339

Rotating optical geometry sensor for inner pipe-surface reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inspection of sewer or fresh water pipes is usually carried out by a remotely controlled inspection vehicle equipped with a high resolution camera and a lightning system. This operator-oriented approach based on offline analysis of the recorded images is highly subjective and prone to errors. Beside the subjective classification of pipe defects through the operator standard closed circuit television (CCTV) technology is not suitable for detecting geometrical deformations resulting from e.g. structural mechanical weakness of the pipe, corrosion of e.g. cast-iron material or sedimentations. At Fraunhofer Institute of Optronics, System Technologies and Image Exploitation (IOSB) in Karlsruhe, Germany, a new Rotating Optical Geometry Sensor (ROGS) for pipe inspection has been developed which is capable of measuring the inner pipe geometry very precisely over the whole pipe length. This paper describes the developed ROGS system and the online adaption strategy for choosing the optimal system parameters. These parameters are the rotation and traveling speed dependent from the pipe diameter. Furthermore, a practicable calibration methodology is presented which guarantees an identification of the several internal sensor parameters. ROGS has been integrated in two different systems: A rod based system for small fresh water pipes and a standard inspection vehicle based system for large sewer Pipes. These systems have been successfully applied to different pipe systems. With this measurement method the geometric information can be used efficiently for an objective repeatable quality evaluation. Results and experiences in the area of fresh water pipe inspection will be presented.

Ritter, Moritz; Frey, Christan W.

2010-01-01

340

Heat pipes. [technology utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and use of heat pipes are described, including space requirements and contributions. Controllable heat pipes, and designs for automatically maintaining a selected constant temperature, are discussed which would add to the versatility and usefulness of heat pipes in industrial processing, manufacture of integrated circuits, and in temperature stabilization of electronics.

1975-01-01

341

Antigravity heat pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general design and principle of operation of an antigravity heat pipe, in which the heat transfer agent is supplied to the evaporator against the force of gravity, are descussed. Analytical expressions describing the operation of the heat pipe are presented, as are experimental results obtained for an acetone-charged antigravity heat pipe.

N. I. Kliuev

1989-01-01

342

Previewing Semantic Web Pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this demo we present a first implementation of Semantic Web Pipes, a powerful tool to build RDF-based mashups. Semantic Web pipes are defined in XML and when executed they fetch RDF graphs on the Web, operate on them, and produce an RDF output which is itself accessible via a stable URL. Humans can also use pipes directly thanks to

Christian Morbidoni; Danh Le Phuoc; Axel Polleres; Matthias Samwald; Giovanni Tummarello

2008-01-01

343

Minimising surface water pollution resulting from farm?dairy effluent application to mole?pipe drained soils. I. An evaluation of the deferred irrigation system for sustainable land treatment in the Manawatu  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little information available on the magnitude of nutrient losses to surface water from the two?pond and daily irrigation treatment systems for farm?dairy effluent (FDE). A research site has been established on a mole?pipe drained Tokomaru silt loam at Massey University's No. 4 Dairy Farm (475 cows) to investigate some of these issues. The site consists of four plots

D. J. Houlbrooke; D. J. Horne; M. J. Hedley; J. A. Hanly; D. R. Scotter; V. O. Snow

2004-01-01

344

Effect of temperature, WPS (water-phase salt) and phenolic contents on4 Listeria monocytogenes growth rates on cold-smoked salmon and evaluation5  

E-print Network

monocytogenes growth rates on cold-smoked salmon and evaluation5 of secondary models.6 M. Cornu1* , A. Beaufort1 and phenolic20 smoke compounds on the growth rate of L. monocytogenes in cold-smoked salmon were21 investigated, through physico-chemical analyses, challenge tests on surface of cold-smoked22 salmon at 4°C and 8°C

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

345

The state of the art of induction bent pipe  

SciTech Connect

This paper firstly describes trends in induction bending techniques and materials for high strength induction bent pipes up to X80 grade, and then introduces performance of high strength induction bent pipes and corrosion resistant alloy bent pipes. The new bending techniques such as the continuous heating and cooling process and the water cooling method from both inside and outside, and alloy design of the steel and the weld metal suited for the induction bending enabled to manufacture high strength and good toughness microalloyed steel bent pipes with low Ceq and hence good weldability and to improve corrosion resistance of corrosion resistant alloy bent pipes.

Kondo, J.; Nagae, Moriyasu [NKK Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Hirano, Osamu [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Takagishi, Masaaki [Dai-ichi High Frequency Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

1994-12-31

346

Pipe Line Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The array of tanks, pipes and valves in the photo below is a petroleum tank farm in Georgia, part of a petrochemical pipe line system that moves refined petroleum products from Texas and Louisiana to the mid-Eastern seaboard. The same pipes handle a number of different products, such as gasoline, kerosene, jet fuel or fuel oil. The fluids are temporarily stored in tanks, pumped into the pipes in turn and routed to other way stations along the pipe line. The complex job of controlling, measuring and monitoring fuel flow is accomplished automatically by a computerized control and communications system which incorporates multiple space technologies.

1978-01-01

347

Steam generation via solar heat pipes  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an experimental set up which uses solar heat pipes to generate process steam. The characteristics of a single parabolic mirror concentrating collector together with the heat pipe tested intensively in the field. Temperature distributions at various points along the heat pipe are measured. By measuring the temperatures at inlet and outlet of the condenser and the water flow rate, the efficiency of the system and the energy that can be used for steam generation can be calculated. A system which can generate 4 kg/hr of steam is designed. It consists of a series of parabolic mirror concentrating collectors, heat pipes with integrated condensers, a storage tank and a water circulating system.

Ismail, K.A.R.; Liu, C.Y.

1983-12-01

348

Improved thermoplastic materials for offshore flexible pipes  

SciTech Connect

Long-term aging tests representative of field operating conditions have been conducted on various thermoplastic materials proposed for the inner tube of flexible pipes for offshore drilling and production applications. In particular, experimental data are provided about the changes of the mechanical properties of selected thermoplastic materials owing to optimized formulation when the pipes are exposed over time to crude oil in the presence of gas and water.

Dawans, F.; Jarrin, J.; Hardy, J.

1988-08-01

349

Transient flows and pressure waves in pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient laminar flows and pressure-wave propagations in pipes connected with components, commonly known as water hammer, are analyzed. The system studied consists of a constant-pressure vessel, a uniform circular pipe, a valve between them, and a receiver vessel. A pressure-wave equation and a linearized velocity equation are derived from the equations of mass and momentum conservation. Waveform distortion due to

X. Q. Wang; J. G. Sun; W. T. Sha

1994-01-01

350

NO SMOKING Paintball  

E-print Network

Highlights · NO SMOKING · Paintball · Birthdays · Manners TheELIWeekly NO SMOKING are continuing to ignore the signs and the rules about smoking in the area outside the Florida Room (the stone Library. This is a NO SMOKING AREA. Smoking is not permitted within 50 feet (about 18 meters

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

351

IMMUNOTOXICITY OF ORGANOTINS USED AS STABILIZERS IN PVC PIPE  

EPA Science Inventory

Organotins, used as stabilizers in the production of PVC drinking water supply pipe, are known to leach into water, particularly from new pipe. Certain organotins (dibutyl-, dioctyl- and tributyltins) are known to suppress immune function following acute and subchronic exposure o...

352

Culvert pipe materials and durability: Making the right  

E-print Network

Manual (Chapter 2) #12;What causes pipes to deteriorate? · Acidity/alkalinity of water and soil (pH) · Soil resistivity · Chlorides & Sulfates · Abrasion · Loading (structural, freeze/thaw, bedding) #12.armtec.com/en-ca/products-and-services/drainage-solutions- and-water-treatment/hdpe-pipe/boss-2000.aspx #12;Databases Investigation · NRCS Web Soil Survey (WSS

Minnesota, University of

353

Bugs, Drugs & Smoke  

E-print Network

tobacco and stop people from smoking, tobacco companies wereand to stop tobacco use Switzerland, 2006. No smoking areastop there. Yuhta continued tobacco advertising and restricting to research anti-smoking

WHO

2012-01-01

354

Guide to Quitting Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... My Saved Articles » My ACS » Guide to Quitting Smoking Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) The US Surgeon General has said, “Smoking cessation [stopping smoking] represents the single most important ...

355

Smoking and Youth  

MedlinePLUS

Smoking cigarettes has many health risks for everyone. However, the younger you are when you start smoking, the more problems it can cause. People who start smoking before the age of 21 have the hardest ...

356

Smoking and asthma  

MedlinePLUS

... your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger for many people who have ... do not have to be a smoker for smoking to cause harm. Exposure to someone else's smoking ( ...

