Sample records for water pollution detection

  1. Water Pollution Detection by Reflectance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goolsby, A. D.

    1971-01-01

    Measurement of the intensity of light reflected from various planar liquid surfaces has been performed. The results of this brief study show that the presence of a film of foreign material floating on a reference substrate is easily detected by reflectance measurement if the two liquids possess significantly different refractive indices, for example, oil (n = 1.40) and water (n = 1.33). Additional study of various optical configurations, and the building and testing of a prototype monitoring device revealed that the method is sufficiently practical for application to continuous water quality monitoring.

  2. Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  3. Water Pollution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This set of activities is designed to help students understand water pollution and its potential effects on human and wildlife habitats. They will understand that pollutants can be divided into three groups: chemical, thermal, and biological. Learning objectives include identification of two or more pollutants in a bog, marsh, stream or other wetland area, using words and art to relate a message about pollution, and understanding that some pollutants cannot be seen.

  4. Microbiology: detection of bacterial pathogens and their occurrence. [Water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Reasoner, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of waterborne diseases are reported in this literature review. Contaminated water is a major source of exposure to bacterial pathogens for both humans and animals. Legionella, an aquatic organism, is of special interest because of its importance as a respiratory pathogen and the human disease outbreaks associated with contaminated air conditioning cooling tower waters and contaminated shower heads in health care institutions. The occurrence and detection of Legionella in water is presented in one of seven tables. Included are 147 references. (JMT)

  5. Method of and device for detecting oil pollutions on water surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Belov, Michael Leonidovich (Moscow, RU); Gorodnichev, Victor Aleksandrovich (Moscow, RU); Kozintsev, Valentin Ivanovich (Moscow, RU); Smimova, Olga Alekseevna (Moscow, RU); Fedotov, Yurii Victorovich (Moscow, RU); Khroustaleva, Anastasiva Michailovnan (Moscow, RU)

    2008-08-26

    Detection of oil pollution on water surfaces includes providing echo signals obtained from optical radiation of a clean water area at two wavelengths, optically radiating an investigated water area at two wavelengths and obtaining echo signals from the optical radiation of the investigated water area at the two wavelengths, comparing the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the investigated area at two wavelengths with the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the clean water area, and based on the comparison, determining presence or absence of oil pollution in the investigated water area.

  6. Determination of total metal pollutants in water with optical detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudy, Michal; Prokaryn, Piotr; Dybko, Artur; Wroblewski, Wojciech; Brzozka, Zbigniew

    2003-09-01

    The total concentration of heavy metal ions was measured with the use of a highly sensitive reagent (4-(2-pyridylzo)-resorcinol (PAR)). Because of PAR chelates are slightly soluble in water and their forming is not selective, the analytical procedure for Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn determination was developed to perform the analysis in an aqueous environment without the need of inconvenient and time-consuming extraction. A proposed analysis method is more useful in comparison with classical FIA analysis what is crucial during fast classification of various natural water samples. To minimize the chemicals consumption such a classification can be performed in a specially designed microsystem. The Y- shape microchannel structure with a mixing area was made by fine engraving in PMMA plate and sealed with the PDMS one. The M2+-PAR complex forming conditions were determined for each of the chosen metal ions. The solubility of formed complexes was better when a micellar environment was created by the addition of a non-ionic surfactant (Triton X100). Next the synthetic mixtures of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn ions were prepared to obtain total molar metal ions concentration in the range from 10-6 to 10-4 M and measured after on-chip reaction. A tap water and HAC-sample (Highest Allowable Concentration, ?Me=1,2•10-5 M) were also measured. The detection was performed in a special flow cuvette and spectra measurements were carried out using diode array spectrophotometer and CCD detector.

  7. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  8. Molecular Detection and Characterization of Aichi Viruses in Sewage-Polluted Waters of Venezuela?

    PubMed Central

    Alcalá, Ana; Vizzi, Esmeralda; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Zambrano, José L.; Betancourt, Walter; Liprandi, Ferdinando

    2010-01-01

    The circulation of Aichi virus in a major urban area was demonstrated using molecular detection with samples recovered from a major river polluted with sewage discharges in Caracas, Venezuela. Five out of 11 water samples studied were positive, being classified by phylogenetic analysis as genotype B. Analysis of sewage waters appears to be a useful methodology to uncover the presence of a hitherto undetected fecal pathogen in a given geographical area. PMID:20418428

  9. A COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS FOR THE DETECTION OF FECAL POLLUTION IN DRINKING WATER (HYDROGEN SULFIDE, INDICATOR, MODIFICATION)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YOUSEF ATALLA ABU-SAFIEH

    1986-01-01

    A new technique for the detection of microbiological fecal pollution in drinking and in raw surface water has been modified and tested against the standard multiple-tube fermentation technique (most-probable-number, MPN). The performance of the new test in detecting fecal pollution in drinking water has been tested at different incubation temperatures. The basis for the new test was the detection of

  10. Water Pollution

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to survive. Many different pollutants can harm our rivers, streams, lakes, and oceans. The three most common ... and bacteria. Rain washes soil into streams and rivers. The soil can kill tiny animals and fish ...

  11. Group 8 - Water Pollution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Mecham

    2006-11-30

    BACKGROUND Investigate the issues of water pollution in the world. TASK - What is making the water so polluted? How bad is it? How does nature clean its own water? Who are the worst polluters? What can be done to stop so much pollution? What is the water cycle? What can be done to fix the problem? Explain all this, and 5 ...

  12. Remote Sensing of Water Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

  13. Water Pollution-Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Goller

    1972-01-01

    Water pollution regulations and the types and sources of water pollution common to a ``typical'' cement plant are discussed. With the exception of the problem of totally dissolved solids in ``process'' water, solutions to most of the other water pollution problems common to a cement plant have been known. A solution to the problem of totally dissolved solids in ``process''

  14. Water Bottle Pollution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    awl000422

    2011-10-27

    The effect of water bottles and pollution around the world. Print off 3 copies of this form. W s First, let's learn about Water Bottle Pollution records on your w's form what you learned. Now let's learn about jaguars. Jaguars how can jaguars be harmed by water bottle pollution? Project: Create a travel brochure in Publisher using what you learned about water bottle pollution and jaguars. See ...

  15. Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

  16. Storm Water Runoff Pollution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chicago Children's Museum

    2008-01-01

    This activity (located on page 8 of the PDF) introduces learners to the concept of Non-point Source Pollution--what happens when rain washes garbage and other pollutants into rivers and lakes. Through this demonstration, learners observe how water systems are connected and how pollution in their own backyard can affect larger water supplies.

  17. The Other Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  18. Quantitative real-time PCR assays for sensitive detection of Canada goose-specific fecal pollution in water sources.

    PubMed

    Fremaux, B; Boa, T; Yost, C K

    2010-07-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) are prevalent in North America and may contribute to fecal pollution of water systems where they congregate. This work provides two novel real-time PCR assays (CGOF1-Bac and CGOF2-Bac) allowing for the specific and sensitive detection of Bacteroides 16S rRNA gene markers present within Canada goose feces. PMID:20511425

  19. Laser Detection of Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, C. K. N.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the use of laser spectroscopy in determining the presence of specific gaseous constituents. Three of currently used modes for laser detection of pollution are reviewed; (1) long-path measurements; (2) laser raman (differential absorption) measurements; and (3) optoacoustic detection. (HM)

  20. Water Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

  1. A PCR marker for detection in surface waters of faecal pollution derived from ducks.

    PubMed

    Devane, Megan L; Robson, Beth; Nourozi, Fariba; Scholes, Paula; Gilpin, Brent J

    2007-08-01

    Detection of the faecal pollution contribution from wildfowl is an important adjunct in determining the sources of faecal pollution in waterways. This is particularly true, where human waste and other animal faecal sources have been eliminated as the pollution source. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) marker was developed as a duck-specific marker of faecal pollution. The semi-nested primer system targeted an unknown bacterium (E2) isolated from mallard ducks. E2 had the closest 16S rRNA sequence similarity to members of the Desulfovibrio genus, which was further confirmed by phenotypic characterisation of the bacterium. Testing of the prevalence of E2 identified the marker in 76% of duck faecal samples (n=42), 20% of swan faecal samples (n=10) and 15% of Canada geese faecal samples (n=20). It was also identified in the faeces of two out of 15 domestic goats (13%). The marker was not detected in any samples derived from human faeces or effluent, dairy cows or sheep. It is proposed that this PCR marker would be useful in conjunction with faecal taxation indicators in the determination of pollution derived from duck faecal inputs in waterways. PMID:17631940

  2. ALGAE AND WATER POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algae are involved in water pollution in a number of important ways. It requires a continuous monitoring and study of algae existing in waters of various quality in order to determine what controls or what changes or what uses can be instituted for the benefit of man and for cons...

  3. Fecal Pollution of Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

  4. Fecal Pollution of Water.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

  5. Detection and Characterization of Waterborne Gastroenteritis Viruses in Urban Sewage and Sewage-Polluted River Waters in Caracas, Venezuela ?

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Díaz, J.; Querales, L.; Caraballo, L.; Vizzi, E.; Liprandi, F.; Takiff, H.; Betancourt, W. Q.

    2009-01-01

    The detection and molecular characterization of pathogenic human viruses in urban sewage have been used extensively to derive information on circulating viruses in given populations throughout the world. In this study, a similar approach was applied to provide an overview of the epidemiology of waterborne gastroenteritis viruses circulating in urban areas of Caracas, the capital city of Venezuela in South America. Dry season sampling was conducted in sewers and in a major river severely polluted with urban sewage discharges. Nested PCR was used for detection of human adenoviruses (HAds), while reverse transcription plus nested or seminested PCR was used for detection of enteroviruses (HuEVs), rotaviruses (HRVs), noroviruses (HuNoVs), and astroviruses (HAstVs). HRVs were fully characterized with genotype-specific primers for VP4 (genotype P), VP7 (genotype G), and the rotavirus nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4). HuNoVs and HAstVs were characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The detection rates of all viruses were ?50%, and all sampling events were positive for at least one of the pathogenic viruses studied. The predominant HRV types found were G1, P[8], P[4], and NSP4A and -B. Genogroup II of HuNoVs and HAstV type 8 were frequently detected in sewage and sewage-polluted river waters. This study reveals relevant epidemiological data on the distribution and persistence of human pathogenic viruses in sewage-polluted waters and addresses the potential health risks associated with transmission of these viruses through water-related environmental routes. PMID:19028907

  6. Water Pollution Prevention and Conservation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan is designed to help students apply the pollution prevention (P2) concept to water. It contains the needed background information about water pollution and provides guidance and activities to help students describe water uses and sources, explain why water conservation is important, and explain how pollution prevention concepts can be used to conserve water and prevent water pollution. The preceding pages of the fact sheet contain background information and the definitions necessary to implement this lesson plan.

  7. Pollution Detection Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Barringer Research, Inc.'s COSPEC IVB (correlation spectrometer) can sense from a considerable distance emissions from a volcanic eruption. Remote sensor is capable of measuring sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere. An associated product, GASPEC, a compression of Non-dispersive Gas Filter Spectrometer, is an infrared/ultraviolet gas analyzer which can be used as either a ground based detector or in aircraft/spacecraft applications. Extremely sensitive, it is useful in air pollution investigations for detecting a variety of trace elements, vapors, which exist in the atmosphere in small amounts.

  8. Fluorimetric detection of water pollutants with a fiber-coupled solid state UV laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlitschek, Peter; Buenting, Uwe; Northemann, T.; Hillrichs, Georg

    1996-11-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are important and dangerous pollutants of the aquatic environment. With the method of laser-induced fluorescence it is possible to detect Benzene, Toluene, Xylene (BTX) as well as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) sensitively. The detection of these molecules by a continuously working in-situ method is achieved by combining LIF with fiberoptic guidance of light. We presence results on the detection of BTX and PAH by excitation with 266 nm and 355 nm radiation from a diode-pumped solid-state laser especially developed for sensor applications. The system is operated with thermoelectric cooling and battery supply independent of any installations is projected. The laser delivers pulses of 7 ns/140 (mu) J in the UV at a repetition rate of 100 Hz. Using time-resolved and spectrally-resolved detection of the fluorescence signal, the system delivers information that can be used to discriminate between BTX and PAH-molecules. We have also performed extensive investigations of the influence of scattering particles on the sensor signal. This led to specific optimizations of the sensor-head for different applications.

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL DNA MARKERS FOR THE DETECTION OF HUMAN FECAL POLLUTION IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used genome fragment enrichment and bioinformatics to identify several microbial DNA sequences with high potential for use as markers in PCR assays for detection of human fecal contamination in water. Following competitive solution-phase hybridization of total DNA from human a...

  10. Water Pollution Control Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

  11. Water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald F. Kostecki

    1970-01-01

    I am writing in reference to an article by Leonard B. Dworsky in the August issue of EOS dealing with what the author feels are the necessary steps toward an effective and credible program of water pollution control.That public expectations need to be adjusted to real world solutions can hardly be denied. The general public is all too often led

  12. Human and bovine adenoviruses for the detection of source-specific fecal pollution in coastal waters in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Goonetilleke, A; Gardner, T

    2010-09-01

    In this study, the host-specificity and -sensitivity of human- and bovine-specific adenoviruses (HS-AVs and BS-AVs) were evaluated by testing wastewater/fecal samples from various animal species in Southeast, Queensland, Australia. The overall specificity and sensitivity of the HS-AVs marker were 1.0 and 0.78, respectively. These figures for the BS-AVs were 1.0 and 0.73, respectively. Twenty environmental water samples were collected during wet conditions and 20 samples were colleted during dry conditions from the Maroochy Coastal River and tested for the presence of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), host-specific viral markers, zoonotic bacterial and protozoan pathogens using PCR/qPCR. The concentrations of FIB in water samples collected after wet conditions were generally higher compared to dry conditions. HS-AVs was detected in 20% water samples collected during wet conditions and whereas BS-AVs was detected in both wet (i.e., 10%) and dry (i.e., 10%) conditions. Both Campylobacter jejuni mapA and Salmonella invA genes detected in 10% samples collected during dry conditions. The concentrations of Salmonella invA ranged between 3.5 × 10(2) and 4.3 × 10(2) genomic copies per 500 ml of water Giardia lamblia ?-giardin gene was detected only in one sample (5%) collected during the dry conditions. Weak or significant correlations were observed between FIB with viral markers and zoonotic pathogens. However, during dry conditions, no significant correlations were observed between FIB concentrations with viral markers and zoonotic pathogens. The prevalence of HS-AVs in samples collected from the study river suggests that the quality of water is affected by human fecal pollution and as well as bovine fecal pollution. The results suggest that HS-AVs and BS-AVs detection using PCR could be a useful tool for the identification of human sourced fecal pollution in coastal waters. PMID:20891037

  13. Detection limits of a biological monitoring system for chemical water pollution based on mussel activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Slooff; D. de Zwart; J. M. Marquenie

    1983-01-01

    Based on their ability to accumulate a variety of chemicals, mussels have been widely adopted as useful indicators of pollutant contamination in chemical surveillance programs (PHILIPS 1976; GOLDBERG et al. 1978; DAVIES + PIRIE 1980; NAS 1980; JENSEN et al. 1981). However, sentinel organisms living close to input sources of pollutants may respond rapidly to changes in pollutant flux. Several

  14. Ground water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Canter

    1985-01-01

    Treatment, methodologies. In-situ technologies. Aquifer restoration. Applications and case studies. Decision-making. Risk assessment. References include 225 with complete abstracts. This work covers technologies for ground water pollution control in part one and deals in depth with aquifer restoration decision-making in part two, while part three gives range of case studies and detailed abstracts of 225 references. CONTENTS: 1-Introduction. Technologies for

  15. Detection of the Carcinogenic Water Pollutant Benzo[a]pyrene with an Electro-Switchable Biosurface.

    PubMed

    Lux, Gregor; Langer, Andreas; Pschenitza, Michael; Karsunke, Xaver; Strasser, Ralf; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar; Rant, Ulrich

    2015-04-21

    The toxic nature of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in particular benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), neccessitates the monitoring of PAH contamination levels in food and the environment. Here we introduce an indirect immunoassay format using electro-switchable biosurfaces (ESB) for the detection of B[a]P in water. The association of anti-B[a]P antibodies to microelectrodes is analyzed in real-time by measuring changes in the oscillation dynamics of DNA nanolever probes, which are driven to switch their orientations by high-frequency electrical actuation. From the association kinetics, the active concentration of anti-B[a]P, and hence the B[a]P contamination of the sample, can be determined with picomolar sensitivity. The detection limit of the assay improves with measurement time because increasingly accurate analyses of the binding kinetics become possible. It is demonstrated that an exceedance of the permissible 10 ng/L (40 pM) limit for B[a]P is detectable in an unprecedented short assay time (<1 h), using a simple three-step workflow involving minimal sample preparation. The reproducibility was satisfying with standard deviations below 5%. Further, the utility of the assay for practical applications is exemplified by analyzing a river water sample. PMID:25822755

  16. Likely detection of water-rich asteroid debris in a metal-polluted white dwarf

    E-print Network

    Raddi, R; Koester, D; Farihi, J; Hermes, J J; Scaringi, S; Breedt, E; Girven, J

    2015-01-01

    The cool white dwarf SDSS J124231.07+522626.6 exhibits photospheric absorption lines of 8 distinct heavy elements in medium resolution optical spectra, notably including oxygen. The Teff = 13000 K atmosphere is helium-dominated, but the convection zone contains significant amounts of hydrogen and oxygen. The four most common rock-forming elements (O, Mg, Si, and Fe) account for almost all the accreted mass, totalling at least 1.2e+24 g, similar to the mass of Ceres. The time-averaged accretion rate is 2e+10 g/s, one of the highest rates inferred among all known metal-polluted white dwarfs. We note a large oxygen excess, with respect to the most common metal oxides, suggesting that the white dwarf accreted planetary debris with a water content of ~38 per cent by mass. This star, together with GD 61, GD 16, and GD 362, form a small group of outliers from the known population of evolved planetary systems accreting predominantly dry, rocky debris. This result strengthens the hypothesis that, integrated over the c...

  17. Heavy metal pollution in farmland irrigated with river water near a steel plant - detection by magnetic and geochemical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C. X.

    2012-04-01

    The presence of heavy metals in the environment has become an increasing problem during the last several decades. It is a key scientific issue to disclose the source, degree and extent of pollution in farmland near to heavy industries. In this study the efficiency of magnetic methods for such a purpose is tested at a Chinese city (Loudi, Hunan Province) with fast developing steel industry. Lianshui River flows through the city and passes a large steel plant at the entrance of the urban area. Previous results revealed higher heavy metal contents in the vicinity of the Fe-smelting plant and in the city region[1]. Nearby farmland usually is irrigated with water from this river. We collected vertical soil profiles to about 60 cm depth within farmland nearby Lianshui River with sampling sites distributed from the upstream (before entering the city) to the downstream region (after leaving the city area). These samples were comprehensively investigated by integrating both magnetic and chemical analyses. Heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd etc) pollution in farmland soils in the downstream region is clearly higher than in the upstream region. Magnetic susceptibility and SIRM is correlating with heavy metals contents. The SIRM background in the upstream section of unpolluted farmland soils and river sediments is low (< 7-10-3Am2kg-1), whereas the polluted soils at the surrounding of the steel plant reveal higher SIRM intensities (30 to 40-10-3Am2kg-1) within the topmost 20 cm. SIRM in river sediments also correlates with heavy metals contents; it is strongly enhanced (80 to 200-10-3Am2kg-1) at the same sites, from surface to 40 cm deep depth. Magnetic enhancement is found to be related to the presence of spherical magnetite particles with a diameter of 10~30 ?m. These findings demonstrate that magnetic methods have a convenient practical application for detecting and mapping heavy metal pollution in farmland soils irrigated by river water from nearby industrial areas. Reference 1. Zhang, C. X., Q. Qiao, J.D.A. Piper and B. Huang, Assessment of heavy metal pollution from a Fe-smelting plant in urban river sediments using environmental magnetic and geochemical methods. Environmental Pollution, 2011, 159:3057-3070.

  18. Study on the post-mortem identification of pollutants in the fish killed by water pollution: Detection of arsenic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shingara Singh Sandhu

    1977-01-01

    Summary Careless Herbicidal aerial spray of a field for weed control and defoliation of cotton before machine picking, resulted in the contamination of an adjoining reservoir, killing large volume of fish. The dead catfish, along with water and Amarantha weed leaves analyzed contained relatively high levels of arsenic concentrations, indicative of arsenic being the probable cause of fish killing. The

  19. Water Detectives

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this introductory classroom activity, students exercise their scientific skills of observation and deduction as they use their senses and simple laboratory assays, such as pH indicator paper, to identify mystery pollutants in water samples. Activity includes a student worksheet. This is a learning activity within the Hydrology chapter, GLOBE Teacher's Guide.

  20. The Management of Water: Water Pollution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the official water pollution site for Canada. In the introduction, the problem is stated with reference to pollutants of the Great Lakes over 360 chemical compounds have been identified. Many are persistent toxic chemicals - alkylated lead, benzo(a)pyrene, DDT, mercury and mirex - potentially dangerous to humans and already destructive to the aquatic ecosystems. In referring to water quality, pollutants, toxic substances, and acid rain in the aquatic environment are discussed along with long-range transport of airborne pollutants and toxic chemicals said to be the legacy of a chemical society. Efforts to control water pollution include a multi-barrier approach to protecting drinking water, stated water quality objectives and guidelines, regulations, and advice on how to be a responsible consumer. Other sections include the effects of pollution and groundwater pollution.

  1. Clean Water and Oceans: Water Pollution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the water pollution portal for the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). NRDC works to continue reductions in industrial water pollution while pressing for effective pollution controls on agriculture, logging and other sources previously exempt from them. They help develop and promote strong federal laws and regulations to address polluted runoff, raw sewage discharges, and factory farm wastes and to sue polluters when the Clean Water Act is violated. This site contains simple issue overviews, news, how-to guides, frequently asked questions, photo essays and more in a section called In Brief. The In Depth section offers reports, white papers, policy analyses and other materials by NRDCs lawyers, scientists and analysts.

  2. Exploring Water Pollution. Part 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    Lists over 30 outdoor science activities dealing with water formation, erosion, pollution, and other water-related topics. Provides, in addition, a selected bibliography of films, tapes, booklets and pamphlets, and filmstrips as additional reference materials. (CP)

  3. Biology and Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Charles E.

    Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

  4. Review: Pharmacological Pollution in Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Kaplan

    2012-01-01

    There has been an increasing awareness among environmental scientists in recent years of the presence and potential impacts of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (“PPCPs”) in environmental compartments including surface water, groundwater, soil, bed sediment, and in tissue. This work highlights some of the research developments over approximately the last decade regarding pharmacological pollution in water including pollution characterization, analytical

  5. Eutrophication. [Water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Medine, A.J. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder); Porcella, D.B.

    1982-06-01

    A literature review dealing with the process of eutrophication with respect to the sources and transport of pollutants is presented. Topics include the mathematical modeling of nutrient loading, eutrophication, and aquatic ecosystems. Biological and environmental indicators of eutrophication are reviewed, and the interactions between various chemical and biological pollutants are considered. Several lake management projects are discussed. (KRM)

  6. Nucleic acid extraction from polluted estuarine water for detection of viruses and bacteria by PCR and RT-PCR analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabienne Petit; Stéphanie Craquelin; Janine Guespin-Michel; Claudine Buffet-Janvresse

    1999-01-01

    We describe an extraction protocol for genomic DNA and RNA of both viruses and bacteria from polluted estuary water. This procedure was adapted to the molecular study of microflora of estuarine water where bacteria and viruses are found free, forming low-density biofilms, or intimately associated with organo-mineral particles. The sensitivity of the method was determined with seeded samples for RT-PCR

  7. How Does Water Get Polluted?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Deb Verdoorn Anderson

    This activity is a hands-on modeling of the effects of pollution on our ground and surface water. Students will observe and record their observations as pollution is placed on the ground in their model and it is rained upon.

  8. Pollutants in airport runoff waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Maria Sulej; ?aneta Polkowska; Jacek Namie?nik

    2011-01-01

    Runoff waters from airport areas constitute a serious environmental problem. It is essential to monitor levels of pollutants emitted into the environment and measure their toxicity on a continuous basis.The aim of this paper is to critically review data on pollution from aviation fuel combustion, aviation fuel spillage, the washing and cleaning of aircraft and airport service equipment, the use

  9. Landsat and water pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P.; Fowler, T.; Loats, H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Report presents data derived from satellite images predicting pollution loads after rainfall. It explains method for converting Landsat images of Eastern United States into cover maps for Baltimore/five county region.

  10. Water Pollution: Monitoring the Source.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkes, James W.

    1980-01-01

    Described is an advanced biology class project involving study of the effects of organic pollution on an aquatic ecosystem from an sewage treatment plant overflow to evaluate the chemical quality and biological activity of the river water. (DS)

  11. Detection of Pollution Caused by Solid Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golueke, Clarence G.

    1971-01-01

    To develop a means of detecting pollution, it s necessary to know something about the source and nature of the pollution. The type of pollution rising from solid wastes differs considerably from hat from liquid wastes or that from gaseous wastes ni its effect on the immediate environment. It may be "defined" by a series of negatives. When solid wastes are discarded on land, the resulting pollution is not land pollution in the sense of air and water pollution. For one thing, the solid wastes do not become a "part" of the land in that the wastes are neither intimately mixed nor homogenized into the land as are liquid and gaseous wastes into their respective media. The waste particles retain not only their chemical identity but also their visible (i.e., physical) characteristics. When buried, for example, the soil is under, above, and around the solids, because the wastes are there as discrete units. Secondly, solid wastes neither diffuse nor are they carried from the place at which they were deposited. In other words they remain stationary, providing of course the disposal site is land and not moving water. In a given area, solid wastes be not distributed uniformly over that area. Even the solid wastes falling into the specification of letter meets these specifications. In contrast liquid and gaseous wastes become intimately mixed, homogenized, and even dissolved in their media. Because solid wastes remain stationary, pollution constituted by their presence is highly localized and heavily concentrated, even to the extent that the pollution could be termed "micro" when compared to the macro-pollution arising from liquid and gasequs wastes.

  12. Water Pollution Control courses offered

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anonymous

    1974-01-01

    Manhattan College will conduct the Nineteenth Summer Institute in Water Pollution Control, May 2024, 1974. Two one-week courses will be offered concurrently for advanced study in biological waste treatment and mathematical modeling of natural water systems. Enrollment, on a preregistration basis, will be limited.This continuing engineering education program is designed to enhance the competence of practicing engineers and scientists in

  13. Ground water. [Water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Costle

    1980-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the Nation's ground water is contaminated by a variety of sources. These include unprotected industrial, municipal, and radioactive disposal sites, petroleum exploration and mining activities, agricultural operations such as insecticide spraying, high de-icing salts and others. As of March 1980, more than 8000 chemical tests have been performed on well water, with chlorinated organic solvents

  14. Water Pollution Scrubber Activity Simulates Pollution Control Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Edward C., III; Waggoner, Todd C.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory activity caused students to think actively about water pollution. The students realized that it would be easier to keep water clean than to remove pollutants. They created a water scrubbing system allowing them to pour water in one end and have it emerge clean at the other end. (JOW)

  15. ILLINOIS GROUND WATER POLLUTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William H. Walker

    1969-01-01

    Although there are now ample good quality ground water supplies in Illinois, that may not be so in the future. Widespread contamination of aquifers may occur soon unless stringent precautionary measures are employed.

  16. Water Pollution in School Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham

    1979-01-01

    Water pollution curriculum units of four environmental secondary science programs in Britain, Germany, Israel, and the United States are examined. Comparisons reveal the use of quite different approaches in central topic selection, use of the laboratory and other media, controversial issues, and teacher-student roles. (CS)

  17. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  18. Careers in Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    Described are the activities, responsibilities, and educational and training requirements of the major occupations directly concerned with water pollution control. Also provided is an overview of employment trends, salaries, and projected demand for employees. Included in the appendix is a list of colleges and universities which offer…

  19. Testing Water for Bacterial Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillner, Harry

    This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of water pollution control. It is a learning activity directed toward high school students of biology and/or ecology. A general knowledge of microbiology techniques is regarded as a prerequisite for the lesson. Behavioral objectives are given. Emphasis is placed on use of techniques and materials…

  20. Groundwater and surface water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Y.S.; Hamidi, A. [eds.

    2000-07-01

    This book contains almost all the technical know-how that is required to clean up the water supply. It provides a survey of up-to-date technologies for remediation, as well as a step-by-step guide to pollution assessment for both ground and surface waters. In addition to focusing on causes, effects, and remedies, the book stresses reuse, recycling, and recovery of resources. The authors suggest that through total recycling wastes can become resources.

  1. Combined air and water pollution control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  2. How Did That Get There?: Water Pollution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Illinois

    2009-01-01

    As a group, learners consider sources of water pollution to understand where pollution starts and where it ends up. Also explored are the natural and human-made options for cleaning up our water supply. This activity encourages learners to use their powers of observation, imagination, and public speaking skills as they describe possible pollution stories and scenarios, and brainstorm pollution prevention efforts.

  3. Pollution of ground water in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, S.; Key, A.

    1956-01-01

    This paper discusses pollution of ground water in 20 countries of the European region, giving for each an account of the geology and hydrogeology, water supplies, the extent and nature of ground water pollution, and the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling that pollution. For the countries not considered in the preceding article on surface water pollution, an account is also given of the superficial physical features, rainfall, population, and industries. A general discussion follows of such questions as the ways in which ground water pollution may occur, the factors mitigating or aggravating pollution, and ways of protection against pollution. The authors consider that the problem of ground water pollution in Europe may well be more serious than it would appear to be on the evidence so far obtained. PMID:13374533

  4. Visualizing microbial pollution in Santa Monica Bay with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and through field-testing a rapid, robust, field-portable water detection sensing system

    E-print Network

    2009-01-01

    detection: tools for understanding & characterizing waterdetection system for measuring bacterial concentrations in water. •detection system can be used to provide higher resolution data and understanding of water

  5. Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

    This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

  6. Evaluation of the nifH gene marker of Methanobrevibacter smithii for the detection of sewage pollution in environmental waters in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the host-specificity and -sensitivity of the nifH gene marker of Methanobrevibacter smithii by screening 272 fecal and wastewater samples from 11 animal species including humans in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia. In addition, environmental water samples (n = 21) were collected during the dry and wet weather conditions and tested for the presence of the nifH marker along with other sewage-associated markers, namely, enterococci surface protein (esp) found in Enterococci faecium, Bacteroides HF183, adenoviruses (AVs), and polyomaviruses (PVs). The overall host-specificity of the nifH marker to differentiate between human and animal feces was 0.96 (maximum value of 1), while the overall sensitivity of this marker in human sourced feces and wastewater was 0.81 (maximum value of 1). Among the 21 environmental water samples tested, 2 (10%), 3 (14%), 12 (57%), 6 (29%), and 6 (29%) were positive for the nifH, esp, HF183, AVs and PVs markers, respectively. The prevalence of the nifH marker in environmental water samples, however, was low compared to other markers, suggesting that the use of this marker alone may not be sensitive enough to detect fecal pollution in environmental waters. The nifH marker, however, appears to be sewage-specific in SEQ, Australia, and therefore, it is recommended that this marker should be used as an additional marker in combination with the HF183 or viral markers such as AVs or PVs for accurate and sensitive detection of fecal pollution in SEQ waterways. PMID:22070524

  7. Pollution and the protection of water quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Risebrough

    1986-01-01

    This book reports on research and development in the study of pollution and methodologies to protect water quality, with emphasis on arid countries. Topics covered include overview of the effects of pollution on natural and human environments; water cycle and groundwater resources in arid countries; salinization; standards and technologies for waste water treatment; uses of recycled water; solid waste disposal;

  8. Energy analysis of regional water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Heggen; K. J. Williamson

    1979-01-01

    Methods of water pollution control that were used to restore water quality of Oregon's Willamette River basin are reviewed. A water pollution control strategy that takes environmental, economic, and energy use impacts into consideration is proposed based on experiences in the Willamette basin. In the control strategy, site-specific data are used to devise a water quality index for the basin.

  9. Salmonella pollution of surface waters.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, P. J.; Jones, F.; Watson, D. C.

