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1

Water Pollution Detection by Reflectance Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement of the intensity of light reflected from various planar liquid surfaces has been performed. The results of this brief study show that the presence of a film of foreign material floating on a reference substrate is easily detected by reflectance measurement if the two liquids possess significantly different refractive indices, for example, oil (n = 1.40) and water (n = 1.33). Additional study of various optical configurations, and the building and testing of a prototype monitoring device revealed that the method is sufficiently practical for application to continuous water quality monitoring.

Goolsby, A. D.

1971-01-01

2

Water Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

Bowen, H. J. M.

1975-01-01

3

Microbiology: detection of bacterial pathogens and their occurrence. [Water pollution  

SciTech Connect

Studies of waterborne diseases are reported in this literature review. Contaminated water is a major source of exposure to bacterial pathogens for both humans and animals. Legionella, an aquatic organism, is of special interest because of its importance as a respiratory pathogen and the human disease outbreaks associated with contaminated air conditioning cooling tower waters and contaminated shower heads in health care institutions. The occurrence and detection of Legionella in water is presented in one of seven tables. Included are 147 references. (JMT)

Reasoner, D.J.

1982-01-01

4

Bacteriological Water Quality Analyses of Methods for Detecting Fecal Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the study was to improve the specificity, speed and reliability to bacteriological methods for determining kinds and number of fecal bacteria in water resources. The major objective of distinguishing between human and animal sources of po...

P. R. Middaugh

1970-01-01

5

The Pollution Detectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the field work component of a half-term course in environmental chemistry. Discusses the teaching methods used with the students in detecting water pollution. Outlines the activities and experiments in one field trip and presents the results and deductions made by the students. (TW)

Sanderson, P. L.; Newton, G.

1986-01-01

6

Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

Lantz, H. B., Jr.

7

Water Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... to survive. Many different pollutants can harm our rivers, streams, lakes, and oceans. The three most common ... and bacteria. Rain washes soil into streams and rivers. The soil can kill tiny animals and fish ...

8

Group 8 - Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BACKGROUND Investigate the issues of water pollution in the world. TASK - What is making the water so polluted? How bad is it? How does nature clean its own water? Who are the worst polluters? What can be done to stop so much pollution? What is the water cycle? What can be done to fix the problem? Explain all this, and 5 ...

Mecham, Mrs.

2006-11-30

9

Remote Sensing of Water Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

White, P. G.

1971-01-01

10

Water Bottle Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The effect of water bottles and pollution around the world. Print off 3 copies of this form. W s First, let's learn about Water Bottle Pollution records on your w's form what you learned. Now let's learn about jaguars. Jaguars how can jaguars be harmed by water bottle pollution? Project: Create a travel brochure in Publisher using what you learned about water bottle pollution and jaguars. See ...

awl000422

2011-10-27

11

Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

12

The Other Water Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

Barton, Kathy

1978-01-01

13

Storm Water Runoff Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (located on page 8 of the PDF) introduces learners to the concept of Non-point Source Pollution--what happens when rain washes garbage and other pollutants into rivers and lakes. Through this demonstration, learners observe how water systems are connected and how pollution in their own backyard can affect larger water supplies.

Museum, Chicago C.

2008-01-01

14

Laser Detection of Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of laser spectroscopy in determining the presence of specific gaseous constituents. Three of currently used modes for laser detection of pollution are reviewed; (1) long-path measurements; (2) laser raman (differential absorption) measurements; and (3) optoacoustic detection. (HM)

Patel, C. K. N.

1978-01-01

15

Quantitative real-time PCR assays for sensitive detection of Canada goose-specific fecal pollution in water sources.  

PubMed

Canada geese (Branta canadensis) are prevalent in North America and may contribute to fecal pollution of water systems where they congregate. This work provides two novel real-time PCR assays (CGOF1-Bac and CGOF2-Bac) allowing for the specific and sensitive detection of Bacteroides 16S rRNA gene markers present within Canada goose feces. PMID:20511425

Fremaux, B; Boa, T; Yost, C K

2010-07-01

16

Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays for Sensitive Detection of Canada Goose-Specific Fecal Pollution in Water Sources ? †  

PubMed Central

Canada geese (Branta canadensis) are prevalent in North America and may contribute to fecal pollution of water systems where they congregate. This work provides two novel real-time PCR assays (CGOF1-Bac and CGOF2-Bac) allowing for the specific and sensitive detection of Bacteroides 16S rRNA gene markers present within Canada goose feces. PMID:20511425

Fremaux, B.; Boa, T.; Yost, C. K.

2010-01-01

17

Application of selected methods of remote sensing for detecting carbonaceous water pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of aerial photography to determine the nature and extent of water pollution from carbonaceous materials is discussed. Flights were conducted over the Galveston Bay estuarine complex. Ground truth data were developed from field sampling of the waters in a region near the Houston Ship Channel. Tests conducted in the field were those for the following physical and chemical factors: (1) ph, (2) dissolved oxygen, (3) temperature, and (4) light penetration. Laboratory analyses to determine various properties of the water are described and the types of instruments used are identified. Results of the analyses are presented as charts and graphs.

Davis, E. M.; Fosbury, W. J.

1972-01-01

18

Water Pollution, Causes and Cures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

19

Pollution Detection Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Barringer Research, Inc.'s COSPEC IVB (correlation spectrometer) can sense from a considerable distance emissions from a volcanic eruption. Remote sensor is capable of measuring sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere. An associated product, GASPEC, a compression of Non-dispersive Gas Filter Spectrometer, is an infrared/ultraviolet gas analyzer which can be used as either a ground based detector or in aircraft/spacecraft applications. Extremely sensitive, it is useful in air pollution investigations for detecting a variety of trace elements, vapors, which exist in the atmosphere in small amounts.

1980-01-01

20

Recommendations on methods for the detection and control of biological pollution in marine coastal waters.  

PubMed

Adverse effects of invasive alien species (IAS), or biological pollution, is an increasing problem in marine coastal waters, which remains high on the environmental management agenda. All maritime countries need to assess the size of this problem and consider effective mechanisms to prevent introductions, and if necessary and where possible to monitor, contain, control or eradicate the introduced impacting organisms. Despite this, and in contrast to more enclosed water bodies, the openness of marine systems indicates that once species are in an area then eradication is usually impossible. Most institutions in countries are aware of the problem and have sufficient governance in place for management. However, there is still a general lack of commitment and concerted action plans are needed to address this problem. This paper provides recommendations resulting from an international workshop based upon a large amount of experience relating to the assessment and control of biopollution. PMID:21889171

Olenin, Sergej; Elliott, Michael; Bysveen, Ingrid; Culverhouse, Phil F; Daunys, Darius; Dubelaar, George B J; Gollasch, Stephan; Goulletquer, Philippe; Jelmert, Anders; Kantor, Yuri; Mézeth, Kjersti Bringsvor; Minchin, Dan; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Olenina, Irina; Vandekerkhove, Jochen

2011-12-01

21

Fluorimetric detection of water pollutants with a fiber-coupled solid state UV laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aromatic hydrocarbons are important and dangerous pollutants of the aquatic environment. With the method of laser-induced fluorescence it is possible to detect Benzene, Toluene, Xylene (BTX) as well as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) sensitively. The detection of these molecules by a continuously working in-situ method is achieved by combining LIF with fiberoptic guidance of light. We presence results on the detection of BTX and PAH by excitation with 266 nm and 355 nm radiation from a diode-pumped solid-state laser especially developed for sensor applications. The system is operated with thermoelectric cooling and battery supply independent of any installations is projected. The laser delivers pulses of 7 ns/140 (mu) J in the UV at a repetition rate of 100 Hz. Using time-resolved and spectrally-resolved detection of the fluorescence signal, the system delivers information that can be used to discriminate between BTX and PAH-molecules. We have also performed extensive investigations of the influence of scattering particles on the sensor signal. This led to specific optimizations of the sensor-head for different applications.

Karlitschek, Peter; Buenting, Uwe; Northemann, T.; Hillrichs, Georg

1996-11-01

22

Fecal Pollution of Water.  

EPA Science Inventory

Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

23

IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL DNA MARKERS FOR THE DETECTION OF HUMAN FECAL POLLUTION IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

We used genome fragment enrichment and bioinformatics to identify several microbial DNA sequences with high potential for use as markers in PCR assays for detection of human fecal contamination in water. Following competitive solution-phase hybridization of total DNA from human a...

24

Identification of Bacterial DNA Markers for the Detection of Human Fecal Pollution in Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used genome fragment enrichment and bioinformatics to identify several microbial DNA sequences with high potential for use as markers in PCR assays for detection of human fecal contamination in water. Following competitive solution-phase hybridization of total DNA from human and pig fecal samples, 351 plasmid clones were sequenced and were determined to define 289 different genomic DNA regions. These

Orin C. Shanks; Jingrang Lu; Catherine A. Kelty; James E. Graham

2007-01-01

25

Detection limits of a biological monitoring system for chemical water pollution based on mussel activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on their ability to accumulate a variety of chemicals, mussels have been widely adopted as useful indicators of pollutant contamination in chemical surveillance programs (PHILIPS 1976; GOLDBERG et al. 1978; DAVIES + PIRIE 1980; NAS 1980; JENSEN et al. 1981). However, sentinel organisms living close to input sources of pollutants may respond rapidly to changes in pollutant flux. Several

W. Slooff; D. de Zwart; J. M. Marquenie

1983-01-01

26

Water Pollution Prevention and Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is designed to help students apply the pollution prevention (P2) concept to water. It contains the needed background information about water pollution and provides guidance and activities to help students describe water uses and sources, explain why water conservation is important, and explain how pollution prevention concepts can be used to conserve water and prevent water pollution. The preceding pages of the fact sheet contain background information and the definitions necessary to implement this lesson plan.

27

Nucleic acid extraction from polluted estuarine water for detection of viruses and bacteria by PCR and RT-PCR analysis.  

PubMed

We describe an extraction protocol for genomic DNA and RNA of both viruses and bacteria from polluted estuary water. This procedure was adapted to the molecular study of microflora of estuarine water where bacteria and viruses are found free, forming low-density biofilms, or intimately associated with organo-mineral particles. The sensitivity of the method was determined with seeded samples for RT-PCR and PCR analysis of viruses (10 virions/mL), and bacteria (1 colony-forming unit mL). We report an example of molecular detection of both poliovirus and Salmonella in the Seine estuary (France) and an approach to studying their association with organo-mineral particles. PMID:10209769

Petit, F; Craquelin, S; Guespin-Michel, J; Buffet-Janvresse, C

1999-03-01

28

The Management of Water: Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the official water pollution site for Canada. In the introduction, the problem is stated with reference to pollutants of the Great Lakes over 360 chemical compounds have been identified. Many are persistent toxic chemicals - alkylated lead, benzo(a)pyrene, DDT, mercury and mirex - potentially dangerous to humans and already destructive to the aquatic ecosystems. In referring to water quality, pollutants, toxic substances, and acid rain in the aquatic environment are discussed along with long-range transport of airborne pollutants and toxic chemicals said to be the legacy of a chemical society. Efforts to control water pollution include a multi-barrier approach to protecting drinking water, stated water quality objectives and guidelines, regulations, and advice on how to be a responsible consumer. Other sections include the effects of pollution and groundwater pollution.

29

Clean Water and Oceans: Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the water pollution portal for the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). NRDC works to continue reductions in industrial water pollution while pressing for effective pollution controls on agriculture, logging and other sources previously exempt from them. They help develop and promote strong federal laws and regulations to address polluted runoff, raw sewage discharges, and factory farm wastes and to sue polluters when the Clean Water Act is violated. This site contains simple issue overviews, news, how-to guides, frequently asked questions, photo essays and more in a section called In Brief. The In Depth section offers reports, white papers, policy analyses and other materials by NRDCs lawyers, scientists and analysts.

30

Comparison of PCR and Plaque Assay for Detection and Enumeration of Coliphage in Polluted Marine Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

the plaque assay and a reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR technique for F1-specific coliphage. The coliphage levels detected by the plaque assay averaged 1.90 3 104 PFU\\/100.0 ml. Using a most probable number (MPN) PCR approach, the levels averaged 2.40 3 106 MPN-PCR units\\/100.0 ml. Two samples were positive by RT-PCR but negative by plaque assay, and 12 samples were positive

JOAN B. ROSE; XINTING ZHOU; DALE W. GRIFFIN; JOHN H. PAUL

1997-01-01

31

Exploring Water Pollution. Part 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists over 30 outdoor science activities dealing with water formation, erosion, pollution, and other water-related topics. Provides, in addition, a selected bibliography of films, tapes, booklets and pamphlets, and filmstrips as additional reference materials. (CP)

Rillo, Thomas J.

1976-01-01

32

Monitoring the water quality of Sausal Creek, Oakland, Ca.: A comparative study on methods to detect urban pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polluted urban creeks can affect the aquatic ecosystem and the human health of the community. Raw sewage entering a water system, either directly or via a leaking pipe, can spread pathogens such as Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli. Monitoring by regulatory agencies may be inadequate, so testing for sewage leaks by community organizations can be beneficial for locating systems that

Sara Laurin Ash

33

Municipal water pollution prevention program  

SciTech Connect

EPA believes that the most effective and equitable means of assuring viability of this infrastructure is through environmentally preferred pollution prevention approaches especially through application of Municipal Water Pollution Prevention (MWPP). These approaches may enhance worker safety, improve the usability of sludge, increase the ability for local community expansion, and reduce operation and compliance costs. State-based municipal pollution prevention programs focus attention on a series of actions to prevent pollution in advance rather than taking more expensive corrective actions. MWPP encourages resource conservation to reduce water and energy use, appropriate pricing, toxicity reductions at the source, BOD reductions, recycling, proper treatment of wastes, and beneficial uses of sludge.

Not Available

1991-03-01

34

Eutrophication. [Water pollution  

SciTech Connect

A literature review dealing with the process of eutrophication with respect to the sources and transport of pollutants is presented. Topics include the mathematical modeling of nutrient loading, eutrophication, and aquatic ecosystems. Biological and environmental indicators of eutrophication are reviewed, and the interactions between various chemical and biological pollutants are considered. Several lake management projects are discussed. (KRM)

Medine, A.J. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder); Porcella, D.B.

1982-06-01

35

Detection of Pollution Caused by Solid Wastes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To develop a means of detecting pollution, it s necessary to know something about the source and nature of the pollution. The type of pollution rising from solid wastes differs considerably from hat from liquid wastes or that from gaseous wastes ni its effect on the immediate environment. It may be "defined" by a series of negatives. When solid wastes are discarded on land, the resulting pollution is not land pollution in the sense of air and water pollution. For one thing, the solid wastes do not become a "part" of the land in that the wastes are neither intimately mixed nor homogenized into the land as are liquid and gaseous wastes into their respective media. The waste particles retain not only their chemical identity but also their visible (i.e., physical) characteristics. When buried, for example, the soil is under, above, and around the solids, because the wastes are there as discrete units. Secondly, solid wastes neither diffuse nor are they carried from the place at which they were deposited. In other words they remain stationary, providing of course the disposal site is land and not moving water. In a given area, solid wastes be not distributed uniformly over that area. Even the solid wastes falling into the specification of letter meets these specifications. In contrast liquid and gaseous wastes become intimately mixed, homogenized, and even dissolved in their media. Because solid wastes remain stationary, pollution constituted by their presence is highly localized and heavily concentrated, even to the extent that the pollution could be termed "micro" when compared to the macro-pollution arising from liquid and gasequs wastes.

Golueke, Clarence G.

1971-01-01

36

Pollutants in Airport Runoff Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Runoff waters from airport areas constitute a serious environmental problem. It is essential to monitor levels of pollutants emitted into the environment and measure their toxicity on a continuous basis. The authors’ aim was to critically review data on pollution from aviation fuel combustion, aviation fuel spillage, the washing and cleaning of aircraft and airport service equipment, and the use

Anna Maria Sulej; ?aneta Polkowska; Jacek Namie?nik

2012-01-01

37

How Does Water Get Polluted?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a hands-on modeling of the effects of pollution on our ground and surface water. Students will observe and record their observations as pollution is placed on the ground in their model and it is rained upon.

Anderson, Deb V.

38

Landsat and water pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents data derived from satellite images predicting pollution loads after rainfall. It explains method for converting Landsat images of Eastern United States into cover maps for Baltimore/five county region.

Castruccio, P.; Fowler, T.; Loats, H., Jr.

1979-01-01

39

Water Pollution: Monitoring the Source.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an advanced biology class project involving study of the effects of organic pollution on an aquatic ecosystem from an sewage treatment plant overflow to evaluate the chemical quality and biological activity of the river water. (DS)

Wilkes, James W.

1980-01-01

40

China's water pollution by persistent organic pollutants.  

PubMed

Available data were reviewed to assess the status of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in drinking water sources and coastal waters of China. The levels of POPs in China's waters were generally at the high end of the global range. A comparison of China's regulatory limits indicated that PCBs in rivers and coastal water may pose potential human health risk. Occurrence of DDTs in some rivers of China may also pose health risk to humans using the regulatory limits of DDTs recommended by the European Union. Future monitoring of POPs in China's waters should be directed towards analytes of concern (e.g. PCBs and PCDD/Fs) and to fill data gaps for analytes (e.g. PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, and chlordane) and in watersheds/regions (e.g. West China) where data are scarce. PMID:22325437

Bao, Lian-Jun; Maruya, Keith A; Snyder, Shane A; Zeng, Eddy Y

2012-04-01

41

Good operating practices cut water pollution  

SciTech Connect

This paper explains how the pipeline industry can avoid violating the Clean Water Act (PL 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act), which states that pollution of US waters from any cause other than an act of God, war or Government negligence is the responsibility of the owner or operator of the facility. Reporting pollution to the National Response Center will limit the maximum penalty to $5,000 Rectifiers must be kept in top operating condition, and visual inspections of the right-of-way by aerial or ground patrols must detect construction of new pipelines or other facilities. Accidental damage by third parties is the major cause of failures in pipeline systems, which can be prevented by periodic contact with landowners. Conclusion is that if a pipeline operator follows good operating and maintenance practices, his exposure to effects of the Clean Water Act will be minimal.

West, D.E.

1982-07-12

42

Exploring Water Pollution. Part II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

Rillo, Thomas J.

1975-01-01

43

Water Pollution in School Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water pollution curriculum units of four environmental secondary science programs in Britain, Germany, Israel, and the United States are examined. Comparisons reveal the use of quite different approaches in central topic selection, use of the laboratory and other media, controversial issues, and teacher-student roles. (CS)

Blum, Abraham

1979-01-01

44

Water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The `Act of 76' arose out of an inquiry about `...how far the present use of rivers or running waters...for the purpose of carrying off the sewage of towns...and the refuse from industrial processes and manufacturers...can be prevented without risk to the public health or serious injury to such processes...and how far such sewage and refuse can be utilized and

Bernard B. Berger; Leonard B. Dworsky

1977-01-01

45

Combined air and water pollution control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

Wolverton, Billy C. (inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (inventor)

1990-01-01

46

How Did That Get There?: Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a group, learners consider sources of water pollution to understand where pollution starts and where it ends up. Also explored are the natural and human-made options for cleaning up our water supply. This activity encourages learners to use their powers of observation, imagination, and public speaking skills as they describe possible pollution stories and scenarios, and brainstorm pollution prevention efforts.

Illinois, University O.

2009-01-01

47

Astronomical techniques applied to pollution detection: 1. Pollution transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

An astronomical observatory located below the urban inversion in Oakland, California has been recently used as a remote sensing facility for detection of urban aerosol and molecular pollution and transport analysis. These measurements were made with a sixteen element photodiode array close to the focus of a twenty inch refracting telescope detecting visible light extinction and refraction from stellar and

W. M. Porch; C. A. Sherman; M. H. Dickerson; T. Green; P. Volker; J. Waidl; T. R. Galloway

1977-01-01

48

Pollution of ground water in Europe.  

PubMed

This paper discusses pollution of ground water in 20 countries of the European region, giving for each an account of the geology and hydrogeology, water supplies, the extent and nature of ground water pollution, and the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling that pollution. For the countries not considered in the preceding article on surface water pollution, an account is also given of the superficial physical features, rainfall, population, and industries.A general discussion follows of such questions as the ways in which ground water pollution may occur, the factors mitigating or aggravating pollution, and ways of protection against pollution. The authors consider that the problem of ground water pollution in Europe may well be more serious than it would appear to be on the evidence so far obtained. PMID:13374533

BUCHAN, S; KEY, A

1956-01-01

49

Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

50

Infrared differential absorption for atmospheric pollutant detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress made in the generation of tunable infrared radiation and its application to remote pollutant detection by the differential absorption method are summarized. It is recognized that future remote pollutant measurements depended critically on the availability of high energy tunable transmitters. Futhermore, due to eye safety requirements, the transmitted frequency must lie in the 1.4 micron to 13 micron infrared spectral range.

Byer, R. L.

1974-01-01

51

Water Pollution. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water is one of the most polluted resources in our environment. Since everyone has the same basic need for pure water, it follows that all people should have a basic knowledge of the causes, results and solutions to the water pollution problem. This unit is designed for use with Level II and III educable mentally retarded students to present…

Topeka Public Schools, KS.

52

Water Pollution: Appearances Can Be Deceiving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expresses concern over the amounts of toxic chemical pollutants being discharged into fresh water supplies. Analyzes the role of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in establishing and enforcing water quality standards. (CP)

Raloff, Janet

1977-01-01

53

Chapter 14 Water Pollution Factory-style hog farms in  

E-print Network

Chapter 14 Water Pollution #12;Factory-style hog farms in North Carolina Each pig produces, September 1999. #12;Hogs killed by flooding #12; Water pollution Common water pollutants Treating water pollution Wastewater treatment and renovation Learning Objectives #12; Water pollution refers

Pan, Feifei

54

Water pollution abatement through forest irrigation with municipal waste water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serious pollution problems are often created by the disposal of municipal waste water into surface waters. An obvious alternative-method is diversion of these waste waters to the land. Such non-aqueous methods of disposal might eliminate or alleviate many water pollution problems and, in some cases, could even provide secondary benefits such as recharge of groundwater reservoirs, and increased production of

William E. Sopper

55

Oven-dried mosses as tools for trace element detection in polluted waters: A preliminary study under laboratory conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of 11 trace elements, plus Ca, Mg, Na and K was measured in moss bags of living and dead (oven-dried at 105°C) Platyhypnidium riparioides after a 1-week exposure to tap water, and to 0.21, 1.0, 2.5 and 4.0 ?M solutions under laboratory conditions, with the aim of (1) observing the accumulation curves and (2) performing a statistical comparison in

M. Cesa; A. Bizzotto; C. Ferraro; F. Fumagalli; P. Luigi Nimis

2011-01-01

56

Special Topics in Water Science (Water Pollution)  

MedlinePLUS

... Basics Water Properties Water Cycle Surface Water Groundwater Water Quality Water Use Activities Photos Q&A Teachers Contact ... explore other water-science topic areas, such as water quality, urbanization and water, saline water, watersheds, runoff, and ...

57

Pollution of surface water in Europe  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses pollution of surface water in 18 European countries. For each an account is given of its physical character, population, industries, and present condition of water supplies; the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling pollution are then described, and an outline is given of current research on the difficulties peculiar to each country. A general discussion of various aspects common to the European problem of water pollution follows; standards of quality are suggested; some difficulties likely to arise in the near future are indicated, and international collaboration, primarily by the exchange of information, is recommended to check or forestall these trends. PMID:13374532

Key, A.

1956-01-01

58

Chemiluminescent detection of organic air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

Chemiluminescent reactions can be used for specific and highly sensitive detection of a number of air pollutants. Among these are chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with NO or organics and reactions of luminol with a variety of oxidants. Reported here are studies exploring (1) the use of the temperature dependence of the chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with organic pollutants as a means of differentiating types of hydrocarbon classes and (2) the use of luminol techniques to monitor atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and organic oxidants, specifically peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs). Coupling gas chromatography to the chemiluminescent detectors allows the measurement of individual species at very low concentrations.

Marley, N.A.; Gaffney, J.S.; Chen, Yu-Harn

1996-04-01

59

Risk assessment of water pollutants.  

PubMed

The sources of toxic xenobiotics and different factors such as ecological diversity, differences in comparative anatomy, physiology and biochemistry, food chain variation, interrelationship within species and life span, etc., are considered during risk assessment of pollutants, and their impact on aquatic ecotoxicology is identified. A fugacity and multimedia compartment model is suggested, based on toxicodynamic (toxicity of the chemical) and toxicokinetic (metabolism of the chemical) considerations to predict and screen the behaviour of pollutants quantitatively in the aquatic environment. The significance of the risk analysis approach in anticipatory actions and regulation of pollution levels is discussed. PMID:24221229

Misra, V; Jaffery, F N; Viswanathan, P N

1994-01-01

60

Global Water Pollution and Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality issues are a major challenge that humanity is facing in the twenty-first century. Here, we review the main groups of aquatic contaminants, their effects on human health, and approaches to mitigate pollution of freshwater resources. Emphasis is placed on chemical pollution, particularly on inorganic and organic micropollutants including toxic metals and metalloids as well as a large variety

René P. Schwarzenbach; Thomas Egli; Thomas B. Hofstetter; Urs von Gunten; Bernhard Wehrli

61

Global Water Pollution and Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality issues are a major challenge that humanity is facing in the twenty-first century. Here, we review the main groups of aquatic contaminants, their effects on human health, and approaches to mitigate pollution of freshwater resources. Emphasis is placed on chemical pollution, particularly on inorganic and organic micropollutants including toxic metals and metalloids as well as a large variety

René P. Schwarzenbach; Thomas Egli; Thomas B. Hofstetter; Urs von Gunten; Bernhard Wehrli

2010-01-01

62

Sheep dip chemicals and water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tweed River Purification Board's objective of reducing the numbers and significance of water pollution incidents by a proactive approach based on persuasion and education is described. This has consisted of prioritising potential pollutant sources which have then been investigated in detail followed by discussion and agreement with discharges as to remedial measures. The paper describes in detail the Board's

W. A. Virtue; J. W. Clayton

1997-01-01

63

SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Based on experiments with model systems of known organic water pollutants and environmental samples, conclusions are reached concerning the best general solvent for extraction and the most appropriate methods for related manipulations. Chloroform, methylene chloride-ether mixture...

64

Pollution of Natural Waters 1. Redox chemistry  

E-print Network

Pollution of Natural Waters Outline: 1. Redox chemistry 2. Redox potential in aquatic systems 3. Eutrophication 4. Water treatment 1. Redox chemistry #15; Principle of equilibration of chemical system R Keq on pH since Q r often dependent on pH 2. Redox potential in natural waters #15; Can be viewed

Schofield, Jeremy

65

The spectral absorption coefficient at 254nm as a real-time early warning proxy for detecting faecal pollution events at alpine karst water resources  

PubMed Central

Because spring water quality from alpine karst aquifers can change very rapidly during event situations, water abstraction management has to be performed in near real-time. Four summer events (2005-2008) at alpine karst springs were investigated in detail in order to evaluate the spectral absorption coefficient at 254nm (SAC254) as a real-time early warning proxy for faecal pollution. For the investigation Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Satellite-based data communication between portable hydrometeorological measuring stations and an automated microbiological sampling device was used. The method for event triggered microbial sampling and analyzing was already established and described in a previous paper (Stadler et al., Wat. Sci. Technol. 58(4): 899-909, 2008). Data analysis including on-line event characterisation (i.e. precipitation, discharge, turbidity, SAC254) and comprehensive E. coli determination (n > 800) indicated that SAC254 is a useful early warning proxy. Irrespective of the studied event situations SAC254 always increased 3 to 6 hours earlier than the onset of faecal pollution, featuring different correlation phases. Furthermore, it seems also possible to use SAC254 as a real-time proxy parameter for estimating the extent of faecal pollution after establishing specific spring and event-type calibrations that take into consideration the variability of the occurrence and the transferability of faecal material It should be highlighted that diffuse faecal pollution from wildlife and live stock sources was responsible for spring water contamination at the investigated catchments. In this respect, the SAC254 can also provide useful information to support microbial source tracking efforts where different situations of infiltration have to be investigated. PMID:20962406

Stadler, H.; Klock, E.; Skritek, P.; Mach, R.L.; Zerobin, W.; Farnleitner, A.H.