357

African Americans and Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... though they smoke about the same amount. 2 Smoking Rates Among African Americans In 2008, about 5. ... 8%) middle school students. 11 Other Facts About Smoking Among African Americans Use of menthol cigarettes is ...

358

Smoking and Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Smoking and Cervical Cancer If you smoke, you have an increased chance of developing precancerous lesions of ... returning for follow-up appointments, and to Stop Smoking! Copyright © 2003, 2008 American Society for Colposcopy and ...

359

Smoking and Eye Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Smoking and Eye Health Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics ... vision may start to occur. Follow Us Avoiding smoking and second hand smoke—or quitting if you ...

360

Stop Smoking Before Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... Patient Stories FAQs Anesthesia Topics Smoking and Surgery Video Share PRINT Print Home > What To Expect > Detail ... Anesthesia Topics Quick Links Choose a topic: Featured Video: Smoking and Surgery Learn why stopping smoking before ...

361

Smoking hazards (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Smoking cigarettes puts a person at risk for emphysema, lung cancer and other health problems. Second-hand smoke (smoke from a nearby cigarette) may also contribute to these diseases, especially among children.

362

Smoking and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... Disorder (ADHD) • Miscarriage CS245221 Smoking causes these health effects. Smoking could cause these health effects, but more studies are needed to be sure. Quitting Smoking Can Be Hard, But It Is One of ...

363

Piping inspection instrument carriage  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of a pipe inspection instrument carriage for use with a pipe crawler or other locomotion means for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has means mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and means for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has means for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure.

Zollinger, W.T.; Treanor, R.C.

1993-09-20

364

Miniature Heat Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small Business Innovation Research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to Thermacore Inc. have fostered the company work on devices tagged "heat pipes" for space application. To control the extreme temperature ranges in space, heat pipes are important to spacecraft. The problem was to maintain an 8-watt central processing unit (CPU) at less than 90 C in a notebook computer using no power, with very little space available and without using forced convection. Thermacore's answer was in the design of a powder metal wick that transfers CPU heat from a tightly confined spot to an area near available air flow. The heat pipe technology permits a notebook computer to be operated in any position without loss of performance. Miniature heat pipe technology has successfully been applied, such as in Pentium Processor notebook computers. The company expects its heat pipes to accommodate desktop computers as well. Cellular phones, camcorders, and other hand-held electronics are forsible applications for heat pipes.

1997-01-01

365

Deployable Heat Pipe Radiator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1.2- by 1.8-m variable conductance heat pipe radiator was designed, built, and tested. The radiator has deployment capability and can passively control Freon-21 fluid loop temperatures under varying loads and environments. It consists of six grooved variable conductance heat pipes attached to a 0.032-in. aluminum panel. Heat is supplied to the radiator via a fluid header or a single-fluid flexible heat pipe header. The heat pipe header is an artery design that has a flexible section capable of bending up to 90 degrees. Radiator loads as high as 850 watts were successfully tested. Over a load variation of 200 watts, the outlet temperature of the Freon-21 fluid varied by 7 F. An alternate control system was also investigated which used a variable conductance heat pipe header attached to the heat pipe radiator panel.

Edelstein, F.

1975-01-01

366

Hydrogen Piping Experience in Chevron  

E-print Network

piping specifications and practices for hydrogen service (Cont'd) Seamless pipe (SA 106GrB or lessHydrogen Piping Experience in Chevron Refining Ned Niccolls Materials Engineer Chevron Energy perspectives from long term use of hydrogen piping in refining. Piping specifications and practices. The (few

367

Abrasion resistant heat pipe  

DOEpatents

A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

Ernst, Donald M. (Leola, PA)

1984-10-23

368

33 CFR 127.613 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Smoking. 127.613 Section 127.613 Navigation and Navigable...Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.613 Smoking. In the marine transfer area for LNG, the operator...

2012-07-01

369

33 CFR 127.613 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Smoking. 127.613 Section 127.613 Navigation and Navigable...Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.613 Smoking. In the marine transfer area for LNG, the operator...

2013-07-01

370

33 CFR 127.1601 - Smoking.  

...Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Smoking. 127.1601 Section 127.1601 Navigation and Navigable...Liquefied Hazardous Gas Fire Protection § 127.1601 Smoking. Each operator of a waterfront facility handling LHG...

2014-07-01

371

33 CFR 127.613 - Smoking.  

...Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Smoking. 127.613 Section 127.613 Navigation and Navigable...Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.613 Smoking. In the marine transfer area for LNG, the operator...

2014-07-01

372

33 CFR 127.613 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Smoking. 127.613 Section 127.613 Navigation and Navigable...Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.613 Smoking. In the marine transfer area for LNG, the operator...

2011-07-01

373

33 CFR 127.1601 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Smoking. 127.1601 Section 127.1601 Navigation and Navigable...Liquefied Hazardous Gas Fire Protection § 127.1601 Smoking. Each operator of a waterfront facility handling LHG...

2011-07-01

374

33 CFR 127.1601 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Smoking. 127.1601 Section 127.1601 Navigation and Navigable...Liquefied Hazardous Gas Fire Protection § 127.1601 Smoking. Each operator of a waterfront facility handling LHG...

2012-07-01

375

33 CFR 127.1601 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Smoking. 127.1601 Section 127.1601 Navigation and Navigable...Liquefied Hazardous Gas Fire Protection § 127.1601 Smoking. Each operator of a waterfront facility handling LHG...

2013-07-01

376

33 CFR 127.1601 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking. 127.1601 Section 127.1601 Navigation and Navigable...Liquefied Hazardous Gas Fire Protection § 127.1601 Smoking. Each operator of a waterfront facility handling LHG...

2010-07-01

377

33 CFR 127.613 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking. 127.613 Section 127.613 Navigation and Navigable...Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.613 Smoking. In the marine transfer area for LNG, the operator...

2010-07-01

378

Smoking cessation medications  

MedlinePLUS

Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Creating a plan to help you deal with smoking urges. Getting support from a doctor, counselor, or ...

379

Asthma Triggers - Secondhand Smoke  

MedlinePLUS

... 004] Environmental Asthma Triggers Secondhand Smoke Dust Mites Molds Cockroaches and Pests Pets Nitrogen Dioxide Outdoor Air Pollution Chemical Irritants Wood Smoke For all EPA asthma resources ...

380

Smoking Rain Clouds over M. O. Andreae,1  

E-print Network

Smoking Rain Clouds over the Amazon M. O. Andreae,1 * D. Rosenfeld,2 * P. Artaxo,3 A. A. Costa,4 G. P. Frank,1 K. M. Longo,5 M. A. F. Silva-Dias6 Heavy smoke from forest fires in the Amazon in pyro-clouds. Suppression of low-level rainout and aerosol washout allows transport of water and smoke

Daniel, Rosenfeld

381

Method for Smoke Spread Testing of Large Premises  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for performing non-destructive smoke spread tests has been developed, tested and applied to several existing buildings. Burning methanol in different size steel trays cooled by water generates the heat source. Several tray sizes are available to cover fire sources up to nearly 1MW. The smoke is supplied by means of a suitable number of smoke generators that produce

P. Walmerdahl; P. Werling

2001-01-01

382

UNDERSTANDING CHLORINE AND CHLORAMINE DECAY KINETICS IN OLD CAST IRON PIPES, 2. CONVERSION FROM CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT TO MICROFILTRATION IN A SMALL WATER SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

This insitu pipe loop study was designed to determine the disinfectant kinetics associated with very old unlined cast iron pipelines with both chlorine and chloramination residuals. An abandoned 90-year-old unlined cast iron pipeline about 2000 ft long was acclimated to conduct a...

383

Extendable pipe crawler  

DOEpatents

A pipe crawler is described having a front leg assembly and a back leg assembly connected together by two air cylinders, each leg assembly having four extendable legs and a pair of actuators for sliding the extendable legs radially outward to increase the range of the legs when the pipe crawler enters a section of a pipe having a larger diameter. The crawler crawls by inchworm'-like motion, the front leg assembly and back leg assembly alternately engaging and disengaging the wall of the pipe to hold the pipe crawler as the air cylinders alternately advance the front leg assembly and bring up the rear leg assembly. The pair of actuators of each leg assembly are parallel, adjacent and opposing acting so that each slides two adjacent extendable legs radially outward. 5 figures.

Hapstack, M.

1991-05-28

384

Time Change No Smoking!  

E-print Network

Highlights · Time Change · No Smoking! · Birthdays · Manners TheELIWeekly Set Your Clocks Daylight week's Weekly. Smoking An extra reminder this week, folks. From time to time, there are people smoking in areas where they shouldn't be. We want to be good neighbors! Smoking is NOT permitted in the following

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

385

Smoking Cessation Reimbursement Program  

E-print Network

Smoking Cessation Reimbursement Program We'll show you how to quit smoking for good. You probably know somebody who decided to quit smoking and did it just like that -- without any help or nicotine replacement aids. But for most people, quitting smoking not only requires desire and motivation, it takes

Myers, Lawrence C.

