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1

Detection of silage effluent pollution in river water using biosensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of silage effluent identified glucose and lactic acid as suitable markers for diagnosis of silage effluent pollution in river water. The use of biosensors, utilising the reactions of glucose oxidase and lactate oxidase to detect glucose and lactic acid respectively, in silage effluent, was investigated. The lactate sensor was able to detect effluent from mature silage at 11000 dilution,

S. K. Stephens; I. E. Tothill; P. J. Warner; A. P. F. Turner

1997-01-01

2

Biologic Detection and Control of Water Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aquatic systems studied in this project included (1) a well defined basin forming a part of Lake Hartwell, (2) a well defined basin forming part of Lake Keowee, (3) a non-polluted natural stream, three artificial ponds, and six artificial streams at t...

R. K. Guthrie R. N. Ferebee D. S. Cherry

1974-01-01

3

Detection of Water Pollutant Using Surface-Polarity Controlled Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aldehyde and carboxylic acid compounds are known as volatile substances with bad smell. It is also said to cause bad smell of tap water. In this study, we tried to detect and analyse aldehyde and carboxylic acid dissolved in water, using a surface-polarity controlled sensor. The sensor measures electrochemical impedance of the electrode surface whose electric potential is dynamically controlled. Adsorption and desorption of target chemicals cause changes in impedance which has constant phase element (CPE) characteristics. The impedance changes depending on the electrode potential are used as a chemical sensor output. As a result, we could detect and distinguish many kinds of aldehyde and carboxylic acids. Furthermore various water pollutant can be detected with high sensitivity. The results suggest that a simple and multi-purposed sensor can be constructed for environmental analysis using the proposed method.

Hayashi, Kenshi; Tanaka, Hiroki; Hayama, Kosuke; Izumi, Ryosuke; Toko, Kiyoshi

4

Water Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

Bowen, H. J. M.

1975-01-01

5

Water Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)|

Bowen, H. J. M.

1975-01-01

6

Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of activities is designed to help students understand water pollution and its potential effects on human and wildlife habitats. They will understand that pollutants can be divided into three groups: chemical, thermal, and biological. Learning objectives include identification of two or more pollutants in a bog, marsh, stream or other wetland area, using words and art to relate a message about pollution, and understanding that some pollutants cannot be seen.

7

Water pollution analysis and detection. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning water pollution analysis, detection, monitoring, and regulation. Citations review online systems, bioassay monitoring, laser-based detection, sensor and biosensor systems, metabolic analyzers, and microsystem techniques. References cover fiber-optic portable detection instruments and rapid detection of toxicants in drinking water. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-08-01

8

Microbiology: detection of bacterial pathogens and their occurrence. [Water pollution  

SciTech Connect

Studies of waterborne diseases are reported in this literature review. Contaminated water is a major source of exposure to bacterial pathogens for both humans and animals. Legionella, an aquatic organism, is of special interest because of its importance as a respiratory pathogen and the human disease outbreaks associated with contaminated air conditioning cooling tower waters and contaminated shower heads in health care institutions. The occurrence and detection of Legionella in water is presented in one of seven tables. Included are 147 references. (JMT)

Reasoner, D.J.

1982-01-01

9

Method of and device for detecting oil pollutions on water surfaces  

DOEpatents

Detection of oil pollution on water surfaces includes providing echo signals obtained from optical radiation of a clean water area at two wavelengths, optically radiating an investigated water area at two wavelengths and obtaining echo signals from the optical radiation of the investigated water area at the two wavelengths, comparing the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the investigated area at two wavelengths with the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the clean water area, and based on the comparison, determining presence or absence of oil pollution in the investigated water area.

Belov, Michael Leonidovich (Moscow, RU); Gorodnichev, Victor Aleksandrovich (Moscow, RU); Kozintsev, Valentin Ivanovich (Moscow, RU); Smimova, Olga Alekseevna (Moscow, RU); Fedotov, Yurii Victorovich (Moscow, RU); Khroustaleva, Anastasiva Michailovnan (Moscow, RU)

2008-08-26

10

Water pollution analysis and detection. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning water pollution analysis, detection, monitoring, and regulation. Citations review online systems, bioassay monitoring, laser-based detection, sensor and biosensor systems, metabolic analyzers, and microsystem techniques. References cover fiber-optic portable detection instruments and rapid detection of toxicants in drinking water. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-08-01

11

Determination of total metal pollutants in water with optical detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total concentration of heavy metal ions was measured with the use of a highly sensitive reagent (4-(2-pyridylzo)-resorcinol (PAR)). Because of PAR chelates are slightly soluble in water and their forming is not selective, the analytical procedure for Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn determination was developed to perform the analysis in an aqueous environment without the need of inconvenient and time-consuming extraction. A proposed analysis method is more useful in comparison with classical FIA analysis what is crucial during fast classification of various natural water samples. To minimize the chemicals consumption such a classification can be performed in a specially designed microsystem. The Y- shape microchannel structure with a mixing area was made by fine engraving in PMMA plate and sealed with the PDMS one. The M2+-PAR complex forming conditions were determined for each of the chosen metal ions. The solubility of formed complexes was better when a micellar environment was created by the addition of a non-ionic surfactant (Triton X100). Next the synthetic mixtures of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn ions were prepared to obtain total molar metal ions concentration in the range from 10-6 to 10-4 M and measured after on-chip reaction. A tap water and HAC-sample (Highest Allowable Concentration, ?Me=1,2•10-5 M) were also measured. The detection was performed in a special flow cuvette and spectra measurements were carried out using diode array spectrophotometer and CCD detector.

Chudy, Michal; Prokaryn, Piotr; Dybko, Artur; Wroblewski, Wojciech; Brzozka, Zbigniew

2003-09-01

12

A simple field test for the detection of faecal pollution in drinking water*  

PubMed Central

A comprehensive field investigation in several parts of India has revealed that the presence of coliforms in drinking water is associated with hydrogen sulfide-producing organisms. This paper describes a simple, rapid, and inexpensive field test for the screening of drinking water for faecal pollution, based on the detection of hydrogen sulfide. The new test showed good agreement with the standard most probable number (MPN) test. It proved highly successful in the field when it was used to detect faecal pollution and to monitor water quality during an outbreak of water-borne hepatitis A infection in the city of Gwalior. The test is reliable and simple to perform, and will be especially useful for screening rural water supplies and for large-scale screening of urban water supplies where resources, time, manpower, and laboratory facilities are limited.

Manja, K. S.; Maurya, M. S.; Rao, K. M.

1982-01-01

13

Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

Lantz, H. B., Jr.

14

Bacteriological Water Quality Analyses of Methods for Detecting Fecal Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the study was to improve the specificity, speed and reliability to bacteriological methods for determining kinds and number of fecal bacteria in water resources. The major objective of distinguishing between human and animal sources of po...

P. R. Middaugh

1970-01-01

15

Determination of total metal pollutants in water with optical detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total concentration of heavy metal ions was measured with the use of a highly sensitive reagent (4-(2-pyridylzo)-resorcinol (PAR)). Because of PAR chelates are slightly soluble in water and their forming is not selective, the analytical procedure for Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn determination was developed to perform the analysis in an aqueous environment without the need of inconvenient and

Michal Chudy; Piotr Prokaryn; Artur Dybko; Wojciech Wroblewski; Zbigniew Brzozka

2003-01-01

16

Using gas chromatography with atomic emission detection for determining organic pollutants in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of gas chromatography with atomic emission detection (AED) for determining the composition of complex mixtures\\u000a of organic water pollutants was studied by the example of 13 compounds of different classes. It was found that the correlation\\u000a between the ratio of AED signals for single element atoms of the compound in the sample and their predetermined ratio in individual

M. Yu. Vozhdaeva; L. G. Tsypysheva; L. I. Kantor; E. A. Kantor

2007-01-01

17

Group 8 - Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BACKGROUND Investigate the issues of water pollution in the world. TASK - What is making the water so polluted? How bad is it? How does nature clean its own water? Who are the worst polluters? What can be done to stop so much pollution? What is the water cycle? What can be done to fix the problem? Explain all this, and 5 ...

Mecham, Mrs.

2006-11-30

18

On the detectability of marine oil pollution in European marginal waters by means of ERS SAR imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have analyzed more than 700 ERS SAR images of European marginal waters (acquired between December 1996 and November 1998 over the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, and the northwestern Mediterranean Sea) with respect to the detectability of marine oil pollution. By taking into account mean surface winds the authors define the “normalized visibility” of marine oil pollution, i.e.,

Martin Gade; Jochen Scholz; Christoph von Viebahn

2000-01-01

19

Highly porous nanocomposites based on TiO2-noble metal particles for sensitive detection of water pollutants by SERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly porous nanocomposites based on TiO2 aerogel and silver colloidal particles were prepared by different methods in order to study their capacity to detect pollutant species adsorbed on metallic nanoparticles surface from aqueous solution. The efficiency of the obtained composites to detect contaminants from water by means of SERS was evaluated using acrylamide and crystal violet as test molecules. It

M. Baia; G. Melinte; L. Barbu-Tudoran; L. Diamandescu; V. Iancu; V. Cosoveanu; V. Danciu; L. Baia

2011-01-01

20

Detection of adenoviruses and enteroviruses in polluted waters by nested PCR amplification.  

PubMed Central

A procedure has been developed for the rapid detection of enteroviruses and adenoviruses in environmental samples. Several systems for virus concentration and extraction of nucleic acid were tested by adding adenovirus type 2 and poliovirus type 1 to different sewage samples. The most promising method for virus recovery involved the concentration of viruses by centrifugation and elution of the virus pellets by treatment with 0.25 N glycine buffer, pH 9.5. Nucleic acid extraction by adsorption of RNA and DNA to silica particles was the most efficient. One aliquot of the extracted nucleic acids was used for a nested two-step PCR, with specific primers for all adenoviruses; and another aliquot was used to synthesize cDNA for a nested two-step PCR with specific primers for further detection of seeded polioviruses or all enteroviruses in the river water and sewage samples. The specificity and sensitivity were evaluated, and 24 different enterovirus strains and the 47 human adenovirus serotypes were recognized by the primers used. The sensitivity was estimated to be between 1 and 10 virus particles for each of the species tested. Twenty-five samples of sewage and polluted river water were analyzed and showed a much higher number of positive isolates by nested PCR than by tissue culture analysis. The PCR-based detection of enteroviruses and adenoviruses shows good results as an indicator of possible viral contamination in environmental wastewater. Images

Puig, M; Jofre, J; Lucena, F; Allard, A; Wadell, G; Girones, R

1994-01-01

21

The Other Water Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of…

Barton, Kathy

1978-01-01

22

Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

23

Fluorimetric detection of water pollutants with a fiber-coupled solid state UV laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aromatic hydrocarbons are important and dangerous pollutants of the aquatic environment. With the method of laser-induced fluorescence it is possible to detect Benzene, Toluene, Xylene (BTX) as well as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) sensitively. The detection of these molecules by a continuously working in-situ method is achieved by combining LIF with fiberoptic guidance of light. We presence results on the

Peter Karlitschek; U. Bunting; T. Northemann; Georg Hillrichs

1996-01-01

24

Laser Detection of Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of laser spectroscopy in determining the presence of specific gaseous constituents. Three of currently used modes for laser detection of pollution are reviewed; (1) long-path measurements; (2) laser raman (differential absorption) measurements; and (3) optoacoustic detection. (HM)

Patel, C. K. N.

1978-01-01

25

Laser Detection of Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the use of laser spectroscopy in determining the presence of specific gaseous constituents. Three of currently used modes for laser detection of pollution are reviewed; (1) long-path measurements; (2) laser raman (differential absorption) measurements; and (3) optoacoustic detection. (HM)|

Patel, C. K. N.

1978-01-01

26

Water Pollution, Causes and Cures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

27

Development and demonstration of an immobilised-polyphenol oxidase bioprobe for the detection of phenolic pollutants in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a portable, disposable bioprobe incorporating mushroom polyphenol oxidase immobilised on a synthetic membrane for this purpose is described for the detection and semi-quantification of phenolic pollutants in water. The enzyme, immobilised on a nylon membrane together with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone, produced ranges of maroon colours in phenolic solutions and orange colours in cresylic solutions. The colour intensities produced

Ingrid M Russell; Stephanie G. Burton

1999-01-01

28

Highly porous nanocomposites based on TiO2-noble metal particles for sensitive detection of water pollutants by SERS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly porous nanocomposites based on TiO2 aerogel and silver colloidal particles were prepared by different methods in order to study their capacity to detect pollutant species adsorbed on metallic nanoparticles surface from aqueous solution. The efficiency of the obtained composites to detect contaminants from water by means of SERS was evaluated using acrylamide and crystal violet as test molecules. It was found that the detection limits depend both on pollutant and composite type, and were determined to be in the range of 10-1-10-4 M for acrylamide and around 10-5 M for the dye molecule. These results prove the potential of the prepared porous composites for further use in the development of new SERS-based sensors devices.

Baia, M.; Melinte, G.; Barbu-Tudoran, L.; Diamandescu, L.; Iancu, V.; Cosoveanu, V.; Danciu, V.; Baia, L.

2011-07-01

29

Fecal Pollution of Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

30

Fecal Pollution of Water.  

EPA Science Inventory

Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

31

Water Pollution Prevention and Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is designed to help students apply the pollution prevention (P2) concept to water. It contains the needed background information about water pollution and provides guidance and activities to help students describe water uses and sources, explain why water conservation is important, and explain how pollution prevention concepts can be used to conserve water and prevent water pollution. The preceding pages of the fact sheet contain background information and the definitions necessary to implement this lesson plan.

32

Identification of Bacterial DNA Markers for the Detection of Human Fecal Pollution in Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used genome fragment enrichment and bioinformatics to identify several microbial DNA sequences with high potential for use as markers in PCR assays for detection of human fecal contamination in water. Following competitive solution-phase hybridization of total DNA from human and pig fecal samples, 351 plasmid clones were sequenced and were determined to define 289 different genomic DNA regions. These

Orin C. Shanks; Jingrang Lu; Catherine A. Kelty; James E. Graham

2007-01-01

33

Human and bovine adenoviruses for the detection of source-specific fecal pollution in coastal waters in Australia.  

PubMed

In this study, the host-specificity and -sensitivity of human- and bovine-specific adenoviruses (HS-AVs and BS-AVs) were evaluated by testing wastewater/fecal samples from various animal species in Southeast, Queensland, Australia. The overall specificity and sensitivity of the HS-AVs marker were 1.0 and 0.78, respectively. These figures for the BS-AVs were 1.0 and 0.73, respectively. Twenty environmental water samples were collected during wet conditions and 20 samples were colleted during dry conditions from the Maroochy Coastal River and tested for the presence of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), host-specific viral markers, zoonotic bacterial and protozoan pathogens using PCR/qPCR. The concentrations of FIB in water samples collected after wet conditions were generally higher compared to dry conditions. HS-AVs was detected in 20% water samples collected during wet conditions and whereas BS-AVs was detected in both wet (i.e., 10%) and dry (i.e., 10%) conditions. Both Campylobacter jejuni mapA and Salmonella invA genes detected in 10% samples collected during dry conditions. The concentrations of Salmonella invA ranged between 3.5 × 10(2) and 4.3 × 10(2) genomic copies per 500 ml of water Giardia lamblia ?-giardin gene was detected only in one sample (5%) collected during the dry conditions. Weak or significant correlations were observed between FIB with viral markers and zoonotic pathogens. However, during dry conditions, no significant correlations were observed between FIB concentrations with viral markers and zoonotic pathogens. The prevalence of HS-AVs in samples collected from the study river suggests that the quality of water is affected by human fecal pollution and as well as bovine fecal pollution. The results suggest that HS-AVs and BS-AVs detection using PCR could be a useful tool for the identification of human sourced fecal pollution in coastal waters. PMID:20891037

Ahmed, W; Goonetilleke, A; Gardner, T

2010-09-01

34

Water Pollution Control Industry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)|

Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

1974-01-01

35

Detection limits of a biological monitoring system for chemical water pollution based on mussel activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on their ability to accumulate a variety of chemicals, mussels have been widely adopted as useful indicators of pollutant contamination in chemical surveillance programs (PHILIPS 1976; GOLDBERG et al. 1978; DAVIES + PIRIE 1980; NAS 1980; JENSEN et al. 1981). However, sentinel organisms living close to input sources of pollutants may respond rapidly to changes in pollutant flux. Several

W. Slooff; D. de Zwart; J. M. Marquenie

1983-01-01

36

Detection of Human-Derived Fecal Pollution in Environmental Waters by Use of a PCR-Based Human Polyomavirus Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulatory agencies mandate the use of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli or Enterococcus spp., as microbial indicators of recreational water quality. These indicators of fecal pollution do not identify the specific sources of pollution and at times underestimate health risks associated with recreational water use. This study proposes the use of human polyomaviruses (HPyVs), which are widespread among human populations, as

Shannon M. McQuaig; Troy M. Scott; Valerie J. Harwood; Samuel R. Farrah; Jerzy O. Lukasik

2006-01-01

37

Farmland and water pollution  

SciTech Connect

The success of America's agricultural achievement must be balanced with the cost in erosion and water pollution from a runoff of animal and chemical wastes. Farm economics and government policies that encourage large farms contribute to a problem which is difficult to see because its effects are so widely dispersed. The Environmental Protection Agency is promoting an approach of Best Management Practices (BMPs), using new management and husbandry techniques. The farming community can participate in any of several cost-sharing and technical assistance programs on a voluntary basis. The early response is encouraging, but unless a partnership of farmers, the agriculture industry, and government can reverse the rate of soil loss and water pollution, more regulation will be necessary. (DCK)

Hurd, M.

1980-07-01

38

Storm water pollution prevention plans  

SciTech Connect

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) general permit applications for industrial storm water discharge were to have been filed by October 1992. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies are now issuing permits based on these applications. One compliance aspect of the permits is the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3). The plan must identify the facility's potential sources of storm water pollution and develop and implement best management practices (BMPs) to reduce pollutants in storm water runoff. The objectives of the NPDES storm water program are to eliminate illegal dumping and illicit connections, and to reduce pollutants in industrial storm water discharge. These regulations require industry to develop detailed facility site maps, and describe the types, amounts and locations of potential pollutants. Based on this information, industry can develop and implement best management practices to reduce pollutants in storm water runoff.

Rossmiller, R.L. (HDR Engineering, Inc., Bellevue, WA (United States))

1993-03-01

39

Identification of Bacterial DNA Markers for the Detection of Human Fecal Pollution in Water? †  

PubMed Central

We used genome fragment enrichment and bioinformatics to identify several microbial DNA sequences with high potential for use as markers in PCR assays for detection of human fecal contamination in water. Following competitive solution-phase hybridization of total DNA from human and pig fecal samples, 351 plasmid clones were sequenced and were determined to define 289 different genomic DNA regions. These putative human-specific fecal bacterial DNA sequences were then analyzed by dot blot hybridization, which confirmed that 98% were present in the source human fecal microbial community and absent from the original pig fecal DNA extract. Comparative sequence analyses of these sequences suggested that a large number (43.5%) were predicted to encode bacterial secreted or surface-associated proteins. Deoxyoligonucleotide primers capable of annealing to a subset of 26 of the candidate sequences predicted to encode factors involved in interactions with host cells were then used in the PCR and did not amplify markers in DNA from any additional pig fecal specimens. These 26 PCR assays exhibited a range of specificity in tests with 11 other animal sources, with more than half amplifying markers only in specimens from dogs or cats. Four assays were more specific, detecting markers only in specimens from humans, including those from 18 different human populations examined. We then demonstrated the potential utility of these assays by using them to detect human fecal contamination in several impacted watersheds.

Shanks, Orin C.; Domingo, Jorge W. Santo; Lu, Jingrang; Kelty, Catherine A.; Graham, James E.

2007-01-01

40

Study on the post-mortem identification of pollutants in the Fish killed by water pollution: detection of arsenic.  

PubMed

Careless Herbicidal aerial spray of a field for weed control and defoliation of cotton before machine picking, resulted in the contamination of an adjoining reservoir, killing large volume of fish. The dead catfish, along with water and Amarantha weed leaves analyzed contained relatively high levels of arsenic concentrations, indicative of arsenic being the probable cause of fish killing. The arsenic absorbed by fish was irreversable and its bioaccumulation continued in the surviving fish though the water arsenic level fell during the following weeks. PMID:856364

Sandhu, S S

1977-03-01

41

Study on the post-mortem identification of pollutants in the fish killed by water pollution: Detection of arsenic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Careless Herbicidal aerial spray of a field for weed control and defoliation of cotton before machine picking, resulted in the contamination of an adjoining reservoir, killing large volume of fish. The dead catfish, along with water and Amarantha weed leaves analyzed contained relatively high levels of arsenic concentrations, indicative of arsenic being the probable cause of fish killing. The

Shingara Singh Sandhu

1977-01-01

42

The Management of Water: Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the official water pollution site for Canada. In the introduction, the problem is stated with reference to pollutants of the Great Lakes over 360 chemical compounds have been identified. Many are persistent toxic chemicals - alkylated lead, benzo(a)pyrene, DDT, mercury and mirex - potentially dangerous to humans and already destructive to the aquatic ecosystems. In referring to water quality, pollutants, toxic substances, and acid rain in the aquatic environment are discussed along with long-range transport of airborne pollutants and toxic chemicals said to be the legacy of a chemical society. Efforts to control water pollution include a multi-barrier approach to protecting drinking water, stated water quality objectives and guidelines, regulations, and advice on how to be a responsible consumer. Other sections include the effects of pollution and groundwater pollution.

43

Clean Water and Oceans: Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the water pollution portal for the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). NRDC works to continue reductions in industrial water pollution while pressing for effective pollution controls on agriculture, logging and other sources previously exempt from them. They help develop and promote strong federal laws and regulations to address polluted runoff, raw sewage discharges, and factory farm wastes and to sue polluters when the Clean Water Act is violated. This site contains simple issue overviews, news, how-to guides, frequently asked questions, photo essays and more in a section called In Brief. The In Depth section offers reports, white papers, policy analyses and other materials by NRDCs lawyers, scientists and analysts.

44

THE DETECTION AND TRACKING OF MINE-WATER POLLUTION FROM ABANDONED MINES USING ELECTRICAL TOMOGRAPHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing emphasis is being placed on the environmental and societal impact of mining, particularly in the EU, where the environmental impacts of abandoned mine sites (spoil heaps and tailings) are now subject to the legally binding Water Framework and Mine Waste Directives. Traditional sampling to monitor the impact of mining on surface waters and groundwater is laborious, expensive and often

R. D. OGILVY; O. KURAS; B. PALUMBO-ROE; P. I. MELDRUM; P. B. WILKINSON

45

Exploring Water Pollution. Part 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Lists over 30 outdoor science activities dealing with water formation, erosion, pollution, and other water-related topics. Provides, in addition, a selected bibliography of films, tapes, booklets and pamphlets, and filmstrips as additional reference materials. (CP)|

Rillo, Thomas J.

1976-01-01

46

Review: Pharmacological Pollution in Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been an increasing awareness among environmental scientists in recent years of the presence and potential impacts of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (“PPCPs”) in environmental compartments including surface water, groundwater, soil, bed sediment, and in tissue. This work highlights some of the research developments over approximately the last decade regarding pharmacological pollution in water including pollution characterization, analytical

Samuel Kaplan

2012-01-01

47

Biology and Water Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

Warren, Charles E.

48

Water Pollution (Causes, Mechanisms, Solution).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show…

Strandberg, Carl

49

Eutrophication. [Water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature review dealing with the process of eutrophication with respect to the sources and transport of pollutants is presented. Topics include the mathematical modeling of nutrient loading, eutrophication, and aquatic ecosystems. Biological and environmental indicators of eutrophication are reviewed, and the interactions between various chemical and biological pollutants are considered. Several lake management projects are discussed. (KRM)

A. J. Medine; D. B. Porcella

1982-01-01

50

Detection of somatic phages, infectious enteroviruses and enterovirus genomes as indicators of human enteric viral pollution in surface water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we aimed to determine whether the concentrations of somatic coliphages, infectious enteroviruses or the detection of enterovirus genomes were associated with the detection of human pathogenic viruses in surface water. Four French rivers were sampled monthly or semimonthly for the quantitative detection of somatic coliphages, infectious enteroviruses and the qualitative RT-PCR detection of enterovirus, hepatitis A

D. Hot; O. Legeay; J. Jacques; C. Gantzer; Y. Caudrelier; K. Guyard; M. Lange; L. Andréoletti

2003-01-01

51

Pollutants in Airport Runoff Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Runoff waters from airport areas constitute a serious environmental problem. It is essential to monitor levels of pollutants emitted into the environment and measure their toxicity on a continuous basis. The authors’ aim was to critically review data on pollution from aviation fuel combustion, aviation fuel spillage, the washing and cleaning of aircraft and airport service equipment, and the use

Anna Maria Sulej; ?aneta Polkowska; Jacek Namie?nik

2012-01-01

52

Good operating practices cut water pollution  

SciTech Connect

This paper explains how the pipeline industry can avoid violating the Clean Water Act (PL 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act), which states that pollution of US waters from any cause other than an act of God, war or Government negligence is the responsibility of the owner or operator of the facility. Reporting pollution to the National Response Center will limit the maximum penalty to $5,000 Rectifiers must be kept in top operating condition, and visual inspections of the right-of-way by aerial or ground patrols must detect construction of new pipelines or other facilities. Accidental damage by third parties is the major cause of failures in pipeline systems, which can be prevented by periodic contact with landowners. Conclusion is that if a pipeline operator follows good operating and maintenance practices, his exposure to effects of the Clean Water Act will be minimal.

West, D.E.

1982-07-12

53

China's water pollution by persistent organic pollutants.  

PubMed

Available data were reviewed to assess the status of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in drinking water sources and coastal waters of China. The levels of POPs in China's waters were generally at the high end of the global range. A comparison of China's regulatory limits indicated that PCBs in rivers and coastal water may pose potential human health risk. Occurrence of DDTs in some rivers of China may also pose health risk to humans using the regulatory limits of DDTs recommended by the European Union. Future monitoring of POPs in China's waters should be directed towards analytes of concern (e.g. PCBs and PCDD/Fs) and to fill data gaps for analytes (e.g. PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, and chlordane) and in watersheds/regions (e.g. West China) where data are scarce. PMID:22325437

Bao, Lian-Jun; Maruya, Keith A; Snyder, Shane A; Zeng, Eddy Y

2012-01-11

54

Evaluation of L-Cystine-amended H 2 S test for the detection of faecal pollution in potable water: comparison with standard multiple tube fermentation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

L-Cystine-amended H2S strip test was compared with conventional multiple tube fermentation tests for detecting faecal pollution in 200 drinking\\u000a water samples drawn from different water sources. Of these, 134 samples were positive for total coliforms (TC), whereas the\\u000a cystine-amended H2S test was positive with 116 samples. Faecal coliforms were present in 99 samples. Seventy-seven samples were also tested\\u000a with presence–absence

Hema Pant; Sami Sarfaraz; Leela Iyengar

2002-01-01

55

Water Pollution Scrubber Activity Simulates Pollution Control Devices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A laboratory activity caused students to think actively about water pollution. The students realized that it would be easier to keep water clean than to remove pollutants. They created a water scrubbing system allowing them to pour water in one end and have it emerge clean at the other end. (JOW)|

Kennedy, Edward C., III; Waggoner, Todd C.

2003-01-01

56

Careers in Water Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described are the activities, responsibilities, and educational and training requirements of the major occupations directly concerned with water pollution control. Also provided is an overview of employment trends, salaries, and projected demand for employees. Included in the appendix is a list of colleges and universities which offer…

Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

57

Exploring Water Pollution. Part II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)|

Rillo, Thomas J.

1975-01-01

58

Water Pollution in School Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Water pollution curriculum units of four environmental secondary science programs in Britain, Germany, Israel, and the United States are examined. Comparisons reveal the use of quite different approaches in central topic selection, use of the laboratory and other media, controversial issues, and teacher-student roles. (CS)|

Blum, Abraham

1979-01-01

59

Testing Water for Bacterial Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of water pollution control. It is a learning activity directed toward high school students of biology and/or ecology. A general knowledge of microbiology techniques is regarded as a prerequisite for the lesson. Behavioral objectives are given. Emphasis is placed on use of techniques and materials…

Dillner, Harry

60

How Did That Get There?: Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a group, learners consider sources of water pollution to understand where pollution starts and where it ends up. Also explored are the natural and human-made options for cleaning up our water supply. This activity encourages learners to use their powers of observation, imagination, and public speaking skills as they describe possible pollution stories and scenarios, and brainstorm pollution prevention efforts.

Illinois, University O.

2009-01-01

61

Astronomical Techniques Applied to Pollution Detection: 1. Pollution Transport.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An astronomical observatory located below the urban inversion in Oakland, California has been recently used as a remote sensing facility for detection of urban aerosol and molecular pollution and transport analysis. These measurements were made with a six...

W. M. Porch C. A. Sherman M. H. Dickerson T. Green P. Volker

1977-01-01

62

Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

63

Water Pollution. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Water is one of the most polluted resources in our environment. Since everyone has the same basic need for pure water, it follows that all people should have a basic knowledge of the causes, results and solutions to the water pollution problem. This unit is designed for use with Level II and III educable mentally retarded students to present…

Topeka Public Schools, KS.

64

Water Quality Issues in Pollutant Trading  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of implementing the watershed approach for water pollution control, interest is being focused on pollutant trading. The pollutant trading programs that have been developed thus far are based on total chemical constituent concentrations and fail to properly consider that for many chemical constituent sources and types of chemical constituents the total chemical constituent concentration in a source or

G. Fred Lee; Anne Jones-Lee

1996-01-01

65

Water Pollution: Appearances Can Be Deceiving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Expresses concern over the amounts of toxic chemical pollutants being discharged into fresh water supplies. Analyzes the role of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in establishing and enforcing water quality standards. (CP)|

Raloff, Janet

1977-01-01

66

Water Conservation and Nonpoint Source Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains science activities that are designed to make learning and demonstrating nonpoint source pollution concepts exciting and fun. These activities can either be used alone or with an existing water resources education curricula. Activities include: Water Tasting, Acting Out the Hydrologic Cycle, Concentration of Chemical Pollutants

Farrell-Poe, Kitt

67

The Practice of Water Pollution Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Water pollution techniques and practices, including data analysis, interpretation and display are described in this book intended primarily for the biologist inexperienced in this work, and for sanitary engineers, chemists, and water pollution control administrators. The characteristics of aquatic environments, their biota, and the effects of…

Mackenthun, Kenneth M.

68

Water Conservation and Nonpoint Source Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book contains science activities that are designed to make learning and demonstrating nonpoint source pollution concepts exciting and fun. These activities can either be used alone or with an existing water resources education curricula. Activities include: Water Tasting, Acting Out the Hydrologic Cycle, Concentration of Chemical Pollutants

Farrell-Poe, Kitt

69

Comparing macroinvertebrate indices to detect organic pollution across Europe: a contribution to the EC Water Framework Directive intercalibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the EC Water Framework Directive (WFD) the ecological status of a water body is defined by comparing the observed biological community composition present with near-natural reference conditions. The ecological status is then classified into five quality classes (high, good, moderate, poor and bad). It is of great importance that `good ecological status' has the same meaning within the European

Leonard Sandin; Daniel Hering

2004-01-01

70

HOW AIR POLLUTION IS DETECTED.  

PubMed

Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development.Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution.Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

CLIFTON, M

1964-07-01

71

Long-term decreases in persistent organic pollutants in South African coastal waters detected from beached polyethylene pellets.  

PubMed

Polyethylene pellets provide a convenient means to monitor Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in marine systems. Pellets collected between 1984 and 2008 at three South African beaches were analysed for PCB, HCH and DDT. Concentrations of all three POPs decreased over the last two decades, although this signal was less clear for PCBs, and further monitoring is needed to assess trends in this family of compounds. DDT concentrations at two sites were higher than previous records for southern Africa, but there is no evidence of a link to the ongoing use of DDT for malaria control. HCHs concentrations were lower than in pellets from the east coast of southern Africa, suggesting that this pesticide was mainly used in the eastern part of the region. Our study demonstrates the potential for International Pellet Watch to track temporal as well as geographical patterns in the abundance of POPs in marine environments. PMID:23067541

Ryan, Peter G; Bouwman, Hindrik; Moloney, Coleen L; Yuyama, Masaki; Takada, Hideshige

2012-10-12

72

Passive radar detection of radioactive pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new method of passive radar detection of radioactive pollution based on electromagnetic radiation registration on wavelength of 2 1 cm is offered. This radiation is spontaneous and it appears in result of atmospheric components dissociation at its interaction with radioactive elements. Experimental measurement results and their theoretical processing for detection of potentially dangerous objects on the territory of Siberian

V. P. Yakubov; V. B. Antipov; D. Y. Losev; I. A. Yuriev

1999-01-01

73

Ground water. [Water pollution monitoring and control  

SciTech Connect

A literature review dealing with the occurrences, extent, and sampling of groundwater pollution is presented. Groundwater sampling procedures for various contaminants, and geophysical methods designed to investigate groundwater pollution are reviewed. (KRM)

Emrich, G.H.

1982-06-01

74

Factors controlling bioindicators for industrial pollution detection.  

PubMed

This study describes the use of algae as potential bioindicators of pollution containing industrial metals. Phytoplanktonic algae varied with waste type and with environmental and growth conditions. In water samples containing ceramic waste Euglenophyta species and Cyclotella sp. (Bacillariophyta) were determined as potential indicator species of pollution, while in sample containing metallic waste, Cyclotella sp. was most dominant. Under laboratory growth conditions, phytoplankton collected from a major stream of the Nile River were cultivated by using Algal Growth Bottle Test (EPA, 1972). This revealed that Scenedesmus sp., Actinastrum hantzschii (Chlorophyta), Oscillatoria limnetica (Cyanophyta) and Nitzschia linearis (Bacillariophyta) were also potential indicators of pollution. PMID:10674183

Ali, G H; Abd el-Salam, N F

1999-09-01

75

Special Topics in Water Science (Water Pollution)  

MedlinePLUS

... Basics Water Properties Water Cycle Surface Water Groundwater Water Quality Water Use Activities Photos Q&A Teachers Contact ... explore other water-science topic areas, such as water quality, urbanization and water, saline water, watersheds, runoff, and ...