2011-01-01

66

POLLUTION OF WATER Blank page retained for pagination  

E-print Network

CHAPTER XX POLLUTION OF WATER #12;Blank page retained for pagination #12;ASPECTS OF WATER POLLUTION IN THE COASTAL AREA OF THE GULF OF MEXICOl Prepared in the DIVISION of WATER POLLUTION CONTROL and SHELLFISH, and Welfare Principal natural resources of the Gulf that ap- pear susceptible to damages from water pollution

67

Lab 3 GEO 465/565 Storm Water Pollution  

E-print Network

1 Lab 3 ­ GEO 465/565 Storm Water Pollution The Nation's Most Significant Water Quality Problem our rivers, lakes and coastal waters by controlling pollution from industry and sewage treatment, is that we have not done enough to stop storm water pollution, or non-point source pollution, that runs off

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

68

RADIOACTIVE FACTORS IN WATER POLLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of radionuclides into bodies of water as a result of ; nuclear reactor operations is discussed. The off-site water monitoring program ; at the Chalk River Plant of Atomic Energy of Canada is outlined. Factors ; affecting the disposal and measurement of radionuclides in water are considered. ; (P.C.H.);

1962-01-01

69

Water hyacinths for removal of phenols from polluted waters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Removal of phenol by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in static water was investigated. 2.75 g dry weight of this aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to absorb 100 mg of phenol per plant per 72 hours from distilled water, river water, and bayou water. One hectare of water hyacinth plants is shown to be potentially capable of removing 160 kg of phenol per 72 hours from waters polluted with this chemical.

Wolverton, B. C.

1975-01-01

70

Ground-Water pollution and its sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Everybody wants clean water for drinking, bathing and other domestic uses, but not everybody appreciates the fact that our\\u000a own actions are often the worst enemy in achieving that goal. Ground water is one of the most misused and misunderstood resources.\\u000a Because ground water and its movement, and consequently also its pollution, is hidden from view beneath the land surface,

A. Zaporozec

1981-01-01

71

Behavioural early warning responses to polluted water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural early warning responses to polluted surface water from an industrial effluent have been measured in two freshwater\\u000a macroinvertebrate species using the four electrode impedance conversion technique. Specimens ofGammarus pulex (L.) andHydropsycho angustipennis (Curtis) were caught from reference streams and exposed to water from above and below the factory and to reference water\\u000a for about 1 h with different kinds

Almut Gerhardt

1996-01-01

72

Community action on water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Actions to improve local water or air quality are likely to combine collective benefits with specific costs. This suggests that the variations among communities in their actions to improve water quality will involve opposition from industries bearing the specific costs. The use of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-funded matching grants for sewerage construction by large U.S. cities varies inversely with the

Judith J. Friedman

1977-01-01

73

Farm Solutions to Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this KET video from Common Ground and Cleaner Water, Tribby Vice, a Kentucky farmer, talks about the changes he has made on his farm to protect the water quality of the stream running through his property and the watershed in which he lives.

Ket

2008-09-02

74

Modelling and Simulation of a Polluted Water Pumping Process  

E-print Network

Modelling and Simulation of a Polluted Water Pumping Process Chitra Alavani1 , Roland Glowinski2 concentration when a polluted water pumping ship follows a pre­assigned trajectory to remove the pollutant. We for simplicity that the density of the pollutant is smaller than the one of the sea water (so that it remains

Tradacete, Pedro

75

COLLABORATIVE INVESTIGATIONS OF WATER QUALITY POLLUTION PATTERNS: WORKING WITH  

E-print Network

COLLABORATIVE INVESTIGATIONS OF WATER QUALITY POLLUTION PATTERNS: WORKING WITH THE KYUQUOT and Environmental Management Title of Research Project: Collaborative Investigations of Water Quality Pollution about water quality sampling and policy agenda setting. Through time and repeated interactions

76

Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory  

E-print Network

Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan For: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Computation;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) LBNL CRTF UC Project No.912314 LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL ........................................................ 10 2.6 Identifying of Non-Storm Water Discharges

77

Water pollution and the public trust doctrine  

SciTech Connect

The prior appropriation system has served well in the Western US for 125 years, providing a legal regime that permits and encourages enormous economic growth of agriculture, industry and municipalities. This system, however, both in its inception and current application, fails to address or protect public interests in fisheries, recreation, environmental quality, and clean water. As a result, serious nonpoint water pollution problems are occurring throughout the West. Such pollution can be regulated either by the courts or the legislatures under the public trust doctrine, which antedates the prior appropriation system, and which protects fisheries and water quality. No one - including irrigators, industries or cities with appropriative rights - has a vested, constitutionally protected property right to degrade the quality of public waters. Some states are adopting police power regulations to control nonpoint pollution. Others are approaching the problem through the prior appropriation system itself, taking the position that beneficial use means use that does not harm the public through pollution. The public trust doctrine is not a panacea that will instantly solve all the conflicts that now surround the prior appropriation system. It should be considered, however, as a basis for setting standards as best practicable technology or best management practice.

Johnson, R.W.

1989-01-01

78

Effects of Water Pollution on Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an inquiry activity that, while based on a local area (the San Francisco Bay), could be adapted to the teacher's/student's local area. Students perform an experiment in which they observe how water pollution is absorbed into plants. The site contains a teacher's guide and printable student worksheet.

79

Water Pollution, Environmental Science Curriculum Guide Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is a 40-day unit plan on water pollution developed, in part, from the National Science Foundation Environmental Science Institutes' Ninth Grade Environmental Science Curriculum Guide. This unit contains teacher lesson plans, suggested teacher and student modules, case studies, and activities to be developed by teachers…

McKenna, Harold J.

80

Magnetic separation in water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic separation as applied to waterborne contaminants is successful in reducing the solids content of a water sample and in removing the dissolved orthophosphate from the aqueous slurry. The contaminants are chemically associated with a magnetic seeding material, and subsequent removal of this seed sweeps the pollutants from the system. The advantage of this form of treatment over conventional techniques

CHRISTOPHER DE LATOUR

1973-01-01

81

Good operating practices cut water pollution  

SciTech Connect

This article advises the pipeline industry on how to comply with the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (PL 92-500), which states that pollution of US waters by any cause other than an ''Act of God,'' ''Act of War,'' or US Government negligence is the responsibility of the owner or operator of the facility. Points out that the actions of third parties do not relieve owners or operators of liability unless they are the sole cause of pollution. Emphasizes that liability can be reduced by prompt reporting of pollution to the National Response Center. Reveals that the major cause of failures in pipeline systems is accidental damage by third parties. Proposes tha the best defense against pipeline damage resulting from landowner activity is periodic contact of the landowner by the operator. Recommends aerial and ground patrols as sources of information on construction activities. Concludes that assessing a penalty against the party causing the pollution would be better than merely penalizing the pipeline operator.

West, D.E.

1982-07-12

82

Effects of water pollution on fungi of submerged organic debris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of water pollution on fungi inhabiting submerged organic debris were investigated. A total of 35 species representing 20 genera were isolated from materials collected from clean and polluted localities. Fewer fungi were obtained from the polluted localities where even common fungi such as penicillia, Curvularia and Trichoderma were less frequently encountered. Organic water pollution was seen to affect

T. K. Tan; G. Lira

1983-01-01

83

On Detecting Pollution Attacks in Inter-Session Network Coding  

E-print Network

On Detecting Pollution Attacks in Inter-Session Network Coding Anh Le, Athina Markopoulou University of California, Irvine {anh.le, athina}@uci.edu Abstract--Dealing with pollution attacks in inter be malicious. In this work, we precisely define corrupted packets in inter-session pollution based

Markopoulou, Athina

84

On Detecting Pollution Attacks in Inter-Session Network Coding  

E-print Network

On Detecting Pollution Attacks in Inter-Session Network Coding Anh Le, Athina Markopoulou University of California, Irvine {anh.le, athina}@uci.edu Abstract--Dealing with pollution attacks in inter be malicious. In this work, we first define precisely corrupted packets in inter-session pollution based

Markopoulou, Athina

85

Receiving Water Uses, Impairments, and Sources of Stormwater Pollutants  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 2 Receiving Water Uses, Impairments, and Sources of Stormwater Pollutants "Bathing in sewage-polluted seawater carries only a negligible risk to health, even on beaches that are aesthetically) .........................................................................26 Recreation (Non-Water Contact) Uses

Pitt, Robert E.

86

Experimental infrared measurements for hydrocarbon pollutant determination in subterranean waters.  

PubMed

Subterranean waters are often polluted by industrial and anthropic effluents that are drained in subsoil. To prevent and control pollution, legislations of different developed countries require an online monitoring measurement, especially for detecting organic solvents (chlorinated and unchlorinated ones). Online measurements include both real-time and no real-time measurements. In general, it is difficult to implement real-time measurements in stricto sensu for online acquisitions on aqueous effluents since they need to be processed by a modeling. This research presents an experimental measurement system based on infrared (IR) spectroscopy for aqueous effluents containing hydrocarbons and capable of displaying excellent values of pollutant concentrations even in instable conditions; the system is able to detect pollutants either in laminar or turbulent flow. The results show the possibility of avoiding the use of "Pitot tube" that is employed to create a stagnation point in order to convert kinetic energy into potential one. This conversion allows the transformation of a turbulent flow in a laminar flow making easy measurement of pollutants included in an aqueous effluent. Obviously, "Pitot tube" is also used for other fluid effluents. The obtained results have been compared with those produced by means of sophisticated IR instrumentation for laboratory applications. PMID:23387691

Lay-Ekuakille, A; Palamara, I; Caratelli, D; Morabito, F C

2013-01-01

87

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN (RISK LEVEL 1)  

E-print Network

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN (RISK LEVEL 1) for BUILDING 90 USER TEST BED FACILITY.G., GEOLOGIST/QSD (530) 222-4339 SWPPP Preparation Date: JUNE 10, 2012 #12;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan) 222-4339 Name and Title Telephone Number #12;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan Building 90 User

Eisen, Michael

88

Application of Artificial Neuro-Fuzzy Logic Inference System for Predicting the Microbiological Pollution in Fresh Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical methods for detecting the micro biological pollution in water are based on the detection of the coliform bacteria which indicators of contamination. But to check each water supply for these contaminants would be a time-consuming job and a qualify operators. In this study, we propose a novel intelligent system which provides a detection of microbiological pollution in fresh

S. Bouharati; K. Benmahammed; D. Harzallah; Y. M. El-Assaf

2008-01-01

89

The Pollution Detectives, Part III: Roadside Lead Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a simple test tube method developed lead analysis of samples of roadside soil. The relationship between the results and the traffic flow indicate car exhausts are the major source of lead pollution. Materials and procedures are detailed. An example of results is provided. (Author/CW)

Sanderson, Phil

1989-01-01

90

Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

Rowbotham, N.

1973-01-01

91

Water pollution and human health in China.  

PubMed Central

China's extraordinary economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization, coupled with inadequate investment in basic water supply and treatment infrastructure, have resulted in widespread water pollution. In China today approximately 700 million people--over half the population--consume drinking water contaminated with levels of animal and human excreta that exceed maximum permissible levels by as much as 86% in rural areas and 28% in urban areas. By the year 2000, the volume of wastewater produced could double from 1990 levels to almost 78 billion tons. These are alarming trends with potentially serious consequences for human health. This paper reviews and analyzes recent Chinese reports on public health and water resources to shed light on what recent trends imply for China's environmental risk transition. This paper has two major conclusions. First, the critical deficits in basic water supply and sewage treatment infrastructure have increased the risk of exposure to infectious and parasitic disease and to a growing volume of industrial chemicals, heavy metals, and algal toxins. Second, the lack of coordination between environmental and public health objectives, a complex and fragmented system to manage water resources, and the general treatment of water as a common property resource mean that the water quality and quantity problems observed as well as the health threats identified are likely to become more acute. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10090702

Wu, C; Maurer, C; Wang, Y; Xue, S; Davis, D L

1999-01-01

92

THE STRUCTURE OF FARMERS' PERCEPTIONS OF GROUND WATER POLLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a 1992 Georgia Farm Practices survey are used to examine the structure of farmers' perceptions of ground water pollution and their support of regulations to protect ground water. Estimates of the influence of farm and farmer characteristics on pollution perceptions and support for pollution control were computed using a multiple-indicator model. Results show that the willingness to change

Abdelmoneim H. Elnagheeb; Jeffrey L. Jordan; Vonda Humphrey

1995-01-01

93

Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, & Infant Mortality in India  

E-print Network

Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, environmental regulations, and infant mortality from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental ...

Greenstone, Michael

2011-07-01

94

Biomonitoring of metals under the water framework directive: detecting temporal trends and abrupt changes, in relation to the removal of pollution sources.  

PubMed

Temporal trends in metal concentrations, i.e. Ag, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn, measured in soft tissues of Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels and Crassostrea gigas oysters collected from estuarine waters within the Basque Country (Bay of Biscay), have been investigated to determine if actions undertaken have improved the environmental quality of rivers and estuaries. Data compiled between 1990 and 2010 have been analysed statistically, applying the Mann-Kendall and the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon tests. Moreover, in those cases with significant trends, the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko Adaptive (KZA) filter was applied to detect abrupt changes. Results showed significant decreasing trends for some metals, i.e. Ni, Cu, Pb and Zn, and differences between medians. Trend lines showed abrupt changes occurring between 1998 and 2002. Therefore, observed downward trends were related to increased wastewater treatment and diversions of discharges to ocean, implemented mainly during 2000-2002. PMID:23279998

Solaun, O; Rodríguez, J G; Borja, A; González, M; Saiz-Salinas, J I

2013-02-15

95

Sulfate and conductivity as field indicators for detecting coal-mining pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water quality assessment was conducted on three Appalachian streams polluted by coal mining at the Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, Tennessee and Kentucky. Results showed that sulfate was an excellent parameter for detecting the effects of coal mining and that sulfate analyses used in conjunction with conductivity readings provided the best detection index. Acidity and pH

Michael Rikard; Sam Kunkle

1990-01-01

96

Detection of persistent organic pollutants in the Mississippi Delta using semipermeable membrane devices  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) placed in five Mississippi Delta streams in 1996 and 1997, the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) aldrin, chlordane, DCPA, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, mirex, nonachlor, and toxaphene were detected. In addition, the insecticides chlorpyriphos, endosulfan, and hexachlorocyclohexanes were detected. Two low-solubility herbicides not detected commonly in surface water, pendimethalin and trifluralin, were also detected. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

Zimmerman, L.R.; Thurman, E.M.; Bastian, K.C.

2000-01-01

97

Comment on water pollution in Lake Michigan from pollution aerosol fallout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that air pollution is a major source of some water pollution trace elements in Lake Michigan (Winchester and Nifong, 1971) is reexamined. Hazards evaluation techniques are used to assess the overall transfer efficiency of pollution from air to the lake. This efficiency was found to be at least 25%, which supports the hypothesis.

D. Skibin

1973-01-01

98

Water pollution in Lake Michigan by trace elements from pollution aerosol fallout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain trace elements which are strongly associated with air pollution sources in the Lake Michigan basin may be contributing significantly to lake water pollution by an atmospheric fallout route. In this paper a partial inventory of air pollution emissions for 30 trace elements is presented for the Chicago, Milwaukee, and northwest Indiana metropolitan areas, based on available published information. The

John W. Winchester; Gordon D. Nifong

1971-01-01

99

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. ...water pollution control and air pollution control requirements...

2010-01-01

100

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

... 2014-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. ...water pollution control and air pollution control requirements...

2014-01-01

101

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. ...water pollution control and air pollution control requirements...

2011-01-01

102

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. ...water pollution control and air pollution control requirements...

2013-01-01

103

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. ...water pollution control and air pollution control requirements...

2012-01-01

104

Patrick Air Force Base Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report fulfills the requirements of the EPA General Permit for storm water discharge that facilities requiring NPDES storm water permits prepare a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP). Facilities requiring permits are those classified as ind...

F. Graziano, P. Makowski, S. Rives

1994-01-01

105

Method for detecting pollutants. [through chemical reactions and heat treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for detecting and measuring trace amounts of pollutants of the group consisting of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide in a gaseous environment. A sample organic solid material that will undergo a chemical reaction with the test pollutant is exposed to the test environment and thereafter, when heated in the temperature range of 100-200 C., undergoes chemiluminescence that is measured and recorded as a function of concentration of the test pollutant. The chemiluminescence of the solid organic material is specific to the pollutant being tested.

Rogowski, R. S.; Richards, R. R.; Conway, E. J. (inventors)

1976-01-01

106

Semiconducting Metal Oxide Based Sensors for Selective Gas Pollutant Detection  

PubMed Central

A review of some papers published in the last fifty years that focus on the semiconducting metal oxide (SMO) based sensors for the selective and sensitive detection of various environmental pollutants is presented. PMID:22408500

Kanan, Sofian M.; El-Kadri, Oussama M.; Abu-Yousef, Imad A.; Kanan, Marsha C.

2009-01-01

107

The problems of water pollution: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most potentially toxic chemicals eventually find their way into waterways. The most common source of this pollution is from the air. More than 50 percent of the chemical pollution of the Great Lakes is believed to come from airborne pollutants, and the main sources of this pollution are smokestacks (energy plants, nuclear or conventional; trash-to-steam incinerators; industrial factories, chemical and

G. Lumb; A. S. Clare

1992-01-01

108

Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico.  

PubMed

The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn-bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha?¹week?¹ for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the main metabolite ethylenethiourea was near the detection limit. Surface and subsurface water was highly polluted with ethylenethiourea, the main metabolite of Mancozeb (22.5 and 4.3 ?g L?¹, respectively), but not with manganese. In deep ground water, no ethylenethiourea was detected. The level of pollution in the region presents a worrisome risk for aquatic life and for human health. PMID:20734023

Geissen, Violette; Ramos, Franzisco Que; de J Bastidas-Bastidas, Pedro; Díaz-González, Gilberto; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo; Huerta-Lwanga, Esperanza; Ruiz-Suárez, Luz E

2010-10-01

109

Studies Regarding the Ground Water Pollution in a Rural Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The papers presents studies regarding the pollution of the ground water, in a rural area. Samples of drinking water from 10 wells have been analyzed in order to evaluate if their quality was affected as result of farming activities. We find out that the water from some of the wells in polluted, the values of some of the quality parameters

Cornelia Muntean; Petru Negre; Mihaela Ciopec; Lavinia Lup; Ioan Ursoiu; Giannin Mosoarca; Ramona Ghiga

110

Biocomposting of distillery waste to control water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a developing country like India, distillery industries have become a major source of pollution, as 88% of its raw materials are converted into waste and discharged into the water bodies, causing water pollution. The waste water from distilleries carry appreciable organic load. The spent wash is colored, highly acidic with very offensive odor, which poses serious environmental problems. To

Ashok Kumar Ghosh; Bihari Singh; Nupur Bose; K. K. Tiwari

2003-01-01

111

Removal of Estrogenic Pollutants from Contaminated Water Using  

E-print Network

Removal of Estrogenic Pollutants from Contaminated Water Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Z I H that this material may be appropriate for treating a complex mixture of estrogenic pollutants. The feasibility of removing estrogenic compounds from environmental water by the MIP was demonstrated using lake water spiked

Chen, Wilfred

112

Rapid assessment of air, water, and land pollution sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is outlined to make a rapid across-the-board estimate of the quantities of air, water and land pollution in a given region or country. Such inventories, though not as detailed as one would eventually need, provide a first integrated view of the magnitude and quantity of pollution and can contribute to effective and comprehensive pollution control planning.

H. W. Koning

1981-01-01

113

Preventing Water Pollution Tips for Vehicle Washing and Detailing Businesses  

E-print Network

Vehicle washing and detailing practices can produce: • soaps and cleaners • oil and antifreeze • dirt and grease • metals If these pollutants reach waterways, they can cause significant water pollution problems. YOU can prevent that. Standing on the edge of a storm drain is like standing on the shore of a stream. Stormwater carries pollutants that harm aquatic life and impact swimming and fishing. According to the Washington State Department of Ecology, stormwater is the number one source of water pollution in the urban areas of Western Washington. Thousands of small spills from many of us add up to our biggest pollution problem.

Stormwater Bmps For The Automotive

114

The Current State of Water Quality and Technology Development for Water Pollution Control in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes and presents an overview of the current state of water pollution, as well as recent progress and the potential future development of water pollution control technology, in China. Although China has made significant strides in water environmental protection over the past decades, analysis reveals that water pollution in the nation is still not sufficiently controlled, with a

Jiuhui Qu; Maohong Fan

2010-01-01

115

Factors Affecting Survival of Pollution Indicator Organisms in Estuarine Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies of the survival of pollution indicator organisms (coliforms, fecal coliforms, and enterococci) in untreated estuarine waters gave rates agreeing with those of other workers. In estuarine waters passed through a 0.45 micrometer membrane filter, col...

D. W. Cook, R. W. Hamilton

1971-01-01

116

Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

Fowler, K. E. M.

117

Loading functions for assessment of water pollution from nonpoint sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for evaluating the quantity of water pollutants generated from nonpoint sources including agriculture, silviculture, construction, mining, runoff from urban areas and rural roads, and terrestrial disposal are developed and compiled for use in water quality planning. The loading functions, plus in some instances emission values, permit calculation of nonpoint source pollutants from available data and information. Natural background was

A. D. McElroy; S. Y. Chiu; J. W. Nebgen; A. Aleti; F. W. Bennett

1976-01-01

118

Application of GIS in Water Pollutant Capacity Total Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity total control, in the field of water pollution prevent, is more effective than the traditional mandatory total control. In this article, GIS was applied into the capacity total control of water pollutant. Using the ArcSDE technology, a spatial geodatabase that included many kinds of spatial information and attribute data was built. Based on it, a spatial model system

Liang Wang; Xiutao Zhang

2009-01-01

119

POLLUTION DETECTION DOGS: PROOF OF CONCEPT  

EPA Science Inventory

Dogs have been used extensively in law enforcement and military applications to detect narcotics and explosives for over thirty years. Dogs are regularly used in arson investigations to detect accelerants since they are much more accurate at discriminating between accelerants an...

120

Single Laboratory Comparison of Quantitative Real-time PCR Assays for the Detection of Fecal Pollution  

EPA Science Inventory

There are numerous quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays available to detect and enumerate fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each assay employs distinct primers and probes that target different rRNA genes and microorganisms leading to potential variations in concentration es...

121

DETECTING LOW-LEVEL SEWAGE POLLUTION USING ROCKY SHORE COMMUNTIEIS AS BIOINDICATORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

While coastal pollution due to high inputs of organic matter is easy to detect and monitor, this is much more difficult in the case of sporadic low-level inputs. Moreover, routine water- quality surveys of large stretches of coastline are time-consuming and often prohibitively expensive. Such monitoring is therefore usually limited to sensitive areas. These restrictions make the results less useful

Adrian Mallia; Patrick J. Schembri

122

[Analysis of pollution levels of 16 antibiotics in the river water of Daliao River water system].  

PubMed

The detection of the pollution level of antibiotics in Daliao River system is a meaningful work. Sixteen antibiotics (6 sulfonamides, 5 fluoroquinolones, 3 tetracyclines and 2 chloramphenicols) were simultaneously quantified with solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In the SPE procedure, methanol and 2% (v/v) ammonia/methanol were used as the elution solvents in sequence to reduce the elution volume and improve the recovery. The results showed that this method have good sensitivity and enrichment effect for the target antibiotics in aqueous water, the recoveries ranged from 69.5% to 122.6%, the detection limits ranged from 0.05 ng/L to 0.32 ng/L. Thirteen antibiotics were found in the river water of Daliao River water system. Sulfa antibiotics were widely distributed, in which sulfamethoxazole was detected in all the sampling sites. The concentration of fluoroquinolones was relatively high in some sampling sites. The highest detection concentration of enoxacin was 41.3 ng/L. The frequencies and concentrations of tetracyclines and chloramphenicols were lower. In the upper reaches of the river, the concentrations of the 4 types of antibiotics appeared lower, but around the large cities such as Shenyang City, Benxi City, Liaoyang City, the concentrations showed higher levels. The study indicated that the Daliao River water system suffered from the pollution of antibiotics to a certain extent. PMID:23256376

Yang, Changqing; Wang, Longxing; Hou, Xiaohong; Chen, Jiping

2012-08-01

123

Satellite image processing and air pollution detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental sensing is closely related to digital processing of observed signals and images. The paper is devoted to the analysis of mathematical methods allowing for detection of concentration of aerosol particles observed at ground measuring stations and by satellites. The first part of the contribution presents basic methods of two-dimensional interpolation allowing for the estimation of the observed variables over

A. Prochazka; M. Kolinova; J. Fiala; P. Hampl; K. Hlavaty

2000-01-01

124

Natural Wetlands Mediate Nonpoint Source Water Pollution From Irrigated Pastures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-point source discharge from grazed pastures may be high in nutrients, sediment, and pathogens, three major contributors to water quality impairment in California. Intercepting pollution at its source and managing water quality within the landscape are essential to maintaining healthy downstream waters. We investigated the efficacy of flow-through wetlands interspersed throughout the agricultural landscape to reduce non-point source pollution of

K. Knox; R. A. Dahlgren; K. W. Tate

2005-01-01

125

9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

... Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. 381.151... Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. (a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited to...

2014-01-01

126

9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

... Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. 318.14... Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. (a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited to...

2014-01-01

127

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

...2014-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2014-04-01

128

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2011-04-01

129

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

2011-07-01

130

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

2013-07-01

131

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2012-04-01

132

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

2012-07-01

133

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2013-04-01

134

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2010-04-01

135

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

2010-07-01

136

Mine water pollution in Scotland: nature, extent and preventative strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scotland was one of the world's first industrialised countries, and has therefore also been one of the first countries to experience wholesale post-industrial dereliction. Water pollution arising from abandoned mines, particularly abandoned coal mines, is second only to sewage as a source of freshwater pollution nation-wide, and in many coalfield catchments it is the pre-eminent source. Most of the pollution

P. L. Younger

2001-01-01

137

CONTROLLING POLLUTION FROM THE MANUFACTURING AND COATING OF METAL PRODUCTS. 3. WATER POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

Volume 3 addresses managers, engineers and other industry personnel responsible for resolving the water pollution problems of a manufacturing facility. It covers regulations, in-plant controls, three methods for wastewater treatment, establishment of a working relationship with a...

138

Stable Isotope Mixing Models as a Tool for Tracking Sources of Water and Water Pollutants  

EPA Science Inventory

One goal of monitoring pollutants is to be able to trace the pollutant to its source. Here we review how mixing models using stable isotope information on water and water pollutants can help accomplish this goal. A number of elements exist in multiple stable (non-radioactive) i...

139

Optimal Regulatory Instruments for a self - polluting firm in the presence of water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper emphasizes of profit maximizing firms that produce output (with water being an important input in the production process), and generates a negative externality like pollution in water resources. Such quality degradation in the water input affects, inevitably, the production of firm in the forthcoming period. In order to capture this, the paper envisages the existence of two types

Anandajit Goswami; Souvik Bhattacharjya; Nilanjan Ghosh

140

IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF FECAL POLLUTION IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of Microbial Source Tracking (MST) methods are currently used to determine the origin of fecal pollution impacting environmental waters. MST is based on the assumption that given the appropriate method and indicator organism, the source of fecal microbial pollution can ...

141

ALTERNATIVE POLICIES FOR CONTROLLING NONPOINT AGRICULTURAL SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This study of policies for controlling water pollution from nonpoint agricultural sources includes a survey of existing state and Federal programs, agencies, and laws directed to the control of soil erosion. Six policies representing a variety of approaches to this pollution prob...

142

The allocative efficiency implications of water pollution abatement cost comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessments of the efficiency of water pollution control allocations are usually based on abatement cost comparisons. The general rule is that efficiency is improved by reallocating abatement from sources with high marginal costs to low-cost sources. The welfare-theoretic foundation of this rule is well established for situations with nonstochastic emissions. In situations with stochastic emissions, pollution control involves improving the

James S. Shortle

1990-01-01

143

Soil and Water Pollution in a Banana Production Region in Tropical Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn—bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha?1week?1 for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of\\u000a tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the main metabolite ethylenethiourea was near\\u000a the detection limit. Surface and subsurface water was highly polluted with ethylenethiourea, the main metabolite of Mancozeb

Violette Geissen; Franzisco Que Ramos; Pedro de J. Bastidas-Bastidas; Gilberto Díaz-González; Ricardo Bello-Mendoza; Esperanza Huerta-Lwanga; Luz E. Ruiz-Suárez

2010-01-01

144

Assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote measurement of chlorophyll concentrations to determine extent of water pollution is discussed. Construction and operation of radiometer to provide measurement capability are explained. Diagram of equipment is provided.

Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

1972-01-01

145

Hydrocarbon analysis of shrimp from oil polluted waters  

E-print Network

HYDROCARBON ANALYSIS OF SHRIMP FROM OIL POLLUTED WATERS A Thesis by BERNARD JOHN DEWITT III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1982... Major Subject: Food Science and Technology HYDROCARBON ANALYSIS OF SHRIMP FROM OIL POLLUTED WATERS A Thesis BERNARD JOHN DEWITT III Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) (Head of apartment) May 1982...

DeWitt, Bernard John

2012-06-07

146

Outbreak of Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome occurred in the third week of a diarrhoea epidemic caused by water pollution in EL-Sult, Jordan. Of 30 000 people exposed to polluted water, 5000 developed diarrhoea, 74 typhoid, and 30 infectious hepatitis. Thirteen of the 16 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had been mildly affected by diarrhoea 8-24 days before the onset of peripheral neuropathy.

N A Sliman

1978-01-01

147

NATION WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ASSESSMENT MODEL - VERSION 2.1.  