386

Smoking and Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

Q&A: Stop Smoking Share PRINT Print Home > Anesthesia Topics > Detail Page Q: Why should I quit smoking before I have surgery? A: By quitting smoking, ... especially important to the anesthesiologist that I quit smoking before my surgery? A: Anesthesiologists are the heart ...

387

Smoking among Teenage Girls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes recent epidemiological data concerning gender differences in the rates of various smoking behaviors among adolescents. Discusses how gender may influence smoking initiation, maintenance, and cessation among adolescents. Reviews adolescent smoking interventions. Provides recommendations for ways in which the effectiveness of smoking

Wagner, Eric F.; Atkins, Jana H.

2000-01-01

388

Evaluation of stress histories of reactor coolant loop piping for pipe rupture prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the analyses used to evaluate stress histories in the primary coolant loop piping of a selected four-loop pressurized water reactor nuclear power station (Zion-1). The results of the analyses were used as input to a simulation procedure for predicting pipe rupture probabilities of the reactor coolant system presented by another SMiRT-6 paper J6\\/6. Sources of stresses considered

S. C. Lu; R. A. Larder; A. L. Chan; M. S. Ma

1981-01-01

389

Furan flare piping rupture analysis  

SciTech Connect

The FRP flare piping is part of a typical flare system that is used to burn gases from the relief valves in the area, vent gases when the incinerator is down and vents from selected towers. All exhaust gases enter a large flare seal pot where a water seal is maintained. These gases are ignited by a continuous natural gas pilot with propane used as a back-up. A 12 inch (305 mm) diameter FRP piping section containing Furan resin disintegrated after four years of service in a vapor relief system. External inspection of the flare stack conducted just three months earlier revealed no obvious problems. Also, during the ensuring period, there were no upsets in temperature, pressure or process operations. A detailed investigation determined that excessive mechanical stresses at the unsupported 45 degree elbow joints led to strain corrosion and subsequent crumbling of the FRP material. The remainder of the piping and flanges were in good condition. Steps necessary to minimize future problems and the need for industry wide design, inspection and maintenance guidelines are discussed.

Dias, O.C. [Lyondell-Citgo Refining, Houston, TX (United States)

1997-08-01

390

Hot Leg Piping Materials Issues  

SciTech Connect

With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) the reactor outlet piping was recognized to require a design that utilizes internal insulation (Reference c). The initial pipe design suggested ceramic fiber blanket as the insulation material based on requirements associated with service temperature capability within the expected range, very low thermal conductivity, and low density. Nevertheless, it was not considered to be well suited for internal insulation use because its very high surface area and proclivity for holding adsorbed gases, especially water, would make outgassing a source of contaminant gases in the He-Xe working fluid. Additionally, ceramic fiber blanket insulating materials become very friable after relatively short service periods at working temperatures and small pieces of fiber could be dislodged and contaminate the system. Consequently, alternative insulation materials were sought that would have comparable thermal properties and density but superior structural integrity and greatly reduced outgassing. This letter provides technical information regarding insulation and materials issues for the Hot Leg Piping preconceptual design developed for the Project Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP).

V. Munne

2006-07-19

391

Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

Huebotter, Paul R. (Western Springs, IL); McLennan, George A. (Downers Grove, IL)

1985-01-01

392

Understanding the Hydraulics of Porous Pipes: Tradeoffs Between  

E-print Network

hydraulic resistance. However, total flow is proportional to the pipe's overall resistance. These resultsUnderstanding the Hydraulics of Porous Pipes: Tradeoffs Between Water Uptake and Root Length an in-depth analysis of root hydraulic properties. Measurements on nodal maize roots confirm

Holbrook, N. Michele

393

Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

Huebotter, P.R.; McLennan, G.A.

1984-08-30

394

ORGANIC AND ORGANOTIN COMPOUNDS LEACHED FROM PVC AND CPVC PIPE  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary objective of this research program was to determine whether organotins, contained in heat stabilizers of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) pipe, and other organics present in pipe sealing cement solvents may leach into potable water su...

395

Investigation of transient cavitating flow in viscoelastic pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on water hammer in viscoelastic pipes when the fluid pressure drops to liquid vapour pressure is performed. Two important concepts including column separation and the effects of retarded strains in the pipe wall on the fluid response have been investigated separately in recent works, but there is some curiosity as to how the results for pressure and discharge

A. Keramat; A. S. Tijsseling; A. Ahmadi

2010-01-01

396

Leaks in pipe networks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Leak detection in water-distribution systems can be accomplished by solving an inverse problem using measurements of pressure and/or flow. The problem is formulated with equivalent orifice areas of possible leaks as the unknowns. Minimization of the difference between measured and calculated heads produces a solution for the areas. The quality of the result depends on number and location of the measurements. A sensitivity matrix is key to deciding where to make measurements. Both location and magnitude of leaks are sensitive to the quantity and quality of pressure measurements and to how well the pipe friction parameters are known. The overdetermined problem (more measurements than suspected leaks) gives the best results, but some information can be derived from the underdetermined problem. The variance of leak areas, based on the quality of system characteristics and pressure data, indicates the likely accuracy of the results. The method will not substitute for more traditional leak surveys but can serve as a guide and supplement.

Pudar, Ranko S.; Liggett, James A.

1992-01-01

397

SATURATED-SUBCOOLED STRATIFIED FLOW IN HORIZONTAL PIPES  

SciTech Connect

Advanced light water reactor systems are designed to use passive emergency core cooling systems with horizontal pipes that provide highly subcooled water from water storage tanks or passive heat exchangers to the reactor vessel core under accident conditions. Because passive systems are driven by density gradients, the horizontal pipes often do not flow full and thus have a free surface that is exposed to saturated steam and stratified flow is present.

Richard Schultz

2010-08-01

398

Gas pipe explorer robot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas pipe explorer formed of a plurality of connecting elements, and an articulation element between the connected elements. The connected elements include drive capabilities, and the articulation element allows the connected elements to traverse gas pipes of arbitrary shapes and sizes. A sensor may sends the characteristics of the gas pipe, and the communication element may send back those sends characteristics. The communication can be wired, over a tether connecting the device to a remote end. Alternatively, the connection can be wireless, driven by either a generator or a battery.

Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

2004-01-01

399

Smoking Cessation: The Economic Benefits  

MedlinePLUS

... Advocacy > Reports & Resources > Smoking Cessation: The Economic Benefits Smoking Cessation: The Economic Benefits When states invest in covering smoking cessation treatments, they save lives and money. Click ...

400

Machined Titanium Heat-Pipe Wick Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wick structures fabricated by machining of titanium porous material are essential components of lightweight titanium/ water heat pipes of a type now being developed for operation at temperatures up to 530 K in high-radiation environments. In the fabrication of some prior heat pipes, wicks have been made by extruding axial grooves into aluminum unfortunately, titanium cannot be extruded. In the fabrication of some other prior heat pipes, wicks have been made by in-situ sintering of metal powders shaped by the use of forming mandrels that are subsequently removed, but in the specific application that gave rise to the present fabrication method, the required dimensions and shapes of the heat-pipe structures would make it very difficult if not impossible to remove the mandrels due to the length and the small diameter. In the present method, a wick is made from one or more sections that are fabricated separately and assembled outside the tube that constitutes the outer heat pipe wall. The starting wick material is a slab of porous titanium material. This material is machined in its original flat configuration to form axial grooves. In addition, interlocking features are machined at the mating ends of short wick sections that are to be assembled to make a full-length continuous wick structure. Once the sections have been thus assembled, the resulting full-length flat wick structure is rolled into a cylindrical shape and inserted in the heatpipe tube (see figure). This wick-structure fabrication method is not limited to titanium/water heat pipes: It could be extended to other heat pipe materials and working fluids in which the wicks could be made from materials that could be pre-formed into porous slabs.

Rosenfeld, John H.; Minnerly, Kenneth G.; Gernert, Nelson J.

2009-01-01

401

Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

1994-01-01

402

Experimenting with a "Pipe" Whistle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple pipe whistle can be made using pieces of PVC pipe. The whistle can be used to measure the resonant frequencies of open or closed pipes. A slightly modified version of the device can be used to also investigate the interesting dependence of the sound frequencies produced on the orifice-to-edge distance. The pipe whistle described here…

Stafford, Olga

2012-01-01

403

STATISTICAL MODELS FOR WATER MAIN FAILURES  

EPA Science Inventory

A detailed statistical analysis of pipe break records from New Haven, Connecticut, and Cincinnati, Ohio, water distribution systems focussed on deriving predictive models for pipe failure probabilities at the individual pipe level. The statistical methodology of the proportional ...