76

Detection of Water and Sediments Pollution of An Arid Saltern (Sfax, Tunisia) by Coupling the Distribution of Microorganisms With Hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the coupling of abundance of bacteria, phytoplankton and ciliates with hydrocarbons in the surface water and\\u000a sediments of five interconnected ponds in the arid Sfax solar salterns. This study aimed at determining the potential sources\\u000a of hydrocarbons and the effects of salinity gradients on microorganism metabolism. Hydrocarbon analysis was performed by gas\\u000a chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled

Jannet Elloumi; Wassim Guermazi; Habib Ayadi; Abderrahmen Bouaïn; Lotfi Aleya

2008-01-01

77

Sheep dip chemicals and water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tweed River Purification Board's objective of reducing the numbers and significance of water pollution incidents by a proactive approach based on persuasion and education is described. This has consisted of prioritising potential pollutant sources which have then been investigated in detail followed by discussion and agreement with discharges as to remedial measures. The paper describes in detail the Board's

W. A. Virtue; J. W. Clayton

1997-01-01

78

Bacteriophages active against Bacteroides fragilis in sewage-polluted waters.  

PubMed Central

Twelve strains of different Bacteroides species were tested for their efficiency of detection of bacteriophages from sewage. The host range of several isolated phages was investigated. The results indicated that there was a high degree of strain specificity. Then, by using Bacteroides fragilis HSP 40 as the host, which proved to be the most efficient for the detection of phages, feces from humans and several animal species and raw sewage, river water, water from lagoons, seawater, groundwater, and sediments were tested for the presence of bacteriophages that were active against B. fragilis HSP 40. Phages were detected in feces of 10% of the human fecal samples tested and was never detected in feces of the other animal species studied. Moreover, bacteriophages were always recovered from sewage and sewage-polluted samples of waters and sediments, but not from nonpolluted samples. The titers recovered were dependent on the degree of pollution in analyzed waters and sediments.

Tartera, C; Jofre, J

1987-01-01

79

Water Pollution and Japan's Declining Fish Catch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The decline in Japan's fish catch that started in 1989 can be attributed mainly to stock depletions due to overfishing in deep seas and offshore waters and polluting of water in inland and coastal waters. Animal wastes, nitrogen, phosphate fertilizer, and...

F. A. Taha

1996-01-01

80

Chemiluminescent detection of organic air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

Chemiluminescent reactions can be used for specific and highly sensitive detection of a number of air pollutants. Among these are chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with NO or organics and reactions of luminol with a variety of oxidants. Reported here are studies exploring (1) the use of the temperature dependence of the chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with organic pollutants as a means of differentiating types of hydrocarbon classes and (2) the use of luminol techniques to monitor atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and organic oxidants, specifically peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs). Coupling gas chromatography to the chemiluminescent detectors allows the measurement of individual species at very low concentrations.

Marley, N.A.; Gaffney, J.S.; Chen, Yu-Harn

1996-04-01

81

Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)|

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

82

Protection of ground water from oil pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the protection of ground water from oil pollution, conducted by CONCAWE, showed that for neither preventive nor remedial measures is it possible to lay down rules that can be applied to all cases. The technical data required includes a knowledge of the nature of the subsoil, aquifer characteristics, the depth of the ground-water surface, the aquifer velocity

T. L. D. Postrovich; Y. Bardat; R. Barthel; A. Chiarelli; D. R. Fussel

1979-01-01

83

Urbanization, Water Pollution, and Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviewed in this report is a study concerned with water pollution as it relates to urbanization within the Regional Plan Association's set of 21 contiguous New York, New Jersey and Connecticut counties centered upon the numerous bay and estuarial reaches of the Port of New York and New Jersey. With a time frame covering a decade of water quality…

Carey, George W.; And Others

84

Behavioural early warning responses to polluted water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural early warning responses to polluted surface water from an industrial effluent have been measured in two freshwater\\u000a macroinvertebrate species using the four electrode impedance conversion technique. Specimens ofGammarus pulex (L.) andHydropsycho angustipennis (Curtis) were caught from reference streams and exposed to water from above and below the factory and to reference water\\u000a for about 1 h with different kinds

Almut Gerhardt

1996-01-01

85

Water Pollution, Environmental Science Curriculum Guide Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide is a 40-day unit plan on water pollution developed, in part, from the National Science Foundation Environmental Science Institutes' Ninth Grade Environmental Science Curriculum Guide. This unit contains teacher lesson plans, suggested teacher and student modules, case studies, and activities to be developed by teachers…

McKenna, Harold J.

86

Public Information for Water Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication is a handbook for water pollution control personnel to guide them towards a successful public relations program. This handbook was written to incorporate the latest methods of teaching basic public information techniques to the non-professional in this area. Contents include: (1) a rationale for a public information program; (2)…

Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

87

Water Pollution Control Across the Nation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviewed are accomplishments, problems, and frustrations faced by individual states in meeting requirements of P.L. 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. State Environmental officials complain the new law may be a hindrance to established cleanup programs. Statistics and charts are given. (BL)|

Environmental Science and Technology, 1973

1973-01-01

88

Magnetic separation in water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic separation as applied to waterborne contaminants is successful in reducing the solids content of a water sample and in removing the dissolved orthophosphate from the aqueous slurry. The contaminants are chemically associated with a magnetic seeding material, and subsequent removal of this seed sweeps the pollutants from the system. The advantage of this form of treatment over conventional techniques

CHRISTOPHER DE LATOUR

1973-01-01

89

Good operating practices cut water pollution  

SciTech Connect

This article advises the pipeline industry on how to comply with the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (PL 92-500), which states that pollution of US waters by any cause other than an ''Act of God,'' ''Act of War,'' or US Government negligence is the responsibility of the owner or operator of the facility. Points out that the actions of third parties do not relieve owners or operators of liability unless they are the sole cause of pollution. Emphasizes that liability can be reduced by prompt reporting of pollution to the National Response Center. Reveals that the major cause of failures in pipeline systems is accidental damage by third parties. Proposes tha the best defense against pipeline damage resulting from landowner activity is periodic contact of the landowner by the operator. Recommends aerial and ground patrols as sources of information on construction activities. Concludes that assessing a penalty against the party causing the pollution would be better than merely penalizing the pipeline operator.

West, D.E.

1982-07-12

90

A Raman Spectroscopy Database of Water Pollutants and the Data Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every substance has its own feature Raman spectroscopy (RS), which intensity is proportional to its concentration under certain condition. This is the basis of Raman spectroscopy to analyze the structure, components, concentrations and some other properties of samples. In order to research how to build up a Raman database of water pollutants, we detected some water pollutants and obtained their

Chen Chen; Peng Fei; Xu Dahai; Cheng Qinghua

2010-01-01

91

The development of monitoring system on water polluters by UV\\/VIS spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

UV\\/VIS spectroscopy has been proved to be an effective way for monitoring water quality non-invasively. However, the present method can only provide the synthesized information of the water pollution by using the sum parameters like TOC, DOC or TSS. The changes in the composition of the water cannot be detected. For monitoring water polluters, a UV\\/VIS spectrometer for in-situ and

Min Chang; Xuedian Zhang; Liuji Xing

2009-01-01

92

Agricultural Production Contracts to Reduce Water Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The growing vertical integration of the agricultural sector presents opportunities for flexible incentives to reduce nonpoint-source\\u000a pollution (NSP) of water. Some agricultural production contracts offer farmers incentives that may lead to environmental degradation\\u000a due to high rates of agrochemical use. At the same time, some businesses are recognizing the advantages of using environmental\\u000a responsibility for competitive advantage and are taking

Scott M. Swinton; Mei-chin Chu; Sandra S. Batie

93

Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)|

Rowbotham, N.

1973-01-01

94

Linking Near Real-Time Water Quality Measurements to Fecal Coliforms and Trace Organic Pollutants in Urban Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic pollutants, including pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, and estrogens are detected in urban water bodies. Effective examination of dilute organic and microbial pollutant loading rates within surface waters is currently prohibitively expensive and labor intensive. Effort is being placed on the development of improved monitoring methodologies to more accurately assess surface water quality and evaluate the effectiveness of water quality management

M. Henjum; C. Wennen; M. Hondzo; R. M. Hozalski; P. J. Novak; W. A. Arnold

2009-01-01

95

The Pollution Detectives, Part III: Roadside Lead Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described is a simple test tube method developed lead analysis of samples of roadside soil. The relationship between the results and the traffic flow indicate car exhausts are the major source of lead pollution. Materials and procedures are detailed. An example of results is provided. (Author/CW)|

Sanderson, Phil

1989-01-01

96

Water pollution in Lake Michigan by trace elements from pollution aerosol fallout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain trace elements which are strongly associated with air pollution sources in the Lake Michigan basin may be contributing significantly to lake water pollution by an atmospheric fallout route. In this paper a partial inventory of air pollution emissions for 30 trace elements is presented for the Chicago, Milwaukee, and northwest Indiana metropolitan areas, based on available published information. The

John W. Winchester; Gordon D. Nifong

1971-01-01

97

Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico.  

PubMed

The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn-bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha?¹week?¹ for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the main metabolite ethylenethiourea was near the detection limit. Surface and subsurface water was highly polluted with ethylenethiourea, the main metabolite of Mancozeb (22.5 and 4.3 ?g L?¹, respectively), but not with manganese. In deep ground water, no ethylenethiourea was detected. The level of pollution in the region presents a worrisome risk for aquatic life and for human health. PMID:20734023

Geissen, Violette; Ramos, Franzisco Que; de J Bastidas-Bastidas, Pedro; Díaz-González, Gilberto; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo; Huerta-Lwanga, Esperanza; Ruiz-Suárez, Luz E

2010-08-24

98

Studies Regarding the Ground Water Pollution in a Rural Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The papers presents studies regarding the pollution of the ground water, in a rural area. Samples of drinking water from 10 wells have been analyzed in order to evaluate if their quality was affected as result of farming activities. We find out that the water from some of the wells in polluted, the values of some of the quality parameters

Cornelia Muntean; Petru Negre; Mihaela Ciopec; Lavinia Lup; Ioan Ursoiu; Giannin Mosoarca; Ramona Ghiga

99

Fruition and greater struggle: water pollution in the 1980s  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examples of the elimination or reduction of pollution in lakes and rivers during recent years are given. A shift in emphasis from visible to nonvisible chemical pollution of surface waters was the result of release of the report on the EPA study on New Orleans drinking water in 1974. Passage of the Safe Drinking Water Act followed. Toxic chemicals in

1980-01-01

100

Biomonitoring of metals under the water framework directive: detecting temporal trends and abrupt changes, in relation to the removal of pollution sources.  

PubMed

Temporal trends in metal concentrations, i.e. Ag, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn, measured in soft tissues of Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels and Crassostrea gigas oysters collected from estuarine waters within the Basque Country (Bay of Biscay), have been investigated to determine if actions undertaken have improved the environmental quality of rivers and estuaries. Data compiled between 1990 and 2010 have been analysed statistically, applying the Mann-Kendall and the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon tests. Moreover, in those cases with significant trends, the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko Adaptive (KZA) filter was applied to detect abrupt changes. Results showed significant decreasing trends for some metals, i.e. Ni, Cu, Pb and Zn, and differences between medians. Trend lines showed abrupt changes occurring between 1998 and 2002. Therefore, observed downward trends were related to increased wastewater treatment and diversions of discharges to ocean, implemented mainly during 2000-2002. PMID:23279998

Solaun, O; Rodríguez, J G; Borja, A; González, M; Saiz-Salinas, J I

2012-12-29

101

Water pollution monitoring using a hyperspectral imaging spectropolarimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperspectral sensing opens up great possibilities for future remote sensing. In particular, high-resolution hyperspectral analysis will be an indispensable tool for agricultural applications, hydrodynamics and ocean physics, and polarimetric analysis of solar radiation reflected from rivers, lakes and marshes is expected to play an important role in environmental observation. In conventional multispectral analysis, detailed information has not been able to be used because each pixel includes much mixed spectral radiometric information, so it is difficult to obtain high classification accuracy in the analysis. To address this problem, the authors have been investigating some experimental analysis schemes using a hyperspectral imaging spectropolarimeter with selectable plane of polarization developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), and these investigations have yielded some remarkable results in the observation of polluted water in laboratory models and field experiments. These results indicate the possibility of applying the imaging spectropolarimeter to wide area environmental observation. This paper describes preliminary experiments for detecting concentration of suspended solid in water using the hyperspectral imaging spectropolarimeter with multi-polarization. Several hyperspectral analysis schemes for detecting such water pollution and analysis results of the observation data are presented.

Homma, Kohzo; Shibayama, Michio; Yamamoto, Hiromichi; Sugahara, Kazuo; Shingu, Hirokimi

2005-01-01

102

The Pollution Detectives: Part II. Lead and Zinc Mining.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a field trip taken to an old mining area to study water pollution. Discussed are methods for silt analysis, reagent preparation, color charts, techniques, fieldwork, field results, and a laboratory study. (CW)|

Sanderson, P. L.

1988-01-01

103

The environmental cost of water pollution in Chongqing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chongqing is a heavily polluted industrial megacity in China. We have estimated the environmental cost of water pollution in Chongqing. Limiting our inquiry to the resource cost, i.e. real resources spent or production possibilities foregone because of water pollution, our estimate equals 1.2 per cent of Chongqing gross product, with a subjective 95 per cent confidence interval of (0.9 1.5).

Chang Yongguan; Hans Martin Seip; Haakon Vennemo

2001-01-01

104

Factors Affecting Survival of Pollution Indicator Organisms in Estuarine Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies of the survival of pollution indicator organisms (coliforms, fecal coliforms, and enterococci) in untreated estuarine waters gave rates agreeing with those of other workers. In estuarine waters passed through a 0.45 micrometer membrane filter, col...

D. W. Cook R. W. Hamilton

1971-01-01

105

EFFECTIVENESS OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential water quality effects and economic implications of soil and water conservation practices (SWCPs) are identified. Method for estimating the effects of SWCPs on pollutant losses from croplands are presented. Mathematical simulation and linear programming models were u...

106

Teachers and Students Write a Curriculum on Water Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes production of a water pollution curriculum guide by co-operative effort of teachers, students, and the Federal Water Quality Administration, and provides overview of guide's contents. (AL)|

Schlesinger, William H.

1971-01-01

107

Methodology for Integral Water Pollution Assessment within Agricultural Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main economy branch in the Province of Vojvodina is agriculture, which has significantly influenced water quality of watercourses as well as groundwater. Both nonpoint and point source of pollution are present in the form of agricultural runoff from arable land and point sources from farm wastewater discharges. Pollution assessment stated by the EU Water Framework Directive requires the application

Jasna Piperski; Pavel Benka; Atila Bezdan; Atila Salvai

2010-01-01

108

Loading functions for assessment of water pollution from nonpoint sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for evaluating the quantity of water pollutants generated from nonpoint sources including agriculture, silviculture, construction, mining, runoff from urban areas and rural roads, and terrestrial disposal are developed and compiled for use in water quality planning. The loading functions, plus in some instances emission values, permit calculation of nonpoint source pollutants from available data and information. Natural background was

A. D. McElroy; S. Y. Chiu; J. W. Nebgen; A. Aleti; F. W. Bennett

1976-01-01

109

Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

Fowler, K. E. M.

110

An emergency monitoring about sudden water pollution accident in drinking water sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses some possible roles for emergency pollution accident in drinking water sources. Different procedures have been developed to measure the pollutants content of drinking water both in normal and in emergency situations, such as those arising from accidental and terrorist events. The authors analyze the primary factor of emergency pollution incident in drinking water sources and give general

Zhu Yi-Chun; Tang Min-Kang; Du Mao-an

2010-01-01

111

Toxicity and mutagenicity of waste waters from Baikalsk Pulp and Paper Mill: Evaluation of pollutant contamination in Lake Baikal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Baikal has no agricultural and only little municipal pollution. Instead a potential source of pollution is the Baikalsk Pulp and Paper Mill (BPPM). All waste waters of the mill are mechanically, biologically and chemically purified and there are sedimentation and aeration ponds at the final stage. In this study the efficiency of the waste water purification was detected by

P. Lindström-Seppä; S. Huuskonen; S. Kotelevtsev; P. Mikkelson; T. Räänen; L. Stepanova; O. Hänninen

1998-01-01

112

[Analysis of pollution levels of 16 antibiotics in the river water of Daliao River water system].  

PubMed

The detection of the pollution level of antibiotics in Daliao River system is a meaningful work. Sixteen antibiotics (6 sulfonamides, 5 fluoroquinolones, 3 tetracyclines and 2 chloramphenicols) were simultaneously quantified with solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In the SPE procedure, methanol and 2% (v/v) ammonia/methanol were used as the elution solvents in sequence to reduce the elution volume and improve the recovery. The results showed that this method have good sensitivity and enrichment effect for the target antibiotics in aqueous water, the recoveries ranged from 69.5% to 122.6%, the detection limits ranged from 0.05 ng/L to 0.32 ng/L. Thirteen antibiotics were found in the river water of Daliao River water system. Sulfa antibiotics were widely distributed, in which sulfamethoxazole was detected in all the sampling sites. The concentration of fluoroquinolones was relatively high in some sampling sites. The highest detection concentration of enoxacin was 41.3 ng/L. The frequencies and concentrations of tetracyclines and chloramphenicols were lower. In the upper reaches of the river, the concentrations of the 4 types of antibiotics appeared lower, but around the large cities such as Shenyang City, Benxi City, Liaoyang City, the concentrations showed higher levels. The study indicated that the Daliao River water system suffered from the pollution of antibiotics to a certain extent. PMID:23256376

Yang, Changqing; Wang, Longxing; Hou, Xiaohong; Chen, Jiping

2012-08-01

113

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2010-01-01

114

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and...et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

2010-10-01

115

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and...et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

2009-10-01

116

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2009-01-01

117

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923.45...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program...established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

2010-01-01

118

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923.45...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program...established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

2009-01-01

119

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2013-01-01

120

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

2013-07-01

121

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

2009-07-01

122

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The...requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

2013-01-01

123

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

2010-07-01

124

Nitric oxide air pollution: detection by optoacoustic spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide is detected by a new technique in which tunable infrared radiation from a spin-flip Raman laser is used to measure the absorption spectrumn of a gas sample by optoacoustic spectroscopy. This technique is sensitive enough to detect a concentration of 0.01 part per million of nitric oxide pollution in air samples. PMID:5087479

Kreuzer, L B; Patel, C K

1971-07-01

125

Mine water pollution in Scotland: nature, extent and preventative strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scotland was one of the world's first industrialised countries, and has therefore also been one of the first countries to experience wholesale post-industrial dereliction. Water pollution arising from abandoned mines, particularly abandoned coal mines, is second only to sewage as a source of freshwater pollution nation-wide, and in many coalfield catchments it is the pre-eminent source. Most of the pollution

P. L. Younger

2001-01-01

126

Single laboratory comparison of host-specific PCR assays for the detection of bovine fecal pollution  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are numerous PCR-based methods available to detect bovine fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each method targets a different gene and microorganism leading to differences in method performance, making it difficult to determine which approach is most suitable for field applications. We descri...

127

Single Laboratory Comparison of Host-Specific PCR Assays for the Detection of Bovine Fecal Pollution  

EPA Science Inventory

There are numerous PCR-based methods available to detect bovine fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each method targets a different gene and microorganism leading to differences in method performance, making it difficult to determine which approach is most suitable for field appl...

128

Air pollution detection using MODIS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality of the environment has a great impact on public health while air quality is a major factor that is especially relevant for respiratory diseases. PM10 (particulate matter below 10 ?) particles are among the most dangerous pollutants, which enter the lower respiratory tract and cause serious health problems. Obtaining reliable air pollution data is limited to a number of ground measuring stations and their spatial location. We used an alternative approach and created statistical models that employed remotely sensed imageries. To establish empirical relationships, we used multi-temporal (2006-2009) MODIS aerosol optical thickness data (product MOD04, Level 2) and the PM10 ground mass concentrations. The north-western part of the Czech Republic (namely the Karlovarský and the Ustecký regions) was chosen as a test site, as all the different types of cultural landscape (forest-economical, agricultural, mining, and urban) can be found within one MODIS scene. This study was focused on the various aspects as follows (i) analysis of MODIS AOT / stationary PM10 time-series trend between 2006-2009, (ii) establishing a linear relationship between PM10 and AOT values for each station and (iii) evaluation of a spatial relationship of the annual mean AE (Ångstrom Exponent) and PM10 values.

Harbula, Jan; Kopacková, Veronika

2011-10-01

129

Photocatalytic membrane reactors for degradation of organic pollutants in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different flowsheets (batch and continuous) of photocatalytic membrane reactors, to be used for degradation of organic pollutants present in water, together to some experimental results, are reported. 4-Nitrophenol (4NP) was used as a probe polluting agent and titanium dioxide in suspension was the catalyst. The photodegradation tests in the batch system were carried out without membrane changing the characteristic variables

Raffaele Molinari; Cesare Grande; Enrico Drioli; Leonardo Palmisano; Mario Schiavello

2001-01-01

130

The allocative efficiency implications of water pollution abatement cost comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessments of the efficiency of water pollution control allocations are usually based on abatement cost comparisons. The general rule is that efficiency is improved by reallocating abatement from sources with high marginal costs to low-cost sources. The welfare-theoretic foundation of this rule is well established for situations with nonstochastic emissions. In situations with stochastic emissions, pollution control involves improving the

James S. Shortle

1990-01-01

131

ALTERNATIVE POLICIES FOR CONTROLLING NONPOINT AGRICULTURAL SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This study of policies for controlling water pollution from nonpoint agricultural sources includes a survey of existing state and Federal programs, agencies, and laws directed to the control of soil erosion. Six policies representing a variety of approaches to this pollution prob...

132

POLLUTION DETECTION DOGS: PROOF OF CONCEPT  

EPA Science Inventory

Dogs have been used extensively in law enforcement and military applications to detect narcotics and explosives for over thirty years. Dogs are regularly used in arson investigations to detect accelerants since they are much more accurate at discriminating between accelerants an...

133

Mechanism of radiation purification of polluted water and wastewater.  

PubMed

The paper summarizes the results of the studies on radiation purification of polluted water and wastewater conducted in the author's laboratory in cooperation with other institutions. The removal of heavy metals (cadmium, lead, chromium and mercury) from water and wastewater, the purification of wastewater from surfactant and petroleum products, molasses distillery slops, municipal wastewater in the aerosol flow, river water from colored natural organic pollutants, wastewater of dyeing complex and paper mill, the decomposition of some dyes, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine-containing organic compounds, formic acid, etc. were investigated in detail. As a rule, electron-beam treatment in combination with ordinary methods (biological, coagulation, adsorption, flotation, etc.) was used. The main attention is paid to the mechanism of purification of the studied systems. The role of redox reactions of primary products of water radiolysis and secondary short-lived species formed from pollutants, formation of precipitates capturing the pollutants etc. is discussed. PMID:11695450

Pikaev, A K

2001-01-01

134

Recruitment and Employment of the Water Pollution Control Specialist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented are the basic principles of personnel recruitment and employment for the water pollution control field. Attention is given to determination of staffing requirements, effective planning, labor sources, affirmative action, and staffing policies. (CS)|

Sherrard, J. H.; Sherrard, F. A.

1979-01-01

135

A Philosophy of Water Pollution Control--Past and Present.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An overview of water pollution control in the U.S. is given, leading to an analysis of present policy trends. A "rational environmental program" is called for to provide economic growth and environmental quality. (MDR)|

Schroeffer, George J.

1978-01-01

136

Water Pollution Problems of the Great Lakes Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This revised edition of the water pollution study of the Great Lakes area identifies various physical problems: biological imbalance; buildup of dissolved solids; bacterial contamination; chemical contamination; and oxygen depletion. Management problems a...

1967-01-01

137

Changes in newt brain caused by zinc water-pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The zinc content of various organs of newts kept in zinc-polluted water was estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Histological examination revealed the presence of zinc-rich, unusual cells in the primordium hippocampi of chronically poisoned animals.

C. H. Taban; M. Cathieni; P. Burkard

1982-01-01

138

Air pollution detection by satellites: The transport and deposition of air pollutants over oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research is continuing towards the possible detection of air pollution by remote sensing techniques, and satellite imagery has been examined to find evidence of cross-Atlantic transport of air pollution. Pollution masses from industrial areas are often carried out over the Atlantic Ocean by tropospheric winds. However, the pollution mass is generally steered by convergent flows and fronts of extra-tropical cyclones, and wet deposition and scavenging of air pollutants within clouds occur primarily over the cold ocean, especially during the occlusion stage of a cyclone. As a result, the oceanic area from Cape Hatteras to 1500 km ENE of Newfoundland (the SW sector of the Icelandic low area) is often a 'dumping ground' (sink region) for air pollution from N America. However, a dust cloud generated by a volcanic eruption and a smoke plume from large-forest fires in western N America have been observed near the W coast of Europe. Saharan dust carried to N America by trade winds have been identified on satellite imagery. The massive smoke generation by large forest fires in Siberia is also identified in the present study. The results of research on forest fire smoke are currently being used by scientists studying the atmospheric effects of a large-scale nuclear war. It is suggested that the area between the S of Japan and the SW section of the Aleutian low is another principal sink of air pollutants and dust originating from NE Asia.

Chung, Y. S.

139

The problems of water pollution: an overview.  

PubMed

Most potentially toxic chemicals eventually find their way into waterways. The most common source of this pollution is from the air. More than 50 percent of the chemical pollution of the Great Lakes is believed to come from airborne pollutants, and the main sources of this pollution are smokestacks (energy plants, nuclear or conventional; trash-to-steam incinerators; industrial factories, chemical and wood pulp) and road traffic exhaust. Chemicals may reach waterways directly through partially filtered or untreated sewage and waterway traffic, both industrial and pleasure; or they may be deposited into the soil and reach rivers and estuaries through leakage (PCBs on cables, landfills, and regular or low-level nuclear waste) or locally from fields (fertilizers, herbicides, phosphates, and other chemicals. PMID:1560988

Lumb, G; Clare, A S

1992-03-01

140

The problems of water pollution: an overview  

SciTech Connect

Most potentially toxic chemicals eventually find their way into waterways. The most common source of this pollution is from the air. More than 50 percent of the chemical pollution of the Great Lakes is believed to come from airborne pollutants, and the main sources of this pollution are smokestacks (energy plants, nuclear or conventional; trash-to-steam incinerators; industrial factories, chemical and wood pulp) and road traffic exhaust. Chemicals may reach waterways directly through partially filtered or untreated sewage and waterway traffic, both industrial and pleasure; or they may be deposited into the soil and reach rivers and estuaries through leakage (PCBs on cables, landfills, and regular or low-level nuclear waste) or locally from fields (fertilizers, herbicides, phosphates, and other chemicals). 26 references.

Lumb, G.; Clare, A.S. (Department of Pathology, Duke University NC (United States))

1992-03-01

141

Outbreak of Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome occurred in the third week of a diarrhoea epidemic caused by water pollution in EL-Sult, Jordan. Of 30 000 people exposed to polluted water, 5000 developed diarrhoea, 74 typhoid, and 30 infectious hepatitis. Thirteen of the 16 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had been mildly affected by diarrhoea 8-24 days before the onset of peripheral neuropathy.

N A Sliman

1978-01-01

142

Water pollution in the USSR and other Eastern European countries*  

PubMed Central

The condition of water bodies and measures taken to prevent their pollution in the USSR, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Bulgaria and Romania are the main subjects of this paper. For each of these countries information is given on population and area, physical features, rain-fall and rivers, the distribution of population and industry, water supply and sewerage, the condition of surface and ground waters, the authorities and legislation concerned with the protection of water resources, and research on pollution. The author draws attention to the experience gained in these countries in the setting up of special State bodies to take charge of water resources and in classifying rivers according to the uses to which they are put, a factor which determines the regulations governing the discharge of effluent into them. A plea is also made for the convening of specialized international conferences on problems connected with the protection of European water resources from pollution.

Litvinov, N.

1962-01-01

143

Science, Pollution, and Clean Drinking Water: Choosing Between Tap Water, Bottled Water, and Home Purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focusing on the recent explosion in the use of bottled water, this article—originally written for my NASTS conference presentation—will examine the rhetoric used by the bottled water industry and home purification system providers to affect the public’s idea of clean, pure, dirty, and polluted water. Bottlers argue that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides better regulation of bottled water

Franz Foltz

1999-01-01

144

Emergency drinking water treatment during source water pollution accidents in China: origin analysis, framework and technologies.  

PubMed

China has suffered frequent source water contamination accidents in the past decade, which has resulted in severe consequences to the water supply of millions of residents. The origins of typical cases of contamination are discussed in this paper as well as the emergency response to these accidents. In general, excessive pursuit of rapid industrialization and the unreasonable location of factories are responsible for the increasing frequency of accidental pollution events. Moreover, insufficient attention to environmental protection and rudimentary emergency response capability has exacerbated the consequences of such accidents. These environmental accidents triggered or accelerated the promulgation of stricter environmental protection policy and the shift from economic development mode to a more sustainable direction, which should be regarded as the turning point of environmental protection in China. To guarantee water security, China is trying to establish a rapid and effective emergency response framework, build up the capability of early accident detection, and develop efficient technologies to remove contaminants from water. PMID:21133359

Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Chen, Chao; Lin, Peng-Fei; Hou, Ai-Xin; Niu, Zhang-Bin; Wang, Jun

2010-12-06

145

Water hyacinth as indicator of heavy metal pollution the tropics  

SciTech Connect

The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a common aquatic plant in many tropical countries. Its ability absorb nutrients and other elements from the water has made it possible to use it for water purification purposes. Eichhornia, especially stems and leaves, have been successfully used as indicators of heavy metal pollution in tropical countries. The uptake of heavy metals in this plant is stronger in the roots than in the floating shoots. Metallothionein-like compounds have been found from roots of this species after cadmium exposure. The purpose of this investigation was to study the possibilities of using roots of water hyacinth as a biological indicator of metal pollution in tropical aquatic ecosystems.

Gonzalez, H.; Otero, M. (Institute of Transport Investigations, Havana (Cuba)); Lodenius, M. (Univ. of Helsinki (Finland))

1989-12-01

146

Prioritizing hazardous pollutants in two Nigerian water supply schemes: a risk-based approach  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To rank pollutants in two Nigerian water supply schemes according to their effect on human health using a risk-based approach. Methods Hazardous pollutants in drinking-water in the study area were identified from a literature search and selected pollutants were monitored from April 2010 to December 2011 in catchments, treatment works and consumer taps. The disease burden due to each pollutant was estimated in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) using data on the pollutant’s concentration, exposure to the pollutant, the severity of its health effects and the consumer population. Findings The pollutants identified were microbial organisms, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc. All were detected in the catchments but only cadmium, cobalt, chromium, manganese and lead exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) guideline values after water treatment. Post-treatment contamination was observed. The estimated disease burden was greatest for chromium in both schemes, followed in decreasing order by cadmium, lead, manganese and cobalt. The total disease burden of all pollutants in the two schemes was 46?000 and 9500 DALYs per year or 0.14 and 0.088 DALYs per person per year, respectively, much higher than the WHO reference level of 1?×?10?6 DALYs per person per year. For each metal, the disease burden exceeded the reference level and was comparable with that due to microbial contamination reported elsewhere in Africa. Conclusion The estimated disease burden of metal contamination of two Nigerian water supply systems was high. It could best be reduced by protection of water catchment and pretreatment by electrocoagulation.

Etchie, Ayotunde T; Etchie, Tunde O; Krishnamurthi, Kannan; SaravanaDevi, S; Wate, Satish R

2013-01-01

147

Salmonella pollution in ground and surface waters. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the contamination of ground waters and surface waters by Salmonella bacteria. Articles discuss the occurence, survival, origin, and control of these bacteria in water sources including rivers, reservoirs, swimming pools, wastewater, aquifers, and ground water. Citations also address the use of Salmonella populations as biological indicators of pollution in aquatic systems. (Contains a minimum of 102 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-04-01

148

[Impact of water pollution risk in water transfer project based on fault tree analysis].  

PubMed

The methods to assess water pollution risk for medium water transfer are gradually being explored. The event-nature-proportion method was developed to evaluate the probability of the single event. Fault tree analysis on the basis of calculation on single event was employed to evaluate the extent of whole water pollution risk for the channel water body. The result indicates, that the risk of pollutants from towns and villages along the line of water transfer project to the channel water body is at high level with the probability of 0.373, which will increase pollution to the channel water body at the rate of 64.53 mg/L COD, 4.57 mg/L NH4(+) -N and 0.066 mg/L volatilization hydroxybenzene, respectively. The measurement of fault probability on the basis of proportion method is proved to be useful in assessing water pollution risk under much uncertainty. PMID:19927799

Liu, Jian-Chang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Li-Min; Li, Dai-Qing; Fan, Xiu-Ying; Deng, Hong-Bing

2009-09-15

149

Water quality . . . potential sources of pollution  

USGS Publications Warehouse

What is water quality? To most students, water quality may suggest only "clean" water for drinking, swimming, and fishing. But to the farmer or manufacturer, water quality may have an entirely different meaning. One of the most important issues concerning the quality of water is how that water will be used. Water that is perfectly fine for irrigation might not be suitable for drinking or swimming.

Vandas, Stephen; Artwork by Farrar, Frank

1996-01-01

150

Water pollution caused by tourism development in the Lijiang Ancient Town, Yunnan Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pollution caused by tourism development not only occurs in water-scarce areas but also exists in the areas where water resource is relatively abundant. In this paper, the relationship between water pollution and tourism development in the Lijiang Ancient Town was discussed because there were no industrial or agricultural pollutant sources except the tourism pollution. Meanwhile, questionnaires survey was adopted

Baoying Ning; Yuanqing He

2011-01-01

151

POLLUTION CHARACTERIZATION OF WASTE WATER OF AN INDUSTRIAL ZONE EXAMPLE OF A DAIRY WATER CLARIFICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is the estimation of the polluting load generated by domestic effluents added to those of various industries in one of the most important industrial zone in Africa. Analysis of waste water showed strong and irregular pollution which is prejudicial for the aquatic receiving medium (river, sea). This pollution is confirmed among others by COD\\/BOD ratio

Sabir Hazourli; Mounir Ziati; Louiza Boudiba; Dalila Fedaoui

2009-01-01

152

Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis with Electrochemical Detection for Monitoring Environmental Pollutants  

SciTech Connect

This invited paper reviews recent advances and the key strategies in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical detection (ECD) for separating and detecting a variety of environmental pollutants. The subjects covered include the fabrication of microfluidic chips, sample pretreatments, ECD, typical applications of microchip CE with ECD in environmental analysis, and future prospects. It is expected that microchip CE-ECD will become a powerful tool in the environmental field and will lead to the creation of truly portable devices.

Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

2006-01-15

153

Microbial pollution of water in Golbasi lake in Adiyaman, Turkey.  

PubMed

An experiment was designed to examine microbiology of water samples of Gölbasi lake and to assess the occurence of multiple antibiotic resistances in Escherichia coli from them. Total aerobic bacteria number in the lake was determined as 20x10(3) cfu ml(-1) and fecal coliforms were determined >1100 MPN/100 ml. Collected water samples from four geographically dispersed stations were screened for the E. coli and assessed for their resistance to twelve different antibiotics, which are commonly encountered in the lake. Of the total 13 E. coli isolates, 0% were susceptible to all antibiotics. All of isolates were found resistant to Penicillin (P) (100%). Among the twelve antibiotics tested, four patterns of antibiotic resistance were obtained and all of them were multiple antibiotic resistance with the number of antibiotics ranging from 2 to 5. Three isolates had beta-lactamase detected by iodometric slide test. The results indicated that persistent use of antibiotics against human diseases and other life forms may pollute the lake water and their impact on developing antibiotic resistant E. coli may be a serious threat in both health and environment. PMID:20112860

Toroglu, Emin; Toroglu, Sevil

2009-01-01

154

Gas chromatography — mass spectrometric analysis of four polluted river waters for phenolic and organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-four water samples from eleven sampling points were collected from four highly polluted rivers of northern India once in each four seasons during 1988–1989. The samples were analyzed for phenol, chlorophenols, a few bromophenols and other organics. Phenol was found to be absent in all the analyzed samples. Trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol were frequently detected. Comparatively, the Ganges river was most

Azhar A. Nomani; M. Ajmal; Shamim Ahmad

1996-01-01

155

Application of Artificial Neuro-Fuzzy Logic Inference System for Predicting the Microbiological Pollution in Fresh Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classical methods for detecting the micro biological pollution in water are based on the detection of the coliform bacteria which indicators of contamination. But to check each water supply for these contaminants would be a time-consuming job and a qualify operators. In this study, we propose a novel intelligent system which provides a detection of microbiological pollution in fresh water. The proposed system is a hierarchical integration of an Artificial Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). This method is based on the variations of the physical and chemical parameters occurred during bacteria growth. The instantaneous result obtained by the measurements of the variations of the physical and chemical parameters occurred during bacteria growth-temperature, pH, electrical potential and electrical conductivity of many varieties of water (surface water, well water, drinking water and used water) on the number Escherichia coli in water. The instantaneous result obtained by measurements of the inputs parameters of water from sensors.

Bouharati, S.; Benmahammed, K.; Harzallah, D.; El-Assaf, Y. M.

156

Identification and Control of Pollution from Salt Water Intrusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains informational guidelines for identifying and evaluating the nature and extent of pollution from salt water intrusion. The intent of these guidelines is to provide a basic framework for assessing salt water intrusion problems and their relationship to the total hydrologic system, and to provide assistance in developing…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

157

Methanobrevibacter ruminantium as an Indicator of Domesticated-Ruminant Fecal Pollution in Surface Waters?  

PubMed Central

A PCR-based assay (Mrnif) targeting the nifH gene of Methanobrevibacter ruminantium was developed to detect fecal pollution from domesticated ruminants in environmental water samples. The assay produced the expected amplification product only when the reaction mixture contained DNA extracted from M. ruminantium culture, bovine (80%), sheep (100%), and goat (75%) feces, and water samples from a bovine waste lagoon (100%) and a creek contaminated with bovine lagoon waste (100%). The assay appears to be specific and sensitive and can distinguish between domesticated- and nondomesticated-ruminant fecal pollution in environmental samples.

Ufnar, Jennifer A.; Wang, Shiao Y.; Ufnar, David F.; Ellender, R. D.

2007-01-01

158

Water Pollution Control in Metal Finishing Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A unique electrochemical reactor was used for batch treatment of metal finishing waste water. Using low DC currents, waste water containing copper, nickel or zinc, or cadmium with cyanide, and chromium could be removed successfully to meet the federal eff...

C. P. C. Poon

1978-01-01

159

Persistent organic pollutants in water and surface sediments of Taihu Lake, China and risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic pollutants, especially persistent organic pollutants were examined in the water and surface sediments of Taihu Lake, China. Both 12 water and 12 sediment samples were collected over the lake. C-18 solid-phase extraction technique was applied to extract organic pollutants in collected water samples. Soxhlet extraction procedure was used to extract organic pollutants in sediment samples. The analysis was performed

Hai Wang; Chunxia Wang; Wenzhong Wu; Zheng Mo; Zijian Wang

2003-01-01

160

DETERMINATION OF OCTANOL/WATER DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENTS, WATER SOLUBILITIES, AND SEDIMENT/WATER PARTITION COEFFICIENTS FOR HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Octanol/water distribution coefficients, water solubilities, and sediment/water partition coefficients are basic to any assessment of transport or dispersion of organic pollutants. In addition, these determinations are prerequisites for many chemical or biological process studies...

161

Water Quality and Pollution in the Hunchun Basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical properties and pollution of water resources were studied in the Hunchun basin, which is located in northeast China and borders directly North Korea and Russia along the Tumen river. Water quality was characterised according to its major constituents and geological features. Ground waters could generally be grouped into (Ca+Mg)-HCO3 type and (Ca+Mg)-(SO3+Cl) type in first and the second terrace

Nam-Chil Woo; Ji-Won Moon; Joong-Sum Won; Jeong-Sang Hahn; Xue-Yu Lin; Yong-Sheng Zhao

2000-01-01

162

An Examination of the Economic Impact of Pollution Control Upon Georgia's Water-Using Industries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study used interviews of management personnel in 28 companies and of state and Federal water pollution control officials to assess the economic impact of existing water pollution control programs upon Georgia's large water-using industries including p...

W. G. Dodson R. B. Cassell

1973-01-01

163

Spectroscopic methods for detection of impurities in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical photoluminescence spectroscopic method for detection of impurities, hazardous materials, pesticides, and pollutants in water resources, both qualitatively and quantitatively, is presented. The method is based on synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) of organic aromatic compounds, or poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and is carried out by following simultaneously their excitation and emission spectra. The full excitation emission matrix (EEM) generated in this

Natalia V. Strashnikova; Nona Papiashvili; Rivka Cohen-Luria; Shlomo Mark; Guy Shilon; Daniel Khankin; Yehoshua Kalisky; Ofra Kalisky; Abraham H. Parola

2011-01-01

164

An evaluation of free water surface wetlands as tertiary sewage water treatment of micro-pollutants.  

PubMed

Increased attention is currently directed towards potential negative effects of pharmaceuticals and other micro-pollutants discharged into the aquatic environment via municipal sewage water. A number of additional treatment technologies, such as ozonation, have therefore been suggested as promising tools for improving the removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in existing Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs). Constructed wetlands are also capable of removing a variety of micro-pollutants, including some pharmaceuticals, and could hence be a resource efficient complement to more advanced treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was therefore to increase the knowledge base concerning the potential use of constructed wetlands as a treatment step to reduce emissions of organic micro-pollutants from municipal sewage effluents. Under cold winter conditions, incoming and outgoing waters from four Swedish free water surface wetlands, operated as final treatment steps of sewage effluent from municipal STPs, were sampled and analyzed for levels of a set of 92 pharmaceuticals and 22 inorganic components as well as assessed using subchronic ecotoxicity tests with a macro-alga and a crustacean. Sixty-five pharmaceuticals were detected in the range from 1 ng L(-1) to 7.6 ?g L(-1) in incoming and outgoing waters from the four investigated wetlands. Although the sampling design used in the present study lacks the robustness of volume proportional to 24h composite samples, the average estimated removal rates ranged from 42% to 52%, which correlates to previous published values. The effects observed in the ecotoxicity tests with the macro-alga (EC(50)s in the range of 7.5-46%) and the crustacean (LOECs in the range of 11.25-90%) could not be assigned to either pharmaceutical residues or metals, but in general showed that these treatment facilities release water with a relatively low toxic potential, comparable to water that has been treated with advanced tertiary treatments. From the present study it can be concluded that constructed wetlands may provide a complementary sewage treatment option, especially where other treatment is lacking today. To fully remove micro-pollutants from sewage effluent, however, other more advanced treatment technologies are likely needed. PMID:22192709

Breitholtz, Magnus; Näslund, Maria; Stråe, Daniel; Borg, Hans; Grabic, Roman; Fick, Jerker

2011-12-20

165

Smyrna, Delaware, solves a water pollution problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following discovery by the EPA of trichloroethylene (TCE) in water samples taken from the Kent County municipal water system at Smyrna in Dec. 1977, the amount of aeration at two wells was increased to reduce TCE contamination since the contamination source could not be determined. Samples taken from an aerated water well at 77.8 and 39.7Vertical Bar3< flow showed 9.7

Joyce

1979-01-01

166

RADARSAT automatic algorithms for detecting coastal oil spill pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents work done for oil spill detection along coastal waters. Consumers are primarily interested in automatic detection of oil spills. The main objective of this study is to develop an automatic model for oil spill detection. This model includes texture analysis and two types of algorithms (Lee and Gamma). Texture analysis, such as contrast analysis, was used to

Maged Marghany

2001-01-01

167

Immediate Water Pollution Control Needs, Verdigris River Basin, Kansas and Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report focusses attention on known sources of pollution and provides a priority for action to correct existing water pollution problems and prevent future problems in the Verdigris River, an interstate stream, and its tributaries. Pollution problems ...

1967-01-01

168

Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes oil spill disasters and their environmental consequences and provides some details of the Exxon Valdez oil tanker that ran into a submerged reef on the night of March 23, 1989 and spilled eleven million gallons of oil into the waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska. The types of emissions that cause air pollution are also discussed.

169

Ground water microbiology and pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of our ground water resources and their susceptibility to contamination from anthropogenic inputs have only recently come to be appreciated. However, studies have now established the existence of an indigenous microbial community in the ground water environment that is capable of degrading many of these contaminants. By understanding how to control the factors that limit biodegradation in the

M. S. Westray; R. A. Brown; R. D. Norris

1985-01-01

170

[Sustainable operation of subsurface constructed wetland treating polluted river water].  

PubMed

Water quality, flux and temperature of polluted river in northern China fluctuate a lot in a year around, which is disadvantageous for sustainable operation of subsurface constructed wetland treating polluted river water. A pilot system of subsurface constructed wetland treating polluted river water was operated for one year to study the sustainable operation of the process. The results show that ammonia removal performance fluctuated a lot according to different seasons. At the hydraulic loading of 15 cm/d, ammonia nitrogen removal rates were above 70% in summer, however, below 30% in winter when water temperature was below 15 degrees C. Changes of water temperature had little influence on COD removal performance. In the wet season of summer, the pilot wetland system could bear a short-period flood hydraulic loading, and ammonia nitrogen and COD removal rates were 52% and 36% respectively at the hydraulic loading of 100 cm/d. The activity of soil dehydrogenase had a positive correlation with seasonal changes of temperature and pollution removal performance. PMID:17117628

Zhang, Jian; He, Miao; Shao, Wen-sheng; Hu, Hong-ying; Gao, Bao-yu

2006-09-01

171

Monitoring environmental pollutants by microchip capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection  

SciTech Connect

This is a review article. During the past decade, significant progress in the development of miniaturized microfluidic systems has Occurred due to the numerous advantages of microchip analysis. This review focuses on recent advances and the key strategies in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical detection (ECD) for separating and detecting a variety of environmental pollutants. The subjects covered include the fabrication of microfluidic chips, ECD, typical applications of microchip CE with ECD in environmental analysis, and future prospects. It is expected that microchip CE-ECD will become a powerful tool in the environmental field and will lead to the creation of truly portable devices.

Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

2006-01-15

172

Water pollution from snow removal operations  

SciTech Connect

Snow samples obtained from snow removal dump sites were analyzed to determine the level of contamination. This snow, removed from roads, highways, and parking areas, contained high levels of total solids, suspended solids, chlorides, COD, and lead. During a two year period, the mean concentrations of these five pollutants were 5080 mg/l, 1570 mg/l, 2470 mg/l, 281 mg/l, and 3.4 mg/l respectively. The high lead concentration presumably originated from automobile exhaust. Analysis performed on sediment samples from the river into which the dumped snow is pushed indicate that the lead from the snow may become trapped in the river sediment near the dump site. (1 map, 15 references, 3 tables)

Pierstorff, B.W.; Bishop, P.L.

1980-04-01

173

GIS-based source identification and apportionment of diffuse water pollution: Perfluorinated compound pollution in the Tokyo Bay basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

To efficiently reduce perfluorinated compound (PFC) pollution, it is important to have an understanding of PFC sources and their contribution to the pollution. In this study, source identification of diffuse water pollution by PFCs was conducted using a GIS-based approach. Major components of the source identification were collection of the monitoring data and preparation of the corresponding geographic information that

Yasuyuki Zushi; Shigeki Masunaga

2011-01-01

174

VOLATILIZATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS FROM WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The volatilization of organic environmental contaminants from water bodies to the atmosphere was investigated. The general aim was to elucidate the factors that control the volatilization process and develop predictive methods for calculating volatilization rates for various comp...

175

Volatilization of Organic Pollutants from Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The volatilization of organic environmental contaminants from water bodies to the atmosphere was investigated. The general aim was to elucidate the factors that control the volatilization process and develop predictive methods for calculating volatilizati...

A. Bobra D. Mackay E. Chau J. Billington W. Yang Shiu

1982-01-01

176

Organic Pollutants in Ground-Recharged Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to determine the identities of the haloforms (THMs) in ground recharged water as well as the concentrations and identities of the haloform precursors (THMPs). A second objective was the determination of these compounds in...

C. Steelink H. Bohn M. A. Mikita K. Thorn J. Hobson

1981-01-01

177

Research and Field Laboratories for Water Pollution Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the location and goals of new research and field laboratories for water pollution control. These laboratories will be in Boston, Mass.; Athens, Ga.; Ann Arbor, Mich.; Ada, Okla.; Covallis, Ore.; College, Alaska; Kingston, R.I.; and Du...

1964-01-01

178

Water pollution and habitat degradation in the Gulf of Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gulf of Thailand has been a major marine resource for Thai people for a long time. However, recent industrialization and community development have exerted considerable stress on the marine environments and provoked habitat degradation. The following pollution problems in the Gulf have been prioritized and are discussed in details: (1) Untreated municipal and industrial waste water are considered to

Voravit Cheevaporn; Piamsak Menasveta

2003-01-01

179

Storm water pollution in the urban environment of Genoa, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpoint pollution resulting from urban surface runoff is recognized as one of the major causes of quality deterioration in the receiving water bodies. In order to investigate the first flush phenomenon connected to different types of urban surfaces, two monitoring systems have been installed in the experimental catchment of Villa Cambiaso, University of Genoa (Italy), to sample separately roof and

I. Gnecco; C. Berretta; L. G. Lanza; P. La Barbera

2005-01-01

180

Optical multiple-analyte immunosensor for water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype of a portable optical immunosensor (called river analyser) has been developed. It can be applied for the monitoring of surface water quality. Antibodies carrying a fluorescent label are used for the specific recognition of pollutants, such as frequently applied pesticides. The transduction principle is based on total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF). The outstanding advantage of the river analyser

Claudia Barzen; Andreas Brecht; Guenter Gauglitz

2002-01-01

181

Water Pollution Investigation: Genesee River and Rochester Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the lower Genesse River in Monroe County, New York was conducted to investigate the impact of pollution sources, both point and non-point, on the water quality of the Genesee River. It was determined that four major point-source discharges have...

P. E. Moffa C. B. Murphy D. A. MacArthur

1975-01-01

182

Introduction to Instrumental Analysis of Water Pollutants. Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This course is designed for those requiring an introduction to instruments commonly used in water pollution analyses. Examples are: pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen meters, spectrophotometers, turbidimeters, carbon analyzer, and gas chromatographs. Students should have a basic knowledge of analytical chemistry. (CO)|

Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

183

Hydrotreating processes for catalytic abatement of water pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opportunities and problems in application of catalytic hydrotreating processes, which are presented a viable approach in the abatement of water pollutants, are discussed. Analysis of the hydrodechlorination (HDC) and hydrodenitrification (HDN) using Pd-based catalysts supported on various materials like granulated activated carbon (GAC), fibrous activated carbon cloths (ACCs) or glass fiber cloths (GFCs) studied recently in our laboratory suggests the

Yurii Matatov-Meytal; Moshe Sheintuch

2002-01-01

184

Anodic abatement of organic pollutants in water in micro reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical oxidation of oxalic acid (OA) was performed in a micro flow cell equipped with a boron doped diamond (BDD) anode. This preliminary study demonstrates that a flow cell with a micrometric distance between the cathode and the anode can be used to perform the electrochemical treatment of waters contaminated by organic pollutants in the absence of added supporting

Onofrio Scialdone; Chiara Guarisco; Alessandro Galia; Giuseppe Filardo; Giuseppe Silvestri; Christian Amatore; Catherine Sella; Laurent Thouin

2010-01-01

185

Water Pollution Problems of the Great Lakes Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The water pollution problems of the Great Lakes area are reviewed in terms of their various effects and what is being done to correct them. Problems are identified as: over-enrichment of the lakes; build-up of dissolved solids; bacterial contamination of ...

1966-01-01

186

Water Pollution, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analyzed are the reasons why present mechanisms for the control of water purity are inadequate. The control of waterborne epidemics is discussed to illustrate a problem which has been solved, then degradation of the environment is presented as an unsolved problem. Case histories are given of pollution and attempts at control in rivers, lakes,…

Berg, George G.

187

Inactive and abandoned underground mines. Water pollution prevention and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground mining operations across the United States produce a number of environmental problems. The foremost of these environmental concerns is acid discharges from inactive and abandoned underground mines that deteriorate streams, lakes and impoundments. Waters affected by mine drainage are altered both chemically and physically. This report discusses in Part I the chemistry and geographic extent of mine drainage pollution

R. L. Scott; R. M. Hays

1975-01-01

188

Industry Sector Analysis - Water Pollution Control Equipment (Chile) September 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chile has posted the highest average economic growth rate in Latin America during the past 8 years. In 1992, Chile's economy grew 9.7 percent, while unemployment fell to under 5 percent. Air, water and soil pollution are common in both industrial areas an...

I. M. Valenzuela

1994-01-01

189

Experimental Research on micro-polluted water pretreatment by utilizing electrocoagulation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Now some drinking water sources are polluted slightly. The conventional water treatment processes can no longer fulfill the requirement for micro-polluted water treatment, which poses not only a threat to human health but a challenge to traditional treatment process. This thesis has a research on micro-polluted water pretreatment effect by utilizing electrocoagulation method. The result demonstrates that, under the optimal

Yanli Li

2011-01-01

190

Diffuse Surface Water Pollution: Driving Factors for Different Geoclimatic Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantification of point and non-point losses of Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) to surface waters is currently a major\\u000a issue for the implementation of Environmental Directives, such as the Water Framework Directive in Europe. However, the drivers\\u000a behind nutrient pollution are location specific and are affected by regional hydroclimatic and geomorphological characteristics.\\u000a In this study the river basin model

Yiannis Panagopoulos; Christos Makropoulos; Maria Mimikou

191

Ferrioxalate-mediated photodegradation of organic pollutants in contaminated water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UV-visible photolysis of ferrioxalate in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (the UV-vis\\/ferrioxalate\\/H2O2 process) is investigated for the treatment of contaminated groundwater and industrial wastewater. This process generates the hydroxyl radical, which is a strong oxidant and reacts rapidly with most organic compounds present in solution. Tap water spiked with various organic pollutants, a process water containing chlorobenzene, a tank-bottom

Ali Safarzadeh-Amiri; James R. Bolton; Stephen R. Cater

1997-01-01

192

Mine water pollution in Scotland: nature, extent and preventative strategies.  

PubMed

Scotland was one of the world's first industrialised countries, and has therefore also been one of the first countries to experience wholesale post-industrial dereliction. Water pollution arising from abandoned mines, particularly abandoned coal mines, is second only to sewage as a source of freshwater pollution nation-wide, and in many coalfield catchments it is the pre-eminent source. Most of the pollution is due to net-alkaline ferruginous waters emerging from deep mines. Scrutiny of records from 80 deep mine discharges reveals that iron concentrations in these waters are only likely to exceed 20 mg/l, and the pH to be below 6.5, where the discharge emerges within 0.5 km of the outcrop of the shallowest mined seam. The bulk of mature near-outcrop mine water discharges in Scotland have < 50 mg/l total Fe, and concentrations > 100 mg/l are only likely where a marine bed lies within 25 m of the worked seam. Where the nearest marine bed is more than 80 m above or below the seam, then the total iron will be less than 4 mg/l, and in most cases less than 1 mg/l. Net-acidic mine waters are far more rare than net-alkaline waters in Scotland, and are most commonly associated with unreclaimed spoil heaps (bings). Both net-alkaline and net-acidic discharges have detrimental effects on the hydrochemistry and biological integrity of receiving waters. Scotland has recently pioneered the use of pre-emptive pump-and-treat solutions to prevent mine water pollution, and has also experienced the successful introduction of passive treatment technology for both abandoned and active workings. PMID:11227275

Younger, P L

2001-01-29

193

Application of mussels as biosamplers for characterization of faecal pollution in coastal recreational waters.  

PubMed

Sources of faecal pollution in coastal recreational waters may be identified by analysing different host associated microorganisms or molecular markers. However, the microbial targets are often present at low numbers in moderately impacted waters, and often exhibit significant temporal and spatial variability in waters with fluctuating faecal loads. This patchy occurrence can limit successful detection of relevant targets in microbial source tracking studies. In this study, we explored the possibility for using the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) as a biosampler for accumulation of faecal bacteria relevant for microbial source tracking. Non-contaminated blue mussels were transferred to three coastal recreational waters affected by faecal pollution of unknown origin. Molecular markers associated with animal and human waste were targeted by PCR and compared in seawater and mussel samples. The results demonstrated that transplanted mussels in simple enclosures accumulated and retained elevated levels of molecular markers associated with different types of faecal pollution. The targets included a novel putative human associated E. coli subgroup B2 VIII clone, and animal and human associated markers in enterococci (esp, M19, M66, M90, and M91). Human (sewage) associated markers including esp and M66 were sometimes not detectable in seawater samples despite known wastewater contamination, whereas the markers were detectable in mussels. We suggest that transplanted mussels should be considered as potential biosamplers in studies focusing on identifying source of faecal pollution in low or moderately impacted recreational waters. Bioaccumulation of molecular markers in mussels for several days may represent the water quality better than traditional grab samples from the water column. PMID:20706005

Roslev, P; Bukh, A S; Iversen, L; Sønderbo, H; Iversen, N

2010-01-01

194

Water Pollution Investigation: Duluth-Superior Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Lower St. Louis River Basin from Brookston to Lake Superior was sampled in late 1973. The resultant data were combined with historical data for verification of a water quality model--the St. Louis River Basin Model. The model was used to evaluate the ...

A. D. McElroy S. Y. Chiu

1974-01-01

195

COMBATTING WATER POLLUTION FROM LARGE OIL SPILLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public concern over major oil spills tends to center on the damage to beaches and recreational areas that has resulted from shipwrecked ocean-going tankers. The waterworks industry is more vulnerable to inland spills. Water utilities must ready themselves for quick action against such spills, which often find operators inexperienced in handling them.

George E. Ferguson

1969-01-01

196

Acrylamide encephaloneuropathy due to well water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

All five members of a family developed subacutely mental confusion and\\/or truncal ataxia. Symptoms and signs of polyneuropathy were seen later. The well water in the patients' home contained 400 ppm acrylamide. The present cases are unique in that they are cases of acrylamide poisoning induced by oral intake and percutaneous penetration, and that central nervous system symptoms were prominent.

H Igisu; I Goto; Y Kawamura; M Kato; K Izumi

1975-01-01

197

IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON WATER POLLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changing climate has implications for land use and the fate and behaviour of anthropogenic and natural chemicals particularly with respect to their interaction with the hydrological cycle. Climate change may influence mobilisation and fate of chemicals applied to land, increasing discharge to surface and groundwater. Discharge volumes of storm water containing various contaminants may also increase. The bioavailability of sediment-

Dave Sheahan

198

Faecal pollution of surface waters in Jakarta.  

PubMed

Profuse numbers of Enterobacteriaceae were found in samples of surface waters from the Ciliwung River and adjoining canals which criss-cross metropolitan Jakarta and are used widely for domestic purposes by the poorer sections of its population. 15 of the 20 specimens gres E. coli, Klebsiella were isolated from seven and Citrobacter from four. Using enrichment culture procedures, Salmonella sp. were grown from 10 (48%) of 21 water samples examined, and 12 (63%) of aquatic sediments collected at the same sites. Altogether 14 serotypes and 37 Salmonella isolations were recorded. This high degree of faecal contamination of the environment is a major cause of the immense problem of gastro-intestinal infections in that city and probably in many similar cities in developing countries in the tropics. PMID:473327

Gracey, M; Ostergaard, P; Adnan, S W; Iveson, J B

1979-01-01

199

Water Pollution Problems and Improvement Needs Lake Ontario and St. Lawrence River Basins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes the water pollution problems of the United States water of Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River and their tributaries. It identifies the causes of these problems or sources of pollution, discusses the improvements needed, and pres...

1968-01-01

200

Assessing the effectiveness of regulatory controls on farm pollution using chemical and biological indices of water quality and pollution statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality was measured in 42 streams in the Colebrooke and Upper Bann catchments in Northern Ireland over the period 1990–1998. Despite ongoing pollution control measures, biological water quality, as determined by the invertebrate average score per taxon (ASPT) index, did not improve and there was no appreciable decline in recorded farm pollution incidents. However, the lack of decline in

R. H Foy; S. D Lennox; R. V Smith

2001-01-01

201

Detection of mutagenicity in mussels and their ambient water  

SciTech Connect

Mussels provide an excellent system for monitoring marine pollutants: the system is often called mussel watch. Investigators have reported the susceptibility of this organism to petroleum hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. The authors showed the applicability of this organism to monitor oil pollutions by detecting organosulfur compounds in field samples. In the present study, they undertook the mutagen screening of mussel bodies and ambient water, and investigated the correlation between the mussel- and water-mutagenicities. Mutagenic compounds being detected here are those adsorbable to blue cotton or blue rayon and extractable with a methanol-ammonia solution, and the Ames assay was used for the detection of mutagenicity, with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 as the ester strain and with S9-mix for metabolic activation.

Kira, Shohei; Hayatsu, Hikoya; Ogata, Masana (Okayama Univ. Medical School (Japan))

1989-10-01

202

Corrosion behaviour of copper alloys in natural sea water and polluted sea water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper based alloys are frequently used in marine water systems. They have indeed an attractive price and offer interesting mechanical characteristics associated to a relatively good resistance to corrosion in sea water. Nevertheless, they can suffer from certain forms of corrosion such as localised corrosion with sulphides pollution, crevice corrosion, or stress corrosion cracking in sea water more or less

H. Le Guyader; A. M. Grolleau; V. Debout; J. L. Heuzé; J. P Pautasso

203

Assessing the importance of diffuse mine water pollution: a case study from County Durham, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the UK and Europe mine water management has, to date, focused almost exclusively on addressing point sources of pollution. However, with the introduction of the EU Water Framework Directive (2000\\/60\\/EC), there is a need to address mine water pollution from a catchment management perspective. For this reason it is necessary to investigate diffuse sources of mining pollution. This paper

204

Pollutant loads and water quality in streams of heavily populated and industrialised towns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of portable water is often taken for granted and water allowed to get polluted. Industries, settlements, farms, markets, leaking sewer lines, poor hygiene practices are all potential sources of pollution. Each pollutant has its own effect on water and the environment. A study was conducted in Kitwe Stream in order to establish whether engineering and other human activities

F. W. Ntengwe

2006-01-01

205

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2009-04-01

206

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2013-04-01

207

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2010-04-01

208

40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.145-2 Section...GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) No person...or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State...

2013-07-01

209

Bromate pollutant in ozonated bottled Zamzam water from Saudi Arabia determined by LC\\/ICP-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bromate (BrO3 ) as a human carcinogenic pollutant in bottled drinking Zamzam water from Mecca, Saudi Arabia has been determined using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC\\/ICP-MS). For analysis, samples were injected directly without any further pretreatment, using only 50 ?L injection volume. The method showed: 0.5 ?g\\/L detection limit, 1.0 ?g\\/L limit of quantification and 1.0–200.0 ?g\\/L

Seham A. Al-Ansi; Ahmed A. Othman; Mohammed A. Al-Tufail

2011-01-01

210

Interactive pollutants and joint abatement costs: Achieving water quality standards with effluent charges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier work on the standards and prices approach to pollution control is extended by considering simultaneously spatial considerations, interactive pollutants, and joint-abatement costs. The form of environmental constraints appropriate to water-pollution problems is discussed in detail, and the implications for the standards and prices approach to water-pollution control are assessed. The presence of interactive pollutants and joint-abatement costs is shown

Brian Beavis; Martin Walker

1979-01-01

211

[Feasibility of treatment of micro-pollutant water polluted by nitrobenzene with IBAC-process].  

PubMed

The performance and feasibility of immobilization biological activated carbon (IBAC) were investigated to treat micro-pollutant water containing nitrobenzene. IBAC has been developed on the granular activated carbon by immobilization of selected and acclimated species of engineering bacteria to treat the micro-pollutant water containing nitrobenzene. The IBAC removal efficiencies for nitrobenzene, permanganate index, turbidity, UV, ammonia and nitrite were compared with granular activated carbon (GAC) process. Biological toxicity of influent and effluent of filter were determined. Amount of bacteria in carbon was measured when carbon filter was inoculated and circulated stably. The results showed that compared with GAC, it took short time for IABC to startup and recover to normal after impact burden. In addition, IBAC was more effective to treat micro-pollutants. In order to ensure security of drinking water, the influent nitrobenzene should be controlled below 26 microg/L. Effluent biological toxicity treated with IBAC was less than that with GAC. The performance of IBAC was much better than that of GAC. Amount of bacteria in both activated carbon filter increased first and then declined from inlet to outlet. PMID:17891957

Wang, Chen; Ma, Fang; Shan, Dan; Yang, Ji-xian; Lan, Yuan-dong; Gao, Guo-wei

2007-07-01

212

Simulating Urban Tree Effects on Air, Water, and Heat Pollution Mitigation: iTree-Hydro Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban and suburban development changes land surface thermal, radiative, porous, and roughness properties and pollutant loading rates, with the combined effect leading to increased air, water, and heat pollution (e.g., urban heat islands). In this research we present the USDA Forest Service urban forest ecosystem and hydrology model, iTree Eco and Hydro, used to analyze how tree cover can deliver valuable ecosystem services to mitigate air, water, and heat pollution. Air pollution mitigation is simulated by dry deposition processes based on detected pollutant levels for CO, NO2, SO2, O3 and atmospheric stability and leaf area indices. Water quality mitigation is simulated with event mean concentration loading algorithms for N, P, metals, and TSS, and by green infrastructure pollutant filtering algorithms that consider flow path dispersal areas. Urban cooling considers direct shading and indirect evapotranspiration. Spatially distributed estimates of hourly tree evapotranspiration during the growing season are used to estimate human thermal comfort. Two main factors regulating evapotranspiration are soil moisture and canopy radiation. Spatial variation of soil moisture is represented by a modified urban topographic index and radiation for each tree is modified by considering aspect, slope and shade from surrounding buildings or hills. We compare the urban cooling algorithms used in iTree-Hydro with the urban canopy and land surface physics schemes used in the Weather Research and Forecasting model. We conclude by identifying biophysical feedbacks between tree-modulated air and water quality environmental services and how these may respond to urban heating and cooling. Improvements to this iTree model are intended to assist managers identify valuable tree services for urban living.

Yang, Y.; Endreny, T. A.; Nowak, D.

2011-12-01

213

Water Hyacinths for Removal of Phenols from Polluted Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Removal of phenol by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in static water was investigated. 2.75 g dry weight of this aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to absorb 100 mg of phenol per plant per 72 hours from distilled water, river wate...

B. C. Wolverton

1975-01-01

214

Single Laboratory Comparison of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays for the Detection of Human Fecal Pollution  

EPA Science Inventory

There are numerous quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods available to detect and enumerate human fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each assay employs distinct primers and/or probes and many target different genes and microorganisms leading to potential variations in method ...

215

Single Laboratory Comparison of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays for the Detection of Human Fecal Pollution - Poster  

EPA Science Inventory

There are numerous quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods available to detect and enumerate human fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each assay employs distinct primers and/or probes and many target different genes and microorganisms leading to potential variations in method p...

216

An Empirical Test of Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) on water pollution was investigated with both semiparametric and parametric models using watershed level data for the state of Louisiana, USA. The parametric model indicated the turning points within the range $10241–$12993, $6636–$13877, and $6467–$12758 for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and dissolved oxygen (DO), respectively. However, only the parameters associated with N EKC were found

Krishna P. Paudel; Hector Zapata; Dwi Susanto

2005-01-01

217

Vascular aquatic plants for mineral nutrient removal from polluted waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic plants have potential as feedstuffs in certain nations, but the economics of harvesting and processing would prohibit\\u000a their direct utilization as a forage in technologically advanced nations. However, nutrient pollution is accelerating rates\\u000a of eutrophication of natural waters in many areas. Aquatic plants produce large standing crops and accumulate large amounts\\u000a of nutrients. Systems based on the harvest of

Claude E. Boyd

1970-01-01

218

Prevention of water pollution problems in mining: The bactericide technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In pyritic environments, the bacteriaThiobacillus ferrooxidans catalyze acid formation by increasing the oxidation rate of pyrite by a factor of one million. This acid solubilizes metals\\u000a and pollutes adjacent streams and lands. Bactericide sprays during mining and waste disposal operations attack the source\\u000a of the problem by preventing acid formation and metals solubilization. Used in conjunction with current water treatment

Andrew A. Sobek; Vijay Rastogi; Donald A. Benedetti

1990-01-01

219

Managing water and pollutants in soil with electric currents  

SciTech Connect

The technique of dewatering soils with electrical currents (electroosmosis) has been known since World War II, and has been used since to desalinate water and to extract solvents and other toic organic chemicals from groundwater. However, some researchers feel that the technology can be extended to battle friction and pollution on agricultural land. In addition, work has been done on the lubricating effects of electroosmosis on drill bits and other equipment. This article describes recent work in the area.