EPA Science Inventory

NWPCAM brings together large amounts of environmental data and complex hydrologic and water quality modeling techniques into a system whose purpose is to estimate the water quality and economic benefits of water pollution control policies. NWPCAM began as a point source evaluati...

148

Water pollution in the USSR and other Eastern European countries*  

PubMed Central

The condition of water bodies and measures taken to prevent their pollution in the USSR, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Bulgaria and Romania are the main subjects of this paper. For each of these countries information is given on population and area, physical features, rain-fall and rivers, the distribution of population and industry, water supply and sewerage, the condition of surface and ground waters, the authorities and legislation concerned with the protection of water resources, and research on pollution. The author draws attention to the experience gained in these countries in the setting up of special State bodies to take charge of water resources and in classifying rivers according to the uses to which they are put, a factor which determines the regulations governing the discharge of effluent into them. A plea is also made for the convening of specialized international conferences on problems connected with the protection of European water resources from pollution. PMID:14465925

Litvinov, N.

1962-01-01

149

Water quality . . . potential sources of pollution  

USGS Publications Warehouse

What is water quality? To most students, water quality may suggest only "clean" water for drinking, swimming, and fishing. But to the farmer or manufacturer, water quality may have an entirely different meaning. One of the most important issues concerning the quality of water is how that water will be used. Water that is perfectly fine for irrigation might not be suitable for drinking or swimming.

Vandas, Stephen; Artwork by Farrar, Frank

1996-01-01

150

Science, Pollution, and Clean Drinking Water: Choosing Between Tap Water, Bottled Water, and Home Purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focusing on the recent explosion in the use of bottled water, this article—originally written for my NASTS conference presentation—will examine the rhetoric used by the bottled water industry and home purification system providers to affect the public’s idea of clean, pure, dirty, and polluted water. Bottlers argue that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides better regulation of bottled water

Franz Foltz

1999-01-01

151

Pollution trees: identifying similarities among complex pollutant mixtures in water and correlating them to mutagenicity.  

PubMed

There are relatively few tools available for computing and visualizing similarities among complex mixtures and in correlating the chemical composition clusters with toxicological clusters of mixtures. Using the "intersection and union ratio (IUR)" and other traditional distance matrices on contaminant profiles of 33 specific water samples, we used "pollution trees" to compare these mixtures. The "pollution trees" constructed by neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), and maximum likelihood (ML) methods allowed comparison of similarities among these samples. The mutagenicity of each sample was then mapped to the "pollution tree". The IUR-distance-based measure proved effective in comparing chemical composition and compound level differences between mixtures. We found a robust "pollution tree" containing seven major lineages with certain broad characteristics: treated municipal water samples were different from raw water samples and untreated rural drinking water samples were similar with local water sources. The IUR-distance-based tree was more highly correlated to mutagenicity than were other distance matrices, i.e., MP/ML methods, sampling group, region, or water type. IUR-distance-based "pollution trees" may become important tools for identifying similarities among real mixtures and examining chemical composition clusters in a toxicological context. PMID:22680987

Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Tian, Dajun; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Weidong; Andersen, Melvin E; Zheng, Yuxin; Sun, Xin; Jiang, Songhui; Cao, Zhaojin; He, Gengsheng; Qu, Weidong

2012-07-01

152

Decision perspectives on urban storm water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study are to develop and use a novel and simple method of analysis of the urban combined sewer and overflow problem. An aggregated method is presented which relates a few significant variables to produce a scalar that describes the severity of pollution for an urban area. Typical values of the variables are assigned, and sensitivity analysis

G. K. Young

1976-01-01

153

Microbial pollution of water in Golbasi lake in Adiyaman, Turkey.  

PubMed

An experiment was designed to examine microbiology of water samples of Gölbasi lake and to assess the occurence of multiple antibiotic resistances in Escherichia coli from them. Total aerobic bacteria number in the lake was determined as 20x10(3) cfu ml(-1) and fecal coliforms were determined >1100 MPN/100 ml. Collected water samples from four geographically dispersed stations were screened for the E. coli and assessed for their resistance to twelve different antibiotics, which are commonly encountered in the lake. Of the total 13 E. coli isolates, 0% were susceptible to all antibiotics. All of isolates were found resistant to Penicillin (P) (100%). Among the twelve antibiotics tested, four patterns of antibiotic resistance were obtained and all of them were multiple antibiotic resistance with the number of antibiotics ranging from 2 to 5. Three isolates had beta-lactamase detected by iodometric slide test. The results indicated that persistent use of antibiotics against human diseases and other life forms may pollute the lake water and their impact on developing antibiotic resistant E. coli may be a serious threat in both health and environment. PMID:20112860

Toroglu, Emin; Toroglu, Sevil

2009-01-01

154

[Impact of water pollution risk in water transfer project based on fault tree analysis].  

PubMed

The methods to assess water pollution risk for medium water transfer are gradually being explored. The event-nature-proportion method was developed to evaluate the probability of the single event. Fault tree analysis on the basis of calculation on single event was employed to evaluate the extent of whole water pollution risk for the channel water body. The result indicates, that the risk of pollutants from towns and villages along the line of water transfer project to the channel water body is at high level with the probability of 0.373, which will increase pollution to the channel water body at the rate of 64.53 mg/L COD, 4.57 mg/L NH4(+) -N and 0.066 mg/L volatilization hydroxybenzene, respectively. The measurement of fault probability on the basis of proportion method is proved to be useful in assessing water pollution risk under much uncertainty. PMID:19927799

Liu, Jian-Chang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Li-Min; Li, Dai-Qing; Fan, Xiu-Ying; Deng, Hong-Bing

2009-09-15

155

Tributyltin (TBT) pollution in the coastal waters of west Brittany as indicated by imposex in Nucella lapillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tributyltin (TBT) pollution in west Brittany coastal waters was assessed in 1992, 1993 and 1994 using the bioindicator of imposex (superimposition of male sexual characters on females) in the neogastropod Nucella lapillus. Imposex was detected at all 75 stations sampled, from Kerfissien on the north coast to Ile de Sein in the south-west, indicating widespread pollution even at sites having

M. Huet; Y. M. Paulet; M. Glémarec

1996-01-01

156

Pyrrole-based conductive polymer as the solid-phase extraction medium for the preconcentration of environmental pollutants in water samples followed by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometry detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pyrrole-based polymer was synthesized and applied as a new sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE) of some environmental pollutants from water samples. Polypyrrole (PPy) was synthesized by chemical oxidation of the monomer in nonaqueous solution. SPE of selected phenols, pesticides, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from aqueous samples were performed using 200mg PPy. The determination was subsequently carried out by gas

Habib Bagheri; Abdorreza Mohammadi

2003-01-01

157

Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process  

E-print Network

Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process Abstract: The study investigates water quality pollution impacts on urbanization by analyzing temporal and spatial characteristics of different water quality parameters, and simulating economic loss of water

Yu, Qian

158

Method to determine actinide pollution in water  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for measuring small amounts, of actinide pollution in fluidic samples by use of solid state track recording devices. It comprises: containing a sample to be tested, containing small amounts of less than 3E-12 Curies per cubic centimeter of actinide pollution, in a sample cell defining an internal chamber and having means for ingress and egress and means for establishing a fluidic sample therein, the sample cell being substantially transparent to thermal neutron radiation and the internal chamber defined therein being configured to constitute a fluidic sample therein as an asymptotic fluid fission source; positioning a solid state track recorder within the internal chamber defined by the sample cell, so that the solid state track recorder has a radiation viewing window through an asymptotic thickness of a fluidic sample contained in the sample cell; capturing at least an asymptotic amount of fluidic sample in the sample cell.

Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Preston, C.C.

1992-02-11

159

Health Risk Information to Reduce Water Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A growing body of empirical studies indicate that farmers are concerned about how agricultural practices may affect health\\u000a risks and environmental quality. These studies suggest that farmers are not simply profit maximizers. Instead, they have multiple\\u000a objectives that include health and environmental concerns. As a result, their privately optimal behavior can result in less\\u000a use of polluting inputs than would

Scott M. Swinton; Nicole N. Owens; Eileen O. van Ravenswaay

160

River Pollution: Part II. Biological Methods for Assessing Water Quality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses methods used in the biological assessment of river quality and such indicators of clean and polluted waters as the Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score System, and species diversity indexes. Includes a summary of a river classification scheme based on quality criteria related to water use. (JN)

Openshaw, Peter

1984-01-01

161

Spectral reflectance and radiance characteristics of water pollutants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral reflectance characteristics of water pollutants and water bodies were compiled using the existing literature. Radiance calculations were performed at satellite altitude for selected illumination angles and atmospheric conditions. The work described in this report was limited to the reflective portion of the spectrum between 0.40 micrometer to 1.0 micrometer.

Wezernak, C. T.; Turner, R. E.; Lyzenga, D. R.

1976-01-01

162

Linking Air, Land, and Water Pollution for Effective Environmental Management  

EPA Science Inventory

Since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, other federal agencies, and the states have made substantial progress in improving the Nation?s air and water quality. Traditionally, the air, land, and water pollution ...

163

Soil and Water Pollution in a Banana Production Region in Tropical Mexico  

PubMed Central

The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn—bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha?1week?1 for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the main metabolite ethylenethiourea was near the detection limit. Surface and subsurface water was highly polluted with ethylenethiourea, the main metabolite of Mancozeb (22.5 and 4.3 ?g L?1, respectively), but not with manganese. In deep ground water, no ethylenethiourea was detected. The level of pollution in the region presents a worrisome risk for aquatic life and for human health. PMID:20734023

Ramos, Franzisco Que; de J. Bastidas-Bastidas, Pedro; Díaz-González, Gilberto; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo; Huerta-Lwanga, Esperanza; Ruiz-Suárez, Luz E.

2010-01-01

164

The Solutions Data Base Component of the Water Pollution Abatement Subsystem (WPAS) of the Pollution Abatement Management System. (PAMS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the overall concept definition for the Solutions Data Base component of the Water Pollution Abatement System (WPAS) of the Pollution Abatement Management System (PAMS), which is being developed for use by DA planners and Facility Eng...

J. T. Bandy, E. D. Smith, R. D. Webster

1981-01-01

165

Biomedical Questions on Water Pollution Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent question on acid rain toxicity motivated this informal look at SDC's WATERLIT and DIALOG'S Water Resources Abstracts. Thc same question was Iormulated for comparison on BIOSIS. The data bases were examined for ease of access to the indexing through key citations. The scope of the two water databases is discussed from the perspective of biomedical queries.

Nancy G. Bruce

1983-01-01

166

Needed: Clean Water. Problems of Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet utilizes illustrations and captions to indicate the demands currently made on our water resources and the problems associated with that demand. Current and future solutions are described with suggestions for personal conservation efforts to help provide enough clean water for everyone in the future. (CS)

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

167

MERCURY SEPARATION FROM POLLUTANT WATER USING ZEOLITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water has been examined at room temperature. Experiments have...

168

Protection of drinking water sources against modern pollutants.  

PubMed

One of the main tasks of hygiene necessitating urgent solution is the regulation, within the framework of governmental planning, of sanitary protection against modern pollutants of sources and water works supplying the human collectivities. Pollution by pesticides, surfactants, aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons, oil waste products, phenolics, radioactive isotopes etc., is requiring particular concern. Cases of penetration of these chemical substances, especially of pesticides, oil residues and other kinds of industrial waste into ground waters have been recently observed with increasing frequency. Pollution of underground waters occurred either through the storage on the surface ground or into soil of waste products containing these substances or through their discharge into the water stream. The presence of these substances in most water supply systems the lowered effectivity of water-works in the removal of these substances, continual increase in the number of industries producing these pollutants, their participation in the origin or increased incidence of some chronic diseases characterizing the development of modern society make necessary scientific substantiation and urgent solution of the problem. PMID:1168670

Zamfir, G; Nästase, V

1975-01-01

169

Water-Quality Trading: Can We Get the Price of Pollution Right?1  

E-print Network

Water-Quality Trading: Can We Get the Price of Pollution Right?1 Yoshifumi Konishi Faculty for pollution can work for air. Should they not work for water pollution too? The U.S. Environmental Protection known (Mauzerall et al., 2005). Spatial dependence is likely even more prominent for water pollution

Weiblen, George D

170

An evaluation of free water surface wetlands as tertiary sewage water treatment of micro-pollutants.  

PubMed

Increased attention is currently directed towards potential negative effects of pharmaceuticals and other micro-pollutants discharged into the aquatic environment via municipal sewage water. A number of additional treatment technologies, such as ozonation, have therefore been suggested as promising tools for improving the removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in existing Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs). Constructed wetlands are also capable of removing a variety of micro-pollutants, including some pharmaceuticals, and could hence be a resource efficient complement to more advanced treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was therefore to increase the knowledge base concerning the potential use of constructed wetlands as a treatment step to reduce emissions of organic micro-pollutants from municipal sewage effluents. Under cold winter conditions, incoming and outgoing waters from four Swedish free water surface wetlands, operated as final treatment steps of sewage effluent from municipal STPs, were sampled and analyzed for levels of a set of 92 pharmaceuticals and 22 inorganic components as well as assessed using subchronic ecotoxicity tests with a macro-alga and a crustacean. Sixty-five pharmaceuticals were detected in the range from 1 ng L(-1) to 7.6 ?g L(-1) in incoming and outgoing waters from the four investigated wetlands. Although the sampling design used in the present study lacks the robustness of volume proportional to 24h composite samples, the average estimated removal rates ranged from 42% to 52%, which correlates to previous published values. The effects observed in the ecotoxicity tests with the macro-alga (EC(50)s in the range of 7.5-46%) and the crustacean (LOECs in the range of 11.25-90%) could not be assigned to either pharmaceutical residues or metals, but in general showed that these treatment facilities release water with a relatively low toxic potential, comparable to water that has been treated with advanced tertiary treatments. From the present study it can be concluded that constructed wetlands may provide a complementary sewage treatment option, especially where other treatment is lacking today. To fully remove micro-pollutants from sewage effluent, however, other more advanced treatment technologies are likely needed. PMID:22192709

Breitholtz, Magnus; Näslund, Maria; Stråe, Daniel; Borg, Hans; Grabic, Roman; Fick, Jerker

2012-04-01

171

Pollution of drinking water with nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main sources of nitrate in man are food and drinking water. The legislature in West Germany intends to lower the permitted level of nitrate in drinking water from the present 90 mg\\/l to 50 mg\\/l in 1982. The European Community has issued a directive that recommends a level of only 25 mg\\/l, and for babies 10 mg\\/l nitrate should

B. Cabel; R. Kozicki; U. Lahl; A. Podbielshi; B. Stachel; S. Struss

1982-01-01

172

Acrylamide encephaloneuropathy due to well water pollution.  

PubMed Central

All five members of a family developed subacutely mental confusion and/or truncal ataxia. Symptoms and signs of polyneuropathy were seen later. The well water in the patients' home contained 400 ppm acrylamide. The present cases are unique in that they are cases of acrylamide poisoning induced by oral intake and percutaneous penetration, and that central nervous system symptoms were prominent. PMID:168322

Igisu, H; Goto, I; Kawamura, Y; Kato, M; Izumi, K

1975-01-01

173

Acrylamide encephaloneuropathy due to well water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

All five members of a family developed subacutely mental confusion and\\/or truncal ataxia. Symptoms and signs of polyneuropathy were seen later. The well water in the patients' home contained 400 ppm acrylamide. The present cases are unique in that they are cases of acrylamide poisoning induced by oral intake and percutaneous penetration, and that central nervous system symptoms were prominent.

H Igisu; I Goto; Y Kawamura; M Kato; K Izumi

1975-01-01

174

Water Pollution, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed are the reasons why present mechanisms for the control of water purity are inadequate. The control of waterborne epidemics is discussed to illustrate a problem which has been solved, then degradation of the environment is presented as an unsolved problem. Case histories are given of pollution and attempts at control in rivers, lakes,…

Berg, George G.

175

Inactive and abandoned underground mines. Water pollution prevention and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground mining operations across the United States produce a number of environmental problems. The foremost of these environmental concerns is acid discharges from inactive and abandoned underground mines that deteriorate streams, lakes and impoundments. Waters affected by mine drainage are altered both chemically and physically. This report discusses in Part I the chemistry and geographic extent of mine drainage pollution

R. L. Scott; R. M. Hays

1975-01-01

176

Water pollution control by aquatic vegetation of treatment wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplying polluted river water to nature reserves in The Netherlands often leads to eutrophication of the reserve. The eutrophication can be caused directly by the high nutrient input (external eutrophication) or indirectly by altering nutrient availability due to changes in nutrient desorption or mineralization. This paper investigates the potential of a ditch system that is tested for its potential to

Arthur F. M. Meuleman; Boudewijn Beltman; Robbert A. Scheffer

2004-01-01

177

ISOLATION OF ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS BY XAD RESINS AND CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

The recovery efficiencies of XAD resins -2, -4, -7, and -8 and of resin mixtures were measured using distilled water samples containing 13 organic pollutants. An equal-weight mixture of XAD-4 and XAD-8 was most efficient. XAD-2 and XAD-4/8 were further tested and found effective ...

178

Introduction to Instrumental Analysis of Water Pollutants. Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course is designed for those requiring an introduction to instruments commonly used in water pollution analyses. Examples are: pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen meters, spectrophotometers, turbidimeters, carbon analyzer, and gas chromatographs. Students should have a basic knowledge of analytical chemistry. (CO)

Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

179

Forewarning model for water pollution risk based on Bayes theory.  

PubMed

In order to reduce the losses by water pollution, forewarning model for water pollution risk based on Bayes theory was studied. This model is built upon risk indexes in complex systems, proceeding from the whole structure and its components. In this study, the principal components analysis is used to screen out index systems. Hydrological model is employed to simulate index value according to the prediction principle. Bayes theory is adopted to obtain posterior distribution by prior distribution with sample information which can make samples' features preferably reflect and represent the totals to some extent. Forewarning level is judged on the maximum probability rule, and then local conditions for proposing management strategies that will have the effect of transforming heavy warnings to a lesser degree. This study takes Taihu Basin as an example. After forewarning model application and vertification for water pollution risk from 2000 to 2009 between the actual and simulated data, forewarning level in 2010 is given as a severe warning, which is well coincide with logistic curve. It is shown that the model is rigorous in theory with flexible method, reasonable in result with simple structure, and it has strong logic superiority and regional adaptability, providing a new way for warning water pollution risk. PMID:24194413

Zhao, Jun; Jin, Juliang; Guo, Qizhong; Chen, Yaqian; Lu, Mengxiong; Tinoco, Luis

2014-02-01

180

Optical multiple-analyte immunosensor for water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype of a portable optical immunosensor (called river analyser) has been developed. It can be applied for the monitoring of surface water quality. Antibodies carrying a fluorescent label are used for the specific recognition of pollutants, such as frequently applied pesticides. The transduction principle is based on total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF). The outstanding advantage of the river analyser

Claudia Barzen; Andreas Brecht; Guenter Gauglitz

2002-01-01

181

Storm water pollution in the urban environment of Genoa, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpoint pollution resulting from urban surface runoff is recognized as one of the major causes of quality deterioration in the receiving water bodies. In order to investigate the first flush phenomenon connected to different types of urban surfaces, two monitoring systems have been installed in the experimental catchment of Villa Cambiaso, University of Genoa (Italy), to sample separately roof and

I. Gnecco; C. Berretta; L. G. Lanza; P. La Barbera

2005-01-01

182

Water pollution and habitat degradation in the Gulf of Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gulf of Thailand has been a major marine resource for Thai people for a long time. However, recent industrialization and community development have exerted considerable stress on the marine environments and provoked habitat degradation. The following pollution problems in the Gulf have been prioritized and are discussed in details: (1) Untreated municipal and industrial waste water are considered to

Voravit Cheevaporn; Piamsak Menasveta

2003-01-01

183

Solidification\\/Stabilization of Power Plants Wastes Potential Water Pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intensive firing of coal in power plants can harm the environment. The problems are caused by the emission of solid particles, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, as well as by pollution of the surrounding waters and the degradation of the land due to the disposition of the solid wastes: fly ash, bottom ash

Aleksandra Kosti?-Pulek; Svetlana Popov

184

Diffuse Surface Water Pollution: Driving Factors for Different Geoclimatic Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantification of point and non-point losses of Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) to surface waters is currently a major\\u000a issue for the implementation of Environmental Directives, such as the Water Framework Directive in Europe. However, the drivers\\u000a behind nutrient pollution are location specific and are affected by regional hydroclimatic and geomorphological characteristics.\\u000a In this study the river basin model

Yiannis Panagopoulos; Christos Makropoulos; Maria Mimikou

185

Awakening Seed Pond Water ChemistryAwakening Seed Pond Water Chemistry Our Question: Is our pond polluted?Our Question: Is our pond polluted?  

E-print Network

Awakening Seed Pond Water ChemistryAwakening Seed Pond Water Chemistry Our Question: Is our pond polluted?Our Question: Is our pond polluted? Our InvestigationOur Investigation We discussed what kinds of pollutants we should look for. We narrowed down the aspects of pond chemistry that we would investigate

Hall, Sharon J.

186

Copyright 2005 Water Environment Federation. Water Environment Research, Volume 77, Number 6 FATE OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS  

E-print Network

if the water table is 61 cm below soil surface. A linear relationship was observed between nitrate and ammoniumCopyright © 2005 Water Environment Federation. Water Environment Research, Volume 77, Number 6 2576 2004 on the fate of environmental pollutants in soils, surface water and groundwaters. Studies related

Rockne, Karl J.

187

A simulation of water pollution model parameter estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parameter estimation procedure for a water pollution transport model is elaborated. A two-dimensional instantaneous-release shear-diffusion model serves as representative of a simple transport process. Pollution concentration levels are arrived at via modeling of a remote-sensing system. The remote-sensed data are simulated by adding Gaussian noise to the concentration level values generated via the transport model. Model parameters are estimated from the simulated data using a least-squares batch processor. Resolution, sensor array size, and number and location of sensor readings can be found from the accuracies of the parameter estimates.

Kibler, J. F.

1976-01-01

188

Design an effective storm water pollution prevention plan  

SciTech Connect

A case history shows ``how`` to plan and organize a storm water pollution prevention program (SWPPP). Using easy-to-use worksheets and guidelines, hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) operators can build upon existing best management practices (i.e., housekeeping procedures, visual inspections, spill prevention programs, etc.) to meet tighter restrictions set by National Pollutant Discharge Elimination system (NPDES) permits. Especially in high rainfall areas, storm water poses an intermittent, but large volume problem. The facility`s site size is another factor that impacts the scope and cost for SWPPP. The five steps to implementing a SWPPP are: Planning and organization; Assessment; Best management practice (BMP) identification; Implementation; Evaluation and monitoring. Initially, HPI operators must identify all potential contamination sources and past spills and leak areas. Following the SWPP guidelines, operators can map out a cost-effective storm water program that meets all NPDES requirements.

Vivona, M.A. [Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-08-01

189

Ecotoxicological assessment of water pollution in Sariyar Dam Lake, Turkey.  

PubMed

Given the effects of environmental pollution and different biotic factors on some important biochemical markers, as enzymes, two fish species inhabiting the Sariyar Dam Lake, Turkey have been investigated. Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, glutathion S-transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and alanine and aspartate amino transferase activities have been measured in liver samples of Cyprinus carpio and Capoeta tinca. Also, brain acetylcholinesterase and carboxylesterase activities have been measured for the same samples. Selected enzymes confirmed that Sariyar basin is polluted by urban wastes and agricultural and industrial activities for many years. Organochlorine (OC) pesticide residues, caused by intensive agricultural activities, have also been observed in water, sediment samples, and adipose tissues of carp. Monitored results showed that SDL was polluted by different kinds of OC compounds such as DDT and its derivatives which are accumulated in adipose tissues of carp. Highest accumulation was found for beta-BHC in carp. The changes of enzyme activities in this study may be related to environmental pollution, while enzyme activity variations could be attributed to variable pollutants and variable concentrations of these pollutants. The results highlighted the potential convenience of these biomarkers to be used as components of environmental monitoring program in risk assessment studies in SDL. Since a seasonal variation in selected enzyme activities was found, the possible implications of such variability in the use of these enzymes as environmental biomarkers are also discussed. Hepatic cytosolic EROD did not show any significance according to the pollution factors in the lake which may be attributed to relatively less contamination by organic compounds such as PAH products. PMID:17582495

Ozmen, Murat; Ayas, Zafer; Güngördü, Abbas; Ekmekci, Guler F; Yerli, Sedat

2008-05-01

190

The Impact of Water Pollution Abatement on Competition and Pricing in the Alabama Textile Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to access the impact of water pollution abatement on competition and pricing in the Alabama textile industry, three questions were answered. (1) How much is water pollution abatement costing the textile industry. (2) How is the intermediate consu...

A. C. Rucks

1973-01-01

191

Questionable Specificity of Genetic Total Faecal Pollution Markers for Integrated Water Quality Monitoring and Source Tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterisation of microbial faecal hazards in water is a fundamental aspect for target-orientated water resources management to achieve appropriate water quality for various purposes like water supply or agriculture and thus to minimize related health risks. Nowadays the management of water resources increasingly demands detailed knowledge on the extent and the origin of microbial pollution. Cultivation of standard faecal indicator bacteria, which has been used for over a century to test the microbiological water quality, cannot sufficiently meet these challenges. The abundant intestinal bacterial populations are very promising alternative targets for modern faecal indication systems. Numerous assays for the detection of genetic markers targeting source-specific populations of the phylum Bacteroidetes have been developed in recent years. In some cases markers for total faecal pollution were also proposed in order to relate source-specific marker concentrations to general faecal pollution levels. However, microbial populations in intestinal and non-intestinal systems exhibit a dazzling array of diversity and molecular analysis of microbial faecal pollution has been based on a fragmentary puzzle of very limited sequence information. The aim of this study was to test the available qPCR-based methods detecting genetic Bacteroidetes markers for total faecal pollution in terms of their value and specificity as indicators of faecal pollution. We applied the AllBac (Layton et al., 2006) the BacUni (Kildare et al., 2007) and the Bacteroidetes (Dick and Field, 2004) assays on soil DNA samples. Samples were collected in well characterised karst spring catchments in Austria's Eastern Calcareous Alps. They were at various levels of altitude between 800 and 1800 meters above sea level and from several different habitats (woodland, alpine pastures, krummholz). In addition we tried to choose sampling sites representing a presumptive gradient of faecal pollution levels. For example sites with obvious faecal influence (e.g. right next to a cowpat) were included as well as more pristine sites without faecal influence from large animals (e.g. fenced areas). Surprisingly, results from investigations with the AllBac assay showed concentrations of the total faecal marker in soil in the range of 106 to 109 Marker Equivalents per g of soil, which is equal or only slightly lower than the concentrations of this particular marker in faeces or raw sewage. Preliminary results from the other tested assays seem to confirm that the targeted markers are also highly abundant in soils. In addition, the markers were present in comparable concentrations in soils from pristine locations as well as in soils under the potential influence of faeces giving a strong indication that these methods also target non-intestinal, autochthonous soil populations. In contrast, source-specific markers (ruminant-specific BacR and human-specific BacH, Reischer et al., 2007, 2006) could only be detected in 30 to 50% of the soil samples at concentrations close to the detection limit, which is at least four orders of magnitude lower than in faecal samples of the respective target sources, ruminant animals and humans. The achieved results call the applicability of the proposed qPCR-based assays for total faecal pollution into question. In fact the assays do not seem to be specific for intestinal Bacteroidetes populations at all and the respective marker concentration levels in pristine soils negate their applicability in the investigated areas. This study also emphasizes the need to test the specificity and sensitivity of qPCR-based assays for total faecal pollution on the local level and especially against non-intestinal environmental samples, which might contribute to marker levels in the aquatic compartment. In conclusion there is a strong demand for marker-based detection techniques for total faecal pollution in water quality monitoring and risk assessment but currently none of the tested assays seems to meet the methodical requirements.

Vierheilig, Julia; Reischer, Georg H.; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

2010-05-01

192

Water quality assessment by pollution-index method in the coastal waters of Hebei Province in western Bohai Sea, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources of pollution discharges and water quality samples at 27 stations in 2006 in the coastal waters of Hebei Province, western Bohai Sea, have been analyzed in this study. Pollutant loads from industrial sewages have shown stronger impact on the water environment than those from the general sewages. Analysis indicates that pollution of COD is mainly resulted from land-based point

Shuguang Liu; Sha Lou; Cuiping Kuang; Wenrui Huang; Wujun Chen; Jianle Zhang; Guihui Zhong

2011-01-01

193

A time-series forecasting approach based on KPCA-LSSVM for lake water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time-series forecasting of lake water pollution is a very important and difficult issue of any lake water pollution control system. The time-series data of lake water pollution are huge, high-dimensional and nonlinear, so the information mining of it is difficult. To realize the data mining and forecasting for time-series data of lake water pollution efficiently, an improved prediction model

Jianjun Ni; Huawei Ma; Li Ren

2012-01-01

194

Landsat change detection can aid in water quality monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparison between Landsat-1 and -2 imagery of Arkansas provided evidence of significant land use changes during the 1972-75 time period. Analysis of Arkansas historical water quality information has shown conclusively that whereas point source pollution generally can be detected by use of water quality data collected by state and federal agencies, sampling methodologies for nonpoint source contamination attributable to surface runoff are totally inadequate. The expensive undertaking of monitoring all nonpoint sources for numerous watersheds can be lessened by implementing Landsat change detection analyses.