404

Improved Thin, Flexible Heat Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible heat pipes of an improved type are fabricated as layers of different materials laminated together into vacuum- tight sheets or tapes. In comparison with prior flexible heat pipes, these flexible heat pipes are less susceptible to leakage. Other advantages of these flexible heat pipes, relative to prior flexible heat pipes, include high reliability and greater ease and lower cost of fabrication. Because these heat pipes are very thin, they are highly flexible. When coated on outside surfaces with adhesives, these flexible heat pipes can be applied, like common adhesive tapes, to the surfaces of heat sinks and objects to be cooled, even if those surfaces are curved.

Rosenfeld, John H.; Gernert, Nelson J.; Sarraf, David B.; Wollen, Peter J.; Surina, Frank C.; Fale, John E.

2004-01-01

405

Iron release from corroded iron pipes in drinkingwater distribution systems: effect of dissolved oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron release from corroded iron pipes is the principal cause of ''colored water'' problems in drinkingwater distribution systems. The corrosion scales present in corroded iron pipes restrict the flow of water, and can also deteriorate the water quality. This research was focused on understandingthe effect of dissolved oxyg en (DO), a key water quality parameter, on iron release from the

P. Sarina; V. L. Snoeyink; J. Bebee; K. K. Jim; W. M. Krivena Beckett; J. A. Clement

406

Two modelling approaches to water-quality simulation in a flooded iron-ore mine (Saizerais, Lorraine, France): a semi-distributed chemical reactor model and a physically based distributed reactive transport pipe network model.  

PubMed

The flooding of abandoned mines in the Lorraine Iron Basin (LIB) over the past 25 years has degraded the quality of the groundwater tapped for drinking water. High concentrations of dissolved sulphate have made the water unsuitable for human consumption. This problematic issue has led to the development of numerical tools to support water-resource management in mining contexts. Here we examine two modelling approaches using different numerical tools that we tested on the Saizerais flooded iron-ore mine (Lorraine, France). A first approach considers the Saizerais Mine as a network of two chemical reactors (NCR). The second approach is based on a physically distributed pipe network model (PNM) built with EPANET 2 software. This approach considers the mine as a network of pipes defined by their geometric and chemical parameters. Each reactor in the NCR model includes a detailed chemical model built to simulate quality evolution in the flooded mine water. However, in order to obtain a robust PNM, we simplified the detailed chemical model into a specific sulphate dissolution-precipitation model that is included as sulphate source/sink in both a NCR model and a pipe network model. Both the NCR model and the PNM, based on different numerical techniques, give good post-calibration agreement between the simulated and measured sulphate concentrations in the drinking-water well and overflow drift. The NCR model incorporating the detailed chemical model is useful when a detailed chemical behaviour at the overflow is needed. The PNM incorporating the simplified sulphate dissolution-precipitation model provides better information of the physics controlling the effect of flow and low flow zones, and the time of solid sulphate removal whereas the NCR model will underestimate clean-up time due to the complete mixing assumption. In conclusion, the detailed NCR model will give a first assessment of chemical processes at overflow, and in a second time, the PNM model will provide more detailed information on flow and chemical behaviour (dissolved sulphate concentrations, remaining mass of solid sulphate) in the network. Nevertheless, both modelling methods require hydrological and chemical parameters (recharge flow rate, outflows, volume of mine voids, mass of solids, kinetic constants of the dissolution-precipitation reactions), which are commonly not available for a mine and therefore call for calibration data. PMID:18037533

Hamm, V; Collon-Drouaillet, P; Fabriol, R

2008-02-19

407

Perforation of ABS pipes by boring bivalve Martesia striata: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) pipes are considered to be immune for boring organisms. However, inspection of the offshore cooling water conduits of Lumut combined cycle power plant, Malaysia show that ABS pipes may not necessarily be immune for wood boring pholads, Martesia striata. M. striata caused heavy damage by drilling holes in ABS pipes used (about 5 years) for transportation

H. A. Jenner; S. Rajagopal; G. Van der Velde; M. S. Daud

2003-01-01

408

INTERIOR SURFACE OF GALVANIZED STEEL PIPE: A POTENTIAL FACTOR IN CORROSION RESISTANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the differences found in zinc coatings of galvanized pipes manufactured in the United States, Korea, and Australia. Zinc thickness and finish varied with the type of pipe. In an ongoing pilot study, these pipes are being exposed to water containing various con...

409

Effect of structural character of gold nanoparticles in nanofluid on heat pipe thermal performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanofluid is employed as working medium for conventional circular heat pipe. The nanofluid used in the present study is an aqueous solution of various-sized gold nanoparticles. The thermal resistance of heat pipe with nanofluid or with DI water was measured. The heat pipe was designed as a heat spreader for CPU in a notebook or a desktop PC. At a

C. Y. Tsai; H. T. Chien; P. P. Ding; B. Chan; T. Y. Luh; P. H. Chen

2004-01-01

410

Heat pipe manufacturing study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat pipe manufacturing methods are examined with the goal of establishing cost effective procedures that will ultimately result in cheaper more reliable heat pipes. Those methods which are commonly used by all heat pipe manufacturers have been considered, including: (1) envelope and wick cleaning, (2) end closure and welding, (3) mechanical verification, (4) evacuation and charging, (5) working fluid purity, and (6) charge tube pinch off. The study is limited to moderate temperature aluminum and stainless steel heat pipes with ammonia, Freon-21 and methanol working fluids. Review and evaluation of available manufacturers techniques and procedures together with the results of specific manufacturing oriented tests have yielded a set of recommended cost-effective specifications which can be used by all manufacturers.

Edelstein, F.

1974-01-01

411

Miniature pipe crawler tractor  

DOEpatents

A pipe crawler tractor may comprise a half tractor assembly having a first base drive wheel, a second base drive wheel, and a top drive wheel. The drive wheels are mounted in spaced-apart relation so that the top drive wheel is positioned between the first and second base drive wheels. The mounting arrangement is also such that the first and second base drive wheels contact the inside surface of the pipe at respective first and second positions and so that the top drive wheel contacts the inside surface of the pipe at a third position, the third position being substantially diametrically opposed to the first and second positions. A control system connected to the half tractor assembly controls the rotation of the first base wheel, the second base wheel, and the top drive wheel to move the half tractor assembly within the pipe.

McKay, Mark D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Anderson, Matthew O. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ferrante, Todd A. (Westerville, OH); Willis, W. David (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-01-01

412

Heat pipe development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this program was to investigate analytically and experimentally the performance of heat pipes with composite wicks--specifically, those having pedestal arteries and screwthread circumferential grooves. An analytical model was developed to describe the effects of screwthreads and screen secondary wicks on the transport capability of the artery. The model describes the hydrodynamics of the circumferential flow in triangular grooves with azimuthally varying capillary menisci and liquid cross-sections. Normalized results were obtained which give the influence of evaporator heat flux on the axial heat transport capability of the arterial wick. In order to evaluate the priming behavior of composite wicks under actual load conditions, an 'inverted' glass heat pipe was designed and constructed. The results obtained from the analysis and from the tests with the glass heat pipe were applied to the OAO-C Level 5 heat pipe, and an improved correlation between predicted and measured evaporator and transport performance were obtained.

Bienart, W. B.

1973-01-01

413

Flexible drill pipe  

SciTech Connect

A flexible pipe is described which consists of: an elongated tubular member subdivided into a plurality of segments of rigid pipe of substantial wall thickness in end-to-end relationship with a plurality of interlocking teeth and complementary recesses on each end of the segments intermediate the ends of the tubular member, the teeth of one segment being positioned in the recesses of, and interlocking the teeth of, the adjacent segment with sufficient clearance to form a joint permitting limited relative movement between the segments, each of the teeth comprising an arcuate crown portion with its arc extending generally axially of the pipe, a tapered base portion and a substantially flat shoulder area extending between the crown and base portions in a direction generally circumferentially of the pipe.

Hatten, J.L.

1986-07-15

414

CHARACTERIZING THE PIPE WALL DEMAND FOR FREE CHLORINE IN METALLIC PIPES  

EPA Science Inventory

As water moves through distribution system water quality deterioration can take place in the bulk phase or through interactions at the pipe wall. These transformations can be physical, chemical or microbiological in nature. Perhaps one of the most serious aspects of quality det...