    1978-01-01

    Surface waters in 14 selected sites were examined for the presence of salmonella using modified Moore's swabs. The sites included an upland impounding reservoir, 3 rivers and 10 streams within Lancashire and Cheshire, selected because of their accessibility to farm livestock. Salmonellas were isolated from 22 out of the 57 swabs examined representing 10 sites. The probable source of pollution was shown to be sewage or farm effluent and an examination of sites over a wider area may be expected to produce similar results. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to the epidemiology of salmonella infections and the possible disinfection of effluent discharges. PMID:731019

  10. Water Pollution. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    Water is one of the most polluted resources in our environment. Since everyone has the same basic need for pure water, it follows that all people should have a basic knowledge of the causes, results and solutions to the water pollution problem. This unit is designed for use with Level II and III educable mentally retarded students to present…

  11. Agricultural water pollution control: An interdisciplinary approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Watkins W. Miller; Chauncey T. K. Ching; John F. Yanagida; Paul Jakus

    1985-01-01

    Regulation and control of agricultural water pollution is unique and difficult to accomplish. Water quality standards are often proposed without adequate consideration of the overall economic impact on agricultural production. This article illustrates how economists and physical scientists can cooperate to develop appropriate control strategies for agricultural water pollution. Data provided by physical scientists and economists are used in a

  12. Detection and mapping of water pollution variation in the Nile Delta using multivariate clustering and GIS techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Shaban; B. Urban; A. El Saadi; M. Faisal

    2010-01-01

    The limited water resources of Egypt lead to widespread water-stress. Consequently, the use of marginal water sources, such as agricultural drainage waters, provides one of the national feasible solutions to the problem. However, the marginal quality of the drainage waters may restrict their use.The objective of this research is to develop a tool for planning and managing the reuse of

  13. Infrared differential absorption for atmospheric pollutant detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Progress made in the generation of tunable infrared radiation and its application to remote pollutant detection by the differential absorption method are summarized. It is recognized that future remote pollutant measurements depended critically on the availability of high energy tunable transmitters. Futhermore, due to eye safety requirements, the transmitted frequency must lie in the 1.4 micron to 13 micron infrared spectral range.

  14. Managing Bacteria Pollution in Texas Waters

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 2 BACTERIA MANAGING tx H2O | pg. 3 IN TEXAS WATERS POLLUTION Managing Bacteria Pollution in Texas Waters tx H2O | pg. 4 W ith 310 water bodies in Texas failing to meetwater quality standards because... of bacteria,managing bacteria pollution is commanding the attention of water agencies, researchers and stake- holders across Texas. These water bodies are listed in the 2006 Texas Water Quality Inventory and 303(d) List for failing to meet the standards...

  15. Water pollution treatability: a molecular engineering approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Strier

    1980-01-01

    Estimated effluent limits for priority nonpesticide organic pollutants, such as phenol and carbon tetrachloride, were developed from the physical-chemical properties (molecular weight, boiling point, and water solubility) and the biochemical oxidizability of these pollutants. These properties were used to develop a separate treatment model (or system) for each pollutant from the following unit treatment processes: steam- or air-stripping; oil\\/water separation;

  16. Global trends in water pollution control legislation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Ozolins; S. S. Fluss; R. Helmer

    1977-01-01

    The scope of legislation on water pollution control is initially examined. Then, the administrative machinery responsible for implementing water pollution control programs is examined, after which the approaches taken by selected countries (Norway, India, USA, Netherlands, Mexico, and New South Wales) to deal with the problem is reviewed. There follows an analysis of the policies adopted by various countries to

  17. The Practice of Water Pollution Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenthun, Kenneth M.

    Water pollution techniques and practices, including data analysis, interpretation and display are described in this book intended primarily for the biologist inexperienced in this work, and for sanitary engineers, chemists, and water pollution control administrators. The characteristics of aquatic environments, their biota, and the effects of…

  18. Symposium on costs of water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anonymous

    1972-01-01

    A National Symposium on Costs of Water Pollution Control will be held in Raleigh, North Carolina, April 67, 1972. The symposium is sponsored by the Research Triangle Universities (Duke University, North Carolina State University, and the University of North Carolina and several national societies. The program will include sessions on economic implications of national goals for water pollution control cost

  19. Rural industries and water pollution in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Wang; Michael Webber; Brian Finlayson; Jon Barnett

    2008-01-01

    Water pollution from small rural industries is a serious problem throughout China. Over half of all river sections monitored for water quality are rated as being unsafe for human contact, and this pollution is estimated to cost several per cent of GDP. While China has some of the toughest environmental protection laws in the world, the implementation of these laws

  20. Magnetic separation in water pollution control - II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher de Latour; Henry Kolm

    1975-01-01

    Magnetic separation in water purification uses a magnetically susceptible seeding material as a substrate for pollutant removal. The chemical bond between the seed and pollutant is normally achieved by the action of a chemical coagulant. There are cases, however, in which an additive is not necessary, as in the removal of algal cells from sea water. Under the proper chemical

  1. Water Conservation and Nonpoint Source Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell-Poe, Kitt

    This book contains science activities that are designed to make learning and demonstrating nonpoint source pollution concepts exciting and fun. These activities can either be used alone or with an existing water resources education curricula. Activities include: Water Tasting, Acting Out the Hydrologic Cycle, Concentration of Chemical Pollutants

  2. Special Topics in Water Science (Water Pollution)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Basics Water Properties Water Cycle Surface Water Groundwater Water Quality Water Use Activities Photos Q&A Teachers Contact ... explore other water-science topic areas, such as water quality, urbanization and water, saline water, watersheds, runoff, and ...

  3. LANDFILL UNDERGROUND POLLUTION DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION USING INORGANIC TRACES

    E-print Network

    Short, Daniel

    LANDFILL UNDERGROUND POLLUTION DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION USING INORGANIC TRACES M. O. LOOSER1 sources as old wastes dump. This is also useful for the monitoring of contaminated sites in time and space of water by analyzing mineral traces at very low level (site descriptions (41 sites

  4. Review of water pollution control in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tingyao Gao; Hongbin Chen; Siqing Xia; Zengyan Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Water resource shortage and pollution has seriously threatened the survival and development of developing countries. Because\\u000a of China’s specific economical and social circumstances, complete adoption of developed countries’ experience is unrealistic.\\u000a At present, China needs to develop strategies and technologies in source water pollution control and municipal environmental\\u000a remediation that embrace the country’s specific need to battle the water resource

  5. Pollution of surface water in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Key, A.

    1956-01-01

    This paper discusses pollution of surface water in 18 European countries. For each an account is given of its physical character, population, industries, and present condition of water supplies; the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling pollution are then described, and an outline is given of current research on the difficulties peculiar to each country. A general discussion of various aspects common to the European problem of water pollution follows; standards of quality are suggested; some difficulties likely to arise in the near future are indicated, and international collaboration, primarily by the exchange of information, is recommended to check or forestall these trends. PMID:13374532

  6. Oven-dried mosses as tools for trace element detection in polluted waters: A preliminary study under laboratory conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Cesa; A. Bizzotto; C. Ferraro; F. Fumagalli; P. Luigi Nimis

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of 11 trace elements, plus Ca, Mg, Na and K was measured in moss bags of living and dead (oven-dried at 105°C) Platyhypnidium riparioides after a 1-week exposure to tap water, and to 0.21, 1.0, 2.5 and 4.0 ?M solutions under laboratory conditions, with the aim of (1) observing the accumulation curves and (2) performing a statistical comparison in

  7. Sheep dip chemicals and water pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Virtue; J. W. Clayton

    1997-01-01

    The Tweed River Purification Board's objective of reducing the numbers and significance of water pollution incidents by a proactive approach based on persuasion and education is described. This has consisted of prioritising potential pollutant sources which have then been investigated in detail followed by discussion and agreement with discharges as to remedial measures. The paper describes in detail the Board's

  8. Engineering aspects of water pollution control systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Dalbke; A. J. Turk

    1967-01-01

    The importance of proper engineering when providing pollution control systems is emphasized. Organization of engineering projects is described in detail. Included are discussions of: (1) collection and evaluation of available data; (2) establishment of survey and test program; (3) integration and evaluation of findings; (4) establishment of pollution control and water utilization systems; and (5) specification and detailed design preparation.

  9. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on experiments with model systems of known organic water pollutants and environmental samples, conclusions are reached concerning the best general solvent for extraction and the most appropriate methods for related manipulations. Chloroform, methylene chloride-ether mixture...

  10. Laser spectroscopic detection of air pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, E. D.

    1978-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the operating principles and applications of laser systems for monitoring pollution based on absorption spectroscopy. Particular consideration is given to an active bistatic system involving a cooperative reflector; an active monostatic system involving natural reflectors; an active monostatic system involving aerosol backscattering; and passive monostatic heterodyne detection.

  11. Water hyacinths for removal of phenols from polluted waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Removal of phenol by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in static water was investigated. 2.75 g dry weight of this aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to absorb 100 mg of phenol per plant per 72 hours from distilled water, river water, and bayou water. One hectare of water hyacinth plants is shown to be potentially capable of removing 160 kg of phenol per 72 hours from waters polluted with this chemical.

  12. Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

  13. Urbanization, Water Pollution, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, George W.; And Others

    Reviewed in this report is a study concerned with water pollution as it relates to urbanization within the Regional Plan Association's set of 21 contiguous New York, New Jersey and Connecticut counties centered upon the numerous bay and estuarial reaches of the Port of New York and New Jersey. With a time frame covering a decade of water quality…

  14. Magnitude of pollution indicator organisms in rural potable water.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, S S; Warren, W J; Nelson, P

    1979-04-01

    A total of 460 water samples were randomly drawn from the potable water supply sources of rural communities in three counties of South Carolina. About 10% of the population, not incorporated in municipalities, was sampled. The samples were tested for total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci. Significant levels of these pollution indicator organisms were detected in almost all the water supplies. Total coliforms were the most common, and only 7.5% of the water supplies were uncontaminated. E. coli, considered a reliable indicator of recent and dangerous pollution, was observed in 43% of the water supplies. Statistical analyses indicated that the bacterial populations, especially E. coli, were associated with the supply source depth and its distance from the septic tank. Total coliform counts were also weakly correlated to the pH of the water. PMID:36849

  15. The spectral absorption coefficient at 254?nm as a real-time early warning proxy for detecting faecal pollution events at alpine karst water resources.

    PubMed

    Stadler, H; Klock, E; Skritek, P; Mach, R L; Zerobin, W; Farnleitner, A H

    2010-01-01

    Because spring water quality from alpine karst aquifers can change very rapidly during event situations, water abstraction management has to be performed in near real-time. Four summer events (2005-2008) at alpine karst springs were investigated in detail in order to evaluate the spectral absorption coefficient at 254?nm (SAC254) as a real-time early warning proxy for faecal pollution. For the investigation Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Satellite-based data communication between portable hydrometeorological measuring stations and an automated microbiological sampling device was used. The method for event triggered microbial sampling and analyzing was already established and described in a previous paper. Data analysis including on-line event characterisation (i.e. precipitation, discharge, turbidity, SAC254) and comprehensive E. coli determination (n>800) indicated that SAC254 is a useful early warning proxy. Irrespective of the studied event situations SAC254 always increased 3 to 6 hours earlier than the onset of faecal pollution, featuring different correlation phases. Furthermore, it seems also possible to use SAC254 as a real-time proxy parameter for estimating the extent of faecal pollution after establishing specific spring and event-type calibrations that take into consideration the variability of the occurrence and the transferability of faecal material It should be highlighted that diffuse faecal pollution from wildlife and live stock sources was responsible for spring water contamination at the investigated catchments. In this respect, the SAC254 can also provide useful information to support microbial source tracking efforts where different situations of infiltration have to be investigated. PMID:20962406

  16. Ground water microbiology and pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Westray, M.S.; Brown, R.A.; Norris, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    The importance of our ground water resources and their susceptibility to contamination from anthropogenic inputs have only recently come to be appreciated. However, studies have now established the existence of an indigenous microbial community in the ground water environment that is capable of degrading many of these contaminants. By understanding how to control the factors that limit biodegradation in the subsurface, it is often possible to stimulate this natural process to remediate polluted ground water.

  17. Behavioural early warning responses to polluted water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Almut Gerhardt

    1996-01-01

    Behavioural early warning responses to polluted surface water from an industrial effluent have been measured in two freshwater\\u000a macroinvertebrate species using the four electrode impedance conversion technique. Specimens ofGammarus pulex (L.) andHydropsycho angustipennis (Curtis) were caught from reference streams and exposed to water from above and below the factory and to reference water\\u000a for about 1 h with different kinds

  18. Modelling and Simulation of a Polluted Water Pumping Process

    E-print Network

    Tradacete, Pedro

    Modelling and Simulation of a Polluted Water Pumping Process Chitra Alavani1 , Roland Glowinski2 concentration when a polluted water pumping ship follows a pre­assigned trajectory to remove the pollutant. We for simplicity that the density of the pollutant is smaller than the one of the sea water (so that it remains

  19. COLLABORATIVE INVESTIGATIONS OF WATER QUALITY POLLUTION PATTERNS: WORKING WITH

    E-print Network

    COLLABORATIVE INVESTIGATIONS OF WATER QUALITY POLLUTION PATTERNS: WORKING WITH THE KYUQUOT and Environmental Management Title of Research Project: Collaborative Investigations of Water Quality Pollution about water quality sampling and policy agenda setting. Through time and repeated interactions

  20. Farm Solutions to Water Pollution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-08-15

    In this KET video from Common Ground and Cleaner Water, Tribby Vice, a Kentucky farmer, talks about the changes he has made on his farm to protect the water quality of the stream running through his property and the watershed in which he lives.

  1. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (water pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Pollution by municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mine wastes, radioactive contaminants; Chemistry and analysis of pollutants; Thermal pollution; Oil pollution; Control techniques and equipment; Sewage treatment; Industrial waste water pretreatment; Hydrology and limnology; Biological and ecological effects; Waste water reuse; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

  2. Water Pollution, Environmental Science Curriculum Guide Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Harold J.

    This curriculum guide is a 40-day unit plan on water pollution developed, in part, from the National Science Foundation Environmental Science Institutes' Ninth Grade Environmental Science Curriculum Guide. This unit contains teacher lesson plans, suggested teacher and student modules, case studies, and activities to be developed by teachers…

  3. Magnetic separation in water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTOPHER DE LATOUR

    1973-01-01

    Magnetic separation as applied to waterborne contaminants is successful in reducing the solids content of a water sample and in removing the dissolved orthophosphate from the aqueous slurry. The contaminants are chemically associated with a magnetic seeding material, and subsequent removal of this seed sweeps the pollutants from the system. The advantage of this form of treatment over conventional techniques

  4. Water Pollution Control Across the Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Reviewed are accomplishments, problems, and frustrations faced by individual states in meeting requirements of P.L. 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. State Environmental officials complain the new law may be a hindrance to established cleanup programs. Statistics and charts are given. (BL)

  5. Mathematical modeling for water pollution control processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Keinath; M. P. Wanielista

    1975-01-01

    Dynamic and steady-state mathematical models have been developed to the extent that they can be used to evaluate, through a series of simulations, design and operation alternatives as well as control strategies for any system. This book focuses on process performance models in water pollution control. Its purpose is: to establish the current status of existing models with emphasis on

  6. Public Information for Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication is a handbook for water pollution control personnel to guide them towards a successful public relations program. This handbook was written to incorporate the latest methods of teaching basic public information techniques to the non-professional in this area. Contents include: (1) a rationale for a public information program; (2)…

  7. Inefficient remediation of ground-water pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Abelson

    1990-01-01

    The problem of trying to remove ground-water pollution by pumping and treating are pointed out. Various Superfund sites are discussed briefly. It is pointed out that many chemicals have been discarded in an undocumented manner, and their place in the groundwater is not known. Results of a remedial program to remove perchloroethylene at a concentration of 6132 parts per billion

  8. Effects of Water Pollution on Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an inquiry activity that, while based on a local area (the San Francisco Bay), could be adapted to the teacher's/student's local area. Students perform an experiment in which they observe how water pollution is absorbed into plants. The site contains a teacher's guide and printable student worksheet.

  9. Environmental impact analysis in water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy P. Lumbers

    1985-01-01

    The need for a wide?ranging environmental impact analysis to guide the establishment of water quality objectives and the associated effluent discharge standards is discussed. The particular problems associated with water pollution control are identified including: multiple and conflicting demands; multiple parameter objective specifications, the stochastic and time varying nature of the system; secondary and tertiary effects; and time?delay.Current environmental impact

  10. Autonomous Water Pollution Source Tracking System Using Fish Robot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daejung Shin; Seung Y. Na; Jin Y. Kim; Seong-Joon Baek; MinGyu Song; Aaron Park

    We introduce water pollution source tracking system which a fish robot searches the source of water pollution or something else. To simulate and verify the possibility of water pollution source tracking system, we made small water pool (2.4*2.4m) which a fish robot pursues infrared. The model of water pollution consists of color map, LED emitting infrared and phototransistor sensing the

  11. Agricultural water pollution control: An interdisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Watkins W.; Ching, Chauncey T. K.; Yanagida, John F.; Jakus, Paul

    1985-01-01

    Regulation and control of agricultural water pollution is unique and difficult to accomplish. Water quality standards are often proposed without adequate consideration of the overall economic impact on agricultural production. This article illustrates how economists and physical scientists can cooperate to develop appropriate control strategies for agricultural water pollution. Data provided by physical scientists and economists are used in a linear programming model to describe salt discharge as a function of water management, production levels, and an associated effluent charge. Four water management activities were chosen on the basis of different costs of production (including a parametrically varied effluent charge), water requirements, alfalfa yields, and levels of salt discharge. Results indicate that when the effluent charge is low (<0.20/metric ton salt discharged), maximum production with maximum salt discharge is most profitable. As the effluent charge is increased (0.20 0.40/metric ton salt discharged), it becomes progressively less profitable to produce alfalfa at maximum levels of pollutant discharge. When the effluent charge is >0.40/metric ton salt discharged, alfalfa production is no longer economically feasible. An important aspect of this approach is that it permits policy makers to identify explicitly the relationship between the environmental standard and the effect on agricultural production.

  12. Detection of persistent organic pollutants in the Mississippi Delta using semipermeable membrane devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. R. Zimmerman; E. M. Thurman; K. C. Bastian

    2000-01-01

    From semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) placed in five Mississippi Delta streams in 1996 and 1997, the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) aldrin, chlordane, DCPA, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, mirex, nonachlor, and toxaphene were detected. In addition, the insecticides chlorpyriphos, endosulfan, and hexachlorocyclohexanes were detected. Two low-solubility herbicides not detected commonly in surface water, pendimethalin and trifluralin, were also detected.

  13. Receiving Water Uses, Impairments, and Sources of Stormwater Pollutants

    E-print Network

    Pitt, Robert E.

    CHAPTER 2 Receiving Water Uses, Impairments, and Sources of Stormwater Pollutants "Bathing in sewage-polluted seawater carries only a negligible risk to health, even on beaches that are aesthetically) .........................................................................26 Recreation (Non-Water Contact) Uses

  14. POLLUTION OF WATER Blank page retained for pagination

    E-print Network

    IN THE COASTAL AREA OF THE GULF OF MEXICOl Prepared in the DIVISION of WATER POLLUTION CONTROL and SHELLFISH was given by State water pollution control agcncies and shell· sh Sanitation agencies in the preparation

  15. Dielectric properties of polluted soils as a potential tool to detect low level organic pollution in unsaturated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Porokhovoie, S.; Mouza, J. du [Centre de Geologie de l`Ingenieur, Paris (France); Reiter, M. [Houilleres de Bassin Centre-Midi, Saint-Etienne (France)

    1996-11-01

    The detection of organic pollution in soils is usually made by chemical analysis. Some geophysical methods are available to detect massive and transient pollution. But the standards used in Europe to define a non polluted soil are very strict : some organic compounds (as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) have to be less than 10 ppm. Hence, a geophysical tool allowing to prospect large areas with low rate organic pollution has to be developed. In this aim, our work is the first step of the evaluation of a geophysical method based on the dielectric characteristics of soils, our final goal being in situ measurements of those parameters. Several geophysical methods are already used to monitor organic pollution of groundwater. Both electric and dielectric properties of these pollutants can be used. Conventional DC resistivity measurements and EM methods can provide good results when polluted groundwater is linked with high salinity, while GPR and radiowave EM can be used to detect hydrocarbons by measuring soil dielectric properties. The problem of detecting organic compounds is different for saturated and unsaturated media because the dielectric constant {epsilon}{sub w} of water ({approx} 80, depending on temperature and frequency) is higher than that of dry soils (2<{epsilon}{sub s}<6) and organic liquids ({epsilon}{sub ol} < 6 if the compound is not polar). For saturated soils or rocks, the presence of organic liquid reduces the water saturation component and, consequently, the global dielectric constant of the soil in comparison with non-polluted soil or rock. GPR method can detect contrasting dielectric permittivities due to such phenomena. This method is efficient for high levels of pollution ( > 30% by weight) in a saturated zone and for transient flow because it is easier to compare several GPR sections versus time than to interpret one section without references.

  16. STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN (RISK LEVEL 1)

    E-print Network

    Eisen, Michael

    STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN (RISK LEVEL 1) for BUILDING 90 USER TEST BED FACILITY.G., GEOLOGIST/QSD (530) 222-4339 SWPPP Preparation Date: JUNE 10, 2012 #12;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan) 222-4339 Name and Title Telephone Number #12;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan Building 90 User

  17. Water pollution control in Canada: cleanup through collaboration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feliciano

    1979-01-01

    A recent survey indicates that Canadians are willing to pay more taxes and higher prices to solve their country's air and water pollution problems. The political pollution control organization in Canada, the development of regulations for water pollution control, municipal facility construction and treatment levels, and the challenge for the Great Lakes are discussed. Environmental problems in Canada, particularly water

  18. Implications of Metal Load Randomness for Mine Water Pollution Abatement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Baresel; G. Destouni

    2004-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variability of pollution transport from point and diffuse mine water sources (e.g. mine wastes, abandoned mine voids, contaminated groundwater) in catchments imply uncertainty in mine water pollution loads at important compliance boundaries (CB) and in cost-efficient abatement solutions for handling these loads. We use a stochastic description of total pollution loading from different possible mine water sources

  19. DETECTING VIRUSES IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article, which reviews the subject of detecting viruses in water, encompasses two topics. he first topic consists of methods used for concentrating viruses from large volumes of water into smaller, more manageable volumes. he second topic consists of assay methods used for e...

  20. Experimental infrared measurements for hydrocarbon pollutant determination in subterranean waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay-Ekuakille, A.; Palamara, I.; Caratelli, D.; Morabito, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Subterranean waters are often polluted by industrial and anthropic effluents that are drained in subsoil. To prevent and control pollution, legislations of different developed countries require an online monitoring measurement, especially for detecting organic solvents (chlorinated and unchlorinated ones). Online measurements include both real-time and no real-time measurements. In general, it is difficult to implement real-time measurements in stricto sensu for online acquisitions on aqueous effluents since they need to be processed by a modeling. This research presents an experimental measurement system based on infrared (IR) spectroscopy for aqueous effluents containing hydrocarbons and capable of displaying excellent values of pollutant concentrations even in instable conditions; the system is able to detect pollutants either in laminar or turbulent flow. The results show the possibility of avoiding the use of "Pitot tube" that is employed to create a stagnation point in order to convert kinetic energy into potential one. This conversion allows the transformation of a turbulent flow in a laminar flow making easy measurement of pollutants included in an aqueous effluent. Obviously, "Pitot tube" is also used for other fluid effluents. The obtained results have been compared with those produced by means of sophisticated IR instrumentation for laboratory applications.

  1. Ship'S Ballast Water And Marine Pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Satir

    The introduction of invasive marine species into new environments by ships' ballast water attached to ships' hulls and via\\u000a other vectors has been identified as one of the four greatest threats to the world's oceans. The other three are land-based\\u000a sources of marine pollution, over exploitation of living marine resources and physical alteration\\/destruction of marine habitat.\\u000a Ballast is any material

  2. Recommendations to National Water Commission: Pollution Abatement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dwight F. Metzler

    1972-01-01

    A NWC panel evaluated the problems and recommended a plan for nationwide abatement of water pollution during a 10-yr period. Its proposal is based upon a facilities-planning effort to identify the most economical solutions, a federal construction-grant program to end in 10 yr, and placing management of public systems on a utility basis with self-financing after the 10-yr period— at

  3. The national recreational fishing benefits of water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clifford S. Russell; William J. Vaughan

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of an effort to estimate the fresh water recreational fishing benefit derived from water pollution control efforts. Methodology is potentially applicable to other subcategories. (PSB)

  4. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  5. On Detecting Pollution Attacks in Inter-Session Network Coding

    E-print Network

    Markopoulou, Athina

    On Detecting Pollution Attacks in Inter-Session Network Coding Anh Le, Athina Markopoulou University of California, Irvine {anh.le, athina}@uci.edu Abstract--Dealing with pollution attacks in inter be malicious. In this work, we precisely define corrupted packets in inter-session pollution based

  6. On Detecting Pollution Attacks in Inter-Session Network Coding

    E-print Network

    Markopoulou, Athina

    On Detecting Pollution Attacks in Inter-Session Network Coding Anh Le, Athina Markopoulou University of California, Irvine {anh.le, athina}@uci.edu Abstract--Dealing with pollution attacks in inter be malicious. In this work, we first define precisely corrupted packets in inter-session pollution based

  7. Water pollution and human health in China.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, C; Maurer, C; Wang, Y; Xue, S; Davis, D L

    1999-01-01

    China's extraordinary economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization, coupled with inadequate investment in basic water supply and treatment infrastructure, have resulted in widespread water pollution. In China today approximately 700 million people--over half the population--consume drinking water contaminated with levels of animal and human excreta that exceed maximum permissible levels by as much as 86% in rural areas and 28% in urban areas. By the year 2000, the volume of wastewater produced could double from 1990 levels to almost 78 billion tons. These are alarming trends with potentially serious consequences for human health. This paper reviews and analyzes recent Chinese reports on public health and water resources to shed light on what recent trends imply for China's environmental risk transition. This paper has two major conclusions. First, the critical deficits in basic water supply and sewage treatment infrastructure have increased the risk of exposure to infectious and parasitic disease and to a growing volume of industrial chemicals, heavy metals, and algal toxins. Second, the lack of coordination between environmental and public health objectives, a complex and fragmented system to manage water resources, and the general treatment of water as a common property resource mean that the water quality and quantity problems observed as well as the health threats identified are likely to become more acute. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10090702

  8. A Pollution Offset System for Trading NonPoint Source Water Pollution Permits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Ranga Prabodanie; John F. Raffensperger; Mark W. Milke

    2010-01-01

    Water pollution from non-point sources is a global environmental concern. Economists propose tradable permit systems as a\\u000a solution, but they are difficult to implement due to the nature of non-point sources. We present a pollution offset system\\u000a for trading non-point source water pollution permits. Conventional pollution offset systems suffer from thin markets and transaction\\u000a costs. In this paper, we show

  9. The Pollution Detectives, Part III: Roadside Lead Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Phil

    1989-01-01

    Described is a simple test tube method developed lead analysis of samples of roadside soil. The relationship between the results and the traffic flow indicate car exhausts are the major source of lead pollution. Materials and procedures are detailed. An example of results is provided. (Author/CW)

  10. Use of solar energy for disinfection of polluted water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Jamil; M. R. Ahmad; K. Ali; A. Habeeb; M. Hassan

    Polluted water is causing serious health problems especially in the rural areas of Pakistan. People have limited access to safe water supply and many diseases like diarrhea and gastrointestinal diseases are transmitted by consumption of polluted water. We have investigated the potential of using solar energy to pasteurize water. Low cost indigenously available materials have been utilized to design and

  11. Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, & Infant Mortality in India

    E-print Network

    Greenstone, Michael

    2011-07-01

    Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, environmental regulations, and infant mortality from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental ...

  12. Removal of Estrogenic Pollutants from Contaminated Water Using

    E-print Network

    Chen, Wilfred

    Removal of Estrogenic Pollutants from Contaminated Water Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Z I H concern regarding estro- genic pollutants. Many municipal wastewater treatment plants can reduce wastewater treatment plants (22-25). However

  13. Loading of water and soil by pollutants in Shelby County

    SciTech Connect

    Madhavan, K. (Christian Brothers Univ., Memphis, TN (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Our environment is constantly being polluted by humans and animals. Pollution is increased by modern practices, such as the use of pesticides, herbicides and other chemicals. The number of household pets in the US is increasing and they add to the pollution. In a city, such as Memphis, where production of chemical compounds is relatively high, the pollution of the environment may grow worse unless concerted efforts are made to control it. This study was undertaken to indicate the possible extent of pollution of the surface soil in and near Memphis. Runoff contributes to the pollution of the waterways and their ultimate resting sites. So, water analyses are useful indicators of pollution.

  14. Water system virus detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    The performance of a waste water reclamation system is monitored by introducing a non-pathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, into the waste-water prior to treatment and, thereafter, testing the reclaimed water for the presence of the marker virus. A test sample is first concentrated by absorbing any marker virus onto a cellulose acetate filter in the presence of a trivalent cation at low pH and then flushing the filter with a limited quantity of a glycine buffer solution to desorb any marker virus present on the filter. Photo-optical detection of indirect passive immune agglutination by polystyrene beads indicates the performance of the water reclamation system in removing the marker virus. A closed system provides for concentrating any marker virus, initiating and monitoring the passive immune agglutination reaction, and then flushing the system to prepare for another sample.

  15. Water pollution in Lake Michigan by trace elements from pollution aerosol fallout

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Winchester; Gordon D. Nifong

    1971-01-01

    Certain trace elements which are strongly associated with air pollution sources in the Lake Michigan basin may be contributing significantly to lake water pollution by an atmospheric fallout route. In this paper a partial inventory of air pollution emissions for 30 trace elements is presented for the Chicago, Milwaukee, and northwest Indiana metropolitan areas, based on available published information. The

  16. Sulfate and conductivity as field indicators for detecting coal-mining pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Rikard; Sam Kunkle

    1990-01-01

    A water quality assessment was conducted on three Appalachian streams polluted by coal mining at the Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, Tennessee and Kentucky. Results showed that sulfate was an excellent parameter for detecting the effects of coal mining and that sulfate analyses used in conjunction with conductivity readings provided the best detection index. Acidity and pH

  17. Continuous surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy for the detection of trace organic pollutants in aqueous systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Weibetaenbacher; B. Lendl; J. Frank; H. D. Wanzenböck; B. Mizaikoff; R. Kellner

    1997-01-01

    In Raman spectroscopy, detection limits for organic pollutants in water can be lowered by several orders of magnitude when surface enhanced techniques are applied. In this work a continuous analytical device based on flow injection analysis using SERS detection is proposed. This system was tested with model analytes such as pyridine and nicotinic acid as well as several pesticides (carbendazim,

  18. Water system virus detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    A monitoring system developed to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water is described. A nonpathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. Detection of the marker virus consists of two major components, concentration and isolation of the marker virus, and detection of the marker virus. The concentration system involves adsorption of virus to cellulose acetate filters in the presence of trivalent cations and low pH with subsequent desorption of the virus using volumes of high pH buffer. The detection of the virus is performed by a passive immune agglutination test utilizing specially prepared polystyrene particles. An engineering preliminary design was performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation are presented. The instrument consists of reagent pump/metering system, reagent storage containers, a filter concentrator, an incubation/detector system, and an electronic readout and control system.

  19. Optical multiple-analyte immunosensor for water pollution control.

    PubMed

    Barzen, Claudia; Brecht, Andreas; Gauglitz, Guenter

    2002-04-01

    A prototype of a portable optical immunosensor (called river analyser) has been developed. It can be applied for the monitoring of surface water quality. Antibodies carrying a fluorescent label are used for the specific recognition of pollutants, such as frequently applied pesticides. The transduction principle is based on total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF). The outstanding advantage of the river analyser is, that at least three analytes can be detected simultaneously in one sample. Test cycles and fluid handling are automated and enable unattended measuring. PMID:11849925

  20. Detection of persistent organic pollutants in the Mississippi Delta using semipermeable membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, L.R.; Thurman, E.M.; Bastian, K.C.

    2000-01-01

    From semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) placed in five Mississippi Delta streams in 1996 and 1997, the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) aldrin, chlordane, DCPA, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, mirex, nonachlor, and toxaphene were detected. In addition, the insecticides chlorpyriphos, endosulfan, and hexachlorocyclohexanes were detected. Two low-solubility herbicides not detected commonly in surface water, pendimethalin and trifluralin, were also detected. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  1. Controlling Nonpoint-Source Water Pollution: A Citizen's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Nancy Richardson; And Others

    Citizens can play an important role in helping their states develop pollution control programs and spurring effective efforts to deal with nonpoint-source pollution. This guide takes the reader step-by-step through the process that states must follow to comply with water quality legislation relevant to nonpoint-source pollution. Part I provides…

  2. The Current State of Water Quality and Technology Development for Water Pollution Control in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiuhui Qu; Maohong Fan

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes and presents an overview of the current state of water pollution, as well as recent progress and the potential future development of water pollution control technology, in China. Although China has made significant strides in water environmental protection over the past decades, analysis reveals that water pollution in the nation is still not sufficiently controlled, with a

  3. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Detection of persistent organic pollutants binding

    E-print Network

    Tuscia, Università Degli Studi Della

    Background: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are persistent in the environment after release from in the environment after releasing and transported to human body mainly through contaminated foods [4]. RecentRESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Detection of persistent organic pollutants binding modes with androgen

  4. Method for detecting pollutants. [through chemical reactions and heat treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, R. S.; Richards, R. R.; Conway, E. J. (inventors)

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for detecting and measuring trace amounts of pollutants of the group consisting of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide in a gaseous environment. A sample organic solid material that will undergo a chemical reaction with the test pollutant is exposed to the test environment and thereafter, when heated in the temperature range of 100-200 C., undergoes chemiluminescence that is measured and recorded as a function of concentration of the test pollutant. The chemiluminescence of the solid organic material is specific to the pollutant being tested.