Macdonald, H. C.; Steele, K. F.; Waite, W. P.; Shinn, M. R.

1977-01-01

195

Finite-Volume-Particle Methods for Models of Transport of Pollutant in Shallow Water  

E-print Network

Finite-Volume-Particle Methods for Models of Transport of Pollutant in Shallow Water Alina Chertock of shallow water equations and the pollutant propagation is described by a transport equation. The idea and the pollution computations: the shallow water equations are numerically integrated using a #12;nite- volume

Kurganov, Alexander

196

Estimation of pollution by fire extinguishing water D. Calogine, S. Duplantier  

E-print Network

Estimation of pollution by fire extinguishing water D. Calogine, S. Duplantier INERIS, Accidentai by combustion and consequently the water will be loaded with pollutants such as HCI and HCN. The project O2FEU of pollution for soil and subsoil. The project consists in studying the fate of run-off waters in environment

Boyer, Edmond

197

Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual to tidal periods  

E-print Network

Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual to tidal periods. G. Monismith (2004), Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual the relationship between water temperature and fecal pollution in the surf zone at Huntington and Newport Beach

Winant, Clinton D.

198

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN BUILDING B51 AND BEVATRON DEMOLITION PROJECT  

E-print Network

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN FOR: BUILDING B51 AND BEVATRON DEMOLITION PROJECT PROJECT NO;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) Building B51 and Bevatron Demolition Project Lawrence............................................................................................300-3 300.4 Project Schedule/Water Pollution Control Schedule

199

Regulating Nonpoint Source Water Pollution in a Federal Government: Four Case Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without effective regulation, nonpoint source water pollution is likely to increase as growth continues across the globe. This paper explores the history of and policy, legal and regulatory options for addressing nonpoint source water pollution in countries with a federal government. The legal mechanisms for controlling nonpoint sources of water pollution at the national and state level in four countries

Susan Graham; Adam Schempp; Jessica Troell

2011-01-01

200

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. ...2543.86 Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. ...pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S...the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as...

2013-10-01

201

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section...Special Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002...

2012-01-01

202

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section...Special Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002...

2014-01-01

203

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. ...2543.86 Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. ...pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S...the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as...

2012-10-01

204

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section...Special Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002...

2011-01-01

205

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. ...2543.86 Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. ...pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S...the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as...

2011-10-01

206

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section...Special Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002...

2013-01-01

207

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. ...2543.86 Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. ...pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S...the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as...

2010-10-01

208

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section...Special Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002...

2010-01-01

209

Oil pollution detection and sensing. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques used to detect and sense oil spills and slicks. Citations discuss remote sensing, chemical and biological monitoring, satellite imagery, surveilllance, and models. Topics include pollution information systems, environmental monitoring, coastal ecology, and paths of pollutants. Pollution effects on fisheries, leak detectors, artificial oil pollution, remedial actions, and international cooperation are covered. (Contains a minimum of 236 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

210

Precipitation suppression by anthropogenic air pollution: major loss of water resources where we need them most  

E-print Network

Precipitation suppression by anthropogenic air pollution: major loss of water resources where we inferences of air pollution suppressing precipitation lead us to investigate historical climate records precipitation, decreases with time in the polluted regions and remains unchanged where no pollution sources were

Daniel, Rosenfeld

211

Daytime Water Detection Based on Sky Reflections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A water body s surface can be modeled as a horizontal mirror. Water detection based on sky reflections and color variation are complementary. A reflection coefficient model suggests sky reflections dominate the color of water at ranges > 12 meters. Water detection based on sky reflections: (1) geometrically locates the pixel in the sky that is reflecting on a candidate water pixel on the ground (2) predicts if the ground pixel is water based on color similarity and local terrain features. Water detection has been integrated on XUVs.

Rankin, Arturo; Matthies, Larry; Bellutta, Paolo

2011-01-01

212

[Water pollution and health risks at Yaoundé, Cameroon].  

PubMed

The aim of this article consists of developing an ecosystemic approach to collect information about groundwater pollution in order to determine its origin and infer the health risks in Mingoa's watershed through the study of 12 spontaneous settlements. From an environmental point of view, family interviews and direct observations allowed us to inventory springs, wells and latrines, and to collect information. So, we have selected, on the basis of predefined criteria, 21 wells and springs for physico-chemical and bacteriological laboratory analyses. Two hundred children aged less than 5 years were subjected to KOAP examination. A number of 1224 latrines were inventoried, for an average use of 15 people per latrine, producing 913.3 kg/year of excreta. Most of 91% of people use these latrines. The superficial aquifers, connected to the wells and springs, present high values of nitrogen, phosphorous pollutant and fecal contamination indicators (coliforms and fecal streptococcus), which make water inappropriate to human consumption. PCA analysis establishes that water pollution comes mainly from traditional pit latrines. The overall prevalence of diarrhea and parasite infestation was important (=40%). The presence of cysts of Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris limbricoides, and Entamoeba coli confirms this high prevalence and testify to very approximate hygiene and environment conditions. PMID:23916209

Youmbi, Jean Ghislain Tabué; Feumba, Roger; Njitat, Valérie Tsama; de Marsily, Ghislain; Ekodeck, Georges Emmanuel

2013-01-01

213

HPLC-PFD determination of priority pollutant PAHs in water, sediment, and semipermeable membrane devices  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High performance liquid chromatography coupled with programmable fluorescence detection was employed for the determination of 15 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPPAHs) in water, sediment, and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). Chromatographic separation using this analytical method facilitates selectivity, sensitivity (ppt levels), and can serve as a non-destructive technique for subsequent analysis by other chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Extraction and sample cleanup procedures were also developed for water, sediment, and SPMDs using various chromatographic and wet chemical methods. The focus of this publication is to examine the enrichment techniques and the analytical methodologies used in the isolation, characterization, and quantitation of 15 PPPAHs in different sample matrices.

Williamson, K.S.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Lebo, J.A.; Kaiser, E.M.

2002-01-01

214

An air and water pollution prevention primer for small businesses  

SciTech Connect

Pollution prevention is one of the few areas in which environmental goals and economic interests clearly coincide. Benefits include reduced costs, liabilities and regulatory burdens, and an improved environment. Minimizing the quantity and toxicity of waste also reduces the need for waste treatment operations. Because economics is one of the factors weighed when adopting pollution prevent technologies, economic analysis based on equipment's payback period is important to determine whether a system should be adopted and, if so, what equipment should be selected. Many air pollution control methods, wastewater treatment systems and sludge dewatering processes can be used for materials recovery and water reuse. Factors to consider when selecting a waste treatment system include legal limitations or effluent criteria imposed for public protection, social limitations imposed by the community in which the pollution source is or will be located, and economic limitations. The latter two factors are critical for small businesses, which typically are located in or near metropolitan areas, and often have limited financial resources. Another factor to consider is whether a waste treatment system can be designed to accommodate future expansion or operational modifications. Although small businesses tend to prefer traditional, proven environmental technologies, some new technologies can be adopted easily to reduce waste generation and costs. In addition, several relatively simple and inexpensive practices have proven successful in eliminating or minimizing wastes. These include: improving housekeeping practices; segregating wastes; changing materials purchasing and inventory control procedures; substituting less toxic materials; recycling and reusing wastes; reducing wastewater flows; changing production methods or modifying production processes; and training employees in pollution prevention.

Huang, C.S. (Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States))

1995-03-01

215

Remote sensing techniques from helicopter for water quality and air pollution control  

SciTech Connect

Aircraft remote sensing provides a number of benefits, allowing to vary the detection parameters, giving better resolution, and being little affected by weather conditions and no replaceable under emergency situations. Also as a part of projects funded by the Commission of the European Communities, through the Regional Government of Sicily, applications of remote sensing techniques were carried out from helicopter over selected study areas in Sicily, for water quality and air pollution control. In particular, remotely-sensed data were acquired, using LASER techniques and thermal infrared imagery, for the monitoring of water quality and the assessment of oil pollution. Furthermore, air quality was investigated, using LASER techniques and correlation spectroscopy. In a perspective of integration, the investigations carried out proved effective and useful, confirming the important role of the helicopter as monitoring platform for environmental remote sensing applications. 6 refs., 11 figs.

Geraci, A.L.; Landolina, F.F. [Univ. of Catania, Sicily (Italy)

1996-11-01

216

Pollution: A Selected Bibliography of U.S. Government Publications on Air, Water, and Land Pollution 1965-1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials on environmental pollution published by the various offices of the federal government are presented in this select bibliography. Limited in scope to publications on air, water, and land pollution, the document is designed to serve teachers and researchers working in the field of environmental problems who wish reference to public…

Kiraldi, Louis, Comp.; Burk, Janet L., Comp.

217

In Hot Water: Thermoelectric Power and Thermal Pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of surface water for thermoelectric power plant cooling significantly impacts river water temperatures, posing risks to aquatic ecosystems. In addition, surface water temperatures in summer can exceed limits for power plant compliance with thermal effluent limitations, jeopardizing energy security during periods of peak power demand. For example, Brown's Ferry Nuclear Plant in Alabama curtailed power production by 50% for over 40 days in July-August of 2010 when river temperatures exceeded 90°F. Future increases in surface water temperatures due to climate change may further endanger energy security. This study examines summer intake and outflow water temperature data reported by power plants during peak production months across the United States to determine the impact of thermoelectric power plants on surface water temperatures in the summer. Initial results indicate that U.S. coal plants (n= 625) raised water temperatures by an average of 17°F (± 12°F) and discharged cooling water with median peak temperatures of 100°F (± 13°F) in the summer of 2005, the last year when this data was reliably reported. Further analysis will extend the time period of this study from 2000-2005 and expand the scope to various energy sources and cooling technologies. In addition, we explore regional variation to assess the relative threat that thermal pollution poses to energy security across the U.S.

Madden, N. T.

2010-12-01

218

A Study of Surface Water and Groundwater Pollution in Ibb City, Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to determine the land use impact on water pollution at three different sites i.e Al- Sahool, Mitm and Al-Sayyadah valleys around Ibb city, Yemen. Besides determining the status of water pollution, this study also aims to recognize the sources of pollution and the results will be used to identify the relationship between the impact of

Esmail Al Sabahi; Abdul Rahim S

219

ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL POLICIES. 1. A NATIONAL NETWORK MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to study the national implications of federal water pollution control policies, the authors developed a water pollution network model. The model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lake...

220

Detection of oil pollution along the pipeline routes in tropical ecosystem from multi-spectral data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study was conducted in an oil producing environment dominated by mangrove and swamp vegetation in Niger Delta, Nigeria. Ancillary data including oil pipeline map and GPS of spill points were used in selecting sample sites to identify and detect polluted locations. A number of polluted and non-polluted sites were selected and vegetation spectral reflectance and indices for these sample sites were extracted from TM data of January and December 1986. A statistical T-test was used to test for significant differences between vegetation spectral reflectance and indices from polluted and non-polluted sites. The initial results from the analysis of spectral reflectance between polluted and non-polluted did not show any significant difference in all the six spectral bands with p-value <0.005. The results from analysis of various vegetation indices some did not show any significance differences between the polluted and non-polluted sites (e.g. the SRI, SAVI and EVI2). Other VIs (NDVI, MSAVI2 and ARVI2) showed significant differences between the polluted and non-polluted sites. From these preliminary results we can conclude that pollution from oil spills may result to the changes in leaf biochemistry of the Mangroves in the Niger Delta which are detectable from remote sensing data. Future work will focus on undertaking further temporal analysis of additional spill sites to determine what quantity of spilt oil arises in spectral changes of vegetation.

Adamu, Bashir; Tansey, Kevin; Ogutu, Booker

2014-05-01

221

40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water. 129.6 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS TOXIC POLLUTANT EFFLUENT STANDARDS Toxic Pollutant Effluent Standards and Prohibitions...

2010-07-01

222

Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, and Infant Mortality in India  

E-print Network

Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, environmental regulations, and infant mortality from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental ...

Greenstone, Michael

223

Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, and Infant Mortality in India  

E-print Network

Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, and environmental regulations from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental regulations. ...

Greenstone, Michael

2011-07-01

224

UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN REMOVAL OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange, adsorption and acid catalysis properties. Different inorganic and organic pollutants have been removed from water at room temperature using various zeolites. Synthetic zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove inorganic pollutants...

225

Application of locally available materials for the treatment of organic polluted water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several types of water treatment technologies including adsorption are now being used to treat polluted water. In this paper the removal of phenol by adsorption will be discussed. Activated carbons are successfully applied for purification of potable water and the removal of organic pollutants in wastwater. This paper is concerned with a low cost approach to treating waste water that

M. R. Salim; F. Othman; J. Patterson; T. Hardy

226

[Microbial source tracking of water fecal pollution: a review].  

PubMed

Livestock feces and domestic sewage are the one of the main factors inducing water pollution, while the identification of the pollution source is particularly important in pollution control and management. Because of this, microbial source tracking (MST) has recently been paid more and more attention by the related researchers around the world. In this paper, the research progress of two types of MST methods, their advantages and disadvantages, and existing problems in application were reviewed and discussed. It was considered that in the library- and culture-dependent MST methods, PCR genotyping based on repetitive sequences was most practicable, while in the library- and culture-independent MST methods, PCR-DGGE based on the gene of specificity in Escherichia coli had a very glaring sight. Future researches should be more focused on the library- and culture-independent MST, and the combination of library- and culture-dependent MST with library- and culture-independent MST could make the tracking results more credible. PMID:21443019

Feng, Guan-da; Deng, Ming-rong; Zhu, Hong-hui; Guo, Jun; Zhang, Xi; Zhu, Chang-xiong; Liang, Hao-liang

2010-12-01

227

DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS IN WATER MATRICES  

EPA Science Inventory

Since the advent and recognition of waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis great effort has been expended on development of methods for detecting Cryptosporidium oocysts in water. Oocysts recovery rates using a method originally developed for detecting Giardia cysts ranged fr...

228

Investigations on ecological effects of heavy metal pollution in Hungary by moss-dwelling water bears (Tardigrada), as bioindicators.  

PubMed

The authors demonstrate a possible relationship between the concentrations of metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) measured in mosses and the composition of Tardigrade species detected in the same samples. Cushions of Hypnum cupressiforme were collected at 18 sites distributed in the whole of Hungary to estimate the background air pollution, then analyzed by ICP-AES to determine the concentrations of heavy metals. Data reflect the expected correlation; elevated heavy metal contents decrease the number of water bear species and of specimens, and abundance of Tardigrada depends strongly on air pollution. Higher concentrations of cadmium and chromium seem to have particularly damaging and toxic influence on community structure. As the biologically relevant effects of pollution can only be evaluated by carrying out measurements on the organisms themselves, our method applied species of Bryophyte and of Tardigrade, as bioindicators were appeared to be an adequate method to show the effect of air pollution on abundance of water bears. PMID:12498580

Vargha, Béla; Otvös, Edit; Tuba, Zoltán

2002-01-01

229

A molecular fingerprint technique to detect pollution-related changes in river cyanobacterial diversity.  

PubMed

Humans now have a strong influence on almost every major aquatic ecosystem, and our activities have dramatically altered the quality of receiving waters worldwide. Thus, there is a continuous need to develop and apply novel and effective technologies to detect, manage, and correct human-induced degradation of aquatic systems. In the present work, we evaluated the molecular approach using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) to measure changes in cyanobacterial diversity along a pollution gradient in a river and compared it with that of using microscopic observations of field-fixed and cultured samples. The different 16S rDNA genes present in the cyanobacterial community of each sampling point of the river were separated by TGGE, giving a characteristic pattern of bands for each site. This pattern represents a "fingerprint" of the community, allowing direct comparisons of the different samples. The TGGE results revealed that the structure of the cyanobacterial community differed along the pollution gradient of the river. Microscopic and molecular approaches showed that cyanobacterial diversity decreased in a downstream direction. Similar results were obtained by the two methods, as indicated by the high correlation between them. We suggest PCR-TGGE could be a useful and rapidly applied technique for the routine analysis of changes in cyanobacterial diversity in response to pollution, which would allow us to monitor rivers in surveillance networks of watercourse quality. PMID:17255634

Rodríguez, Virginia; de Cárcer, Daniel Aguirre; Loza, Virginia; Perona, Elvira; Mateo, Pilar

2007-01-01

230

New Photocatalysis for Effective Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of harmful compounds in water supplies and in the discharge of wastewater from chemical industries, power plants, and agricultural sources is a topic of global concern. The processes and technologies available at the present time for the treatment of polluted water are varied that include traditional water treatment processes such as biological, thermal and chemical treatment. All these water treatment processes, have limitations of their own and none is cost effective. Advanced oxidation processes have been proposed as an alternative for the treatment of this kind of wastewater. Heterogeneous photocatalysis has recently emerged as an efficient method for purifying water. TiO2 has generally been demonstrated to be the most active semiconductor material for decontamination water. One significant factor is the cost of separation TiO2, which is generally a powder having a very small particle size from the water after treatment by either sedimentation or ultrafiltration. The new photocatalyst, HTiNbO5, has been tested to determine whether its photocatalytic efficiency is good enough for use in photocatalytic water purification since it has high surface area and relatively large particle size. The larger particle sizes of the porous materials facilitate catalyst removal from a solution, after purification has taken place. It can be separated from water easily than TiO2, a significant technical improvement that might eliminate the tedious final filtration necessary with a slurry. These materials are characterized and tested as water decontamination photocatalysts. The new catalyst exhibited excellent catalytic activity, but with a strong pH dependence on the photo efficiency. These results suggest that elimination of the ion exchange character of the catalyst may greatly improve its performance at various pHs. This new research proposes to study the effects of a topotactic dehydration reaction on these new porous material catalysts.

Zarei Chaleshtori, M.; Saupe, G. B.; Masoud, S.

2009-12-01

231

Daytime Water Detection Based on Sky Reflections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robust water detection is a critical perception requirement for unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) autonomous navigation. This is particularly true in wide-open areas where water can collect in naturally occurring terrain depressions during periods of heavy precipitation and form large water bodies. One of the properties of water useful for detecting it is that its surface acts as a horizontal mirror at large incidence angles. Water bodies can be indirectly detected by detecting reflections of the sky below the horizon in color imagery. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has implemented a water detector based on sky reflections that geometrically locates the pixel in the sky that is reflecting on a candidate water pixel on the ground and predicts if the ground pixel is water based on color similarity and local terrain features. This software detects water bodies in wide-open areas on cross-country terrain at mid- to far-range using imagery acquired from a forward-looking stereo pair of color cameras mounted on a terrestrial UGV. In three test sequences approaching a pond under a clear, overcast, and cloudy sky, the true positive detection rate was 100% when the UGV was beyond 7 meters of the water's leading edge and the largest false positive detection rate was 0.58%. The sky reflection based water detector has been integrated on an experimental unmanned vehicle and field tested at Ft. Indiantown Gap, PA, USA.

Rankin, Arturo L.; Matthies, Larry H.; Bellutta, Paolo

2011-01-01

232

REMOVAL OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS FROM SUBCRITICAL WATER WITH ACTIVATED CARBON  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has demonstrated that controlling the temperature (and to a lesser extent, the pressure) of water can dramatically change its ability to extract organics and inorganics from matrices ranging from soils and sediments to waste sludges and coal. The dielectric constant of water can be changed from about 80 (a very polar solvent) to <5 (similar to a nonpolar organic solvent) by controlling the temperature (from ambient to about 400 C) and pressure (from about 5 to 350 bar). The EERC has shown that hazardous organic pollutants such as pesticides, PACS (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) can be completely removed from soils, sludges, and sediments at temperatures (250 C) and pressures (<50 atm) that are much milder than typically used for supercritical water processes (temperature >374 C, pressure >221 atm). In addition, the process has been demonstrated to be particularly effective for samples containing very high levels of contaminants (e.g., part per thousand). Current projects include demonstrating the subcritical water remediation process at the pilot scale using an 8-liter system constructed under separate funding during 1997. To date, subcritical water has been shown to be an effective extraction fluid for removing a variety of organic pollutants from soils and sludges contaminated with fossil fuel products and waste products, including PACS from soil (e.g., town gas sites), refining catalysts, and petroleum tank bottom sludges; PCBs from soil and sediments; toxic gasoline components (e.g., benzene) from soil and waste sludge; and phenols from petroleum refinery sludges. The obvious need to clean the wastewater from subcritical water processes led to preliminary experiments with activated carbon placed in line after the extractor. Initial experiments were performed before and after cooling the extractant water (e.g., with water at 200 C and with water cooled to 25 C). Surprisingly, the ability of activated carbon to remove organics from the water is better at a high temperature than at room temperature. These initial results are opposite to those expected from chromatographic theory, since the solubility of the organics is about 100,000-fold higher in the hot water than in ambient water. At present, the physicochemical mechanism accounting for these results is unknown; however, it is possible that the lower surface tension and lower viscosity of subcritical water (compared to water at ambient conditions) greatly increases the available area of the carbon by several orders of magnitude. Regardless of the mechanism involved, the optimal use of activated carbon to clean the wastewater generated from subcritical water remediation will depend on obtaining a better understanding of the controlling parameters. While these investigations focused on the cleanup of wastewater generated from subcritical water remediation, the results also apply to cleanup of any wastewater contaminated with nonpolar and moderately polar organics such as wastewaters from coal and petroleum processing.

Steven B. Hawthorne; Arnaud J. Lagadec

1999-08-01

233

Laser Remote Sensing of Pollution on Water Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most important problems of modern environmental science is the detection and identification of various impurities in the ocean. Sources of impurities in sea water are diverse. The most common of them are accidental transport, agricultural, and oil industry spills. Once the ecological balance is disturbed, biological processes in sea water become affected, resulting in changes in chlorophyll concentrations, water turbidity, and temperature. During the last few years, we have created new types of lidars and arranged nearly ten aircraft and shipboard expeditions. Some aircraft expeditions dealt with terrestrial investigations. Others were devoted to oceanological research, the results of which are discussed here. Emphasis is on the detection of phytoplankton chlorophyll and hydrocarbon in sea water.

Bunkin, A. F.; Surovegin, Aleksander L.

1992-01-01

234

9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...rendered adulterated by the water shall be condemned. (b) After the polluted water has receded from an...personnel. An adequate supply of hot water under pressure is essential...effective. After cleaning a solution of sodium...

2013-01-01

235

9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...rendered adulterated by the water shall be condemned. (b) After the polluted water has receded from an...personnel. An adequate supply of hot water under pressure is essential...effective. After cleaning a solution of sodium...

2012-01-01

236

9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...rendered adulterated by the water shall be condemned. (b) After the polluted water has receded from an...personnel. An adequate supply of hot water under pressure is essential...effective. After cleaning a solution of sodium...

2011-01-01

237

9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...rendered adulterated by the water shall be condemned. (b) After the polluted water has receded from...personnel. An adequate supply of hot water under pressure is essential...After cleaning, a solution of sodium...

2011-01-01

238

9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...rendered adulterated by the water shall be condemned. (b) After the polluted water has receded from...personnel. An adequate supply of hot water under pressure is essential...After cleaning, a solution of sodium...

2012-01-01

239

9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...rendered adulterated by the water shall be condemned. (b) After the polluted water has receded from...personnel. An adequate supply of hot water under pressure is essential...After cleaning, a solution of sodium...

2013-01-01

240

Optical detection of oil on water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three radiometric techniques utilizing sunlight reflected and backscattered from water bodies have potential application for remote sensing of oil spills. Oil on water can be detected by viewing perpendicular polarization component of reflected light or difference between polarization components. Best detection is performed in ultraviolet or far-red portions of spectrum and in azimuth directions toward or opposite sun.

Millard, J. P.; Arvesen, J. C.

1973-01-01

241

Water Detection Based on Color Variation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This software has been designed to detect water bodies that are out in the open on cross-country terrain at close range (out to 30 meters), using imagery acquired from a stereo pair of color cameras mounted on a terrestrial, unmanned ground vehicle (UGV). This detector exploits the fact that the color variation across water bodies is generally larger and more uniform than that of other naturally occurring types of terrain, such as soil and vegetation. Non-traversable water bodies, such as large puddles, ponds, and lakes, are detected based on color variation, image intensity variance, image intensity gradient, size, and shape. At ranges beyond 20 meters, water bodies out in the open can be indirectly detected by detecting reflections of the sky below the horizon in color imagery. But at closer range, the color coming out of a water body dominates sky reflections, and the water cue from sky reflections is of marginal use. Since there may be times during UGV autonomous navigation when a water body does not come into a perception system s field of view until it is at close range, the ability to detect water bodies at close range is critical. Factors that influence the perceived color of a water body at close range are the amount and type of sediment in the water, the water s depth, and the angle of incidence to the water body. Developing a single model of the mixture ratio of light reflected off the water surface (to the camera) to light coming out of the water body (to the camera) for all water bodies would be fairly difficult. Instead, this software detects close water bodies based on local terrain features and the natural, uniform change in color that occurs across the surface from the leading edge to the trailing edge.

Rankin, Arturo L.

2012-01-01

242

Analysis on the Lake Water Pollution Components Based on Normal Quality Monitoring Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Take Hongze Lake of Jiangsu Province, China, as a Case, the components of lake water pollution were analyzed, based on the regular water quality monitoring data of 10 sampling points from 1990 to 2002 and the spatial data. By factor analysis and spatio-temporary correlation analysis etc, the spatio- temporary simulations to main lake water pollution components, including eutrophication, were carried

Bo Li

2009-01-01

243

DEVELOPMENTS AT FOURTEENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WATER POLLUTION RESEARCH - BRIGHTON, ENGLAND, JULY 17-22, 1988  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this report is to provide a mechanism whereby current water research developments from around the world as reported at the 14th International Conference on Water Pollution Research of the International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control can be high...

244

Relaxation Approximations to Shallow Water and Pollutant Transport Department of Sciences, Division of Mathematics,  

E-print Network

1 Relaxation Approximations to Shallow Water and Pollutant Transport Equations A.I. Delis solution of shallow water flows and the transport and diffusion of pollutant in such flows. By first can be considered as an alternative to classical finite difference methods. Keywords--Shallow water

Katsaounis, Theodoros D.

245

Isotopes for improved management of nitrate pollution in aqueous resources: review of surface water field studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

For water bodies where the nitrate concentrations exceed threshold values environmental agencies can propose measures to either reduce discharges and emissions of nitrate or to remediate nitrate polluted water bodies. Isotope data can support the identification of nitrate pollution sources and natural attenuation processes of nitrate. A review of surface water field studies evaluated the use of isotope data (e.g.

A. Nestler; M. Berglund; F. Accoe; S. Duta; D. Xue; P. F. Boeckx; P. Taylor

2010-01-01

246

Rapid effects of diverse toxic water pollutants on chlorophyll a fluorescence: Variable responses  

E-print Network

Rapid effects of diverse toxic water pollutants on chlorophyll a fluorescence: Variable responses 2012 Available online xxx Keywords: Chlorophyll a fluorescence Algae Toxin Rapid response Photosystem Chlorophyte Chrysophyte Water quality Toxic water pollutant Toxicity assessment a b s t r a c t Chlorophyll

Berges, John A.

247

Spectroscopic analyses of pollutants in water, sediment and fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water ways in Egypt is suffering from continual discharge without adequate treatment especially in the Delta and greater Cairo area. Accordingly water, sediments and catfishes were collected from El Mouheet El Youmna drain in Giza. Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn were determined furthermore the molecular structure of sediment and catfish were conducted with FTIR spectroscopy. Although studied metals were lower in water, higher values are recorded in sediment and catfish samples. FTIR shows possible interaction among metals and organic structures mainly proteins. The bioaccumulation of Pb and Cd proportion was significantly increased in the liver tissues of catfish. A correlation coefficient among sediment and fish liver metals accumulation exist. This infers that the waste assimilation capacity for the drain is high, a phenomena that could be ascribed to dilution, sedimentation and continual water exchange. Furthermore, the genotoxicity affect in catfish genomic corroborates the genus diagnostic markers which attributed to long pollution. This is an indication that agriculture and industrial wastes discharged into the drain has badly a significant effect on the ecological balance.

Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh.; Ibrahim, Hanan S.; Ammar, Nabila S.; Ibrahim, Medhat

2012-11-01

248

Controlling agricultural nonpoint water pollution: costs of implementing the Maryland Water Quality Improvement Act of 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Maryland Water Quality Improvement Act of 1998 (WQIA) seeks to create environmental and other benefits to the Chesapeake Bay through reductions in nonpoint source nutrient pollution. This paper analyzes the economic impacts of the WQIA on agricultural users of nutrients (commercial fertilizers or animal manures) and on poultry growers in the state of Maryland. The net economic impacts to

Doug Parker

2000-01-01

249

WATER INFILTRATION CONTROL TO ACHIEVE MINE WATER POLLUTION CONTROL: THE DENTS RUN WATERSHED DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of surface mined land reclamation measures in establishing surface water infiltratin control to prevent or reduce pollution from acid mine drainage. The Dents Run watershed, located in Monongalia County, West Virgin...