Raloff, J.

1995-09-09

220

Diffuse pollution of surface water by pharmaceutical products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmaceutical products for humans or animals, as well as their related metabolites (degradation products) end up in the aquatic environment after use. Recent investigations from abroad show that low concentrations of pharmaceuticals are detectable in municipal waste water, surface water, groundwater and even drinking water. Little is known about the effects, and with that the risk, of long term exposure

J. G. M. Derksen; G. B. J. Rijs; R. H. Jongbloed

2004-01-01

221

Phytoremediation of Nitrogen-Polluted Water Using Water Hyacinth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic plants can be used for treating eutrophicated water in a simple and cost-effective manner, but many such plant systems remain to be characterized. The effects of growing Eichhornia crassipes on removal of nitrogen (N) from the eutrophicated water were investigated in a large-scale enclosure system installed in hyper-eutrophicated water in Hua-jia-chi pond, Hangzhou city, China. Total N concentration in

Yun Ying Fang; Xiao E Yang; Hui Qing Chang; Pei Min Pu; Xue Feng Ding; Zed Rengel

2007-01-01

222

The detection of small round-structured viruses in water and environmental materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for concentrating small round-structured viruses (SRSVs) (Norwalk-like viruses) from water and other environmental materials is described. Primers based on the helicase region of the SRSV genome were confirmed as specific by reaction with typed specimens, and used to detect virus in concentrates of unseeded and seeded samples. Virus was detected in estuarine recreational water polluted by untreated sewage,

A. P Wyn-Jones; R Pallin; C Dedoussis; Jane Shore; Jane Sellwood

2000-01-01

223

Daytime water detection based on sky reflections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robust water detection is a critical perception requirement for unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) autonomous navigation. This is particularly true in wide-open areas where water can collect in naturally occurring terrain depressions during periods of heavy precipitation and form large water bodies. One of the properties of water useful for detecting it is that its surface acts as a horizontal mirror

Arturo L. Rankin; Larry H. Matthies; Paolo Bellutta

2011-01-01

224

[Water pollution and health risks at Yaoundé, Cameroon].  

PubMed

The aim of this article consists of developing an ecosystemic approach to collect information about groundwater pollution in order to determine its origin and infer the health risks in Mingoa's watershed through the study of 12 spontaneous settlements. From an environmental point of view, family interviews and direct observations allowed us to inventory springs, wells and latrines, and to collect information. So, we have selected, on the basis of predefined criteria, 21 wells and springs for physico-chemical and bacteriological laboratory analyses. Two hundred children aged less than 5 years were subjected to KOAP examination. A number of 1224 latrines were inventoried, for an average use of 15 people per latrine, producing 913.3 kg/year of excreta. Most of 91% of people use these latrines. The superficial aquifers, connected to the wells and springs, present high values of nitrogen, phosphorous pollutant and fecal contamination indicators (coliforms and fecal streptococcus), which make water inappropriate to human consumption. PCA analysis establishes that water pollution comes mainly from traditional pit latrines. The overall prevalence of diarrhea and parasite infestation was important (=40%). The presence of cysts of Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris limbricoides, and Entamoeba coli confirms this high prevalence and testify to very approximate hygiene and environment conditions. PMID:23916209

Youmbi, Jean Ghislain Tabué; Feumba, Roger; Njitat, Valérie Tsama; de Marsily, Ghislain; Ekodeck, Georges Emmanuel

2013-07-05

225

40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water. 129.6 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS TOXIC POLLUTANT EFFLUENT STANDARDS Toxic Pollutant Effluent Standards and Prohibitions...

2013-07-01

226

An air and water pollution prevention primer for small businesses  

SciTech Connect

Pollution prevention is one of the few areas in which environmental goals and economic interests clearly coincide. Benefits include reduced costs, liabilities and regulatory burdens, and an improved environment. Minimizing the quantity and toxicity of waste also reduces the need for waste treatment operations. Because economics is one of the factors weighed when adopting pollution prevent technologies, economic analysis based on equipment's payback period is important to determine whether a system should be adopted and, if so, what equipment should be selected. Many air pollution control methods, wastewater treatment systems and sludge dewatering processes can be used for materials recovery and water reuse. Factors to consider when selecting a waste treatment system include legal limitations or effluent criteria imposed for public protection, social limitations imposed by the community in which the pollution source is or will be located, and economic limitations. The latter two factors are critical for small businesses, which typically are located in or near metropolitan areas, and often have limited financial resources. Another factor to consider is whether a waste treatment system can be designed to accommodate future expansion or operational modifications. Although small businesses tend to prefer traditional, proven environmental technologies, some new technologies can be adopted easily to reduce waste generation and costs. In addition, several relatively simple and inexpensive practices have proven successful in eliminating or minimizing wastes. These include: improving housekeeping practices; segregating wastes; changing materials purchasing and inventory control procedures; substituting less toxic materials; recycling and reusing wastes; reducing wastewater flows; changing production methods or modifying production processes; and training employees in pollution prevention.

Huang, C.S. (Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States))

1995-03-01

227

Pollution: A Selected Bibliography of U.S. Government Publications on Air, Water, and Land Pollution 1965-1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials on environmental pollution published by the various offices of the federal government are presented in this select bibliography. Limited in scope to publications on air, water, and land pollution, the document is designed to serve teachers and researchers working in the field of environmental problems who wish reference to public…

Kiraldi, Louis, Comp.; Burk, Janet L., Comp.

228

Nutrient removal from polluted river water by using constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

The Erh-Ren River is one of the most polluted rivers in Taiwan. Although its flow rate is relatively low, the rate is still beyond the capacity of any traditional water treatment facility. A pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) is the attempt used to purify the highly polluted river water and to collect data for the construction and operation of a full-scale system in the future. This article reports the results from this initial stage of our research work. During the study, the most efficient nutrient removal occurred between April and October. The monthly average removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD) ranged from 13-51% of ammonia-N (AN) from 78-100%, and of orthophosphate (OP) from 52-85%. After November, input COD levels increased, and the monthly average removal rates of ammonia-N dropped to 16% and of orthophosphate to 13%. The dramatic changes in removal efficiency suggest that the macrophytes in the CW had a direct influence on the water treatment and that the change of seasons and the quality of the river water inhibited the growth of the macrophytes. PMID:11131796

Jing, S R; Lin, Y F; Lee, D Y; Wang, T W

2001-01-01

229

In Hot Water: Thermoelectric Power and Thermal Pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of surface water for thermoelectric power plant cooling significantly impacts river water temperatures, posing risks to aquatic ecosystems. In addition, surface water temperatures in summer can exceed limits for power plant compliance with thermal effluent limitations, jeopardizing energy security during periods of peak power demand. For example, Brown's Ferry Nuclear Plant in Alabama curtailed power production by 50% for over 40 days in July-August of 2010 when river temperatures exceeded 90°F. Future increases in surface water temperatures due to climate change may further endanger energy security. This study examines summer intake and outflow water temperature data reported by power plants during peak production months across the United States to determine the impact of thermoelectric power plants on surface water temperatures in the summer. Initial results indicate that U.S. coal plants (n= 625) raised water temperatures by an average of 17°F (± 12°F) and discharged cooling water with median peak temperatures of 100°F (± 13°F) in the summer of 2005, the last year when this data was reliably reported. Further analysis will extend the time period of this study from 2000-2005 and expand the scope to various energy sources and cooling technologies. In addition, we explore regional variation to assess the relative threat that thermal pollution poses to energy security across the U.S.

Madden, N. T.

2010-12-01

230

Preliminary Exploration on Water Pollution from NonPoint Source in XiangXi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eutrophication is a worldwide pollution problem, when the point source pollution is efficiently controlled, pollution load from non-point source has the increasing proportion in the total load. Xiangxi River is selected as the research demonstration area to conduct preliminary study on non-point source pollution for frequent water bloom. Non-point source pollution factors are analyzed in Xiangxi River such as precipitation,

Song Linxu; Liu Ping

2010-01-01

231

State of the art molecular markers for fecal pollution source tracking in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most environmental waters are susceptible to fecal contamination from animal and\\/or human pollution sources. To attenuate\\u000a or eliminate such contamination, it is often critical that the pollution sources are rapidly and correctly identified. Fecal\\u000a pollution source tracking (FST) is a promising research area that aims to identify the origin(s) of fecal pollution in water.\\u000a This mini-review focuses on the potentials

Peter Roslev; Annette S. Bukh

2011-01-01

232

BTX removal from polluted water through bioleaching processes.  

PubMed

In this study, benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) removal from contaminated water by physical, chemical, and biological processes was studied. Results showed that air sparging in polluted water can reduce monoaromatic compounds from 140,000 to about 5 microg/l in only 1 h process with a gassing rate of 0.33 VVM. This method cannot be considered as a green technology as pollutants are only transferred from the liquid phase to the gas phase The ultimate objective of this research was thus to evaluate the efficiency of a strategy involving BTX adsorption by granular-activated charcoal (GAC) and subsequent regeneration of this support by a bioleaching process. Analysis of such processes requires the building of analytical tools able to accurately determine the contents of the contaminants in samples containing biomass to make possible the calculation of reliable material balances. Current investigation showed that BTX are readily trapped by GAC particles with low further release in the liquid medium whereas they remain at least partially available for in situ biodegradation. BTX adsorption onto the GAC was shown to reach maximum solute retention close to 350, 250, and 150 (as mg/g GAC) for xylenes, toluene, and benzene, respectively. This approach, which could afford efficient biological active carbon regeneration, is very promising for the removal of BTX compounds from water without any further environment damage. PMID:18427740

Farhadian, Mehrdad; Duchez, David; Vachelard, Cédric; Larroche, Christian

2008-04-22

233

A biomarker for the identification of cattle fecal pollution in water using the LTIIa toxin gene from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research describes a method based on PCR to identify cattle fecal pollution in water using a portion of the heat labile toxin IIA (LTIIa) gene from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). We describe the development of the primers and target. DNA extracts (221) from different animal fecal and human sewage samples were screened and showed no cross-reactivity. Minimum detection limits

L. A. Khatib; Y. L. Tsai; B. H. Olson

2002-01-01

234

Analysis of marine sediment, water and biota for selected organic pollutants  

SciTech Connect

The concentrations of various organic pollutants (benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were determined in samples of water, sediment and biota (flounder, killifish, shrimp, crabs, and squid) from San Luis Pass, Texas. Sediment was also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and various pesticides. Only PCP was detectable in water. In sediment, the relative concentrations were PAEs >> BaP > (PCBs approx. HCB) > PCP. In biota, BaP was not detectable in any animal; HCB was highest in crabs and PCP was highest in all others (flounder, killifish, shrimp and squid). The relative concentrations of HCB and PCP were different in the different organisms. The differences between the relative concentrations in the biota and in sediment are discussed. The results of this study are compared to values measured at other sites. This study is part of a larger effort to identify and quantitate pollutants in various Texas estuaries and to serve as a basis for monitoring marine pollution.

Murray, H.E.; Ray, L.E.; Giam, C.S.

1981-12-01

235

Detecting river pollution using fluorescence spectrophotometry: case studies from the Ouseburn, NE England.  

PubMed

Recent advances in fluorescence spectrophotometry enable the analysis of river dissolved organic matter. We investigate the potential of detecting sewage pollution in a small, urbanised catchment. Downstream sampling highlighted a summer maximum in tryptophan fluorescence intensity during low flow. No correlation is observed between ammonia and tryptophan fluorescence intensity. In contrast, two sewage related point-pollution events had both high tryptophan fluorescence intensity and ammonia, suggesting that the summer tryptophan increase does not original from foul sewage. Sewage inputs to the river were therefore monitored at summer base flow. This demonstrated that > 10% of the rivers' discharge is provided by sewerage inputs and that these inputs could be grouped by their fluorescence and ammonia properties: (1) 'clean' storm waters with low ammonia and tryptophan intensity (2) 'grey' waters with high tryptophan intensity and low ammonia concentration, and (3) 'foul' waters with high tryptophan intensity and ammonia concentration. All three types of sewerage input occurred irrespective of flow conditions,suggesting that sewerage cross connections are occurring. PMID:12683983

Baker, Andy; Inverarity, Roger; Charlton, Martin; Richmond, Susie

2003-01-01

236

Ground-water pollution from natural gas and oil production in New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas is produced throughout the central and W. part of New York State; whereas, oil production has been limited mainly to Allegheny and Cattaraugus counties. Oil production, and particularly secondary recovery by the water-flooding method, has resulted in pollution of ground- and surface-water supplies with oil and salt water. Pollution from active oil fields has been caused by separator

Crain

1970-01-01

237

The Application of Optimal Linear Regulator Theory to a Problem in Water Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, many metropolitan sewer systems do not meet existing and proposed standards on water pollution. Existing systems were designed to overflow at prescribed locations in order to protect the sewage treatment plants whenever severe overload conditions exist (usually during storms). This discharge of untreated overflows into natural receiving waters is of growing concern to water pollution control authorities. The

C. Byron Winn; John B. Moore

1973-01-01

238

Dry deposition as a major source of water pollution in Lake Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessments of the Great Lakes' water quality and chemical loadings have not considered present and future air pollution sources within the Great Lakes' water basin as water pollution contributors. Yet, according to recent estimates, aerosols from the Chicago area alone may be the main source of Lake Michigan's concentration of almost one dozen trace elements. Mesoscale circulation patterns and a

H. Sievering; C. Williams

1976-01-01

239

Ozonation and Advanced Oxidation Treatment of Emerging Organic Pollutants in Water and Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vast number of persistent organic pollutants have been found in wastewater effluent, surface water, and drinking water around the world. This indicates their ineffective removal from water and wastewater using conventional treatment technologies. In addition to classical persistent organics such as organochlorine insecticides, solvents, and polychlorinated biphenyls, a growing number of emerging pollutants of both synthetic and natural origins

Keisuke Ikehata; Mohamed Gamal El-Din; Shane A. Snyder

2008-01-01

240

Research on ground water pollution by leacheate of waste dump of open pit coal mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of investigation and research on the pollution source and pollution pathway of Yujiagou area, by the ground water\\u000a quality analysis and the leaching and soaking experiments of the gangue, reliable data were obtained. The experiment results\\u000a prove that these inorganic salt elements are easily dissolved by the water. The main pollution factors in the ground water\\u000a are

Zhi-bin Liu; Hong-kun Yan; Zhao-jun Wang

2008-01-01

241

The Neutralizing of M-alkalinity of Cooling Tower Water by Air Pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applying actual cooling tower water analyses together with air pollution and meteorological records to the theoretical equation calculating M-alkalinity of cooling tower water which is formulated in consideration of air pollution, capture efficiencies of typical air-conditioning cooling tower for each air pollutant have been estimated approximately as 25% for SO2, 30% for NO2, and 40% for NO. Using the equation, the method to establish adequate cycles of concentration of a cooling tower water is explained.

Sakai, Yasuyuki

242

The econometric assessment of losses caused by water pollution in Chongqing, southwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an important industrial city, Chongqing has experienced rapid economic growth in recent years, but at the same time the\\u000a growth has been accompanied by serious pollution problems. Water quality monitoring shows that the waters of Chongqing are\\u000a widely polluted. In this paper, the human capital approach is applied to assessing the economic losses and damages caused\\u000a by water pollution

Yang Gang; Chen Gangcai; Chang Yongguan

2004-01-01

243

Can we use the Shiga-bacteriophage as indicator for a faecal pollution of water?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary and conclusions  In an important percentage of stools of healthy persons Shiga bacteriophage occurs.The Shiga bacteriophage occurs during some lapse of time in water which has been polluted by human faeces. The Shiga bacteriophage could be ascertained in water by means of the enrichment method ofNyberg.The Shiga bacteriophage method for indicating the pollution of strongly polluted water is as sensitive

R. Abdoelrachman

1943-01-01

244

Detecting Contaminated Drinking Water: Harnessing Consumer Complaints.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on previous contamination incidents, civilian and military water supply personnel have improved their drinking water surveillance practices. One of the biggest challenges though is that no single device can detect all chemical, biological, and radio...

A. J. Whelton A. M. Dietrich G. A. Burlingame M. F. Cooney

2004-01-01

245

Operation and Maintenance of Water Pollution Control Facilities: A WPCF White Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented are the recommendations of the Water Pollution Control Federation for operation and maintenance consideration during the planning design, construction, and operation of wastewater treatment facilities. (CS)|

Hill, William R.; And Others

1979-01-01

246

Study on the innovation of China government's water crisis management based on water pollution occurred frequently  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protecting the environment and achieving water security, and taking the road of sustainable development, which is the necessary request for fulfilling the scientific outlook on development fully, and the fundamental guarantee for establishing harmonious society. We should explore a new idea of controlling pollution which can integrate the administrative measures, market forces and public participation. This paper studies the limitations

Dajin Yu

2010-01-01

247

[Method of ecological risk assessment for risk pollutants under short-term and high dose exposure in water pollution accident].  

PubMed

In recent years, water pollution accidents resulting in acute aquatic ecological risk and security issues become a research focus. However, in our country, the surface water quality standards and drinking water health standards were used to determine the safety of waters or not in pollution incidents due to lacking safety effect threshold or risk value for protection of aquatic life. In foreign countries, although predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) or risk value (R) of pollutants were provided for protection of aquatic organisms, the PNECs or risk values were derived based on long-term exposure toxicity data NOECs (no observed effect concentrations) and lack of short-term exposure risk or threshold values. For the short-term and high dose exposure in pollution incident, ecological risk assessment methods were discussed according to the procedures of the conventional ecological risk assessment and the water quality criteria establishment of the U.S. EPA for the protection of aquatic organisms in short-term exposure, and had a case study. At the same time, we provide some suggestions for the establishment of ecological risk assessment system in water pollution incidents. PMID:22295619

Lei, Bing-Li; Sun, Yan-Feng; Liu, Qian; Yu, Zhi-Qiang; Zeng, Xiang-Ying

2011-11-01

248

Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... or conduit. Tackling the more pervasive nonpoint sources - runoff from major urban areas and agricultural fields - has ... pollution. Potentially harmful chemical pollution and excess nutrient runoff remain top concerns for environmental and land managers ...

249

Electronic-nose for detecting environmental pollutants: signal processing and analog front-end design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental monitoring relies on compact, portable sensor systems capable of detecting pollutants in real-time. An integrated\\u000a chemical sensor array system is developed for detection and identification of environmental pollutants in diesel and gasoline\\u000a exhaust fumes. The system consists of a low noise floor analog front-end (AFE) followed by a signal processing stage. In this\\u000a paper, we present techniques to detect,

Hyuntae Kim; Bharatan Konnanath; Prasanna Sattigeri; Joseph Wang; Ashok Mulchandani; Nosang Myung; Marc A. Deshusses; Andreas Spanias; Bertan Bakkaloglu

250

Water pollution by Cu and Pb can adversely affect mallard embryonic development.  

PubMed

The effects of heavy metal pollutants on aquatic birds have been widely studied in ecotoxicological investigations; however, the predominant focus has been on the postnatal period of life. Limited information on the adverse effects of metals to bird eggs is available. The possible toxic effects of lead and copper were studied in mallard eggs. After the accidental severe heavy metal pollution of the Tisa river (Hungary) in March 2000, these metals were detected in the highest concentration in both the water and the sediment, reaching far beyond acceptable concentrations. Pb treatment (2.9 mg/L) significantly increased the rate of mortality after a single immersion of the eggs into polluted water for 30 min. The rate of dead embryos significantly increased after the combined exposure to Cu and Pb (0.86 and 2.9 mg/L, respectively) both in the single- (once for 30 min) and in the multiple- (10s daily during first trimester of incubation) immersion groups. It was concluded that elevated metal concentrations similar to those found in the Tisa river after the tailing dam failure may cause toxic effects (mortality and teratogenicity) upon exposure of mallard eggs. PMID:16678261

Kertész, Virág; Bakonyi, Gábor; Farkas, Beáta

2006-05-05

251

Pollutant Speciation in Water and Related Environmental Treatment Issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron scattering and complementary techniques are extremely useful in the investigation of pollutant speciation in water and aqueous environments, as is shown in this chapter for both heavy metal and organic contaminants. The use of neutron diffraction, in conjunction with isotopic substitution and difference analysis, makes it possible to study the local structure developed around ions and other species in solution and in the pore spaces of minerals such as natural clays. As illustrations, the first-order difference method is applied to the hydration of mercury in aqueous solution, and the second-order difference method is used to determine the solvation of lanthanides in clay minerals. The isotopic substitution of hydrogen for deuterium is a powerful method with which to study both the structure and the dynamics of, for example, organic pollutants. In many cases the combination of neutron and X-ray diffraction is necessary, as shown for the incorporation of arsenic into the structures of minerals such as gypsum and calcite. Finally, some general conclusions and perspectives regarding the application of neutron techniques in environmental issues are drawn.

Cuello, Gabriel J.; Román-Ross, Gabriela; Fernández-Martínez, Alejandro; Sobolev, Oleg; Charlet, Laurent; Skipper, Neal T.

252

Robust predictive modelling of water pollution using biomarker data.  

PubMed

This paper describes the methodology of building a predictive model for the purpose of marine pollution monitoring, based on low quality biomarker data. A step-by-step, systematic data analysis approach is presented, resulting in design of a purely data-driven model, able to accurately discriminate between various coastal water pollution levels. The environmental scientists often try to apply various machine learning techniques to their data without much success, mostly because of the lack of experience with different methods and required 'under the hood' knowledge. Thus this paper is a result of a collaboration between the machine learning and environmental science communities, presenting a predictive model development workflow, as well as discussing and addressing potential pitfalls and difficulties. The novelty of the modelling approach presented lays in successful application of machine learning techniques to high dimensional, incomplete biomarker data, which to our knowledge has not been done before and is the result of close collaboration between machine learning and environmental science communities. PMID:20362318

Budka, Marcin; Gabrys, Bogdan; Ravagnan, Elisa

2010-03-16

253

The Degradation of Organic Pollutants by Bubble Discharge in Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic pollutants could be degraded by using bubble discharge in water with gas aeration in the discharge reactor and more plasma can be generated in the discharge process. When pulsed high voltage was applied between electrodes with gas aerated into the reactor, it showed that bubbles were broken, which meant that breakdown took place. It could also be observed that the removal rate of phenol increased with increasing discharge voltage or pulse frequency, and with reducing initial phenol concentration or solution electric conductivity. It could remove more amount of phenol by oxygen aeration. With increasing oxygen flow rate, the removal rate increased. There was little difference with air or nitrogen aeration for phenol removal. The solution temperature after discharge increased to a great extent. However, this part of energy consumption did not contribute to the reaction, which led to a reduction in the energy utilization efficiency.

Zhu, Linan; Wang, Yongjun; Ren, Zhijun; Liu, Guifang; Kang, Kai

2013-10-01

254

A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection in a chemical factory.  

PubMed

A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection was developed. It is based on the enhanced evaporation by using solar, wind and air temperature energy and additional heat-electric energy. It consists of four parts: (1) evaporation carrier system (evaporation carrier and frame for evaporation carrier) for polluted water; (2) polluted water circulating system (pumping-spraying-collecting); (3) heating system; (4) workshop with polluted water reservoir-tanks and rainfall prevention roof. The polluted water was (heated in case necessary) sprayed to the evaporation carrier system and the water was evaporated when it moved in the space and downward along the carrier mainly by using natural (solar, wind and air temperature energy). In case, when there is no roof for the carrier system, the polluted water can be stored in the reservoirs (storage volume for about 20 days). The first 10-25 mm rainfall also need to be stored in the reservoirs to meet the state standard for discharging wastewater. The dye may be collected at the surface in the reservoir-tanks and the crystallized salt may be collected at the bottom plate. The black-color wastewater released by the factory is no more discharged to the surface water system of Taihu Lake Basin. About 2 kg dye and 200 kg industrial salt may be collected from each tone of the polluted water. The non-pollution production of dye may be realized by using this technology with environmental, economical and social benefits. PMID:11590742

Pu, J P; Pu, P M; Hu, C H; Qian, J L; Pu, J X; Hua, J K

2001-04-01

255

Farmers, Trust, and the Market Solution to Water Pollution: The Role of Social Embeddedness in Water Quality Trading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water quality trading (WQT) is a market arrangement in which a point-source water polluter pays farmers to implement conservation practices and claims the resulting benefits as credits toward meeting a pollution permit. Success rates of WQT programs nationwide are highly variable. Most of the literature on WQT is from an economic perspective…

Mariola, Matt J.

2012-01-01

256

Farmers, Trust, and the Market Solution to Water Pollution: The Role of Social Embeddedness in Water Quality Trading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Water quality trading (WQT) is a market arrangement in which a point-source water polluter pays farmers to implement conservation practices and claims the resulting benefits as credits toward meeting a pollution permit. Success rates of WQT programs nationwide are highly variable. Most of the literature on WQT is from an economic perspective…

Mariola, Matt J.

2012-01-01

257

Linking Near Real-Time Water Quality Measurements to Fecal Coliforms and Trace Organic Pollutants in Urban Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic pollutants, including pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, and estrogens are detected in urban water bodies. Effective examination of dilute organic and microbial pollutant loading rates within surface waters is currently prohibitively expensive and labor intensive. Effort is being placed on the development of improved monitoring methodologies to more accurately assess surface water quality and evaluate the effectiveness of water quality management practices. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008 a "real-time" wireless network equipped with high frequency fundamental water quality parameter sensors measured turbidity, conductivity, pH, depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen and nitrate above and below stormwater inputs at two urban stream locations. At each location one liter grab samples were concurrently collected by ISCO automatic samplers at two hour intervals for 24 hour durations during three dry periods and five rain events. Grab samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms, atrazine (agricultural herbicide), prometon (residential herbicide) and caffeine (wastewater indicator). Surrogate relationships between easy-to-measure water quality parameters and difficult-to-measure pollutants were developed, subsequently facilitating monitoring of these pollutants without the development of new, and likely costly, technologies. Additionally, comparisons were made between traditional grab sampling techniques and the "real-time" monitoring to assess the accuracy of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) calculations.

Henjum, M.; Wennen, C.; Hondzo, M.; Hozalski, R. M.; Novak, P. J.; Arnold, W. A.

2009-05-01

258

Citizens' guides to ocean and coastal law: Guide to laws regulating coastal water pollution  

SciTech Connect

The pamphlet is intended to help citizens, like those participating in water quality monitoring programs, who want to understand the complex nature of state, federal, and local laws that apply to the chief sources of coastal water pollution: point source pollution--pollution discharged from pipes which require state and federal permits; and nonpoint source pollution--generally unregulated runoff from agricultural operations and urban land uses, timber harvesting (silviculture), and construction activities. The pamphlet explains the legal standards and penalties established by coastal water quality laws so that citizens can better participate in the implementation and enforcement of these laws.

Not Available

1993-01-01

259

Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.  

PubMed

Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1). For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1) (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

Van Dijk, Tessa C; Van Staalduinen, Marja A; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P

2013-05-01

260

Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid  

PubMed Central

Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P?=?0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l?1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l?1 (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified.

Van Dijk, Tessa C.; Van Staalduinen, Marja A.; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

2013-01-01

261

Detecting river pollution using fluorescence spectrophotometry: case studies from the Ouseburn, NE England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in fluorescence spectrophotometry enable the analysis of river dissolved organic matter. We investigate the potential of detecting sewage pollution in a small, urbanised catchment. Downstream sampling highlighted a summer maximum in tryptophan fluorescence intensity during low flow. No correlation is observed between ammonia and tryptophan fluorescence intensity. In contrast, two sewage related point-pollution events had both high tryptophan

Andy Baker; Roger Inverarity; Martin Charlton; Susie Richmond

2003-01-01

262

State and Federal Interactive Relationship on Water Pollution Regulatory Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There has been a promulgation of many regulatory rules, laws, acts, and statutes at different governmental and administrative levels, especially State and Federal, aimed at controlling pollution in general and maritime pollution in particular. This paper ...

P. C. Chukobasih

1981-01-01

263

Comprehensive Water Supply, Sewerage, Solid Waste and Air Pollution Control Plans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Part One of this study, which included an inventory of Palm Beach County's water resources, water supply systems, sewerage systems, solid wastes systems, and air pollution control systems, and the legal and administrative aspects of each, was completed an...

D. B. Smith W. R. Sabis D. H. Scott

1970-01-01

264

Bacterial community composition in low-flowing river water with different sources of pollutants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pollution of water resources is a major risk to human health and water quality throughout the world. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of pollutant sources from agricultural activities, urban runoffs, and runoffs from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on bacterial communitie...

265

MINE-WATER POLLUTION OF AN HYDROLOGICAL SYSTEM DOWNWARD A FORMER METALLIC MINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mine-water pollution is a wide problem, very often studied because it is generally associated with acid sulfate waters (ASW), contamination due to dissolved pollutants (As, S, Zn, Pb…) in surface and groundwaters, to the precipitation of these potentially toxic elements in stream sediments…(Schwertmann et al., 1995; Bigham et al., 1996). In an abandoned mine of tungsten in the French Massif

Alexandra COURTIN-NOMADE; Hubert BRIL; Cécile GROSBOIS; Christophe ROUSSEL

266

Pollution loads and surface water quality in the K?z?l?rmak Basin, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study on the calculation of pollution loads and surface water quality classification was one of the most important outputs of the project on the preparation of watershed protection plans for the K?z?l?rmak Basin. For this purpose, the pollution loads for chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus (TP) were calculated. The water quality

S. Ç. Ayaz; Ö. Akta?; S. Da?l?; C. Aydöner; E. Atasoy Ayt??; L. Akça

2012-01-01

267

Health hazards due to pollution of waters along the coast of Visakhapatnam, east coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental pollution that renders waters along the coastline and beaches unsatisfactory for use by the general public has become a global health problem. This study was conducted to examine the effects of pollution of beach waters and sediment at seven selected locations receiving land drainage along a 45-km stretch of the east coast near Visakhapatnam, India. Pathogenic bacteria were identified

April Clark; Torrey Turner; K. Padma Dorothy; J. Goutham; C. Kalavati; Bettaiya Rajanna

2003-01-01

268

Discrimination of source (human or animal) of fecal pollution of water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fecal pollution is a serious environmental problem that affects many coastal and inland waters worldwide. Both human and animal fecal pollution impose risks to human health from exposure to pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. To assist authorities with the implementation of the changes suggested by more restricted legislation concerning water quality in Europe, methods are needed which can identify more

Apostolos Vantarakis

269

Characterization and source apportionment of water pollution in Jinjiang River, China.  

PubMed

Characterizing water quality and identifying potential pollution sources could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river ecosystem. In this study, fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA), pollution index (PI), principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) were combined to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal-spatial characterization and sources of water pollution with a case study of the Jinjiang River, China. Measurement data were obtained with 17 water quality variables from 20 sampling sites in the December 2010 (withered water period) and June 2011 (high flow period). FCA and PI were used to comprehensively estimate the water quality variables and compare temporal-spatial variations, respectively. Rotated PCA and receptor model (APCS-MLR) revealed potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions. Application results showed that comprehensive application of various multivariate methods were effective for water quality assessment and management. In the withered water period, most sampling sites were assessed as low or moderate pollution with characteristics pollutants of permanganate index and total nitrogen (TN), whereas 90 % sites were classified as high pollution in the high flow period with higher TN and total phosphorus. Agricultural non-point sources, industrial wastewater discharge, and domestic sewage were identified as major pollution sources. Apportionment results revealed that most variables were complicatedly influenced by industrial wastewater discharge and agricultural activities in withered water period and primarily dominated by agricultural runoff in high flow period. PMID:23737126

Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Yue, Weifeng; Song, Liuting

2013-06-05

270

The study of PAC-coagulation sedimentation-UF process for treating micro-polluted water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process of powdered activated carbon?ƒ PAC?? - coagulation sedimentation - Ultrafiltration?ƒ UF ?? was used to investigate the effect of removing organic matter in micro- polluted water. The results showed that the PAC-coagulation sedimentation - UF combined process could remove effectively dissolved organic matter in micro-polluted water. After pre- dosing 15mg \\/ L PAC, the whole removal of CODMn,

Tao Lin; Liang Li; Wei Chen

2011-01-01

271

Managing Beach Amenities to Reduce Exposure to Coastal Hazards: Storm Water Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite posted warnings and educational campaigns warning about the health risks associated with storm water pollution, swimmers continue to swim in coastal areas polluted by storm water run-off. This study uses a simple spatial model of beach visitation to show how beach amenities and storm drains influence the way in which beach goers choose to locate themselves at beaches in

Linwood Pendleton

2001-01-01

272

Oil-spill cleanup fulfills aim of Federal Water Pollution Control Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decision in Union Petroleum Corp. v. United States reaffirms the Federal judiciary's commitment to control water pollution under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Those in charge of oil terminals who have taken reasonable precautions to prevent vandalism and oil spills into navigable rivers will be reimbursed when vandals spill oil from tank cars parked at the terminal. Awarding

1982-01-01

273

Water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the studies of water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. Citations examine the development, management, and protection of estuary and coastal resources. Topics include pollution sources, environmental monitoring, water chemistry, eutrophication, models, land use, government policy, and laws and regulations. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-02-01

274

9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Adulteration of product by polluted water...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...PRODUCTS General § 318.14 Adulteration of product by polluted water...Poultry Inspection Program, Food Safety and Inspection...

2009-01-01

275

9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Adulteration of product by polluted water...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...PRODUCTS General § 318.14 Adulteration of product by polluted water...Poultry Inspection Program, Food Safety and Inspection...

2013-01-01

276

9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Adulteration of product by polluted water...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...Requirements § 381.151 Adulteration of product by polluted water...Poultry Inspection Program, Food Safety and Inspection...

2013-01-01

277

9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Adulteration of product by polluted water...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...Requirements § 381.151 Adulteration of product by polluted water...Poultry Inspection Program, Food Safety and Inspection...