  5. Semiconducting Metal Oxide Based Sensors for Selective Gas Pollutant Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kanan, Sofian M.; El-Kadri, Oussama M.; Abu-Yousef, Imad A.; Kanan, Marsha C.

    2009-01-01

    A review of some papers published in the last fifty years that focus on the semiconducting metal oxide (SMO) based sensors for the selective and sensitive detection of various environmental pollutants is presented. PMID:22408500

  6. NEW LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETECTION SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resonance enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectrometry (CARS) has been demonstrated as a specific identification system for liquid chromatography for water pollution identification. To achieve this, liquid chromatographic preconcentration and separation and computer control o...

  7. EFFECTIVENESS OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential water quality effects and economic implications of soil and water conservation practices (SWCPs) are identified. Method for estimating the effects of SWCPs on pollutant losses from croplands are presented. Mathematical simulation and linear programming models were u...

  8. Loading functions for assessment of water pollution from nonpoint sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. McElroy; S. Y. Chiu; J. W. Nebgen; A. Aleti; F. W. Bennett

    1976-01-01

    Methods for evaluating the quantity of water pollutants generated from nonpoint sources including agriculture, silviculture, construction, mining, runoff from urban areas and rural roads, and terrestrial disposal are developed and compiled for use in water quality planning. The loading functions, plus in some instances emission values, permit calculation of nonpoint source pollutants from available data and information. Natural background was

  9. Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, K. E. M.

    This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

  10. Pollution-control equipment (Colombia). Water-pollution-control equipment, May 1992. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    There are few manufacturers of water pollution control equipment in Colombia. Imports of water pollution equipment decreased 14 percent from US $16.3 million in 1990 to US $14.2 million in 1991. For 1992, they may fall 5 percent to US $13.5 million due to the slow performance of the economy. The close relationship with U.S. suppliers and the possible enforcement of water quality standards could influence favorably the growth of imports within the next three years. For many years, the U.S. has been the major supplier of water pollution control equipment.

  11. The Role of Tradable Permits in Water Pollution Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Andreas Kraemer; Eleftheria Kampa; Eduard Interwies

    2004-01-01

    This working paper first introduces tradable permits as part of an overall taxonomy of economic instruments in the field of water management. In this context, three fundamentally different fields of application of tradable permits systems relating to water are presented: tradable water abstraction rights, tradable rights to water-based resources and tradable water pollution rights. Next, the authors provide literature-based empirical

  12. 19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

  13. 19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

  14. 19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

  15. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

  16. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The...requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

  17. 19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

  18. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

  19. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

  20. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

  1. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts...et seq. ) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

  2. 19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

  3. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

  4. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The...requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

  5. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts...et seq. ) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

  6. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

  7. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

  8. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

  9. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and...et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

  10. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923.45...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program...established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

  11. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

  12. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and...et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

  13. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923.45...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program...established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

  14. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923.45...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program...established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

  15. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and...et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

  16. Enforcement of Section 208 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 to control nonpoint source pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wicker

    1979-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution (NPS) caused by agriculture, road building, and other activities is, while less visible than point source pollution, recognized as such a major contributor to water pollution that it must be brought under control. Section 208 is the only portion of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 to deal directly with the NPS problem. The

  17. Mine water pollution in Scotland: nature, extent and preventative strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. L. Younger

    2001-01-01

    Scotland was one of the world's first industrialised countries, and has therefore also been one of the first countries to experience wholesale post-industrial dereliction. Water pollution arising from abandoned mines, particularly abandoned coal mines, is second only to sewage as a source of freshwater pollution nation-wide, and in many coalfield catchments it is the pre-eminent source. Most of the pollution

  18. Environmental economics: capital expenditures for air and water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    de la Rue

    1977-01-01

    A survey showed that in the period 1970-76, capital expenditures by industries and utilities for air pollution abatement of stationary sources was $19.8 billion compared with $12.9 billion for water pollution control. During the 1977-85 period, capital expenditures by industries and utilities for air pollution abatement are expected to total over $36 billion, of which $6.75 billion will be for

  19. Single Laboratory Comparison of Host-Specific PCR Assays for the Detection of Bovine Fecal Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are numerous PCR-based methods available to detect bovine fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each method targets a different gene and microorganism leading to differences in method performance, making it difficult to determine which approach is most suitable for field appl...

  20. Detection of human and animal sources of pollution by microbial and chemical methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multi-indicator approach comprising Enterococcus, bacterial source tracking (BST), and sterol analysis was tested for pollution source identification. Fecal contamination was detected in 100% of surface water sites tested. Enterococcus faecium was the dominant species in aged litter samples from p...

  1. CONTROLLING POLLUTION FROM THE MANUFACTURING AND COATING OF METAL PRODUCTS. 3. WATER POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volume 3 addresses managers, engineers and other industry personnel responsible for resolving the water pollution problems of a manufacturing facility. It covers regulations, in-plant controls, three methods for wastewater treatment, establishment of a working relationship with a...

  2. Stable Isotope Mixing Models as a Tool for Tracking Sources of Water and Water Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    One goal of monitoring pollutants is to be able to trace the pollutant to its source. Here we review how mixing models using stable isotope information on water and water pollutants can help accomplish this goal. A number of elements exist in multiple stable (non-radioactive) i...

  3. Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation Division of Water Pollution Control

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation Division of Water Pollution Control):_________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Submit Application to: **Department of Environment and Conservation Division of Water Pollution Control

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF FECAL POLLUTION IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of Microbial Source Tracking (MST) methods are currently used to determine the origin of fecal pollution impacting environmental waters. MST is based on the assumption that given the appropriate method and indicator organism, the source of fecal microbial pollution can ...

  5. The allocative efficiency implications of water pollution abatement cost comparisons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James S. Shortle

    1990-01-01

    Assessments of the efficiency of water pollution control allocations are usually based on abatement cost comparisons. The general rule is that efficiency is improved by reallocating abatement from sources with high marginal costs to low-cost sources. The welfare-theoretic foundation of this rule is well established for situations with nonstochastic emissions. In situations with stochastic emissions, pollution control involves improving the

  6. ALTERNATIVE POLICIES FOR CONTROLLING NONPOINT AGRICULTURAL SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study of policies for controlling water pollution from nonpoint agricultural sources includes a survey of existing state and Federal programs, agencies, and laws directed to the control of soil erosion. Six policies representing a variety of approaches to this pollution prob...

  7. Toward an effective and credible program: Water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard B. Dworsky

    1970-01-01

    While the public demand for water pollution control remains loud, the political response has become deafening. The responsible political leadership in both parties has avoided the temptation to engage in competitive promises. But those seeking instant solutions and those whose political response has been guided by the pressure of Earth Day have created an image about the pollution problem that

  8. Conflict between energy conservation and water pollution control standards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lamb

    1980-01-01

    The potential conflict in national needs for both energy conservation and water pollution control is indicated. Meeting broader obligations in reconciling these apparent differences has failed. Major contributions to energy conservation efforts needed today could be made without giving up any important pollution control goals. Hopefully, state and Federal regulatory agencies soon will recognize their obligations in this respect and

  9. Water pollution in Ukraine: the search for possible solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolai Nazarov; Hadrian F. Cook; Graham Woodgate

    2004-01-01

    In Ukraine, average and maximum concentrations of certain pollutants in inland water bodies are unacceptably high, while the number of heavy pollution accidents (one?out effluent discharges capable of causing health hazards) is increasing. Meanwhile, the transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy is associated with severe economic downturn and a marked industrial decline. However, no comprehensive analyses

  10. Simulation of the dynamics of air and water pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence W. Ross

    1971-01-01

    Simulation of the dynamics of air and water pollution rests firmly on the diffusion equation, which in simplest form is known as Fick's second law. The problem of dispersion of solutes and suspensoids is much older than the pollution crisis, and in fact the development of the first useful solutions of the diffusion equation came in response to a need

  11. POLLUTION DETECTION DOGS: PROOF OF CONCEPT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dogs have been used extensively in law enforcement and military applications to detect narcotics and explosives for over thirty years. Dogs are regularly used in arson investigations to detect accelerants since they are much more accurate at discriminating between accelerants an...

  12. Erbium Doped Fiber Sensor for Ammonia Detection into Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Sánchez, G. G.; Pinzón-Escobar, E. F.; Sandoval-Romero, G. E.; Álvarez Chávez, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    The water pollution is a health problem around the world. One of the most common pollutants in water is the Ammonia. Some sensors have been developed for Ammoniac detection even though most of them are not in real time and could be expensive. In this work an Erbium-doped fibre-sensor for Ammonia detection with a mechanical long period fibre grating and a taper in cascade for improving the sensitivity; the detection bandwidth is in the 1550 nm region from 1460 nm to 1640 nm. Output optical spectrum for Ammonia concentrations from 1ml to 5 ml is shown

  13. Gulls identified as major source of fecal pollution in coastal waters: a microbial source tracking study.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Susana; Henriques, Isabel S; Leandro, Sérgio Miguel; Alves, Artur; Pereira, Anabela; Correia, António

    2014-02-01

    Gulls were reported as sources of fecal pollution in coastal environments and potential vectors of human infections. Microbial source tracking (MST) methods were rarely tested to identify this pollution origin. This study was conducted to ascertain the source of water fecal contamination in the Berlenga Island, Portugal. A total of 169 Escherichia coli isolates from human sewage, 423 isolates from gull feces and 334 water isolates were analyzed by BOX-PCR. An average correct classification of 79.3% was achieved. When an 85% similarity cutoff was applied 24% of water isolates were present in gull feces against 2.7% detected in sewage. Jackknifing resulted in 29.3% of water isolates classified as gull, and 10.8% classified as human. Results indicate that gulls constitute a major source of water contamination in the Berlenga Island. This study validated a methodology to differentiate human and gull fecal pollution sources in a real case of a contaminated beach. PMID:24140684

  14. Mechanism of radiation purification of polluted water and wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pikaev, A K

    2001-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results of the studies on radiation purification of polluted water and wastewater conducted in the author's laboratory in cooperation with other institutions. The removal of heavy metals (cadmium, lead, chromium and mercury) from water and wastewater, the purification of wastewater from surfactant and petroleum products, molasses distillery slops, municipal wastewater in the aerosol flow, river water from colored natural organic pollutants, wastewater of dyeing complex and paper mill, the decomposition of some dyes, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine-containing organic compounds, formic acid, etc. were investigated in detail. As a rule, electron-beam treatment in combination with ordinary methods (biological, coagulation, adsorption, flotation, etc.) was used. The main attention is paid to the mechanism of purification of the studied systems. The role of redox reactions of primary products of water radiolysis and secondary short-lived species formed from pollutants, formation of precipitates capturing the pollutants etc. is discussed. PMID:11695450

  15. Assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    Remote measurement of chlorophyll concentrations to determine extent of water pollution is discussed. Construction and operation of radiometer to provide measurement capability are explained. Diagram of equipment is provided.

  16. Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen

    E-print Network

    Carpenter, S. R.; Caraco, N. F.; Correll, D. L.; Howarth, R. W.; Sharpley, A. N.; Smith, Val H.

    1998-08-01

    information, we are confident that: (1) nonpoint pollution of surface waters with P and N could be reduced by reducing surplus nutrient flows in agricultural systems and processes, reducing agricultural and urban runoff by diverse methods, and reducing N...

  17. NONPOINT POLLUTION OF SURFACE WATERS WITH PHOSPHORUS AND NITROGEN

    E-print Network

    Carpenter, Stephen R.; Caraco, Nina F. M.; Correll, David L.; Howarth, Robert W.; Sharpley, Andrew N.; Smith, Val H.

    1998-01-01

    to downstream aquatic ecosystems, and which can also volatilize to the atmosphere, redepositing elsewhere and eventually reaching aquatic ecosystems. If current practices continue, nonpoint pollution of surface waters is virtually certain to increase...

  18. Recruitment and Employment of the Water Pollution Control Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrard, J. H.; Sherrard, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the basic principles of personnel recruitment and employment for the water pollution control field. Attention is given to determination of staffing requirements, effective planning, labor sources, affirmative action, and staffing policies. (CS)

  19. A Philosophy of Water Pollution Control--Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeffer, George J.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of water pollution control in the U.S. is given, leading to an analysis of present policy trends. A "rational environmental program" is called for to provide economic growth and environmental quality. (MDR)

  20. Outbreak of Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with water pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N A Sliman

    1978-01-01

    Sixteen cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome occurred in the third week of a diarrhoea epidemic caused by water pollution in EL-Sult, Jordan. Of 30 000 people exposed to polluted water, 5000 developed diarrhoea, 74 typhoid, and 30 infectious hepatitis. Thirteen of the 16 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had been mildly affected by diarrhoea 8-24 days before the onset of peripheral neuropathy.

  1. Energy requirements for industrial water pollution control. a perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serth

    1978-01-01

    A summary of available information on energy requirements (ER) for industrial air and water pollution control to meet the existing U.S. Legislation (e.g., the Public Law 92-500) includes estimates of the ER by sector (industry, powerplants, and municipal wastes), by pollutant type (water, sulfur oxides, particulates, and thermal wastes), and by industry for 1977-1983, showing the relative importance of the

  2. Water pollution in the USSR and other Eastern European countries*

    PubMed Central

    Litvinov, N.

    1962-01-01

    The condition of water bodies and measures taken to prevent their pollution in the USSR, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Bulgaria and Romania are the main subjects of this paper. For each of these countries information is given on population and area, physical features, rain-fall and rivers, the distribution of population and industry, water supply and sewerage, the condition of surface and ground waters, the authorities and legislation concerned with the protection of water resources, and research on pollution. The author draws attention to the experience gained in these countries in the setting up of special State bodies to take charge of water resources and in classifying rivers according to the uses to which they are put, a factor which determines the regulations governing the discharge of effluent into them. A plea is also made for the convening of specialized international conferences on problems connected with the protection of European water resources from pollution. PMID:14465925

  3. Water quality . . . potential sources of pollution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank, (artist)

    1996-01-01

    What is water quality? To most students, water quality may suggest only "clean" water for drinking, swimming, and fishing. But to the farmer or manufacturer, water quality may have an entirely different meaning. One of the most important issues concerning the quality of water is how that water will be used. Water that is perfectly fine for irrigation might not be suitable for drinking or swimming.

  4. Science, Pollution, and Clean Drinking Water: Choosing Between Tap Water, Bottled Water, and Home Purification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franz Foltz

    1999-01-01

    Focusing on the recent explosion in the use of bottled water, this article—originally written for my NASTS conference presentation—will examine the rhetoric used by the bottled water industry and home purification system providers to affect the public’s idea of clean, pure, dirty, and polluted water. Bottlers argue that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides better regulation of bottled water

  5. Environmental factors influencing isolation of enteroviruses from polluted surface waters.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, T G; Wallis, C; Melnick, J L

    1974-05-01

    The influence of water quality upon the concentration of virus on location was assessed in field studies conducted in the Houston ship channel, Galveston Bay, and Houston waste treatment plants. Clarification of polluted surface waters was accomplished with minimal loss of virus. Virus from clarified sewage effluents and saline waters was then adsorbed and concentrated on textile and membrane filter surfaces. Direct measurements of virus from large volumes of polluted surface waters under existing field conditions were then made using the virus concentrator equipment. PMID:4364463

  6. Prioritizing hazardous pollutants in two Nigerian water supply schemes: a risk-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Etchie, Ayotunde T; Etchie, Tunde O; Krishnamurthi, Kannan; SaravanaDevi, S; Wate, Satish R

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To rank pollutants in two Nigerian water supply schemes according to their effect on human health using a risk-based approach. Methods Hazardous pollutants in drinking-water in the study area were identified from a literature search and selected pollutants were monitored from April 2010 to December 2011 in catchments, treatment works and consumer taps. The disease burden due to each pollutant was estimated in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) using data on the pollutant’s concentration, exposure to the pollutant, the severity of its health effects and the consumer population. Findings The pollutants identified were microbial organisms, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc. All were detected in the catchments but only cadmium, cobalt, chromium, manganese and lead exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) guideline values after water treatment. Post-treatment contamination was observed. The estimated disease burden was greatest for chromium in both schemes, followed in decreasing order by cadmium, lead, manganese and cobalt. The total disease burden of all pollutants in the two schemes was 46?000 and 9500 DALYs per year or 0.14 and 0.088 DALYs per person per year, respectively, much higher than the WHO reference level of 1?×?10?6 DALYs per person per year. For each metal, the disease burden exceeded the reference level and was comparable with that due to microbial contamination reported elsewhere in Africa. Conclusion The estimated disease burden of metal contamination of two Nigerian water supply systems was high. It could best be reduced by protection of water catchment and pretreatment by electrocoagulation. PMID:23940402

  7. Radioactive pollution of the waters of the baltic sea during 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarev, L.N.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Gavrilov, V.M.; Gritchenko, Z.G.; Ivanova, L.M.; Orlova, T.E.; Tishkova, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from an investigation of radioactive pollution of the waters of the Baltic Sea during 1986. Inhomogeneities in the pollution of this area of water, due to varying density of atmospheric radioactive fallout, are detected. It is found that among the radionuclides entering the surface of the Baltic Sea in 1986 as a result of atmospheric transport, the main one in terms of radiation dose is cesium-137. Comparisons are made of the level of cesium-137 content in the waters of the Baltic Sea in 1986 and in preceding years. It is noted that even in the most polluted regions of the sea the cesium-137 content was 500 times less than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) in the USSR for drinking water. The first results of the determination of plutonium-239 and 240 in the Baltic Sea are presented.

  8. Quantitation and detection of vanadium in biologic and pollution materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    A review is presented of special considerations and methodology for determining vanadium in biological and air pollution materials. In addition to descriptions of specific analysis procedures, general sections are included on quantitation of analysis procedures, sample preparation, blanks, and methods of detection of vanadium. Most of the information presented is applicable to the determination of other trace elements in addition to vanadium.

  9. INVESTIGATION OF REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES FOR AGRICULTURAL FEEDLOT POLLUTION DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research effort was directed toward the application of remote sensing techniques to the detection and monitoring of pollution from cattle feeding operations. Five livestock feeding operations were selected for the study along the James River from Huron to Redfield, South Dak...

  10. Tributyltin (TBT) pollution in the coastal waters of west Brittany as indicated by imposex in Nucella lapillus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Huet; Y. M. Paulet; M. Glémarec

    1996-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) pollution in west Brittany coastal waters was assessed in 1992, 1993 and 1994 using the bioindicator of imposex (superimposition of male sexual characters on females) in the neogastropod Nucella lapillus. Imposex was detected at all 75 stations sampled, from Kerfissien on the north coast to Ile de Sein in the south-west, indicating widespread pollution even at sites having

  11. HPLC-PFD determination of priority pollutant PAHs in water, sediment, and semipermeable membrane devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly S Williamson; Jimmie D Petty; James N Huckins; Jon A Lebo; Edwin M Kaiser

    2002-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography coupled with programmable fluorescence detection was employed for the determination of 15 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPPAHs) in water, sediment, and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). Chromatographic separation using this analytical method facilitates selectivity, sensitivity (ppt levels), and can serve as a non-destructive technique for subsequent analysis by other chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Extraction and sample

  12. Sequestration of priority pollutant PAHs from sediment pore water employing semipermeable membrane devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly S Williamson; Jimmie D Petty; James N Huckins; Jon A Lebo; Edwin M Kaiser

    2002-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were employed to sample sediment pore water in static exposure studies under controlled laboratory conditions using (control pond and formulated) sediments fortified with 15 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPPAHs). The sediment fortification level of 750 ng\\/g was selected on the basis of what might be detected in a sediment sample from a contaminated area. The

  13. Water pollution caused by tourism development in the Lijiang Ancient Town, Yunnan Province

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baoying Ning; Yuanqing He

    2011-01-01

    Water pollution caused by tourism development not only occurs in water-scarce areas but also exists in the areas where water resource is relatively abundant. In this paper, the relationship between water pollution and tourism development in the Lijiang Ancient Town was discussed because there were no industrial or agricultural pollutant sources except the tourism pollution. Meanwhile, questionnaires survey was adopted

  14. Soil and Water Pollution in a Banana Production Region in Tropical Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Franzisco Que; de J. Bastidas-Bastidas, Pedro; Díaz-González, Gilberto; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo; Huerta-Lwanga, Esperanza; Ruiz-Suárez, Luz E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn—bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha?1week?1 for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the main metabolite ethylenethiourea was near the detection limit. Surface and subsurface water was highly polluted with ethylenethiourea, the main metabolite of Mancozeb (22.5 and 4.3 ?g L?1, respectively), but not with manganese. In deep ground water, no ethylenethiourea was detected. The level of pollution in the region presents a worrisome risk for aquatic life and for human health. PMID:20734023

  15. Rivers water quality monitoring modeling and simulation of pollutants propagation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Stoian; G. Ungureanu; M. Mircea; Z. Moldovan; M. V. Cristea; A. Imre

    2008-01-01

    Rapid environmental changes as well as potential risks for the human health call for water quality continuous surveillance and on-line decision making. Information and communication technologies can be valuable in these areas. In this paper we present an intelligent system for water quality assessment. Some models used for pollutants propagation, the system architecture, the functional description, the distributed acquisition subsystems

  16. Bibliography of water pollution control benefits and costs. [3000 references

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Unger; D. L. Jordening

    1974-01-01

    The computer-listed bibliography includes approximately 3000 references to environmental quality management issues. The primary selection criteria for including the sources referenced was that the citation pertains to water pollution control benefits and costs. However, numerous listings include more general environmental issues within which water quality problems are embedded. Also, much of the economic cost-benefit analysis research has been conceptually developed

  17. Linking Air, Land, and Water Pollution for Effective Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, other federal agencies, and the states have made substantial progress in improving the Nation?s air and water quality. Traditionally, the air, land, and water pollution ...

  18. Identification and Control of Pollution from Salt Water Intrusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This document contains informational guidelines for identifying and evaluating the nature and extent of pollution from salt water intrusion. The intent of these guidelines is to provide a basic framework for assessing salt water intrusion problems and their relationship to the total hydrologic system, and to provide assistance in developing…

  19. Team Approaches for Agricultural Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zou Jiliang; Yuan Yongkang

    2009-01-01

    Nonpoint source water pollution, primarily from agricultural sources, is a major cause of water quality impairment. Uncertainty and asymmetric information are the key regulatory difficulties in the control of agricultural NPSP. The main target of this study is to describe a potential incentive scheme that can be applied in limited information situations. Team contracts built upon principal-agent theory are proposed.

  20. Water pollution control: the case for local control and accountability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Mackay

    1993-01-01

    At a time when substantial changes are taking place, or are proposed, in the organizational structure for preventing water pollution in Scotland, the paper makes the case for maintaining the status quo. The Scottish system relies on 10 independent river purification authorities comprising elected and appointed members, with considerable freedom to set water quality objectives and standards in light of

  1. River Pollution: Part II. Biological Methods for Assessing Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods used in the biological assessment of river quality and such indicators of clean and polluted waters as the Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score System, and species diversity indexes. Includes a summary of a river classification scheme based on quality criteria related to water use. (JN)

  2. Photochemical Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Liquid Water and Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprenkle, A. M.; Grannas, A. M.

    2006-12-01

    Arctic snow and ice play an important role as reactive media in the environment. A variety of species are photochemically generated from snow/ice, including carbonyl compounds, alkyl halides, molecular halogens, and nitrogen oxides. However, the fate of anthropogenic organic pollutants in snow and ice is largely unknown. Volatile pollutants evaporate from lower, warmer latitudes and condense out in the higher, colder latitudes by a process known as global distillation, leading to enhanced concentrations of a variety of pollutants in polar regions. Here we present recent results of photochemical degradation studies of several important organic pollutants including aldrin, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, and 3,3',4,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl. Direct and indirect (with H2O2) pathways were studied in both liquid water and ice forms. Aldrin and 3,3',4,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl have shown the most reactivity, both degrading significantly via the direct and indirect pathway in liquid water and ice. Dieldrin has shown reactivity under both direct and indirect liquid conditions, while HCB is only reactive under indirect liquid conditions. These results indicate that ice can serve as an important reactive surface for anthropogenic organic pollutants. Snow/ice photochemistry should be included in models of pollutant fate, but further studies are necessary to determine which pollutants are most affected by ice photochemistry under typical environmental conditions.

  3. Pollution of Natural Waters 1. Redox chemistry

    E-print Network

    Schofield, Jeremy

    on pH since Q r often dependent on pH 2. Redox potential in natural waters #15; Can be viewed concentration drops rapidly #15; Partitioning of lakes: euphotic and \\deep water" zones { Stabilized by thermal

  4. Pollution prevention for industrial water/wastewater facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Duckett, E.J.

    1999-07-01

    In the world of environmental engineering, a popular phrase is pollution prevention. Real pollution prevention requires implementation of real projects. This presentation addresses the subject of converting environmental liabilities into opportunities in the areas of water and wastewater treatment. The authors cite three specific examples of real projects, two of which are for the steel industry and the third from the automobile manufacturing industry. All of these projects have common traits: they all represent real pollution prevention and they all entail real quantifiable net savings contrasted with the status quo. They also tend to be motivated both by economics and by environmental compliance.

  5. Influence on shallow ground water by nitrogen in polluted river

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-ping Li; Lian-hai Cao; Xiao-gang Chen; Zhao-li Shen; Zuo-shen Zhong

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of the research is to discuss the influence on ground water by NH4-N in polluted river and river bed. In the lab-scale experiment three kinds of natural sand were chosen as infiltration medium,\\u000a and polluted rivers were simulated by domestic sewage, after 10-month sand column test it was found that NH4-N came to adsorption saturation on the

  6. Water Pollution Control: Lessons from Transnational Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert V. Percival

    1998-01-01

    Water is fundamental to life, as reflected in space scientists' compulsive search for signs of its presence when scrutinizing other planets for possible life forms. Fortunately for our species, more than two-thirds of our planet is covered with water, creating an environment richly conducive to life. Humans have just begun to appreciate how precious earth's water resources are and how

  7. Simple Microwave Method for Detecting Water Holdup

    E-print Network

    Iqbal, Sheikh Sharif

    Simple Microwave Method for Detecting Water Holdup Sheikh S. I., Alqurashi K. Y., Ragheb H for detecting very small water holdup () transmission measurements are also used to detect sand, water and gas levels within multiphase flow

  8. Water-Quality Trading: Can We Get the Price of Pollution Right?1

    E-print Network

    Weiblen, George D

    Water-Quality Trading: Can We Get the Price of Pollution Right?1 Yoshifumi Konishi Faculty for pollution can work for air. Should they not work for water pollution too? The U.S. Environmental Protection known (Mauzerall et al., 2005). Spatial dependence is likely even more prominent for water pollution

  9. MERCURY SEPARATION FROM POLLUTANT WATER USING ZEOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water has been examined at room temperature. Experiments have...

  10. Needed: Clean Water. Problems of Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet utilizes illustrations and captions to indicate the demands currently made on our water resources and the problems associated with that demand. Current and future solutions are described with suggestions for personal conservation efforts to help provide enough clean water for everyone in the future. (CS)

  11. Policy and Advice for Promoting Pollution Prevention and Cure of Water Environment in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Muxing

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1980s, Chinese water environment has got worse and worse, and water pollution extended from local pollution to total watershed pollution. From the Ninth Five-Year Plan, the government recognized the seriousness of water pollution, and put the core of the prevention and cure of water pollution in Three Rivers and Three Lakes, e.i. Huaihe River, Haihe River, Liaohe River,

  12. [Water pollution, self-purification and restoration possibilities].

    PubMed

    Herbst, V

    2000-08-01

    Organic pollution is still the most important anthropogenic stress factor influencing the usability of ground and surface water as drinking water for cattle. Organic pollution is decomposed in several distinct heterotrophic processes that cause oxygen deficit, and finally end in the production of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide or methane. Even after the oxygen balance being restored higher nutrient concentrations (eutrophication) will remain. Eutrophication itself often leads to secondary pollution processes that adversely affect oxygen availability. Toxins may be generated by certain bluegreen bacteria growing under highly eutrophic conditions. Due to the concentrations of organic substances bacterial growth is forced, sometimes including faecal indicators and pathogenic species originating from the effluents of most of the communal sewage treatment works. Another kind of man made pollution concerns certain toxic substances. Disregarding the effects of accidental spills, the industrial production and use of pesticides in agriculture as well as other industrial chemicals or heavy metals may cause concentrations beyond acceptable limits. The use of surface water for cattle may become a problem for this reason. Accidental spills must be reckoned with as well, so the technical equipment for providing alternative sources of drinking water in emergencies must be available. Whereas the use of groundwater is normally not affected by toxic substance or pathogenic bacteria, high concentrations of iron, humic acids or salination may affect the suitability of water for cattle. PMID:11036788

  13. VOLATILIZATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS FROM WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volatilization of organic environmental contaminants from water bodies to the atmosphere was investigated. The general aim was to elucidate the factors that control the volatilization process and develop predictive methods for calculating volatilization rates for various comp...

  14. Pollution of drinking water with nitrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Cabel; R. Kozicki; U. Lahl; A. Podbielshi; B. Stachel; S. Struss

    1982-01-01

    The main sources of nitrate in man are food and drinking water. The legislature in West Germany intends to lower the permitted level of nitrate in drinking water from the present 90 mg\\/l to 50 mg\\/l in 1982. The European Community has issued a directive that recommends a level of only 25 mg\\/l, and for babies 10 mg\\/l nitrate should

  15. Institutional instruments for water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Grima

    1981-01-01

    This paper focuses on the articulation of policies in the interface between economic production and water quality. One problem\\u000a is the introduction, at this production-ecologic interface, of unwanted water-borne residuals by firms and municipalities.\\u000a The policy objective is to absorb the social cost of environmental degradation into the production function within the two\\u000a constraints of efficiency in the allocation of

  16. Storm water pollution in the urban environment of Genoa, Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Gnecco; C. Berretta; L. G. Lanza; P. La Barbera

    2005-01-01

    Nonpoint pollution resulting from urban surface runoff is recognized as one of the major causes of quality deterioration in the receiving water bodies. In order to investigate the first flush phenomenon connected to different types of urban surfaces, two monitoring systems have been installed in the experimental catchment of Villa Cambiaso, University of Genoa (Italy), to sample separately roof and

  17. Optical multiple-analyte immunosensor for water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Barzen; Andreas Brecht; Guenter Gauglitz

    2002-01-01

    A prototype of a portable optical immunosensor (called river analyser) has been developed. It can be applied for the monitoring of surface water quality. Antibodies carrying a fluorescent label are used for the specific recognition of pollutants, such as frequently applied pesticides. The transduction principle is based on total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF). The outstanding advantage of the river analyser

  18. Water pollution and habitat degradation in the Gulf of Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Voravit Cheevaporn; Piamsak Menasveta

    2003-01-01

    The Gulf of Thailand has been a major marine resource for Thai people for a long time. However, recent industrialization and community development have exerted considerable stress on the marine environments and provoked habitat degradation. The following pollution problems in the Gulf have been prioritized and are discussed in details: (1) Untreated municipal and industrial waste water are considered to

  19. Xenobiotics removal from polluted water by a multifunctional constructed wetland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuiping Cheng; Željka Vidakovic-Cifrek; Wolfgang Grosse; Friedhelm Karrenbrock

    2002-01-01

    Removal efficiencies on xenobiotics from polluted water in a twin-shaped constructed wetland consisting of a vertical flow chamber with the crop plant Colocasia esculenta L. Schott and a reverse vertical flow one with Ischaemum aristatum var. glaucum Honda, were assessed by chemical analysis and bioassays. After a four-month period of application, removal efficiencies of the applied pesticides parathion and omethoate

  20. Retrofit conserves energy at a water pollution control facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Haimes; J. Dedyo

    1980-01-01

    A major retrofit of process structures and incorporation of additional mechanical equipment was undertaken to replace the existing chemical phosphorus removal process with a biological phosphorus removal process. The new process will reduce energy use up to 81% and lime use up to 86% at the Amherst, New York water pollution control facility.

  1. The Role of Monitoring in Controlling Water Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, Allan

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of trends in the national water pollution control effort and to describe the role of monitoring in that effort, particularly in relation to the responsibilities of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). I hope the paper will serve as a useful framework for the more specific discussions of monitoring technology to follow.