250

Pollution detection in Lake Champlain using ERTS-1 imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. A major waste water discharge plume generated by a large paper mill along the New York shore of Lake Champlain was visually detected on ERTS-1 imagery. The plume is best displayed in 9.5 inch positive transparencies of MSS bands 4 and 5. Observation of the magnitude and extent of this plume is feasible, under magnification of 4 times. The chemical parameters of this plume have been documented by limnological studies. An enhancement technique useful for documenting the presence of waste water discharge plumes in Lake Champlain utilizes Polaroid MP-3 copy camera equipment and Spectral Data Corporation's multispectral viewer. The 9.5 inch, ERTS-1, positive transparency is enlarged using the Polaroid MP-3 copy camera to produce an enlarged lantern slide size positive transparency. These are projected through the multispectral viewer for enhancement and the scene is viewed directly on the screen or copied by an additional photographic step. The technique is simple and produces rapid results.

Lind, A. O. (principal investigator); Henson, E. B.

1972-01-01

251

The extent of chronic marine oil pollution in southeastern Newfoundland waters assessed through beached  

E-print Network

The extent of chronic marine oil pollution in southeastern Newfoundland waters assessed through bird surveys conducted between 1984 and 1999 indicate that chronic oil pollution along the southeast: Oil pollution; Seabirds; North Atlantic; Beached bird surveys; Murre hunt; Ship traffic; Oil

Jones, Ian L.

252

Simple Microwave Method for Detecting Water Holdup  

E-print Network

Simple Microwave Method for Detecting Water Holdup Sheikh S. I., Alqurashi K. Y., Ragheb H: Microwave, Reflection, Multiphase flow, Water Holdup, Oil pipeline Introduction: Oil production generally manner, although it has little effect on the changes in S11 response with changing oil- water ratio

Iqbal, Sheikh Sharif

253

Remote sensing in the mixing zone. [water pollution in Wisconsin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characteristics of dispersion and diffusion as the mechanisms by which pollutants are transported in natural river courses were studied with the view of providing additional data for the establishment of water quality guidelines and effluent outfall design protocols. Work has been divided into four basic categories which are directed at the basic goal of developing relationships which will permit the estimation of the nature and extent of the mixing zone as a function of those variables which characterize the outfall structure, the effluent, and the river, as well as climatological conditions. The four basic categories of effort are: (1) the development of mathematical models; (2) laboratory studies of physical models; (3) field surveys involving ground and aerial sensing; and (4) correlation between aerial photographic imagery and mixing zone characteristics.

Villemonte, J. R.; Hoopes, J. A.; Wu, D. S.; Lillesand, T. M.

1973-01-01

254

High-throughput multiplexed competitive immunoassay for pollutants sensing in water.  

PubMed

The present study described the development and evaluation of a new fully automated multiplex competitive immunoassay enabling the simultaneous detection of five water pollutants (okadaic acid (OA), 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine (atrazine), 2.4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)). The technology is taking advantage of an optical-clear pressure-sensitive adhesive on which biomolecules can be immobilized and that can be integrated within a classical 96-well format. The optimization of the microarray composition and cross-reaction was performed using an original approach where probe molecules (haptens) were conjugated to different carriers such as protein (bovine serum albumin or ovalbumin), amino-functionalized latex beads, or dextran polymer and arrayed at the surface of the adhesive. A total of 17 different probes were then arrayed together with controls on the adhesive surface and screened toward their specific reactivity and cross-reactivity. Once optimized, the complete setup was used for the detection of the five target molecules (less than 3 h for 96 samples). Limits of detection of 0.02, 0.01, 0.01, 100, and 0.02 ?g L(-1) were found for OA, atrazine, 2,4-D, TNT, and RDX, respectively. The proof of concept of the multiplex competitive detection (semiquantitative or qualitative) of the five pollutants was also demonstrated on 16 spiked samples. PMID:23106571

Desmet, Cloé; Blum, Loic J; Marquette, Christophe A

2012-12-01

255

Detection of particulate air pollution plumes from major point sources using ERTS-1 imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) launched by NASA in July 1972 has been providing thousands of high resolution multispectral images of interest to geographers, cartographers, hydrologists, and agroculturists. It has been found possible to detect the long-range (over 50 km) transport of suspected particulate plumes from the Chicago-Gary steel mill complex over Lake Michigan. The observed plumes are readily related to known steel mills, a cement plant, refineries, and fossil-fuel power plants. This has important ramifications when discussing the interregional transport of atmospheric pollutants. Analysis reveals that the Multispectral Scanner Band 5 (0.6 to 0.7 micrometer) provides the best overall contrast between the smoke and the underlying water surface.

Lyons, W. A.; Pease, S. R.

1973-01-01

256

INFLUENCE OF DIET ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BOVINE FECAL POLLUTION DETECTION METHODS AND MICROBIAL POPULATION STRUCTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT Background and Aims. Waterborne diseases originating from bovine fecal material are a significant public health issue. Ensuring water quality requires the use of methods that can consistently identify pollution across a broad range of management practices. One practi...

257

Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid  

PubMed Central

Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P?=?0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l?1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l?1 (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

Van Dijk, Tessa C.; Van Staalduinen, Marja A.; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

2013-01-01

258

Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.  

PubMed

Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1). For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1) (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

Van Dijk, Tessa C; Van Staalduinen, Marja A; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P

2013-01-01

259

EFFECT OF COLLISIONAL LIFETIME IN OPTOACOUSTIC DETECTION OF POLLUTANT GASES  

EPA Science Inventory

The optoacoustic technique shows promise for pollution monitoring due to its small size and high sensitivity. This technique is fundamentally different from most spectroscopy in that absorbed energy is measured indirectly as a pressure change in the surrounding gas. Not all the a...

260

Microbial and nutrient pollution of coastal bathing waters in Mauritius.  

PubMed

The coastal pollution problem in Mauritius is exacerbated by the hydrogeology of the volcanic substratum. Bacterial contamination of bathing waters and nutrients, water temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen (DO) were monitored at three different spatial and temporal scales along the coastline of Mauritius during 1997-1998. Standard techniques for water sample collection and analysis set by the American Public Health Association [APHA. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 19th ed. Washington, DC: APHA, 1995.] were used at: (a) 16 sites around the island over a period of 7 months; (b) 12 stations along a recreational beach over an 18-month period; and (c) at an underground freshwater seepage point over 1 day. Total coliform (TC), faecal coliform (FC), and faecal streptococci (FS) contamination reported during all surveys varied randomly (e.g., with maximum densities in the ranges of 346-2020 TC, 130-2000 FC, and 180-1040 FS at one site) and at times exceeded the established EEC and Environment Protection Agency (EPA) standards for bathing water (e.g., in >90% of samples) to qualify for beach closure. Computed FC:FS ratios were used to pinpoint human faecal matter as the main source of contamination. Nitrate, phosphate, and silicate concentrations in seepage water were high (3600-9485, 38-105, and 9950-24,775 microg l(-1), respectively) and a cause for concern when compared with levels (5-845, 5-72, and 35-6570 microg l(-1), respectively) in cleaner lagoon water samples. Statistical analysis showed significant correlations (for TC and NO3: r=.75, P<.02; for TC and PO4: r=.779, P<.02; for TC and SiO4: r=.731, P<.05; for FC and NO3: r=.773, P<.02; for FC and SiO4: r=.727, P<.05; for FS and SiO4: r=.801 P<.01) between microbial densities and nutrients recorded, confirming the pathogen-contaminated water to be highly eutrophic. There is an urgency for Mauritius to properly address the issue of sewage treatment and wastewater discharge to safeguard its coastal environment, public health, and tourism expansion. PMID:11868664

Daby, D; Turner, J; Jago, C

2002-02-01

261

Linking Near Real-Time Water Quality Measurements to Fecal Coliforms and Trace Organic Pollutants in Urban Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic pollutants, including pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, and estrogens are detected in urban water bodies. Effective examination of dilute organic and microbial pollutant loading rates within surface waters is currently prohibitively expensive and labor intensive. Effort is being placed on the development of improved monitoring methodologies to more accurately assess surface water quality and evaluate the effectiveness of water quality management practices. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008 a "real-time" wireless network equipped with high frequency fundamental water quality parameter sensors measured turbidity, conductivity, pH, depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen and nitrate above and below stormwater inputs at two urban stream locations. At each location one liter grab samples were concurrently collected by ISCO automatic samplers at two hour intervals for 24 hour durations during three dry periods and five rain events. Grab samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms, atrazine (agricultural herbicide), prometon (residential herbicide) and caffeine (wastewater indicator). Surrogate relationships between easy-to-measure water quality parameters and difficult-to-measure pollutants were developed, subsequently facilitating monitoring of these pollutants without the development of new, and likely costly, technologies. Additionally, comparisons were made between traditional grab sampling techniques and the "real-time" monitoring to assess the accuracy of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) calculations.

Henjum, M.; Wennen, C.; Hondzo, M.; Hozalski, R. M.; Novak, P. J.; Arnold, W. A.

2009-05-01

262

Citizens' guides to ocean and coastal law: Guide to laws regulating coastal water pollution  

SciTech Connect

The pamphlet is intended to help citizens, like those participating in water quality monitoring programs, who want to understand the complex nature of state, federal, and local laws that apply to the chief sources of coastal water pollution: point source pollution--pollution discharged from pipes which require state and federal permits; and nonpoint source pollution--generally unregulated runoff from agricultural operations and urban land uses, timber harvesting (silviculture), and construction activities. The pamphlet explains the legal standards and penalties established by coastal water quality laws so that citizens can better participate in the implementation and enforcement of these laws.

Not Available

1993-01-01

263

Analysis of national water-pollution-control policies. 1. A national network model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the national implications of federal water-pollution-control policies, the authors developed a water-pollution-network model. This model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and bays. While the geographical scope of the model and existing data availability required make many simplifying assumptions,

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin; G. K. Young

1981-01-01

264

Trading pollution for water quality : assessing the effects of market-based instruments in three basins  

E-print Network

Since its passage in 1972, the majority of pollution reduction under the federal Clean Water Act has resulted from technology-based limits imposed on point source dischargers. However, most U.S. water bodies are unmonitored ...

Wallace, Katherine Hay

2007-01-01

265

Effect of metal pollution on the water quality in Taihu Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals Cu, Zn, Cr, and others were carried though Liangxi River and Xiaomei River from Wuxi City and Huzhou City into Taihu Lake. Pollution of heavy metals in the water and sediments and chemical forms of Cu, Ph, Zn, Cd, Hg, Cr in the surface sediments were analysed to predict the effect of the pollution on water quality in

Weili Yang; Liensheng Yang; Jianxun Zheng

1996-01-01

266

WATER POLLUTION CAUSED BY INACTIVE ORE AND MINERAL MINES - A NATIONAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report identifies the scope and magnitude of water pollution from inactive ore and mineral mines. Data collected from Federal, State, and local agencies indicates water pollution from acids, heavy metals, and sedimentation occurs at over 100 locations and affects over 1200 ki...

267

PROSPECTS FOR EFFECTIVE NATIONAL MANAGEMENT OF ABANDONED METAL MINE WATER POLLUTION IN THE UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article briefly outlines the estimated scale of water pollution arising from abandoned non-coal mines (particularly metal mines) in the UK (in the order of 200 km of streams and rivers affected), and provides examples of the chemical characteristics of such waters, which are principally polluted with metals such as zinc, copper and iron. Although there is a substantial body

Adam Jarvis; Adrian Fox; Emma Gozzard; Steve Hill; Will Mayes; Hugh Potter

268

Getting Research-based Information on Water and Pollutants to Those Who Need It  

E-print Network

Getting Research-based Information on Water and Pollutants to Those Who Need It By Steve Ress Becoming a one-stop shop for information on watershed management and agricultural nonpoint source pollution is a goal of the Heartland Regional Water Quality Coordination Initiative. The new initiative, developed

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

269

Water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the studies of water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. Citations examine the development, management, and protection of estuary and coastal resources. Topics include pollution sources, environmental monitoring, water chemistry, eutrophication, models, land use, government policy, and laws and regulations. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-02-01

270

Can control of soil erosion mitigate water pollution by sediments?  

PubMed

The detrimental impact of sediment and associated pollutants on water quality is widely acknowledged, with many watercourses in the UK failing to meet the standard of 'good ecological status'. Catchment sediment budgets show that hill slope erosion processes can be significant sources of waterborne sediment, with rates of erosion likely to increase given predicted future weather patterns. However, linking on-site erosion rates with off-site impacts is complicated because of the limited data on soil erosion rates in the UK and the dynamic nature of the source-pathway-receptor continuum over space and time. Even so, soil erosion control measures are designed to reduce sediment production (source) and mobilisation/transport (pathway) on hill slopes, with consequent mitigation of pollution incidents in watercourses (receptors). The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific evidence of the effectiveness of erosion control measures used in the UK to reduce sediment loads of hill slope origin in watercourses. Although over 73 soil erosion mitigation measures have been identified from the literature, empirical data on erosion control effectiveness are limited. Baseline comparisons for the 18 measures where data do exist reveal erosion control effectiveness is highly variable over time and between study locations. Given the limitations of the evidence base in terms of geographical coverage and duration of monitoring, performance of the different measures cannot be extrapolated to other areas. This uncertainty in effectiveness has implications for implementing erosion/sediment risk reduction policies, where quantified targets are stipulated, as is the case in the EU Freshwater Fish and draft Soil Framework Directives. Also, demonstrating technical effectiveness of erosion control measures alone will not encourage uptake by land managers: quantifying the costs and benefits of adopting erosion mitigation is equally important, but these are uncertain and difficult to express in monetary terms. PMID:23815978

Rickson, R J

2014-01-15

271

Economic measurement of benefits of water-pollution abatement in an irrigated river basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addressed the problem of measuring the economic benefits of water-pollution abatement in a multiple-use river setting. The primary objective of this study was to develop a multiple-parameter analytical procedure for estimating benefits of water-pollution abatement. An analytical model consisting of a water-quality submodel and an economic submodel was specified. The water-quality index functions, and an aggregation rule. The

Gutema

1982-01-01

272

A trading-ratio system for trading water pollution discharge permits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fact that water flows to the lowest level uni-directionally is a very specific and useful property of water. By utilizing this property, we design a trading-ratio system (TRS) of tradable discharge permits for water pollution control. Such a trading-ratio system has three main characteristics: (1) the zonal effluent cap is set by taking into account the water pollutant loads

Ming-Feng Hung; Daigee Shaw

2005-01-01

273

Water Source Pollution and Disease Diagnosis in a Nigerian Rural Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Samples from five water sources (spring, borehole, pond, stream, and well) in rural Nigerian communities were tested. Results include source reliabilities in terms of water quality and quantity, pollution effects upon water quality, epidemiological effects related to water quantity and waste disposal, and impact of water quality improvement upon…

Sangodoyin, A. Y.

1991-01-01

274

A Nonparametric Instrumental Variable Approach to Estimating the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollutants at the Global Level  

E-print Network

for Water Pollutants at the Global Level Krishna P. Paudel1 , C.-Y. Cynthia Lin2 , Mahesh Pandit the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollutants at the Global Level Abstract We examine the relationship between income and water pollutants using country- level global water quality data over the period 1980

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

275

A Nonparametric Instrumental Variable Approach to Estimating the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollutants at the Global Level1  

E-print Network

for Water Pollutants at the Global Level1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lin,2 Krishna P. Paudel, Mahesh Pandit for Water Pollutants at the Global Level Abstract We examine the relationship between income and water pollutants using country- level global water quality data over the period 1980 to 2012. We include civil

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

276

Assessing the pollution potential of non-point mine wastes on surface water using a geo-spatial modeling approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abandoned mine lands (or inactive and abandoned mines) have received increasing concerns because they may cause severe environmental and public health problems. Most of previous studies to characterize mine waste pollution potential were focused on screening-level investigations. The issues related to pollution potential of mine waste were poorly addressed from the perspective of non-point source pollution, and few efforts have been made to study the effect of spatial characteristics of mine wastes on water quality using spatial technology such as GIS, remote sensing and spatial modeling. This research develops a geo-spatial approach to assessing mine waste pollution on surface water, which integrates GIS, remote sensing and watershed modeling techniques in order to effectively address the effects of spatial characteristics of pollutants. The study area is Tri-State Mining District which is located in the conjunction of Missouri, Kansas and Okalahoma. This district was the most important lead and zinc mining area in U.S. The historic mining left behind a huge area of mine wastes. Satellite remote sensing data (Landsat MSS and TM) were acquired, processed and classified in a decadal interval to generate land use/land cover (LULC) data for the entire district. Watersheds within the district were delineated by using USGS DEM data and a newly-developed GIS tool. Water quality indicators were selected and relevant water quality data between 1970 and 2002 was retrieved from USGS and USEPA databases. With the classified LULC data as a data source, landscape metrics (composition and spatial configuration indices) for each water quality station in mine waste-located watersheds were calculated. Statistical analyses were performed to quantify the relationship between landscape and surface water quality and to evaluate the impacts of landscape characteristics on surface water quality. Related GIS data layers were then created and a cell-based watershed modeling was conducted. The study shows that mine waste area in the district decreased evidently over last three decades. Landscape characteristics could account for as much as 77% of the variation of surface water quality. The proportion indices of LULC types were shown to be more important than spatial configuration indices in characterizing surface water quality. The modeling results characterized the pollution potential and detected the pollution severity in the watersheds within the study area. The results of this research would help develop management strategies and prioritize future remediation to reduce pollution potential.

Xiao, Huaguo

277

Lung water detection using acoustic techniques.  

PubMed

The presence of an excessive amount of water in lung is a sign of pulmonary edema which can be caused by heart failure. The current solutions for lung water detection involve the use of X-ray, CT scan or serum biomarkers, which require bulky and expensive instruments as well as long measurement duration. This paper reports on a study conducted on the use of a different sensing modality to detect the presence of water in lung. The main contributions of the paper are twofold: 1) we propose to employ acoustic (or sound) based techniques for lung water detection. The design is simple and can be implemented on a portable or wearable system; 2) we establish the feasibility of sound-based techniques for lung water detection, by carrying out experimental studies using four feature extraction methods combined with two classification methods. The findings of this study will be beneficial to the design of portable devices for rapid and accurate lung water detection. PMID:23366868

Yang, Feng; Ser, Wee; Yu, Jufeng; Foo, David Chee-Guan; Yeo, Daniel Poh Shuan; Chia, Pow-Li; Wong, Jennifer

2012-01-01

278

Deposition of air pollutants to the great waters. First report to Congress  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Great Waters program is to evaluate the atmospheric deposition of air pollutants to the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, Chesapeake Bay, and coastal waters. The report to Congress is to include information on the contribution of atmospheric deposition to pollutant loadings, the environmental or public health effects of such pollution, the source or sources of such pollution, and a description of any regulatory revisions under applicable Federal laws that may be necessary to assure protection of human health and the environment. The scientific information currently available is summarized in this report, and recommended actions are described.

Not Available

1994-05-01

279

Detection of chemical pollutants by passive LWIR hyperspectral imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) represent a major threat to public health and security. Their detection constitutes a real challenge to security and first responder's communities. One promising detection method is based on the passive standoff identification of chemical vapors emanating from the laboratory under surveillance. To investigate this method, the Department of National Defense and Public Safety Canada have mandated Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC) - Valcartier to develop and test passive Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) sensors for standoff detection. The initial effort was focused to address the standoff detection and identification of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) and precursors. Sensors such as the Multi-option Differential Detection and Imaging Fourier Spectrometer (MoDDIFS) and the Improved Compact ATmospheric Sounding Interferometer (iCATSI) were developed for this application. This paper describes the sensor developments and presents initial results of standoff detection and identification of TICs and precursors. The standoff sensors are based on the differential Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) radiometric technology and are able to detect, spectrally resolve and identify small leak plumes at ranges in excess of 1 km. Results from a series of trials in asymmetric threat type scenarios will be presented. These results will serve to establish the potential of the method for standoff detection of TICs precursors and surrogates.

Lavoie, Hugo; Thériault, Jean-Marc; Bouffard, François; Puckrin, Eldon; Dubé, Denis

2012-09-01

280

USING CANINES IN SOURCE DETECTION OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Dogs have been used extensively in law enforcement and military applications to detect narcotics and explosives for over thirty years. Dogs are regularly used in arson investigations to detect accelerants since they are much more accurate at discriminating between accelerants an...

281

Photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants and detection of chemical oxygen demand by fluorescence methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

TiO2 photocatalyst was used to degrade organic pollutants in aqueous solutions and the detection of chemical oxygen demand was studied by fluorescence method. It was found that TiO2 dosage, initial solution pH, initial concentration electron acceptor Ce4+, the time of UV light irradiation and the temperature of solution affected the degradation of the organic pollutants. The optimum conditions were obtained

Chengfang Li; Gongwu Song

2009-01-01

282

Paying for Pollution: Water Quality and Effluent Charges. Proceedings from a Conference (Chicago, Illinois, May 19, 1977).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication gives the proceedings from a 1977 conference sponsored by the Conservation Foundation. Participants discuss the appropriate means to control water pollution, emphasizing the use of effluent charges as economic incentive for polluters to clean up their waters. (MA)

Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC.

283

Remote detection of air pollution stress to vegetation - Laboratory-level studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of the role of leaf chemistry, anatomy, moisture content, and canopy density on spectral reflectance in healthy and pollution stressed western conifer needles and broad-leafed species of California coastal sage scrub is presented. Acid mist at a level of pH 2.0 is found to more severely effect chlorophyll loss and leaf death than ozone at a level of 0.2 ppm for a four-week period. Both pollutants cause water loss, affecting Bands 4 and 5 in nonlinear ways. The infrared bands initially rise as free water is lost, and subsequently, scattering and reflectance decline. The net effect is shown to be a reduction in TM 4/3 and a rise in TM 5/4 with pollution stress. Under more severe pollution stresses, the decline of leaf area indices due to accelerated leaf drop accentuates the expected TM 4/3 and TM 5/4 changes.

Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

1987-01-01

284

Sources of water pollution and evolution of water quality in the Wuwei basin of Shiyang river, Northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on surveys and chemical analyses, we performed a case study of the surface water and groundwater quality in the Wuwei basin, in order to understand the sources of water pollution and the evolution of water quality in Shiyang river. Concentrations of major chemical elements in the surface water were related to the distance downstream from the source of the

Jinzhu Ma; Zhenyu Ding; Guoxiao Wei; Hua Zhao; Tianming Huang

2009-01-01

285

Water pollution and water quality in Massachusetts' coastal zone: A municipal official's primer  

SciTech Connect

Conservation commissions, boards of selectmen and other municipal agencies are the first line of defense against a multitude of assaults on water quality in the rapidly developing Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Maintaining a community's water quality is a daunting task, faced, in many cases, by volunteers whose primary qualification is a devotion to their town or city and a willingness to spend a large part of their 'leisure' time working to improve and protect their community. This manual is a reference guide to problems, causes, solutions, experts and bibliographic references in the field of water pollution and water quality. With overviews of the main issues and suggestions for coping mechanisms, as well as listings of pertinent legislation and responsible government agencies, the manual should be a time saver for both experienced and novice decision-makers. It will not answer every question in detail, but will serve as a starting point for the seeker.

Hall-Arber, M.

1992-01-01

286

An air and water pollution prevention primer for small businesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollution prevention is one of the few areas in which environmental goals and economic interests clearly coincide. Benefits include reduced costs, liabilities and regulatory burdens, and an improved environment. Minimizing the quantity and toxicity of waste also reduces the need for waste treatment operations. Because economics is one of the factors weighed when adopting pollution prevent technologies, economic analysis based

1995-01-01

287

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN BELARUS: PURIFICATION EFFICIENCY AND SURFACE WATER POLLUTION RISK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Official statistics were used for an investigation of wastewater disposal structure, for a study of characteristics of pollutants\\u000a in urban sewage and estimation of anthropogenic (pollutant) load on receiving waters. The capacities of town sewage plants\\u000a and efficiency of wastewater refinement are examined. It is shown that wastewater discharged without adequate treatment into\\u000a surface waters has affected water bodies that

OLGA KADATSKAYA

288

Research on status analysis of surface water environment and pollution control in Jiaozuo city  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation and study show that the surface water pollution of Jiaozuo city is serious, the river water quality is V or above V. The total sewage export loads are 13130.42 tons every year, export loads of the main pollutants CODCr are 32846.15 tons, and the NH3-N are 3591.37 tons every year. In this research, the water quality requirements of each

Yongle Li; Zhanping Zhang; Jiangfeng Wang

2011-01-01

289

An application of Landsat and computer technology to potential water pollution from soil erosion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Agricultural activity has been recognized as the primary source of nonpoint source water pollution. Water quality planners have needed information that is timely, accurate, easily reproducible, and relatively inexpensive to utilize to implement 'Best Management Practices' for water quality. In this paper, a case study shows how the combination of satellite data, which can give accurate land-cover/land-use information, and a computerized geographic information system, can assess nonpoint pollution at a regional scale and be cost effective.

Campbell, W. J.

1981-01-01

290

Pollution of the Black Sea coastal waters: Sources, present-day level, annual variability  

SciTech Connect

Results of regular (for the last 10 years) observations at marine and coastal hydrometeorological posts are analyzed. These are observations of volumes and concentrations of pollutants entering the sea with the flow of the Danube and Dnieper rivers and wastewaters of coastal industrial enterprises, as a result of oil spills caused by ship accidents, pipeline damage, and sea shipping. An integral criterion used to estimate the overall specific anthropogenic load of pollutants in the coastal zone is calculated. The pollutants were compared with regard to their overall specific load, taking into account the percentage of each of them. A water pollution index is calculated for 19 regions of the sea; water quality is evaluated for three types of pollutants and oxygen content. Pollution structure is revealed, physical and dynamic causes of its changes are investigated.

Fashchuk, D.Ya.; Shaporenko, S.I. [Institute of Geography, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-05-01

291

Observed Increase of TTL Temperature and Water Vapor in Polluted Couds over Asia  

SciTech Connect

Aerosols can affect cloud particle size and lifetime, which impacts precipitation, radiation and climate. Previous studies1-4 suggested that reduced ice cloud particle size and fall speed due to the influence of aerosols may increase evaporation of ice crystals and/or cloud radiative heating in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), leading to higher water vapor abundance in air entering the stratosphere. Observational substantiation of such processes is still lacking. Here, we analyze new observations from multiple NASA satellites to show the imprint of pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. We focus our analysis on the highly-polluted South and East Asia region during boreal summer. We find that "polluted" ice clouds have smaller ice effective radius than "clean" clouds. In the TTL, the polluted clouds are associated with warmer temperature and higher specific humidity than the clean clouds. The water vapor difference between the polluted and clean clouds cannot be explained by other meteorological factors, such as updraft and detrainment strength. Therefore, the observed higher water vapor entry value into the stratosphere in the polluted clouds than in the clean clouds is likely a manifestation of aerosol pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. Given the radiative and chemical importance of stratospheric water vapor, the increasing emission of aerosols over Asia may have profound impacts on stratospheric chemistry and global energy balance and water cycle.

Su, Hui; Jiang, Jonathan; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, J.; Read, William G.; Massie, Steven T.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Colarco, Peter; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Santee, Michelle L.

2011-06-01

292

Cotton production and water quality: Economic and environmental effects of pollution prevention. Agricultural economic report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton production, compared with other crops, is less likely to cause erosion-induced water-quality problems because cotton acreage is not the major source of erosion in most regions. For cotton production, the most widespread potential damages to water quality are nitrates from fertilizer polluting ground water and pesticides contaminating surface water. This damage could be reduced by restricting chemical and fertilizer

S. R. Crutchfield; M. O. Ribaudo; L. T. Hansen; R. Quiroga

1992-01-01

293

Pollutant dispersion modelling for Portuguese river water uses protection linked to tracer dye experimental data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical models are well known as useful tools for water management practices, directly or i ndirectly related to the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in European countries. They can be applied to solve or understand either simple water quality problems or complex water management problems of trans-boundary rivers or multiple-purpose and stratified reservoirs. Accidental spills of pollutants are

A. L. S. DUARTE; RUI A. R. BOAVENTURA

2008-01-01

294

Air pollution - Remote detection of several pollutant gases with a laser heterodyne radiometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An infrared heterodyne radiometer with a spectral resolution of 0.04 reciprocal centimeters has been used to remotely detect samples of ozone, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, and ethylene at room temperature, and samples of nitric oxide at 390 K. Each gas was observed in a background of nitrogen or oxygen at atmospheric pressure. Sensitivities to some of these gases are adequate for detection of ambient concentrations as low as a few parts per billion.