415

Silicon Heat Pipe Array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved methods of heat dissipation are required for modern, high-power density electronic systems. As increased functionality is progressively compacted into decreasing volumes, this need will be exacerbated. High-performance chip power is predicted to increase monotonically and rapidly with time. Systems utilizing these chips are currently reliant upon decades of old cooling technology. Heat pipes offer a solution to this problem. Heat pipes are passive, self-contained, two-phase heat dissipation devices. Heat conducted into the device through a wick structure converts the working fluid into a vapor, which then releases the heat via condensation after being transported away from the heat source. Heat pipes have high thermal conductivities, are inexpensive, and have been utilized in previous space missions. However, the cylindrical geometry of commercial heat pipes is a poor fit to the planar geometries of microelectronic assemblies, the copper that commercial heat pipes are typically constructed of is a poor CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) match to the semiconductor die utilized in these assemblies, and the functionality and reliability of heat pipes in general is strongly dependent on the orientation of the assembly with respect to the gravity vector. What is needed is a planar, semiconductor-based heat pipe array that can be used for cooling of generic MCM (multichip module) assemblies that can also function in all orientations. Such a structure would not only have applications in the cooling of space electronics, but would have commercial applications as well (e.g. cooling of microprocessors and high-power laser diodes). This technology is an improvement over existing heat pipe designs due to the finer porosity of the wick, which enhances capillary pumping pressure, resulting in greater effective thermal conductivity and performance in any orientation with respect to the gravity vector. In addition, it is constructed of silicon, and thus is better suited for the cooling of semiconductor devices.

Yee, Karl Y.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Sunada, Eric T.; Bae, Youngsam; Miller, Jennifer R.; Beinsford, Daniel F.

2013-01-01

416

A pipe-profiling adapter for CCTV inspection cameras: development of a pipe-profiling instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principle of the optical section has been used to develop a profiling attachment for CCTV pipe inspection cameras. A light source, placed in front of the camera, projects a ring of light onto the pipe wall, which is then viewed by the camera. Any distortion in the pipe wall will be made visible by the light ring. The CCTV image is digitized by an electronic frame grabber and the light ring image is located by specially developed pattern-matching software. The light ring shape is then analysed mathematically using a radial descriptor, which allows any distortion to be represented in terms of a Fourier series. The device has been tested in the laboratory and in the field, and has been used to examine pipe degradation both in sewers and in water mains.

Henry, R.; Luxmoore, A. R.

1996-04-01

417

Heat pipe dynamic behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vapor flow in a heat pipe was mathematically modeled and the equations governing the transient behavior of the core were solved numerically. The modeled vapor flow is transient, axisymmetric (or two-dimensional) compressible viscous flow in a closed chamber. The two methods of solution are described. The more promising method failed (a mixed Galerkin finite difference method) whereas a more common finite difference method was successful. Preliminary results are presented showing that multi-dimensional flows need to be treated. A model of the liquid phase of a high temperature heat pipe was developed. The model is intended to be coupled to a vapor phase model for the complete solution of the heat pipe problem. The mathematical equations are formulated consistent with physical processes while allowing a computationally efficient solution. The model simulates time dependent characteristics of concern to the liquid phase including input phase change, output heat fluxes, liquid temperatures, container temperatures, liquid velocities, and liquid pressure. Preliminary results were obtained for two heat pipe startup cases. The heat pipe studied used lithium as the working fluid and an annular wick configuration. Recommendations for implementation based on the results obtained are presented. Experimental studies were initiated using a rectangular heat pipe. Both twin beam laser holography and laser Doppler anemometry were investigated. Preliminary experiments were completed and results are reported.

Issacci, F.; Roche, G. L.; Klein, D. B.; Catton, I.

1988-01-01

418

Policy #3220 Policy on the Use of Tobacco and Smoking-Related Products and Electronic Cigarettes and Vaporizers 1  

E-print Network

Policy #3220 ­ Policy on the Use of Tobacco and Smoking-Related Products and Electronic Cigarettes's restrictions on the use of tobacco and smoking-related products and electronic cigarettes and vaporizers. B-containing products including, but not limited to, cigarettes, cigars, pipes, smokeless tobacco and hookahs. It also

419

KENTUCKY STRAIGHT PIPES REPORT, DECEMBER 2002  

EPA Science Inventory

The poor sanitary conditions and water pollution problems EPA observed in the Kentucky counties of Harlan, Martin, Bath, and Montgomery were of the highest concern. The widespread scale of both the straight pipe issues as well as package plant wastewater problems present an envir...

420

USE OF ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPE  

EPA Science Inventory

Concerning the use of asbestos-cement (A/C) pipe for the distribution of drinking water, the status of the ingested asbestos health research underway in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is briefly described. At the present time there are no U.S. standards for asbestos in ...

421

Assessment of LWR piping design loading based on plant operating experience  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study has been to: (1) identify current Light Water Reactor (LWR) piping design load parameters, (2) identify significant actual LWR piping loads from plant operating experience, (3) perform a comparison of these two sets of data and determine the significance of any differences, and (4) make an evaluation of the load representation in current LWR piping design practice, in view of plant operating experience with respect to piping behavior and response to loading.

Svensson, P. O.

1980-08-01

422

Performance analysis of wick-assisted heat pipe solar collector and comparison with experimental results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of heat pipe solar collector is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The system employs wick-assisted\\u000a heat pipe for the heat transfer from the absorber (evaporator) to a heat exchanger (condenser). The heat pipe is made with\\u000a a copper tube and the evaporator section is finned with aluminium plate. Theoretical model predicts the outlet water from\\u000a heat exchanger, heat pipe

E. Azad

2009-01-01

423

Heat Pipe Integrated Microsystems  

SciTech Connect

The trend in commercial electronics packaging to deliver ever smaller component packaging has enabled the development of new highly integrated modules meeting the demands of the next generation nano satellites. At under ten kilograms, these nano satellites will require both a greater density electronics and a melding of satellite structure and function. Better techniques must be developed to remove the subsequent heat generated by the active components required to-meet future computing requirements. Integration of commercially available electronics must be achieved without the increased costs normally associated with current generation multi chip modules. In this paper we present a method of component integration that uses silicon heat pipe technology and advanced flexible laminate circuit board technology to achieve thermal control and satellite structure. The' electronics/heat pipe stack then becomes an integral component of the spacecraft structure. Thermal management on satellites has always been a problem. The shrinking size of electronics and voltage requirements and the accompanying reduction in power dissipation has helped the situation somewhat. Nevertheless, the demands for increased onboard processing power have resulted in an ever increasing power density within the satellite body. With the introduction of nano satellites, small satellites under ten kilograms and under 1000 cubic inches, the area available on which to place hot components for proper heat dissipation has dwindled dramatically. The resulting satellite has become nearly a solid mass of electronics with nowhere to dissipate heat to space. The silicon heat pipe is attached to an aluminum frame using a thermally conductive epoxy or solder preform. The frame serves three purposes. First, the aluminum frame provides a heat conduction path from the edge of the heat pipe to radiators on the surface of the satellite. Secondly, it serves as an attachment point for extended structures attached to the satellite such as solar panels, radiators, antenna and.telescopes (for communications or sensors). Finally, the packages make thermal contact to the surface of the silicon heat pipe through soft thermal pads. Electronic components can be placed on both sides of the flexible circuit interconnect. Silicon heat pipes have a number of advantages over heat pipe constructed from other materials. Silicon heat pipes offer the ability to put the heat pipe structure beneath the active components of a processed silicon wafer. This would be one way of efficiently cooling the heat generated by wafer scale integrated systems. Using this technique, all the functions of a satellite could be reduced to a few silicon wafers. The integration of the heat pipe and the electronics would further reduce the size and weight of the satellite.

Gass, K.; Robertson, P.J.; Shul, R.; Tigges, C.

1999-03-30

424

24 CFR 3280.706 - Oil piping systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Specification for Seamless Copper Water Tube, ASTM B88-93, or shall comply with...Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Tube for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration...oil piping installed in conjunction with gravity feed systems to oil heating...

2012-04-01

425

24 CFR 3280.706 - Oil piping systems.  

...Specification for Seamless Copper Water Tube, ASTM B88-93, or shall comply with...Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Tube for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration...oil piping installed in conjunction with gravity feed systems to oil heating...

2014-04-01

426

24 CFR 3280.706 - Oil piping systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Specification for Seamless Copper Water Tube, ASTM B88-93, or shall comply with...Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Tube for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration...oil piping installed in conjunction with gravity feed systems to oil heating...

2011-04-01

427

24 CFR 3280.706 - Oil piping systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Specification for Seamless Copper Water Tube, ASTM B88-93, or shall comply with...Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Tube for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration...oil piping installed in conjunction with gravity feed systems to oil heating...

2013-04-01

428

Smoking and Bone Health  

MedlinePLUS

... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Smoking and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF (217 ... Overtraining Risks for Women Oral Health Partner Resources Smoking: It’s Never Too Late to Stop (NIA)

429

Smoking and Mental Illness  

MedlinePLUS

Smoking and Mental Illness February 5, 2013 The mental illness estimates presented in this publication may differ ... in the 2010 Surgeon General’s report that cigarette smoking causes disease and that no level of cigarette ...