  2. Water pollution control by aquatic vegetation of treatment wetlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur F. M. Meuleman; Boudewijn Beltman; Robbert A. Scheffer

    2004-01-01

    Supplying polluted river water to nature reserves in The Netherlands often leads to eutrophication of the reserve. The eutrophication can be caused directly by the high nutrient input (external eutrophication) or indirectly by altering nutrient availability due to changes in nutrient desorption or mineralization. This paper investigates the potential of a ditch system that is tested for its potential to

  3. Hazard analysis in toxic materials evaluation for water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Cairns; A. W. Maki

    1979-01-01

    A discussion showed that there are several shortcomings in the Water Quality Criteria Documents issued for the 65 toxic pollutants for which the EPA must issue effluent limitations and guidelines, new source performance standards, and pretreatment standards. The basic problem is that these draft criteria documents are based primarily on data generated for numerous other purposes. In the generation of

  4. Urban water pollution, communities and the State in Southeast Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donovan Storey

    Southeast Asian cities are confronted with a range of environmental challenges with few success stories. State-driven and top-down solutions have been unsuccessful while communities struggle with developing and implementing alternative strategies which are both affordable and relevant. As a result water pollution is becoming a more serious social and political flashpoint. In part this has been because current and past

  5. Systems approach to water-pollution abatement for small business

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Jr

    1978-01-01

    Water pollution abatement costs are relatively high for small, isolated industrial plants. The authorities in Germany's Ruhr Valley have adopted a system wherein each discharger participates in economies of scale throughout the valley. The feasibility of a similar plan for the Kanawha River of West Virginia was studied using a separable programming computer model which produced optimal solutions under appropriate

  6. Forewarning model for water pollution risk based on Bayes theory.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Jin, Juliang; Guo, Qizhong; Chen, Yaqian; Lu, Mengxiong; Tinoco, Luis

    2014-02-01

    In order to reduce the losses by water pollution, forewarning model for water pollution risk based on Bayes theory was studied. This model is built upon risk indexes in complex systems, proceeding from the whole structure and its components. In this study, the principal components analysis is used to screen out index systems. Hydrological model is employed to simulate index value according to the prediction principle. Bayes theory is adopted to obtain posterior distribution by prior distribution with sample information which can make samples' features preferably reflect and represent the totals to some extent. Forewarning level is judged on the maximum probability rule, and then local conditions for proposing management strategies that will have the effect of transforming heavy warnings to a lesser degree. This study takes Taihu Basin as an example. After forewarning model application and vertification for water pollution risk from 2000 to 2009 between the actual and simulated data, forewarning level in 2010 is given as a severe warning, which is well coincide with logistic curve. It is shown that the model is rigorous in theory with flexible method, reasonable in result with simple structure, and it has strong logic superiority and regional adaptability, providing a new way for warning water pollution risk. PMID:24194413

  7. Awakening Seed Pond Water ChemistryAwakening Seed Pond Water Chemistry Our Question: Is our pond polluted?Our Question: Is our pond polluted?

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Awakening Seed Pond Water ChemistryAwakening Seed Pond Water Chemistry Our Question: Is our pond polluted?Our Question: Is our pond polluted? Our InvestigationOur Investigation We discussed what kinds of pollutants we should look for. We narrowed down the aspects of pond chemistry that we would investigate

  8. Acrylamide encephaloneuropathy due to well water pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Igisu; I Goto; Y Kawamura; M Kato; K Izumi

    1975-01-01

    All five members of a family developed subacutely mental confusion and\\/or truncal ataxia. Symptoms and signs of polyneuropathy were seen later. The well water in the patients' home contained 400 ppm acrylamide. The present cases are unique in that they are cases of acrylamide poisoning induced by oral intake and percutaneous penetration, and that central nervous system symptoms were prominent.

  9. Biosensor Networks for Monitoring Water Pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. Rickerby; Andreas N. Skouloudis

    2011-01-01

    Improved water quality monitoring techniques based on biosensor, optical, microfluidic and information technologies are leading to radical changes in our ability to perceive, understand and manage the aquatic environment. There is a need for real-time environmental monitoring systems to implement and verify compliance with health and environmental legislation. To do this it is necessary to monitor a many different chemicals

  10. Ferrioxalate-mediated photodegradation of organic pollutants in contaminated water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Safarzadeh-Amiri; James R. Bolton; Stephen R. Cater

    1997-01-01

    The UV-visible photolysis of ferrioxalate in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (the UV-vis\\/ferrioxalate\\/H2O2 process) is investigated for the treatment of contaminated groundwater and industrial wastewater. This process generates the hydroxyl radical, which is a strong oxidant and reacts rapidly with most organic compounds present in solution. Tap water spiked with various organic pollutants, a process water containing chlorobenzene, a tank-bottom

  11. Faecal pollution of surface waters in Jakarta.

    PubMed

    Gracey, M; Ostergaard, P; Adnan, S W; Iveson, J B

    1979-01-01

    Profuse numbers of Enterobacteriaceae were found in samples of surface waters from the Ciliwung River and adjoining canals which criss-cross metropolitan Jakarta and are used widely for domestic purposes by the poorer sections of its population. 15 of the 20 specimens gres E. coli, Klebsiella were isolated from seven and Citrobacter from four. Using enrichment culture procedures, Salmonella sp. were grown from 10 (48%) of 21 water samples examined, and 12 (63%) of aquatic sediments collected at the same sites. Altogether 14 serotypes and 37 Salmonella isolations were recorded. This high degree of faecal contamination of the environment is a major cause of the immense problem of gastro-intestinal infections in that city and probably in many similar cities in developing countries in the tropics. PMID:473327

  12. Reducing the cost of water-pollution control under the Clean Water Act

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rothfelder

    1982-01-01

    The present water-pollution-regulation system focuses on treatment by the individual and ignores the aggregate cost of pollution control. Economists have proposed three methods to create pollution-control systems that cost less than the present one: effluent charges, marketable effluent permits, and private ownership of the waterway. Of these methods, only the marketable permit system has any potential for use within the

  13. A simulation of water pollution model parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibler, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    A parameter estimation procedure for a water pollution transport model is elaborated. A two-dimensional instantaneous-release shear-diffusion model serves as representative of a simple transport process. Pollution concentration levels are arrived at via modeling of a remote-sensing system. The remote-sensed data are simulated by adding Gaussian noise to the concentration level values generated via the transport model. Model parameters are estimated from the simulated data using a least-squares batch processor. Resolution, sensor array size, and number and location of sensor readings can be found from the accuracies of the parameter estimates.

  14. Self-propelled micromotors for cleaning polluted water.

    PubMed

    Soler, Lluís; Magdanz, Veronika; Fomin, Vladimir M; Sanchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2013-11-26

    We describe the use of catalytically self-propelled microjets (dubbed micromotors) for degrading organic pollutants in water via the Fenton oxidation process. The tubular micromotors are composed of rolled-up functional nanomembranes consisting of Fe/Pt bilayers. The micromotors contain double functionality within their architecture, i.e., the inner Pt for the self-propulsion and the outer Fe for the in situ generation of ferrous ions boosting the remediation of contaminated water.The degradation of organic pollutants takes place in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which acts as a reagent for the Fenton reaction and as main fuel to propel the micromotors. Factors influencing the efficiency of the Fenton oxidation process, including thickness of the Fe layer, pH, and concentration of hydrogen peroxide, are investigated. The ability of these catalytically self-propelled micromotors to improve intermixing in liquids results in the removal of organic pollutants ca. 12 times faster than when the Fenton oxidation process is carried out without catalytically active micromotors. The enhanced reaction-diffusion provided by micromotors has been theoretically modeled. The synergy between the internal and external functionalities of the micromotors, without the need of further functionalization, results into an enhanced degradation of nonbiodegradable and dangerous organic pollutants at small-scale environments and holds considerable promise for the remediation of contaminated water. PMID:24180623

  15. Self-Propelled Micromotors for Cleaning Polluted Water

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We describe the use of catalytically self-propelled microjets (dubbed micromotors) for degrading organic pollutants in water via the Fenton oxidation process. The tubular micromotors are composed of rolled-up functional nanomembranes consisting of Fe/Pt bilayers. The micromotors contain double functionality within their architecture, i.e., the inner Pt for the self-propulsion and the outer Fe for the in situ generation of ferrous ions boosting the remediation of contaminated water.The degradation of organic pollutants takes place in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which acts as a reagent for the Fenton reaction and as main fuel to propel the micromotors. Factors influencing the efficiency of the Fenton oxidation process, including thickness of the Fe layer, pH, and concentration of hydrogen peroxide, are investigated. The ability of these catalytically self-propelled micromotors to improve intermixing in liquids results in the removal of organic pollutants ca. 12 times faster than when the Fenton oxidation process is carried out without catalytically active micromotors. The enhanced reaction–diffusion provided by micromotors has been theoretically modeled. The synergy between the internal and external functionalities of the micromotors, without the need of further functionalization, results into an enhanced degradation of nonbiodegradable and dangerous organic pollutants at small-scale environments and holds considerable promise for the remediation of contaminated water. PMID:24180623

  16. A CRITICAL APPRAlSAL OF THE WATER POLLUTION PROBLEM IN INDIA IN RELATION TO AQUACULTURE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. G. JKINGRAN

    A satisfactory solution to the problem of inland water pollution in India has bocome an urgent and accepted necessity for sustained human health and the conservation of aquatic resources. -A bill entitled #'The Prevention of Water Pollution Bill, 1969\\

  17. The Allocative Efficiency Implications of Water Pollution Abatement Cost Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shortle, James S.

    1990-05-01

    Assessments of the efficiency of water pollution control allocations are usually based on abatement cost comparisons. The general rule is that efficiency is improved by reallocating abatement from sources with high marginal costs to low-cost sources. The welfare-theoretic foundation of this rule is well established for situations with nonstochastic emissions. In situations with stochastic emissions, pollution control involves improving the distribution of emissions. Nevertheless, efficiency analyses involving stochastic emissions usually sidestep formal consideration of the stochastic element by measuring pollution control and control costs with respect to changes in long-term average flows. An economic model of stochastic emissions is used to demonstrate that this approach can give misleading results. An alternative procedure is briefly discussed.

  18. Questionable Specificity of Genetic Total Faecal Pollution Markers for Integrated Water Quality Monitoring and Source Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierheilig, Julia; Reischer, Georg H.; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

    2010-05-01

    Characterisation of microbial faecal hazards in water is a fundamental aspect for target-orientated water resources management to achieve appropriate water quality for various purposes like water supply or agriculture and thus to minimize related health risks. Nowadays the management of water resources increasingly demands detailed knowledge on the extent and the origin of microbial pollution. Cultivation of standard faecal indicator bacteria, which has been used for over a century to test the microbiological water quality, cannot sufficiently meet these challenges. The abundant intestinal bacterial populations are very promising alternative targets for modern faecal indication systems. Numerous assays for the detection of genetic markers targeting source-specific populations of the phylum Bacteroidetes have been developed in recent years. In some cases markers for total faecal pollution were also proposed in order to relate source-specific marker concentrations to general faecal pollution levels. However, microbial populations in intestinal and non-intestinal systems exhibit a dazzling array of diversity and molecular analysis of microbial faecal pollution has been based on a fragmentary puzzle of very limited sequence information. The aim of this study was to test the available qPCR-based methods detecting genetic Bacteroidetes markers for total faecal pollution in terms of their value and specificity as indicators of faecal pollution. We applied the AllBac (Layton et al., 2006) the BacUni (Kildare et al., 2007) and the Bacteroidetes (Dick and Field, 2004) assays on soil DNA samples. Samples were collected in well characterised karst spring catchments in Austria's Eastern Calcareous Alps. They were at various levels of altitude between 800 and 1800 meters above sea level and from several different habitats (woodland, alpine pastures, krummholz). In addition we tried to choose sampling sites representing a presumptive gradient of faecal pollution levels. For example sites with obvious faecal influence (e.g. right next to a cowpat) were included as well as more pristine sites without faecal influence from large animals (e.g. fenced areas). Surprisingly, results from investigations with the AllBac assay showed concentrations of the total faecal marker in soil in the range of 106 to 109 Marker Equivalents per g of soil, which is equal or only slightly lower than the concentrations of this particular marker in faeces or raw sewage. Preliminary results from the other tested assays seem to confirm that the targeted markers are also highly abundant in soils. In addition, the markers were present in comparable concentrations in soils from pristine locations as well as in soils under the potential influence of faeces giving a strong indication that these methods also target non-intestinal, autochthonous soil populations. In contrast, source-specific markers (ruminant-specific BacR and human-specific BacH, Reischer et al., 2007, 2006) could only be detected in 30 to 50% of the soil samples at concentrations close to the detection limit, which is at least four orders of magnitude lower than in faecal samples of the respective target sources, ruminant animals and humans. The achieved results call the applicability of the proposed qPCR-based assays for total faecal pollution into question. In fact the assays do not seem to be specific for intestinal Bacteroidetes populations at all and the respective marker concentration levels in pristine soils negate their applicability in the investigated areas. This study also emphasizes the need to test the specificity and sensitivity of qPCR-based assays for total faecal pollution on the local level and especially against non-intestinal environmental samples, which might contribute to marker levels in the aquatic compartment. In conclusion there is a strong demand for marker-based detection techniques for total faecal pollution in water quality monitoring and risk assessment but currently none of the tested assays seems to meet the methodical requirements.

  19. Priority organic pollutants in the urban water cycle (Toulouse, France).

    PubMed

    Sablayrolles, C; Breton, A; Vialle, C; Vignoles, C; Montréjaud-Vignoles, M

    2011-01-01

    Application of the European Water Framework Directive requires Member States to have better understanding of the quality of surface waters in order to improve knowledge of priority pollutants. Xenobiotics in urban receiving waters are an emerging concern. This study proposes a screening campaign of nine molecular species of xenobiotics in a separated sewer system. Five sites were investigated over one year in Toulouse (France) using quantitative monitoring. For each sample, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, nonylphenols, diethelhexylphthalate, linear alkylbenzene sulphonates, methyl tert-butylether, total hydrocarbons, estradiol and ethinylestradiol were analysed. Ground, rain and roof collected water concentrations are similar to treated wastewater levels. Run-off water was the most polluted of the five types investigated, discharged into the aquatic environment. The wastewater treatment plant reduced xenobiotic concentrations by 66% before discharge into the environment. Regarding environmental quality standards, observed concentrations in waters were in compliance with standards. The results show that xenobiotic concentrations are variable over time and space in all urban water compartments. PMID:22097031

  20. Finite-Volume-Particle Methods for Models of Transport of Pollutant in Shallow Water

    E-print Network

    Kurganov, Alexander

    Finite-Volume-Particle Methods for Models of Transport of Pollutant in Shallow Water Alina Chertock of shallow water equations and the pollutant propagation is described by a transport equation. The idea and the pollution computations: the shallow water equations are numerically integrated using a #12;nite- volume

  1. Estimation of pollution by fire extinguishing water D. Calogine, S. Duplantier

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Estimation of pollution by fire extinguishing water D. Calogine, S. Duplantier INERIS, Accidentai by combustion and consequently the water will be loaded with pollutants such as HCI and HCN. The project O2FEU of pollution for soil and subsoil. The project consists in studying the fate of run-off waters in environment

  2. Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual to tidal periods

    E-print Network

    Winant, Clinton D.

    Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual to tidal periods. G. Monismith (2004), Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual the relationship between water temperature and fecal pollution in the surf zone at Huntington and Newport Beach

  3. STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN BUILDING B51 AND BEVATRON DEMOLITION PROJECT

    E-print Network

    STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN FOR: BUILDING B51 AND BEVATRON DEMOLITION PROJECT PROJECT NO;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) Building B51 and Bevatron Demolition Project Lawrence............................................................................................300-3 300.4 Project Schedule/Water Pollution Control Schedule

  4. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

  5. Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process

    E-print Network

    Yu, Qian

    Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process Abstract: The study investigates water quality pollution impacts on urbanization by analyzing temporal the greatest contributors of surface water quality pollution from 1996 to 2003. High values existed

  6. f " International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control. Vienna 1996 XIII/4 -1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    96/0852 f í " International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control. Vienna 1996 for water pollution control, Vienna : Austria (1996)" #12;í>tn International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control. Vienna 1996 XIII/4 - 2 · It is also planned that districts will be able to take

  7. 40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.145-2 Section...GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) No person...or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State...

  8. 40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.145-2 Section...GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) No person...or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State...

  9. 40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.145-2 Section...GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) No person...or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State...

  10. 40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.145-2 Section...GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) No person...or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State...

  11. 40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.145-2 Section...GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) No person...or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State...

  12. Simulating Urban Tree Effects on Air, Water, and Heat Pollution Mitigation: iTree-Hydro Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Endreny, T. A.; Nowak, D.

    2011-12-01

    Urban and suburban development changes land surface thermal, radiative, porous, and roughness properties and pollutant loading rates, with the combined effect leading to increased air, water, and heat pollution (e.g., urban heat islands). In this research we present the USDA Forest Service urban forest ecosystem and hydrology model, iTree Eco and Hydro, used to analyze how tree cover can deliver valuable ecosystem services to mitigate air, water, and heat pollution. Air pollution mitigation is simulated by dry deposition processes based on detected pollutant levels for CO, NO2, SO2, O3 and atmospheric stability and leaf area indices. Water quality mitigation is simulated with event mean concentration loading algorithms for N, P, metals, and TSS, and by green infrastructure pollutant filtering algorithms that consider flow path dispersal areas. Urban cooling considers direct shading and indirect evapotranspiration. Spatially distributed estimates of hourly tree evapotranspiration during the growing season are used to estimate human thermal comfort. Two main factors regulating evapotranspiration are soil moisture and canopy radiation. Spatial variation of soil moisture is represented by a modified urban topographic index and radiation for each tree is modified by considering aspect, slope and shade from surrounding buildings or hills. We compare the urban cooling algorithms used in iTree-Hydro with the urban canopy and land surface physics schemes used in the Weather Research and Forecasting model. We conclude by identifying biophysical feedbacks between tree-modulated air and water quality environmental services and how these may respond to urban heating and cooling. Improvements to this iTree model are intended to assist managers identify valuable tree services for urban living.

  13. Sources and Patterns of Pollutant Washoff in Urban Storm Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, E. D.; Schiff, K.; Ackerman, D.; Tiefenthaler, L.

    2005-05-01

    Urban storm water typically conveys a broad spectrum of pollutants that may pose ecologic and human health concerns to downstream receiving waters. Traditional storm water monitoring programs have focused on evaluation of peak flows and mean concentrations, often derived from composite samples, for a limited set of constituents. As the regulatory and management focus on storm water increases, there is an increasing need to understand the sources and temporal patterns of washoff and loading for a broad suite of pollutants. This study investigated washoff of bacteria, metals, nutrients, and organic pollutants from 24 homogenous land use sites and 10 in-river (mass emission) sites in the greater Los Angeles area. Multiple discrete samples were collected over the duration of each storm in order to generate time vs. concentration (i.e. pollutograph) curves. In addition, storms with differing rainfall intensities and antecedent dry periods were sampled to better understand seasonal patterns in washoff. Results show that pollutant runoff generally exhibits intra and inter storm variability. A "seasonal flush" was observed for some pollutants, generally related to the amount of accumulated annual rainfall. For example, PAH mass loading during early season storms was 4-7 times higher than during comparably sized late season storms. For most constituents, concentrations peaked prior to peak flows. Peak PAH concentrations in the Los Angeles River averaged 3,000 ng/L and the peak occurred approximately 5 hours prior to the peak flow. The ability to attribute pollutants to specific land use types varied by constituent. For some constituents, such as zinc and lead, concentrations varied by land-use type: Washoff form industrial land uses had mean zinc concentrations between 2.5 and 5 times higher than other developed land uses. For others, such as PAHs concentrations were similar between land uses, suggesting a consistent regional source. The increased understanding of spatial and temporal patterns of storm water runoff may aid in the development of more refined dynamic models, improved monitoring, and may be used to guide development of management practices.

  14. Detection of mutagenicity in mussels and their ambient water

    SciTech Connect

    Kira, Shohei; Hayatsu, Hikoya; Ogata, Masana (Okayama Univ. Medical School (Japan))

    1989-10-01

    Mussels provide an excellent system for monitoring marine pollutants: the system is often called mussel watch. Investigators have reported the susceptibility of this organism to petroleum hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. The authors showed the applicability of this organism to monitor oil pollutions by detecting organosulfur compounds in field samples. In the present study, they undertook the mutagen screening of mussel bodies and ambient water, and investigated the correlation between the mussel- and water-mutagenicities. Mutagenic compounds being detected here are those adsorbable to blue cotton or blue rayon and extractable with a methanol-ammonia solution, and the Ames assay was used for the detection of mutagenicity, with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 as the ester strain and with S9-mix for metabolic activation.

  15. [Mineral oil drinking water pollution accident in Slavonski Brod, Croatia].

    PubMed

    Medverec Kneževi?, Zvonimira; Nadih, Martina; Josipovi?, Renata; Grgi?, Ivanka; Cvitkovi?, Ante

    2011-12-01

    On 21 September 2008, heavy oil penetrated the drinking water supply in Slavonski Brod, Croatia. The accident was caused by the damage of heat exchange units in hot water supply. The system was polluted until the beginning of November, when the pipeline was treated with BIS O 2700 detergent and rinsed with water. Meanwhile, water samples were taken for chemical analysis using spectrometric and titrimetric methods and for microbiological analysis using membrane filtration and total plate count. Mineral oils were determined with infrared spectroscopy. Of the 192 samples taken for mineral oil analysis, 55 were above the maximally allowed concentration (MAC). Five samples were taken for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene analysis (BTEX), but none was above MAC. Epidemiologists conducted a survey about health symptoms among the residents affected by the accident. Thirty-six complained of symptoms such as diarrhoea, stomach cramps, vomiting, rash, eye burning, chills, and gastric disorders.This is the first reported case of drinking water pollution with mineral oil in Slavonski Brod and the accident has raised a number of issues, starting from poor water supply maintenance to glitches in the management of emergencies such as this. PMID:22202469

  16. An Empirical Test of Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krishna P. Paudel; Hector Zapata; Dwi Susanto

    2005-01-01

    The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) on water pollution was investigated with both semiparametric and parametric models using watershed level data for the state of Louisiana, USA. The parametric model indicated the turning points within the range $10241–$12993, $6636–$13877, and $6467–$12758 for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and dissolved oxygen (DO), respectively. However, only the parameters associated with N EKC were found

  17. Hydrocarbon analysis of shrimp from oil polluted waters

    E-print Network

    DeWitt, Bernard John

    1982-01-01

    . The organisms tested range from seaweed, sea grasses and benthic algae all the way to sharks in the upper end of the food chain. The analysis of these organisms consists of three basic phases: a) extraction of the lipid and hydro- carbon fractions from.... This is further com- 16 plicated by food chain magnification (Teal, 1977). Hydrocarbons enter the lipid fraction of rhe organism from food, water or pollution and cannot be distinguished from biogenic hydrocarbons that were synthe- sized by the organism...

  18. Vascular aquatic plants for mineral nutrient removal from polluted waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude E. Boyd

    1970-01-01

    Aquatic plants have potential as feedstuffs in certain nations, but the economics of harvesting and processing would prohibit\\u000a their direct utilization as a forage in technologically advanced nations. However, nutrient pollution is accelerating rates\\u000a of eutrophication of natural waters in many areas. Aquatic plants produce large standing crops and accumulate large amounts\\u000a of nutrients. Systems based on the harvest of

  19. Death of fish due to surface water pollution by liquid manure or untreated wastewater: analytical preservation of evidence by HPLC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Schüssler; Lutz Nitschke

    1999-01-01

    A HPLC method was developed to investigate and clear up death of fish populations due to surface water pollution with liquid manure or untreated municipal wastewater. The method is based on the determination of four characteristic manure components (phenol, 4-methylphenol, indole and 3-methylindole) by means of fluorescence detection. The detection limits of these substances are below the ?gL?1 range. Water

  20. Designing of water pollution control technology database platform based on general management information system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunhong Shi; Nan Li; Beihai Zhou; Wenjuan Song

    2010-01-01

    Introduced was the development and implementation for the water pollution control technology database platform based on general management information system. The technology research and application demonstration of the system were developed, covering six fields such as lake water pollution treatment and ecological restoration, improvement of environment quality of urban water, drinking water safety, new technology of physical-chemical-biology water treatment, packaged

  1. Pollution prevention and water conservation in metals finishing operations

    SciTech Connect

    O`Shaughnessy, J.; Clark, W. [Worcester Polytechnic Inst., MA (United States); Lizotte, R.P. Jr.; Mikutel, D. [Texas Instruments Inc., Attleboro, MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Attleboro, Massachusetts is the headquarters of the Materials and Controls Group of Texas Instruments Incorporated (Texas Instruments). In support of their activities, Texas Instruments operates a number of metal finishing and electroplating processes. The water supply and the wastewater treatment requirements are supplied throughout the facility from a central location. Water supply quality requirements varies with each manufacturing operation. As a result, manufacturing operations are classified as either high level or a lower water quality. The facility has two methods of wastewater treatment and disposal. The first method involves hydroxide and sulfide metals precipitation prior to discharge to a surface water. The second method involves metals precipitation, filtration, and discharge via sewer to the Attleboro WTF. The facility is limited to a maximum wastewater discharge of 460,000 gallons per day to surface water under the existing National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. There is also a hydraulic flow restriction on pretreated wastewater that is discharged to the Attleboro WTF. Both of these restrictions combined with increased production could cause the facility to reach the treatment capacity. The net effect is that wastewater discharge problems are becoming restrictive to the company`s growth. This paper reviews Texas Instruments efforts to overcome these restrictions through pollution prevention and reuse practices rather than expansion of end of pipe treatment methods.

  2. The impact of land use on microbial surface water pollution.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Christiane; Rechenburg, Andrea; Rind, Esther; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Our knowledge relating to water contamination from point and diffuse sources has increased in recent years and there have been many studies undertaken focusing on effluent from sewage plants or combined sewer overflows. However, there is still only a limited amount of microbial data on non-point sources leading to diffuse pollution of surface waters. In this study, the concentrations of several indicator micro-organisms and pathogens in the upper reaches of a river system were examined over a period of 16 months. In addition to bacteria, diffuse pollution caused by Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. was analysed. A single land use type predestined to cause high concentrations of all microbial parameters could not be identified. The influence of different land use types varies between microbial species. The microbial concentration in river water cannot be explained by stable non-point effluent concentrations from different land use types. There is variation in the ranking of the potential of different land use types resulting in surface water contamination with regard to minimum, median and maximum effects. These differences between median and maximum impact indicate that small-scale events like spreading manure substantially influence the general contamination potential of a land use type and may cause increasing micro-organism concentrations in the river water by mobilisation during the next rainfall event. PMID:25456147

  3. Precipitation suppression by anthropogenic air pollution: major loss of water resources where we need them most

    E-print Network

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Precipitation suppression by anthropogenic air pollution: major loss of water resources where we inferences of air pollution suppressing precipitation lead us to investigate historical climate records precipitation, decreases with time in the polluted regions and remains unchanged where no pollution sources were

  4. System engineering for water pollution control at the watershed level in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Meng

    2009-01-01

    The present water pollution situation at watershed level in China has been systematically analyzed. The causes of water pollution\\u000a are attributed to the extensive economic developmental pattern, poor wastewater treatment, and a lack of nonpoint pollution\\u000a control. The problems of water pollution control at watershed level include a lack of thought and approach, developmental\\u000a delay in the environmental standard system,

  5. Identification and spatial patterns of coastal water pollution sources based on GIS and chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feng; Guo, Huai-Cheng; Liu, Yong; Hao, Ze-Jia

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive and joint applications of GIS and chemometric approach were applied in identification and spatial patterns of coastal water pollution sources with a large data set (5 years (2000-2004), 17 parameters) obtained through coastal water monitoring of Southern Water Control Zone in Hong Kong. According to cluster analysis the pollution degree was significantly different between September-next May (the 1st period) and June-August (the 2nd period). Based on these results, four potential pollution sources, such as organic/eutrophication pollution, natural pollution, mineral/anthropic pollution and fecal pollution were identified by factor analysis/principal component analysis. Then the factor scores of each monitoring site were analyzed using inverse distance weighting method, and the results indicated degree of the influence by various potential pollution sources differed among the monitoring sites. This study indicated that hybrid approach was useful and effective for identification of coastal water pollution source and spatial patterns. PMID:17966867

  6. Landsat change detection can aid in water quality monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H. C.; Steele, K. F.; Waite, W. P.; Shinn, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    Comparison between Landsat-1 and -2 imagery of Arkansas provided evidence of significant land use changes during the 1972-75 time period. Analysis of Arkansas historical water quality information has shown conclusively that whereas point source pollution generally can be detected by use of water quality data collected by state and federal agencies, sampling methodologies for nonpoint source contamination attributable to surface runoff are totally inadequate. The expensive undertaking of monitoring all nonpoint sources for numerous watersheds can be lessened by implementing Landsat change detection analyses.

  7. Chemistry and pollution of natural waters in western Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, T. C.

    1996-11-01

    Selected water analyses from the literature and current research in western Kenya are tabulated and the relationships between critical water quality parameters described. The waters are chemically characterised with Na as the dominant cation and bicarbonate as the dominant anion and, while waters of obviously different sources are represented, the available chemical data point to a general classification of bicarbonate-Na-rich waters, even for the saline waters of Lake Magadi. Potassium and chloride are among the less abundandt constituents. The concentration level of nutrients (nitrate, phosphate and sulphate) is mostly lower than maxium permissible drinking water levels, and salinity is not yet a serious problem in water bodies that are exploited for domestic and industrial purposes. Fluoride levels are variable with the higher values occurring in waters in and around the Rift Valley. Limited analytical data for I in waters from the Eldoret, Kiambu and Nairobi areas indicate concentrations well above world average figures. Mean values of some key water quality indicators such as total dissolved solids, total suspended solids and heavy metals are well below the threshold for contaminated water. These values are however exceeded by several factors in saline waters of lakes and in some springs. Significant organic pollution is reflected by mean values of parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand and faecal coliforms. The present quality of most of the water bodies in this part of the country is considered to be adequate at present for domestic and other purposes, though a gradual decrease in quality is evident from the recent upsurge in industrial activities in the subregion.

  8. HPLC-PFD determination of priority pollutant PAHs in water, sediment, and semipermeable membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, K.S.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Lebo, J.A.; Kaiser, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography coupled with programmable fluorescence detection was employed for the determination of 15 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPPAHs) in water, sediment, and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). Chromatographic separation using this analytical method facilitates selectivity, sensitivity (ppt levels), and can serve as a non-destructive technique for subsequent analysis by other chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Extraction and sample cleanup procedures were also developed for water, sediment, and SPMDs using various chromatographic and wet chemical methods. The focus of this publication is to examine the enrichment techniques and the analytical methodologies used in the isolation, characterization, and quantitation of 15 PPPAHs in different sample matrices.

  9. Remote sensing techniques from helicopter for water quality and air pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Geraci, A.L.; Landolina, F.F. [Univ. of Catania, Sicily (Italy)

    1996-11-01

    Aircraft remote sensing provides a number of benefits, allowing to vary the detection parameters, giving better resolution, and being little affected by weather conditions and no replaceable under emergency situations. Also as a part of projects funded by the Commission of the European Communities, through the Regional Government of Sicily, applications of remote sensing techniques were carried out from helicopter over selected study areas in Sicily, for water quality and air pollution control. In particular, remotely-sensed data were acquired, using LASER techniques and thermal infrared imagery, for the monitoring of water quality and the assessment of oil pollution. Furthermore, air quality was investigated, using LASER techniques and correlation spectroscopy. In a perspective of integration, the investigations carried out proved effective and useful, confirming the important role of the helicopter as monitoring platform for environmental remote sensing applications. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Investigating and evaluating surface water pollution: The integrated chemical and biological approach

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelidou, S.C. [State General Lab., Nicosia (Cyprus)

    1995-12-31

    Surface water can get contaminated from diffused and point sources of pollution. The implementation therefore of both biological and chemical methods is essential. The efficiency of the integrated approach in evaluating surface water pollution in Cyprus will be presented. The use of biofractionation to select the most toxic fraction increases cost-effectiveness. To get maximum information and certainty at minimum cost, a Tier Approach is applied for the evaluation of Industrial and Pesticide Pollution and to assess possible ecotoxicological effects. On the first Tier biofractionation is applied in combination with the measurement of aggregated parameters related to industrial pollution e.g. TOX, General FID/GC profile of base/neutral extracts, HPLC screening with multidetection systems (UV and Fluorescence detector) to identify the presence of major pollutants groups of intermediate to high polarity, i.e. acids, aldehydes/ketones, phenols, PAHs, phthalates etc., and purge and trap for volatiles (VOCs). Under the same Tier most of the metals are screened by ICP and pesticides by multi-residues methods. Under the 1st Tier the basic 99% Microtox test is carried out directly on water samples or fractions and the solid phase Microtox test on sediments. Mutagenicity testing (Mutatox) is also applied. The 2nd Tier (more specific oriented) is based on results from Tier 1 and comprises an extensive testing of group parameters identified at Tier 1 and a confirmatory stage using GC/MS or HPLC Photodiode Array detection. Water concentrates on XAD are tested by Microtox to evaluate pT values (potential Toxicity value). The overall assessment is done based not only on numerical criteria (limits) which are not always sufficient, but also on narrative criteria according to the international practice. This work indicates the capabilities of integrating approaches in evaluating environmental problems.

  11. Water infiltration control to achieve mine water pollution control. A feasibility study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Zaval; J. D. Robins

    1973-01-01

    The study determined the feasibility of conducting a full-scale demonstration to document the effectiveness of land reclamation at mined-out areas in establishing surface water infiltration control to prevent acid mine water pollution. The study site was the Dents Run Watershed, Monongalia County, West Virginia. Investigative measures included: investigation of each mine area and opening; a detailed description of each site;

  12. Pollution: A Selected Bibliography of U.S. Government Publications on Air, Water, and Land Pollution 1965-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiraldi, Louis, Comp.; Burk, Janet L., Comp.