Menzies, R. T.; Shumate, M. S.

1974-01-01

295

Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: Progresses and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental pollution affects the quality of pedosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Great efforts\\u000a have been made in the last two decades to reduce pollution sources and remedy the polluted soil and water resources. Phytoremediation,\\u000a being more cost-effective and fewer side effects than physical and chemical approaches, has gained increasing popularity in\\u000a both academic and practical circles. More than 400

Mohammad Iqbal Lone; Zhen-li He; Peter J. Stoffella; Xiao-e Yang

2008-01-01

296

Uniqueness for an ill-posed reaction-dispersion model. Application to organic pollution in stream-waters  

E-print Network

Uniqueness for an ill-posed reaction-dispersion model. Application to organic pollution in stream-waters waters. The sources we consider are point-wise and simulate stationary or moving pollution sources to measure the pollution extent due to organic agents and then to evaluate the water characteristics. Another

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

297

40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.  

...presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water. 129.6 Section 129.6 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS TOXIC POLLUTANT EFFLUENT STANDARDS...presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water. (a) Upon the request of...

2014-07-01

298

23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633...Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are...

2012-04-01

299

23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633...Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are...

2013-04-01

300

23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633...Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are...

2011-04-01

301

23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633...Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are...

2010-04-01

302

23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

...Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633...Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are...

2014-04-01

303

Sources of water pollution and evolution of water quality in the Wuwei basin of Shiyang river, Northwest China.  

PubMed

Based on surveys and chemical analyses, we performed a case study of the surface water and groundwater quality in the Wuwei basin, in order to understand the sources of water pollution and the evolution of water quality in Shiyang river. Concentrations of major chemical elements in the surface water were related to the distance downstream from the source of the river, with surface water in the upstream reaches of good quality, but the river from Wuwei city to the Hongya reservoir was seriously polluted, with a synthetic pollution index of 25. Groundwater quality was generally good in the piedmont with dominant bicarbonate and calcium ions, but salinity was high and nitrate pollution occurs in the northern part of the basin. Mineralization of the groundwater has changed rapidly during the past 20 years. There are 23 wastewater outlets that discharge a total of 22.4 x 10(6)m(3)y(-1) into the river from Wuwei city, which, combined with a reduction of inflow water, were found to be the major causes of water pollution. Development of fisheries in the Hongya reservoir since 2000 has also contributed to the pollution. The consumption of water must be decreased until it reaches the sustainable level permitted by the available resources in the whole basin, and discharge of wastes must also be drastically reduced. PMID:18586380

Ma, Jinzhu; Ding, Zhenyu; Wei, Guoxiao; Zhao, Hua; Huang, Tianming

2009-02-01

304

Water pollutant fingerprinting tracks recent industrial transfer from coastal to inland China: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, China's developed regions have transferred industries to undeveloped regions. Large numbers of unlicensed or unregistered enterprises are widespread in these undeveloped regions and they are subject to minimal regulation. Current methods for tracing industrial transfers in these areas, based on enterprise registration information or economic surveys, do not work. We have developed an analytical framework combining water fingerprinting and evolutionary analysis to trace the pollution transfer features between water sources. We collected samples in Eastern China (industrial export) and Central China (industrial acceptance) separately from two water systems. Based on the water pollutant fingerprints and evolutionary trees, we traced the pollution transfer associated with industrial transfer between the two areas. The results are consistent with four episodes of industrial transfers over the past decade. Our results also show likely types of the transferred industries - electronics, plastics, and biomedicines - that contribute to the water pollution transfer.

Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Tian, Dajun; Jiang, Songhui; Andersen, Melvin E.; He, Genhsjeng; Crabbe, M. James C.; Zheng, Yuxin; Zhong, Yang; Qu, Weidong

2013-01-01

305

Pricing of Water Resources With Depletable Externality: The Effects of Pollution Charges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With an abstraction of a real-world situation, the paper views water resources as a depletable capital asset which yields a stream of services such as water supply and the assimilation of pollution discharge. The concept of the concave or convex water resource depletion function is then introduced and applied to a general two-sector, three-factor model. The main theoretical contribution is to prove that when the water resource depletion function is a concave rather than a convex function of pollution, it is more likely that gross regional income will increase with a higher pollution charge policy. The concavity of the function is meant to imply that with an increase in pollution released, the ability of supplying water at a certain minimum quality level diminishes faster and faster. A numerical example is also provided.

Kitabatake, Yoshifusa

1990-04-01

306

Field Studies for Key Stage 4 on Mine Water Pollution: A University and Museum Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how a university and a museum have worked together to create a "How science works" workshop entitled "What's in our water?" The workshop teaches students about the continuing pollution from a disused coal mine, how the pollution is cleaned up using a state-of-the-art treatment works and how…

Hopwood, Jeremy D.; Berry, Stuart D.; Ambrose, Jayne L.

2013-01-01

307

Coal mine water pollution legal and regulatory issues: a survey. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Illinois Mine Related Pollution Task Force is a joint activity of the Illinois Coal Association and the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. The Task Force's activities are coordinated by the Illinois Institute of Natural Resources. The Task Force decided that the achievement of their goal would be furthered by surveying rules and regulations governing mine related water pollution in other

1978-01-01

308

Oil Palm Biomass–Based Adsorbents for the Removal of Water Pollutants—A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a review on the role of oil palm biomass (trunks, fronds, leaves, empty fruit bunches, shells, etc.) as adsorbents in the removal of water pollutants such as acid and basic dyes, heavy metals, phenolic compounds, various gaseous pollutants, and so on. Numerous studies on adsorption properties of various low-cost adsorbents, such as agricultural wastes and its based

TANWEER AHMAD; MOHD RAFATULLAH; ARNIZA GHAZALI; OTHMAN SULAIMAN; ROKIAH HASHIM

2011-01-01

309

Water Pollution from Urban Stormwater Runoff in the Brunette River Watershed, B.C.  

E-print Network

Water Pollution from Urban Stormwater Runoff in the Brunette River Watershed, B.C. DOE FRAP 1998. The Fraser River Action Plan (FRAP) also provided funding as part of their research and pollution abatement runoff and the different reaches of the streams was directly related to traffic density and land cover

310

An Instructors Guide to Water Pollution. Test Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems, No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of several study guides on contemporary problems produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science with support of the National Science Foundation. This study guide on water pollution includes the following units: (1) Overview of World Pollution; (2) History, Definition, Criteria; (3) Ecosystem Theory; (4) Biological…

Kidd, David E.

311

Diversity as a measure of benthic macroinvertebrate community response to water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assumption that water pollution causes a depression in the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates as measured by the Shannon index and similar diversity indices is questioned. An interpretation of the community response of benthic macroinvertebrates to pollution in the Millers River, Massachusetts is developed from species presence-absence and abundance data in conjunction with published information on the species' environmental tolerances

Paul J. Godfrey

1978-01-01

312

Water pollution abatement by Chinese industry: cost estimates and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factory-level data are used to estimate water pollution abatement costs for Chinese industry. Joint abatement cost functions are utilized which relate total costs to treatment volume and the simultaneous effect of reductions in suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand and other pollutants. Tests of alternative functional forms suggest that a very simple (constant elasticity) model fits the data

Susmita Dasgupta; Mainul Huq; David Wheeler; Chonghua Zhang

2001-01-01

313

Forecasting the effects of polluting discharges on natural waters—II  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief account is given of the present state of development of methods for forecasting the effects of pollution on estuaries and coastal waters. In the case of vertically homogeneous estuaries the concentration of given pollutants at a chosen state of tide and given freshwater flow can be determined by means of a one?dimensional steady?state mathematical model in which use

A. L. Downing

1971-01-01

314

Heavy metal pollution in farmland irrigated with river water near a steel plant—magnetic and geochemical signature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of heavy metals (HMs) in the environment is a major threat for humans. Magnetic proxies provide a rapid method for assessing the degree of HM pollution in environment. We have studied farmland soil irrigated with polluted river water in the vicinity of a steel plant in Loudi city (Hunan Province, China) to test the efficiency of magnetic methods for detecting the degree of HM pollution. Both magnetic and non-magnetic (microscopic, chemical and statistical) methods were used to characterize these farmland soils. Enhanced magnetic concentration values were found in the upper arable soil horizon (0-20 cm), which is related to the presence of spherical ˜10 to 30 ?m sized magnetite particles. The spatial distribution of magnetic concentration and HM contents in the farmland soils matches with the spatial pattern of these parameters in river sediments. These findings provide evidence that HM pollution of the farmland soil is mainly caused by irrigation with wastewater. HMs Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Co, Ni, V are well correlate with magnetic susceptibility (?). The pollution load index (PLI) of all nine anthropogenic HMs (including also Cr and Mo) and log10(?) are significantly correlated. Using the resulting linear PLI-log10(?) function, values of ? can serve as a convenient tool for semi-quantifying the degree of HM pollution in the uppermost ˜20 cm of the studied farmland soils. These findings suggest that magnetic methods can generally serve as a convenient tool for detecting and mapping HM pollution in farmland soil irrigated with wastewater from sites nearby heavy industrial activities.

Zhang, Chunxia; Appel, Erwin; Qiao, Qingqing

2013-03-01

315

Raman Scattering of Water and Photoluminescence of Pollutants Arising from Solid-Water Interaction  

E-print Network

Systematic Raman experiments performed on water and water-ethanol samples, stored in different containers (fused silica, polypropylene, soda-lime glass type III) for several hours, have shown that the luminescence contribution to the Raman signal fluctuations is directly related to the container composition. Intensity fluctuations as large as 98%, have been observed in the spectral regions corresponding to the both water intramolecular and intermolecular vibrations, despite the fact that the wavenumbers of the modes remained unchanged. We undoubtedly attribute these fluctuations to a luminescence phenomenon on the basis of : i) the absence of such effect in the anti-Stokes domain, ii) its dependence on the excitation laser wavelength, iii) other relevant photoluminescence experiments. This luminescence is attributed to pollutants at ultra-low concentration coming from the different containers.

Vallée, P; Ghomi, M; Jouanne, M; Vall\\'{e}e, Philippe; Lafait, Jacques; Ghomi, Mahmoud; Jouanne, Michel

2003-01-01

316

Field performance of the Chemcatcher passive sampler for monitoring hydrophobic organic pollutants in surface water.  

PubMed

Six field trials were carried out to assess the performance of the Chemcatcher passive sampler alongside spot sampling for monitoring priority hydrophobic organic pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides) in a wide range of conditions in surface water. The trials were performed in three European rivers: Elbe (Czech Republic), Alna (Norway) and Meuse (Netherlands), in two seasons (April-June 2004, and September-October 2004). Samplers spiked with performance reference compounds (PRCs) were deployed for either 14 or 28 days. Ten spot samples of water were collected over the course of the trial and filtered through a 0.7 microm glass fibre filter. Concentrations of pollutants measured using the Chemcatcher were compared with the average concentrations found in spot samples. This study describes the operational performance of Chemcatcher for measuring hydrophobic (log K(OW) 3.7-6.8) chemicals in surface water. Site specific Chemcatcher sampling rates up to 0.5 L d(-1) were found using the PRC approach that reduced the uncertainty in estimates of sampling kinetics where temperature, local flow conditions and biofouling potential varied between sites and seasons, and with time during sampler exposure. The limits of quantification of sampled analytes ranged from one to tens ng L(-1). Highest sensitivity was achieved for compounds with a favourable combination of low instrument quantification limits and high sampling rates including dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, lindane, pentachlorobenzene, and PAHs with less than five aromatic rings. The direct comparison of time weighted average (TWA) concentrations (mostly close to method limits of detection) obtained using passive and spot sampling was possible for lindane, hexachlorobenzene, and PAHs < 4 rings. Implications of using the Chemcatcher in regulatory monitoring programmes such as the European Union Water Framework Directive are discussed. PMID:20383367

Vrana, Branislav; Mills, Graham A; Leonards, Pim E G; Kotterman, Michiel; Weideborg, Mona; Hajslová, Jana; Kocourek, Vladimír; Tomaniová, Monika; Pulkrabová, Jana; Suchanová, Marie; Hájková, Katerina; Herve, Sirpa; Ahkola, Heidi; Greenwood, Richard

2010-04-01

317

THE USE OF WETLANDS FOR WATER POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

Wetlands such as marshes, swamps and artificial wetlands, have been shown to remove selected pollutants from urban stormwater runoff and treated municipal wastewaters. Wetlands have produced reduction in BOD, pathogens, and some hydrocarbons, and excel in nitrogen removal. They h...

318

Impact of land-use on water pollution in a rapidly urbanizing catchment in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many catchments in developing countries are undergoing fast urbanization which is usually characterized by population increase, economic growth as well as drastic changes of land-use from natural/rural to urban area. During the urbanization process, some catchments experience water quality deterioration due to rapid increase of pollution loads. Nonpoint source pollution resulting from storm water runoff has been recognized as one of the major causes of pollutants in many cities in developing countries. The composition of land-use for a rapidly urbanizing catchment is usually heterogeneous, and this may result in significant spatial variations of storm runoff pollution and increase the difficulties of water quality management in the catchment. The Shiyan Reservoir catchment, a typical rapidly urbanizing area in China, is chosen as the study area, and temporary monitoring sites were set at the outlets of its 6 sub-catchments to synchronously measured rainfall, runoff and water quality during 4 storm events. Three indicators, event pollutant loads per unit area (EPL), event mean concentration (EMC) and pollutant loads transported by the first 50% of runoff volume (FF50), were used to describe the runoff pollution for different pollutants (such as COD, BOD, NH3-N, TN, TP and SS) in each sub-catchment during the storm events; and the correlations between runoff pollution spatial variations and land-use patterns were tested by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The results indicated that similar spatial variation trends were found for different pollutants (EPL or EMC) in light storm events, which strongly correlate with the proportion of residential land-use; however, they have different trends in heavy storm events, which correlate with the different proportional combination of residential, industrial, agricultural and bare land-use. It is also shown that it is necessary to consider some pervious land-use types in runoff pollution monitoring or management for a rapidly urbanizing area, particularly in heavy storm.

Khu, Soon-Thiam; Qin, Huapeng

2010-05-01

319

Airborne optical detection of oil on water.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne measurements were made over controlled oil-spill test sites to evaluate various techniques, utilizing reflected sunlight, for detecting oil on water. The results of these measurements show that (1) maximum contrast between oil and water is in the UV and red portions of the spectrum; (2) minimum contrast is in the blue-green; (3) differential polarization appears to be a very promising technique; (4) no characteristic absorption bands, which would permit one oil to be distinguished from another, were discovered in the spectral regions measured; (5) sky conditions greatly influence the contrast between oil and water; and (6) highest contrast was achieved under overcast sky conditions.

Millard, J. P.; Arvesen, J. C.

1972-01-01

320

Application of Ion Exchange Technique to Decontamination of Polluted Water Generated by Fukushima Nuclear Disaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By the Fukushima nuclear disaster, large amounts of water and sea water polluted mainly with radioactive Cs were generated and the environment around the nuclear site was contaminated by the fallout from the nuclear site. The coagulation settling process using ferric ferrocyanide and an inorganic coagulant and the adsorption process using ferric ferrocyanide granulated by silica binder were applied to the treatment of polluted water. In the coagulation settling process, Cs was removed completely from polluted water and sea water (DF?104). In the adsorption process, the recovery of trace Cs (10 ppb) in sea water, which was not suitable for the use of zeolite, was attained successfully. Finally, the recovery of Cs from sewage sludge was tested by a combined process with the hydrothermal process using subcritical water and the coagulation settling process using ferric ferrocyanide. 96% of radioactive Cs was recovered successfully from sewage sludge with the radioactivity of 10,000 Bq/kg.

Takeshita, Kenji; Ogata, Takeshi

321

Time-resolved lidar fluorosensor for sea pollution detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A contemporary time and spectral analysis of oil fluorescence is useful for the detection and the characterization of oil spills on the sea surface. Nevertheless the fluorosensor lidars, which were realized up to now, have only partial capability to perform this double analysis. The main difficulties are the high resolution required (of the order of 1 nanosecond) and the complexity of the detection system for the recording of a two-dimensional matrix of data for each laser pulse. An airborne system whose major specifications were: time range, 30 to 75 ns; time resolution, 1 ns; spectral range, 350 to 700 nm; and spectral resolution, 10 nm was designed and constructed. The designed system of a short pulse ultraviolet laser source and a streak camera based detector are described.

Ferrario, A.; Pizzolati, P. L.; Zanzottera, E.

1986-01-01

322

A Microbial Signature Approach to Identify Fecal Pollution in the Waters Off an Urbanized Coast of Lake Michigan  

PubMed Central

Urban coasts receive watershed drainage from ecosystems that include highly developed lands with sewer and stormwater infrastructure. In these complex ecosystems, coastal waters are often contaminated with fecal pollution, where multiple delivery mechanisms that often contain multiple fecal sources make it difficult to mitigate the pollution. Here, we exploit bacterial community sequencing of the V6 and V6V4 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to identify bacterial distributions that signal the presence of sewer, fecal, and human fecal pollution. The sequences classified to three sewer infrastructure-associated bacterial genera, Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, and Trichococcus, and five fecal-associated bacterial families, Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae, served as signatures of sewer and fecal contamination, respectively. The human fecal signature was determined with the Bayesian source estimation program SourceTracker, which we applied to a set of 40 sewage influent samples collected in Milwaukee, WI, USA to identify operational taxonomic units (?97 % identity) that were most likely of human fecal origin. During periods of dry weather, the magnitudes of all three signatures were relatively low in Milwaukee's urban rivers and harbor and nearly zero in Lake Michigan. However, the relative contribution of the sewer and fecal signature frequently increased to >2 % of the measured surface water communities following sewer overflows. Also during combined sewer overflows, the ratio of the human fecal pollution signature to the fecal pollution signature in surface waters was generally close to that of sewage, but this ratio decreased dramatically during dry weather and rain events, suggesting that nonhuman fecal pollution was the dominant source during these weather-driven scenarios. The qPCR detection of two human fecal indicators, human Bacteroides and Lachno2, confirmed the urban fecal footprint in this ecosystem extends to at least 8 km offshore. PMID:23475306

Newton, Ryan J.; Bootsma, Melinda J.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Sogin, Mitchell L.

2014-01-01

323

A microbial signature approach to identify fecal pollution in the waters off an urbanized coast of Lake Michigan.  

PubMed

Urban coasts receive watershed drainage from ecosystems that include highly developed lands with sewer and stormwater infrastructure. In these complex ecosystems, coastal waters are often contaminated with fecal pollution, where multiple delivery mechanisms that often contain multiple fecal sources make it difficult to mitigate the pollution. Here, we exploit bacterial community sequencing of the V6 and V6V4 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to identify bacterial distributions that signal the presence of sewer, fecal, and human fecal pollution. The sequences classified to three sewer infrastructure-associated bacterial genera, Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, and Trichococcus, and five fecal-associated bacterial families, Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae, served as signatures of sewer and fecal contamination, respectively. The human fecal signature was determined with the Bayesian source estimation program SourceTracker, which we applied to a set of 40 sewage influent samples collected in Milwaukee, WI, USA to identify operational taxonomic units (? 97 % identity) that were most likely of human fecal origin. During periods of dry weather, the magnitudes of all three signatures were relatively low in Milwaukee's urban rivers and harbor and nearly zero in Lake Michigan. However, the relative contribution of the sewer and fecal signature frequently increased to > 2 % of the measured surface water communities following sewer overflows. Also during combined sewer overflows, the ratio of the human fecal pollution signature to the fecal pollution signature in surface waters was generally close to that of sewage, but this ratio decreased dramatically during dry weather and rain events, suggesting that nonhuman fecal pollution was the dominant source during these weather-driven scenarios. The qPCR detection of two human fecal indicators, human Bacteroides and Lachno2, confirmed the urban fecal footprint in this ecosystem extends to at least 8 km offshore. PMID:23475306

Newton, Ryan J; Bootsma, Melinda J; Morrison, Hilary G; Sogin, Mitchell L; McLellan, Sandra L

2013-05-01

324

National monitoring of land surface water pollution and perspectives of its development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present-day status of the national monitoring of the land surface water pollution is estimated; the key areas of its development\\u000a and their scientific coverage by the methods and methodologies are under consideration.

A. M. Nikanorov

2010-01-01

325

Setting Up a Special Collection on Water Pollution in a University Library  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The establishment of a special collection within the university library, the complexities of identifying and collecting reports in the environmental area, locating agencies concerned with water pollution, and recording the location of other local collections of data are described. (Author)

Friedlander, Janet

1974-01-01

326

Rare Event Detection Algorithm Of Water Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method is presented describing the development and implementation of an on-line water quality event detection algorithm. An algorithm was developed to distinguish between normal variation in water quality parameters and changes in these parameters triggered by the presence of contaminant spikes. Emphasis is placed on simultaneously limiting the number of false alarms (which are called false positives) that occur and the number of misses (called false negatives). The problem of excessive false alarms is common to existing change detection algorithms. EPA's standard measure of evaluation for event detection algorithms is to have a false alarm rate of less than 0.5 percent and a false positive rate less than 2 percent (EPA 817-R-07-002). A detailed description of the algorithm's development is presented. The algorithm is tested using historical water quality data collected by a public water supply agency at multiple locations and using spiking contaminants developed by the USEPA, Water Security Division. The water quality parameters of specific conductivity, chlorine residual, total organic carbon, pH, and oxidation reduction potential are considered. Abnormal data sets are generated by superimposing water quality changes on the historical or baseline data. Eddies-ET has defined reaction expressions which specify how the peak or spike concentration of a particular contaminant affects each water quality parameter. Nine default contaminants (Eddies-ET) were previously derived from pipe-loop tests performed at EPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Test and Evaluation (T&E) Facility. A contaminant strength value of approximately 1.5 is considered to be a significant threat. The proposed algorithm has been able to achieve a combined false alarm rate of less than 0.03 percent for both false positives and for false negatives using contaminant spikes of strength 2 or more.

Ungs, M. J.

2011-12-01

327

Sunscreen Products as Emerging Pollutants to Coastal Waters  

PubMed Central

A growing awareness of the risks associated with skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation over the past decades has led to increased use of sunscreen cosmetic products leading the introduction of new chemical compounds in the marine environment. Although coastal tourism and recreation are the largest and most rapidly growing activities in the world, the evaluation of sunscreen as source of chemicals to the coastal marine system has not been addressed. Concentrations of chemical UV filters included in the formulation of sunscreens, such as benzophehone 3 (BZ-3), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), TiO2 and ZnO, are detected in nearshore waters with variable concentrations along the day and mainly concentrated in the surface microlayer (i.e. 53.6–577.5 ng L-1 BZ-3; 51.4–113.4 ng L-1 4-MBC; 6.9–37.6 µg L-1 Ti; 1.0–3.3 µg L-1 Zn). The presence of these compounds in seawater suggests relevant effects on phytoplankton. Indeed, we provide evidences of the negative effect of sunblocks on the growth of the commonly found marine diatom Chaetoceros gracilis (mean EC50?=?125±71 mg L-1). Dissolution of sunscreens in seawater also releases inorganic nutrients (N, P and Si forms) that can fuel algal growth. In particular, PO43? is released by these products in notable amounts (up to 17 µmol PO43? g?1). We conservatively estimate an increase of up to 100% background PO43? concentrations (0.12 µmol L-1 over a background level of 0.06 µmol L-1) in nearshore waters during low water renewal conditions in a populated beach in Majorca island. Our results show that sunscreen products are a significant source of organic and inorganic chemicals that reach the sea with potential ecological consequences on the coastal marine ecosystem. PMID:23755233

Tovar-Sanchez, Antonio; Sanchez-Quiles, David; Basterretxea, Gotzon; Benede, Juan L.; Chisvert, Alberto; Salvador, Amparo; Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio; Blasco, Julian

2013-01-01

328

Paradox of nutrient removal in coupled socioeconomic and ecological dynamics for lake water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study coupled socioeconomical and ecological dynamics for lake water pollution. Players choose between cooperative (but\\u000a costly) option and economical option, and their decision is affected by the fraction of cooperators in the community and by\\u000a the importance of water pollution problem. When an opportunity for choice arrives, players take the option with the higher\\u000a utility (best response dynamics). This

Yoh Iwasa; Yukari Suzuki-Ohno; Hiroyuki Yokomizo

2010-01-01

329

Investigation of water pollution in the Yalvac basin into Egirdir Lake, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to understand the effects of pollution of anthropogenic origin on water quality in Yalvac Basin,\\u000a part of the Egirdir Lake catchment. Surface discharge from the basin to the lake is 63 m3\\/year and underground discharge is 114 m3\\/year. Possible water pollution is categorized into domestic, industrial and agricultural origin. Domestic and industrial\\u000a wastewaters, including effluents from

I. Iskender Soyaslan; Remzi Karagüzel

2008-01-01

330

Pollution Status of Surface Water Resources in Arid Region of Rajasthan (india)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present investigation deals with the evaluation of DO, BOD and COD of six surface water resources of Bikaner district which fall in arid region of Rajasthan - a part of Great Indian Desert, to determine pollution status. Water sample analysed for two years 2008-2009 showed these parameters beyond the limit of standard prescribed by WHO. These parameters also showed great seasonal fluctuation, indicating the degree of organic pollution more during summer season and least during winter season.

Kachhawa, Chanchal

331

A Decision Support System for Evaluatingquality Safety Risk Contaminated By Water Pollution in Aquaculture Pond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water pollution is becoming the major factor damaging the sustainable development of aquaculture and the quality security of aquatic product in China. This paper introduces a decision support system for evaluating and managing quality risk contaminated by water pollution. The architecture, main components and their functions, especially a series of risk evaluation methods and models are described. At present, the system is in pilot in the city of Beijing in China. The stage achievements in developing the system are summarized.

Tian, Dong; Li, Nan; Huang, Honghui; Fu, Zetian; Zhang, Xiaoshuan

332

Organic-solvent water pollution and low birth weight in Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study explored the association between a measure of water pollution caused by benzene or chlorinated solvents and the incidence of low birth weights for white residents of Michigan counties. A positive relationship between water pollution by these contaminants and the per cent of low-weight births (less than 2,500 grams, or about 5.5 pounds) resulted despite controls for the

K. M. Witkowski; N. E. Johnson

2009-01-01

333

Organic?solvent water pollution and low birth weight in Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study explored the association between a measure of water pollution caused by benzene or chlorinated solvents and the incidence of low birth weights for white residents of Michigan counties. A positive relationship between water pollution by these contaminants and the per cent of low?weight births (< 2,500 grams, or about 5.5 pounds) resulted despite controls for the incidence

Kristine M. Witkowski; Nan E. Johnson

1992-01-01

334

Assessment of Groundwater and Surface Water Pollution at Mitm Area, Ibb City, Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater and surface water samples were collected from Mitm area to study the possible impact of wastewater treatment percolation into the groundwater and surface water. The objective of the study is to assess the groundwater and surface water pollution due to wastewater treatment at Mitm area of Ibb city, in the Republic of Yemen. The concentrations of various physiochemical parameters

Fares Alshaebi; Fadhl Al Nozail

2009-01-01

335

A management system for accidental water pollution risk in a harbour: The Barcelona case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality degradation in harbour domains can have an important negative impact from an economic, touristic and environmental point of view. In that sense, water quality management is becoming a main concern for harbour managers. In this paper, we present the research behind the initiative started in Spanish harbours to control water quality degradation due to accidental pollution. This management

Manel Grifoll; Gabriel Jordà; Manuel Espino; Javier Romo; Marcos García-Sotillo

2011-01-01

336

Analysis of national water-pollution-control policies. 2. Agricultural sediment control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national water network model is used to analyze the likely effects of agricultural sediment-control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier assessments concluded that

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin

1981-01-01

337

A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume II - Appendices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of water pollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…

Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

338

NATIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ASSESSMENT MODEL, VERSION 2.0 (NWPCAM 2.0)  

EPA Science Inventory

NWPCAM 2.0 is a national-level water quality modeling system that can be used to simulate the water quality changes and economic benefits that result from various pollution control policies. It builds and significantly improves on an earlier model the Clean Water Act Effects Mode...

339

Electronic-nose for detecting environmental pollutants: signal processing and analog front-end design  

E-print Network

Electronic-nose for detecting environmental pollutants: signal processing and analog frontB SNR at 23.4 mW quiescent power consumption for all channels. We demonstrate signal denoising using a discrete wavelet transform based technique. Appropriate features are extracted from sensor data

340

Detecting industrial pollution in the atmospheres of earth-like exoplanets  

E-print Network

Detecting biomarkers, such as molecular oxygen, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biomarker for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). We estimate that for an Earth-mass planet in the habitable zone of a white dwarf, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) can be detected at earth-like concentrations with an integration time of ~1.5 hrs and 12 hrs respectively. Detecting pollutants that are produced nearly exclusively by anthropogenic activities will be significantly more challenging. Of these pollutants, we focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl3F), which will be the easiest to detect. We estimate that ~1.5 days (~3 days) of total integration time will be sufficie...