2010-01-01

278

Ocean pollution detection: Dioxins, PCBs, and polycyclic aromatics. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection and monitoring of dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polycyclic aromatics as pollutants in the ocean. The citations examine the development of analytical methods for determining bioaccumulation factors for these substances and for measuring their concentrations in seawater and marine sediments. Factors which influence the degree of pollution of marine ecosystems, rates at which pollution declines, and the use of existing contamination levels to predict the severity of future pollution by organic substances are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 73 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-09-01

279

GIS-based source identification and apportionment of diffuse water pollution: perfluorinated compound pollution in the Tokyo Bay basin.  

PubMed

To efficiently reduce perfluorinated compound (PFC) pollution, it is important to have an understanding of PFC sources and their contribution to the pollution. In this study, source identification of diffuse water pollution by PFCs was conducted using a GIS-based approach. Major components of the source identification were collection of the monitoring data and preparation of the corresponding geographic information that was extracted from a constructed GIS database. The spatially distributed pollution factors were then explored by multiple linear regression analysis, after which they were visually expressed using GIS. Among the 35 PFC homologues measured in a survey of the Tokyo Bay basin, 18 homologues were analyzed. Pollution by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was explained well by the percentage of arterial traffic area in the basin, and the 84% variance of the measured PFOS concentration was explained by two geographic variables, arterial traffic area and population. Source apportionment between point and nonpoint sources was conducted based on the results of the analysis. The contribution of PFOS from nonpoint sources was comparable to that from point sources in several major rivers flowing into Tokyo Bay. Source identification and apportionment using the GIS-based approach was shown to be effective, especially for ubiquitous types of pollution, such as PFC pollution. PMID:21885084

Zushi, Yasuyuki; Masunaga, Shigeki

2011-08-31

280

A trading-ratio system for trading water pollution discharge permits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fact that water flows to the lowest level uni-directionally is a very specific and useful property of water. By utilizing this property, we design a trading-ratio system (TRS) of tradable discharge permits for water pollution control. Such a trading-ratio system has three main characteristics: (1) the zonal effluent cap is set by taking into account the water pollutant loads

Ming-Feng Hung; Daigee Shaw

2005-01-01

281

INFLUENCE OF DIET ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BOVINE FECAL POLLUTION DETECTION METHODS AND MICROBIAL POPULATION STRUCTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT Background and Aims. Waterborne diseases originating from bovine fecal material are a significant public health issue. Ensuring water quality requires the use of methods that can consistently identify pollution across a broad range of management practices. One practi...

282

Water Source Pollution and Disease Diagnosis in a Nigerian Rural Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Samples from five water sources (spring, borehole, pond, stream, and well) in rural Nigerian communities were tested. Results include source reliabilities in terms of water quality and quantity, pollution effects upon water quality, epidemiological effects related to water quantity and waste disposal, and impact of water quality improvement upon…

Sangodoyin, A. Y.

1991-01-01

283

Water Source Pollution and Disease Diagnosis in a Nigerian Rural Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Samples from five water sources (spring, borehole, pond, stream, and well) in rural Nigerian communities were tested. Results include source reliabilities in terms of water quality and quantity, pollution effects upon water quality, epidemiological effects related to water quantity and waste disposal, and impact of water quality improvement upon…

Sangodoyin, A. Y.

1991-01-01

284

BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSES FOR DETECTION AND ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTION IN THE SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Selected biochemical analysis techniques were investigated for potential use in detecting and assessing pollution of subsurface environments. Procedures for determining protein, nucleic acids, organic phosphate, lipopolysaccharides, and various coenzymes and enzyme systems were e...

285

Species Identification of Airborne Molds and Its Significance for the Detection of Indoor Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to investigate species composition and prevalence of culturable particles of airborne fungi in 27 homes in Toronto, Canada. Its major objective is to examine the significance of species identification for the detection of indoor pollution.

A. Fradkin; R. S. Tobin; S. M. Tarlo; M. Tucic-Porretta; D. Malloch

1987-01-01

286

'GIARDIA' DETECTION IN WATER SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

A method has been developed combining immunofluorescence and phase-contrast to microscopically locate and identify Giardia cysts among particulates filtered from water samples. Selective staining of cysts with anti-Giardia antiserum and a fluorochrom enhances the contrast between...

287

Spectroscopic methods for detection of impurities in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical photoluminescence spectroscopic method for detection of impurities, hazardous materials, pesticides, and pollutants in water resources, both qualitatively and quantitatively, is presented. The method is based on synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) of organic aromatic compounds, or poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and is carried out by following simultaneously their excitation and emission spectra. The full excitation emission matrix (EEM) generated in this way provides a 2-D and 3-D fluorescence map of the tested sample and the diagonals through the axes origin provide the synchronous fluorescence spectra at a constant wavelengths differences between the emission and excitation wavelengths, thus enabling multitude components identification. This map contains all the relevant spectroscopic information of the tested sample, and serves as a unique "fingerprint" with a very specific and accurate identification. When compared with pre-determined spectra and calibration curves from a "databank", there is a one-toone correspondence between the image and the specific compound, and it can be identified accurately both qualitatively and quantitatively. This method offers several significant advantages, and it provides a sensitive (ppm detection level), accurate and simple spectroscopic tool to monitor impurities and pollutants in water. The design and performance of the spectrofluorimeter prototype, as well as the software development and analysis of chemical organic compounds and mixtures in water will be discussed in this paper.

Strashnikova, Natalia V.; Papiashvili, Nona; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Mark, Shlomo; Shilon, Guy; Khankin, Daniel; Kalisky, Yehoshua; Kalisky, Ofra; Parola, Abraham H.

2011-10-01

288

[Total water pollution load determining on Tianxi catchment area in Shenyang city].  

PubMed

This paper analysed and determined the total water pollution load of Tianxi catchment area in Shenyang city systematically; by giving the reliability measurement to the total pollution load, put forward the suggestions to improve the system information reliability. It was found that to strengthen monitoring and investigation for the pumping station is of great advantage to control the pollutants of heavy metals, moreover, by adding monitoring to the Huanglatuozi section of Xi river, not only can the pollution load be identified clearly but also organic pollutants can be controlled more accurately and timely. PMID:11507903

Yang, Y; Fu, G

2001-05-01

289

Water-Particle Distribution of Hydrophobic Micro Pollutants in Storm Water Runoff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorptive behaviors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as other classes of hydrophobic pollutants (i.e., n-alkanes and linear alkylbenzenes: LABs) were investigated for street runoff and for particle-size segregated river water samples. PAHs, except for 3-ring aromatics, were mostly transported with particles >1.2?m. In all the environmental samples PAHs were more hydrophobic than expected from their Kow; whereas vigorous

Hidetoshi Kumata; Kouji Masuda; Junya Yamada; Hideshige Takada

2000-01-01

290

Removal of some heavy metals from polluted water by water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water hyacinth(Eichhornia crassipes.(Mart.) Solms) grows abunduntly throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world (PENFOUND & EARLE 1948), and is also widely distributed in the southwest regions in Japan(UEKl et ai.1976). Recently, this plant has received attention because of its potential for removal of pollutants when utilized as a biological filtration system(WOLVERTON ~t al. 1978). There are many reports

S. Muramoto; Y. Oki

1983-01-01

291

Deposition of air pollutants to the great waters. First report to Congress  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Great Waters program is to evaluate the atmospheric deposition of air pollutants to the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, Chesapeake Bay, and coastal waters. The report to Congress is to include information on the contribution of atmospheric deposition to pollutant loadings, the environmental or public health effects of such pollution, the source or sources of such pollution, and a description of any regulatory revisions under applicable Federal laws that may be necessary to assure protection of human health and the environment. The scientific information currently available is summarized in this report, and recommended actions are described.

Not Available

1994-05-01

292

Paying for Pollution: Water Quality and Effluent Charges. Proceedings from a Conference (Chicago, Illinois, May 19, 1977).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication gives the proceedings from a 1977 conference sponsored by the Conservation Foundation. Participants discuss the appropriate means to control water pollution, emphasizing the use of effluent charges as economic incentive for polluters to clean up their waters. (MA)|

Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC.

293

The water quality and pollution character in QingShuiHai lake valley-typical urban drinking water sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water Pollution sources dissection has important guiding significance for drinking water sources protection. Focused on QingShuiHai valley, the research investigated water quality by uniform distribution sampling in the area in 2007?? 2008,and analyzed pollution sources characteristics. The results showed that the concentration of Total Nitrogen (TN )(0.15-7.99 mg L -1 )w as 0.3 ~ 15.98 times higher than the national

Changliang Yang; Xiaoju Wang

2011-01-01

294

Frequency Multiplexed Water Leak Detection System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to an active leak detector which uses frequency multiplexing to indicate the location of water leaks. The circuit is composed of any number of satellite leak detectors and a master indicator circuit which monitors all detect...

F. E. Hinkle

1976-01-01

295

EFFECT OF COLLISIONAL LIFETIME IN OPTOACOUSTIC DETECTION OF POLLUTANT GASES  

EPA Science Inventory

The optoacoustic technique shows promise for pollution monitoring due to its small size and high sensitivity. This technique is fundamentally different from most spectroscopy in that absorbed energy is measured indirectly as a pressure change in the surrounding gas. Not all the a...

296

Emerging pollutants in sewage, surface and drinking water in Galicia (NW Spain).  

PubMed

A monitoring programme was carried out on wastewater, surface and drinking water on the NW area of Spain during the four seasons of a year period (November 2007-September 2008). This study covered a series of emerging pollutants of different classes, including pharmaceuticals, neutral and acidic organophosphorus flame retardant/plasticizers (OPs), triclosan, phenoxy-herbicides, insect repellents and UV filters. From the total set of 53 compounds, 19 were found in raw wastewater with median concentrations higher than 0.1 ?g L(-1). Among them, salicylic acid, ibuprofen and the UV filter benzophenone-4 (BP-4) were the most concentrated, exceeding the 1 ?g L(-1) median value. Subsequently, 11 of these contaminants are not efficiently enough removed in the small WWTPs tested and their median concentrations in effluents still surpassed the 0.1 ?g L(-1), so that they can spread through surface water. These chemicals are the pharmaceuticals naproxen, diclofenac and atenolol; the OPs tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tri(chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP), tri-n-butyl phosphate (TnBP), diphenyl phosphate (DPhP) and diethylhexyl phosphate (DEHP); and the sulphonate UV filters BP-4 and 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulphonic acid (PBSA). These OPs were then the dominant emerging pollutants occurring in surface and drinking water, where they are detected in the 20-200 ng L(-1) range. Pharmaceuticals and UV filters are typically below the 10 ng L(-1) level. Finally, herbicides were only detected in the last sampling campaign under the 100 ng L(-1) drinking water European Union limit. PMID:22189380

Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; Concha-Graña, Estefanía; López-Mahía, Purificación; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío

2011-12-20

297

Non-isothermal bioreactors in enzymatic remediation of waters polluted by endocrine disruptors: BPA as a model of pollutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioremediation of waters polluted by Bisphenol A, taken as a model for endocrine disruptors, has been pursued by means of catalytic membranes in bioreactors operating under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was immobilized on nylon membranes grafted with Glycidyl Methacrylate and using Phenylendiamine as spacer. The behaviour of the catalytic membrane was studied as a function

N. Diano; V. Grano; L. Fraconte; P. Caputo; A. Ricupito; A. Attanasio; M. Bianco; U. Bencivenga; S. Rossi; I. Manco; L. Mita; G. Del Pozzo; D. G. Mita

2007-01-01

298

Quantifying benefits of pollution control: benefits of controlling air and water pollution from energy production and use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to quantify the benefits of controlling air and water pollution arising from the production and consumption of energy are discussed. Methods for evaluating benefits, intended primarily as instructional to members of the Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission staff involved in evaluating the benefits of environmental controls in California, are presented. One distinctive aspect of the report is its

W. E. Westman; W. D. Conn

1976-01-01

299

Treatment and recycling facilities of highly polluted water-based paint wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study presented focuses on treatment and recycling facilities of highly polluted water-based paint wastewater from electronics industry, using coagulation-flocculation, Fenton’s oxidation and membrane processes. The treated water is sought after for recycling purposes within the painting unit and the water quality is negligible except suspended solids. The wastewater used in this study was characterized as highly polluted wastewater with

Mairambek Mamadiev; Gulsum Yilmaz

2011-01-01

300

Influence of Pre-Ozonation on Coagulation of Micro-Polluted Surface Water from Yellow River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although ozone was widely used before coagulation in water treatment, the influence of pre-ozonation on the coagulation for removal of particle and natural organic matter (NOM) from micro-polluted surface water is still unclear. A pilot investigation of the influence of pre-ozonation on coagulation of the micro-polluted surface water from Queshan reservoir which derived from Yellow River was carried out in

Honglan Li; Kefeng Zhang; Yonglei Wang

2008-01-01

301

Treatment of micro-polluted river water by using integrated horizontal-flow constructed wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The micro-polluted river water was treated by using integrated horizontal-flow constructed wetland. The micro- polluted river water was mixed up by effluent from wastewater treatment plant in west of Changchun City and Leijia river water. The experimental results show that integrated horizontal-flow constructed wetland has better treatment effect on COD, TP, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate nitrogen. Meanwhile, the average removal

Zhigang Zhao; Yongxiang Zhang; Feng Yan; Chonggang Yuan

2011-01-01

302

Pollution of the Black Sea coastal waters: Sources, present-day level, annual variability  

SciTech Connect

Results of regular (for the last 10 years) observations at marine and coastal hydrometeorological posts are analyzed. These are observations of volumes and concentrations of pollutants entering the sea with the flow of the Danube and Dnieper rivers and wastewaters of coastal industrial enterprises, as a result of oil spills caused by ship accidents, pipeline damage, and sea shipping. An integral criterion used to estimate the overall specific anthropogenic load of pollutants in the coastal zone is calculated. The pollutants were compared with regard to their overall specific load, taking into account the percentage of each of them. A water pollution index is calculated for 19 regions of the sea; water quality is evaluated for three types of pollutants and oxygen content. Pollution structure is revealed, physical and dynamic causes of its changes are investigated.

Fashchuk, D.Ya.; Shaporenko, S.I. [Institute of Geography, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-05-01

303

23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are included in...

2013-04-01

304

Pollutant dispersion modelling for Portuguese river water uses protection linked to tracer dye experimental data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical models are well known as useful tools for water management practices, directly or i ndirectly related to the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in European countries. They can be applied to solve or understand either simple water quality problems or complex water management problems of trans-boundary rivers or multiple-purpose and stratified reservoirs. Accidental spills of pollutants are

A. L. S. DUARTE; RUI A. R. BOAVENTURA

2008-01-01

305

Tourism Development and Water Pollution: Case Study in Lijiang Ancient Town  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tourism development results in water pollution not only in water-scarce areas, but also in areas with relatively abundant water resources, such as Lijiang Ancient Town (LAT). In this article, LAT is described for its use of the freshwater resource, on account of its attractive landscaping. Tourism here has grown rapidly in recent years and at the same time the water

Ning Baoying; He Yuanqing

2007-01-01

306

Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: Progresses and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental pollution affects the quality of pedosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Great efforts\\u000a have been made in the last two decades to reduce pollution sources and remedy the polluted soil and water resources. Phytoremediation,\\u000a being more cost-effective and fewer side effects than physical and chemical approaches, has gained increasing popularity in\\u000a both academic and practical circles. More than 400

Mohammad Iqbal Lone; Zhen-li He; Peter J. Stoffella; Xiao-e Yang

2008-01-01

307

Storm water pollutant removal performance of compost filter socks.  

PubMed

In 2005, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Menu of Best Management Practices (BMPs) listed compost filter socks (FS) as an approved BMP for controlling sediment in storm runoff on construction sites. The objectives of this study were to determine if FS with or without the addition of a flocculation agent to the FS system can significantly remove (i) suspended clay and silt particulates, (ii) ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)-N) and nitrate-nitrite nitrogen (NO(3)-N), (iii) fecal bacteria, (iv) heavy metals, and (v) petroleum hydrocarbons from storm water runoff. Five separate (I-V) 30-min simulated rainfall-runoff events were applied to soil chambers packed with Hartboro silt loam (fine-loamy, mixed, active, nonacid, mesic fluvaquentic Endoaquepts) or a 6-mm concrete veneer on a 10% slope, and all runoff was collected and analyzed for hydraulic flow rate, volume, pollutant concentrations, pollutant loads, and removal efficiencies. In corresponding experiments, runoff was analyzed for (i) size of sediment particles, (ii) NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N, (iii) total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli, (iv) Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, and (v) gasoline, diesel, and motor oil, respectively. Results showed that: (i) FS removed 65% and 66% of clay (<0.002 mm) and silt (0.002-0.05 mm), respectively; (ii) FS removed 17%, and 11% of NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N, respectively and when NitroLoxx was added to the FS, removal of NH(4)-N load increased to 27%; (iii) total coliform and E. coli removal efficiencies were 74 and 75%, respectively, however, when BactoLoxx was added, removal efficiency increased to 87 and 99% for TC and 89 and 99% for E. coli, respectively; (iv) FS removal efficiency for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn ranged from 37 to 72%, and, when MetalLoxx was added, removal efficiency ranged from 47 to 74%; and (v) FS removal efficiency for the three petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 43 to 99% and the addition of PetroLoxx increased motor oil and gasoline removal efficiency in the FS system. PMID:19398521

Faucette, L B; Cardoso-Gendreau, F A; Codling, E; Sadeghi, A M; Pachepsky, Y A; Shelton, D R

2009-04-27

308

Water pollutant fingerprinting tracks recent industrial transfer from coastal to inland China: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, China's developed regions have transferred industries to undeveloped regions. Large numbers of unlicensed or unregistered enterprises are widespread in these undeveloped regions and they are subject to minimal regulation. Current methods for tracing industrial transfers in these areas, based on enterprise registration information or economic surveys, do not work. We have developed an analytical framework combining water fingerprinting and evolutionary analysis to trace the pollution transfer features between water sources. We collected samples in Eastern China (industrial export) and Central China (industrial acceptance) separately from two water systems. Based on the water pollutant fingerprints and evolutionary trees, we traced the pollution transfer associated with industrial transfer between the two areas. The results are consistent with four episodes of industrial transfers over the past decade. Our results also show likely types of the transferred industries - electronics, plastics, and biomedicines - that contribute to the water pollution transfer.

Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Tian, Dajun; Jiang, Songhui; Andersen, Melvin E.; He, Genhsjeng; Crabbe, M. James C.; Zheng, Yuxin; Zhong, Yang; Qu, Weidong

2013-01-01

309

Water pollutant fingerprinting tracks recent industrial transfer from coastal to inland China: a case study.  

PubMed

In recent years, China's developed regions have transferred industries to undeveloped regions. Large numbers of unlicensed or unregistered enterprises are widespread in these undeveloped regions and they are subject to minimal regulation. Current methods for tracing industrial transfers in these areas, based on enterprise registration information or economic surveys, do not work. We have developed an analytical framework combining water fingerprinting and evolutionary analysis to trace the pollution transfer features between water sources. We collected samples in Eastern China (industrial export) and Central China (industrial acceptance) separately from two water systems. Based on the water pollutant fingerprints and evolutionary trees, we traced the pollution transfer associated with industrial transfer between the two areas. The results are consistent with four episodes of industrial transfers over the past decade. Our results also show likely types of the transferred industries - electronics, plastics, and biomedicines - that contribute to the water pollution transfer. PMID:23301152

Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Tian, Dajun; Jiang, Songhui; Andersen, Melvin E; He, Genhsjeng; Crabbe, M James C; Zheng, Yuxin; Zhong, Yang; Qu, Weidong

2013-01-07

310

Oil Palm Biomass–Based Adsorbents for the Removal of Water Pollutants—A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a review on the role of oil palm biomass (trunks, fronds, leaves, empty fruit bunches, shells, etc.) as adsorbents in the removal of water pollutants such as acid and basic dyes, heavy metals, phenolic compounds, various gaseous pollutants, and so on. Numerous studies on adsorption properties of various low-cost adsorbents, such as agricultural wastes and its based

TANWEER AHMAD; MOHD RAFATULLAH; ARNIZA GHAZALI; OTHMAN SULAIMAN; ROKIAH HASHIM

2011-01-01

311

Use of CV and TPP-montmorillonite for the removal of priority pollutants from water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term “priority pollutants” is used to define chemicals hazardous to aquatic life or human health. Thus, it is essential to remove such pollutants from water and try to reduce their impact. Clay minerals might be helpful in the removal of hazardous chemicals, due to impressive adsorption properties. Natural clay minerals adsorb cations and non-charged hydrophilic compounds, but almost do

Giora Rytwo; Ynon Kohavi; Ilan Botnick; Yotam Gonen

2007-01-01

312

An Instructors Guide to Water Pollution. Test Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems, No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is one of several study guides on contemporary problems produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science with support of the National Science Foundation. This study guide on water pollution includes the following units: (1) Overview of World Pollution; (2) History, Definition, Criteria; (3) Ecosystem Theory; (4) Biological…

Kidd, David E.

313

Water pollution abatement by Chinese industry: cost estimates and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factory-level data are used to estimate water pollution abatement costs for Chinese industry. Joint abatement cost functions are utilized which relate total costs to treatment volume and the simultaneous effect of reductions in suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand and other pollutants. Tests of alternative functional forms suggest that a very simple (constant elasticity) model fits the data

Susmita Dasgupta; Mainul Huq; David Wheeler; Chonghua Zhang

2001-01-01

314

Diversity as a measure of benthic macroinvertebrate community response to water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assumption that water pollution causes a depression in the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates as measured by the Shannon index and similar diversity indices is questioned. An interpretation of the community response of benthic macroinvertebrates to pollution in the Millers River, Massachusetts is developed from species presence-absence and abundance data in conjunction with published information on the species' environmental tolerances

Paul J. Godfrey

1978-01-01

315

Coal mine water pollution legal and regulatory issues: a survey. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Illinois Mine Related Pollution Task Force is a joint activity of the Illinois Coal Association and the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. The Task Force's activities are coordinated by the Illinois Institute of Natural Resources. The Task Force decided that the achievement of their goal would be furthered by surveying rules and regulations governing mine related water pollution in other

1978-01-01

316

Water tank studies of atmospheric boundary layer structure and air pollution transport in upslope flow systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heated mountain slopes sometimes vent air pollutants out of the boundary layer over the slope top and at other times trap pollutants in closed circulations. Field, numerical, and water tank studies of fair weather atmospheric conditions over complex terrain have shown more complicated vertical distributions of temperature, moisture, and aerosols than over horizontal terrain. To study these phenomena, we analyze

C. Reuten; D. G. Steyn; S. E. Allen

2007-01-01

317

Use of plant material for the decontamination of water polluted with phenols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant materials were found useful in the decontamination of water polluted with phenolic compounds. The detoxification effect was due to peroxidases contained in the plant tissue. The enzymes mediated oxidative coupling of the pollutants, followed by precipitation of the formed polymers from the aqueous phase. An industrial wastewater contaminated with 2,4-dichlorophenol (up to 850 ppm) and other chlorinated phenols was

Jerzy Dec; Jean-Marc Bollag

1994-01-01

318

Assessing Time Series Data For Risk Quantification Of Environmental Water Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The various steps to be undertaken for a comprehensive application of engineering risk assessment to coastal pollution and chemical contamination problems are first summarized in this paper. These are (a) identification of hazards (b) uncertainty analysis and (c) risk quantification. Methods and tools to be used in environmental water pollution problems such as uncertainty analysis and frequency assessment of time

Jacques Ganoulis

319

Removal of persistent organic pollutants from micro-polluted drinking water by triolein embedded absorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new biomimetic absorbent, cellulose acetate (CA) embedded with triolein (CA-triolein), was prepared and applied for the removal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from micro-polluted aqueous solution. The comparison of CA-triolein, CA and granular activated carbon (GAC) for dieldrin removal was investigated. Results showed that CA-triolein absorbent gave a lowest residual concentration after 24h although GAC had high removal rate

Huijuan Liu; Jia Ru; Jiuhui Qu; Ruihua Dai; Zijian Wang; Chun Hu

2009-01-01

320

Heavy metal pollution in farmland irrigated with river water near a steel plant—magnetic and geochemical signature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of heavy metals (HMs) in the environment is a major threat for humans. Magnetic proxies provide a rapid method for assessing the degree of HM pollution in environment. We have studied farmland soil irrigated with polluted river water in the vicinity of a steel plant in Loudi city (Hunan Province, China) to test the efficiency of magnetic methods for detecting the degree of HM pollution. Both magnetic and non-magnetic (microscopic, chemical and statistical) methods were used to characterize these farmland soils. Enhanced magnetic concentration values were found in the upper arable soil horizon (0-20 cm), which is related to the presence of spherical ˜10 to 30 ?m sized magnetite particles. The spatial distribution of magnetic concentration and HM contents in the farmland soils matches with the spatial pattern of these parameters in river sediments. These findings provide evidence that HM pollution of the farmland soil is mainly caused by irrigation with wastewater. HMs Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Co, Ni, V are well correlate with magnetic susceptibility (?). The pollution load index (PLI) of all nine anthropogenic HMs (including also Cr and Mo) and log10(?) are significantly correlated. Using the resulting linear PLI-log10(?) function, values of ? can serve as a convenient tool for semi-quantifying the degree of HM pollution in the uppermost ˜20 cm of the studied farmland soils. These findings suggest that magnetic methods can generally serve as a convenient tool for detecting and mapping HM pollution in farmland soil irrigated with wastewater from sites nearby heavy industrial activities.

Zhang, Chunxia; Appel, Erwin; Qiao, Qingqing

2013-03-01

321

Transport of sludge-derived organic pollutants to deep-sea sediments at deep water dump site 106  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), coprostanol and epi-coprostanol, were detected in sediment trap and bottom sediment samples at the Deep Water Dump Site 106 located 185 km off the coast of New Jersey, in water depths from 2400 to 2900 m. These findings clearly indicate that organic pollutants derived from dumped sludge are transported through the water column and have accumulated on the deep-sea floor. No significant difference in LABs isomeric composition was observed among sludge and samples, indicating little environmental biodegradation of these compounds. LABs and coprostanol have penetrated down to a depth of 6 cm in sediment, indicating the mixing of these compounds by biological and physical processes. Also, in artificially resuspended surface sediments, high concentrations of LABs and coprostanols were detected, implying that sewage-derived organic pollutants initially deposited on the deep-sea floor can be further dispersed by resuspension and transport processes. Small but significant amounts of coprostanol were detected in the sediment from a control site at which no LABs were detected. The coprostanol is probably derived from feces of marine mammals and sea birds and/or from microbial or geochemical transformations of cholesterol. Polcyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment trap samples from the dump site were largely from the sewage sludge and had a mixed petroleum and pyrogenic composition. In contrast, PAHs in sediments in the dump site were mainly pyrogenic; contributed either from sewage sludge or from atmospheric transport to the overlying waters. & 1994 American Chemical Society.

Takada, H.; Farrington, J. W.; Bothner, M. H.; Johnson, C. G.; Tripp, B. W.

1994-01-01

322

Electrocoagulation-Microfiltration for Drinking Water Treatment: A Case Study with the Typical Micro-Polluted Source Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of slightly-polluted surface water by Electrocoagulation-Microfiltration (EC-MF) was studied. The factors influences on removal efficiencies of TOC, NH3-N and oil, such as current density, electrolytic time and pH value had been investigated. Based on the optimize experiments on the single factor, Xuzhou section of Beijing-Hangzhou Canal water was cleaned by EC-MF. The results showed that the above pollutants decreased

Feng Qiyan; Lu Ping; Li Xiangdong; Meng Qingjun; Sun Yue

2009-01-01

323

Economic Impact of Water Pollution Control Regulations on the Tomato Processing Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economic impact of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 on the tomato processing industry is examined. The 1972 Act calls for uniform effluent limitations, and requires that municipalities establish pretreatment standards for was...

P. M. Emerson

1976-01-01

324

The Chemical Characterization of Pollutants in Waste Water from Volunteer Army Ammunition Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a characterization study of pollutants in waste water generated in manufacture of TNT (Trinitrotoluene) at Volunteer Army Ammunition Plant in Tennessee. The major portion of the study was devoted to separation and identification of d...

C. Ribaudo C. Campbell S. Bulusu W. Fisco T. Chen

1981-01-01

325

Use of Macro and Microphytes for Water Pollution Control: A Practical Demonstration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Different biological systems, most frequently used in water pollution control, are reviewed. Photosynthetic bacteria and microalgae have been considered both for their theoretical potentiality and the possibility of practical applications. Among the macro...

P. Marzetti F. Pacciaroni A. Severi

1981-01-01

326

Setting Up a Special Collection on Water Pollution in a University Library  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The establishment of a special collection within the university library, the complexities of identifying and collecting reports in the environmental area, locating agencies concerned with water pollution, and recording the location of other local collections of data are described. (Author)|

Friedlander, Janet

1974-01-01

327

Sampling Protocols for Collecting Surface Water, Bed Sediment, Bivalves, and Fish for Priority Pollutant Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Regulations and Standards, is conducting a program to evaluate exposure and associated risk from the presence of toxic pollutants in our nation's aquatic environment. The program addresses the goal...

1982-01-01

328

76 FR 43230 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System-Cooling Water Intake Structures at Existing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Pollutant Discharge Elimination System--Cooling Water Intake Structures at Existing Facilities and Phase I Facilities AGENCY: Environmental...comment. Electronic files should avoid the use of special characters, any form of encryption, and be free of any defects or...

2011-07-20

329

OVERALL MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FOR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM SMALL WATER POOLS UNDER SIMULATED INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Small chamber tests were conducted to experimentally determine the overall mass transfer coefficient for pollutant emissions from still water under simulated indoor-residential or occupational-environmental conditions. Fourteen tests were conducted in small environmental chambers...

330

Industrial and Municipal Wastes: Action of Some Water Soluble Pollutants on Fish.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose was to observe some of the more subtle effects of pollutants on the gill blood-water barrier using gill epithelia as the target organ. Electron microscopic techniques, including Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microsc...

P. O. Fromm K. R. Olson

1973-01-01

331

Research on multi-angle near infrared spectral-polarimetric characteristic for polluted water by spilled oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the incidence of oil spills increases, the detection and measurement of oil pollution in the marine environment are receiving augmented attention. Remote sensing is an increasingly important tool for the effective direction of oil spill countermeasures. The most available physical quantities in optical remote sensing domain are the intensity and spectral information obtained by visible or infrared sensors. However, besides the intensity and wavelength, polarization is another primary physical quantity associated with an optical field. While the spectral information tells us about materials, polarization information tells us about surface feature, shape, shading and roughness, and has the potential to enhance many applications in optical remote sensing. During the course of reflecting light-wave, water-surface spilled oil will cause polarimetric characteristic which is related to the nature of itself. Thus, detection of the polarization information for polluted water by spilled oil has become a new remote sensing monitoring method. In this paper, four kinds of oils, they are gasoline, diesel oil, motorcycle oil and soybean oil, were regarded as the experimental samples for polluted water, and the multi-angle spectral-polarimetric instrument was used to obtain the multi-angle near infrared spectralpolarimetric characteristic data of different oil-spilled water specimens. Then, the change rule between polarimetric characteristic with different affecting factors, such as viewing zenith angle, incidence zenith angle of the light source, relative azimuth angle as well as waveband of the detector were discussed, so as to provide a scientific basis for the research on polarization remote sensing for polluted water by spilled oil.

Shen, Hui-Yan; Zhou, Pu-Cheng; Feng, Shao-Ru

2011-06-01

332

Ground Water Pollution in the South Central States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was conducted to determine the groundwater pollution problems in the states of Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Information was obtained through review of the literature and through interviews with engineers, scientists, and g...

M. R. Scalf J. W. Keeley C. J. LaFevers

1973-01-01

333

Water Pollution by Nutrients-Sources, Effects and Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bulletin includes the papers presented at a conference on 'Nutrient Pollution - Sources, Effects and Control' held in Minneapolis, Minnesota on January 8, 1969. The conference was planned as the Annual Meeting of the Minnesota Chapter, Soil Conservati...

1969-01-01

334

Nuclear Techniques Applicable to Studies of Pollutants in Ground Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current nuclear methods which can be used for the analysis of inorganic pollutants or tracers, including radioactive species in sediments and in their associated atmospheric and aqueous media are summarized. Nuclear techniques allow many trace element...

N. A. Wogman

1976-01-01

335

Research on mechanism of groundwater pollution from mine water in abandoned mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the mechanism and regularity of the groundwater contamination from mine water of abandoned mines, experiments\\u000a were conducted on an abandoned coal mine in Fuxin, a representative city with lots of mine water in northeast China. The groundwater\\u000a pollution from different contaminants of coal-mining voids (total hardness, SO42?, Cl? and total Fe) and pollution factors transportation situation

Lai-gui Wang; Xi-lin Li; Ling Liu; Liang Han

2008-01-01

336

Pollution Status of Surface Water Resources in Arid Region of Rajasthan (india)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present investigation deals with the evaluation of DO, BOD and COD of six surface water resources of Bikaner district which fall in arid region of Rajasthan - a part of Great Indian Desert, to determine pollution status. Water sample analysed for two years 2008-2009 showed these parameters beyond the limit of standard prescribed by WHO. These parameters also showed great seasonal fluctuation, indicating the degree of organic pollution more during summer season and least during winter season.

Kachhawa, Chanchal

337

Ecological study of micro flora in assessment of pollution level of river water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The river watershed is one of the main drinking water resources. In addition it provides many recreational usages. Knowledge about the composition of waste water is of paramount importance viewing the fact that these wastes are generally discharged into the rivers. Algae which thrive well in wastes not only reduce the pollution potential of the waste water by cleaning nutrients

Seemaa Dwivedi

2010-01-01

338

A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume II - Appendices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of water pollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…

Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

339

Water hyacinth as indicator of heavy metal pollution in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a common aquatic plant in many tropical countries. Its ability absorb nutrients and other elements from the water has made it possible to use it for water purification purposes. Eichhornia, especially stems and leaves, have been successfully used as indicators of heavy metal pollution in tropical countries. The uptake of heavy metals in this

Humberto Gonzalez; Martin Lodenius; Mirta Otero

1989-01-01

340

Baseline metals pollution profile of tropical estuaries and coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca.  