    Materials on environmental pollution published by the various offices of the federal government are presented in this select bibliography. Limited in scope to publications on air, water, and land pollution, the document is designed to serve teachers and researchers working in the field of environmental problems who wish reference to public…

  13. In Hot Water: Thermoelectric Power and Thermal Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, N. T.

    2010-12-01

    The use of surface water for thermoelectric power plant cooling significantly impacts river water temperatures, posing risks to aquatic ecosystems. In addition, surface water temperatures in summer can exceed limits for power plant compliance with thermal effluent limitations, jeopardizing energy security during periods of peak power demand. For example, Brown's Ferry Nuclear Plant in Alabama curtailed power production by 50% for over 40 days in July-August of 2010 when river temperatures exceeded 90°F. Future increases in surface water temperatures due to climate change may further endanger energy security. This study examines summer intake and outflow water temperature data reported by power plants during peak production months across the United States to determine the impact of thermoelectric power plants on surface water temperatures in the summer. Initial results indicate that U.S. coal plants (n= 625) raised water temperatures by an average of 17°F (± 12°F) and discharged cooling water with median peak temperatures of 100°F (± 13°F) in the summer of 2005, the last year when this data was reliably reported. Further analysis will extend the time period of this study from 2000-2005 and expand the scope to various energy sources and cooling technologies. In addition, we explore regional variation to assess the relative threat that thermal pollution poses to energy security across the U.S.

  14. Mixed finite element discretization of a model for organic pollution in waters

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Mixed finite element discretization of a model for organic pollution in waters Part I. The problem]), sophisticated modeling of the organic pollution in stream-waters has been elaborated. Taylor's dispersion´ephanie Salmon4 . Abstract We consider a mixed reaction diffusion system describing the organic pollution

  15. ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL POLICIES. 1. A NATIONAL NETWORK MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to study the national implications of federal water pollution control policies, the authors developed a water pollution network model. The model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lake...

  16. Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 1. A national network model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin; G. K. Young

    1981-01-01

    In order to study the national implications of federal water pollution control policies, the authors developed a water pollution network model. This model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and bays. While the geographical scope of the model and existing data availability required

  17. Evaluation of water quality and pollution using multichannel sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiromitsu Sakai; Satoru Iiyama; Kiyoshi Toko

    2000-01-01

    We studied and discussed the characteristics and the application of a multichannel electrode type sensor. It was based on eight membranes using various lipids as an effective and a simple potentiometric sensor for detecting water quality.The response of the sensor was calibrated using a standard solution, adjusted as an artificial river water. Especially, we researched the response patterns of the

  18. Spatial variation and source apportionment of water pollution in Qiantang River (China) using statistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fang; Wang, Xiaoquan; Lou, Liping; Zhou, Zhiqing; Wu, Jiaping

    2010-03-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution and apportioning the sources of water pollution are important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this work, we considered data for 13 water quality variables collected during the year 2004 at 46 monitoring sites along the Qiantang River (China). Fuzzy comprehensive analysis categorized the data into three major pollution zones (low, moderate, and high) based on national quality standards for surface waters, China. Most sites classified as "low pollution zones" (LP) occurred in the main river channel, whereas those classified as "moderate and high pollution zones" (MP and HP, respectively) occurred in the tributaries. Factor analysis identified two potential pollution sources that explained 67% of the total variance in LP, two potential pollution sources that explained 73% of the total variance in MP, and three potential pollution sources that explained 80% of the total variance in HP. UNMIX was used to estimate contributions from identified pollution sources to each water quality variable and each monitoring site. Most water quality variables were influenced primarily by pollution due to industrial wastewater, agricultural activities and urban runoff. In LP, non-point source pollution such as agricultural runoff and urban runoff dominated; in MP and HP, mixed source pollution dominated. The pollution in the small tributaries was more serious than that in the main channel. These results provide information for developing better pollution control strategies for the Qiantang River. PMID:19944441

  19. Oil pollution detection and sensing. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques used to detect and sense oil spills and slicks. Citations discuss remote sensing, chemical and biological monitoring, satellite imagery, surveilllance, and models. Topics include pollution information systems, environmental monitoring, coastal ecology, and paths of pollutants. Pollution effects on fisheries, leak detectors, artificial oil pollution, remedial actions, and international cooperation are covered. (Contains a minimum of 236 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Diffuse pollution of soil and water: Long term trends at large scales?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grathwohl, P.

    2012-04-01

    Industrialization and urbanization, which consequently increased pressure on the environment to cause degradation of soil and water quality over more than a century, is still ongoing. The number of potential environmental contaminants detected in surface and groundwater is continuously increasing; from classical industrial and agricultural chemicals, to flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. While point sources of pollution can be managed in principle, diffuse pollution is only reversible at very long time scales if at all. Compounds which were phased out many decades ago such as PCBs or DDT are still abundant in soils, sediments and biota. How diffuse pollution is processed at large scales in space (e.g. catchments) and time (centuries) is unknown. The relevance to the field of processes well investigated at the laboratory scale (e.g. sorption/desorption and (bio)degradation kinetics) is not clear. Transport of compounds is often coupled to the water cycle and in order to assess trends in diffuse pollution, detailed knowledge about the hydrology and the solute fluxes at the catchment scale is required (e.g. input/output fluxes, transformation rates at the field scale). This is also a prerequisite in assessing management options for reversal of adverse trends.

  1. Development of a Master Plan for Water Pollution Control Using MCDM Techniques: A Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Karamouz; Banafsheh Zahraie; Reza Kerachian

    2003-01-01

    Excessive demand for water due to a growing population, agricultural, and industrial development, along with climate change and depletion of nonrenewable resources have intensified the need for integrated water resources management and water pollution control. This paper presents different aspects of a master plan for water pollution control and the results of a case study for developing a master plan

  2. Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, and Infant Mortality in India

    E-print Network

    Greenstone, Michael

    Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, environmental regulations, and infant mortality from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental ...

  3. Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, and Infant Mortality in India

    E-print Network

    Greenstone, Michael

    2011-07-01

    Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, and environmental regulations from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental regulations. ...

  4. UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN REMOVAL OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange, adsorption and acid catalysis properties. Different inorganic and organic pollutants have been removed from water at room temperature using various zeolites. Synthetic zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove inorganic pollutants...

  5. Water hyacinths for removal of cadmium and nickel from polluted waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Removal of cadmium and nickel from static water systems utilizing water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) was investigated. This aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to rapidly remove heavy metals from aqueous systems by root absorption and concentration. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to absorb and concentrate up to 0.67 mg of cadmium and 0.50 mg of nickel per gram of dry plant material when exposed for a 24-hour period to waters polluted with from 0.578 to 2.00 ppm of these toxic metals. It is found that one hectare of water hyacinths has the potential of removing 300 g of cadmium or nickel from 240,000 liters of water polluted with these metals during a 24-hour period.

  6. Genetic and environmental factors involved in increased resistance of brook trout to sulfuric acid solutions and mine acid polluted waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FREDERICK A. SWARTS; WILLIAM A. DUNSON; JAMES E. WRIGHT

    1978-01-01

    Several strains of hatchery-reared brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), were exposed to low pH in the laboratory (sulfuric acid solutions) and in the field (mine acid polluted waters). Wild brook trout were also used in some field tests. Tests were both acute and chronic (up to 2 mo). Pronounced strain differences in survival ability were detected among embryonic, juvenile, and

  7. Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process in Xi’an, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongming He; Jie Zhou; Yongjao Wu; Qian Yu; Wanchang Zhang; Xiuping Xie

    2007-01-01

    The study investigates water quality pollution impacts on urbanization by analyzing temporal and spatial characteristics of different water quality parameters, and simulating economic loss of water quality pollution in Xi'an, China from 1996 to 2003. Results show that organic pollutants were the greatest contributors of surface water quality pollution from 1996 to 2003. High values existed in petroleum concentration, chemical

  8. New Photocatalysis for Effective Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarei Chaleshtori, M.; Saupe, G. B.; Masoud, S.

    2009-12-01

    The presence of harmful compounds in water supplies and in the discharge of wastewater from chemical industries, power plants, and agricultural sources is a topic of global concern. The processes and technologies available at the present time for the treatment of polluted water are varied that include traditional water treatment processes such as biological, thermal and chemical treatment. All these water treatment processes, have limitations of their own and none is cost effective. Advanced oxidation processes have been proposed as an alternative for the treatment of this kind of wastewater. Heterogeneous photocatalysis has recently emerged as an efficient method for purifying water. TiO2 has generally been demonstrated to be the most active semiconductor material for decontamination water. One significant factor is the cost of separation TiO2, which is generally a powder having a very small particle size from the water after treatment by either sedimentation or ultrafiltration. The new photocatalyst, HTiNbO5, has been tested to determine whether its photocatalytic efficiency is good enough for use in photocatalytic water purification since it has high surface area and relatively large particle size. The larger particle sizes of the porous materials facilitate catalyst removal from a solution, after purification has taken place. It can be separated from water easily than TiO2, a significant technical improvement that might eliminate the tedious final filtration necessary with a slurry. These materials are characterized and tested as water decontamination photocatalysts. The new catalyst exhibited excellent catalytic activity, but with a strong pH dependence on the photo efficiency. These results suggest that elimination of the ion exchange character of the catalyst may greatly improve its performance at various pHs. This new research proposes to study the effects of a topotactic dehydration reaction on these new porous material catalysts.

  9. Monitoring of 1300 organic micro-pollutants in surface waters from Tianjin, North China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingxiao; Kadokami, Kiwao; Wang, Shaopo; Duong, Hanh Thi; Chau, Hong Thi Cam

    2015-03-01

    In spite of the quantities and species of chemicals dramatically increased with rapid economic growth in China in the last decade, the focus of environmental research was mainly on limited number of priority pollutants. Therefore, to elucidate environmental pollution by organic micro-pollutants, this work was conducted as the first systematic survey on the occurrence of 1300 substances in 20 surface water samples of Tianjin, North China, selected as a representative area of China. The results showed the presence of 227 chemicals. The most relevant compounds in terms of frequency of detection and median concentration were bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (100%; 0.26?gL(-1)), siduron (100%; 0.20?gL(-1)), lidocaine (100%; 96ngL(-1)), antipyrine (100%; 76ngL(-1)), caffeine (95%; 0.28?gL(-1)), cotinine (95%; 0.20?gL(-1)), phenanthrene (95%; 0.17?gL(-1)), metformin (90%; 0.61?gL(-1)), diethyl phthalate (90%; 0.19?gL(-1)), quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (90%; 0.14?gL(-1)), 2-(methylthio)-benzothiazole (85%; 0.11?gL(-1)) and anthraquinone (85%; 54ngL(-1)). Cluster analysis discriminated three highly polluted sites from others based on data similarity. Principle component analysis identified four factors, corresponding to industrial wastewater, domestic discharge, tire production and atmospheric deposition, accounting for 78% of the total variance in the water monitoring data set. This work provides a wide reconnaissance on broad spectrum of organic micro-contaminants in surface waters in China, which indicates that the aquatic environment in China has been polluted by a large number of chemicals. PMID:25479805

  10. Daytime Water Detection Based on Sky Reflections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo; Matthies, Larry; Bellutta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    A water body s surface can be modeled as a horizontal mirror. Water detection based on sky reflections and color variation are complementary. A reflection coefficient model suggests sky reflections dominate the color of water at ranges > 12 meters. Water detection based on sky reflections: (1) geometrically locates the pixel in the sky that is reflecting on a candidate water pixel on the ground (2) predicts if the ground pixel is water based on color similarity and local terrain features. Water detection has been integrated on XUVs.

  11. Impacts of soil and water pollution on food safety and health risks in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Song, Shuai; Wang, Ruoshi; Liu, Zhaoyang; Meng, Jing; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Li, Hong; Luo, Wei; Wang, Tieyu

    2015-04-01

    Environmental pollution and food safety are two of the most important issues of our time. Soil and water pollution, in particular, have historically impacted on food safety which represents an important threat to human health. Nowhere has that situation been more complex and challenging than in China, where a combination of pollution and an increasing food safety risk have affected a large part of the population. Water scarcity, pesticide over-application, and chemical pollutants are considered to be the most important factors impacting on food safety in China. Inadequate quantity and quality of surface water resources in China have led to the long-term use of waste-water irrigation to fulfill the water requirements for agricultural production. In some regions this has caused serious agricultural land and food pollution, especially for heavy metals. It is important, therefore, that issues threatening food safety such as combined pesticide residues and heavy metal pollution are addressed to reduce risks to human health. The increasing negative effects on food safety from water and soil pollution have put more people at risk of carcinogenic diseases, potentially contributing to 'cancer villages' which appear to correlate strongly with the main food producing areas. Currently in China, food safety policies are not integrated with soil and water pollution management policies. Here, a comprehensive map of both soil and water pollution threats to food safety in China is presented and integrated policies addressing soil and water pollution for achieving food safety are suggested to provide a holistic approach. PMID:25603422

  12. Detection of oil pollution along the pipeline routes in tropical ecosystem from multi-spectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamu, Bashir; Tansey, Kevin; Ogutu, Booker

    2014-05-01

    The study was conducted in an oil producing environment dominated by mangrove and swamp vegetation in Niger Delta, Nigeria. Ancillary data including oil pipeline map and GPS of spill points were used in selecting sample sites to identify and detect polluted locations. A number of polluted and non-polluted sites were selected and vegetation spectral reflectance and indices for these sample sites were extracted from TM data of January and December 1986. A statistical T-test was used to test for significant differences between vegetation spectral reflectance and indices from polluted and non-polluted sites. The initial results from the analysis of spectral reflectance between polluted and non-polluted did not show any significant difference in all the six spectral bands with p-value <0.005. The results from analysis of various vegetation indices some did not show any significance differences between the polluted and non-polluted sites (e.g. the SRI, SAVI and EVI2). Other VIs (NDVI, MSAVI2 and ARVI2) showed significant differences between the polluted and non-polluted sites. From these preliminary results we can conclude that pollution from oil spills may result to the changes in leaf biochemistry of the Mangroves in the Niger Delta which are detectable from remote sensing data. Future work will focus on undertaking further temporal analysis of additional spill sites to determine what quantity of spilt oil arises in spectral changes of vegetation.

  13. Laser Remote Sensing of Pollution on Water Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunkin, A. F.; Surovegin, Aleksander L.

    1992-01-01

    One of the most important problems of modern environmental science is the detection and identification of various impurities in the ocean. Sources of impurities in sea water are diverse. The most common of them are accidental transport, agricultural, and oil industry spills. Once the ecological balance is disturbed, biological processes in sea water become affected, resulting in changes in chlorophyll concentrations, water turbidity, and temperature. During the last few years, we have created new types of lidars and arranged nearly ten aircraft and shipboard expeditions. Some aircraft expeditions dealt with terrestrial investigations. Others were devoted to oceanological research, the results of which are discussed here. Emphasis is on the detection of phytoplankton chlorophyll and hydrocarbon in sea water.

  14. Relaxation Approximations to Shallow Water and Pollutant Transport Department of Sciences, Division of Mathematics,

    E-print Network

    Katsaounis, Theodoros D.

    1 Relaxation Approximations to Shallow Water and Pollutant Transport Equations A.I. Delis solution of shallow water flows and the transport and diffusion of pollutant in such flows. By first can be considered as an alternative to classical finite difference methods. Keywords--Shallow water

  15. The River Basin Model: Computer Output. Water Pollution Control Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This research report is part of the Water Pollution Control Research Series which describes the results and progress in the control and abatement of pollution in our nation's waters. The River Basin Model described is a computer-assisted decision-making tool in which a number of computer programs simulate major processes related to water use that…

  16. The determination and fate of disinfection by-products from ozonation of polluted raw water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winn-Jung Huang; Guor-Cheng Fang; Chun-Chen Wang

    2005-01-01

    The major disinfection by-products (DBPs) resulting from ozone treatment of polluted surface water were investigated. By-products of either health concern or which may contribute to biological instability of treated drinking water were investigated. The major DBPs were analyzed in two fractions: carbonyl compounds and brominated organic compounds. The natural organic matter (NOM) was also isolated and fractionated from polluted water

  17. DEVELOPMENTS AT FOURTEENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WATER POLLUTION RESEARCH - BRIGHTON, ENGLAND, JULY 17-22, 1988

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this report is to provide a mechanism whereby current water research developments from around the world as reported at the 14th International Conference on Water Pollution Research of the International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control can be high...

  18. [Method of ecological risk assessment for risk pollutants under short-term and high dose exposure in water pollution accident].

    PubMed

    Lei, Bing-Li; Sun, Yan-Feng; Liu, Qian; Yu, Zhi-Qiang; Zeng, Xiang-Ying

    2011-11-01

    In recent years, water pollution accidents resulting in acute aquatic ecological risk and security issues become a research focus. However, in our country, the surface water quality standards and drinking water health standards were used to determine the safety of waters or not in pollution incidents due to lacking safety effect threshold or risk value for protection of aquatic life. In foreign countries, although predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) or risk value (R) of pollutants were provided for protection of aquatic organisms, the PNECs or risk values were derived based on long-term exposure toxicity data NOECs (no observed effect concentrations) and lack of short-term exposure risk or threshold values. For the short-term and high dose exposure in pollution incident, ecological risk assessment methods were discussed according to the procedures of the conventional ecological risk assessment and the water quality criteria establishment of the U.S. EPA for the protection of aquatic organisms in short-term exposure, and had a case study. At the same time, we provide some suggestions for the establishment of ecological risk assessment system in water pollution incidents. PMID:22295619

  19. Optimal Search on Water Pollution Accident Source in Discrete Spaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Liu; Dan Liu; Kun Wang; Qingxin Zhu

    2007-01-01

    When the pollution accidents take place in the river basin, it is very important and necessary to find out the accidental sources of pollution , so that effective measures can be taken to reduce the pollution. But because of the lack of monitoring efforts and the secluded source, very little about the accidental sources of pollution is known to searcher

  20. Operation and Maintenance of Water Pollution Control Facilities: A WPCF White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, William R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the recommendations of the Water Pollution Control Federation for operation and maintenance consideration during the planning design, construction, and operation of wastewater treatment facilities. (CS)

  1. WATER INFILTRATION CONTROL TO ACHIEVE MINE WATER POLLUTION CONTROL: THE DENTS RUN WATERSHED DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of surface mined land reclamation measures in establishing surface water infiltratin control to prevent or reduce pollution from acid mine drainage. The Dents Run watershed, located in Monongalia County, West Virgin...

  2. Use of Copper Components in Water Systems to Reduce Water Pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshinori Ozaki; Muneo Kodaira; Seiichi Takagi

    The anti-bacillus action of copper ions leaching from a copper strainer retards the growth of slime on the strainer. The drain holes in the strainer can thus be 1 mm or less in diameter. This reduces the outflow of kitchen waste, which reduces the pollution of river water. Investigation into the degradation of trap resin in the drain of kitchen

  3. Spectroscopic analyses of pollutants in water, sediment and fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh.; Ibrahim, Hanan S.; Ammar, Nabila S.; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2012-11-01

    Water ways in Egypt is suffering from continual discharge without adequate treatment especially in the Delta and greater Cairo area. Accordingly water, sediments and catfishes were collected from El Mouheet El Youmna drain in Giza. Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn were determined furthermore the molecular structure of sediment and catfish were conducted with FTIR spectroscopy. Although studied metals were lower in water, higher values are recorded in sediment and catfish samples. FTIR shows possible interaction among metals and organic structures mainly proteins. The bioaccumulation of Pb and Cd proportion was significantly increased in the liver tissues of catfish. A correlation coefficient among sediment and fish liver metals accumulation exist. This infers that the waste assimilation capacity for the drain is high, a phenomena that could be ascribed to dilution, sedimentation and continual water exchange. Furthermore, the genotoxicity affect in catfish genomic corroborates the genus diagnostic markers which attributed to long pollution. This is an indication that agriculture and industrial wastes discharged into the drain has badly a significant effect on the ecological balance.

  4. DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS IN WATER MATRICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the advent and recognition of waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis great effort has been expended on development of methods for detecting Cryptosporidium oocysts in water. Oocysts recovery rates using a method originally developed for detecting Giardia cysts ranged fr...

  5. Water Detection Based on Sky Reflections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Matthies, Larry H.

    2010-01-01

    This software has been designed to detect water bodies that are out in the open on cross-country terrain at mid- to far-range (approximately 20 100 meters), using imagery acquired from a stereo pair of color cameras mounted on a terrestrial, unmanned ground vehicle (UGV). Non-traversable water bodies, such as large puddles, ponds, and lakes, are indirectly detected by detecting reflections of the sky below the horizon in color imagery. The appearance of water bodies in color imagery largely depends on the ratio of light reflected off the water surface to the light coming out of the water body. When a water body is far away, the angle of incidence is large, and the light reflected off the water surface dominates. We have exploited this behavior to detect water bodies out in the open at mid- to far-range. When a water body is detected at far range, a UGV s path planner can begin to look for alternate routes to the goal position sooner, rather than later. As a result, detecting water hazards at far range generally reduces the time required to reach a goal position during autonomous navigation. This software implements a new water detector based on sky reflections that geometrically locates the exact pixel in the sky that is reflecting on a candidate water pixel on the ground, and predicts if the ground pixel is water based on color similarity and local terrain features

  6. Development and validation of a rapid and wide-scope qualitative screening method for detection and identification of organic pollutants in natural water and wastewater by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Portolés, Tania; Pitarch, Elena; López, Francisco J; Hernández, Félix

    2011-01-14

    In this work, a multiclass screening method for organic contaminants in natural and wastewater has been developed and validated for qualitative purposes, i.e. to ensure the reliable and sensitive identification of compounds detected in samples at a certain level of concentration. The screening is based on the use of GC-TOF MS, and the sample procedure involves solid phase extraction with C(18) cartridges. Around 150 organic contaminants from different chemical families were investigated, including PAHs, octyl/nonyl phenols, PCBs, PBDEs and a notable number of pesticides, such as insecticides (organochlorines, organophosphorus, carbamates and pyrethroids), herbicides (triazines and chloroacetanilides), fungicides and several relevant metabolites. Surface water, ground water and effluent wastewater were spiked with all target analytes at three concentration levels (0.02, 0.1 and 1 ?g/L). Influent wastewater and raw leachate from a municipal solid waste treatment plant were spiked at two levels (0.1 and 1 ?g/L). Up to five m/z ions were evaluated for every compound. The identification criterion was the presence of, at least, two m/z ions at the expected retention time, measured at their accurate mass, and the accomplishment of the Q/q(i) intensity ratio within specified tolerances. The vast majority of compounds investigated were correctly identified in the samples spiked at 1 ?g/L. When analyte concentration was lowered down to 0.1 ?g/L the identification was more problematic, especially in complex-matrix samples like influent wastewater. On the contrary, many contaminants could be properly identified at the lowest level 0.02 ?g/L in cleaner matrices. The procedure was applied to the screening of water samples of different origin and matrix composition and allowed the detection of several target contaminants. A highly reliable identification could be carried out thanks to the sensitive full-spectrum acquisition at accurate mass, the high selectivity reached with the use of narrow-mass window extracted ion chromatograms, the low mass errors observed in the positive detections and the Q/q ratio accomplishment. PMID:21134677

  7. 40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...the owner's or operator's intake water will not be removed by any wastewater treatment systems whose design capacity and...toxic pollutant(s) present in the water after any water supply treatment steps have been performed by or...

  8. 75 FR 7627 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ...Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Notice is hereby given that on February 16...the pre-treatment requirements of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act), 40 CFR part 403...

  9. 40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...the owner's or operator's intake water will not be removed by any wastewater treatment systems whose design capacity and...toxic pollutant(s) present in the water after any water supply treatment steps have been performed by or...

  10. 40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...the owner's or operator's intake water will not be removed by any wastewater treatment systems whose design capacity and...toxic pollutant(s) present in the water after any water supply treatment steps have been performed by or...

  11. 40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...the owner's or operator's intake water will not be removed by any wastewater treatment systems whose design capacity and...toxic pollutant(s) present in the water after any water supply treatment steps have been performed by or...

  12. Daytime Water Detection Based on Sky Reflections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Matthies, Larry H.; Bellutta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Robust water detection is a critical perception requirement for unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) autonomous navigation. This is particularly true in wide-open areas where water can collect in naturally occurring terrain depressions during periods of heavy precipitation and form large water bodies. One of the properties of water useful for detecting it is that its surface acts as a horizontal mirror at large incidence angles. Water bodies can be indirectly detected by detecting reflections of the sky below the horizon in color imagery. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has implemented a water detector based on sky reflections that geometrically locates the pixel in the sky that is reflecting on a candidate water pixel on the ground and predicts if the ground pixel is water based on color similarity and local terrain features. This software detects water bodies in wide-open areas on cross-country terrain at mid- to far-range using imagery acquired from a forward-looking stereo pair of color cameras mounted on a terrestrial UGV. In three test sequences approaching a pond under a clear, overcast, and cloudy sky, the true positive detection rate was 100% when the UGV was beyond 7 meters of the water's leading edge and the largest false positive detection rate was 0.58%. The sky reflection based water detector has been integrated on an experimental unmanned vehicle and field tested at Ft. Indiantown Gap, PA, USA.

  13. Remote sensing in the mixing zone. [water pollution in Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villemonte, J. R.; Hoopes, J. A.; Wu, D. S.; Lillesand, T. M.

    1973-01-01

    Characteristics of dispersion and diffusion as the mechanisms by which pollutants are transported in natural river courses were studied with the view of providing additional data for the establishment of water quality guidelines and effluent outfall design protocols. Work has been divided into four basic categories which are directed at the basic goal of developing relationships which will permit the estimation of the nature and extent of the mixing zone as a function of those variables which characterize the outfall structure, the effluent, and the river, as well as climatological conditions. The four basic categories of effort are: (1) the development of mathematical models; (2) laboratory studies of physical models; (3) field surveys involving ground and aerial sensing; and (4) correlation between aerial photographic imagery and mixing zone characteristics.

  14. The Degradation of Organic Pollutants by Bubble Discharge in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Linan; Wang, Yongjun; Ren, Zhijun; Liu, Guifang; Kang, Kai

    2013-10-01

    Organic pollutants could be degraded by using bubble discharge in water with gas aeration in the discharge reactor and more plasma can be generated in the discharge process. When pulsed high voltage was applied between electrodes with gas aerated into the reactor, it showed that bubbles were broken, which meant that breakdown took place. It could also be observed that the removal rate of phenol increased with increasing discharge voltage or pulse frequency, and with reducing initial phenol concentration or solution electric conductivity. It could remove more amount of phenol by oxygen aeration. With increasing oxygen flow rate, the removal rate increased. There was little difference with air or nitrogen aeration for phenol removal. The solution temperature after discharge increased to a great extent. However, this part of energy consumption did not contribute to the reaction, which led to a reduction in the energy utilization efficiency.

  15. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid

    PubMed Central

    Van Dijk, Tessa C.; Van Staalduinen, Marja A.; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P?=?0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l?1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l?1 (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

  16. Linking Near Real-Time Water Quality Measurements to Fecal Coliforms and Trace Organic Pollutants in Urban Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henjum, M.; Wennen, C.; Hondzo, M.; Hozalski, R. M.; Novak, P. J.; Arnold, W. A.

    2009-05-01

    Anthropogenic pollutants, including pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, and estrogens are detected in urban water bodies. Effective examination of dilute organic and microbial pollutant loading rates within surface waters is currently prohibitively expensive and labor intensive. Effort is being placed on the development of improved monitoring methodologies to more accurately assess surface water quality and evaluate the effectiveness of water quality management practices. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008 a "real-time" wireless network equipped with high frequency fundamental water quality parameter sensors measured turbidity, conductivity, pH, depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen and nitrate above and below stormwater inputs at two urban stream locations. At each location one liter grab samples were concurrently collected by ISCO automatic samplers at two hour intervals for 24 hour durations during three dry periods and five rain events. Grab samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms, atrazine (agricultural herbicide), prometon (residential herbicide) and caffeine (wastewater indicator). Surrogate relationships between easy-to-measure water quality parameters and difficult-to-measure pollutants were developed, subsequently facilitating monitoring of these pollutants without the development of new, and likely costly, technologies. Additionally, comparisons were made between traditional grab sampling techniques and the "real-time" monitoring to assess the accuracy of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) calculations.

  17. 75 FR 43554 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (“Clean Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ...DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (``Clean Water Act'') Notice is hereby given that on July 21, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree in...

  18. Farmers, Trust, and the Market Solution to Water Pollution: The Role of Social Embeddedness in Water Quality Trading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariola, Matt J.

    2012-01-01

    Water quality trading (WQT) is a market arrangement in which a point-source water polluter pays farmers to implement conservation practices and claims the resulting benefits as credits toward meeting a pollution permit. Success rates of WQT programs nationwide are highly variable. Most of the literature on WQT is from an economic perspective…

  19. Citizens' guides to ocean and coastal law: Guide to laws regulating coastal water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The pamphlet is intended to help citizens, like those participating in water quality monitoring programs, who want to understand the complex nature of state, federal, and local laws that apply to the chief sources of coastal water pollution: point source pollution--pollution discharged from pipes which require state and federal permits; and nonpoint source pollution--generally unregulated runoff from agricultural operations and urban land uses, timber harvesting (silviculture), and construction activities. The pamphlet explains the legal standards and penalties established by coastal water quality laws so that citizens can better participate in the implementation and enforcement of these laws.

  20. Optical detection of oil on water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Arvesen, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Three radiometric techniques utilizing sunlight reflected and backscattered from water bodies have potential application for remote sensing of oil spills. Oil on water can be detected by viewing perpendicular polarization component of reflected light or difference between polarization components. Best detection is performed in ultraviolet or far-red portions of spectrum and in azimuth directions toward or opposite sun.

  1. Analysis of national water-pollution-control policies. 1. A national network model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin; G. K. Young

    1981-01-01

    In order to study the national implications of federal water-pollution-control policies, the authors developed a water-pollution-network model. This model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and bays. While the geographical scope of the model and existing data availability required make many simplifying assumptions,

  2. Research on Regional Water Consumption and Water Pollutants Emissions with REPI Model - A Case Study in Shandong Province, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xueliang Yuan; Qingsong Wang; Liqiang Zhang; Lin Cui; Chunyuan Ma; Ruimin Mu

    2010-01-01

    High economic growth in Shandong has had huge implications for great water consumption and produced significant water pollutants. Saving index is introduced to analyze the evolution of the performance of water consumption, waste water discharges, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and ammonia nitrogen emissions in Shandong over the past 12 years. The change of saving indexes represents Shandong's water efficiency, waste

  3. Water Detection Based on Color Variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo L.

    2012-01-01

    This software has been designed to detect water bodies that are out in the open on cross-country terrain at close range (out to 30 meters), using imagery acquired from a stereo pair of color cameras mounted on a terrestrial, unmanned ground vehicle (UGV). This detector exploits the fact that the color variation across water bodies is generally larger and more uniform than that of other naturally occurring types of terrain, such as soil and vegetation. Non-traversable water bodies, such as large puddles, ponds, and lakes, are detected based on color variation, image intensity variance, image intensity gradient, size, and shape. At ranges beyond 20 meters, water bodies out in the open can be indirectly detected by detecting reflections of the sky below the horizon in color imagery. But at closer range, the color coming out of a water body dominates sky reflections, and the water cue from sky reflections is of marginal use. Since there may be times during UGV autonomous navigation when a water body does not come into a perception system s field of view until it is at close range, the ability to detect water bodies at close range is critical. Factors that influence the perceived color of a water body at close range are the amount and type of sediment in the water, the water s depth, and the angle of incidence to the water body. Developing a single model of the mixture ratio of light reflected off the water surface (to the camera) to light coming out of the water body (to the camera) for all water bodies would be fairly difficult. Instead, this software detects close water bodies based on local terrain features and the natural, uniform change in color that occurs across the surface from the leading edge to the trailing edge.

  4. Trading pollution for water quality : assessing the effects of market-based instruments in three basins

    E-print Network

    Wallace, Katherine Hay

    2007-01-01

    Since its passage in 1972, the majority of pollution reduction under the federal Clean Water Act has resulted from technology-based limits imposed on point source dischargers. However, most U.S. water bodies are unmonitored ...

  5. The influence of light and air on the purification of polluted water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLEM H. O. DE SMET; Frans M. J. C. Evens

    1970-01-01

    A comparative study was made between the organic polluted water from the river Lieve (Ghent, Belgium), and the same water treated in the laboratory aquaria, with light and atmospheric air at a constant temperature.