Lin, Henry W; Loeb, Abraham

2014-01-01

341

OPTIMUM MACROBENTHIC SAMPLING PROTOCOL FOR DETECTING POLLUTION IMPACTS IN THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA BIGHT  

EPA Science Inventory

The optimum macrobenthic sampling protocol sampling unit, sieve mesh size, and sample size (n)] was determined for detecting ecologically important pollution impacts in the Southern California Bight, U.S.A. Cost, in laboratory processing time, was determined for samples obtained ...

342

Analysis of water spectral features of petroleum pollution and estimate models from remote sensing data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petroleum pollution is a key indicator to monitor and assess water environment in petroleum fields. Five sessions of field work were made in Liaohe River in Panjin city, Liaoning province of China in 2006 and 2007. Field water spectra and concurrent water samples for laboratory measurements of chlorophyll, petroleum pollution, and suspended material were collected. An important feature of water spectra influenced by petroleum pollution was found to show that there are three peaks and two troughs in spectral curves. The peaks are at 570-590, 680-710, and 810-830nm, while troughs are at 650-680 and 740-760nm. The field spectra were used as to correspond to Landsat TM bands to establish estimate models of petroleum pollution concentration. The models were applied to the Landsat/ TM image on 11th Oct 2006 to obtain the distribution image of petroleum pollution. The accuracy is up to 80% for petroleum pollution estimation with the validation of reserved samples. The result shows that the estimate models from remotely sensing data provide an effective means to obtain rapidly and low-cost the distribution of petroleum pollution concentration in the study area.

Huang, Miao-fen; Yu, Wu-yi; Zhang, Yi-min; Shen, Jin-li; Qi, Xiao-ping

2008-11-01

343

Water pollution risk simulation and prediction in the main canal of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The middle route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (MRP) will divert water to Beijing Tuancheng Lake from Taocha in the Danjiangkou reservoir located in the Hubei province of China. The MRP is composed of a long canal and complex hydraulic structures and will transfer water in open channel areas to provide drinking water for Beijing, Shijiazhuang and other cities under extremely strict water quality requirements. A large number of vehicular accidents, occurred on the many highway bridges across the main canal would cause significant water pollution in the main canal. To ensure that water quality is maintained during the diversion process, the effects of pollutants on water quality due to sudden pollution accidents were simulated and analyzed in this paper. The MIKE11 HD module was used to calculate the hydraulic characteristics of the 42-km Xishi-to-Beijuma River channel of the MRP. Six types of hydraulic structures, including inverted siphons, gates, highway bridges, culverts and tunnels, were included in this model. Based on the hydrodynamic model, the MIKE11 AD module, which is one-dimensional advection dispersion model, was built for TP, NH3-N, CODMn and F. The validated results showed that the computed values agreed well with the measured values. In accordance with transportation data across the Dianbei Highway Bridge, the effects of traffic accidents on the bridge on water quality were analyzed. Based on simulated scenarios with three discharge rates (ranged from 12 m3/s to 17 m3/s, 40 m3/s, and 60 m3/s) and three pollution loading concentration levels (5 t, 10 t and 20 t) when trucks spill their contents (i.e., phosphate fertilizer, cyanide, oil and chromium solution) into the channel, emergency measures were proposed. Reasonable solutions to ensure the water quality with regard to the various types of pollutants were proposed, including treating polluted water, maintaining materials, and personnel reserves.

Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Cheng, Xi

2014-11-01

344

http://www.jstor.org Lake Tahoe: The Future of a National Asset. Land Use, Water, and Pollution  

E-print Network

http://www.jstor.org Lake Tahoe: The Future of a National Asset. Land Use, Water, and Pollution: THE FUTURE OF A NATIONAL ASSET- LAND USE, WATER, AND POLLUTION In Roughing It, Mark Twain wrote of Lake Tahoe needs of lake and downstreamusers; and pollution must be controlled to preserve health and aesthetic

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

345

Validity of mutagenic activity as an indicator of river water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  To investigate if mutagenicity could be expressed by known water pollution indicators, we determined the mutagenic activity\\u000a of blue rayon extracts from sampled river water with the Ames test utilizing new strains of bacteria, and compared the results\\u000a with those of known indicators of water pollution.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Water samples were collected by the blue rayon adsorption method at sixteen sites in

H. Tsukatani; Y. Tanaka; N. Sera; N. Shimizu; S. Kitamori; N. Inoue

2003-01-01

346

Mass fluxes of organic pollutants between groundwater, streambed sediments and surface water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rivers and groundwater are commonly hydraulically connected and thus also pollutants migrate between one and the other. Particularly in small lowland streams, pollutant transport by discharging groundwater can deteriorate the surface water quality. Moreover, in urban and industrial areas streambed sediments are often polluted with a variety of organic and inorganic substances. For planning measures to improve surface water quality or to mitigate pollutant migration, it is an essential prerequisite to understand pollutant pathways and mass fluxes between the stream, the streambed sediment and the connected aquifer. We present methodological approaches and results of a study conducted at a small man-made stream located in the industrial area of Bitterfeld-Wolfen, Germany. This site is characterized by a diffuse groundwater contamination with a variety of aliphatic and aromatic organic substances. The underlying approach of this study was to quantify the mass fluxes between the aquifer, the streambed and the stream by combining high-resolution with integral monitoring approaches. Magnitudes and pattern of water fluxes were obtained by mapping streambed temperatures. The method was applied to a reach of 280 m in length. The mass fluxes from the aquifer towards the stream were estimated by combining the water fluxes with representative, average pollutant concentrations. The concentrations were obtained from an integral pumping test with four simultaneously pumped wells operated for the period of five days. For monochlorobenzene (MCB), the main groundwater pollutant at the site, the resulting average mass flux from the aquifer towards the stream was estimated to 724 µg/m²/d. Mass flux calculations with average aqueous concentrations of MCB in the streambed were found to be higher than those originating from the aquifer. Consequently, the streambed sediments represent a secondary pollutant source for the surface water. Pollutant concentrations in the streambed were lower at locations with high groundwater discharge and vice versa. Hence, the spatial heterogeneity of water fluxes must be considered when mass fluxes between surface water and streambed sediments are assessed. River restoration could improve the structural state of rivers and may thus result in an enhanced biodegradation of organic pollutants in the streambed. However, before any physical measure is applied a profound knowledge of pollutant concentration and pathways is required in order to avoid mobilization of sediment-bound pollutants.

Schirmer, Mario; Kalbus, Edda; Schmidt, Christian

2010-05-01

347

[Fish parasites as bioindicators of the pollution of bodies of water].  

PubMed

The paper presents the results of studies on the effect of wastes of the Cherepovets iron-and-steel works containing phenol, naphthaline and oil products on fish parasites of the Sheksna part of the Rybinsk water reservoir (the Volga river system). It has been shown that the number of highly sensitive ectoparasites of Abramis brama (Protozoa, Dactylogyrus monogeneans, Ergasilus sieboldi crustaceans and Caspiobdella fadejewi leeches) considerably decreases in the zone of pollution. It has been first suggested to use Diplozoon paradoxum and Caryophyllaeus laticeps, parasites of bream highly resistant to toxic effect, the number of which considerably increases in the zone of pollution, as indicators of anthropogenic pollution and ecological state of a water body. Among diplozoons there have been first discovered individuals having structural anomalies (reduction of the attachment organs, violation in the symmetry of arrangement and number of valves) that serves as evidence of mutagenic effect of toxic substances of polluted waters on morphogenesis of the parasite. PMID:1299804

Kuperman, B I

1992-01-01

348

The use of tracers in water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the use of environmental and artificial tracers the control of pollution and its behaviour in the environment. Some of the applications and development trends in this field are outlined emphasizing the role of the tracers in predicting the effects of planned systems. The advances in measuring extremely small quantities of radioactive isotopes such as the use of accelerators and

G. V. Evans

1982-01-01

349

Pollution concentrations in runoff water from refuse piles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the processes of removal, refinement and disposal of raw materials, large quantities of waste products become exposed to weathering forces. Subsequent percolation, flushing, and oxidation results in the pollution of waterways, low-lying farmlands and underground aquifers with acidity, alkalinity, hardness, heavy metals, and undesirable organic materials such as tannin and lignin. The need for methodology for estimating the chemical

Guin

1977-01-01

350

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-print Network

Arkansas Water Resources Center LASER-PHOTOACOUSTIC DETECTION OF WATER POLLUTANTS PHASE I Principal. '. 18 #12;cor~PLETIONREPORT LASER-PHOTOACOUSTICDETECTIONOF WATER POLLUTANTS: PHASEI October ls 1977 their waters. Recognizing that water pollution can pose serious health hazards and unknown long term effects

Soerens, Thomas

351

Deposition of Air Pollutants to the Great Waters, Third Report to Congress, June 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on June 8 2000, this report is the third in a series from the Environmental protection Agency (EPA) "to Congress on atmospheric deposition of pollution to the Great Waters, which include the Great Lakes, Chesapeake Bay and several other major U.S. water bodies." This report focuses on fifteen "pollutants of concern," offering updated scientific information about these pollutants and the Great Waters and discussing programs implemented by the EPA, states, tribes, and others to address them. It also describes "recent advancements in scientific research and tools used to improve our understanding of atmospheric deposition to the Great Waters." Background information and an executive summary are offered in HTML format, while the full text is provided by chapter in .pdf format. The previous two reports may be accessed from the Great Waters Program homepage.

2000-01-01

352

Influence of river water pollution on the groundwater in TongGuan gold mine area, Shaanxi province  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining history has already a long time in TongGuan gold mine area, and what discarding residue and the waste water at will have caused the river water severe pollution. However the groundwater isn't polluted. This paper found out the mining area river water quality present condition by means of collecting some river water samples. On this foundation from analyzing the

Gang Qiao; Youning Xu; Fang He; Jianghua Zhang; Aning Zhao

2011-01-01

353

Detecting leachate plumes and groundwater pollution at Ruseifa municipal landfill utilizing VLF-EM method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Very Low Frequency-Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) survey was carried out in two sites of domestic waste of old and recent landfills. The landfill structures lie on a major highly fractured limestone aquifer of shallow groundwater less than 30 m, which is considered as the main source of fresh water in Amman-Zarqa region. A total of 18 VLF-EM profiles were conducted with length ranges between 250 and 1500 m. Hydrochemical and biochemical analysis of water samples, taken from wells in the region, has also been conducted. The integrated results of previous DC resistivity method of the same study area and the outcomes of the 2-D tipper inversion of VLF-EM data proved the efficiency of this method in locating shallow and deep leachate plume with resistivity less than 20 ? m, and enabling the mapping of anomalous bodies and their extensions down to 40 m depth. The sign of groundwater contamination was noticed in many surrounding wells resulting in the high number of fecal coliform bacteria and total coliform bacteria and the increase in inorganic parameters such as chloride (Cl). The pollution of groundwater wells in the landfill area is attributed to the leachate bodies which flow through the upper part of Wadi Es Sir (A7) or Amman-Wadi Es Sir Aquifer (B2/A7). Furthermore, several structural features were detected and the direction of local groundwater movement has been determined. The structural features have been found to have critical effects on the flowing of leachate plume towards north-northeast and west-southwest of the potable aquifer in the area.

Al-Tarazi, E.; Abu Rajab, J.; Al-Naqa, A.; El-Waheidi, M.

2008-09-01

354

Health damage due to water pollution in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of the drinking water borne epidemics in Hungary has decreased recently, but the hazard is not over. The number of epidemics caused by water in swimming pools and spas, however, has not decreased. From 1975-1993, approximately 7500 persons (mainly children) became ill due to contaminated swimming pool water. Recrea­ tional waters of lakes and streams have not caused

ELONA STRAUB

355

Detecting air pollution stress in southern California vegetation using Landsat Thematic Mapper band data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and aircraft-borne Thematic Mapper simulator (TMS) data were collected over two areas of natural vegetation in southern California exposed to gradients of pollutant dose, particularly in photochemical oxidants: the coastal sage scrub of the Santa Monica Mountains in the Los Angeles basin, and the yellow pine forests in the southern Sierra Nevada. In both situations, natural variations in canopy closure, with subsequent exposure of understory elements (e.g.,rock or soil, chaparral, grasses, and herbs), were sufficient to cause changes in spectral variation that could obscure differences due to visible foliar injury symptoms observed in the field. TM or TMS data are therefore more likely to be successful in distinguishing pollution injury from background variation when homogeneous communities with closed canopies are subjected to more severe pollution-induced structural and/or compositional change. The present study helps to define the threshold level of vegetative injury detectable by TM data.

Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

1988-01-01

356

The ground water recharge and pollution potential of dry wells in Pima County, Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes a study to estimate the potential for dry-well drainage of urban runoff to recharge and pollute ground water in Tucson, Arizona. The authors selected three candidate dry wells for study. At each site they collected samples of runoff, dry-well sediment, vadose-zone sediment, perched ground water, and ground water. Water content data from vadose-zone samples suggest that dry-well

L. G. Wilson; M. D. Osborn; K. L. Olson; S. M. Maida; L. T. Katz

2009-01-01

357

Public Health Care Management of Water Pollution with Pharmaceuticals: Environmental Classification and Analysis of Pharmaceutical Residues in Sewage Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in surface water is an emerging problem in developed countries. If such pollution is transferred to drinking water, the resulting involuntary low-dose medication of large population groups may compromise public health. In addition, aquatic life may be compromised. The Stockholm County Council, the provider of public healthcare in the Stockholm, Sweden region, has introduced a classification

Åke Wennmalm; Bo Gunnarsson

2005-01-01

358

Health risks of pollutants in the surface water sources of the centralized drinking water supply in Zhengzhou, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the potential adverse effects caused by pollutants in the surface water sources of drinking water in Zhengzhou, concentrations of 10 elements were measured and their health risks assessed. The results show that only some concentrations of iron, manganese and fluorine are higher than the corresponding environmental quality standards. Risk assessments indicate that risk quotients (all values with carcinogenic

Qingli Cheng; Hui Wu; Wenlin Wang; Yanjü Wu; Hongli Li; Xifeng Zhang

2012-01-01

359

Immediate Water Pollution Control Needs for the Interstate and Intrastate Waters of the Hudson-Mohawk Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews the water pollution problem in the Hudson-Mohawk Region, which is defined to include the waters in the Mohawk River Basin east of, and including Rome, New York and the Hudson River Basin north of the Bear Mountain Bridge at the Orange a...

1967-01-01

360

[Pollution history and sources of organotin compounds in aquaculture water of Tong'an Bay, Xiamen].  

PubMed

Six organotin compounds (OTs) in core sediment collected from aquaculture water of Tong'an Bay, Xiamen were detected by GC-FPD. Based on 210Pb-dating data, the pollution history (from 1931 to 2007) of OTs in this area was reconstructed and their possible sources were also discussed. The results showed that the inputs of organotin compounds in this sea area began from 1950's (0-80 cm). The vertical concentrations of OTs ranged from 3.43-69.6 ng x g(-1) (dry weight), the mean value was 15.0 ng x g(-1). Butyltins concentrations ranged from 2.51-68. 8 ng x g(-1) and the average concentration was 14.6 ng x g(-1) which accounted for 97.4% of total OTs, while phenyltins just accounted for 2.58%. It is indicated that the aquaculture waters of Tong'an Bay were mainly contaminated by butyltin compounds, inferring that they may come from the early antifouling paint of ships. The distributions of OTs concentrations and compositions may be related to the complex influence of the hydrodynamic conditions, antifouling paint leakages from ships and marine structures, and aquaculture. Compared to the other harbors and bays, the magnitude of OTs pollution in the sediment from Tong'an Bay was at the low midpoint on a global scale. Moreover, the sedimentary history showed that, vertical OTs distributions were in good agreement with the usage history of organotin compounds as antifouling paints and the changes of the major function regionalization in the surrounding area. PMID:21922809

Wang, Xin-Hong; Wu, Yu-Ling; Cai, Ya-Rong; Xie, Wei; Xu, Jiang

2011-07-01

361

Remote measurements of water pollution with a lidar polarimeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines a dual polarization laser backscatter system as a method for remote measurements of certain water quality parameters. Analytical models for describing the backscatter from turbid water and oil on turbid water are presented and compared with experimental data. Laser backscatter field measurements from natural waterways are presented and compared with simultaneous ground observations of the water quality parameters: turbidity, suspended solids, and transmittance. The results of this study show that the analytical models appear valid and that the sensor investigated is applicable to remote measurements of these water quality parameters and oil spills on water.-

Sheives, T. C.; Rouse, J. W., Jr.; Mayo, W. T., Jr.

1974-01-01

362

A combined experimental-modelling method for the detection and analysis of pollution in coastal zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollution of coastal seas with toxic substances can be efficiently detected by examining toxic materials in sediment samples. These samples contain information on the overall pollution from surrounding sources such as yacht anchorages, nearby industries, sewage systems, etc. In an efficient analysis of pollution one must determine the contribution from each individual source. In this work it is demonstrated that a modelling method can be utilized for solving this latter problem. The modelling method is based on a unique interpretation of concentrations in sediments from all sampling stations. The proposed method is a synthesis consisting of the utilization of PIXE as an efficient method of pollution concentration determination and the code ANCOPOL (N. Limic and R. Benis, The computer code ANCOPOL, SimTel/msdos/geology, 1994 [1]) for the calculation of contributions from the main polluters. The efficiency and limits of the proposed method are demonstrated by discussing trace element concentrations in sediments of Punat Bay on the island of Krk in Croatia.

Limi?, Nedzad; Valkovi?, Vladivoj

1996-04-01

363

Impact of point and nonpoint source pollution on pore waters of two Chesapeake Bay tributaries.  

PubMed

Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries are contaminated by industrial and municipal point sources and agricultural nonpoint sources of pollution. The objective of this study was to compare the porewater characteristics of two Chesapeake Bay tributaries: Wicomico River (WR) contaminated by point source and Pocomoke River (PR) contaminated by both point and nonpoint sources of pollution. Four study sites (1 mile before, adjacent to, and 1 and 2 miles after the sewage treatment plant) were chosen to collect sediment samples in both the rivers. The sediment-pore waters were analyzed for toxicity using Microtox marine luminescent bacteria-Vibrio fischeri. USEPA toxicity identification evaluation tests on these pore waters confirmed that the contaminants (ammonia and heavy metals) in WR were from municipal point sources, whereas in PR the contamination (metals, pesticides, and PCBs) was from nonpoint sources (agriculture) of pollution. The toxicity (and the concentration of contaminants) decreased both upstream and downstream from the most polluted site in both the rivers. PMID:8930508

Karuppiah, M; Gupta, G

1996-10-01

364

Methods for detecting change in hydrochemical time series in response to targeted pollutant mitigation in river catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting changes in catchment hydrochemistry driven by targeted pollutant mitigation is high on the scientific agenda, following the introduction of the European Union Water Framework Directive. Previous research has shown that understanding natural variability in hydrochemistry time series is vital if changes due to mitigation are to be detected. In order for change to be detected in a statistically robust manner, the data analysis methods need careful consideration. Previous work has shown that erroneous results have often been obtained when statistical analyses have been carried out despite the associated test assumptions not being met. This paper discusses the principal data issues which must be considered when analysing hydrochemical datasets, including non-normality and non-stationarity. A range of statistical techniques is discussed which could be used to detect gradual or abrupt changes in hydrochemistry, including parametric, non-parametric and signal decomposition methods. The statistical power of these techniques as well as their suitability for identifying change is discussed. Using the uniquely detailed hydrochemical datasets generated under the Demonstration Test Catchments programme in England, the efficacy and robustness of change detection methods for hydrochemical data series is assessed. A conceptual framework for choosing a change detection method is proposed, based on this analysis, in order to raise awareness of the types of questions a researcher should consider in order to perform robust statistical analyses, for informing river catchment management and policy support decisions.

Lloyd, C. E. M.; Freer, J. E.; Collins, A. L.; Johnes, P. J.; Jones, J. I.

2014-06-01

365

Viral Pollution in the Environment and in Shellfish: Human Adenovirus Detection by PCR as an Index of Human Viruses  

PubMed Central

A study of the presence of human viruses (adenoviruses, enteroviruses, and hepatitis A viruses [HAVs]) in environmental and shellfish samples was carried out by applying DNA and cDNA amplification techniques by PCR. The detection of human adenoviruses by PCR was also examined as a potential molecular test to monitor viral pollution. The samples studied were urban and slaughterhouse sewage, river water, seawater, and shellfish. Enteroviruses were quantified by PFU in Buffalo green monkey kidney cells and fecal coliforms and phages of Bacteroides fragilis HSP40 were also evaluated in some of the samples. The amplification of viral DNA and cDNA has shown a high prevalence of human viruses that would not be detected by the use of classical techniques, such as the quantification of PFU in cell lines. The results of the analysis of slaughterhouse sewage samples together with the test of farm animal feces indicate that the adenoviruses and the HAVs detected in the environment are mostly of human origin. A significative correlation between the detection of human viruses by PCR and the values of bacteriophages of B. fragilis HSP40 in urban raw sewage was observed. Human adenoviruses were the viruses most frequently detected throughout the year, and all the samples that were positive for enteroviruses or HAVs were also positive for human adenoviruses. The results suggest that the detection of adenoviruses by PCR could be used as an index of the presence of human viruses in the environment where a molecular index is acceptable. PMID:9726885

Pina, Sonia; Puig, Montserrat; Lucena, Francisco; Jofre, Joan; Girones, Rosina

1998-01-01

366

An Intelligent Decision Support System of Lake Water Pollution Control Based on Multi-agent Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapidly development of the economic, environmental problem has become one of the most prominent problems of the society. Lake water environmental problem became more and more serious, and it had seriously effect on human health and the socio-economic sustainable development. It is a key project to find a more effective way of water pollution control. An intelligent decision

Jianjun Ni; Chuanbiao Zhang; Li Ren

2009-01-01

367

Water Pollution Control Benefits and Costs. Volume I. State of the Art Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey and assessment are presented of the state-of-art of economic analyses dealing with water pollution control benefits and costs. A conceptual basis for benefit cost analysis involving water quality management is suggested. An economic concept of a ...

S. G. Unger, M. J. Emerson, D. L. Jordening

1973-01-01

368

Nutrient removal in constructed microcosm wetlands for treating polluted river water in northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

River water pollution is increasingly widespread in northern China and can lead to problems with the drinking water for the residents if not properly treated. Constructed wetlands are a promising solution and have become increasingly popular in China. In this study the nutrient removal and plant uptake in constructed microcosm wetlands vegetated with Typha orientalis, Phragmites australis, Scirpus validus and

Haiming Wu; Jian Zhang; Peizhi Li; Jinyong Zhang; Huijun Xie; Bo Zhang

2011-01-01

369

Vascular plants for water pollution control and renewable sources of energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular aquatic plants have demonstrated their ability to remove pollutants from domestic and chemical wastewaters. Plants such as the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweed (Lemna sp., Spirodela sp., and Wolffia sp.), and cattail (Typha sp.) thrive in nutrient-rich waters and produce tremendous quantities of biomass under favorable climatic conditions. This method of wastewater treatment is currently being used exclusively at

B. C. Wolverton; R. C. McDonald

1980-01-01

370

New Paradigm for Sizing Riparian Buffers to Reduce Risks of Polluted Storm Water: Practical Synthesis  

E-print Network

New Paradigm for Sizing Riparian Buffers to Reduce Risks of Polluted Storm Water: Practical. Easton5 ; Rebecca D. Marjerison6 ; Asha N. Sharma7 ; and Stephen B. Shaw8 Abstract: Riparian buffers are commonly promoted to protect stream water quality. A common conceptual assumption is that buffers

Walter, M.Todd

371

Laboratory simulation of spontaneous breakup of polluted water drops in the horizontal electric field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory simulation experiment to study the spontaneous breakup of distilled and polluted water drops suspended in horizontal electric field of 0, 100, 300, 500 kV m-1 has been performed in a small vertical wind tunnel. Water drops are formed from distilled water and from 100 ppm solution of ammonium sulfate and potassium nitrate. Results show that the life time of the both distilled and polluted water drops decreases with the increase in electric field. The water drops formed from both distilled and polluted water become more oblate as the electric field is increased. The results have been interpreted in terms of enhanced instability of water drops due to the changes in surface tension, viscosity, conductivity and hydro-dynamics of the water drop. Significance of the results is discussed in view of the possible modification of the drop size distribution and consequent growth of raindrops and lightning activity due to the combined effect of pollutants and electrical forces in clouds formed over big cities.

Bhalwankar, Rohini; Subramanian, Subashini; Kamra, A. K.

2014-11-01

372

Water Quality during Development and Apportionment of Pollution from Rivers in Tapeng Lagoon, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigated water samples collected from Tapeng Lagoon, Taiwan. Factor analysis was conducted to explain the characteristics and the variation in the quality of water during the disassembly of oyster frames and fishery boxes. The result shows that the most important latent factors in Tapeng Lagoon are the ocean factor, primary productivity factor, and the fishery pollution factor. Canonical

Shao-Wei Liao; Wen-Liang Lai; Jen-Jeng Chen; Jia-Yuh Sheu; Chang-Gai Lee

2006-01-01

373

Coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci as indicators of water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence and survival of coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci were studied in sewage treatment plants, heavily polluted rivers, a lake, and other drinking water sources. In all cases the fecal streptococci were generally more resistant to the natural water environment and to purification processes than the other indicator organisms and, at points distant from the original source of

Judith Cohen; Hillel I. Shuval

1973-01-01

374

Assessment of commercially available polymeric materials for sorptive microextraction of priority and emerging nonpolar organic pollutants in environmental water samples.  

PubMed

Among the different organic pollutants, persistent organic pollutants and emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) are of particular concern due to their potentially dangerous effects on the ecosystems and on human health. In the framework of the analysis of some of these organic pollutants in water samples, sorptive extraction devices have proven to be adequate for their monitoring. The efficiency of four commercially available and low-cost polymeric materials [polypropylene, poly(ethylene terephthalate), Raffia, and polyethersulfone (PES)] for the simultaneous extraction of 16 organic compounds from five different families from environmental water samples was evaluated in this work. Firstly, the homogeneity of the sorbent materials was confirmed by means of Raman spectroscopy. After the optimization of the parameters affecting the extraction and the liquid desorption steps, it was found that PES showed the largest efficiencies for slightly polar analytes and, to a lesser extent, for nonpolar analytes. Additionally, Raffia rendered good extraction efficiencies for nonpolar compounds. Thus sorptive extraction methods followed by large volume injection-programmable temperature vaporizer-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were validated using PES and Raffia as sorbent materials. The validation of the method provided good linearity (0.978?detection limits (low ng?·?l(-1) level). Finally, these materials were applied to the analysis of contaminants in environmental water samples. PMID:24424482

Blanco-Zubiaguirre, Laura; Delgado, Alejandra; Ros, Oihana; Posada-Ureta, Oscar; Vallejo, Asier; Prieto, Ailette; Olivares, Maitane; Etxebarria, Nestor

2014-10-01

375

Agriculture and Water Pollution: Farmers' Perceptions in Central Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural nonpoint discharges represent a major problem in Mexico. However, the perception of farmers toward water-quality issues is critical for the potential acceptance of environmental measures. In order to assess farmers' perceptions on water quality and agricultural practices, questionnaires were given to 145 farmers in an irrigation district in Central Mexico. It was found that farmers do not reckon water

Rosario Perez-Espejo; Alonso Aguilar Ibarra; Jose Luis Escobedo-Sagaz

2011-01-01

376

Economic effects of water-pollution controls: A study of the U. S. aluminum industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the economic effects on the U.S. aluminum industry of pollution-abatement requirements mandated in the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Chapter I concerns the theoretical framework of analysis. The model proposed explores the short-run output fluctuations due to plant closures, the importance of quasi-rents, the incidence of compliance costs, the long-run effects of the

1982-01-01

377

3Hydroxy 3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase: a New Biomarker of Fish Exposure to Water Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to identify a new putative biomarker in Salmo trutta exposed to water pollution. Variations in the levels of hepatic 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR),\\u000a the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis, were compared to heat shock protein 70 and hypoxia inducible factor\\u000a ?, biomarkers of pollution exposure and lowered O2, respectively. The results confirm

Valentina Pallottini; Massimiliano Scalici; Giancarlo Gibertini; Maria Marino; Anna Trentalance

2010-01-01

378

Effects of warm water inflows on the dispersion of pollutants in small reservoirs.  