PubMed

The status report on metal pollution in tropical estuaries and coastal waters is important to understand potential environmental health hazards. Detailed baseline measurements were made on physicochemical parameters (pH, temperature, redox potential, electrical conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solid), major ions (Na, Ca, Mg, K, HCO3, Cl, SO4 and NO3) and metals concentrations ((27)Al, (75)As, (138)Ba, (9)Be, (111)Cd, (59)Co, (63)Cu, (52)Cr, (57)Fe, (55)Mn, (60)Ni, (208)Pb, (80)Se, (66)Zn) at estuaries and coastal waters along the Straits of Malacca. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to reveal potential pollution sources. Seven principal components were extracted with relation to pollution contribution from minerals-related parameters, natural and anthropogenic sources. The output from this study will generate a profound understanding on the metal pollution status and pollution risk of the estuaries and coastal system. PMID:23809293

Looi, Ley Juen; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Wan Johari, Wan Lutfi; Md Yusoff, Fatimah; Hashim, Zailina

2013-06-27

341

Detection of chemical pollutants by passive LWIR hyperspectral imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) represent a major threat to public health and security. Their detection constitutes a real challenge to security and first responder's communities. One promising detection method is based on the passive standoff identification of chemical vapors emanating from the laboratory under surveillance. To investigate this method, the Department of National Defense and Public Safety Canada have mandated Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC) - Valcartier to develop and test passive Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) sensors for standoff detection. The initial effort was focused to address the standoff detection and identification of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) and precursors. Sensors such as the Multi-option Differential Detection and Imaging Fourier Spectrometer (MoDDIFS) and the Improved Compact ATmospheric Sounding Interferometer (iCATSI) were developed for this application. This paper describes the sensor developments and presents initial results of standoff detection and identification of TICs and precursors. The standoff sensors are based on the differential Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) radiometric technology and are able to detect, spectrally resolve and identify small leak plumes at ranges in excess of 1 km. Results from a series of trials in asymmetric threat type scenarios will be presented. These results will serve to establish the potential of the method for standoff detection of TICs precursors and surrogates.

Lavoie, Hugo; Thériault, Jean-Marc; Bouffard, François; Puckrin, Eldon; Dubé, Denis

2012-09-01

342

Ocean pollution detection: Petroleum. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection and monitoring of oil pollution in the ocean. The citations examine identification and mapping of oil spills, the monitoring of ocean dumping, and detection of pollution resulting from off-shore drilling for petroleum. Techniques discussed include satellite sensing, infrared imagery, UV fluorescence, thermal mapping, microwave radiometry, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Methodology for monitoring the persistence of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine sediments, their bioconcentration in marine organisms, and their effects on marine ecosystems is also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 179 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-09-01

343

Immediate Water Pollution Control Needs. Central Western Shore of Chesapeake Bay Area (Magothy, Severn, South, and West River Drainage Areas).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the report is to direct attention to existing and potential water pollution problems in the Annapolis Metropolitan Area. This report is intended to summarize immediate pollution control problems and needs and to provide a framework for the ...

1967-01-01

344

Rare Event Detection Algorithm Of Water Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method is presented describing the development and implementation of an on-line water quality event detection algorithm. An algorithm was developed to distinguish between normal variation in water quality parameters and changes in these parameters triggered by the presence of contaminant spikes. Emphasis is placed on simultaneously limiting the number of false alarms (which are called false positives) that occur and the number of misses (called false negatives). The problem of excessive false alarms is common to existing change detection algorithms. EPA's standard measure of evaluation for event detection algorithms is to have a false alarm rate of less than 0.5 percent and a false positive rate less than 2 percent (EPA 817-R-07-002). A detailed description of the algorithm's development is presented. The algorithm is tested using historical water quality data collected by a public water supply agency at multiple locations and using spiking contaminants developed by the USEPA, Water Security Division. The water quality parameters of specific conductivity, chlorine residual, total organic carbon, pH, and oxidation reduction potential are considered. Abnormal data sets are generated by superimposing water quality changes on the historical or baseline data. Eddies-ET has defined reaction expressions which specify how the peak or spike concentration of a particular contaminant affects each water quality parameter. Nine default contaminants (Eddies-ET) were previously derived from pipe-loop tests performed at EPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Test and Evaluation (T&E) Facility. A contaminant strength value of approximately 1.5 is considered to be a significant threat. The proposed algorithm has been able to achieve a combined false alarm rate of less than 0.03 percent for both false positives and for false negatives using contaminant spikes of strength 2 or more.

Ungs, M. J.

2011-12-01

345

Deposition of Air Pollutants to the Great Waters, Third Report to Congress, June 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on June 8 2000, this report is the third in a series from the Environmental protection Agency (EPA) "to Congress on atmospheric deposition of pollution to the Great Waters, which include the Great Lakes, Chesapeake Bay and several other major U.S. water bodies." This report focuses on fifteen "pollutants of concern," offering updated scientific information about these pollutants and the Great Waters and discussing programs implemented by the EPA, states, tribes, and others to address them. It also describes "recent advancements in scientific research and tools used to improve our understanding of atmospheric deposition to the Great Waters." Background information and an executive summary are offered in HTML format, while the full text is provided by chapter in .pdf format. The previous two reports may be accessed from the Great Waters Program homepage.

2000-01-01

346

The development of a MIP-optosensor for the detection of monoamine naphthalenes in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

To enhance the advantages of fluorescent flow-through sensing for drinking water we have designed a novel sensing matrix based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). The synergic combination of a tailor-made MIP recognition with a selective room temperature fluorescence detection is a novel concept for optosensing devices and is assessed here for the simple and selective determination of pollutants in water.We

Angel Valero-Navarro; Alfonso Salinas-Castillo; Jorge F. Fernández-Sánchez; Antonio Segura-Carretero; Ricardo Mallavia; Alberto Fernández-Gutiérrez

2009-01-01

347

64 FR 68722 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination SystemRegulations for Revision of the Water Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...identifying the changes made to each...outreach. B. Water Quality Concerns...floatables (U.S. EPA. 1992...rivers, lakes, estuaries...discharge of storm water. If the NPDES...circumstances change. (See also...NPDES storm water program...waters of the U.S., including...tributaries, lakes, and...

1999-12-08

348

Water Quality Status and Trends in Minnesota - Indices for Water Supply and Ground Water Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The status of water quality in Minnesota was examined in relation to the chemical data available on public water supplies based upon sample analyses by the Minnesota Department of Health, reported in 1971 and upgraded in 1972. Information presented includ...

C. P. Straub V. M. Goppers A. DuChene

1976-01-01

349

Reducing Water Pollution from Pulp Mill Sulfite Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a feasibility study on reducing the pollution characteristics of spent sulfite liquor (SSL) by using the SSL as a substrate for the growth of the bacteria, Desulforibrio. Total sulfur content and COD of the SSL were used to measure th...

M. F. Jurgensen J. T. Patton

1972-01-01

350

Liability without fault under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that the cause of an oil spill is the polluting enterprise rather than the conduct of a third party. Two judges gave a reluctant concurrence with the court's analysis of the applicable law. A basic unfairness may exist when an agency can penalize a business engaged in an enterprise essential to the well-being

Valadez-Ferreira

1979-01-01

351

Chemical and allied products. [Water pollution control of industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of the literature with 152 references deals with methods of pollution control and wastewater treatment of chemicals and allied products.Wastewater treatment is reviewed for various product types such as PCB's, pesticides, heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and detergents. In addition, biological and physical\\/chemical methods of waste treatment are outlined in separate sections.

Siegrist

1982-01-01

352

Public Health Care Management of Water Pollution with Pharmaceuticals: Environmental Classification and Analysis of Pharmaceutical Residues in Sewage Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in surface water is an emerging problem in developed countries. If such pollution is transferred to drinking water, the resulting involuntary low-dose medication of large population groups may compromise public health. In addition, aquatic life may be compromised. The Stockholm County Council, the provider of public healthcare in the Stockholm, Sweden region, has introduced a classification

Åke Wennmalm; Bo Gunnarsson

2005-01-01

353

Marine pollution  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

Albaiges, J. (Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo, CSIC, Barcelona (ES))

1989-01-01

354

Small livestock producers with diffuse water pollutants: adopting a disincentive for unacceptable manure application practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of water pollution from small livestock producers (non-concentrated animal feeding operations) could be addressed through water quality regulations that apply to additional livestock producers. However, in adopting modified federal water quality regulations, the costs of mandatory controls led to the decision to exempt small producers. Thus, alternative non-water-quality state regulations may offer the best mechanism to address the

Terence J. Centner; Michael E. Wetzstein; Jeffrey D. Mullen

2008-01-01

355

Water Cerenkov Detection of Neutrinos and Neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Special Nuclear Material (SNM) emits both neutrons and high energy gamma-rays via spontaneous or induced fission. The detection of these signatures within cargo containers has recently become a high priority area of study. Both forms of radiation are highly penetrating and likely to defeat some degree of effective shielding. The advanced detector group at LLNL has been actively developing the technology for water based neutron detection as part of this effort. Key aspects of our work have grown out of R&D into Gadolinium doped water Cerenkov detectors for neutrino detection. It is likely that developments made in this work will also feed back into neutrino detector development over time. We have built and deployed a small prototype Gadolinium Tri-Chloride doped water Cerenkov detector and tested it with a ^252Cf fission source. We have also carried out R&D on the attenuation length of GdCl3 doped water, as well as its effects on likely detector components. We will discuss these results and our plans for the near future.

Sweany, Melinda; Dazeley, Steven; Bernstein, Adam; Bowden, Nathaniel; Svoboda, Robert

2008-10-01

356

Photoacoustic detection and monitoring of pollutant gases from urban public transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, air pollution is presented as a serious threat to the planet. The concentration of gases from anthropogenic activities, such as transport, cause consequences ranging from local to global scale, affecting the climate, the environment and the human health. It is necessary to detect and monitor of a large number of gas species emitted by these sources of pollutants. The photothermal techniques, specially photoacoustic spectroscopy, allow the detection of many gaseous species. In this work, it is presented a new detection limit for a photoacoustic spectrometer composed of a CO2 Laser and a Photoacoustic Resonant Cell. Analyses of many gas samples collected in the exhaust of urban buses in the city were performed. Ethylene was detected with the help of the CO2 Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and concentrations of CO, CO2 and NO were obtained through a commercial infrared photoacoustic analyzer called URAS.

Teodoro, C. G.; Schramm, D. U. S.; Sthel, M. S.; Lima, G. R.; Rocha, M. V.; Tavares, J. R.; Vargas, H.

2010-03-01

357

Quantitative PCR for Detection and Enumeration of Genetic Markers of Bovine Fecal Pollution  

EPA Science Inventory

Accurate assessment of health risks associated with bovine (cattle) fecal pollution requires a reliable host-specific genetic marker and a rapid quantification method. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for the detection of two recently described cow feces-spec...

358

Detection limits and variability in testing methods for environmental pollutants: Misuse may produce significant liabilities  

SciTech Connect

Environmental regulatory compliance under both federal and state statutes is commonly determined by detecting the presence of measuring the quantity of particular pollutants present at or near regulated facilities. Because such regulatory schemes set numerical standards for determining compliance, serious civil or criminal liability may arise whenever compliance standards are set too near the detection limits of the test method used. This generic problem arises from the variability inherent in all testing methods when they are used to determine the presence or the quantity of extremely low levels of pollutants. WHile this area is highly complex, the basic idea is that as the level of detection gets lower and lower, the chances of error increase to the point that the range of error is larger than the measurement itself. Yet, surprisingly, some federal and state environmental agencies continue to propose permit limits or cleanup levels for toxic pollutants at levels near the detection level, where total compliance may be impossible or may require the expenditure of significant costs to remedy false indications of the presence or excess of certain pollutants.

Scroggin, D.G. [Jenner and Block, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-12-31

359

OPTIMUM MACROBENTHIC SAMPLING PROTOCOL FOR DETECTING POLLUTION IMPACTS IN THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA BIGHT  

EPA Science Inventory

The optimum macrobenthic sampling protocol sampling unit, sieve mesh size, and sample size (n)] was determined for detecting ecologically important pollution impacts in the Southern California Bight, U.S.A. Cost, in laboratory processing time, was determined for samples obtained ...

360

Detection of organic pollution of streams in southern Sweden using benthic macroinvertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benthic macroinvertebrates samples were collected in spring and autumn 2000. Fifteen streams in southern Sweden were sampled twice both for chemical, physical, and biological parameters. Eighty-four macroinvertebrate `single' metrics were calculated and tested for their ability of detecting organic pollution of streams. A comparison of the `best' single metrics with two multimetric indices was also done. The Belgian Biotic Index

Joakim Dahl; Richard K. Johnson; Leonard Sandin

2004-01-01

361

Modeling and detection of oil in sea water.  

PubMed

The challenge of a deep-water oil leak is that a significant quantity of oil remains in the water column and possibly changes properties. There is a need to quantify the oil settled within the water column and determine its physical properties to assist in the oil recovery. There are currently no methods to map acoustically submerged oil in the sea. In this paper, high-frequency acoustic methods are proposed to localize the oil polluted area and characterize the parameters of its spatial covariance, i.e., variance and correlation. A model is implemented to study the underlying mechanisms of backscattering due to spatial heterogeneity of the medium and predict backscattering returns. An algorithm for synthetically generating stationary, Gaussian random fields is introduced which provides great flexibility in implementing the physical model of an inhomogeneous field with spatial covariance. A method for inference of spatial covariance parameters is proposed to describe the scattering field in terms of its second-order statistics from the backscattered returns. The results indicate that high-frequency acoustic methods not only are suitable for large-scale detection of oil contamination in the water column but also allow inference of the spatial covariance parameters resulting in a statistical description of the oil field. PMID:24116417

Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

2013-10-01

362

Rapid detection of bacteria in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rapid detection of bacteria in water is essential for a timely response. This applies primarily to drinking water, be it bottled water or water from a public supply system, but is equally important for the analysis of water from swimming pools and beaches, and ballast water from oceangoing ships discharging into coastal or inland waters of the US. There are several methods available today for a rapid test including PCR based methods, flow cytometry, and electro chemiluminescence, to name a few. All of the above methods work, but are complicated and/or require expensive equipment and highly trained analysts in a laboratory. The method described here is based on lysing the bacteria after capture on a membrane filter, and measuring the ATP in a luminometer after the addition of luciferin/luciferase. This bioluminescence test can be done onsite, in less than 5 minutes, with equipment that fits onto a clipboard. It is a fast screening test that indicates if there is enough biologically active material in the same to pose a threat to the consumer. If this is the case, an additional step using immunomagnetic separation may be used to identify the responsible organisms. Tests have been done with E. coli 0157:H7, pseudomonas, and logionella. These tests take about 30 minutes each, and allow a quick determination of bacterial threats in a field situation.

Deininger, Rolf A.; Lee, Ji Y.

2002-06-01

363

Water Quality during Development and Apportionment of Pollution from Rivers in Tapeng Lagoon, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigated water samples collected from Tapeng Lagoon, Taiwan. Factor analysis was conducted to explain the characteristics and the variation in the quality of water during the disassembly of oyster frames and fishery boxes. The result shows that the most important latent factors in Tapeng Lagoon are the ocean factor, primary productivity factor, and the fishery pollution factor. Canonical

Shao-Wei Liao; Wen-Liang Lai; Jen-Jeng Chen; Jia-Yuh Sheu; Chang-Gai Lee

2006-01-01

364

Radiation-induced degradation of water pollutants: State of the art  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiation induced decomposition of biological resistant pollutants in drinking as well as in wastewater is shortly reviewed. First, some important units, deffinitions etc., radiation sources as well as dose depth curves in water as function of the electron energy and 60Co-?-rays are mentioned. It follows schematical presentation of water rediolysis and of characteristics of primary free radicals. After that

Nikola Getoff

1995-01-01

365

Effects on Water Quality When Dredging a Polluted Harbor Using Confined Spoil Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dredging a polluted harbor using confined spoil disposal did not degrade water quality. Quality of water returned to the waterway was better than that in the stream before or during dredging due to an increase in dissolved oxygen and removal of solids and...

E. B. May

1974-01-01

366

Vascular plants for water pollution control and renewable sources of energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular aquatic plants have demonstrated their ability to remove pollutants from domestic and chemical wastewaters. Plants such as the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweed (Lemna sp., Spirodela sp., and Wolffia sp.), and cattail (Typha sp.) thrive in nutrient-rich waters and produce tremendous quantities of biomass under favorable climatic conditions. This method of wastewater treatment is currently being used exclusively at

B. C. Wolverton; R. C. McDonald

1980-01-01

367

Coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci as indicators of water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence and survival of coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci were studied in sewage treatment plants, heavily polluted rivers, a lake, and other drinking water sources. In all cases the fecal streptococci were generally more resistant to the natural water environment and to purification processes than the other indicator organisms and, at points distant from the original source of

Judith Cohen; Hillel I. Shuval

1973-01-01

368

Water Pollution Control Training: The Educational Role of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented are the results of a study to determine the perceived needs of environmental control education programs as seen by students, instructors, deans or program directors, and field-related employers in the field of water pollution control. Data were collected utilizing three approaches: survey instruments, information from Water Quality…

Williams, Frederick D.

369

Water Pollution Control Act of 1972, Regional Impacts. Lake Erie Regional Assessment Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The environmental, social and institutional impacts of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (P.L. 92-500) on the Lake Erie region are reviewed. Water quality changes as a result of the Act's 1977 (best practicable treatment technolog...

1975-01-01

370

A Proposed Shipboard Continuous Oil Pollution Control Process for Bilge Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A continuous gravitational process to separate oil pollutant from ships' bilge water using simple and compact equipment is proposed. The principle of the process is discussed. For an oil-water mixture of known concentration and density, the location of th...

T. S. Yu

1969-01-01

371

EU-wide survey of polar organic persistent pollutants in European river waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides the first EU-wide reconnaissance of the occurrence of polar organic persistent pollutants in European river waters. More than 100 individual water samples from over 100 European rivers from 27 European Countries were analysed for 35 selected compounds, comprising pharmaceuticals, pesticides, PFOS, PFOA, benzotriazoles, hormones, and endocrine disrupters. Around 40 laboratories participated in this sampling exercise. The most

Robert Loos; Bernd Manfred Gawlik; Giovanni Locoro; Erika Rimaviciute; Serafino Contini; Giovanni Bidoglio

2009-01-01

372

Use of the water quality index and dissolved oxygen deficit as simple indicators of watersheds pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the water quality index (WQI) and the dissolved oxygen deficit (D) as simple indicators of the watersheds pollution was investigated and compared in the Municipality of Las Rozas (north-west of Madrid, Spain). The quality of the water in Guadarrama and Manzanares rivers and Paris Park ponds, the main watersheds of this area was investigated during 2 years

Enrique Sánchez; Manuel F. Colmenarejo; Juan Vicente; Angel Rubio; María G. García; Lissette Travieso; Rafael Borja

2007-01-01

373

We All Live Downstream. A Guide to Waste Treatment That Stops Water Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on the idea that the prevention and treatment of water pollution should begin at its source, this document focuses on some methods that individuals can use in their homes and businesses to treat wastewater. Chapter one, "What Is the Water Crisis?" explains the basic concepts of the hydrologic cycle, evapotranspiration, and the quantity of…

Costner, Pat; And Others

374

3Hydroxy 3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase: a New Biomarker of Fish Exposure to Water Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to identify a new putative biomarker in Salmo trutta exposed to water pollution. Variations in the levels of hepatic 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR),\\u000a the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis, were compared to heat shock protein 70 and hypoxia inducible factor\\u000a ?, biomarkers of pollution exposure and lowered O2, respectively. The results confirm

Valentina Pallottini; Massimiliano Scalici; Giancarlo Gibertini; Maria Marino; Anna Trentalance

2010-01-01

375

The development of policy approaches for reducing nitrogen pollution to coastal waters of the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-thirds of the coastal rivers and bays in the United States are degraded from nutrient pollution, and nitrogen inputs these\\u000a waters continue to increase. The nitrogen comes from a variety of sources, including runoff from agricultural fields, concentrated\\u000a animal feeding operations, atmospheric deposition from fossil fuel combustion, and sewage and septic wastes. Technical solutions\\u000a for nitrogen pollution exist at reasonable

Robert W. Howarth

2005-01-01

376

Effects of warm water inflows on the dispersion of pollutants in small reservoirs.  

PubMed

The effects of the warm water discharged by a nuclear power plant (NPP) into a small reservoir are studied. A case study is presented (José Cabrera NPP-Zorita Hidráulica Reservoir) with experimental data of the reservoir stratification and predicted data of the dispersion of radioactive pollutants from operative or accidental releases. The vertical and longitudinal temperature profiles, electrical conductivity and transparency of the reservoir water were measured for an annual cycle. The results indicate that the continuous warm water discharge from the NPP causes permanent and artificial reservoir stratification. The stratification is significant within 1500 m upstream and 1000 m downstream from the warm water outfall. The pollutant dispersion has been predicted by using a flow model based on N(T) perfect-mixing compartments in series with feedback. The model parameter, N(T), is calculated from the longitudinal diffusion coefficient. The prediction of pollutant dispersion by means of this model shows that the stratification slows down the vertical mixing in the whole water body, and reduces the reservoir volume that is effective for the dilution and dispersion of pollutants. This means that, in the case of a radioactive pollutant release, the reservoir radioactivity level could increase significantly. PMID:16574305

Palancar, María C; Aragón, José M; Sánchez, Fernando; Gil, Roberto

2006-03-30

377

Petroleum Pollutant Degradation by Surface Water Microorganisms (8 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aims and Scope   It is well known that the composition of petroleum or some of its processing products changes in the environment mostly under\\u000a the influence of microorganisms. A series of experiments was conducted in order to define the optimum conditions for an efficient\\u000a biodegradation of petroleum pollutant, or bioremediation of different segments of the environment. The aim of

Mališa P. Anti?; Branimir Jovancicevic; Miroslav M. Vrvi?; Jan Schwarzbauer

2006-01-01

378

Agricultural water nonpoint pollution control under uncertainty and climate variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to study the probabilistic cost-effectiveness of the farm management practices supported by the European Union for reducing nitrate pollution. Our method consists in using a bio-physical model to evaluate the environmental and economic impacts of various scenarios characterized by a set of farm practices. The cost-effectiveness of each scenario is calculated for a catchment

Anne Lacroix; Nicolas Beaudoin; David Makowski

2005-01-01

379

Water pollution control technology and strategy for river-lake systems: a case study in Gehu Lake and Taige Canal.  

PubMed

The Taoge water system is located in the upstream of Taihu Lake basin and is characterized by its multi-connected rivers and lakes. In this paper, current analyses of hydrology, hydrodynamics and water pollution of Gehu Lake and Taige Canal are presented. Several technologies are proposed for pollution prevention and control, and water environmental protection in the Taihu Lake basin. These included water pollution control integration technology for the water systems of Gehu Lake, Taige Canal and Caoqiao River. Additionally, river-lake water quality and quantity regulation technology, ecological restoration technology for polluted and degraded water bodies, and water environmental integration management and optimization strategies were also examined. The main objectives of these strategies are to: (a) improve environmental quality of relative water bodies, prevent pollutants from entering Gehu Lake and Taige Canal, and ensure that the clean water after the pre-treatment through Gehu Lake is not polluted before entering the Taihu Lake through Taige Canal; (b) stably and efficiently intercept and decrease the pollution load entering the lake through enhancing the river outlet ecological system structure function and water self-purifying capacity, and (c) designate Gehu Lake as a regulation system for water quality and water quantity in the Taoge water system and thus guarantee the improvement of the water quality of the inflow into Taihu Lake. PMID:21516445

Zhang, Yimin; Zhang, Yongchun; Gao, Yuexiang; Zhang, Houhu; Cao, Jianying; Cai, Jinbang; Kong, Xiangji

2011-04-24

380

Enhanced treatment of polluted surface water from Yellow river (China) with biooxidation as pretreatment: Pilot scale studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yellow River in China is being polluted with artifi cial pollution, which brings great chal- lenges to drinking water treatment plants (DWTP) along the Yellow River. The conventional treatment processes could not ensure satisfactory quality of drinking water, and innovative processes are crucial for the achievement of the newly issued drinking water standard (GB5749- 2006). The DWTP in Zhengzhou

S. Xiangyang; ABSTR A C T

381

Enhanced treatment of polluted surface water from Yellow river (China) with biooxidation as pretreatment: Pilot scale studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yellow River in China is being polluted with artificial pollution, which brings great challenges to drinking water treatment plants (DWTP) along the Yellow River. The conventional treatment processes could not ensure satisfactory quality of drinking water, and innovative processes are crucial for the achievement of the newly issued drinking water standard (GB5749- 2006). The DWTP in Zhengzhou City takes

Xiangyang Song

2009-01-01

382

Using Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy to detect hazardous air pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pulsed-molecular-beam Fabry-Perot cavity Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer developed at NIST has demonstrated sensitivities for many polar gas- phase molecular species in the low parts per million (ppm) to parts per billion (ppb) range. The highest sensitivity is obtained using neon or argon carrier gas but nitrogen or air can also be used, with some loss in sensitivity (up to 100 times) due to the less efficient rotational and vibrational cooling in the molecular beam with diatomic gases. The minimum detectable concentrations for several representative compounds are provided. These include acetaldehyde, acrolein, propionaldhyde, benzaldehyde, p- tolualdehyde, methanol, SO2, propene, methyl t-butyl ether, ethyl t-butyl ether, and others. Considerable attention has been given to making the instrument versatile and user friendly. The instrument is computer controlled using standard GPIB interfaces and several graphical interfaces under the CPLUPLU operating system.

Lovas, F. J.; Pereyra, W.; Suenram, R. D.; Fraser, G. T.; Grabow, J.-U.; Hight Walker, A. R.

1995-05-01

383

Water Conservation and Pollution Control in Coal Conversion Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of a study to determine water consumption and environmental impacts of coal conversion processes in Western states. Part 1 gives brief descriptions and process water requirements for nine conversion processes. Detailed designs and...

D. J. Goldstein D. Yung

1977-01-01

384

Ground Water Pollution Problems in the Northwestern United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaluation of ground-water problems has been carried out in six states in the northwest: Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming. There is a need for baseline water quality data and systematic evaluation of overall ground-water conditi...

D. W. Miller F. van der Leeden L. A. Cerrillo

1975-01-01

385

Ground water pollution problems in the northwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of ground-water problems has been carried out in six states in the northwest: Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming. There is a need for baseline water quality data and systematic evaluation of overall ground-water conditions, especially in urban zones, in areas of petroleum exploration and development, and at locations of mining and industrial activity. The most common

F. van der Leeden; L. A. Cerrillo; D. W. Miller

1975-01-01

386

Impact of riverbank filtration on treatment of polluted river water.  

PubMed

The impact of riverbank filtration (RBF) on the treatment of water from the River Yamuna at Mathura, which has disagreeable visual properties, has been investigated. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and colour of the river water were 4.0-6.8mg/L and 40-65 colour units (CU), respectively. Pre-chlorination is in practice to improve raw water quality. Chlorine doses as high as 60mg/L ahead of the water treatment units reduced colour by about 78%. Removal of DOC and UV-absorbance was less than 18%. In comparison to direct pumping of the river water, collection of water through RBF resulted in the reduction of DOC, colour, UV-absorbance and fecal coliforms by around 50%. However, riverbank filtrate did not conform to the drinking water quality standards. Therefore, riverbank-filtered water along with the Yamuna water were ozonated for different durations. To reduce DOC to the desired level, the dose of ozone required for the riverbank filtrate was found to be considerably less than the ozone required for the river water. RBF as compared to direct pumping of Yamuna water appears to be effective in improving the quality of the raw water. PMID:20089349

Singh, P; Kumar, P; Mehrotra, I; Grischek, T

2010-01-22

387

Subsurface detection of fossil fuel pollutants by photoionization and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This paper describes analysis of environmental pollutants at depth without bringing sample to the surface. It is based on an improved 3-stage Peltier freeze trap, which efficiently pre-concentrates volatile coal tar and petroleum hydrocarbons, and an integrated system for detecting pollutants on-line, in real-time by photoionization detection and quantitation by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) as the probe is advanced into the subsurface. Findings indicate measurement precision and accuracy for volatiles meet EPA criteria for hazardous waste site investigations. When a Teflon membrane inlet is used to detect contaminants in groundwater, its 140 degrees C temperature limit restricts analyte collection in soil to C(2)-phenanthrenes. Two case studies demonstrate the probe is well-suited to tracking petroleum and coal tar plumes from source to groundwater. PMID:20594575

Robbat, Albert; Considine, Thomas; Antle, Patrick M

2010-07-01

388

Detecting air pollution stress in southern California vegetation using Landsat Thematic Mapper band data  

SciTech Connect

Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and aircraft-borne Thematic Mapper simulator (TMS) data were collected over two areas of natural vegetation in southern California exposed to gradients of pollutant dose, particularly in photochemical oxidants: the coastal sage scrub of the Santa Monica Mountains in the Los Angeles basin, and the yellow pine forests in the southern Sierra Nevada. In both situations, natural variations in canopy closure, with subsequent exposure of understory elements (e.g.,rock or soil, chaparral, grasses, and herbs), were sufficient to cause changes in spectral variation that could obscure differences due to visible foliar injury symptoms observed in the field. TM or TMS data are therefore more likely to be successful in distinguishing pollution injury from background variation when homogeneous communities with closed canopies are subjected to more severe pollution-induced structural and/or compositional change. The present study helps to define the threshold level of vegetative injury detectable by TM data. 26 references.

Westman, W.E.; Price, C.V.

1988-09-01

389

Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: Progresses and perspectives*  

PubMed Central

Environmental pollution affects the quality of pedosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Great efforts have been made in the last two decades to reduce pollution sources and remedy the polluted soil and water resources. Phytoremediation, being more cost-effective and fewer side effects than physical and chemical approaches, has gained increasing popularity in both academic and practical circles. More than 400 plant species have been identified to have potential for soil and water remediation. Among them, Thlaspi, Brassica, Sedum alfredii H., and Arabidopsis species have been mostly studied. It is also expected that recent advances in biotechnology will play a promising role in the development of new hyperaccumulators by transferring metal hyperaccumulating genes from low biomass wild species to the higher biomass producing cultivated species in the times to come. This paper attempted to provide a brief review on recent progresses in research and practical applications of phytoremediation for soil and water resources.

Lone, Mohammad Iqbal; He, Zhen-li; Stoffella, Peter J.; Yang, Xiao-e

2008-01-01

390

Extraction of organic pollutants from environmental solids with sub- and supercritical water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-polarity organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) typically have very low solubilities (e.g., ppb) in water at ambient conditions because of water's high polarity (dielectric constant, [epsilon] = 80). However, the dielectric constant can be drastically lowered by raising the temperature of the water under moderate pressure with dramatic increases (e.g., to percent levels) in the solubility of

Steven B. Hawthorne; Yu. Yang; David J. Miller

1994-01-01

391

Evaluation of Water Quality Pollution and Identification Index for the Liu River, Zhangwu County, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface water quality for the Liu River within the boundaries of Zhangwu was evaluated using single factor pollution index, single factor water quality identification index and comprehensive water quality identification index. Permanganate index (CODMn), ammonium nitrogen(NH4-N), dissolved oxygen (DO), 5-days biochemical oxygen demand(BOD5), petroleum and chemical oxygen demand(COD) from 2001 to 2009 were selected for analysis. All the parameters

Jing Huang; Xiangyun Wu; Zhiyong Zhang; Han Yan

2011-01-01

392

Chemical speciation of inorganic pollutants in river – estuary – sea water systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring studies and thermodynamic modeling were used to reveal the changes of inorganic chemical species of some water\\u000a pollutants (nutrients and trace metals such as Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb) in the river–estuary–sea water system. The case studies were two rivers, Kamchiya and Ropotamo, representing part of the Bulgarian Black Sea water\\u000a catchment area, and having different flow

Stefka Tepavitcharova; Tihomir Todorov; Diana Rabadjieva; Manos Dassenakis; Vasiliki Paraskevopoulou

2009-01-01

393

Case study on rehabilitation of a polluted urban water body in Yangtze River Basin.  

PubMed

In the past three decades, the fast development of economy and urbanization has caused increasingly severe pollutions of urban water bodies in China. Consequently, eutrophication and deterioration of aquatic ecosystem, which is especially significant for aquatic vegetation, inevitably became a pervasive problem across the Yangtze River Basin. To rehabilitate the degraded urban water bodies, vegetation replanting is an important issue to improve water quality and to rehabilitate ecosystem. As a case study, a representative polluted urban river, Nanfeihe River, in Hefei City, Anhui Province, was chosen to be a rehabilitation target. In October 2009 and May 2010, 13 species of indigenous and prevalent macrophytes, including seven species emergent, one species floating leaved, and five species submersed macrophytes, were planted along the bank slopes and in the river. Through 1.5 years' replanting practice, the water quality and biodiversity of the river had been improved. The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) declined by 46.0, 39.5, and 60.4 %, respectively. The species of macrophytes increased from 14 to 60, and the biodiversity of phytoplankton rose significantly in the river (p?water pollution and rehabilitate the degraded aquatic ecosystem. The case study would be an example for polluted urban waters restoration in the middle-downstream area of Yangtze River Base. PMID:23247519

Wu, Juan; Cheng, Shuiping; Li, Zhu; Guo, Weijie; Zhong, Fei; Yin, Daqiang

2012-12-18

394

Analysis of seasonal water pollution based on rainfall feature at Anyang river basin in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To determine selected water pollution parameters of the Anyang River (one of the biggest contributory branches of the Han River in Korea) and its main tributaries, the geological and topographical and rainfall features in its basin were investigated, and the resulting data were tabulated. Samples were collected at the upper, mid and down parts of the Anyang River and its branches and were analyzed based on biochemical and chemical methods, Korean biotic index (KBI) and Saprobien systems. Selected parameters of concern include BOD, heavy metals, nonpoint pollution and sewage discharge. The Anyang River basin has a torrential heavy rainfall; however, the rate of rainfall significantly varies from season to season. Water pollution levels in the dry season increase dramatically. The mainstream of the Anyang River is classified as fifth grade polysaprobic water according to Saprobien system. In addition, the biotic index is over 2.5 in overall. General pollution at the junction of the Anyang River and each branch stream varies. Possible countermeasures to improve the water quality of the river include intercept the non-treated waste water and sewage at the Anyang River junction and each branch stream, enforcement of water management during the rainy season, and continuous investment on environmental restoration.

Han, J. G.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, T. H.; Hwang, E. J.