430

Cigar Smoking and Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... size of most cigars (more tobacco) and longer smoking time result in higher exposure to many toxic ... the health risk to yourself and others, stop smoking. 3. Do cigars cause cancer and other diseases? ...

431

Stop Smoking for Surgery  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Anesthesia Topics Quick Links Choose a topic: Featured Video: Smoking and Surgery Learn why stopping smoking before ... can have an impact on your outcome. Play Video In Case of Emergency Download, print, fill out, ...

432

Depression and Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

Home » Tools » Depression Basics » Depression and Smoking Depression and Smoking Why is depression more common in smokers? Nobody knows for sure why smokers are more likely to have depression than non- ...

433

Up in Smoke.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research on adolescent smoking and nicotine addiction. Finds, for example, that smoking is linked to depression. Describes five stages of nicotine addiction. Offers tips for prevention. (Contains 12 references.) (PKP)

Black, Susan

2002-01-01

434

Curing and Smoking Poultry  

E-print Network

Cured and smoked poultry is a taste-tempting treat. Easy directions lead the reader step-by-step through the process of selecting poultry, preparing and injecting the brine, soaking and draining the carcass, and smoking the poultry....

Denton, James H.

1999-11-10

435

Smoking and Asthma  

MedlinePLUS

... How to Manage a Serious Allergic Reaction Quiz: Baseball Injuries Smoking and Asthma KidsHealth > Teens > Drugs & Alcohol > ... other reasons to quit: Smoking can undo the effect of any long-term control medicine you're ...

436

46 CFR 154.1125 - Pipes, fittings, and valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fitting, and valve for the water spray system must be made of fire...iron pipe. (e) Each water spray system must have a means of...corrosion of the system and freezing of accumulated water in subfreezing...temperatures. (f) Each water spray system must have a dirt...

2010-10-01

437

Benefits of smoking cessation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking affects cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk through multiple biologic mechanisms, including inflammatory and hemostatic\\u000a factors as well as the development of atheroma. Smoking cessation rapidly reduces the risk of CVD and death in a wide range\\u000a of populations; previous studies may have under-estimated the benefits, as most rely on self-reported smoking status at one\\u000a point in time only. Smoking cessation

Julia A. Critichley; Simon Capewell

2007-01-01

438

Smoking and Pancreatic Disease  

PubMed Central

Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. However, the mechanisms through which it causes the diseases remain unknown. In the present manuscript we reviewed the latest knowledge gained on the effect of cigarette smoke and smoking compounds on cell signaling pathways mediating both diseases. We also reviewed the effect of smoking on the pancreatic cell microenvironment including inflammatory cells and stellate cells. PMID:24660091

Edderkaoui, Mouad; Thrower, Edwin

2014-01-01

439

Cigarette smoking and asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoking and asthma. C. Suppli Ulrik, P. Lange. Cigarette smoking is a well-know health hazard, probably not least for patients suffering from asthma. This review gives a short overview concerning the effects of passive and active smoking on the inception and out- come with regard to longitudinal changes in lung function and mortality for patients with asthma. Substantial evidence

C. Suppli Ulrik; P. Lange

2001-01-01

440

Helping employees quit smoking  

E-print Network

Helping employees quit smoking Tools & Resources on tobacco cessation #12;22 Workplace impact of tobacco use Employees who take four 10-minute smoking breaks a day actually work one month less per year than workers who don't take smoking breaks.4 2 1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website

Jacobs, Laurence J.

441

About You and Smoking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet acquaints the student with current scientific knowledge about smoking and its effects on health, with the economic aspects of smoking, with ways in which young people might help those who now have a smoking problem, and with significant health statistics. It begins, in chapter 1, with a discussion of the history of tobacco and its…

Houser, Norman W.; And Others

442

Relationships and Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... doing their own thing and not together. Conflictual : Smoking causes tension and sometimes arguments between the couple. Jen’s partner, Mitch, does not smoke. He is always bugging Jen about her smoking and often complains that she stinks. Sometimes he ...

443

Guide on Smoking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

GRADES OR AGES: Grades 5-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Smoking. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide has three major parts--1) an outline of basic facts; 2) resource guide on smoking and its relationship to health and disease, with sample lesson plans and vocabulary; and 3) appendix, including questionnaires, selected key facts on smoking, a…

South Dakota State Dept. of Public Instruction, Pierre.

444

Disincentives, Identities, and Smoking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When smoking decisions are understood in terms of the beliefs and attitudes which determine them, prevention programs can focus on changing these beliefs and attitudes. A study was conducted to measure students' attitudes and beliefs on the short-term health effects of smoking, on the social consequences of smoking, and on specific identities…

Norman, Nancy M.

445

Resolution of thermal striping issue downstream of a horizontal pipe elbow in stratified pipe flow. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

A thermally stratified pipe flow produced by a thermal transient when passing through a horizontal elbow as a result of secondary flow gives rise to large thermal fluctuations on the inner curvature wall of the downstream piping. These fluctuations were measured in a specially instrumented horizontal pipe and elbow system on a test set-up using water in the Mixing Components Technology Facility (MCTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This study is part of a larger program which is studying the influence of thermal buoyancy on general reactor component performance. This paper discusses the influence of pipe flow generated thermal oscillations on the thermal stresses induced in the pipe walls. The instrumentation was concentrated around the exit plane of the 90/sup 0/ sweep elbow, since prior tests had indicated that the largest thermal fluctuations would occur within about one hydraulic diameter downstream of the elbow exit. The thermocouples were located along the inner curvature of the piping and measured the near surface fluid temperature. The test matrix involved thermal downramps under turbulent flow conditions.

Kuzay, T.M.; Kasza, K.E.

1985-01-01

446

Resolution of thermal striping issue downstream of a horizontal pipe elbow in stratified pipe flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermally stratified pipe flow produced by a thermal transient when passing through a horizontal elbow as a result of secondary flow gives rise to large thermal fluctuations on the inner curvature wall of the downstream piping. These fluctuations were measured in a specially instrumented horizontal pipe and elbow system on a test set-up using water in the Mixing Components Technology Facility (MCTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This study is part of a larger program which is studying the influence of thermal buoyancy on general reactor component performance. This paper discusses the influence of pipe flow generated thermal oscillations on the thermal stresses induced in the pipe walls. The instrumentation was concentrated around the exit plane of the 90(0) sweep elbow, since prior tests had indicated that the largest thermal fluctuations would occur within about one hydraulic diameter downstream of the elbow exit. The thermocouples were located along the inner curvature of the piping and measured the near surface fluid temperature. The test matrix involved thermal downramps under turbulent flow conditions.

Kuzay, T. M.; Kasza, K. E.

447

Heat Pipe Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heat pipe, a sealed chamber whose walls are lined with a "wick," a thin capillary network containing a working fluid in liquid form was developed for a heat distribution system for non-rotating satellites. Use of the heat pipe provides a continuous heat transfer mechanism. "Heat tubes" that improve temperature control in plastics manufacturing equipment incorporated the heat pipe technology. James M. Stewart, an independent consultant, patented the heat tubes he developed and granted a license to Kona Corporation. The Kona Nozzle for heaterless injection molding gets heat for its operation from an external source and has no internal heating bands, reducing machine maintenance and also eliminating electrical hazards associated with heater bands. The nozzles are used by Eastman Kodak, Bic Pen Corporation, Polaroid, Tupperware, Ford Motor Company, RCA, and Western Electric in the molding of their products.

1981-01-01

448

Apparatus for inspecting piping  

DOEpatents

An inspection rabbit for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON.RTM.). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system.

Zollingger, W. Thor (Martinez, GA); Appel, D. Keith (Aiken, SC); Park, Larry R. (Raleigh, NC)

1995-01-01

449

Heat-pipe Earth.  

PubMed

The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics. PMID:24067709

Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G

2013-09-26

450

Composite drill pipe  

DOEpatents

A composite pipe segment is formed to include tapered in wall thickness ends that are each defined by opposed frustoconical surfaces conformed for self centering receipt and intimate bonding contact within an annular space between corresponding surfaces of a coaxially nested set of metal end pieces. The distal peripheries of the nested end pieces are then welded to each other and the sandwiched and bonded portions are radially pinned. The composite segment may include imbedded conductive leads and the axial end portions of the end pieces are shaped to form a threaded joint with the next pipe assembly that includes a contact ring in one pipe assembly pierced by a pointed contact in the other to connect the corresponding leads across the joint.