  6. Asymptotic estimation error growth applied to monitoring. [Water pollution monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pimentel

    1978-01-01

    Problems in the design of optimal measurement systems for monitoring pollutant levels in a confined aquifer are discussed. It is assumed that a two-dimensional region Z exists within an aquifer into which a collection of stochastic and deterministic point sources are injecting a pollutant species. It is required to design a monitoring system whereby best estimates of the pollutant concentration

  7. PROSPECTS FOR EFFECTIVE NATIONAL MANAGEMENT OF ABANDONED METAL MINE WATER POLLUTION IN THE UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Jarvis; Adrian Fox; Emma Gozzard; Steve Hill; Will Mayes; Hugh Potter

    This article briefly outlines the estimated scale of water pollution arising from abandoned non-coal mines (particularly metal mines) in the UK (in the order of 200 km of streams and rivers affected), and provides examples of the chemical characteristics of such waters, which are principally polluted with metals such as zinc, copper and iron. Although there is a substantial body

  8. Getting Research-based Information on Water and Pollutants to Those Who Need It

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Getting Research-based Information on Water and Pollutants to Those Who Need It By Steve Ress Becoming a one-stop shop for information on watershed management and agricultural nonpoint source pollution is a goal of the Heartland Regional Water Quality Coordination Initiative. The new initiative, developed

  9. Water pollution control: assessing the impacts and costs of environmental standards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Luken; E. H. Pechan

    1977-01-01

    This book addresses one of the key policy changes enacted into law by the Congress in 1972, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, that of requiring certain categories of industries and municipalities to meet pollution-discharge standards based on specific technology objectives regardless of the prior conditions or desired uses of the water. The procedures used to address

  10. Feasibility study: Fuel cell cogeneration in a water pollution control facility, volume 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Hirschenhofer; D. B. Baillieul; L. M. Barton; R. J. Brumberg; C. E. Hannan; H. H. Fiedler; M. G. Kile; M. G. Klett; G. A. Malone; H. P. Milliron

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of a cogeneration fuel cell power plant operating in a large water pollution control facility. In this particular application, the fuel cell power plant would use methane rich digester gas from the water pollution control facility as a fuel feedstock to provide electrical and thermal energy. Several

  11. Federal environmental litigation in 1976: the Federal Water Pollution Control Act

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Hunciker; V. Pagano

    1976-01-01

    The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 forms a vital part of EPA's national battle against pollution. The general objective of the act, to ''restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters,'' will hopefully be achieved through the completion of specific goals set and carried out by EPA and the federal government. The application

  12. Political crisis and the politics of water pollution control in the 1970s

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsoukalas

    1991-01-01

    This research investigates the sociopolitical context and formation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1977 in light of the theory of the relative autonomy of the state. Data on state legitimacy and political crisis are derived from previous studies on public trust in government and business and the

  13. Oil-spill cleanup fulfills aim of Federal Water Pollution Control Act

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1982-01-01

    The decision in Union Petroleum Corp. v. United States reaffirms the Federal judiciary's commitment to control water pollution under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Those in charge of oil terminals who have taken reasonable precautions to prevent vandalism and oil spills into navigable rivers will be reimbursed when vandals spill oil from tank cars parked at the terminal. Awarding

  14. MINE-WATER POLLUTION OF AN HYDROLOGICAL SYSTEM DOWNWARD A FORMER METALLIC MINE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra COURTIN-NOMADE; Hubert BRIL; Cécile GROSBOIS; Christophe ROUSSEL

    Mine-water pollution is a wide problem, very often studied because it is generally associated with acid sulfate waters (ASW), contamination due to dissolved pollutants (As, S, Zn, Pb…) in surface and groundwaters, to the precipitation of these potentially toxic elements in stream sediments…(Schwertmann et al., 1995; Bigham et al., 1996). In an abandoned mine of tungsten in the French Massif

  15. Water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the studies of water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. Citations examine the development, management, and protection of estuary and coastal resources. Topics include pollution sources, environmental monitoring, water chemistry, eutrophication, models, land use, government policy, and laws and regulations. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Bacterial community composition in low-flowing river water with different sources of pollutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollution of water resources is a major risk to human health and water quality throughout the world. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of pollutant sources from agricultural activities, urban runoffs, and runoffs from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on bacterial communitie...

  17. Monitoring heated water pollution of the DaYaWan nuclear power plant using TM images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Wu; Q. Wang; Z. Yang; W. Wang

    2007-01-01

    Heated water pollution is one of the problems to which environmental protection efforts pay great attention. As traditional heated water pollution monitoring methods are inefficient, remote sensing plays an increasingly more and more important role, as it can monitor large areas in real time. This study focuses on how to use remote sensing technology effectively to monitor and evaluate heated

  18. Water Detection Based on Object Reflections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Matthies, Larry H.

    2012-01-01

    Water bodies are challenging terrain hazards for terrestrial unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) for several reasons. Traversing through deep water bodies could cause costly damage to the electronics of UGVs. Additionally, a UGV that is either broken down due to water damage or becomes stuck in a water body during an autonomous operation will require rescue, potentially drawing critical resources away from the primary operation and increasing the operation cost. Thus, robust water detection is a critical perception requirement for UGV autonomous navigation. One of the properties useful for detecting still water bodies is that their surface acts as a horizontal mirror at high incidence angles. Still water bodies in wide-open areas can be detected by geometrically locating the exact pixels in the sky that are reflecting on candidate water pixels on the ground, predicting if ground pixels are water based on color similarity to the sky and local terrain features. But in cluttered areas where reflections of objects in the background dominate the appearance of the surface of still water bodies, detection based on sky reflections is of marginal value. Specifically, this software attempts to solve the problem of detecting still water bodies on cross-country terrain in cluttered areas at low cost.

  19. A trading-ratio system for trading water pollution discharge permits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Feng Hung; Daigee Shaw

    2005-01-01

    The fact that water flows to the lowest level uni-directionally is a very specific and useful property of water. By utilizing this property, we design a trading-ratio system (TRS) of tradable discharge permits for water pollution control. Such a trading-ratio system has three main characteristics: (1) the zonal effluent cap is set by taking into account the water pollutant loads

  20. Application of GIS network analysis in water pollution control of Huaihe River Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Huaihe River Basin is a unique region in China with high densities in both population and water projects (dams and floodgates) and is also subject to the most serious water pollution. It is a complicated water system, with a large number of tributaries, many inter-provincial rivers, and highly artificial river water control. Management of water projects regulating of river network

  1. Pollution detection in Lake Champlain using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, A. O. (principal investigator); Henson, E. B.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A major waste water discharge plume generated by a large paper mill along the New York shore of Lake Champlain was visually detected on ERTS-1 imagery. The plume is best displayed in 9.5 inch positive transparencies of MSS bands 4 and 5. Observation of the magnitude and extent of this plume is feasible, under magnification of 4 times. The chemical parameters of this plume have been documented by limnological studies. An enhancement technique useful for documenting the presence of waste water discharge plumes in Lake Champlain utilizes Polaroid MP-3 copy camera equipment and Spectral Data Corporation's multispectral viewer. The 9.5 inch, ERTS-1, positive transparency is enlarged using the Polaroid MP-3 copy camera to produce an enlarged lantern slide size positive transparency. These are projected through the multispectral viewer for enhancement and the scene is viewed directly on the screen or copied by an additional photographic step. The technique is simple and produces rapid results.

  2. A Nonparametric Instrumental Variable Approach to Estimating the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollutants at the Global Level1

    E-print Network

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    for Water Pollutants at the Global Level1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lin,2 Krishna P. Paudel, Mahesh Pandit for Water Pollutants at the Global Level Abstract We examine the relationship between income and water pollutants using country- level global water quality data over the period 1980 to 2012. We include civil

  3. A Nonparametric Instrumental Variable Approach to Estimating the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollutants at the Global Level

    E-print Network

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    for Water Pollutants at the Global Level Krishna P. Paudel1 , C.-Y. Cynthia Lin2 , Mahesh Pandit the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollutants at the Global Level Abstract We examine the relationship between income and water pollutants using country- level global water quality data over the period 1980

  4. Water pollution and habitat degradation in the Gulf of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Cheevaporn, Voravit; Menasveta, Piamsak

    2003-01-01

    The Gulf of Thailand has been a major marine resource for Thai people for a long time. However, recent industrialization and community development have exerted considerable stress on the marine environments and provoked habitat degradation. The following pollution problems in the Gulf have been prioritized and are discussed in details: (1) Untreated municipal and industrial waste water are considered to be the most serious problems of the country due to limited waste water treatment facilities in the area. (2) Eutrophication is an emerging problem in the gulf of Thailand. Fortunately, the major species of phytoplankton that have been reported as the cause of red tide phenomena were non-toxic species such as Noctiluca sp. and Trichodesmium sp. (3) Few problems have been documented from trace metals contamination in the Gulf of Thailand and public health threat from seafood contamination does not appear to be significant yet. (4) Petroleum hydrocarbon residue contamination is not a problem, although a few spills from small oil tankers have been recorded. A rapid decrease in mangrove forest, coral reefs, and fisheries resources due to mismanagement is also discussed. PMID:12787596

  5. An experimental study on the feasibility of monitoring petroleum-polluted waters with remote sensing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Miaofen; Song, Qingjun; Xing, Xufeng; Tang, Junwu; Yu, Wuyi; Zhang, Yimin

    2009-09-01

    An experimental study was carried out in order to prove the feasibility of monitoring petroluem-polluted waters with remote sensing technology. The field data was collected in the rivers threatened by petroleum pollution. The measured items mainly included (1) the absorption coefficients of yellow substance, de-pigmented particles and phytoplankton pigments; (2) the backscattering coefficients data of water; (3) water quality parameters; (4) in-situ fine water spectral data. First, absorption spectral features and backscattering coefficients of petroleum-polluted water were analyzed. Secondly, the field spectral data were processed as corresponding bands of ENVISAT/MERIS using the spectral respond function of ENVISAT/MERIS in order to probe into the contribution of the various constituent concentrations in waters on the leaving-water radiation and remote sensing reflectance. The results showed that (1) with the increase of the petroleum pollution concentration, the absorption coefficients of petroleum-polluted water are also increased; (2) the spectra slope of exponential function of petroleum-polluted water is larger than that of petroleum-unpolluted water; (3) Emulsificated oil and decomposed oil in water can be absorbed by suspended particles and influence the scattering properties of the particles. Moreover it will change the spectral model of the inorganic particles backscattering coefficient with petroleum-polluted water; (4) the correlation between petroleum pollution concentration and remote sensing reflectance based on ENVISAT/MERIS is negative. These features of inherent optical parameters and apparent optical parameters obtained from the experiment provide the feasibility for monitoring petroleum-polluted waters with remote sensing technology.

  6. An experimental study on the feasibility of monitoring petroleum-polluted waters with remote sensing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Miaofen; Song, Qingjun; Xing, Xufeng; Tang, Junwu; Yu, Wuyi; Zhang, Yimin

    2010-11-01

    An experimental study was carried out in order to prove the feasibility of monitoring petroluem-polluted waters with remote sensing technology. The field data was collected in the rivers threatened by petroleum pollution. The measured items mainly included (1) the absorption coefficients of yellow substance, de-pigmented particles and phytoplankton pigments; (2) the backscattering coefficients data of water; (3) water quality parameters; (4) in-situ fine water spectral data. First, absorption spectral features and backscattering coefficients of petroleum-polluted water were analyzed. Secondly, the field spectral data were processed as corresponding bands of ENVISAT/MERIS using the spectral respond function of ENVISAT/MERIS in order to probe into the contribution of the various constituent concentrations in waters on the leaving-water radiation and remote sensing reflectance. The results showed that (1) with the increase of the petroleum pollution concentration, the absorption coefficients of petroleum-polluted water are also increased; (2) the spectra slope of exponential function of petroleum-polluted water is larger than that of petroleum-unpolluted water; (3) Emulsificated oil and decomposed oil in water can be absorbed by suspended particles and influence the scattering properties of the particles. Moreover it will change the spectral model of the inorganic particles backscattering coefficient with petroleum-polluted water; (4) the correlation between petroleum pollution concentration and remote sensing reflectance based on ENVISAT/MERIS is negative. These features of inherent optical parameters and apparent optical parameters obtained from the experiment provide the feasibility for monitoring petroleum-polluted waters with remote sensing technology.

  7. BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSES FOR DETECTION AND ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTION IN THE SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Selected biochemical analysis techniques were investigated for potential use in detecting and assessing pollution of subsurface environments. Procedures for determining protein, nucleic acids, organic phosphate, lipopolysaccharides, and various coenzymes and enzyme systems were e...

  8. Water leak detection using ground penetrating radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mansor Nakhkash; Mohammad R. Mahmood-Zadeh

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility of applying GPR to the detection of leaks in buried water pipes by aid of electromagnetic simulations. The FDTD model of a GPR system and ground configurations are described in full details. The paper reports the response signatures and features, arising from soil-water mixture, in the GPR data. These results assist in idlentifying water leaks

  9. Can control of soil erosion mitigate water pollution by sediments?

    PubMed

    Rickson, R J

    2014-01-15

    The detrimental impact of sediment and associated pollutants on water quality is widely acknowledged, with many watercourses in the UK failing to meet the standard of 'good ecological status'. Catchment sediment budgets show that hill slope erosion processes can be significant sources of waterborne sediment, with rates of erosion likely to increase given predicted future weather patterns. However, linking on-site erosion rates with off-site impacts is complicated because of the limited data on soil erosion rates in the UK and the dynamic nature of the source-pathway-receptor continuum over space and time. Even so, soil erosion control measures are designed to reduce sediment production (source) and mobilisation/transport (pathway) on hill slopes, with consequent mitigation of pollution incidents in watercourses (receptors). The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific evidence of the effectiveness of erosion control measures used in the UK to reduce sediment loads of hill slope origin in watercourses. Although over 73 soil erosion mitigation measures have been identified from the literature, empirical data on erosion control effectiveness are limited. Baseline comparisons for the 18 measures where data do exist reveal erosion control effectiveness is highly variable over time and between study locations. Given the limitations of the evidence base in terms of geographical coverage and duration of monitoring, performance of the different measures cannot be extrapolated to other areas. This uncertainty in effectiveness has implications for implementing erosion/sediment risk reduction policies, where quantified targets are stipulated, as is the case in the EU Freshwater Fish and draft Soil Framework Directives. Also, demonstrating technical effectiveness of erosion control measures alone will not encourage uptake by land managers: quantifying the costs and benefits of adopting erosion mitigation is equally important, but these are uncertain and difficult to express in monetary terms. PMID:23815978

  10. Detection of particulate air pollution plumes from major point sources using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, W. A.; Pease, S. R.

    1973-01-01

    The Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) launched by NASA in July 1972 has been providing thousands of high resolution multispectral images of interest to geographers, cartographers, hydrologists, and agroculturists. It has been found possible to detect the long-range (over 50 km) transport of suspected particulate plumes from the Chicago-Gary steel mill complex over Lake Michigan. The observed plumes are readily related to known steel mills, a cement plant, refineries, and fossil-fuel power plants. This has important ramifications when discussing the interregional transport of atmospheric pollutants. Analysis reveals that the Multispectral Scanner Band 5 (0.6 to 0.7 micrometer) provides the best overall contrast between the smoke and the underlying water surface.

  11. INFLUENCE OF DIET ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BOVINE FECAL POLLUTION DETECTION METHODS AND MICROBIAL POPULATION STRUCTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT Background and Aims. Waterborne diseases originating from bovine fecal material are a significant public health issue. Ensuring water quality requires the use of methods that can consistently identify pollution across a broad range of management practices. One practi...

  12. Nanoparticle-based strategies for detection and remediation of environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanyan; Su, Gaoxing; Zhang, Bin; Jiang, Guibin; Yan, Bing

    2011-03-01

    Sensitive detection and efficient removal of an increasing number of persistent and emerging environmental pollutants are major challenges in our industrialized world. Now these challenges can be better answered by utilizing the advantages of nanotechnology in addition to traditional methods. Due to unique features of nanomaterials, such as size, surface area, adsorptivity, photoelectronic, and photocatalytic properties, they have emerged to be important materials in the analytical detection and remediation of environmental pollutants. PMID:21258678

  13. Fluoroquinolones and qnr genes in sediment, water, soil, and human fecal flora in an environment polluted by manufacturing discharges.

    PubMed

    Rutgersson, Carolin; Fick, Jerker; Marathe, Nachiket; Kristiansson, Erik; Janzon, Anders; Angelin, Martin; Johansson, Anders; Shouche, Yogesh; Flach, Carl-Fredrik; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2014-07-15

    There is increasing concern that environmental antibiotic pollution promotes transfer of resistance genes to the human microbiota. Here, fluoroquinolone-polluted river sediment, well water, irrigated farmland, and human fecal flora of local villagers within a pharmaceutical industrial region in India were analyzed for quinolone resistance (qnr) genes by quantitative PCR. Similar samples from Indian villages farther away from industrial areas, as well as fecal samples from Swedish study participants and river sediment from Sweden, were included for comparison. Fluoroquinolones were detected by MS/MS in well water and soil from all villages located within three km from industrially polluted waterways. Quinolone resistance genes were detected in 42% of well water, 7% of soil samples and in 100% and 18% of Indian and Swedish river sediments, respectively. High antibiotic concentrations in Indian sediment coincided with high abundances of qnr, whereas lower fluoroquinolone levels in well water and soil did not. We could not find support for an enrichment of qnr in fecal samples from people living in the fluoroquinolone-contaminated villages. However, as qnr was detected in 91% of all Indian fecal samples (24% of the Swedish) it suggests that the spread of qnr between people is currently a dominating transmission route. PMID:24988042

  14. Water-Particle Distribution of Hydrophobic Micro Pollutants in Storm Water Runoff

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidetoshi Kumata; Kouji Masuda; Junya Yamada; Hideshige Takada

    2000-01-01

    Sorptive behaviors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as other classes of hydrophobic pollutants (i.e., n-alkanes and linear alkylbenzenes: LABs) were investigated for street runoff and for particle-size segregated river water samples. PAHs, except for 3-ring aromatics, were mostly transported with particles >1.2?m. In all the environmental samples PAHs were more hydrophobic than expected from their Kow; whereas vigorous

  15. Water relations and photosynthesis in pine trees exposed to industrial pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Kaipianen, L.K.; Bolondinskii, V.K.; Sazonova, T.A.; Sofronova, G.I. [Karelian Scientific Center, Karelia (Russian Federation)

    1995-05-01

    The temporal and spatial variability of the shoot water potential, a sensitive characteristic of plant water relations, was investigated in common pine growing under conditions of industrial pollution. The alterations in the xylem structure that made the plants more susceptible to water deficit were revealed. It is concluded that water stress, enhanced by pollutants, negatively affects the diurnal pattern and light curves of CO{sub 2}-gas exchange; this additional factor, along the damage to assimilatory apparatus and stomata, accounts for photosynthesis decline in the pollutant-exposed pine trees. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Emerging pollutants in sewage, surface and drinking water in Galicia (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; Concha-Graña, Estefanía; López-Mahía, Purificación; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío

    2012-03-01

    A monitoring programme was carried out on wastewater, surface and drinking water on the NW area of Spain during the four seasons of a year period (November 2007-September 2008). This study covered a series of emerging pollutants of different classes, including pharmaceuticals, neutral and acidic organophosphorus flame retardant/plasticizers (OPs), triclosan, phenoxy-herbicides, insect repellents and UV filters. From the total set of 53 compounds, 19 were found in raw wastewater with median concentrations higher than 0.1 ?g L(-1). Among them, salicylic acid, ibuprofen and the UV filter benzophenone-4 (BP-4) were the most concentrated, exceeding the 1 ?g L(-1) median value. Subsequently, 11 of these contaminants are not efficiently enough removed in the small WWTPs tested and their median concentrations in effluents still surpassed the 0.1 ?g L(-1), so that they can spread through surface water. These chemicals are the pharmaceuticals naproxen, diclofenac and atenolol; the OPs tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tri(chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP), tri-n-butyl phosphate (TnBP), diphenyl phosphate (DPhP) and diethylhexyl phosphate (DEHP); and the sulphonate UV filters BP-4 and 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulphonic acid (PBSA). These OPs were then the dominant emerging pollutants occurring in surface and drinking water, where they are detected in the 20-200 ng L(-1) range. Pharmaceuticals and UV filters are typically below the 10 ng L(-1) level. Finally, herbicides were only detected in the last sampling campaign under the 100 ng L(-1) drinking water European Union limit. PMID:22189380

  17. Deposition of air pollutants to the great waters. First report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of the Great Waters program is to evaluate the atmospheric deposition of air pollutants to the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, Chesapeake Bay, and coastal waters. The report to Congress is to include information on the contribution of atmospheric deposition to pollutant loadings, the environmental or public health effects of such pollution, the source or sources of such pollution, and a description of any regulatory revisions under applicable Federal laws that may be necessary to assure protection of human health and the environment. The scientific information currently available is summarized in this report, and recommended actions are described.

  18. Paying for Pollution: Water Quality and Effluent Charges. Proceedings from a Conference (Chicago, Illinois, May 19, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This publication gives the proceedings from a 1977 conference sponsored by the Conservation Foundation. Participants discuss the appropriate means to control water pollution, emphasizing the use of effluent charges as economic incentive for polluters to clean up their waters. (MA)

  19. Water renewal and risk assessment of water pollution in semi-enclosed domains: Application to Bilbao Harbour (Bay of Biscay)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manel Grifoll; Andrea Del Campo; Manuel Espino; Julien Mader; Manuel González; Ángel Borja

    The inclusion of water renewal behaviour in the risk assessment of water pollution for Bilbao harbour (located within the Nervión estuary, southeastern Bay of Biscay) is analysed. Several parameterisations of water renewal (integral and local perspectives), obtained from the numerical evolution analysis of a Eulerian tracer, were used. The local characterisation of water renewal confirmed a strong horizontal spatial variability.

  20. Rationally Modified Estrogen Receptor Protein as a Bio-Recognition Element for the Detection of EDC Pollutants: Strategies and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Pedotti, Mattia; Ferrero, Valentina Elisabetta Viviana; Lettieri, Teresa; Colpo, Pascal; Follonier, Stephane; Calzolai, Luigi; Varani, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The estrogen receptor protein (ER) can bind a vast number of organic pollutants widely spread in the environment and collectively known as Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals, EDCs. Its broad selectivity makes it an ideal bio-recognition element for the detection of EDCs. Here we describe the strategy and rationale for the design of ER based biosensors and assays that generate a signal in the presence of EDCs. The opportunity to use either natural or rationally modified ER molecules is discussed. The latter approach was successfully applied in the EU-FP7 project RADAR, with the aim to develop a novel biosensor for the detection of organic pollutants both in the environment and in commercial water products. PMID:25734791

  1. 'GIARDIA' DETECTION IN WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method has been developed combining immunofluorescence and phase-contrast to microscopically locate and identify Giardia cysts among particulates filtered from water samples. Selective staining of cysts with anti-Giardia antiserum and a fluorochrom enhances the contrast between...

  2. An application of Landsat and computer technology to potential water pollution from soil erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Agricultural activity has been recognized as the primary source of nonpoint source water pollution. Water quality planners have needed information that is timely, accurate, easily reproducible, and relatively inexpensive to utilize to implement 'Best Management Practices' for water quality. In this paper, a case study shows how the combination of satellite data, which can give accurate land-cover/land-use information, and a computerized geographic information system, can assess nonpoint pollution at a regional scale and be cost effective.

  3. Determination of arsenic in polluted waters by differential pulse anodic-stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Leung, P C; Subramanian, K S; Méranger, J C

    1982-06-01

    Experimental parameters affecting the analytical response of arsenic in differential pulse anodic-stripping voltammetry (DPASV) have been examined. DPASV offers higher sensitivity than linear-scan anodic-stripping voltammetry for similar analysis times. Both techniques have been applied to the NBS Standard Reference Water (SRM 1643) and some polluted water samples. The results on polluted waters compared favourably with those obtained by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectroscopy. PMID:18963176

  4. Tourism Development and Water Pollution: Case Study in Lijiang Ancient Town

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ning Baoying; He Yuanqing

    2007-01-01

    Tourism development results in water pollution not only in water-scarce areas, but also in areas with relatively abundant water resources, such as Lijiang Ancient Town (LAT). In this article, LAT is described for its use of the freshwater resource, on account of its attractive landscaping. Tourism here has grown rapidly in recent years and at the same time the water

  5. Observed Increase of TTL Temperature and Water Vapor in Polluted Couds over Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Hui; Jiang, Jonathan; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, J.; Read, William G.; Massie, Steven T.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Colarco, Peter; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Santee, Michelle L.

    2011-06-01

    Aerosols can affect cloud particle size and lifetime, which impacts precipitation, radiation and climate. Previous studies1-4 suggested that reduced ice cloud particle size and fall speed due to the influence of aerosols may increase evaporation of ice crystals and/or cloud radiative heating in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), leading to higher water vapor abundance in air entering the stratosphere. Observational substantiation of such processes is still lacking. Here, we analyze new observations from multiple NASA satellites to show the imprint of pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. We focus our analysis on the highly-polluted South and East Asia region during boreal summer. We find that "polluted" ice clouds have smaller ice effective radius than "clean" clouds. In the TTL, the polluted clouds are associated with warmer temperature and higher specific humidity than the clean clouds. The water vapor difference between the polluted and clean clouds cannot be explained by other meteorological factors, such as updraft and detrainment strength. Therefore, the observed higher water vapor entry value into the stratosphere in the polluted clouds than in the clean clouds is likely a manifestation of aerosol pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. Given the radiative and chemical importance of stratospheric water vapor, the increasing emission of aerosols over Asia may have profound impacts on stratospheric chemistry and global energy balance and water cycle.

  6. An overview of trace metal pollution in the coastal waters of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, G

    1998-06-18

    The state of metal pollution in Hong Kong's coastal waters has been assessed by measuring metal levels in: (i) the water column; (ii) sediments and (iii) in organisms, i.e. biomonitors. Current literature is reviewed. Data from sediment analysis have shown that metal pollution is most severe in the urban areas of Victoria Harbour, Tolo Harbour, Deep Bay and Northwestern waters. Bottom sediments in typhoon shelters are particularly heavily polluted with, for example, Cu levels from Kowloon Bay reaching 5300 mg.kg-1 in 1995. Since 1987, levels of pollution have generally either stabilized or fallen in Deep Bay and Victoria Harbour but have increased in Inner Tolo Harbour and Northwestern waters. Many biomonitors have been used to study metal pollution in Hong Kong, the most popular of which are barnacles, mussels (in particular Perna viridis) and algae (in particular Ulva lactuca). Biomonitoring studies generally recorded high levels of metal pollution in Victoria Harbour in the late nineteen seventies and early eighties, with increasing pollution of the semi-enclosed Tolo Harbour through the eighties and early nineties. In a recent study using barnacles, the levels of Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn were shown to be greatly reduced as compared to those recorded in 1986 and 1989, respectively. Levels of metal pollution in Hong Kong coastal waters may have lowered in the last 10 years. PMID:9646516

  7. Hydrochemical evaluation of surface water quality and pollution source apportionment in the Luan River basin, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiliang; Li, Xuyong; Xie, Ying

    2011-01-01

    In the context of rapid economic growth in China, hydrochemical characteristics of stream water quality are being influenced by a variety of natural and anthropogenic inputs. We determined 10 hydrochemical parameters of the surface water at 29 monitoring sites in the Luan River basin of northern China during 2007-2009. Water quality hydrochemistry was evaluated using fuzzy comprehensive analysis based on the National Surface Water Environmental Quality Standards of China. Our results showed that 14 sites were classified as 'meeting standard (MS)' while the other 15 sites were classified 'non-meeting standard (NS)'. According to principal component analysis, four potential pollution sources were identified that explained 80.6% of the total variance among these MS sites, and three potential pollution sources that explained 78.3% of the total variance among these NS sites. Furthermore, multi-linear regression of the absolute principal component scores was used to estimate contributions from identified pollution sources. Most water pollution variables were influenced primarily by municipal sewage and non-point pollution in MS sites. In NS sites, chemical industry wastewater pollution dominated. Pollution in the main stream was more serious than that in the small tributaries. Our findings provide useful information for developing better pollution control strategies for the Luan River. PMID:22105137

  8. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are included in...

  9. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are included in...

  10. Uniqueness for an ill-posed reaction-dispersion model. Application to organic pollution in stream-waters

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Uniqueness for an ill-posed reaction-dispersion model. Application to organic pollution in stream-waters waters. The sources we consider are point-wise and simulate stationary or moving pollution sources to measure the pollution extent due to organic agents and then to evaluate the water characteristics. Another

  11. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are included in...

  12. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are included in...

  13. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are included in...

  14. An air and water pollution prevention primer for small businesses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1995-01-01

    Pollution prevention is one of the few areas in which environmental goals and economic interests clearly coincide. Benefits include reduced costs, liabilities and regulatory burdens, and an improved environment. Minimizing the quantity and toxicity of waste also reduces the need for waste treatment operations. Because economics is one of the factors weighed when adopting pollution prevent technologies, economic analysis based

  15. Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: Progresses and perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Iqbal Lone; Zhen-li He; Peter J. Stoffella; Xiao-e Yang

    2008-01-01

    Environmental pollution affects the quality of pedosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Great efforts\\u000a have been made in the last two decades to reduce pollution sources and remedy the polluted soil and water resources. Phytoremediation,\\u000a being more cost-effective and fewer side effects than physical and chemical approaches, has gained increasing popularity in\\u000a both academic and practical circles. More than 400

  16. Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 2. Agricultural sediment control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianessi, Leonard P.; Peskin, Henry M.

    1981-08-01

    Application of a national water network model permits an analysis of the likely affects of agricultural sediment control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier assessments concluded that agriculture-related pollution problems are widespread and ubiquitous, this analysis concludes that it is probably more efficient to focus sediment-related pollution control policies on about one third of the nation's agricultural regions.

  17. Water pollutant fingerprinting tracks recent industrial transfer from coastal to inland China: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Tian, Dajun; Jiang, Songhui; Andersen, Melvin E.; He, Genhsjeng; Crabbe, M. James C.; Zheng, Yuxin; Zhong, Yang; Qu, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, China’s developed regions have transferred industries to undeveloped regions. Large numbers of unlicensed or unregistered enterprises are widespread in these undeveloped regions and they are subject to minimal regulation. Current methods for tracing industrial transfers in these areas, based on enterprise registration information or economic surveys, do not work. We have developed an analytical framework combining water fingerprinting and evolutionary analysis to trace the pollution transfer features between water sources. We collected samples in Eastern China (industrial export) and Central China (industrial acceptance) separately from two water systems. Based on the water pollutant fingerprints and evolutionary trees, we traced the pollution transfer associated with industrial transfer between the two areas. The results are consistent with four episodes of industrial transfers over the past decade. Our results also show likely types of the transferred industries - electronics, plastics, and biomedicines - that contribute to the water pollution transfer. PMID:23301152

  18. Electronic-nose for detecting environmental pollutants: signal processing and analog front-end design

    E-print Network

    Electronic-nose for detecting environmental pollutants: signal processing and analog front February 2011 / Accepted: 24 March 2011 / Published online: 11 April 2011 Ã? Springer Science+Business Media algorithms are used for analyte detection and the comparative results are presented. Keywords Electronic nose

  19. Sequestration of priority pollutant PAHs from sediment pore water employing semipermeable membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, K.S.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Lebo, J.A.; Kaiser, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were employed to sample sediment pore water in static exposure studies under controlled laboratory conditions using (control pond and formulated) sediments fortified with 15 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPPAHs). The sediment fortification level of 750 ng/g was selected on the basis of what might be detected in a sediment sample from a contaminated area. The sampling interval consisted of 0, 4, 7, 14, and 28 days for each study. The analytical methodologies, as well as the extraction and sample cleanup procedures used in the isolation, characterization, and quantitation of 15 PPPAHs at different fortification levels in SPMDs, water, and sediment were reported previously (Williamson, M.S. Thesis, University of Missouri - Columbia, USA; Williamson et al., Chemosphere (This issue - PII: S0045-6535(02)00394-6)) and used for this project. Average (mean) extraction recoveries for each PPPAH congener in each matrix are reported and discussed. No procedural blank extracts (controls) were found to contain any PPPAH residues above the method quantitation limit, therefore, no matrix interferences were detected. The focus of this publication is to demonstrate the ability to sequester environmental contaminants, specifically PPPAHs, from sediment pore water using SPMDs and two different types of fortified sediment.

  20. ANALYSIS OF EXTRACTABLE PRIORITY POLLUTANTS IN WATER BY GC/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following the June 1976 Consent Decree (NRDC et al. vs. EPA), there has been a continuously increasing demand for the analysis of water samples for the 129 priority pollutants. The protocol originally designed for the analysis of the priority pollutants that are extractable into ...