2005-08-01

395

Removal of persistent organic pollutants from micro-polluted drinking water by triolein embedded absorbent.  

PubMed

A new biomimetic absorbent, cellulose acetate (CA) embedded with triolein (CA-triolein), was prepared and applied for the removal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from micro-polluted aqueous solution. The comparison of CA-triolein, CA and granular activated carbon (GAC) for dieldrin removal was investigated. Results showed that CA-triolein absorbent gave a lowest residual concentration after 24 h although GAC had high removal rate in the first 4 h adsorption. Then the removal efficiency of mixed POPs (e.g. aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor epoxide), absorption isotherm, absorbent regeneration and initial column experiments of CA-triolein were studied in detail. The linear absorption isotherm and the independent absorption in binary isotherm indicated that the selected POPs are mainly absorbed onto CA-triolein absorbent by a partition mechanism. The absorption constant, K, was closely related to the hydrophobic property of the compound. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the absorption was spontaneous, with a high affinity and the absorption was an endothermic reaction. Rinsing with hexane the CA-triolein absorbent can be regenerated after absorption of POPs. No significant decrease in the dieldrin removal efficiency was observed even when the absorption-regeneration process was repeated for five times. The results of initial column experiments showed that the CA-triolein absorbent did not reach the breakthrough point at a breakthrough empty-bed volume (BV) of 3200 when the influent concentration was 1-1.5 microg/L and the empty-bed contact time (EBCT) was 20 min. PMID:19246190

Liu, Huijuan; Ru, Jia; Qu, Jiuhui; Dai, Ruihua; Wang, Zijian; Hu, Chun

2009-02-25

396

Induction of SCEs in CHL cells by dichlorobiphenyl derivative water pollutants, 2-phenylbenzotriazole (PBTA) congeners and river water concentrates.  

PubMed

We recently identified dichlorobiphenyl (DCB) derivatives and 2-phenylbenzotriazole (PBTA) congeners as major mutagenic constituents of the waters of the Waka River and the Yodo River system in Japan, respectively. In this study we examined sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction by two dichlorobiphenyl derivatives, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine (DCB, 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl) and 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-dichloro-5-nitrobiphenyl (5-nitro-DCB); three PBTA congeners, 2-[2-(acetylamino)-4-[bis(2-methoxyethyl)amino]-5-methoxyphenyl]-5-amino-7-bromo-4-chloro-2H-benzotriazole (PBTA-1), 2-[2-(acetylamino)-4-[N-(2-cyanoethyl)ethylamino]-5-methoxyphenyl]-5-amino-7-bromo-4-chloro-2H-benzotriazole (PBTA-2), and 2-[2-(acetylamino)amino]-4-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-5-methoxyphenyl]-5-amino-7-bromo-4-chloro-2H-benzotriazole (PBTA-6); and water concentrates from the Waka River in Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells. Concentration-dependent induction of SCE was found for all DCBs and PBTAs examined in the presence of S9 mix, and statistically significant increases of SCEs were detected at 2 microg per ml of medium or higher concentrations. SCE induction of MeIQx was examined to compare genotoxic activities of these water pollutants. According to the results, a ranking of the SCE-inducing potency of these compounds is the following: 5-nitro-DCB approximately MeIQx>PBTA6>PBTA-1 approximately PBTA-2>DCB. Water samples collected at a site at the Waka River showed concentration-related increases in SCEs at 6.25-18.75 ml-equivalent of river water per ml of medium with S9 mix. The concentrations of 5-nitro-DCB and DCB in the river water samples were from 2.5 to 19.4 ng/l and from 4100 to 18,900 ng/l, respectively. However, these chemicals showed only small contribution to SCE induction by the Waka River water. PMID:19545646

Ohe, Takeshi; Suzuki, Aki; Watanabe, Tetsushi; Hasei, Tomohiro; Nukaya, Haruo; Totsuka, Yukari; Wakabayashi, Keiji

2009-06-21

397

?-Cyclodextrin-ionic liquid polyurethanes for the removal of organic pollutants and heavy metals from water: synthesis and characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of toxic contaminants from water remains a huge challenge for water supplying companies and municipalities. Both\\u000a organic and inorganic (especially heavy metals) pollutants are often present in water distribution networks. There is at present\\u000a no water treatment intervention that simultaneously removes both organic and inorganic pollutants from water to desirable\\u000a levels. In our laboratories, recent studies have shown

Mphilisi M. Mahlambi; Tshepo J. Malefetse; Bhekie B. Mamba; Rui W. Krause

2010-01-01

398

Generation of novel bacterial regulatory proteins that detect priority pollutant phenols  

SciTech Connect

The genetic systems of bacteria that have the ability to use organic pollutants as carbon and energy sources can be adapted to create bacterial biosensors for the detection of industrial pollution. The creation of bacterial biosensors is hampered by a lack of information about the genetic systems that control production of bacterial enzymes that metabolize pollutants. The authors have attempted to overcome this problem through modification of DmpR, a regulatory protein for the phenol degradation pathway of Pseudomonas sp. strain CF600. The phenol detection capacity of DmpR was altered by using mutagenic PCR targeted to the DmpR sensor domain. DmpR mutants were identified that both increased sensitivity to the phenolic effectors of wild-type DmpR and increased the range of molecules detected. The phenol detection characteristics of seven DmpR mutants were demonstrated through their ability to activate transcription of a lacZ reporter gene. Effectors of the DmpR derivatives included phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, 2-nitrophenol, and 4-nitrophenol.

Wise, A.A.; Kuske, C.R.

2000-01-01

399

Viral Pollution in the Environment and in Shellfish: Human Adenovirus Detection by PCR as an Index of Human Viruses  

PubMed Central

A study of the presence of human viruses (adenoviruses, enteroviruses, and hepatitis A viruses [HAVs]) in environmental and shellfish samples was carried out by applying DNA and cDNA amplification techniques by PCR. The detection of human adenoviruses by PCR was also examined as a potential molecular test to monitor viral pollution. The samples studied were urban and slaughterhouse sewage, river water, seawater, and shellfish. Enteroviruses were quantified by PFU in Buffalo green monkey kidney cells and fecal coliforms and phages of Bacteroides fragilis HSP40 were also evaluated in some of the samples. The amplification of viral DNA and cDNA has shown a high prevalence of human viruses that would not be detected by the use of classical techniques, such as the quantification of PFU in cell lines. The results of the analysis of slaughterhouse sewage samples together with the test of farm animal feces indicate that the adenoviruses and the HAVs detected in the environment are mostly of human origin. A significative correlation between the detection of human viruses by PCR and the values of bacteriophages of B. fragilis HSP40 in urban raw sewage was observed. Human adenoviruses were the viruses most frequently detected throughout the year, and all the samples that were positive for enteroviruses or HAVs were also positive for human adenoviruses. The results suggest that the detection of adenoviruses by PCR could be used as an index of the presence of human viruses in the environment where a molecular index is acceptable.

Pina, Sonia; Puig, Montserrat; Lucena, Francisco; Jofre, Joan; Girones, Rosina

1998-01-01

400

Use of synthetic zeolites for arsenate removal from pollutant water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water below the current and proposed EPA MCL has been examined at room temperature. Experiments have been conducted to examine the extent of arsenic

Siddhesh Shevade; Robert G. Ford

2004-01-01

401

WATER CONSERVATION AND POLLUTION CONTROL IN COAL CONVERSION PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to determine water consumption and environmental impacts of coal conversion processes in Western states. Part 1 gives brief descriptions and process water requirements for nine conversion processes. Detailed designs and analyses are given for t...

402

Sorption of aromatic organic pollutants to grasses from water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The influence of plant lipids on the equilibrium sorption of three aromatic solutes from water was studied. The plant-water sorption isotherms of benzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and phenanthrene were measured over a large range of solute concentrations using sealed vessels containing water, dried plant material, and solute. The plant materials studied include the shoots of annual rye, tall fescue, red fescue, and spinach as well as the roots of annual rye. Seven out of eight sorption isotherms were linear with no evidence of competitive effects between the solutes. For a given plant type, the sorption coefficient increased with decreasing solute water solubility. For a given solute, sorption increased with increasing plant lipid content. The estimated lipid-water partition coefficients of individual solutes were found to be significantly greater than the corresponding octanol-water partition coefficients. This indicates that plant lipids are a more effective partition solvent than octanol for the studied aromatic compounds. As expected, the solute lipid-water partition coefficients were log-linearly related to the respective water solubilities. For the compounds studied, partitioning into the lipids is believed to be the primary sorption mechanism. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

Barbour, J. P.; Smith, J. A.; Chiou, C. T.

2005-01-01

403

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: PRIORITIZATION OF STATIONARY WATER POLLUTION SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives priority lists to aid in selecting specific sources of water effluents for detailed assessment. It describes the general water prioritization model, explains its implementation, and gives a detailed example of its use. It describes hazard factors that were develo...

404

Air and water pollution control: a benefit-cost assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freeman attempts to assess the net benefits associated with environmental programs dealing with air and water quality. He concludes that stationary controls have been justified, but that mobile sources and water controls, as presently designed and implemented, have had costs greater than benefits to society. The reviewer notes that the book is more than just a compendium of mechanistic, technical

A. Myrick Freeman III

1982-01-01

405

GROUND-WATER POLLUTION PROBLEMS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

An evaluation of principal sources of ground-water contamination has been carried out in seven southeastern States--Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia. Natural ground-water quality is good to excellent, except for the presence of ...

406

Statement on Water Pollution in the Lake Erie Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document discusses the quality characteristics of the waters of Lake Erie and its tributaries as they exist today and some of the trends in recent years. It evaluates the effect of waste discharges on water uses, summarizing the principal problems and...

1966-01-01

407

From a water resource to a point pollution source: the daily journey of a coastal urban stream.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to understand how a stream ecosystem that flows from its fountainhead to its mouth inside a city, changes from a water resource to a point pollution source. A multidisciplinary descriptive approach was adopted, including the short-term temporal and spatial determination of physical, chemical, biological and ecotoxicological variables. Results showed that water quality rapidly decreases with increasing urbanization, leading the system to acquire raw sewage attributes even in the first hundred meters after the fountainheads. Despite the tidal circulation near the stream mouth being restricted by shallowness, some improvement of the water quality was detected in this area. The multidisciplinary evaluation showed to be useful for obtaining a more realistic understanding of the stream degradation process, and to forecast restoration and mitigation measures. PMID:18278310

Rörig, L R; Tundisi, J G; Schettini, C A F; Pereira-Filho, J; Menezes, J T; Almeida, T C M; Urban, S R; Radetski, C M; Sperb, R C; Stramosk, C A; Macedo, R S; Castro-Silva, M A; Perez, J A A

2007-11-01

408

Identification of trace organic pollutants in drinking water and the associated human health risks in Jiangsu Province, China.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), dibutyl phthalate (DNBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were all detectable in surface water in Jiangsu Province, China. Concentrations of OCPs ranged from 5.13 to 8.15 ng/L. PAHs were found ranging from 14.7 to 24.5 ng/L. Concentrations of DNBP and DEHP ranged from 16 to 5,857.5 ng/L and 556 to 15,670.7 ng/L, respectively. Greater than 70 % of chemicals were removed in water treatment processes. The carcinogenic risks posed by trace organic pollutants through tap water ingestion were lower than 10(-6), and the noncarcinogenic risks were less than 10(-5). PMID:22476258

Li, Bing; Qu, Changsheng; Bi, Jun

2012-04-04

409

DETECTING EVIDENCE OF NON-COMPLIANCE IN SELF-REPORTED POLLUTION EMISSIONS DATA: AN APPLICATION OF BENFORD'S LAW  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduces Digital Frequency Analysis (DFA) based on Benford's Law as a new technique for detecting non-compliance in self-reported pollution emissions data. Public accounting firms are currently adopting DFA to detect fraud in financial data. We argue that DFA can be employed by environmental regulators to detect fraud in self-reported pollution emissions data. The theory of Benford's Law is

Christopher F. Dumas; John H. Devine

2000-01-01

410

Development of an integrative passive sampler for the monitoring of organic water pollutants.  

PubMed

The development of convenient and competitive devices and methods for monitoring of organic pollutants in the aquatic environment is of increasing interest. An integrative passive sampling system has been developed which consists of a solid poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) material (tube or rod), acting as hydrophobic organic receiving phase, enclosed in a water-filled or an air-filled low-density polyethylene (LDPE) membrane tubing. These samplers enable the direct analysis of the pollutants accumulated during exposure in the receiving phase by thermodesorption-GC/MS, avoiding expensive sample preparation and cleanups. The capabilities of these sampling devices were studied for the sampling of 20 persistent organic pollutants (chlorobenzenes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, p,p'-DDE, PAHs, and PCBs) in laboratory exposure experiments. For the three sampler designs investigated the uptake of all target analytes was integrative over exposure periods up to 9 days (except PCB 101). The determined sampling rates range from 4 to 1340 microl h(-1) for the water-filled samplers and from 20 to 6360 microl h(-1) for the air-filled ones, respectively. The sampling rate of the analytes is dependent on their molecular weight, partition between water and sampler media (PDMS, polyethylene, water, air) and also of the sampler design. The passive samplers enable the estimation of time-weighted average (TWA) concentration of water pollutants in the lower ng l(-1) to pg l(-1) range. PMID:14587855

Wennrich, Luise; Vrana, Branislav; Popp, Peter; Lorenz, Wilhelm

2003-10-01

411

Hypothesis-driven approach for the identification of fecal pollution sources in water resources.  

PubMed

Water resource management must strive to link catchment information with water quality monitoring. The present study attempted this for the field of microbial fecal source tracking (MST). A fecal pollution source profile based on catchment data (e.g., prevalence of fecal sources) was used to formulate a hypothesis about the dominant sources of pollution in an Austrian mountainous karst spring catchment. This allowed a statistical definition of methodical requirements necessary for an informed choice of MST methods. The hypothesis was tested in a 17-month investigation of spring water quality. The study followed a nested sampling design in order to cover the hydrological and pollution dynamics of the spring and to assess effects such as differential persistence between parameters. Genetic markers for the potential fecal sources as well as microbiological, hydrological, and chemo-physical parameters were measured. The hypothesis that ruminant animals were the dominant sources of fecal pollution in the catchment was clearly confirmed. It was also shown that the concentration of ruminant markers in feces was equally distributed in different ruminant source groups. The developed approach provides a tool for careful decision-making in MST study design and might be applied on various types of catchments and pollution situations. PMID:21466151

Reischer, G H; Kollanur, D; Vierheilig, J; Wehrspaun, C; Mach, R L; Sommer, R; Stadler, H; Farnleitner, A H

2011-04-05

412

Detection of water ice on Nereid.  

PubMed

We report the detection of the 1.5 and 2.0 micrometers absorption bands of water ice in the near-infrared reflection spectrum of Neptune's distant irregular satellite Nereid. The spectrum and albedo of Nereid appear intermediate between those of the Uranian satellites Umbriel and Oberon, suggesting a surface composed of a combination of water ice frost and a dark and spectrally neutral material. In contrast, the surface of Nereid appears dissimilar to those of the outer solar system minor planets Chiron, Pholus, and 1997 CU26. The spectrum thus provides support for the hypothesis that Nereid is a regular satellite formed in a circumplanetary environment rather than a captured object. PMID:11542819

Brown, M E; Koresko, C D; Blake, G A

1998-12-01

413

Detecting benthic community responses to pollution in estuaries: a field mesocosm approach.  

PubMed

Biological stress responses in individuals are used as indicators of pollution in aquatic ecosystems, but detecting ecologically relevant responses in whole communities remains a challenge. We developed an experimental approach to detect the effects of pollution on estuarine communities using field-based mesocosms. Mesocosms containing defaunated sediments from four estuaries in southeastern Australia that varied in sediment contamination were transplanted and buried in sediments of the same four estuaries for six weeks. Mesocosm sediment properties and metal concentrations remained representative of their source locations. In each estuary, fauna communities associated with sediments derived from the site with the highest metal concentrations were significantly different from other communities. This pattern was evident for some of the individual taxa, in particular the polychaete Capitella sp. Consistent responses across estuaries suggest numbers of individuals, and especially Capitella sp., could be used to identify contaminated sediments in estuaries with similar fauna and site characteristics. PMID:23333486

O'Brien, Allyson L; Keough, Michael J

2013-01-16

414

Report on the Immediate Water Pollution Control Needs for the Interstate and Intrastate Waters of the St. Lawrence Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews the water pollution problems in the St. Lawrence Region, which is defined to include all streams draining to the St. Lawrence River from the St. Regis River in New York on the west to Lake Memphremagog in Vermont on the east. The major ...

1967-01-01

415

Detection of Organic Pollution of Streams in Southern Sweden Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Benthic macroinvertebrates samples were collected in spring and autumn 2000. Fifteen streams in southern Sweden were sampled\\u000a twice both for chemical, physical, and biological parameters. Eighty-four macroinvertebrate ‘single’ metrics were calculated\\u000a and tested for their ability of detecting organic pollution of streams. A comparison of the ‘best’ single metrics with two\\u000a multimetric indices was also done. The Belgian Biotic Index

Joakim Dahl; Richard K. Johnson; Leonard Sandin

416

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES: DRINKING WATER TREATMENT FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This document provides information for small system owners, operators, managers, and local decision makers, such as town officials, regarding drinking water treatment requirements and the treatment technologies suitable for small systems. t is not intended to be a comprehensive m...

417

Magnetic Separation of Soluble Organic Pollutants from Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The potential use of High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) for removing soluble organics in water and for treating composite wastewater from a food processing unit was studied. The initial investigation was of soluble organic removal by a combined use ...

J. A. Petruska J. V. Perumpral

1977-01-01

418

New Advanced Oxidation Technologies for Destruction of Pollutants in Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of the set of advanced oxidation technologies (plasma, bio- and photochemical) for the purification and disinfection of the heavy contaminated water is proposed. The plasma and photochemical techniques are used for the destruction of complicated o...

A. Kravchenko A. Trokhymchuk V. Chernyak Y. Tarasova

2001-01-01

419

Pollution of Irrigation Reuse Water by Plant Pathogens.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Systematic sampling of irrigation runoff and reuse systems in Nebraska demonstrated contamination of the water with plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria. In designed reuse systems, nearly 60% of corn fields showing symptoms of Goss's bacterial wilt (Coryne...

J. R. Steadman

1979-01-01

420

Portable RF-Sensor System for the Monitoring of Air Pollution and Water Contamination.  

PubMed

Monitoring air pollution including the contents of VOC, O(3), NO(2), and dusts has attracted a lot of interest in addition to the monitoring of water contamination because it affects directly to the quality of living conditions. Most of the current air pollution monitoring stations use the expensive and bulky instruments and are only installed in the very limited area. To bring the information of the air and water quality to the public in real time, it is important to construct portable monitoring systems and distribute them close to our everyday living places. In this work, we have constructed a low-cost portable RF sensor system by using 400?MHz transceiver to achieve this goal. Accuracy of the measurement was comparable to the ones used in the expensive and bulky commercial air pollution forecast systems. PMID:22928151

Kang, Joonhee; Kim, Jin Young

2012-08-15

421

Water Pollution: Organic Compounds in the Charles River, Boston  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major lipophilic organic compounds present in water collected during November and December 1971 from the Charles River Basin (Boston) are as follows: normal alkanes (C15 to C31), alkyl naphthalenes, alkyl anthracenes or phenanthrenes, pyrene, fluoranthene, dibutyl phthalate, and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. The concentration of the naphthalenes (determined by liquid chromatography) correlates with the effective storm-water runoff content of the river.

Ronald A. Hites; K. Biemann

1972-01-01

422

Peterson Air Force base storm water pollution prevention plan. Final report, October 1993-April 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report fulfills the requirements of the EPA General Permit for storm water discharge that facilities requiring NPDES storm water permits prepare a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP). Facilities requiring permits are those classified as industrial under one of eleven categories as defined in 40 CFR I 22.26(b)(14)-(O)-(xi). EPA has ruled that military bases are subject to storm water regulations based on secondary activities such as hazardous waste storage (category iv), installation Restoration Program (IRP) sites (category v), aircraft maintenance/refueling (category viii), and waste water treatment (category ix). The relevant activity at Peterson AFB that makes the base industrial under the NPDES program is the aircraft maintenance/refueling that takes place there. The purpose of the SWPPP is to (1) identify potential sources of pollution which may reasonably be expected to affect the quality of storm water discharge associated with industrial activity from the facility; (2) implement best management practices (BMPs) to minimize storm water pollution; and (3) assure compliance with all terms and conditions of the Permit.

Rives, S.; Makowski, P.; Graziano, F.

1994-09-01

423

Modeling the contribution of point sources and non-point sources to Thachin River water pollution.  

PubMed

Major rivers in developing and emerging countries suffer increasingly of severe degradation of water quality. The current study uses a mathematical Material Flow Analysis (MMFA) as a complementary approach to address the degradation of river water quality due to nutrient pollution in the Thachin River Basin in Central Thailand. This paper gives an overview of the origins and flow paths of the various point- and non-point pollution sources in the Thachin River Basin (in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus) and quantifies their relative importance within the system. The key parameters influencing the main nutrient flows are determined and possible mitigation measures discussed. The results show that aquaculture (as a point source) and rice farming (as a non-point source) are the key nutrient sources in the Thachin River Basin. Other point sources such as pig farms, households and industries, which were previously cited as the most relevant pollution sources in terms of organic pollution, play less significant roles in comparison. This order of importance shifts when considering the model results for the provincial level. Crosschecks with secondary data and field studies confirm the plausibility of our simulations. Specific nutrient loads for the pollution sources are derived; these can be used for a first broad quantification of nutrient pollution in comparable river basins. Based on an identification of the sensitive model parameters, possible mitigation scenarios are determined and their potential to reduce the nutrient load evaluated. A comparison of simulated nutrient loads with measured nutrient concentrations shows that nutrient retention in the river system may be significant. Sedimentation in the slow flowing surface water network as well as nitrogen emission to the air from the warm oxygen deficient waters are certainly partly responsible, but also wetlands along the river banks could play an important role as nutrient sinks. PMID:19501876

Schaffner, Monika; Bader, Hans-Peter; Scheidegger, Ruth

2009-06-06

424

Treatment of polluted landscape lake water and community analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in constructed wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three lab-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSF CWs) were installed to demonstrate the use of constructed wetlands as a viable low-cost treatment option to purify the polluted scenery water. The goals of this study were to determine the effectiveness of the wetland treatment technology in reducing contaminants in polluted natural water body and to characterize bacterial composition present in

Jun Yin; Lingyan Jiang; Yue Wen; Zhiliang Yao; Qi Zhou

2009-01-01

425

A simple tool for the assessment of water quality in polluted lagoon systems: A case study for Küçükçekmece Lagoon, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lagoon systems have particular ecological, morphological and hydrodynamic characteristics and act like transitional zones between inland and open waters. The aim of this study is to develop a Lagoon Water Quality Index (L-WQI) for environmental control of polluted lagoon systems by focusing on primary problems such as increasing stress on aquatic biota, eutrophication and organic pollution. The indicators used in

Mehmet Ümit Taner; Beyza Üstün; Ay?en Erdinçler

2011-01-01

426

Remote sensing applied to environmental pollution detection and management. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of remote sensing techniques and equipment to study air and water pollution. Topics include the use of aerial photographs, radar, and spaceborne photography to study oil spills, ocean dumping sites, plume dispersions, and pollution problems in estuaries. Data interpretation and processing techniques are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

427

Remote sensing applied to environmental pollution detection and management. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of remote sensing techniques and equipment to study air and water pollution. Topics include the use of aerial photographs, radar, and spaceborne photography to study oil spills, ocean dumping sites, plume dispersions, and pollution problems in estuaries. Data interpretation and processing techniques are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01

428

A review of Central European methods for the biological estimation of water pollution levels*  

PubMed Central

With the increasing amount and variety of pollution of surface and other waters in the modern world, there is an increasing need for simple, rapid and reliable methods for assessing the degree of purity or contamination of water. Partly for historical reasons, chemical methods have been used more widely than biological ones, although the latter possess certain advantages not shared by the former. Much important work on the biological assessment of water pollution has been done in Central Europe, and the author of this paper reviews the more significant of the modern methods evolved there. Some are ecological, some physiological; and certain of them merit consideration as standardizable procedures, applicable over a wider range of waters than those for which they were developed. To this end it will be necessary to conduct carefully controlled field trials under varying climatic and other conditions.

Bick, Hartmut

1963-01-01

429

Monitoring of heavy metal pollution in surface waters from Aries River, Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining activities have a long history in the Aries catchment. The extraction of precious metals containing ores culminated in the mid 20th century and then decreased continuously. The mining industry created a beneficial economic development of the region but the negative environmental impact due to acid mine drainage combined with heavy metal pollution of surface waters still remains, after most of the mining operations were closed. This study presents the results of a monitoring surveillance of heavy metal concentrations in surface waters from 12 monitoring stations along the Aries River, during March-October 2008. The results showed that downstream of mining activities an increase of all metal concentrations in surface waters was observed, but the water quality improved with the distance from contaminant sources due to the dilution effect of less polluted tributaries.

Levei, E. A.; Moldovan, O.; Senila, M.; Miclean, M.; Tanaselia, C.; Roman, C.; Abraham, B.; Cordos, E. A.

2009-04-01

430

The process of thermodialysis in bioremediation of waters polluted by endocrine disruptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine disruptors are chemicals able to induce adverse effects into wildlife and humans owing to their ability of interfering with the endocrine system. Bisphenol A (BPA) has been chosen as model of endocrine disruptors. To reduce the BPA pollution in waters we proposed the employment of the process of thermodialysis. Two different catalytic membranes have been prepared by covalently immobilizing

Damiano G. Mita; Nadia Diano; Valentina Grano; Marianna Portaccio; Sergio Rossi; Umberto Bencivenga; Immacolata Manco; Carla Nicolucci; Mariangela Bianco; Tiziana Grimaldi; Luigi Mita; Svetla Georgieva; Tzonka Godjevargova

2009-01-01

431

Water Pollution Control Act of 1972. Economic Impacts Leather Tanning Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economic impacts on the leather tanning industry of achieving the 1977 (BPT) and 1983 (BAT) limitation requirements of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (P.L. 92-500) were assessed. The capital requirements for the industry to...

1975-01-01

432

Prediction of environmental parameters by adsorbability index: Water solubilities of hydrophobic organic pollutants  

SciTech Connect

The adsorbability index proposed by Abe et al. to predict the activated carbon adsorption of organic compounds from aqueous solutions was found to be an effective parameter for predicting the water solubilities of 265 hydrophobic organic pollutants which were classified into 118 aliphatic compounds and 88 mono- and 59 polynuclear aromatic compounds; and, furthermore, for predicting the total molecular surface areas of these compounds.

Okouchi, S.; Saegusa, H.; Nojima, O. (Hosei Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

1992-01-01

433

DNA technologies for monitoring waterborne pathogens: A revolution in water pollution monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to increasing population growth and anthropogenic pollution in the coastal zone, contamination of water and seafood with pathogens is probably responsible for the greatest number of human morbidities and mortalities worldwide. Hence, regular monitoring of waterborne pathogens is required to safeguard public health. Current techniques rely on the culturing of nonpathogenic indicator organisms (e.g. Escherichia coli or coliforms) for

Richard Y. C. Kong; Mandy M. H. Mak; Rudolf S. S. Wu

2009-01-01

434

Other water pollution. [Nonpoint sources, primarily agricultural sediment and urban runoff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only half the water pollutants are estimated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to originate at point sources, while the other half result from diverse nonpoint sources that are hard to identify and hard to control. Nonpoint sources are primarily one of eight types of runoff, with the major volume attributed to agricultural sediment and urban runoff. Urban stormwater runoff

1978-01-01

435

Factors affecting the enumeration of coliphages in sewage and sewage-polluted waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The count of coliphages in naturally polluted waters was found to be dependent on many experimental factors. If Escherichia coli C was used as a host strain, consistently higher counts were obtained than with other strains (B, K-12-derivatives). This could be explained partly by the absence of a restriction system in C. A nutrient medium (modified Scholtens' agar, MSA) was

A. H. Havelaar; W. M. Hogeboom

1983-01-01

436

Investigations for heavy metals pollution in the Nile water in Khartoum area using XRF.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to perform measurements for heavy metals pollution in the Nile water in Khartoum area. Ten locations were selected for the study on the white Nile, the Blue Nile and the Nile. Standard methods were used for samples collection...

S. E. Salih

1998-01-01

437

LEAF PHOTOSYNTHETIC AND WATER RELATIONS RESPONSES FOR "VALENCIA" ORANGE TREES EXPOSED TO OXIDANT AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Leaf responses were measured to test a hypothesis that reduced photosynthetic capacity and/or altered water relations were associated with reductions in yield for "Valencia" orange trees exposed to ambient oxidant air pollution. xposures were continuous for four years to three le...

438

THE STATE OF POLLUTION LEVELS OF KARACHI HARBOUR AND ADJOINING COASTAL WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out recently to determine the pollution level of waters in the Karachi harbour and adjoining backwaters. Nine locations were selected, four in the backwaters, two on the seaside, and three in the main navigable channel. Four of these locations were deliberately selected to coincide with those of a previous study conducted in 1982 by Pakistan Council

Waseem Akhtar; Iqbal Ali; S. S. H. Zaidi; Seema Jilani

1997-01-01

439

Anorganische en Organische Microverontreingingen in Industrieel Afvalwater (Inorganic and Organic Micro Pollutants in Industrial Waste Water),  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1983 and 1984 research was conducted on the presence of a number of environment polluting substances in industrial waste water. The study was set up as a result of an Order in Council draft concerning the inventory of substances. This draft stipulated ...

W. van Starkenburg A. B. van Luin

1985-01-01

440

Vertical flow soil filter for the elimination of micro pollutants from storm and waste water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technical scale activated soil filter has been used to study the elimination rates of diverse environmentally relevant micro pollutants from storm and waste water. The filter was made of layers of peat, sand and gravel. The upper (organic) layer was planted with reed (phragmites australis) to prevent clogging and was spiked with activated sludge to enhance microbial biomass and

Niklas Janzen; Stefan Banzhaf; Traugott Scheytt; Kai Bester

2009-01-01

441

Training Course on Water Pollution. Red Sea & Gulf of Aden Programme (PERSGA).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents a training course on water pollution developed by the staff of the National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt. This course, which is organized by the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO), is intended for Junior Bachelor of Science (B.S.) graduates from various Arab countries. The duration of…

Arab Organization for Education and Science, Cairo (Egypt).

442

Mercury pollution of fishes in Minamata Bay and surrounding water: Analysis of pathway of mercury  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1973, the Environment Agency of Japan made an intensive survey of Hg pollution in Minamata Bay and its surrounding water. About 200 sediment samples and 1600 fish samples were collected for determination of Hg. This paper reports the results of the investigation of the pathway of Hg from sediment to fish. The Hg level of a fish species and

Hajime Nishimura; Mikio Kumagai

1983-01-01

443

Estimate of Water Pollution Potential Based on Characteristics of Domestic Sewage in Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accurate measurements of BOD, COD, solids and nutrients in sewage are very important for water pollution control. Many of these per capita values used by engineers today were established decades ago. Re-evaluation of these values is necessary. In this inv...

N. H. Tang

1975-01-01

444

Economic and Financial Impacts of Federal Air and Water Pollution Controls on the Electric Utility Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Changes in the financial profile of the electric utility industry which are likely to result from federal air and water pollution controls for the 1975-1990 period are discussed. The analysis provides operating and financial projections at the national an...

1976-01-01

445

12 Sustainable Agriculture: A Technical or Economic Issue? Reducing Nitrate Water Pollution with Market Incentives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of the economic dimension into the design of sustainable agro-ecological systems is essential to the different stages involved in identifying the problem and finding viable solutions within a sustainable development perspective. Taken as an example, the problem of nitrate water pollution caused by agriculture is faced by analysing the possible employment of economic instruments as market incentives for

S. Cocco; A. Ciani

446

The municipal continuum: Research on maritime water pollution in Helsinki in the 20th century  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, the history of environmental research is not known very well. Our study contributes to filling this gap by focusing on the history of the methods that were used during the 20th century to study the state of the urban sea area in Helsinki, Finland. From the beginning of the past century, the methodological basis of municipal water pollution

Sari K. Laurila; Simo J. Laakkonen

2004-01-01

447

Characterization of light duty Diesel engine pollutant emissions using water-emulsified fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the effect of water–oil emulsions on the engine performance and on the main pollutant emissions, NOx, total hydrocarbons (THC), soot, particulate matter (PM) and its composition, was studied. A turbocharger intercooler indirect injection (IDI) Diesel engine was tested under five different steady state operating conditions, selected from the transient cycle for light duty vehicles established in the

O. Armas; R. Ballesteros; F. J. Martos; J. R. Agudelo

2005-01-01

448

Action for Environmental Quality. Standards and Enforcement for Air and Water Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for setting and enforcing environmental quality standards for the nation. With the Clean Air Act of 1970 (P.L. 91-604) and the Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (P.L. 92-500), the first truly nationwide control programs were established. This booklet is designed to inform the public…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

449

The Beet Sugar Industry--The Water Pollution Problem and Status of Waste Abatement and Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Primary attention is focused upon the beet sugar industry in the South Platte River Basin. Beet sugar wastes are the largest source of pollution within the area. Ten sugar factories are dispersed throughout the region and affect water quality over 300 mil...

1967-01-01

450

SCIENCE OF INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT: LINKING POLLUTANT CONTROL PRACTICES WITH WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

SCIENCE OF INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT: LINKING POLLUTANT CONTROL PRACTICES WITH WATER QUALITY M. Morrison (NRMRL), C. Nietch (NRMRL), 1. Schubauer-Berigan (NRMRL), M. Hantush (NRMRL), D. Lai (NRMRL), B. Daniel (NERL), M. Griffith (NCEA) Science Questions LTG 3. MYP Sc...