Leslie, James C. (Fountain Valley, CA); Leslie, II, James C. (Mission Viejo, CA); Heard, James (Huntington Beach, CA); Truong, Liem (Anaheim, CA), Josephson; Marvin (Huntington Beach, CA), Neubert; Hans (Anaheim, CA)

2008-12-02

451

49 CFR 230.62 - Dry pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS...Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.62 Dry pipe. Dry pipes subject to pressure...examined at each annual inspection to measure wall thickness. Dry pipes with wall...

2010-10-01

452

46 CFR 76.33-15 - Piping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Piping. (a) Individual pipes shall be not less than 3/4 -inch standard pipe size. (b) All piping...drainage. (e) Drains and dirt tapes shall be fitted where...prevent the accumulation of dirt or...

2011-10-01

453

46 CFR 76.33-15 - Piping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Piping. (a) Individual pipes shall be not less than 3/4 -inch standard pipe size. (b) All piping...drainage. (e) Drains and dirt tapes shall be fitted where...prevent the accumulation of dirt or...

2010-10-01

454

Cadmium in tobacco and its fate during smoking  

SciTech Connect

Using a smoking machine, reference cigarettes, a commercial brand of nonfilter 85-millimeter cigarettes, a medium-priced cigar, and a popular brand of pipe tobacco, both wet-ashing and dry-ashing procedures were carried out to determine the cadmium content to which smokers were being exposed. Cigarettes varied from 1.31 to 1.28 micrograms (microg) of cadmium per cigarette, which corresponded to 1.17 to 1.62 microg per gram (g) of cigarette. For cigar tobacco a total of 1.86 microg/g was found and in pipe tobacco the content was 0.93 microg/g. Only 6 to 7% of the cadmium in the smoked portion of the cigarette appeared in the tar, while the unsmoked butts were enriched with 10 to 27% of the cadmium of the smoked portions. The authors suggest that the remaining cadmium, 50 to 55%, is lost in the sidestream during smoking and between puffs. This indicated that not only is the one smoking at risk from cadmium exposure, but so are the others present in the vicinity.

Petering, H.G.; Menden, E.E.; Michael, L.W.

1988-01-01

455

Thermo-Physical Properties of Intermediate Temperature Heat Pipe Fluids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. The paper reports further evaluation of potential heat pipe fluids in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to 700 K in continuation of two recent reports. More thermo-physical property data are examined. Organic, inorganic, and elemental substances are considered. The evaluation of surface tension and other fluid properties are examined. Halides are evaluated as potential heat pipe fluids. Reliable data are not available for all fluids and further database development is necessary. Many of the fluids considered are promising candidates as heat pipe fluids. Water is promising as a heat pipe fluid up to 500 to 550 K. Life test data for thermo-chemical compatibility are almost non-existent.

Beach, Duane E. (Technical Monitor); Devarakonda, Angirasa; Anderson, William G.

2005-01-01

456

Thermo-Physical Properties of Intermediate Temperature Heat Pipe Fluids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. The paper reports further evaluation of potential heat pipe fluids in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to 700 K in continuation of two recent reports. More thermo-physical property data are examined. Organic, inorganic and elemental substances are considered. The evaluation of surface tension and other fluid properties are examined. Halides are evaluated as potential heat pipe fluids. Reliable data are not available for all fluids and further database development in necessary. Many of the fluids considered are promising candidates as heat pipe fluids. Water is promising as a heat pipe fluid up to 500-550 K. Life test data for thermo-chemical compatibility are almost non-existent.

Devarakonda, Angirasa; Anderson, William G.

2004-01-01

457

Heat pipe array heat exchanger  

DOEpatents

A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

1987-08-25

458

Design and analysis of a flexible tendon-driven joint for in-pipe inspection robots  

E-print Network

Leaks in water distribution pipelines result in potentially significant losses of water resources and energy. The detection of such leaks is crucial for effective water resource management. In-pipe robots equipped with ...

Al Hasan, Hisham H

2013-01-01

459

Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

460

Tobacco smoking in seven Latin American cities: the CARMELA study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to explore tobacco smoking in seven major cities of Latin America. Methods The Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America (CARMELA) study is a cross-sectional epidemiological study of 11?550 adults between 25 and 64?years old in Barquisimeto, Venezuela; Bogota, Colombia; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Lima, Peru; Mexico City, Mexico; Quito, Ecuador; and Santiago, Chile. Tobacco smoking, including cigarettes, cigars and pipes, was surveyed among other cardiovascular risk factors. Results Santiago and Buenos Aires had the highest smoking prevalence (45.4% and 38.6%, respectively); male and female rates were similar. In other cities, men smoked more than women, most markedly in Quito (49.4% of men vs 10.5% of women). Peak male smoking prevalence occurred among the youngest two age groups (25–34 and 35–44 years old). Men and women of Buenos Aires smoked the highest number of cigarettes per day on average (15.7 and 12.4, respectively). Men initiated regular smoking earlier than women in each city (ranges 13.7–20.0?years vs 14.2–21.1?years, respectively). Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke at workplace for more than 5?h per day was higher in Barquisimeto (28.7%), Buenos Aires (26.8%) and Santiago (21.5%). The highest prevalence of former smokers was found among men in Buenos Aires, Santiago and Lima (30.0%, 26.8% and 26.0% respectively). Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high in the seven CARMELA cities, although patterns of smoking varied among cities. A major health and economic burden is inevitable in urban Latin America unless effective comprehensive tobacco control measures recommended by the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control are implemented. PMID:20709777

Champagne, B M; Schargrodsky, H; Pramparo, P; Boissonnet, C; Wilson, E

2010-01-01

461

Pipe Drafting with CAD. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide contains nine units of instruction for a course on computer-assisted pipe drafting. The course covers the following topics: introduction to pipe drafting with CAD (computer-assisted design); flow diagrams; pipe and pipe components; valves; piping plans and elevations; isometrics; equipment fabrication drawings; piping design…

Smithson, Buddy

462

Heat pipe turbine vane cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high

L. Langston; A. Faghri

1995-01-01

463

Acme jumper pipe  

SciTech Connect

Acme Steel had operated the larry car with an attached jumper pipe since 1977. Acme had been able to meet the State Implementation Plan. With the advent of the Clean Air Act, Acme did not feel it could meet these new standards without some modifications to the jumper pipe system. Several drop sleeve modifications and numerous boot seal materials and configurations were tested that resulted in limited success in improving the boot seal life. After these modifications, Acme`s testing revealed it could meet the Clean Air Act standards, but it would be cost prohibitive to continue to operate in this manner. Following extensive investigation, Acme decided to install an off-car jumper pipe system which uses a traveling U-tube for connecting to the assist oven through an additional hole in each oven roof. Temperature related failures of drop sleeve seals were eliminated. The off-car jumper pipe is a more efficient gas connection to the assist oven and enables Acme to meet the Clean Air Act charging requirements in a cost effective manner.

Medved, P.; Thomas, H. [Acme Steel Co., Chicago, IL (United States)

1995-09-01

464

The Collection of Ice in Jet A-1 Fuel Pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice collection and blockages in fuel systems have been of interest to the aerospace community since their discovery in the late 1950's when a B-52 crashed. A recent growth of interest was provoked by several incidents that occurred within the last few years. This study seeks to understand the underlying principles of ice growth in fuel flow systems. Tests were performed in a recirculated fuel system with a fuel tank that held approximately 115 gallons of Jet A-1 fuel and ice accumulation was observed in two removable test pipes. The setup was in an altitude chamber capable of -60 °F and the experiments involved full scale flow components. Initially, tests were done to better understand the system and variables that effected accumulation. First, initial conditions within the test pipes were varied. Next, pipe geometry, pipe surface properties, initial water content of the fuel and heat transfer from the fuel pipe were varied. As a result of the tests, observations were made about other effects involved in the study. The effects include: the result of sequentially run tests, the effect of the fuel on the freezing temperature of the entrained water, the effect of ice accumulation on pipe welds, and the effect of the test pipe entrance and exit flow conditions on ice accumulation. The results of initial tests were qualitative. Later quantitative tests were done to demonstrate the dependence of temperature, Reynolds number, and heat transfer on ice accumulation. Tests were quantified with a pressure increase across the pipe sections that was normalized by the expected theoretical initial pressure. As a result of these tests the effect of contamination in the fuel was revealed. For ease of reference, the initial tests were called "stage I" and the later tests were called "stage II". The results of stage I showed that accumulation of soft ice was greatest when a layer of hard ice had initially formed on the pipe surface. Stainless steel collected more ice than Teflon® and there was a lack of a preferential accumulation region downstream of a pipe bend. A greater heat transfer from the pipe increased ice accumulation for aluminum that was made rough with 80 grit sand paper, and for Teflon®. Water was shown to collect in the pipe system as the number of tests increased and the freeze temperature of either the hard or soft ice was about 0 °C. Finally, results of "stage I" tests showed that stainless steel pipe welds were a preferred sight for ice to accumulate. Repeatability was done first in stage II and the normalized pressure increase for two 3/42 un-insulated pipe tests were within 7%. Normalized pressure increase across a pipe was shown to increase as Reynolds number decreased. A 50% increase in Reynolds number led to a 40% decrease in characteristic normalized pressure increase (CNPI). Tests were done at three temperatures and ice accumulated the most at -11 °C. The CNPI at -11 °C was about three times greater than the CNPI at -7.4 °C and about sixty times greater than the CNPI at -19.4 C. A greater heat transfer from the fuel pipe increased ice accumulation. For the amount of time that the tests ran, the total normalized pressure increase was about .9 greater for an un-insulated pipe than for an insulated pipe. Contamination in the fuel increased the amount of soft ice that collected in the system. The CNPI for the more contaminated fuel was more than double the case with less contaminated fuel. Possible solutions for the prevention or decrease of ice accumulation in aircraft fuel systems based on the results of this study are insulated pipes, a change in the type of pipe material, a higher fuel flow rate and cleaner fuel. The fuel temperature could also be altered to avoid temperatures where the most ice accumulates.