  1. Oil Palm Biomass–Based Adsorbents for the Removal of Water Pollutants—A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TANWEER AHMAD; MOHD RAFATULLAH; ARNIZA GHAZALI; OTHMAN SULAIMAN; ROKIAH HASHIM

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review on the role of oil palm biomass (trunks, fronds, leaves, empty fruit bunches, shells, etc.) as adsorbents in the removal of water pollutants such as acid and basic dyes, heavy metals, phenolic compounds, various gaseous pollutants, and so on. Numerous studies on adsorption properties of various low-cost adsorbents, such as agricultural wastes and its based

  2. Pay Attention to Rural NonPoint Source Pollution, Guarantee the Security of Drinking Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingdong Zhang; Yuan Zhou; Jiawen Wang

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid development of agricultural modernization in China great changes have taken place in the rural economy visage. But subsequently various pollution problems emerge out more frequently and especially because of the aggravating non-point source pollution the safety of drinking water in the vast rural areas has suffered a lot from severe threats which is drawing more and more

  3. Coal mine water pollution legal and regulatory issues: a survey. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1978-01-01

    The Illinois Mine Related Pollution Task Force is a joint activity of the Illinois Coal Association and the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. The Task Force's activities are coordinated by the Illinois Institute of Natural Resources. The Task Force decided that the achievement of their goal would be furthered by surveying rules and regulations governing mine related water pollution in other

  4. Water pollution abatement by Chinese industry: cost estimates and policy implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susmita Dasgupta; Mainul Huq; David Wheeler; Chonghua Zhang

    2001-01-01

    Factory-level data are used to estimate water pollution abatement costs for Chinese industry. Joint abatement cost functions are utilized which relate total costs to treatment volume and the simultaneous effect of reductions in suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand and other pollutants. Tests of alternative functional forms suggest that a very simple (constant elasticity) model fits the data

  5. Diversity as a measure of benthic macroinvertebrate community response to water pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Godfrey

    1978-01-01

    The assumption that water pollution causes a depression in the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates as measured by the Shannon index and similar diversity indices is questioned. An interpretation of the community response of benthic macroinvertebrates to pollution in the Millers River, Massachusetts is developed from species presence-absence and abundance data in conjunction with published information on the species' environmental tolerances

  6. An Instructors Guide to Water Pollution. Test Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, David E.

    This is one of several study guides on contemporary problems produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science with support of the National Science Foundation. This study guide on water pollution includes the following units: (1) Overview of World Pollution; (2) History, Definition, Criteria; (3) Ecosystem Theory; (4) Biological…

  7. Field Studies for Key Stage 4 on Mine Water Pollution: A University and Museum Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, Jeremy D.; Berry, Stuart D.; Ambrose, Jayne L.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how a university and a museum have worked together to create a "How science works" workshop entitled "What's in our water?" The workshop teaches students about the continuing pollution from a disused coal mine, how the pollution is cleaned up using a state-of-the-art treatment works and how…

  8. Experimental study of effectiveness of nonpoint source water pollution control group contract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen N. Pushkarskaya; Hal Arkes; Jason Pieratt; Ibrahim Bamba

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this experimental study was to test an effectiveness of a group contract designed to control nonpoint source water pollution from farms' runoff (Pushkarskaya 2003). In particular, the regulator pays for pollution reduction credits earned by the group of the farmers, who voluntary enter the contract, and is concerned only with the total level of the abatement achieved,

  9. State-of-art review: water pollution control benefits and costs. Volume I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Unger; M. J. Emerson; D. L. Jordening

    1973-01-01

    A survey and assessment are presented of the state-of-art of economic ; analyses dealing with water pollution control benefits and costs. The ; investigation includes the extension of traditional benefit cost analysis into ; the area of pollution control. Implications for planning and research plus some ; directions of needed study are also developed. A conceptual basis for benefit ;

  10. Implementation of intergovernmental regulatory programs: Section 402 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wassenberg

    1985-01-01

    This study develops and tests a theoretical framework for the study of the process by which intergovernmental regulatory policies are implemented. The framework is applied to the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program of the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. The general question addressed is why some states have the authority to implement intergovernmental regulatory

  11. An information Grid-based model for sharing water pollution control and prevention technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Minghu; Gao Zhenji; Xu Chunlian; Huang Haiming

    2010-01-01

    Though water pollution control and prevention technologies have made a great progress, most polluting enterprises even have never heard of them, not to mention use them. So we design an technologies sharing model based on information Grid, and focus our discussion on the process of searching and invoking the wanted technologies with mobile agents.

  12. Waste water treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment of industrial pollutants. The use and effectiveness of biological treatments and carbon additives are examined. References also discuss problems and recommendations for the removal of mercury and its compounds, fertilizers, and pesticides from polluted waste water. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Making Water Pollution a Problem in the Classroom Through Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, John D.

    Alternative means for dealing with water pollution control are presented for students and teachers. One computer oriented program is described in terms of teaching wastewater treatment and pollution concepts to middle and secondary school students. Suggestions are given to help teachers use a computer simulation program in their classrooms.…

  14. Agricultural nonpoint source water pollution policy: The case of California's Central Coast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian M. Dowd; Marc Los Huertos

    2008-01-01

    Nonpoint sources of pollution, primarily from agricultural sources, are a major cause of water quality impairment. Yet policies to address this issue remain underexplored in the literature. This article first reviews the agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution policy literature and categorizes its major findings. The North American literature, in particular, rarely analyses NPS policies already in force, and pays even

  15. Phase partition of organic pollutants between coal tar and water under variable experimental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Borhane Mahjoub; Emmanuel Jayr; Rémy Bayard; Rémy Gourdon

    2000-01-01

    On some abandoned manufactured-gas plant sites the presence of a particular non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL), namely coal tar, represents a potential source of groundwater pollution. The aim of this study was to characterise the phase partition of aromatic pollutants between coal tar and water. Batch trials have been carried out in order to evaluate the state of phase partition equilibrium

  16. Sediment is a major agricultural pollutant threatening water quality. Vegetated buffers, including vegetative filter strips,

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Minghua

    organisms, and reducing light penetration for plant growth. Aesthetic appeal is also reduced by the presence onto soil and plant materials, and uptake of soluble pollutants by plants (Misra et al., 1996; Blanche1667 Sediment is a major agricultural pollutant threatening water quality. Vegetated buffers

  17. Heavy metal pollution in farmland irrigated with river water near a steel plant—magnetic and geochemical signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunxia; Appel, Erwin; Qiao, Qingqing

    2013-03-01

    The presence of heavy metals (HMs) in the environment is a major threat for humans. Magnetic proxies provide a rapid method for assessing the degree of HM pollution in environment. We have studied farmland soil irrigated with polluted river water in the vicinity of a steel plant in Loudi city (Hunan Province, China) to test the efficiency of magnetic methods for detecting the degree of HM pollution. Both magnetic and non-magnetic (microscopic, chemical and statistical) methods were used to characterize these farmland soils. Enhanced magnetic concentration values were found in the upper arable soil horizon (0-20 cm), which is related to the presence of spherical ˜10 to 30 ?m sized magnetite particles. The spatial distribution of magnetic concentration and HM contents in the farmland soils matches with the spatial pattern of these parameters in river sediments. These findings provide evidence that HM pollution of the farmland soil is mainly caused by irrigation with wastewater. HMs Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Co, Ni, V are well correlate with magnetic susceptibility (?). The pollution load index (PLI) of all nine anthropogenic HMs (including also Cr and Mo) and log10(?) are significantly correlated. Using the resulting linear PLI-log10(?) function, values of ? can serve as a convenient tool for semi-quantifying the degree of HM pollution in the uppermost ˜20 cm of the studied farmland soils. These findings suggest that magnetic methods can generally serve as a convenient tool for detecting and mapping HM pollution in farmland soil irrigated with wastewater from sites nearby heavy industrial activities.

  18. Raman Scattering of Water and Photoluminescence of Pollutants Arising from Solid-Water Interaction

    E-print Network

    Vallée, P; Ghomi, M; Jouanne, M; Vall\\'{e}e, Philippe; Lafait, Jacques; Ghomi, Mahmoud; Jouanne, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Systematic Raman experiments performed on water and water-ethanol samples, stored in different containers (fused silica, polypropylene, soda-lime glass type III) for several hours, have shown that the luminescence contribution to the Raman signal fluctuations is directly related to the container composition. Intensity fluctuations as large as 98%, have been observed in the spectral regions corresponding to the both water intramolecular and intermolecular vibrations, despite the fact that the wavenumbers of the modes remained unchanged. We undoubtedly attribute these fluctuations to a luminescence phenomenon on the basis of : i) the absence of such effect in the anti-Stokes domain, ii) its dependence on the excitation laser wavelength, iii) other relevant photoluminescence experiments. This luminescence is attributed to pollutants at ultra-low concentration coming from the different containers.

  19. Application of Ion Exchange Technique to Decontamination of Polluted Water Generated by Fukushima Nuclear Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshita, Kenji; Ogata, Takeshi

    By the Fukushima nuclear disaster, large amounts of water and sea water polluted mainly with radioactive Cs were generated and the environment around the nuclear site was contaminated by the fallout from the nuclear site. The coagulation settling process using ferric ferrocyanide and an inorganic coagulant and the adsorption process using ferric ferrocyanide granulated by silica binder were applied to the treatment of polluted water. In the coagulation settling process, Cs was removed completely from polluted water and sea water (DF?104). In the adsorption process, the recovery of trace Cs (10 ppb) in sea water, which was not suitable for the use of zeolite, was attained successfully. Finally, the recovery of Cs from sewage sludge was tested by a combined process with the hydrothermal process using subcritical water and the coagulation settling process using ferric ferrocyanide. 96% of radioactive Cs was recovered successfully from sewage sludge with the radioactivity of 10,000 Bq/kg.

  20. Remote detection of air pollution stress to vegetation - Laboratory-level studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the role of leaf chemistry, anatomy, moisture content, and canopy density on spectral reflectance in healthy and pollution stressed western conifer needles and broad-leafed species of California coastal sage scrub is presented. Acid mist at a level of pH 2.0 is found to more severely effect chlorophyll loss and leaf death than ozone at a level of 0.2 ppm for a four-week period. Both pollutants cause water loss, affecting Bands 4 and 5 in nonlinear ways. The infrared bands initially rise as free water is lost, and subsequently, scattering and reflectance decline. The net effect is shown to be a reduction in TM 4/3 and a rise in TM 5/4 with pollution stress. Under more severe pollution stresses, the decline of leaf area indices due to accelerated leaf drop accentuates the expected TM 4/3 and TM 5/4 changes.

  1. Cure for the nation`s water pollution problem: Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act

    SciTech Connect

    McCune, J.F.

    1998-08-31

    This paper discusses federal and state implementation of the water quality-based strategy. It focuses on the development and implementation of water quality standards-based limitations (namely, total maximum daily loads or TMDLs) under section 303(d). It addresses the impact of such limitations on entities and activities that generate water pollution.

  2. Integrated planning for water quality management: The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 and Coastal Zone Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allayaud

    1980-01-01

    The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments were enacted by Congress in response to the severe water quality problems our nation has been experiencing. Section 208 of the Amendments establishes regional planning for water quality management as being necessary and provides strong incentives for states and municipalities to implement the Section's requirements. Section 208 planning is the subject of this

  3. A Microbial Signature Approach to Identify Fecal Pollution in the Waters Off an Urbanized Coast of Lake Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Ryan J.; Bootsma, Melinda J.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2014-01-01

    Urban coasts receive watershed drainage from ecosystems that include highly developed lands with sewer and stormwater infrastructure. In these complex ecosystems, coastal waters are often contaminated with fecal pollution, where multiple delivery mechanisms that often contain multiple fecal sources make it difficult to mitigate the pollution. Here, we exploit bacterial community sequencing of the V6 and V6V4 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to identify bacterial distributions that signal the presence of sewer, fecal, and human fecal pollution. The sequences classified to three sewer infrastructure-associated bacterial genera, Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, and Trichococcus, and five fecal-associated bacterial families, Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae, served as signatures of sewer and fecal contamination, respectively. The human fecal signature was determined with the Bayesian source estimation program SourceTracker, which we applied to a set of 40 sewage influent samples collected in Milwaukee, WI, USA to identify operational taxonomic units (?97 % identity) that were most likely of human fecal origin. During periods of dry weather, the magnitudes of all three signatures were relatively low in Milwaukee's urban rivers and harbor and nearly zero in Lake Michigan. However, the relative contribution of the sewer and fecal signature frequently increased to >2 % of the measured surface water communities following sewer overflows. Also during combined sewer overflows, the ratio of the human fecal pollution signature to the fecal pollution signature in surface waters was generally close to that of sewage, but this ratio decreased dramatically during dry weather and rain events, suggesting that nonhuman fecal pollution was the dominant source during these weather-driven scenarios. The qPCR detection of two human fecal indicators, human Bacteroides and Lachno2, confirmed the urban fecal footprint in this ecosystem extends to at least 8 km offshore. PMID:23475306

  4. THE USE OF WETLANDS FOR WATER POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands such as marshes, swamps and artificial wetlands, have been shown to remove selected pollutants from urban stormwater runoff and treated municipal wastewaters. Wetlands have produced reduction in BOD, pathogens, and some hydrocarbons, and excel in nitrogen removal. They h...

  5. Setting Up a Special Collection on Water Pollution in a University Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Janet

    1974-01-01

    The establishment of a special collection within the university library, the complexities of identifying and collecting reports in the environmental area, locating agencies concerned with water pollution, and recording the location of other local collections of data are described. (Author)

  6. 76 FR 43230 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System-Cooling Water Intake Structures at Existing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ...and 125 [EPA-HQ-OW-2008-0667, FRL-9441-8] RIN 2040-AE95 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System--Cooling Water Intake Structures at Existing Facilities and Phase I Facilities AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)....

  7. In situ bioremediation of polluted raw water for tap water supply by submerged biofilm process using different artificial media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Li Yang; Hai-Ying Gao; Yun Mo; Hai-Liang Song; Ji-Lai Lu

    2010-01-01

    Dissolved organic matters in organic-polluted raw water and their potential to from disinfection by-products during drinking water treatment raise great challenges to the traditional water treatment process. Although many pre-treatment and post-treatment methods have been widely studied to improve the water quality of tap water, these methods are more or less constrained by the public finance or the available land

  8. USING CANINES IN SOURCE DETECTION OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dogs have been used extensively in law enforcement and military applications to detect narcotics and explosives for over thirty years. Dogs are regularly used in arson investigations to detect accelerants since they are much more accurate at discriminating between accelerants an...

  9. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume II - Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of water pollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…

  10. Analysis of national water-pollution-control policies. 2. Agricultural sediment control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin

    1981-01-01

    A national water network model is used to analyze the likely effects of agricultural sediment-control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier assessments concluded that

  11. The effect of water pollution control regulations on the cost of production of electric power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Deyak; A. N. Link

    1979-01-01

    The impact of water pollution control regulations, such as those outlined in 1972 FWPCA Amendments, on production costs in the electric utility industry are examined. The use of water by electric utilities, and the impact that water regulations will have on those uses are discussed. The production process of electric utilities is discussed, and a cost function from a cross-section

  12. NATIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ASSESSMENT MODEL, VERSION 2.0 (NWPCAM 2.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    NWPCAM 2.0 is a national-level water quality modeling system that can be used to simulate the water quality changes and economic benefits that result from various pollution control policies. It builds and significantly improves on an earlier model the Clean Water Act Effects Mode...

  13. Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 2. Agricultural sediment control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin

    1981-01-01

    Application of a national water network model permits an analysis of the likely affects of agricultural sediment control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier

  14. 9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    (a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited to flood water) in an official establishment, all products and ingredients for use in the preparation of such products that have been rendered adulterated by the water shall be...

  15. 9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    (a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited to flood water) in an official establishment, all products and ingredients for use in the preparation of such products that have been rendered adulterated by the water shall be...

  16. 9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    (a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited to flood water) in an official establishment, all poultry products and ingredients for use in the preparation of such products that have been rendered adulterated by the water shall be...

  17. A methodology to determine pesticides pollution sources in water catchments: study case (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Limbourg, Q; Noel, S; Huyghebaert, B; Capette, L; Hallet, V

    2009-01-01

    In the Walloon Region (Belgium), a Committee of Investigation was created in 2007 to investigate and determine the potential pesticides pollution sources in drinkable water catchments. This Committee, constituted by a multidisciplinary team of experts i.e agronomists, soil scientists, phyto-chemists, hydrogeologists, is coordinated by the Walloon Agricultural Research Centre (CRA-W) and funded by the Société Publique de Gestion des Eaux (SPGE). The diagnosis method is inspired of the AQUAPLAINE method (Arvalis, France), and is composed of four steps: 1/preparing the diagnosis using existing data, 2/diagnosis using data bank completed by field observations, 3/meeting and discussion with the pesticide users, 4/final diagnosis and remediation proposal. In a rural district of Walloon Region, a water producer who possesses two catchments ("Les marroniers" (P1) and "Puits N2" (P2)) has problems with pesticides. The pollution started in 1998 with atrazine and bromacile detected in the two catchments. In 2004, 2,6-dichlorobenzamide, metabolite of dichlobenil, was also detected in the catchments. At present, all these pesticides are still found in the catchment P1 and only the 2,6 dichlorobenzamide is found in the other catchment. These active ingredients are not used in agriculture expect atrazine. Indeed, the main user of these products is the public sector. An investigation was realised to locate the main sites which are treated with these pesticides in this commune. The conclusion of this study is that the local authority used dichlobenil, bromacile and atrazine to weed the public areas. In more, the filling and the cleaning areas of sprayer, used for the treatment, are located near the catchments. PMID:20218526

  18. Ground water nitrate pollution from agricultural sources in agriculture-dominated watersheds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Retalis D. An

    Diffuse pollution of water resources from agricultural sources is a major environmental issue both in the European Union and abroad. Water for drinking and agricultural use, high in nitrate is potentially harmful to human and animal health. Nitrate-(NO3) is the most common pollutant found in shallow aquifers due to both point and non-point sources and it is a naturally occurring

  19. Industry sector analysis Canada: Water pollution control equipment and instrumentation. Export trade information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Bryan; S. Lee

    1992-01-01

    U.S. suppliers of water pollution control equipment are in a prime position to benefit from Canadian industries' needs to modernize equipment in order to comply with tough, new legislation to control water pollution. In selling to the Canadian market, U.S. suppliers clearly benefit from the advantages of advanced technical know-how, proximity to the market, and reduced tariffs under the U.S.-Canada

  20. Distributional Assumptions in Chance-Constrained Programming Models of Stochastic Water Pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitesh Kataria; Katarina Elofsson; Berit Hasler

    2010-01-01

    In the water management literature both the normal and log-normal distribution are commonly used to model stochastic water\\u000a pollution. The normality assumption is usually motivated by the central limit theorem, while the log-normality assumption\\u000a is often motivated by the need to avoid the possibility of negative pollution loads. We utilize the truncated normal distribution\\u000a as an alternative to these distributions.

  1. Well-balanced finite volume schemes for pollutant transport by shallow water equations on unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkhaldoun, Fayssal; Elmahi, Imad; Sea?¨d, Mohammed

    2007-09-01

    Pollutant transport by shallow water flows on non-flat topography is presented and numerically solved using a finite volume scheme. The method uses unstructured meshes, incorporates upwinded numerical fluxes and slope limiters to provide sharp resolution of steep bathymetric gradients that may form in the approximate solution. The scheme is non-oscillatory and possesses conservation property that conserves the pollutant mass during the transport process. Numerical results are presented for three test examples which demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the scheme and its applicability in predicting pollutant transport by shallow water flows. In this paper, we also apply the developed scheme for a pollutant transport event in the Strait of Gibraltar. The scheme is efficient, robust and may be used for practical pollutant transport phenomena.

  2. Baseline metals pollution profile of tropical estuaries and coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca.

    PubMed

    Looi, Ley Juen; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Wan Johari, Wan Lutfi; Md Yusoff, Fatimah; Hashim, Zailina

    2013-09-15

    The status report on metal pollution in tropical estuaries and coastal waters is important to understand potential environmental health hazards. Detailed baseline measurements were made on physicochemical parameters (pH, temperature, redox potential, electrical conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solid), major ions (Na, Ca, Mg, K, HCO3, Cl, SO4 and NO3) and metals concentrations ((27)Al, (75)As, (138)Ba, (9)Be, (111)Cd, (59)Co, (63)Cu, (52)Cr, (57)Fe, (55)Mn, (60)Ni, (208)Pb, (80)Se, (66)Zn) at estuaries and coastal waters along the Straits of Malacca. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to reveal potential pollution sources. Seven principal components were extracted with relation to pollution contribution from minerals-related parameters, natural and anthropogenic sources. The output from this study will generate a profound understanding on the metal pollution status and pollution risk of the estuaries and coastal system. PMID:23809293

  3. Sunscreen products as emerging pollutants to coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Sánchez-Quiles, David; Basterretxea, Gotzon; Benedé, Juan L; Chisvert, Alberto; Salvador, Amparo; Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio; Blasco, Julián

    2013-01-01

    A growing awareness of the risks associated with skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation over the past decades has led to increased use of sunscreen cosmetic products leading the introduction of new chemical compounds in the marine environment. Although coastal tourism and recreation are the largest and most rapidly growing activities in the world, the evaluation of sunscreen as source of chemicals to the coastal marine system has not been addressed. Concentrations of chemical UV filters included in the formulation of sunscreens, such as benzophehone 3 (BZ-3), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), TiO? and ZnO, are detected in nearshore waters with variable concentrations along the day and mainly concentrated in the surface microlayer (i.e. 53.6-577.5 ng L?¹ BZ-3; 51.4-113.4 ng L?¹ 4-MBC; 6.9-37.6 µg L?¹ Ti; 1.0-3.3 µg L?¹ Zn). The presence of these compounds in seawater suggests relevant effects on phytoplankton. Indeed, we provide evidences of the negative effect of sunblocks on the growth of the commonly found marine diatom Chaetoceros gracilis (mean EC???=?125±71 mg L?¹). Dissolution of sunscreens in seawater also releases inorganic nutrients (N, P and Si forms) that can fuel algal growth. In particular, PO?³? is released by these products in notable amounts (up to 17 µmol PO?³?g?¹). We conservatively estimate an increase of up to 100% background PO?³? concentrations (0.12 µmol L?¹ over a background level of 0.06 µmol L?¹) in nearshore waters during low water renewal conditions in a populated beach in Majorca island. Our results show that sunscreen products are a significant source of organic and inorganic chemicals that reach the sea with potential ecological consequences on the coastal marine ecosystem. PMID:23755233

  4. Sunscreen Products as Emerging Pollutants to Coastal Waters

    PubMed Central

    Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Sánchez-Quiles, David; Basterretxea, Gotzon; Benedé, Juan L.; Chisvert, Alberto; Salvador, Amparo; Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio; Blasco, Julián

    2013-01-01

    A growing awareness of the risks associated with skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation over the past decades has led to increased use of sunscreen cosmetic products leading the introduction of new chemical compounds in the marine environment. Although coastal tourism and recreation are the largest and most rapidly growing activities in the world, the evaluation of sunscreen as source of chemicals to the coastal marine system has not been addressed. Concentrations of chemical UV filters included in the formulation of sunscreens, such as benzophehone 3 (BZ-3), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), TiO2 and ZnO, are detected in nearshore waters with variable concentrations along the day and mainly concentrated in the surface microlayer (i.e. 53.6–577.5 ng L-1 BZ-3; 51.4–113.4 ng L-1 4-MBC; 6.9–37.6 µg L-1 Ti; 1.0–3.3 µg L-1 Zn). The presence of these compounds in seawater suggests relevant effects on phytoplankton. Indeed, we provide evidences of the negative effect of sunblocks on the growth of the commonly found marine diatom Chaetoceros gracilis (mean EC50?=?125±71 mg L-1). Dissolution of sunscreens in seawater also releases inorganic nutrients (N, P and Si forms) that can fuel algal growth. In particular, PO43? is released by these products in notable amounts (up to 17 µmol PO43? g?1). We conservatively estimate an increase of up to 100% background PO43? concentrations (0.12 µmol L-1 over a background level of 0.06 µmol L-1) in nearshore waters during low water renewal conditions in a populated beach in Majorca island. Our results show that sunscreen products are a significant source of organic and inorganic chemicals that reach the sea with potential ecological consequences on the coastal marine ecosystem. PMID:23755233

  5. Air pollution - Remote detection of several pollutant gases with a laser heterodyne radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, R. T.; Shumate, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    An infrared heterodyne radiometer with a spectral resolution of 0.04 reciprocal centimeters has been used to remotely detect samples of ozone, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, and ethylene at room temperature, and samples of nitric oxide at 390 K. Each gas was observed in a background of nitrogen or oxygen at atmospheric pressure. Sensitivities to some of these gases are adequate for detection of ambient concentrations as low as a few parts per billion.

  6. Influence of satellite alerts on the efficiency of aircraft monitoring of maritime oil pollution in German waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmke, Peer; Baschek, Björn; Hunsänger, Thomas; Kranz, Susanne

    2014-10-01

    For detecting accidental and illegal pollution by mineral oil, the German exclusive economic zone and surrounding waters have been monitored by aircraft operationally for more than 25 years. Aircraft surveillance uses predominantly Side-Looking-Airborne-Radar for visualization of the effect of oil to smoothen capillary waves. A set of near range sensors complements the remote sensing data available for the human operator to classify the detected features as "mineral oil", "natural phenomenon", "other substance" or "unknown" pollution. Today, as an add-on to aerial surveillance, the German Central Command of Maritime Emergencies uses the operational satellite service "CleanSeaNet" provided by the European Maritime Safety Agency: Radar satellite data is analyzed in near real time and alerts of potential pollution are sent out. Shortly after receiving the results, aircraft surveillance flights are started by the 3rd Naval Air Wing and the locations of the satellite alerts are checked. Thus, a combined system of satellite and aerial surveillance is in place. The German Federal Institute of Hydrology, BfG, has access to the data of the pollution events detected during these flights and the corresponding meta-data of flights and satellite images. In this work, a period of two years of this data is analyzed. The probability to detect pollutions is evaluated for (A) flight missions associated with satellite scenes, and (B) additional flights performed independently from satellite scenes. Thus, the influence of satellite alerts on the efficiency of aircraft monitoring is investigated. Coverage and coordination of the monitoring by aircraft and satellite are assessed and implications for the operational monitoring are discussed.

  7. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    Arkansas Water Resources Center LASER-PHOTOACOUSTIC DETECTION OF WATER POLLUTANTS PHASE I Principal. '. 18 #12;cor~PLETIONREPORT LASER-PHOTOACOUSTICDETECTIONOF WATER POLLUTANTS: PHASEI October ls 1977 their waters. Recognizing that water pollution can pose serious health hazards and unknown long term effects

  8. Storm water pollution prevention plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. An NPDES permit was issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and was effective on July 1, 1995. The permit requires that a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3) be developed by December 28, 1995, and be fully implemented by July 1, 1996; this plan has been developed to fulfill that requirement. The outfalls and monitoring points described in this plan contain storm water discharges associated with industrial activities as defined in the NPDES regulations. For storm water discharges associated with industrial activity, including storm water discharges associated with construction activity, that are not specifically monitored or limited in this permit, Y-12 Plant personnel will meet conditions of the General Storm Water Rule 1200-4-10. This document presents the programs and physical controls that are in place to achieve the following objectives: ensure compliance with Section 1200-4-10-.04(5) of the TDEC Water Quality Control Regulations and Part 4 of the Y-12 Plant NPDES Permit (TN0002968); provide operating personnel with guidance relevant to storm water pollution prevention and control requirements for their facility and/or project; and prevent or reduce pollutant discharge to the environment, in accordance with the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Tennessee Water Quality Control Act.

  9. Pollution detection by digital correlation of multispectral, stero-image pairs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, F. R.; Betz, H. T.; Lysobey, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    Remote detection of air pollution circulation patterns is proposed to eventually predict the accumulation of hazardous surface concentrations in time for preventive emission control operations. Earth observations from space platforms will contain information on the height, mean velocity and lateral mixing scales of inversion layers and pollution plumes. Although this information is often not visible on photographs, it could conceivably be retrieved through a digital cross-correlation of multispectral stereo image pairs. Laboratory and field test results are used to illustrate the detection of non-visual inversion layers, the reduction of dominant signal interference, and the spectroscopic identification of combustion products.

  10. Mass fluxes of organic pollutants between groundwater, streambed sediments and surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, Mario; Kalbus, Edda; Schmidt, Christian

    2010-05-01

    Rivers and groundwater are commonly hydraulically connected and thus also pollutants migrate between one and the other. Particularly in small lowland streams, pollutant transport by discharging groundwater can deteriorate the surface water quality. Moreover, in urban and industrial areas streambed sediments are often polluted with a variety of organic and inorganic substances. For planning measures to improve surface water quality or to mitigate pollutant migration, it is an essential prerequisite to understand pollutant pathways and mass fluxes between the stream, the streambed sediment and the connected aquifer. We present methodological approaches and results of a study conducted at a small man-made stream located in the industrial area of Bitterfeld-Wolfen, Germany. This site is characterized by a diffuse groundwater contamination with a variety of aliphatic and aromatic organic substances. The underlying approach of this study was to quantify the mass fluxes between the aquifer, the streambed and the stream by combining high-resolution with integral monitoring approaches. Magnitudes and pattern of water fluxes were obtained by mapping streambed temperatures. The method was applied to a reach of 280 m in length. The mass fluxes from the aquifer towards the stream were estimated by combining the water fluxes with representative, average pollutant concentrations. The concentrations were obtained from an integral pumping test with four simultaneously pumped wells operated for the period of five days. For monochlorobenzene (MCB), the main groundwater pollutant at the site, the resulting average mass flux from the aquifer towards the stream was estimated to 724 µg/m²/d. Mass flux calculations with average aqueous concentrations of MCB in the streambed were found to be higher than those originating from the aquifer. Consequently, the streambed sediments represent a secondary pollutant source for the surface water. Pollutant concentrations in the streambed were lower at locations with high groundwater discharge and vice versa. Hence, the spatial heterogeneity of water fluxes must be considered when mass fluxes between surface water and streambed sediments are assessed. River restoration could improve the structural state of rivers and may thus result in an enhanced biodegradation of organic pollutants in the streambed. However, before any physical measure is applied a profound knowledge of pollutant concentration and pathways is required in order to avoid mobilization of sediment-bound pollutants.

  11. [Fish parasites as bioindicators of the pollution of bodies of water].

    PubMed

    Kuperman, B I

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studies on the effect of wastes of the Cherepovets iron-and-steel works containing phenol, naphthaline and oil products on fish parasites of the Sheksna part of the Rybinsk water reservoir (the Volga river system). It has been shown that the number of highly sensitive ectoparasites of Abramis brama (Protozoa, Dactylogyrus monogeneans, Ergasilus sieboldi crustaceans and Caspiobdella fadejewi leeches) considerably decreases in the zone of pollution. It has been first suggested to use Diplozoon paradoxum and Caryophyllaeus laticeps, parasites of bream highly resistant to toxic effect, the number of which considerably increases in the zone of pollution, as indicators of anthropogenic pollution and ecological state of a water body. Among diplozoons there have been first discovered individuals having structural anomalies (reduction of the attachment organs, violation in the symmetry of arrangement and number of valves) that serves as evidence of mutagenic effect of toxic substances of polluted waters on morphogenesis of the parasite. PMID:1299804

  12. Current pulses during water treeing detection system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Dorris; M. O. Pace; T. V. Blalock; I. Alexeff

    1996-01-01

    A detection system has been developed to seek signals associated with water treeing. In this paper, Part 1 of two parts, the test system is found able to detect fast pulses generated by charges as small as 1.2 fC and slow pulses with current amplitudes as small as 66 nA, with 27 MHz bandwidth. Such pulses are studied in the

  13. Colorimetric detection of uranium in water

    DOEpatents

    DeVol, Timothy A. (Clemson, SC); Hixon, Amy E. (Piedmont, SC); DiPrete, David P. (Evans, GA)

    2012-03-13

    Disclosed are methods, materials and systems that can be used to determine qualitatively or quantitatively the level of uranium contamination in water samples. Beneficially, disclosed systems are relatively simple and cost-effective. For example, disclosed systems can be utilized by consumers having little or no training in chemical analysis techniques. Methods generally include a concentration step and a complexation step. Uranium concentration can be carried out according to an extraction chromatographic process and complexation can chemically bind uranium with a detectable substance such that the formed substance is visually detectable. Methods can detect uranium contamination down to levels even below the MCL as established by the EPA.

  14. A rapid approach to rational water pollution control strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander P. Economopoulos

    1996-01-01

    The formulation of rational wastewater control strategies is becoming increasingly important in many countries where, exploding urbanization, industrialization and\\/or tourism, often combined with improved standards of living and better awareness of the environmental problems, are resulting in enlarged pollution problems, but also in the availability of expanding financial resources for environmental protection. However, more often than one tends to believe,

  15. Airborne optical detection of oil on water.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Arvesen, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Airborne measurements were made over controlled oil-spill test sites to evaluate various techniques, utilizing reflected sunlight, for detecting oil on water. The results of these measurements show that (1) maximum contrast between oil and water is in the UV and red portions of the spectrum; (2) minimum contrast is in the blue-green; (3) differential polarization appears to be a very promising technique; (4) no characteristic absorption bands, which would permit one oil to be distinguished from another, were discovered in the spectral regions measured; (5) sky conditions greatly influence the contrast between oil and water; and (6) highest contrast was achieved under overcast sky conditions.

  16. The influence of metal source uncertainty on cost-effective allocation of mine water pollution abatement in catchments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Baresel; Georgia Destouni; Ing-Marie Gren

    2006-01-01

    In mine water pollution abatement, it is commonly assumed that known mine waste sites are the major pollution sources, thus neglecting the possibility of significant contribution from other old and diffuse sources within a catchment. We investigate the influence of different types of pollution source uncertainty on cost-effective allocation of abatement measures for mine water pollution. A catchment-scale cost-minimization model

  17. Water pollution effects of metals on fresh water fish. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning laboratory and field studies regarding effects of metals on fresh water fish. Topics include toxicity effects on fish species, bioaccumulation, fish physiology, acidification and detoxification, aquatic ecosystems, and water quality management. Environmental monitoring systems and pollution effects on food chains are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Detection of Cyanotoxins During Potable Water Treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2007, the U.S. EPA listed three cyanobacterial toxins on the CCL3 containment priority list for potable drinking waters. This paper describes all methodologies used for detection of these toxins, and assesses each on a cost/benefit basis. Methodologies for microcystin, cylindrospermopsin, and a...