451

Water Quality and Pollution. Environmental Studies. 4 Color Transparencies, Reproducibles & Teaching Guide. Grade 3, 4, 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The world is faced with a variety of environmental problems. No country has escaped pollution and resource depletion. Basic ecological principles are often ignored and sometimes this contributes to ecological disasters. This volume is designed to provide basic information about the quality of the earth's water resources. The visual aids,…

Ortleb, Edward P.; And Others

452

Water pollution by insecticides in an agricultural river basin. II. The zooplankton, bottom fauna, and fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACI' In 1959 and 1960, zooplankton, bottom fauna, and Fish populations were studied in a drainage system polluted with insecticides in northern Alabama. Toxaphcnc and BHC (benzene hcxachloridc) were present in all water samples collected in 1959 and 1960 in concentrations considered to be sublethal to aquatic animals in a single dose. There was no convincing cvidcnce that continuous toxaphenc

ALFRED R. GRZENDA; GERALD J. LAUER; H. PAGE NICHOLSON

1964-01-01

453

LIVESTOCK FACILITIES AND POLLUTION OF WATER RESOURCES IN VENEZUELA: CURRENT STATUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The main objective of this paper was to analyze the current status of the relationship between livestock facilities in Venezuela and the pollution they can cause to water resources used for human or animal consumption. Briefly, it is informed about the geographic and economical situation in Venezuela, and about the high risks of ecosystems contamination with products derived from

Roy D. Meléndez; Yolanda Romero-Cazeaudumec; Francisco Blavia

454

Farmers' Willingness to Pay for Reducing Water Pollution in Poyang Lake, Jiangxi Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental threats to wetland ecosystems are increasing, and these ecosystems are becoming increasingly sensitive to human impacts, leading to deterioration of these already fragile ecosystems. Poyang Lake is the largest freshwater lake in China and one of the most important wetlands in the world. However, water pollution and related environmental changes have increasingly drawn the scientific community's attention. The goal

Fen Li; Jing Hu; Jinghua Shi; Zhiqiang Luo; Xiangzhao Feng

2011-01-01

455

Microbial sulfate reduction and its potential utility as an acid mine water pollution abatement procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of high concentrations of sulfate, iron, and hydrogen (acid) ions in drainage from coal mines and other areas containing waste pyritic materials is a serious water pollution problem. Sulfate can be removed from solution by microbial reduction to sulfide and subsequent precipitation as FeS. A mixed culture of microorganisms degraded wood dust cellulose, and the degradation products served

J. H. Tuttle; P. R. Dugan; C. I. Randles

1969-01-01

456

The Regulation of Toxic Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act: EPA's Ten Year Rulemaking Nears Completion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether it's footdragging, or compliance is impossible, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) usually fails to meet its deadlines for issuing regulations. The best-known case is probably EPA's 10-year struggle to establish regulatory controls on toxic pollutants under the Clean Water Act. The developmental process is reviewed from the initial statutory framework (enacted in 1948) and the effluent limitations amendments (legislated

BRADFORD W. WYCHE

1983-01-01

457

Reuse of water treatment works sludge to enhance particulate pollutant removal from sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempted to study the feasibility of reusing water treatment works sludge (“alum sludge”) to improve particulate pollutant removal from sewage. The main issues focused upon were: (1) the appropriate dosage of the alum sludge, (2) the appropriate operating conditions, and (3) the possible mechanisms for enhancement by adding alum sludge. Actual alum sludge and sewage were applied to

Xiao-Hong Guan; Guang-Hao Chen; Chii Shang

2005-01-01

458

EQUILIBRIUM DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENTS FOR EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC PRIORITY POLLUTANTS FROM WATER - II  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is the second of a series of two reports dealing with the removal of certain of the organic EPA Priority Pollutants from water by means of solvent extraction. The principal focus of the project has been measurement of equilibrium distribution coefficients (equivalent ...

459

A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume I - Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication, Volume I of a two volume set, consists of many tested water pollution study activities. The activities are grouped into four headings: (1) Hydrologic Cycle, (2) Human Activities, (3) Ecological Perspectives, and (4) Social and Political Factors. Three levels of activities are provided: (1) those which increase awareness, (2)…

Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

460

A Guide to the Common Diatoms at Water Pollution Surveillance System Stations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a taxonomic reference for the identification of diatoms. The taxonomic information included consists of a generic key to the common genera of diatoms, a section illustrating 164 diatom species representing 43 common genera found at the Water Pollution

Weber, Cornelius I.

461

Radiation-induced degradation of water pollutants—state of the art  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiation-induced decomposition of biological resistant pollutants in drinking as well as in wastewater is briefly reviewed. First, some important units, definitions etc., radiation sources, as well as dose-depth curves in water as functions of the electron energy and 60Co-?-rays are mentioned. Following is a schematical presentation of water radiolysis and of characteristics of primary free radicals. Then the degradation

Nikola Getoff

1996-01-01

462

Bio-diatomite dynamic membrane reactor for micro-polluted surface water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigated the feasibility of treating micro-polluted surface water for drinking water production with a bio-diatomite dynamic membrane reactor (BDDMR) at lab-scale in continuous-flow mode. Results indicate that the BDDMR was effective in removing CODMn, DOC, UV254, NH3-N and trihalomethanes' formation potential (THMFP) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.5h due to its high concentrations of mixed liquor

Huaqiang Chu; Dawen Cao; Bingzhi Dong; Zhimin Qiang

2010-01-01

463

A revised procedure to concentrate organic micro-pollutants in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new procedure to concentrate chemical pollutants in surface water\\u000asamples is tested against 27 chemicals of varying physico-chemical and\\u000abiological properties. A comparison is made to former procedures that\\u000ahave developed since 1994. The method is operational since 1996 in\\u000amonitoring the toxicity of surface water in the framework of the project\\u000aGeographic Representation of Ecotoxicological Effects of Substances.

Struijs J; Kamp RE van de

2007-01-01

464

Removal of Ammonia-nitrogen from Micro-polluted Raw Water by O3Biological Zeolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

O3-biological zeolite processes was used to treat micro-polluted raw water, The results show that zeolite modified by NaCl is efficiency on ammonia-nitrogen removal, at pH 6~9 and 150min stirring time, the ammonia-nitrogen removal rate is 71.2%;During the culture of biofilm, ammonia-nitrogen removal rate of water treated by biological zeolite increased after decreasing .When the biofilm is mature, the removal rate

Tan Wanchun; Pan Zhengke; Wang Yunbo; Wang Qiuyun

2011-01-01

465

Pilot-scale Study on Enhanced Coagulation Treatment of the Micro-polluted Reservoir Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the characteristics of raw water of the micro-polluted reservoir, jar-test and pilot scale experiments were employed respectively for water treatment. The results showed that the particles with large size decreased when ozone pre-oxidation was applied, meanwhile, the organic matters with unsaturated chemical bonds decreased obviously. Moreover, the treatment efficiency of HPAC was better than which of traditional PAC

Liu Qi-feng; Zhou Xin-tao; Li Zai-dong; Zhan Zhi-gang

2012-01-01

466

The Membrane Flux Changes of PAC and UF Combination in Treating Micro-Polluted Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of micro-polluted water in Gan River with the PAC-UF combined process was investigated. Based on analysis of raw water characteristics and operation conditions, a mathematical model of membrane flux has been derived. PAC- UF combined process. Operation pressure, temperature, turbidity, organic compounds (in terms of UV254), running time, cycle and so on, were mainly concerned in this model. The

Jian Zhan; Xiaohua Huang; Zhanli Chen

2011-01-01

467

SOLAR PHOTOCATALYTIC DEGRADATION OF WATER AND AIR POLLUTANTS: CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar photocatalytic oxidation processes (PCO) for degradation of water and air pollutants have recently received increasing attention. Some field-scale experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of using a semiconductor (TiO2) in solar collectors and concentrators to completely mineralize organic contaminants in water and air. Although successful pre-industrial solar tests have been carried out, there are still discrepancies and doubt concerning process

Manuel Romero; Julián Blanco; Benigno Sánchez; Alfonso Vidal; Sixto Malato; Ana I. Cardona; Elisa Garcia

1999-01-01

468

Ecotoxic impact of suspended solids collected from polluted surface waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scope and background  Earlier studies showed that artificially contaminated particulate matter could be responsible for acute effects in water fleas\\u000a and fish. Physical\\/chemical measurements on suspended solids and river water collected in the field showed that these samples\\u000a were often contaminated with mixtures of toxic molecules.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The present pilot study was started to investigate the possible ecotoxic impact of suspended solids

Reinhilde Weltens; Hilda Witters; Philippe Corbisier

2001-01-01

469

Air and water pollution control: a benefit-cost assessment  

SciTech Connect

Freeman attempts to assess the net benefits associated with environmental programs dealing with air and water quality. He concludes that stationary controls have been justified, but that mobile sources and water controls, as presently designed and implemented, have had costs greater than benefits to society. The reviewer notes that the book is more than just a compendium of mechanistic, technical detail; there is rather, far more general information on how economists view environmental problems than suggested by the title. An example is the discussions of the various approaches to valuing environmental benefits.

Freeman, A.M. III

1982-01-01

470

Application of remote sensing techniques for monitoring the thermal pollution of cooling-water discharge from nuclear power plant.  

PubMed

This article introduces a practical method to investigate thermal pollution in coastal water from satellite data. The intensity and distribution areas of thermal pollution by the heated effluent discharge from the nuclear power plant on Daya Bay, southern China were investigated by using Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) thermal band data from 1994 to 2001. A local algorithm was developed, based on sea-truth data of water surface temperature measured when the satellite passed over the study area. The local algorithm was then applied to estimate water temperature from TM data. It shows that the remote sensing technique provides an effective means to quantitatively monitor the intensity of thermal pollution and to retrieve a very detailed distribution pattern of thermal pollution in coastal waters. The remotely-sensed results of the thermal pollution can be used for environmental management of coastal waters. PMID:12929815

Chen, Chuqun; Shi, Ping; Mao, Qingwen

2003-08-01

471

Investigating water pollution of the Dareh Morad Beik River in the Hamadan District, Iran.  

PubMed

Water-related hazards, such as drought, floods, erosion, and various kinds of pollution, should be factored into any integrated approach to water-resource management. This research attempt has been made to assess the process of water pollution in the Dareh Morad Beik (DMB) River, whose length is about 18 km and whose average flow rate is 250 L/s. The quality of river water, including chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate, fecal coliform, and total coliform, were all measured and evaluated at three different sampling stations within different months of the year. The information was gathered by conducting experiments and through field visits, as well as by library study. The results of this research showed that, from a microbiological point of view, the water of the DMB was polluted during the year. Based on the results obtained it was determined that the amount of COD and BOD at station 1 was negligible. Also the influx of qantas waters from Hamadan City into the DMB has caused dilution of COD, BOD, and nitrate of that river at station 3. PMID:18991905

Khoram, Mahdi Reyahi; Nafea, Minoo

2008-10-01

472

A comparative analysis: storm water pollution policy in California, USA and Victoria, Australia.  

PubMed

Urban drainage systems historically were developed on principles of hydraulic capacity for the transport of storm water to reduce the risk of flooding. However, with urbanization the percent of impervious surfaces increases dramatically resulting in increased flood volumes, peak discharge rates, velocities and duration, and a significant increase in pollutant loads. Storm water and urban runoff are the leading causes of the impairment of receiving waters and their beneficial uses in Australia and the United States today. Strict environmental and technology controls on wastewater treatment facilities and industry for more than three decades have ensured that these sources are less significant today as the cause of impairment of receiving waters. This paper compares the approach undertaken by the Environmental Protection Authority Victoria for the Melbourne metropolitan area with the approach implemented by the California Environmental Protection Agency for the Los Angeles area to control storm water pollution. Both these communities are largely similar in population size and the extent of urbanization. The authors present an analysis of the different approaches contrasting Australia with the USA, comment on their comparative success, and discuss the relevance of the two experiences for developed and developing nations in the context of environmental policy making to control storm water and urban runoff pollution. PMID:12793695

Swamikannu, X; Radulescu, D; Young, R; Allison, R

2003-01-01

473

TRANSPORATION OF RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION BY WATER TO GREAT DISTANCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration is given to steps taken to reduce radiopollution from the ; atomic energy installations at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Harwell, England. ; Standards of safe radionuclide accumulation in water established by the Harwell ; plant are given, as well as standards proposed by Euratom. The physical, ; chemical, and biological factors affecting both the accumulation and dispersal of ;

Van de Vloed

1963-01-01

474

Cost and Pollutant Removal of StormWater Treatment Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six storm-water best management practices BMPs for treating urban rainwater runoff were evaluated for cost and effective- ness in removing suspended sediments and total phosphorus. Construction and annual operating and maintenance O and M cost data were collected and analyzed for dry extended detention basins, wet basins, sand filters, constructed wetlands, bioretention filters, and infiltration trenches using literature that reported

Peter T. Weiss; John S. Gulliver; Andrew J. Erickson

2007-01-01

475

TSS - A VIABLE MEASURE OF STORM WATER POLLUTANTS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storm water best management practices (BMPs) have been historically evaluated for effectiveness and selected based on their ability to remove total suspended solids (TSS). EPA and a number of states and local agencies have adopted a criterion of 80% removal of TSS for BMPs and for determining acceptance of manufactured structural BMPs. Many agencies use TSS as a surrogate for

Roger B. James

476

Nanoporous Polymeric Material for Remediation of PAHs Polluted Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new nanoporous polymer was prepared using non covalent molecular imprinting technique to remediate PAHs contaminated water. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) microspheres size range between 10 and 20 ?m were synthesized in acetonitrile using 4 PAHs mix as the template, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linking monomer. The removal efficiency of the

REDDITHOTA J. KRUPADAM

2012-01-01

477

Luminescence Sensors Applied to Water Analysis of Organic Pollutants--An Update  

PubMed Central

The development of chemical sensors for environmental analysis based on fluorescence, phosphorescence and chemiluminescence signals continues to be a dynamic topic within the sensor field. This review covers the fundamentals of this type of sensors, and an update on recent works devoted to quantifying organic pollutants in environmental waters, focusing on advances since about 2005. Among the wide variety of these contaminants, special attention has been paid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, explosives and emerging organic pollutants. The potential of coupling optical sensors with multivariate calibration methods in order to improve the selectivity is also discussed.

Ibanez, Gabriela A.; Escandar, Graciela M.

2011-01-01

478

GIS to estimate storm-water pollutant mass loadings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop a monitoring program for the Santa Monica Bay, Calif., watershed, a land-use runoff model was developed using a geographic information system (GIS) coupled with an empirical runoff model. The GIS\\/model has simple data requirements as compared to more complex models that require routing information; and it is useful for predicting receiving-water loading on an annual basis

Kenneth M. Wong; M. K. Stenstrom; E. W. Strecker

1997-01-01

479

New techniques for analysis of organic pollutants in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

An abstractor packing prepared by coating Chromosorb G AW\\/DMCS with copper(II) chloride was effective for removal of amines from gas-chromatographic streams, but it did not affect the chromatographic behavior of nonamine compounds. By using pre-columns packed with the abstractor packing, solventless chromatograms were obtained for samples in pyridine. A method was developed for determining haloforms in drinking water by sorption

Kissinger

1979-01-01

480

Integrated optimal management of ground-water pollution and withdrawal  

SciTech Connect

An integrated ground-water management model is formulated as a multivariable constrained nonlinear optimization problem. To simulate the physical and chemical processes occurring within a leaky confined aquifer system, the finite-difference forms of the flow and transport equations are embedded in the management model. The Hooke-Jeeves method, a nonlinear programming technique, in conjunction with the exterior penalty function method is used to solve this management model. The suitability and capability of this method to solve the management problems for study areas of different sizes and different numbers of management periods are demonstrated. The performance evaluation of this proposed methodology establishes its potential applicability for the solutions of different kinds of ground-water management problems. The developed methodology also demonstrates the suitability of the embedding technique to solve a dimensionally large nonlinear ground-water management problem. The proposed methodology does not require the linking of simulation and optimization models externally. It is shown that global optimality of obtained solutions is dependent on the extensive identification of local optimal solutions and the accuracy in prescribed aquifer characteristics.

Keshari, A.K.; Datta, B. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Kanpur (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1996-01-01

481

Feasibility study of detection of hazardous airborne pollutants using passive open-path FTIR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years open-path FTIR systems (active and passive) have demonstrated great potential and success for monitoring air pollution, industrial stack emissions, and trace gas constituents in the atmosphere. However, most of the studies were focused mainly on monitoring gaseous species and very few studies have investigated the feasibility of detecting bio-aerosols and dust by passive open-path FTIR measurements. The goal of the present study was to test the feasibility of detecting a cloud of toxic aerosols by a passive mode open-path FTIR. More specifically, we are focusing on the detection of toxic organophosphorous nerve agents for which we use Tri-2-ethyl-hexyl-phosphate as a model compound. We have determined the compounds' optical properties, which were needed for the radiative calculations, using a procedure developed in our laboratory. In addition, measurements of the aerosol size distribution in an airborne cloud were performed, which provided the additional input required for the radiative transfer model. This allowed simulation of the radiance signal that would be measured by the FTIR instrument and hence estimation of the detection limit of such a cloud. Preliminary outdoor measurements have demonstrated the possibility of detecting such a cloud using two detection methods. However, even in a simple case consisting of the detection of a pure airborne cloud, detection is not straightforward and reliable identification of the compound would require more advanced methods than simple correlation with spectral library.

Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; Dubowski, Y.; Jahn, C.; Schäfer, K.; Gerl, G.; Linker, R.

2010-04-01

482

Photocatalytic degradation of water organic pollutants. Kinetic modeling and energy efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Photocatalytic conversion of a model pollutant (methylene blue) is studied in a novel Photo-CREC reactor unit. The experiments developed allow one to investigate the suitability of an heterogeneous reaction model which accounts for the concentrations of the model pollutant both in the bulk and on the mesh--TiO{sub 2}. In additional, a photochemical-thermodynamic efficiency factor (PTEF) is further examined, with the help of the enthalpy of {sup {sm_bullet}}OH formation from water and oxygen and based on the analysis in the light energy absorbed by the mesh. The resulting PTEF is a dimensionless parameter and has to be calculated at high enough model pollutant concentrations, that is, at conditions where zero-order reactions prevail. The PTEF values found in the Photo-CREC unit with the incorporated recent technical improvements are in the 0.0182 level, and this represents quantum yields of 6.31% of the so-called ideal efficiency.

Serrano, B.; Lasa, H. de [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada). Chemical Reactor Engineering Centre

1997-11-01

483

Use of synthetic zeolites for arsenate removal from pollutant water.  

PubMed

Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water below the current and proposed EPA MCL has been examined at room temperature. Experiments have been conducted to examine the extent of arsenic removal as a function of pH. The effect of initial arsenic concentration and liquid to solid ratio in the batch reactions has also been studied. Zeolite NH4+/Y (NY6) showed significant arsenate removal capacity over a wide initial pH range of 2-12. Zeolite NY6 achieved this performance by buffering the initial pH to within a range of 3.5 < pH < 7 where uptake of arsenate onto aluminol surface groups is at a maximum. The high aluminum content of NY6 (i.e. low Si/Al ratio) was an important factor governing the improved performance of this zeolite relative to other tested zeolites with higher Si/Al ratio. The pH buffering capacity of NY6 could lead to savings in cost and process time for industrial effluent treatment due to avoidance of a pH pre-conditioning step prior to arsenate removal. PMID:15276735

Shevade, Siddhesh; Ford, Robert G

484

Measuring air pollutants in presence of high water vapour concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In industrial emission monitoring applications sometimes very high water vapour concentrations can occur. In order to find out which accuracy a relatively simple FTS-based measuring system can achieve under such conditions, we performed NO measurements in presence of up to 60 vol.% water vapour. We used a Bruker IFS 66 with a spectral resolution of 1 cm-1 equipped with a pyroelectric DTGS-detector and a gas cell with 0.8 m path length. Concentrations were calculated from the measured spectra using the nonlinear NLS method. We found out that the loss of measuring effect caused by the reduction of path length is partially compensated by the absence of losses normally encountered with White cells. Furthermore, the capability of the NLS method to evaluate spectra with a low signal/noise ration made it possible to obtain sufficient accuracies for most industrial applications. The results make clear, that it is possible to build a relatively simple multicompound emission monitoring system based on an FTS.

Wülbern, Kai

1998-06-01

485

A potential genomic biomarker for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollutants: multidrug resistance gene 49 in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a major source of air, water, and soil pollution. The multidrug resistance (mdr)/permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) complex is implicated in the multidrug resistance pattern developed against various drugs and xenobiotics, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In order to develop a genomic biomarker, we investigated the response of the mdr49 gene (mdr49) of Drosophila melanogaster to PAHs. Structural analysis of mdr49-PA, which is the putative protein expressed from Drosophila mdr49 gene, demonstrated that this transmembrane protein indeed belongs to the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter superfamily. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR analysis revealed that the mdr49 gene is expressed continuously at all the stages of fly development, including embryos, pupae, larvae, and adults, as well as in embryonic Drosophila S12 cells. In the adult fly, the mdr49 gene was expressed in all the analyzed segments (head, thorax, and abdomen) and organs (olfactory and sexual organs). The quantification of mdr49 transcripts by real-time PCR in adult flies exposed to benzo[a]pyrene over time or in presence of increasing concentrations of this pollutant showed a clear dose-dependent response. Similarly, mdr49 gene expression increased after adult flies were exposed to structurally varied PAHs. The detection of tested PAHs by Drosophila P-gp efflux pump was checked by flow cytometry. PMID:17665681

Vache, Christel; Camares, Olivier; Cardoso-Ferreira, Marie-Céleste; Dastugue, Bernard; Creveaux, Isabelle; Vaury, Chantal; Bamdad, Mahchid

2007-07-01

486

Environmental Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a thorough overview of the many factors contributing to air and water pollution, outlines the chemical reactions involved in producing toxic end-products, and describes some of the consequences of pollutants on human health and ecosystems. (JR)|

Breitbeil, Fred W., III

1973-01-01

487

Sub-cooled water detection in silicon dew point hygrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of silicon dew point detector is presented in this paper. The fabricated detector structures contain a thermometer, two heaters, a capacitive interdigitated sensor for the detection of water, sub-cooled water, as well as ice. The test results of sub-cooled water recognition are carefully described. The theoretical model of the capacitive interdigitated sensor describing the principle of detection

R Jachowicz; J Weremczuk

2000-01-01

488

Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual to tidal periods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water temperature and fecal indicator bacteria levels covary along the shoreline of Huntington and Newport Beach, California at interannual to tidal periods. During summer, cooler than average waters caused by interannual variability in sea surface temperature (SST), synoptic upwelling, and tidal-period cooling are coincident with elevated levels of microbial pollution in the surf zone. This relationship can be explained by the effects of weakening in stratification on the fate of a waste water plume and the prolonged persistence of fecal indicator bacteria in colder waters. During winter, warmer than average water caused by basin scale oscillations and atmospheric and oceanographic processes that contribute to the Multivariate El Nino Southern Oscillation Index are indicative of elevated total coliform levels in the surf zone. The elevated coliform levels can be ascribed to increased rainfall, and the resultant storm water inflow to the surf zone.

Boehm, Alexandria B.; Lluch-Cota, Daniel B.; Davis, Kristen A.; Winant, Clinton D.; Monismith, Stephen G.

2004-03-01

489

[Effects of near-surface soil water conditions on agricultural non-point source pollutant transport].  

PubMed

Agricultural non-point source pollution is one of severe problems for water environment of agricultural area in China. The effects of near-surface soil water conditions on agricultural non-point source pollutant (AGNSP) transport during soil erosion processes, especially antecedent soil moisture was saturated, was developed by using artificial simulation rainfall experiment. The results showed that antecedent soil water content had great impact on AGNSP transport during soil erosive processes. Under the same soil texture, the AGNSP concentration and loading with runoff and sediment when the antecedent soil water content was saturated were greater than that of soil moisture un-saturated condition, and they would be increased as antecedent soil moisture increased. The approach of soil nitrogen loss was rainfall runoff; nitrogen loss with runoff was about 90.4% to 99.8% of total loss. The approaches of soil phosphorus were runoff and soil loss (sediment), the loss with runoff was about 2.67% to 23.5%, and the loss with sediment was about 76.5% to 97.3%. Soil texture had great influence on soil phosphorus loss; the concentration and loading of dissolved phosphorus (DP) with sediment from Yangling Loutu were greater than that of Ansai Loess. Some pertinence suggestions were given to control agricultural non-point source pollution, such as the best management practices. PMID:19402484

Zhang, Yu-Bin; Zheng, Fen-Li; Cao, Ning

2009-02-15

490

Water quality of the Neuse River, North Carolina : variability, pollution loads, and long-term trends  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A water-quality study of the Neuse River, N.C., based on data collected during 1956-77 at the U.S. Geological Survey stations at Clayton and Kinston, employs statistical trend analysis techniques that provide a framework for river quality assessment. Overall, water-quality of the Neuse River is satisfactory for most uses. At Clayton, fecal coliform bacteria and nutrient levels are high, but algae and total-organic-carbon data indicate water-quality improvement in recent years, due probably to a new wastewater treatment plant located downstream from Raleigh, N.C. Pollution was determined by subtracting estimated natural loads of constituents from measured total loads. Pollution makes up approximately 50% of the total dissolved material transported by the Neuse. Two different data transformation methods allowed trends to be identified in constituent concentrations. The methods recomputed the concentrations as if they were determined at a constant discharge over the period of record. Although little change since 1956 can be seen in most constituents, large changes in some constituents, such as increases in potassium and sulfate, indicate that the water quality of the Neuse River has noticeably deteriorated. Increases in sulfate are probably largely due to increased long-term inputs of sulfur compounds from airborne pollutants. (USGS)

Harned, Douglas A.

1980-01-01

491

Integrated survey of water pollution in the Suquía River basin (Córdoba, Argentina).  

PubMed

We report a combined two-year seasonal monitoring of Suquía River basin using both chemical parameters and biomarkers measured in Jenynsia multidentata, aiming to correlate external levels of contaminants with the response of oxidative stress biomarkers in this fish. Identified pollution sources correspond to city sewage as well as agricultural and small industry activities downstream from Córdoba city. Physicochemical parameters integrated into a water quality index (WQI) were measured in Suquía River during dry and wet seasons. Ag, Mn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb and Zn were also monitored in water and sediment samples. Biomarkers include detoxication and antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR). Enzymes showed a pollution dependent response, with increased activities in fish collected close to the sewage exit and progressive drop further downstream, matching changes in the Water Quality index. The combined use of biomarkers with water quality parameters allowed both the identification of pollution sources and the evaluation of effects of contaminants on the aquatic biota. PMID:21152656

Monferrán, Magdalena Victoria; Galanti, Lucas Nicolás; Bonansea, Rocío Inés; Amé, María Valeria; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto

2010-12-13

492

Evaluation of pollutant loadings in the runoff waters from a major rural highway  

PubMed

The quality of pavement runoff water from a 275-m motorway section has been studied for 1 year, during which approximately 50 rain events have been sampled. Two different types of pollution have been revealed. One type can be defined as chronic and includes suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, total hydrocarbons, zinc and lead. The second type can be considered to be seasonal and incorporates chlorides, sulfates, suspended solids and heavy metals due to the use of deicing salt in winter. Pollutant loading as regards lead appears lower than in previous studies because of the increasing number of vehicles using unleaded gasoline. The study conducted on the sources of pollution and on heavy metal fluxes (Pb, Cu, CD, Zn) released by the traffic has been used to assess a mass balance with respect to pollutant loadings removed by runoff waters. It seems that a large proportion of the lead concentration may disperse in the atmosphere, whereas cadmium sources may be ill-identified or underestimated. PMID:10535115

Legret; Pagotto

1999-09-01

493

Application of SOS umu-test for the detection of genotoxic volatile chemicals and air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

The SOS umu-test has been used for the detection of DNA-damaging agents. In this system the plasmid pSK1002 carrying a fused gene umuC-lacZ was introduced into Salmonella typhimurium TA1535. The SOS function induced by genotoxic agents is detected by a colorimetric measurement of beta-galactosidase activity encoded by the lacZ gene, which is regulated by the Umu operon. This system was used with modifications to study the SOS function inducibility of volatile chemicals (propylene oxide, methyl bromide, and ethylene dibromide) and air pollutants (diesel emission, welding fumes, and cigarette smoke). Tester cells were exposed directly to the test material. The enzyme activity of the treated cells was measured according to the established procedure. Results of the study showed that all chemicals and pollutants tested induced SOS function in a dose-related manner. These results indicate that the SOS umu-test is potentially useful for the in situ detection of genotoxic agents in occupational settings.

Ong, T.M.; Stewart, J.; Wen, Y.F.; Whong, W.Z.

1987-01-01

494

Natural Wetlands Mediate Non-point Source Water Pollution From Irrigated Pastures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-point source discharge from grazed pastures may be high in nutrients, sediment, and pathogens, three major contributors to water quality impairment in California. Intercepting pollution at its source and managing water quality within the landscape are essential to maintaining healthy downstream waters. We investigated the efficacy of flow-through wetlands interspersed throughout the agricultural landscape to reduce non-point source pollution of tailwater from cattle-grazed, irrigated pastures in the Sierra Nevada Foothills of California. Wetlands are known to positively impact water quality through ecological processes such as filtration, sedimentation, microbial transformations and plant uptake of nutrients. Influent and effluent water of small (0.25 ha), natural wetlands located downstream from flood irrigated pastures was analyzed for Escherichia coli, NO3-N, total N, total suspended solids (TSS), total P, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) throughout two summer irrigation seasons (June to October). We compared reductions of sediment, nutrients and E. coli provided by a healthy, non-degraded wetland with reductions from flow through a channelized, degraded wetland. Large reductions in E. coli (>75%) and TSS (>50%) were observed in water exiting the healthy wetland while nutrient and DOC (~ 20%) concentrations were less affected by flow through the wetland. The channelized wetland provided smaller reductions in all constituents than did the non-degraded wetland. Results from this study demonstrate that small flow-through wetlands can improve water quality through the attenuation of E. coli and suspended sediments, and to a lesser degree DOC and nutrients.

Knox, K.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Tate, K. W.

2005-12-01

495

Trace analysis of pollutants by use of honeybees, immunoassays, and chemiluminescence detection.  

PubMed

Specific and sensitive analysis to reveal and monitor the wide variety of chemical contaminants polluting all environment compartments, feed, and food is urgently required because of the increasing attention devoted to the environment and health protection. Our research group has been involved in monitoring the presence and distribution of agrochemicals by monitoring beehives distributed throughout the area studied. Honeybees have been used both as biosensors, because the pesticides affect their viability, and as "contaminant collectors" for all environmental pollutants. We focused our research on the development of analytical procedures able to reveal and quantify pesticides in different samples but with a special attention to the complex honeybee matrix. Specific extraction and purification procedures have been developed and some are still under optimization. The analytes of interest were determined by gas or liquid chromatographic methods and by compound-specific or group-specific immunoassays in the ELISA format, the analytical performance of which was improved by introducing luminescence detection. The range of chemiluminescent immunoassays developed was extended to include the determination of completely different pollutants, for example explosives, volatile organic compounds (including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes), and components of plastics, for example bisphenol A. An easier and portable format, a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) was added to the ELISA format to increase application flexibility in these assays. Aspects of the novelty, the specific characteristics, the analytical performance, and possible future development of the different chromatographic and immunological methods are described and discussed. PMID:23064670

Girotti, S; Ghini, S; Maiolini, E; Bolelli, L; Ferri, E N

2012-10-12

496

Monitoring of persistent, lipophilic pollutants in water and sediment by solvent-filled dialysis membranes  

SciTech Connect

Dialysis membranes filled with solvents can be used to monitor persistent, lipophilic pollutants in marine and fresh water environments, to predict levels of bioavailable compounds in organisms, and to study bioaccumulation mechanisms. The membranes are filled with n-hexane and exposed for 1 to several weeks in the water or in the sediment. The solvent impregnates the membrane, makes it unsuitable for periphyton growth, and prevents bacterial degradation. The membranes can also be used in environments too polluted for biological indicators to survive. The use of membranes with a molecular weight cutoff of 1000 Da prevents substances of higher molecular weight from diffusing through their walls, thereby simplifying the cleanup procedure. Internal standards in the solvent can be quantified to ensure that the membrane functions properly during the exposure. Uptake and depuration of organochlorine residues by the membranes seem to be governed by equilibrium partitioning.

Soedergren, A. (Lund Univ., Ecotoxicology (Sweden))

1990-04-01

497

Use of plant material for the decontamination of water polluted with phenols  

SciTech Connect

Plant materials were found useful in the decontamination of water polluted with phenolic compounds. The detoxification effect was due to peroxidases contained in the plant tissue. The enzymes mediated oxidative coupling of the pollutants, followed by precipitation of the formed polymers from the aqueous phase. An industrial wastewater contaminated with 2,4-dichlorophenol (up to 850 ppm) and other chlorinated phenols was successfully treated using minced horseradish, potato, or white radish (amended with H[sub 2]O[sub 2]). Horseradish-mediated removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol from model solutions was comparable with that achieved using purified horseradish peroxidase. In addition, horseradish could be reused up to 30 times. Due to the apparent ease of application, the use of plant material may present a breakthrough in the enzyme treatment of contaminated water.

Dec, J.; Bollag, J.M. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States))

1994-11-05

498

Occurrence, Significance, and Detection of 'Klebsiella' in Water Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Widespread occurrences of Klebsiella in water distribution networks have resulted in much discussion about the organism's effect on public health and about action that should be taken when Klebsiella is detected in public water supplies. Results obtained ...

E. E. Geldreich E. W. Rice

1987-01-01

499

APPLICATION OF NANOFILTRATION AND REVERSE OSMOSIS MEMBRANES TO THE SALTY AND POLLUTED SURFACE WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanofiltration (NF) (TFC-S) and reverse osmosis (RO) (TFC-HR) membranes were evaluated for the treatment of salty and polluted Kucukcekmece Lake used as a drinking water reservoir for the Istanbul City. A thin film composite type of spiral wound membrane (2 m area) was used. Experiments were conducted at different pressures, pH ranges and temperatures. Flowrate was about 300 l\\/h. The

I. Koyuncu; M. Yazgan

2001-01-01

500

Removal of some polluting metals from industrial water using chicken feathers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work proposes the use of chicken feathers (CF) as a natural source of active amino acids after alkali treatments with 0.95N NaOH and 0.6N NaOCl solutions and immobilization on silica surface as regenerable sorbents to remove calcium, magnesium, iron and manganese polluting industrial water sectors. Batch sorption and sorption isotherm were performed to evaluate the effect of sorption process

S. A. Sayed; S. M. Saleh; E. E. Hasan

2005-01-01