Maloney, Thomas C.

465

Maternal smoking during late pregnancy and offspring smoking behaviour  

E-print Network

Maternal smoking during late pregnancy and offspring smoking behaviour M.R. Munafo` a,*, E of maternal smoking during late pregnancy on the likelihood of smoking among offspring in adolescence Development Study. Longitudinal analysis indicated that maternal smoking during late pregnancy was associated

466

Smoking Research Lab: Neurocognitive Processes Contributing to Cigarette Smoking  

E-print Network

Smoking Research Lab: Neurocognitive Processes Contributing to Cigarette Smoking Dr. Stephen J, Life, and Engineering Sciences Imaging Center Most people who smoke cigarettes report that they would of the Smoking Research Lab is to advance our understanding of why it is so hard for people to quit smoking

Bjørnstad, Ottar Nordal

467

PREDICTING CHLORINE RESIDUAL LOSSES IN UNLINED METALIC PIPES  

EPA Science Inventory

There is substantial evidence that as water moves through a water distribution system its quality can deteriorate through interactions between the bulk phase and the pipe wall. One of the most serious aspects of water quality deterioration, in a network, is the loss of disinfect...

468

PREDICTING CHLORINE RESIDUAL LOSSES IN UNLINED METALLIC PIPES (POSTER)  

EPA Science Inventory

There is substantial evidence that as water moves through a water distribution system its quality can deteriorate through interactions between the bulk phase and the pipe wall. One of the most serious aspects of water quality deterioration, in a network, is the loss of disinfect...

469

PREDICTING CHLORINE RESIDUAL LOSSES IN UNLINED METALLIC PIPES (PRESENTATION)  

EPA Science Inventory

There is substantial evidence that as water moves through a water distribution system its quality can deteriorate through interactions between the bulk phase and the pipe wall. One of the most serious aspects of water quality deterioration, in a network, is the loss of disinfecta...

470

Heat Pipes Cool Power Magnetics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Configurations originally developed for space use are effective in any orientation. Heat pipes integrated into high-power, high-frequency, highvoltage spaceflight magnetics reduce weight and improve reliability by lowering internal tempertures. Two heat pipes integrated in design of power transformer cool unit in any orientation. Electrostatic shield conducts heat from windings to heat pipe evaporator. Technology allows dramatic reductions in size and weight, while significantly improving reliability. In addition, all attitude design of heat pipes allows operation of heat pipes independent of local gravity forces.

Hansen, I.; Chester, M.; Luedke, E.

1983-01-01

471

Attention, memory, and cigarette smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four experiments tested the effects of smoking one cigarette on verbal memory and attention. In Experiment I, 18 men were tested under three conditions in a repeated-measures design (pretrial smoking, posttrial smoking, no smoking). Recall of a 50-word list was tested immediately and after intervals of 10 and 45 min. Pretrial smoking resulted in improved recall 10 and 45 min

Shirley C. Peeke; Harman V. S. Peeke

1984-01-01

472

Smoking and skin disease.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic wounds. Most likely, alteration of inflammatory cell function and extracellular matrix turnover caused by smoking-induced oxidative stress are involved in the pathophysiologic mechanisms. PMID:20532469

Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

2010-06-01

473

Investigation of the heat pipe arrays for convective electronic cooling  

E-print Network

was mounted to the center of the heat pipe, while the finned condenser regions were located on both ends. Chang and Wang (1993) developed a finned device which incorporated four thermosyphons operating off of a single water reservoir. A thermosyphon differs... are used instead of thermosyphons and because the heat pipe density is much greater than the thermosyphon density. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Fin Correlations and Optimization External fins are often placed on the evaporator and/or condenser end...

Howard, Alicia Ann Harris

2012-06-07

474

Experimental study of “laminar” bubbly flows in a vertical pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of bubbly two-phase flow parameters in a vertical pipe were performed. To keep the pipe Reynolds number below that for single-phase turbulent transition, a water-glycerin solution was used as the test liquid. Local void fraction and liquid velocity profiles along with the wall shear stress were measured by an electrochemical method. Experiments were made with bubbles of two different

O. N. Kashinsky; L. S. Timkin; A. Cartellier

1993-01-01

475

Drinking Water Distribution Systems Hydraulics, Leakage, and Water Quality Issues  

E-print Network

water pipes!! #12; It is demonstrated that hydraulic transients in water mains have high potential#12; Drinking Water Distribution Systems Hydraulics, Leakage, and Water Quality Issues Life Cycle Assessment for Different Piping Materials Water Demand Analysis due to Water Meter Installation

Su, Xiao

476

Piping design considerations in a solar-Rankine power plant. [pipe size  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two of the main parameters in sizing the piping of a solar power plant are the working pressure of the vapor leaving the solar collectors, and the type of working fluid used. Numerical examples for each case are given using the graphical Moody friction charts and the analytical Darcy-Weisbach equation. Different working pressures of steam vapor in the solar collector-turbine pipe connection indicate their major role in the design. The size variation was found not to be in linear proportion to vapor density variations. On the other hand, high molecular weight organic fluids such as R-11 and R-113, when compared with water, show insignificant changes in piping sizes.

Lansing, F. L.

1977-01-01

477

Reduction of beam refraction in optical pipe flow experiments by use of sheet-fabricated pipe walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A measurement section is presented that allows for the study of liquid flows in straight pipes with noninvasive optical techniques. The amount of refraction of light rays is minimized by the use of short pipe sections manufactured of transparent film. For the situation of water, it is shown that walls as thin as 85 ?m can be used in turbulent flows at high velocities. In our specific case, a flow of water at Reynolds numbers upto Re D =300 000 in a pipe of Ø 70 mm diameter (average velocity 4 m/s) was realized without unacceptable vibrations of the pipe wall. In this situation laser Doppler measurements can be carried out without the need to correct for the position of the measurement volume or changes in the velocity response of the system.

Steenbergen, W.

1996-12-01

478

Experimental study of the thermal performance of thermosyphon heat pipe using iron oxide nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental investigation regarding the use of solid nanoparticles added to water as a working fluid. Tests were made on a thermosyphon heat pipe. The experiment was performed in order to measure the temperature distribution and compare the heat transfer rate of the thermosyphon heat pipe with nanofluid and with DI-water. The iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained

Gabriela Huminic; Angel Huminic; Ion Morjan; Florian Dumitrache

2011-01-01

479

Effects of copper(II) and copper oxides on THMs formation in copper pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about how the growth of trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water is affected in copper pipe. The formation of THMs and chlorine consumption in copper pipe under stagnant flow conditions were investigated. Experiments for the same water held in glass bottles were performed for comparison. Results showed that although THMs levels firstly increased in the presence of chlorine

Bo Li; Jiuhui Qu; Huijuan Liu; Chengzhi Hu

2007-01-01

480

Smoking and Your Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... Topics and Titles : Smoking and the Digestive System Smoking and the Digestive System On this page: What ... for energy, growth, and cell repair. [ Top ] Does smoking increase the risk of cancers of the digestive ...

481

Smoking - Medicines to Help You  

MedlinePLUS

... e-Cigarettes) Tobacco Resources smokefree.gov BeTobaccoFree.gov Smoking - Medicines To Help You Quit Print and Share ( ... name of your product at: Drugs@FDA. Quit Smoking Tips Quit Smoking… for yourself and for those ...

482

Health Harms from Secondhand Smoke  

MedlinePLUS

... on the and smoke ex Surgeon Gen vioral Basis fo Cigarette smok east 69 cause ow levels ... Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking Attributable Disease : A Report of the ...

483

Guidable pipe plug  

DOEpatents

A plugging devic