  19. Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of CODCr NH3-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH3-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. PMID:23222206

  20. Time-resolved lidar fluorosensor for sea pollution detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrario, A.; Pizzolati, P. L.; Zanzottera, E.

    1986-01-01

    A contemporary time and spectral analysis of oil fluorescence is useful for the detection and the characterization of oil spills on the sea surface. Nevertheless the fluorosensor lidars, which were realized up to now, have only partial capability to perform this double analysis. The main difficulties are the high resolution required (of the order of 1 nanosecond) and the complexity of the detection system for the recording of a two-dimensional matrix of data for each laser pulse. An airborne system whose major specifications were: time range, 30 to 75 ns; time resolution, 1 ns; spectral range, 350 to 700 nm; and spectral resolution, 10 nm was designed and constructed. The designed system of a short pulse ultraviolet laser source and a streak camera based detector are described.

  1. Rare Event Detection Algorithm Of Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungs, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    A novel method is presented describing the development and implementation of an on-line water quality event detection algorithm. An algorithm was developed to distinguish between normal variation in water quality parameters and changes in these parameters triggered by the presence of contaminant spikes. Emphasis is placed on simultaneously limiting the number of false alarms (which are called false positives) that occur and the number of misses (called false negatives). The problem of excessive false alarms is common to existing change detection algorithms. EPA's standard measure of evaluation for event detection algorithms is to have a false alarm rate of less than 0.5 percent and a false positive rate less than 2 percent (EPA 817-R-07-002). A detailed description of the algorithm's development is presented. The algorithm is tested using historical water quality data collected by a public water supply agency at multiple locations and using spiking contaminants developed by the USEPA, Water Security Division. The water quality parameters of specific conductivity, chlorine residual, total organic carbon, pH, and oxidation reduction potential are considered. Abnormal data sets are generated by superimposing water quality changes on the historical or baseline data. Eddies-ET has defined reaction expressions which specify how the peak or spike concentration of a particular contaminant affects each water quality parameter. Nine default contaminants (Eddies-ET) were previously derived from pipe-loop tests performed at EPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Test and Evaluation (T&E) Facility. A contaminant strength value of approximately 1.5 is considered to be a significant threat. The proposed algorithm has been able to achieve a combined false alarm rate of less than 0.03 percent for both false positives and for false negatives using contaminant spikes of strength 2 or more.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A TEST-TUBE STRESS-ETHYLENE BIOASSAY FOR DETECTING PHYTOTOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary purpose of this study was to develop stress-ethylene production from plant seedlings as a simple, rapid and quantitative bioassay for detecting phytotoxic air pollutants. The developed procedure was to require only small quantities of gas for phytotoxic testing, have ...

  3. OPTIMUM MACROBENTHIC SAMPLING PROTOCOL FOR DETECTING POLLUTION IMPACTS IN THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA BIGHT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The optimum macrobenthic sampling protocol sampling unit, sieve mesh size, and sample size (n)] was determined for detecting ecologically important pollution impacts in the Southern California Bight, U.S.A. Cost, in laboratory processing time, was determined for samples obtained ...

  4. NBC detection in air and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.; Smith, Steven J.; McMurtry, Gary M.

    2003-01-01

    Participating in a Navy STTR project to develop a system capable of the 'real-time' detection and quanitification of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) warfare agents, and of related industrial chemicals including NBC agent synthesis by-products in water and in air immediately above the water's surface. This project uses JPL's Soft Ionization Membrane (SIM) technology which totally ionizes molecules without fragmentation (a process that can markedly improve the sensitivity and specificity of molecule compostition identification), and JPL's Rotating Field Mass Spectrometer (RFMS) technology which has large enough dynamic mass range to enable detection of nuclear materials as well as biological and chemical agents. This Navy project integrates these JPL Environmental Monitoring UnitS (REMUS) an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). It is anticipated that the REMUS AUV will be capable of 'real-time' detection and quantification of NBC warefare agents.

  5. Influence of diet on the performance of bovine fecal pollution detection methods and microbial population structure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Aims. Waterborne diseases originating from bovine fecal material are a significant public health issue. Ensuring water quality requires the use of methods that can consistently identify pollution across a broad range of management practices. One practice that is often overlooked is...

  6. Coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci as indicators of water pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Cohen; Hillel I. Shuval

    1973-01-01

    The presence and survival of coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci were studied in sewage treatment plants, heavily polluted rivers, a lake, and other drinking water sources. In all cases the fecal streptococci were generally more resistant to the natural water environment and to purification processes than the other indicator organisms and, at points distant from the original source of

  7. Nitrate, Arsenic and Chloride Pollution of Drinking Water in Northern Greece. Elaboration by Applying GIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantinos Fytianos; Christophoros Christophoridis

    2004-01-01

    The general profile of the pollution of drinking water, originating from groundwater, by nitrates, chloride and arsenic, in the Prefecture of Thessaloniki, was studied in this project. Samples (tap water) were collected from 52 areas-villages of the Prefecture, during a period of 6 months. The analytical results were related to certain points on the map of the area, thus producing

  8. We All Live Downstream. A Guide to Waste Treatment That Stops Water Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costner, Pat; And Others

    Based on the idea that the prevention and treatment of water pollution should begin at its source, this document focuses on some methods that individuals can use in their homes and businesses to treat wastewater. Chapter one, "What Is the Water Crisis?" explains the basic concepts of the hydrologic cycle, evapotranspiration, and the quantity of…

  9. An Intelligent Decision Support System of Lake Water Pollution Control Based on Multi-agent Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianjun Ni; Chuanbiao Zhang; Li Ren

    2009-01-01

    With the rapidly development of the economic, environmental problem has become one of the most prominent problems of the society. Lake water environmental problem became more and more serious, and it had seriously effect on human health and the socio-economic sustainable development. It is a key project to find a more effective way of water pollution control. An intelligent decision

  10. Manpower and Training Needs in Water Pollution Control. Senate Document No. 49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

    To determine trained manpower needs and training resources in the clean water field, data were gathered from interviews with state and federal agencies as well as the Water Pollution Control Federation, from prior manpower reports, and from Bureau of Census employment data. After analysis of present manpower resources and future requirements,…

  11. Research needs and priorities: water pollution control benefits and costs. Volume II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Jordening; J. K. Allwood

    1973-01-01

    Research needs and priorities involving water pollution control costs ; and benefits are specified. A series of theoretical and methodological research ; needs are presented. Water quality management is required in a dynamic setting ; and over a broad range of hydrologic and economic conditions. The common ; property resource aspects of the problem with the prevalence of externalities ;

  12. Water Pollution Control Training: The Educational Role of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Frederick D.

    Presented are the results of a study to determine the perceived needs of environmental control education programs as seen by students, instructors, deans or program directors, and field-related employers in the field of water pollution control. Data were collected utilizing three approaches: survey instruments, information from Water Quality…

  13. A Split-Step PSO Algorithm in Prediction of Water Quality Pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwok-wing Chau

    2005-01-01

    Abstr act. In order to allow the key stakeholders to have more float time to take appropriate precautionary and preventive measures, an accurate prediction of water quality pollution is very significant. Since a variety of existing water quality models involve exogenous input and different assumptions, artificial neural networks have the potential to be a cost-effective solution. This paper presents the

  14. Laboratory simulation of spontaneous breakup of polluted water drops in the horizontal electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalwankar, Rohini; Subramanian, Subashini; Kamra, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    A laboratory simulation experiment to study the spontaneous breakup of distilled and polluted water drops suspended in horizontal electric field of 0, 100, 300, 500 kV m-1 has been performed in a small vertical wind tunnel. Water drops are formed from distilled water and from 100 ppm solution of ammonium sulfate and potassium nitrate. Results show that the life time of the both distilled and polluted water drops decreases with the increase in electric field. The water drops formed from both distilled and polluted water become more oblate as the electric field is increased. The results have been interpreted in terms of enhanced instability of water drops due to the changes in surface tension, viscosity, conductivity and hydro-dynamics of the water drop. Significance of the results is discussed in view of the possible modification of the drop size distribution and consequent growth of raindrops and lightning activity due to the combined effect of pollutants and electrical forces in clouds formed over big cities.

  15. Remote measurements of water pollution with a lidar polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheives, T. C.; Rouse, J. W., Jr.; Mayo, W. T., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    This paper examines a dual polarization laser backscatter system as a method for remote measurements of certain water quality parameters. Analytical models for describing the backscatter from turbid water and oil on turbid water are presented and compared with experimental data. Laser backscatter field measurements from natural waterways are presented and compared with simultaneous ground observations of the water quality parameters: turbidity, suspended solids, and transmittance. The results of this study show that the analytical models appear valid and that the sensor investigated is applicable to remote measurements of these water quality parameters and oil spills on water.-

  16. Assessment of commercially available polymeric materials for sorptive microextraction of priority and emerging nonpolar organic pollutants in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Zubiaguirre, Laura; Delgado, Alejandra; Ros, Oihana; Posada-Ureta, Oscar; Vallejo, Asier; Prieto, Ailette; Olivares, Maitane; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2014-10-01

    Among the different organic pollutants, persistent organic pollutants and emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) are of particular concern due to their potentially dangerous effects on the ecosystems and on human health. In the framework of the analysis of some of these organic pollutants in water samples, sorptive extraction devices have proven to be adequate for their monitoring. The efficiency of four commercially available and low-cost polymeric materials [polypropylene, poly(ethylene terephthalate), Raffia, and polyethersulfone (PES)] for the simultaneous extraction of 16 organic compounds from five different families from environmental water samples was evaluated in this work. Firstly, the homogeneity of the sorbent materials was confirmed by means of Raman spectroscopy. After the optimization of the parameters affecting the extraction and the liquid desorption steps, it was found that PES showed the largest efficiencies for slightly polar analytes and, to a lesser extent, for nonpolar analytes. Additionally, Raffia rendered good extraction efficiencies for nonpolar compounds. Thus sorptive extraction methods followed by large volume injection-programmable temperature vaporizer-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were validated using PES and Raffia as sorbent materials. The validation of the method provided good linearity (0.978 < r (2)?< 0.999 for PES and 0.977 < r (2) < 0.999 for Raffia), adequate repeatability (below 19 % and 14 % for PES and Raffia, respectively), and low method detection limits (low ng · l(-1) level). Finally, these materials were applied to the analysis of contaminants in environmental water samples. PMID:24424482

  17. Impact of point and nonpoint source pollution on pore waters of two Chesapeake Bay tributaries.

    PubMed

    Karuppiah, M; Gupta, G

    1996-10-01

    Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries are contaminated by industrial and municipal point sources and agricultural nonpoint sources of pollution. The objective of this study was to compare the porewater characteristics of two Chesapeake Bay tributaries: Wicomico River (WR) contaminated by point source and Pocomoke River (PR) contaminated by both point and nonpoint sources of pollution. Four study sites (1 mile before, adjacent to, and 1 and 2 miles after the sewage treatment plant) were chosen to collect sediment samples in both the rivers. The sediment-pore waters were analyzed for toxicity using Microtox marine luminescent bacteria-Vibrio fischeri. USEPA toxicity identification evaluation tests on these pore waters confirmed that the contaminants (ammonia and heavy metals) in WR were from municipal point sources, whereas in PR the contamination (metals, pesticides, and PCBs) was from nonpoint sources (agriculture) of pollution. The toxicity (and the concentration of contaminants) decreased both upstream and downstream from the most polluted site in both the rivers. PMID:8930508

  18. Agricultural water nonpoint pollution control under uncertainty and climate variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Lacroix; Nicolas Beaudoin; David Makowski

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the probabilistic cost-effectiveness of the farm management practices supported by the European Union for reducing nitrate pollution. Our method consists in using a bio-physical model to evaluate the environmental and economic impacts of various scenarios characterized by a set of farm practices. The cost-effectiveness of each scenario is calculated for a catchment

  19. Modelling of water pollution in the Thermaikos Gulf with fuzzy parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hercules Mpimpas; Petros Anagnostopoulos; Jacques Ganoulis

    2001-01-01

    The fuzzy set theory is applied for the definition of the imprecise parameters, which are used in a water pollution model. The physico-chemical coefficients and the loads of pollution sources are expressed in the form of triangular fuzzy numbers. A two-dimensional finite element algorithm, combined with fuzzy logic analysis, is used for the solution of the advection–dispersion equation for ten

  20. SolidPhase Extraction and Solid-State Spectroscopy for Monitoring Water Pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward J. Poziomek; Delyle Eastwood; Russell L. Lidberg; Gail Gibson

    1991-01-01

    Research results are described which bring out the potential of using commercially available solid-phase extraction membranes and solid-state spectroscopy for monitoring water pollution. The membranes are used to preconcentrate pollutants by sorption from aqueous solution followed by nondestructive spectroscopic measurements. Solid-state fluorescence measurements using Empore C18 membranes were employed in the laboratory for concept validation studies. Tabs from the membranes

  1. The development of policy approaches for reducing nitrogen pollution to coastal waters of the USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Howarth

    2005-01-01

    Two-thirds of the coastal rivers and bays in the United States are degraded from nutrient pollution, and nitrogen inputs these\\u000a waters continue to increase. The nitrogen comes from a variety of sources, including runoff from agricultural fields, concentrated\\u000a animal feeding operations, atmospheric deposition from fossil fuel combustion, and sewage and septic wastes. Technical solutions\\u000a for nitrogen pollution exist at reasonable

  2. Assessing the improvement of the Bilbao estuary water quality in response to pollution abatement measures.

    PubMed

    García-Barcina, José M; González-Oreja, José Antonio; De la Sota, Alejandro

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate the success of almost 20 years of pollution abatement in the Bilbao estuary watershed in northern Spain, we analyzed temporal trends in pollution discharges and water quality from 1993 to 2003. Over that period a great portion of the raw wastewater discharge was intercepted and treated, leading to a significant reduction in the pollution load to the estuary (51.8% in biochemical oxygen demand, 70.9% in ammonia nitrogen and 81.9% in faecal coliforms). Temporal trends of mean annual levels of water quality variables showed statistically significant increases in dissolved oxygen saturation (between 2.04 and 4.11%/year) and decreases in ammonia nitrogen (between -4.15 and -175.75 microM NH3/year) and faecal coliforms concentrations (from 2.55 x 10(5) to 2.13 x 10(4) CFU/100ml). The improvement of the Bilbao estuary water quality reported in this paper is primarily attributed to the pollution abatement measures accomplished by the local water authority. Finally, as a result of these pollution control efforts, European bathing water quality standards were met at local beaches. PMID:16487564

  3. Applying Agent Technology in Water Pollution Monitoring Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mihaela Oprea; Constantin Nichita

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring local and national water quality is a resource intensive process, with increasing complexity as national directives with regard to water quality are being aligned with European directives. In this paper we propose the application of intelligent agent software technology to water quality monitoring for regulatory compliance. The system can also be used to facilitate response to contamination incidents. We

  4. A Review of Modelling Tools for Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive in Handling Diffuse Water Pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. S. Yang; L. Wang

    2010-01-01

    A numerical catchment-scale model capable of simulating diffuse water pollution is necessary in sustainable environmental\\u000a management for better implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive. This paper provides critical reviews of most popular\\u000a and free models for diffuse water modelling, with detailed sources and application potential. Based upon these reviews, further\\u000a work of selecting and testing the HSPF model was

  5. A Report of the Regional Monitoring Program for Water Quality in the San Francisco Estuary pollutant effects on aquatic life

    E-print Network

    Program for Water Quality in the San Francisco Estuary 2011 pollutant effects on aquatic life pulse goals of Bay water quality managers is to ensure that pollutants do not interfere with the abilityA Report of the Regional Monitoring Program for Water Quality in the San Francisco Estuary

  6. Permits and effluent charges in the water pollution control policies of France, West Germany, and the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan C. Bongaerts; Andreas Kraemer

    1989-01-01

    In this article the water pollution control policies of these countries and their effects on emitters are analyzed. In the Netherlands, local water control boards levy pollution charges on both direct and indirect emitters. The charges are based upon measured emissions and actual treatment costs and they vary among the boards. Discharges into surface waters are by permission only. West

  7. DETECTION OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN TREATED DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of viruses in conventionally treated drinking water derived from a heavily polluted source was evaluated by collecting and analyzing 38 large volume (65 to 756 liter) samples of water from a 9m3/sec (205 mgd) water treatment plant. Samples of raw, clarified, filter...

  8. Intrusion of radioactive industrially polluted water from North Sea into central Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Vakulovskiy, S.M.; Nikitin, A.I.

    1985-02-01

    The problem of penetration of radioactive industrially polluted water into the central Baltic Sea was studied. The content of Cs-134 as determined in water near the bottom of deep water trenches along the path traveled by North Sea water entering the Baltic. Samples were taken at 5 locations, with Cs-134 concentrated from samples of several thousands of liters. It was found that radioactive pollution caused by the entry of water from the North Sea extends through the system of deep water depressions into the Baltic as far as the Gotland trench. The greatest degree of contamination is found in the Arkona depression adjacent to the straits. The concentration of Cs-134 in the Gdansk trench is one-half as great and in the Gotland trench one-third as great as in the Arkona depression. Radioactive contamination in the Baltic is attributed to discharge of radioactive wastes by plants at Windscale.

  9. Assessment of susceptibility to pollution in littoral waters using the concept of recovery time.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Aina G; Juanes, José A; Ondiviela, Bárbara; Revilla, José A

    2014-04-15

    Susceptibility to pollution can be related to the flushing capacity of aquatic systems. Transport time scales constitute a useful tool for representing the water exchange and transport processes. A new transport time scale, recovery time, and a methodology to estimate it by means of numerical models is hereby developed. Recovery time, calculated in Gijon, Santander and Tarragona harbours, is significantly related to physical, chemical and biological water quality indicators. Susceptibility, assessed through recovery time values, provides spatial patterns of expected flushing capacity, being sensitive to physical and hydrodynamic characteristics. The developed method is appropriate to estimate recovery time and assess susceptibility against pollution in littoral waters having great potential to be applied to different disciplines. Recovery time could be used in littoral waters as a surrogate of water quality indicators, to establish efficient monitoring programs, to define and characterize modified water bodies or to improve the design of marine infrastructures. PMID:24576391

  10. Detecting Industrial Pollution in the Atmospheres of Earth-like Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Henry W.; Gonzalez Abad, Gonzalo; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-09-01

    Detecting biosignatures, such as molecular oxygen in combination with a reducing gas, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biosignature for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope. We focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl3F), which are the easiest to detect chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) produced by anthropogenic activity. We estimate that ~1.2 days (~1.7 days) of total integration time will be sufficient to detect or constrain the concentration of CCl3F (CF4) to ~10 times the current terrestrial level.

  11. The SOLUTIONS project: challenges and responses for present and future emerging pollutants in land and water resources management.

    PubMed

    Brack, Werner; Altenburger, Rolf; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Krauss, Martin; López Herráez, David; van Gils, Jos; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Munthe, John; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; van Wezel, Annemarie; Schriks, Merijn; Hollender, Juliane; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Mekenyan, Ovanes; Dimitrov, Saby; Bunke, Dirk; Cousins, Ian; Posthuma, Leo; van den Brink, Paul J; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià; Faust, Michael; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Scrimshaw, Mark; Ignatova, Svetlana; Engelen, Guy; Massmann, Gudrun; Lemkine, Gregory; Teodorovic, Ivana; Walz, Karl-Heinz; Dulio, Valeria; Jonker, Michiel T O; Jäger, Felix; Chipman, Kevin; Falciani, Francesco; Liska, Igor; Rooke, David; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hollert, Henner; Vrana, Branislav; Hilscherova, Klara; Kramer, Kees; Neumann, Steffen; Hammerbacher, Ruth; Backhaus, Thomas; Mack, Juliane; Segner, Helmut; Escher, Beate; de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela

    2015-01-15

    SOLUTIONS (2013 to 2018) is a European Union Seventh Framework Programme Project (EU-FP7). The project aims to deliver a conceptual framework to support the evidence-based development of environmental policies with regard to water quality. SOLUTIONS will develop the tools for the identification, prioritisation and assessment of those water contaminants that may pose a risk to ecosystems and human health. To this end, a new generation of chemical and effect-based monitoring tools is developed and integrated with a full set of exposure, effect and risk assessment models. SOLUTIONS attempts to address legacy, present and future contamination by integrating monitoring and modelling based approaches with scenarios on future developments in society, economy and technology and thus in contamination. The project follows a solutions-oriented approach by addressing major problems of water and chemicals management and by assessing abatement options. SOLUTIONS takes advantage of the access to the infrastructure necessary to investigate the large basins of the Danube and Rhine as well as relevant Mediterranean basins as case studies, and puts major efforts on stakeholder dialogue and support. Particularly, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) Common Implementation Strategy (CIS) working groups, International River Commissions, and water works associations are directly supported with consistent guidance for the early detection, identification, prioritisation, and abatement of chemicals in the water cycle. SOLUTIONS will give a specific emphasis on concepts and tools for the impact and risk assessment of complex mixtures of emerging pollutants, their metabolites and transformation products. Analytical and effect-based screening tools will be applied together with ecological assessment tools for the identification of toxicants and their impacts. The SOLUTIONS approach is expected to provide transparent and evidence-based candidates or River Basin Specific Pollutants in the case study basins and to assist future review of priority pollutants under the WFD as well as potential abatement options. PMID:24951181

  12. Invertebrate community responses to emerging water pollutants in Iberian river basins.

    PubMed

    De Castro-Català, N; Muñoz, I; Armendáriz, L; Campos, B; Barceló, D; López-Doval, J; Pérez, S; Petrovic, M; Picó, Y; Riera, J L

    2015-01-15

    Chemical pollution is one of the greatest threats to freshwater ecosystems, especially in Mediterranean watersheds, characterized by periodical low flows that may exacerbate chemical exposure. Different groups of emerging pollutants have been detected in these basins during the last decade. This study aims to identify the relationships between the presence and levels of prioritary and emerging pollutants (pesticides, pharmaceutical active compounds--PhACs, Endocrine Disrupting Compounds EDCs and Perfluorinated Compounds--PFCs) and the invertebrate community in four Mediterranean basins: the Ebro, the Llobregat, the Júcar and the Guadalquivir. Structural (species composition and density) and functional (catalase activity of the tricopteran Hydropsyche exocellata and the feeding activity of the cladoceran Daphnia magna) variables were analyzed to determine which of the pollutants would greatly influence invertebrate responses. EDCs and conductivity, followed by PhACs, were the most important variables explaining the invertebrate density changes in the studied basins, showing a gradient of urban and industrial pollutions. Despite this general pattern observed in the four studied basins - impoverishment of species diversity and abundance change with pollution - some basins maintained certain differences. In the case of the Llobregat River, analgesics and anti-inflammatories were the significant pollutants explaining the invertebrate community distribution. In the Júcar River, fungicides were the main group of pollutants that were determining the structure of the invertebrate community. Functional biomarkers tended to decrease downstream in the four basins. Two groups of pollutants appeared to be significant predictors of the catalase activity in the model: EDCs and PhACs. This study provides evidence that the information given by functional biomarkers may complement the results found for the structural community descriptors, and allowed us to detect two emerging contaminant groups that are mainly affecting the invertebrate community in these basins. PMID:25042416

  13. Continuous flow fluorescence based immunosensor for the detection of explosives and environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Paul T.; Bart, John C.; Judd, Linda L.; Gauger, Paul R.; Ligler, Frances S.; Kusterbeck, Anne W.

    1997-05-01

    A continuous flow fluorescence based immunosensor has been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory as an inexpensive, field portable device to detect environmental pollutants. Detection of environmental pollutants such as explosives [e.g. trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5 trinitro- 1,3,5-triazine (RDX)[ and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been achieved at low level concentrations. The continuous flow immunosensor (CFI) employs antibodies as recognition elements for specific antigens. Antibodies specific for the environmental pollutants of interest are covalently immobilized on a solid support matrix. Subsequent saturation of the antibody-support complex with a fluorescence analog (i.e. cyanine dye) of the pollutant completes the sensor matrix. The derivatized matrix is prepacked into a micro column with a continuous flow stream of buffer that removes nonspecifically bound fluorescent analog. After a stable baseline is obtained sample injections of the desired pollutant (PCBs, TNT, RDX, etc.) into the flow stream displaces the fluorescence analog from the immobilized antibody on the solid support. A signal response over background from the displaced fluorescence analog is measured and integrated by an in-line fluorometer. Dose response curves reveal the lowest limit of detection for TNT and RDX is 20 ppb (parts-per-billion). Detection limits for PCBs is slightly higher at 1.0 ppm (part-per-million). Results from field trials conducted at two military bases, Umatilla Army Depot (Hermiston, Ore.) and Site F and A at Naval SUBASE Bangor (Bangor, Wash.) demonstrated the capabilities of the immunosensor in performing on-site field analysis in groundwater and soil leachate matrices.

  14. Removal of persistent organic pollutants from micro-polluted drinking water by triolein embedded absorbent.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijuan; Ru, Jia; Qu, Jiuhui; Dai, Ruihua; Wang, Zijian; Hu, Chun

    2009-06-01

    A new biomimetic absorbent, cellulose acetate (CA) embedded with triolein (CA-triolein), was prepared and applied for the removal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from micro-polluted aqueous solution. The comparison of CA-triolein, CA and granular activated carbon (GAC) for dieldrin removal was investigated. Results showed that CA-triolein absorbent gave a lowest residual concentration after 24 h although GAC had high removal rate in the first 4 h adsorption. Then the removal efficiency of mixed POPs (e.g. aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor epoxide), absorption isotherm, absorbent regeneration and initial column experiments of CA-triolein were studied in detail. The linear absorption isotherm and the independent absorption in binary isotherm indicated that the selected POPs are mainly absorbed onto CA-triolein absorbent by a partition mechanism. The absorption constant, K, was closely related to the hydrophobic property of the compound. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the absorption was spontaneous, with a high affinity and the absorption was an endothermic reaction. Rinsing with hexane the CA-triolein absorbent can be regenerated after absorption of POPs. No significant decrease in the dieldrin removal efficiency was observed even when the absorption-regeneration process was repeated for five times. The results of initial column experiments showed that the CA-triolein absorbent did not reach the breakthrough point at a breakthrough empty-bed volume (BV) of 3200 when the influent concentration was 1-1.5 microg/L and the empty-bed contact time (EBCT) was 20 min. PMID:19246190

  15. Silica coated magnetite nanoparticles for removal of heavy metal ions from polluted waters

    E-print Network

    Dash, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic removal of Hg2+ and other heavy metal ions like Cd2+, Pb2+ etc. using silica coated magnetite particles from polluted waters is a current topic of active research to provide efficient water recycling and long term high quality water. The technique used to study the bonding characteristics of such kind of nanoparticles with the heavy metal ions is a very sensitive hyperfine specroscopy technique called the perturbed angular correlation technique (PAC).

  16. Extraction of organic pollutants from environmental solids with sub- and supercritical water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven B. Hawthorne; Yu. Yang; David J. Miller

    1994-01-01

    Low-polarity organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) typically have very low solubilities (e.g., ppb) in water at ambient conditions because of water's high polarity (dielectric constant, [epsilon] = 80). However, the dielectric constant can be drastically lowered by raising the temperature of the water under moderate pressure with dramatic increases (e.g., to percent levels) in the solubility of

  17. Criminal sanctions applicable to Federal water pollution control measures. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.C.

    1991-09-30

    Overkill or not enough: Two decades ago, Congress realized that a system of civil remedies alone, devoid of any lasting punitive consequences, was inadequate to insure compliance with environmental protection statutes. Other than the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, which was designed to protect navigation, Federal criminal sanctions were not applicable to water pollution offenses. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, more commonly known as the Clean Water Act (CWA), was twenty-four years old before Federal criminal enforcement of its provisions was allowed. But since the early 1970's, the criminal provisions of the CWA have been strengthened, the United States Department of Justice has beefed up its environmental enforcement efforts, and environmental polluters have been prosecuted. This Federal effort is now approaching overkill.

  18. Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: Progresses and perspectives*

    PubMed Central

    Lone, Mohammad Iqbal; He, Zhen-li; Stoffella, Peter J.; Yang, Xiao-e

    2008-01-01

    Environmental pollution affects the quality of pedosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Great efforts have been made in the last two decades to reduce pollution sources and remedy the polluted soil and water resources. Phytoremediation, being more cost-effective and fewer side effects than physical and chemical approaches, has gained increasing popularity in both academic and practical circles. More than 400 plant species have been identified to have potential for soil and water remediation. Among them, Thlaspi, Brassica, Sedum alfredii H., and Arabidopsis species have been mostly studied. It is also expected that recent advances in biotechnology will play a promising role in the development of new hyperaccumulators by transferring metal hyperaccumulating genes from low biomass wild species to the higher biomass producing cultivated species in the times to come. This paper attempted to provide a brief review on recent progresses in research and practical applications of phytoremediation for soil and water resources. PMID:18357623

  19. Screening of high phytotoxicity priority pollutants and their ecological risk assessment in China's surface waters.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhenguang; Wang, Weili; Zhou, Junli; Yi, Xianliang; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Xiaonan; Liu, Zhengtao

    2015-06-01

    The protection of aquatic plants has received less attention in ecological risk assessment of pollutants compared with animals. Some pollutants like herbicide, however, are more toxic to aquatic plants than to animals. Aquatic toxicity data of 126 priority pollutants were screened and analyzed in this study. Through data analysis, five priority pollutants namely 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA), 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) were identified to have high phytotoxicity effect. The most sensitive aquatic plants to these five pollutants are all alage, including Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Gymnodinium breve. The water quality criteria concentration of the five pollutants were derived by the species sensitivity distribution method. The acute criteria concentration for the five pollutants were derived to be 1474, 2180, 54.41, 98.52 and 520.4?gL(-1), and the chronic criteria concentration for them were 147.4, 218.0, 5.441, 9.852 and 52.04?gL(-1), respectively. For China's freshwater bodies, the results of ecological risk assessment based on the derived criteria showed that, for the selected pollutants except DBP, there were basically no significant risk in most of the studied water bodies. DBP showed apparent ecological risks in all of the studied water bodies, particularly in the middle Yellow River, the Xuanwu Lake, the Yuehu Lake, etc. Field monitoring data of the Liao River and the Taihu Lake showed that DBP had moderate risks in some of the sampling sites of both the watersheds, while BBP posed moderate risks only on a few sites of the Liao River. PMID:25655815

  20. How polluted is the Yangtze river? Water quality downstream from the Three Gorges Dam.

    PubMed

    Müller, Beat; Berg, Michael; Yao, Zhi Ping; Zhang, Xian Feng; Wang, Ding; Pfluger, August

    2008-09-01

    The concentrations of major anions and cations, nitrogen and phosphorus, dissolved and particulate trace elements, and organic pollutants were determined for the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (Changjiang) from below the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) to the mouth at Shanghai in November 2006. The concentration of dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) was constant at a low level of 6-8 microgP/L, but the concentration of nitrate (NO(3)(-)) approximately doubled downstream and was closely correlated with K(+). This translated to a daily load of well over 1000 t of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) at Datong. The average concentrations of dissolved Pb (0.078+/-0.023 microg/L), Cd (0.024+/-0.009 microg/L), Cr (0.57+/-0.09 microg/L), Cu (1.9+/-0.7 microg/L), and Ni (0.50+/-0.49 microg/L) were comparable with those in other major world rivers, while As (3.3+/-1.3 microg/L) and Zn (1.5+/-0.6 microg/L) were higher by factors of 5.5 and 2.5, respectively. The trace element contents of suspended particles of As (31+/-28 microg/g), Pb (83+/-34 microg/g), and Ni (52+/-16 microg/g) were close to maximum concentrations recommended for rivers by the European Community (EC). The average concentrations of Cd (2.6+/-1.6 microg/g), Cr (185+/-102 microg/g), Cu (115+/-106 microg/g), and Zn (500+/-300 microg/g) exceeded the EC standards by a factor of two, and Hg (4.4+/-4.7 microg/g) by a factor of 4 to 5. Locally occurring peak concentrations exceed these values up to fourfold, among them the notorious elements As, Hg, and Tl. All dissolved and particulate trace element concentrations were higher than estimates made twenty years ago [Zhang, J., Geochemistry of trace metals from Chinese river/estuary systems: an overview. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 1995; 41: 631-658.]. The enormous loads of anthropogenic pollutants disposed to the river were diluted by the large water discharge of the Yangtze even during the lowest flow resulting in the relatively low concentration levels of trace elements and organic pollutants observed. We estimated loads of e.g. As, Pb and Ni to the East China Sea to be about 4600 kg As d(-1), 3000 kg Pb d(-1), and 2000 kg Ni d(-1). About 6000 t d(-1) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was delivered into the sea at the time of our cruise. We tested for 236 organic pollutants, and only the most infamous were found to be barely above detection limits. We estimated that the load of chlorinated compounds, aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, and PAHs were between 500 and 3500 kg d(-1). We also detected eight herbicides entering the estuary with loads of 5-350 kg d(-1). The pollutant load, even when at low concentrations, are considerable and pose an increasing threat to the health of the East China Sea ecosystem. PMID:18554685