PubMed

The effects of the warm water discharged by a nuclear power plant (NPP) into a small reservoir are studied. A case study is presented (José Cabrera NPP-Zorita Hidráulica Reservoir) with experimental data of the reservoir stratification and predicted data of the dispersion of radioactive pollutants from operative or accidental releases. The vertical and longitudinal temperature profiles, electrical conductivity and transparency of the reservoir water were measured for an annual cycle. The results indicate that the continuous warm water discharge from the NPP causes permanent and artificial reservoir stratification. The stratification is significant within 1500 m upstream and 1000 m downstream from the warm water outfall. The pollutant dispersion has been predicted by using a flow model based on N(T) perfect-mixing compartments in series with feedback. The model parameter, N(T), is calculated from the longitudinal diffusion coefficient. The prediction of pollutant dispersion by means of this model shows that the stratification slows down the vertical mixing in the whole water body, and reduces the reservoir volume that is effective for the dilution and dispersion of pollutants. This means that, in the case of a radioactive pollutant release, the reservoir radioactivity level could increase significantly. PMID:16574305

Palancar, María C; Aragón, José M; Sánchez, Fernando; Gil, Roberto

2006-11-01

379

Development of a water quality modeling system for river pollution index and suspended solid loading evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe Kaoping River Basin is the largest and most extensively used watershed in Taiwan. In the upper catchment, the non-point source (NPS) pollutants including suspended solid (SS) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) are two major water pollutants causing the deterioration of Kaoping River water quality. Because SS is one of the four parameters involving in the River Pollution Index (RPI) calculation, it needs to be carefully evaluated to obtain the representative water quality index. The main objective of this study was to develop a water quality modeling system to obtain representative SS and RPI values for water quality evaluation. In this study, a direct linkage between the RPI calculation and a water quality model [Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP)] has been developed. Correlation equations between Kaoping River flow rates and SS concentrations were developed using the field data collected during the high and low flows of the Kaoping River. Investigation results show that the SS concentrations were highly correlated with the flow rates. The obtained SS equation and RPI calculation package were embedded into the WASP model to improve interactive transfers of required data for water quality modeling and RPI calculation. Results indicate that SS played an important role in RPI calculation and SS was a critical factor during the RPI calculation especially for the upper catchment in the wet seasons. This was due to the fact that the soil erosion caused the increase in the SS concentrations after storms. In the wet seasons, higher river flow rates caused the discharges of NPS pollutants (NH3-N and SS) into the upper sections of the river. Results demonstrate that the integral approach could develop a direct linkage among river flow rate, water quality, and pollution index. The introduction of the integrated system showed a significant advance in water quality evaluation and river management strategy development.

Lai, Y. C.; Tu, Y. T.; Yang, C. P.; Surampalli, R. Y.; Kao, C. M.

2013-01-01

380

Water pollution in Pakistan and its impact on public health--a review.  

PubMed

Water pollution is one of the major threats to public health in Pakistan. Drinking water quality is poorly managed and monitored. Pakistan ranks at number 80 among 122 nations regarding drinking water quality. Drinking water sources, both surface and groundwater are contaminated with coliforms, toxic metals and pesticides throughout the country. Various drinking water quality parameters set by WHO are frequently violated. Human activities like improper disposal of municipal and industrial effluents and indiscriminate applications of agrochemicals in agriculture are the main factors contributing to the deterioration of water quality. Microbial and chemical pollutants are the main factors responsible exclusively or in combination for various public health problems. This review discusses a detailed layout of drinking water quality in Pakistan with special emphasis on major pollutants, sources of pollution and the consequent health problems. The data presented in this review are extracted from various studies published in national and international journals. Also reports released by the government and non-governmental organizations are included. PMID:21087795

Azizullah, Azizullah; Khattak, Muhammad Nasir Khan; Richter, Peter; Häder, Donat-Peter

2011-02-01

381

Pressure capillary spot-test for the detection of pollutants in crops, vegetation and environment  

SciTech Connect

A new, simple, sensitive and selective technique, pressure capillary spot test, has been developed for the detection and determination of pollutants containing amino, carbonyl, carboxylic or phenolic groups. The pressure has been reduced with the help of a suction pump and a capillary containing p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde has been used as detector for the semi-quantitative determination of plant growth regulators, indoleacetic acids, in wheat shoots.

Rathore, H.S.; Gupta, S.; Khan, H.A.

1986-01-01

382

Water pollution control technology and strategy for river-lake systems: a case study in Gehu Lake and Taige Canal.  

PubMed

The Taoge water system is located in the upstream of Taihu Lake basin and is characterized by its multi-connected rivers and lakes. In this paper, current analyses of hydrology, hydrodynamics and water pollution of Gehu Lake and Taige Canal are presented. Several technologies are proposed for pollution prevention and control, and water environmental protection in the Taihu Lake basin. These included water pollution control integration technology for the water systems of Gehu Lake, Taige Canal and Caoqiao River. Additionally, river-lake water quality and quantity regulation technology, ecological restoration technology for polluted and degraded water bodies, and water environmental integration management and optimization strategies were also examined. The main objectives of these strategies are to: (a) improve environmental quality of relative water bodies, prevent pollutants from entering Gehu Lake and Taige Canal, and ensure that the clean water after the pre-treatment through Gehu Lake is not polluted before entering the Taihu Lake through Taige Canal; (b) stably and efficiently intercept and decrease the pollution load entering the lake through enhancing the river outlet ecological system structure function and water self-purifying capacity, and (c) designate Gehu Lake as a regulation system for water quality and water quantity in the Taoge water system and thus guarantee the improvement of the water quality of the inflow into Taihu Lake. PMID:21516445

Zhang, Yimin; Zhang, Yongchun; Gao, Yuexiang; Zhang, Houhu; Cao, Jianying; Cai, Jinbang; Kong, Xiangji

2011-07-01

383

Verification of a method for microcoulometric determination of adsorbable organic halide pollutants in natural, drinking, waste, and treated waters.  

PubMed

A microcoulometric method is described for the determination of organic-halide pollutants at 2-2000 microg/L in natural, drinking, waste, and treated waters. The conditions for the adsorption of organic halides, using a microcolumn with activated charcoal-and for the desorption of inorganic halides-as well as for the pyrolysis process, were optimized for the successful determination of priority organic halide pollutants. An appropriate criterion was proposed to stop the desorption step. The mean recovery was 100.3%, and the mean relative standard deviation was 9.9%. The detection limit based on 3 times the standard deviation of the blank sample was 2 microg/L. PMID:16792073

Ivanova, Pavlina; Stratiev, Ditso; Pavlova, Antoaneta

2006-01-01

384

A Report of the Regional Monitoring Program for Water Quality in the San Francisco Estuary pollutant effects on aquatic life  

E-print Network

Program for Water Quality in the San Francisco Estuary 2011 pollutant effects on aquatic life pulse goals of Bay water quality managers is to ensure that pollutants do not interfere with the abilityA Report of the Regional Monitoring Program for Water Quality in the San Francisco Estuary

385

Permits and effluent charges in the water pollution control policies of France, West Germany, and the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the water pollution control policies of these countries and their effects on emitters are analyzed. In the Netherlands, local water control boards levy pollution charges on both direct and indirect emitters. The charges are based upon measured emissions and actual treatment costs and they vary among the boards. Discharges into surface waters are by permission only. West

Jan C. Bongaerts; Andreas Kraemer

1989-01-01

386

Mathematical modeling and analysis of the depletion of dissolved oxygen in eutrophied water bodies affected by organic pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an ecological type nonlinear mathematical model is proposed to study the simultaneous effect of water pollution and eutrophication on the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in a water body. It is assumed that the organic pollutants and the nutrients are discharged into water body from outside with constant rates. The system is modeled by considering the variables

J. B. Shukla; A. K. Misra; Peeyush Chandra

2008-01-01

387

Assessment of susceptibility to pollution in littoral waters using the concept of recovery time.  

PubMed

Susceptibility to pollution can be related to the flushing capacity of aquatic systems. Transport time scales constitute a useful tool for representing the water exchange and transport processes. A new transport time scale, recovery time, and a methodology to estimate it by means of numerical models is hereby developed. Recovery time, calculated in Gijon, Santander and Tarragona harbours, is significantly related to physical, chemical and biological water quality indicators. Susceptibility, assessed through recovery time values, provides spatial patterns of expected flushing capacity, being sensitive to physical and hydrodynamic characteristics. The developed method is appropriate to estimate recovery time and assess susceptibility against pollution in littoral waters having great potential to be applied to different disciplines. Recovery time could be used in littoral waters as a surrogate of water quality indicators, to establish efficient monitoring programs, to define and characterize modified water bodies or to improve the design of marine infrastructures. PMID:24576391

Gómez, Aina G; Juanes, José A; Ondiviela, Bárbara; Revilla, José A

2014-04-15

388

Polluted and turbid water masses in Osaka Bay and its vicinity revealed with ERTS-A imageries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ERTS-1 took very valuable MSS imageries of Osaka Bay and its vicinity on October 24, 1972. In the MSS-4 and MSS-5 imageries a complex grey pattern of water masses can be seen. Though some of grey colored patterns seen in black and white prints of the MSS-4 and MSS-5 imageries are easily identified from their shapes as cloud covers or polluted water masses characterized by their color tone in longer wavelengths in the visible region, any correct distribution pattern of polluted or turbid water masses can be hardly detected separately from thin cloud covers in a quick look analysis. In the present investigation, a simple photographic technique was applied using the fact that reflected sun light from cloud including smog and inclined water surfaces of wave have a certain component in the near infrared region, that MSS-7, whereas the light scattered from fine materials suspended in the sea water has nearly no component sensible in MSS-4 and MSS-5 channels.

Watanabe, K.

1973-01-01

389

Spatial cluster detection of air pollution exposure inequities across the United States.  

PubMed

Air quality is known to be a key factor in affecting the wellbeing and quality of life of the general populous and there is a large body of knowledge indicating that certain underrepresented groups may be overexposed to air pollution. Therefore, a more precise understanding of air pollution exposure as a driving cause of health disparities between and among ethnic and racial groups is necessary. Utilizing 52,613 urban census tracts across the United States, this study investigates age, racial, educational attainment and income differences in exposure to benzene pollution in 1999 as a case. The study examines spatial clustering patterns of these inequities using logistic regression modeling and spatial autocorrelation methods such as the Global Moran's I index and the Anselin Local Moran's I index. Results show that the age groups of 0 to 14 and those over 60 years old, individuals with less than 12 years of education, racial minorities including Blacks, American Indians, Asians, some other races, and those with low income were exposed to higher levels of benzene pollution in some census tracts. Clustering analyses stratified by age, education, and race revealed a clear case of disparities in spatial distribution of exposure to benzene pollution across the entire United States. For example, people aged less than 4 years from the western south and the Pacific coastal areas exhibit statistically significant clusters. The findings confirmed that there are geographical-location based disproportionate pattern of exposures to benzene air pollution by various socio-demographic factors across the United States and this type of disproportionate exposure pattern can be effectively detected by a spatial autocorrelation based cluster analysis method. It is suggested that there is a clear and present need for programs and services that will reduce inequities and ultimately improve environmental conditions for all underrepresented groups in the United States. PMID:24647354

Zou, Bin; Peng, Fen; Wan, Neng; Mamady, Keita; Wilson, Gaines J

2014-01-01

390

Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: progresses and perspectives.  

PubMed

Environmental pollution affects the quality of pedosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Great efforts have been made in the last two decades to reduce pollution sources and remedy the polluted soil and water resources. Phytoremediation, being more cost-effective and fewer side effects than physical and chemical approaches, has gained increasing popularity in both academic and practical circles. More than 400 plant species have been identified to have potential for soil and water remediation. Among them, Thlaspi, Brassica, Sedum alfredii H., and Arabidopsis species have been mostly studied. It is also expected that recent advances in biotechnology will play a promising role in the development of new hyperaccumulators by transferring metal hyperaccumulating genes from low biomass wild species to the higher biomass producing cultivated species in the times to come. This paper attempted to provide a brief review on recent progresses in research and practical applications of phytoremediation for soil and water resources. PMID:18357623

Lone, Mohammad Iqbal; He, Zhen-li; Stoffella, Peter J; Yang, Xiao-e

2008-03-01

391

[Safety value of contaminant in water pollution accident based on human health risk].  

PubMed

The acute human health risk assessment of contaminant in water pollution accident is a new study field of environmental sciences. This study established a model for calculating acute safety value of contaminant in water pollutant. The acute safety value of contaminant in mainly water pollution during 2000-2010 was calculated by this model. The safety value of sodium cyanide, cadmium, formaldehyde, ammonia, toluene, nitrobenzene, microcystin-LR were 0.1, 0.6, 8, 20, 6, 0.07, 0.004 mg x L(-1), respectively. The differences of safety value calculate methods between acute and chronic exposure were compared from the following aspects, the toxicology exposure end-point, allocation of intake, exposure sensitive subpopulation. PMID:22509564

Zheng, Bing-Hui; Luo, Jin-Hong; Fu, Qing; Qin, Yan-Wen; Hu, Lin-Lin

2012-02-01

392

Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: Progresses and perspectives*  

PubMed Central

Environmental pollution affects the quality of pedosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Great efforts have been made in the last two decades to reduce pollution sources and remedy the polluted soil and water resources. Phytoremediation, being more cost-effective and fewer side effects than physical and chemical approaches, has gained increasing popularity in both academic and practical circles. More than 400 plant species have been identified to have potential for soil and water remediation. Among them, Thlaspi, Brassica, Sedum alfredii H., and Arabidopsis species have been mostly studied. It is also expected that recent advances in biotechnology will play a promising role in the development of new hyperaccumulators by transferring metal hyperaccumulating genes from low biomass wild species to the higher biomass producing cultivated species in the times to come. This paper attempted to provide a brief review on recent progresses in research and practical applications of phytoremediation for soil and water resources. PMID:18357623

Lone, Mohammad Iqbal; He, Zhen-li; Stoffella, Peter J.; Yang, Xiao-e

2008-01-01

393

Status of water environment pollution in the Xixi Wetland and its ecological treatment countermeasures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the water quality of the Xixi Wetland was evaluated and the characteristics of water pollution were described\\u000a according to the survey data. Based on the status of water quality and its functional requirements as an urban wetland, biological-ecological\\u000a countermeasures were suggested. The experimental use of ecological technologies, such as artificial wetlands, ecological aquiculture\\u000a and artificial floating island,

Wenyue Chen; Jiemin Zheng; Zhongquan Li; Guozheng Shen; Yuchen Li

2009-01-01

394

Silica coated magnetite nanoparticles for removal of heavy metal ions from polluted waters  

E-print Network

Magnetic removal of Hg2+ and other heavy metal ions like Cd2+, Pb2+ etc. using silica coated magnetite particles from polluted waters is a current topic of active research to provide efficient water recycling and long term high quality water. The technique used to study the bonding characteristics of such kind of nanoparticles with the heavy metal ions is a very sensitive hyperfine specroscopy technique called the perturbed angular correlation technique (PAC).

Dash, Monika

2013-01-01

395

Chromatographic air analyser microsystem for the selective and sensitive detection of atmospheric pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of industry and automotive trafic produces Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) whose toxicity can affect seriously human health and environment. The level of those contaminants in air must be as low as possible. In this context, there is a need for in situ systems that could monitor selectively the concentration of these compounds. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the efficiency of a system build with a pre-concentrator, a chromatographic micro-column and a tin oxide-based gas sensor for the selective and sensitive detection of atmospheric pollutants. In particular, this study is focused on the selective detection of benzene and 1,3 butadiene.

Sanchez, Jean-Baptiste; Lahlou, Houda; Mohsen, Yehya; Vilanova, Xavier; Berger, Franck; Correig, Xavier

2011-08-01

396

Investigation of Lake Sapanca water pollution, Adapazari, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Sapanca has been the only source of drinking and recreational water for the city of Adapazari, Turkey. This paper reports a study of the variation of nutrient loading and trophic state of the lake, and also water quality parameters of Lake Sapanca compared to those of the neighbouring Lake Iznik. Through one year, samples were taken every three months

Hasan Arman; Recep Ileri; Emrah Dogan; Beytullah Eren

2009-01-01

397

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: PRIORITIZATION OF STATIONARY WATER POLLUTION SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives priority lists to aid in selecting specific sources of water effluents for detailed assessment. It describes the general water prioritization model, explains its implementation, and gives a detailed example of its use. It describes hazard factors that were develo...

398

Sorption of aromatic organic pollutants to grasses from water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The influence of plant lipids on the equilibrium sorption of three aromatic solutes from water was studied. The plant-water sorption isotherms of benzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and phenanthrene were measured over a large range of solute concentrations using sealed vessels containing water, dried plant material, and solute. The plant materials studied include the shoots of annual rye, tall fescue, red fescue, and spinach as well as the roots of annual rye. Seven out of eight sorption isotherms were linear with no evidence of competitive effects between the solutes. For a given plant type, the sorption coefficient increased with decreasing solute water solubility. For a given solute, sorption increased with increasing plant lipid content. The estimated lipid-water partition coefficients of individual solutes were found to be significantly greater than the corresponding octanol-water partition coefficients. This indicates that plant lipids are a more effective partition solvent than octanol for the studied aromatic compounds. As expected, the solute lipid-water partition coefficients were log-linearly related to the respective water solubilities. For the compounds studied, partitioning into the lipids is believed to be the primary sorption mechanism. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

Barbour, J.P.; Smith, J.A.; Chiou, C.T.

2005-01-01

399

WATER CONSERVATION AND POLLUTION CONTROL IN COAL CONVERSION PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to determine water consumption and environmental impacts of coal conversion processes in Western states. Part 1 gives brief descriptions and process water requirements for nine conversion processes. Detailed designs and analyses are given for t...

400

Air and water pollution control: a benefit-cost assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freeman attempts to assess the net benefits associated with environmental programs dealing with air and water quality. He concludes that stationary controls have been justified, but that mobile sources and water controls, as presently designed and implemented, have had costs greater than benefits to society. The reviewer notes that the book is more than just a compendium of mechanistic, technical

A. Myrick Freeman III

1982-01-01

401

USE OF SYNTHETIC ZEOLITES FOR ARSENATE REMOVAL FROM POLLUTANT WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water below the current and proposed EPA MCL has been examined...

402

Investigation of water pollution in the Yalvac basin into Egirdir Lake, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to understand the effects of pollution of anthropogenic origin on water quality in Yalvac Basin, part of the Egirdir Lake catchment. Surface discharge from the basin to the lake is 63 m3/year and underground discharge is 114 m3/year. Possible water pollution is categorized into domestic, industrial and agricultural origin. Domestic and industrial wastewaters, including effluents from leather tanneries are discharged, without being purified, into Yalvac Stream, which flows into Egirdir Lake directly or via the drainage canal. Surface waters flowing into the lake are used in winter for irrigation of agricultural areas. In agricultural areas natural and synthetic fertilizers and pesticides are used extensively. Lake Egirdir is used as a source of drinking water. Sampling sites were established for surface and underground waters, taking into account the known point sources of pollution. These sites were sampled in May and October of 2002, and analysed chemically. Cr3+ and Pb2+ concentrations exceed standard limits, meaning that pollution caused by effluent from the tanneries is adversely affecting the water quality in the lake.

Soyaslan, I. Iskender; Karagüzel, Remzi

2008-09-01

403

Case study on rehabilitation of a polluted urban water body in Yangtze River Basin.  

PubMed

In the past three decades, the fast development of economy and urbanization has caused increasingly severe pollutions of urban water bodies in China. Consequently, eutrophication and deterioration of aquatic ecosystem, which is especially significant for aquatic vegetation, inevitably became a pervasive problem across the Yangtze River Basin. To rehabilitate the degraded urban water bodies, vegetation replanting is an important issue to improve water quality and to rehabilitate ecosystem. As a case study, a representative polluted urban river, Nanfeihe River, in Hefei City, Anhui Province, was chosen to be a rehabilitation target. In October 2009 and May 2010, 13 species of indigenous and prevalent macrophytes, including seven species emergent, one species floating leaved, and five species submersed macrophytes, were planted along the bank slopes and in the river. Through 1.5 years' replanting practice, the water quality and biodiversity of the river had been improved. The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) declined by 46.0, 39.5, and 60.4 %, respectively. The species of macrophytes increased from 14 to 60, and the biodiversity of phytoplankton rose significantly in the river (p<0.05). The biomasses of zooplankton and benthos were also improved after the vegetation replanting. The study confirmed that vegetation replanting could alleviate the increasing water pollution and rehabilitate the degraded aquatic ecosystem. The case study would be an example for polluted urban waters restoration in the middle-downstream area of Yangtze River Base. PMID:23247519

Wu, Juan; Cheng, Shuiping; Li, Zhu; Guo, Weijie; Zhong, Fei; Yin, Daqiang

2013-10-01

404

Temporal trend and source apportionment of water pollution in different functional zones of Qiantang River, China.  

PubMed

The increasingly serious river water pollution in developing countries poses great threat to environmental health and human welfare. The assignment of river function to specific uses, known as zoning, is a useful tool to reveal variations of water environmental adaptability to human impact. Therefore, characterizing the temporal trend and identifying responsible pollution sources in different functional zones could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river water environment. The aim of this study is to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal trends and sources of water pollution in different functional zones with a case study of the Qiantang River, China. Measurement data were obtained and pretreated for 13 variables from 41 monitoring sites in four categories of functional zones during the period 1996-2004. An exploratory approach, which combines smoothing and non-parametric statistical tests, was applied to characterize trends of four significant parameters (permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen, total cadmium and fluoride) accounting for differences among different functional zones identified by discriminant analysis. Aided by GIS, yearly pollution index (PI) for each monitoring site was further mapped to compare the within-group variations in temporal dynamics for different functional zones. Rotated principal component analysis and receptor model (absolute principle component score-multiple linear regression, APCS-MLR) revealed that potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions varied among the four functional zones. Variations of APCS values for each site of one functional zone as well as their annual average values highlighted the uncertainties associated with cross space-time effects in source apportionment. All these results reinforce the notion that the concept of zoning should be taken seriously in water pollution control. Being applicable to other rivers, the framework of management-oriented source apportionment is thus believed to have potentials to offer new insights into water management and advance the source apportionment framework as an operational basis for national and local governments. PMID:21147494

Su, Shiliang; Li, Dan; Zhang, Qi; Xiao, Rui; Huang, Fang; Wu, Jiaping

2011-02-01

405

Soils as sinks or sources for diffuse pollution of the water cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous chemical compounds have been released into the environment by human activities and can nowadays be found everywhere, i.e. in the compartments water, soil, and air, at the poles and in high mountains. Examples for a global distribution of toxic compounds are the persistent organic pollutants (PCB, dioxins, PAH, fluorinated surfactants and flame retardants, etc.: "the Stockholm dirty dozen") but also mercury and other metals. Many of these compounds reached a global distribution via the atmo¬sphere; others have been and are still directly applied to top soils at the large scale by agriculture or are released into groundwater at landfill sites or by discharge of treated or untreated waste waters. Sooner or later such compounds end up in the water cycle - often via an intermediate storage in soils. Pollutants in soils are leached by seepage waters, transferred to ground¬water, and transported to rivers via groundwater flow. Adsorbed compounds may be transported from soils into surface waters by erosion processes and will end up in the sediments. Diffuse pollution of the subsurface environment not only reflects the history of the economic development of the modern society but it is still ongoing - e.g. the number of organic pollutants released into the environment is increasing even though the con¬centrations may decrease compared to the past. Evidence shows that many compounds are persistent in the subsurface environment at large time scales (up to centuries). Thus polluted soils already are or may become a future source for pollution of adjacent compartments such as the atmosphere and groundwater. A profound understanding on how diffuse pollutants are stored and processed in the subsurface environment is crucial to assess their long term fate and transport at large scales. Thus integrated studies e.g. at the catchment scale and models are needed which couple not only the relevant compartments (soil - atmosphere - groundwater/surface waters) but also flow and reactive transport. Field observations must allow long-term monitoring (e.g. in hydrological observatories, TERENO etc.), new cross-compartment monitoring strategies need to be applied, and massive parallel numerical codes for prediction of reactive transport of potential water pollutants at catchment scale have to be developed. This is also a prerequisite to assess the impact of climate change as well as land use change on future surface and groundwater quality.

Grathwohl, Peter

2010-05-01

406

Small watersheds used to study water transport, pollution, more  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As John Muir, the eminent American naturalist and founder of the Sierra Club wrote, “When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the universe.” Attempting to understand and predict the response of an ecosystem to large-scale stresses such as acid deposition, nonpoint source pollution, or climate change exemplifies this truth. This effort requires the integration of knowledge from a range of physical and biological sciences spanning hydrology and geochemistry to microbial and community ecology. One approach to studying ecosystems is to divide the landscape into small watersheds, which enables input and output budgets for solutes to be constructed. Such budgets can constrain the the problem of comprehending and quantifying mechanisms operating in the ecosystem. The hydrochemistry and biogeochemistry of small watersheds are the subject of “Comparative Analyses of Small Watersheds,” session H-16 of the Fall Meeting.

Church, M. Robbins

407

Evaluation of Immunomagnetic Separation for the Detection of Salmonella in Surface Waters by Polymerase Chain Reaction  

PubMed Central

Salmonella spp. is associated with fecal pollution and capable of surviving for long periods in aquatic environments. Instead of the traditional, time-consuming biochemical detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows rapid identification of Salmonella directly concentrated from water samples. However, prevalence of Salmonella may be underestimated because of the vulnerability of PCR to various environmental chemicals like humic acid, compounded by the fact that various DNA polymerases have different susceptibility to humic acid. Because immunomagnetic separation (IMS) theoretically could isolate Salmonella from other microbes and facilitate removal of aquatic PCR inhibitors of different sizes, this study aims to compare the efficiency of conventional PCR combined with immunomagnetic separation (IMS) for Salmonella detection within a moderately polluted watershed. In our study, the positive rate was increased from 17.6% to 47% with nearly ten-fold improvement in the detection limit. These results suggest the sensitivity of Salmonella detection could be enhanced by IMS, particularly in low quality surface waters. Due to its effects on clearance of aquatic pollutants, IMS may be suitable for most DNA polymerases for Salmonella detection. PMID:25243887

Hsu, Chao-Yu; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Chang, Tien-Yu; Hsu, Tsui-Kang; Shen, Shu-Min; Chiu, Yi-Chou; Wang, Hung-Jen; Ji, Wen-Tsai; Fan, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Jyh-Larng

2014-01-01

408

From a water resource to a point pollution source: the daily journey of a coastal urban stream.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to understand how a stream ecosystem that flows from its fountainhead to its mouth inside a city, changes from a water resource to a point pollution source. A multidisciplinary descriptive approach was adopted, including the short-term temporal and spatial determination of physical, chemical, biological and ecotoxicological variables. Results showed that water quality rapidly decreases with increasing urbanization, leading the system to acquire raw sewage attributes even in the first hundred meters after the fountainheads. Despite the tidal circulation near the stream mouth being restricted by shallowness, some improvement of the water quality was detected in this area. The multidisciplinary evaluation showed to be useful for obtaining a more realistic understanding of the stream degradation process, and to forecast restoration and mitigation measures. PMID:18278310

Rörig, L R; Tundisi, J G; Schettini, C A F; Pereira-Filho, J; Menezes, J T; Almeida, T C M; Urban, S R; Radetski, C M; Sperb, R C; Stramosk, C A; Macedo, R S; Castro-Silva, M A; Perez, J A A

2007-11-01

409

Identification of trace organic pollutants in drinking water and the associated human health risks in Jiangsu Province, China.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), dibutyl phthalate (DNBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were all detectable in surface water in Jiangsu Province, China. Concentrations of OCPs ranged from 5.13 to 8.15 ng/L. PAHs were found ranging from 14.7 to 24.5 ng/L. Concentrations of DNBP and DEHP ranged from 16 to 5,857.5 ng/L and 556 to 15,670.7 ng/L, respectively. Greater than 70 % of chemicals were removed in water treatment processes. The carcinogenic risks posed by trace organic pollutants through tap water ingestion were lower than 10(-6), and the noncarcinogenic risks were less than 10(-5). PMID:22476258

Li, Bing; Qu, Changsheng; Bi, Jun

2012-06-01

410

BIOTRANSFORMATION OF SELECTED ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN GROUND WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Widespread contamination of ground water by a variety of synthetic organic compounds has created a need for information about the biotransformation of these contaminants in aquifers and associated regions of the unsaturated subsurface. Uncontaminated samples of the subsurface wer...

411

MUNICIPAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ABSTRACTS: NOVEMBER 1976-OCTOBER 1977  

EPA Science Inventory

The Franklin Institute Research Laboratories, Science Information Services Department, prepared for the Environmental Protection Agency Volume 4 of the Municipal Technology Bulletin, a current-awareness abstracting bulletin covering methods of municipal waste water treatment, pro...

412

MUNICIPAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ABSTRACTS: APRIL 1975-MARCH 1976  

EPA Science Inventory

The Franklin Institute Research Laboratories, Science Information Services Department prepared for the Environmental Protection Agency, Volume 3 of a monthly current-awareness abstracting bulletin, Municipal Technology Bulletin, which dealt with methods of municipal waste water t...

413

MUNICIPAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ABSTRACTS: MAY-OCTOBER 1976  

EPA Science Inventory

The Franklin Institute Research Laboratories, Science Information Services Department prepared for the Environmental Protection Agency, Volume 4 of a monthly current-awareness abstracting bulletin, Municipal Technology Bulletin, which dealt with methods of municipal waste water t...

414

Rapid assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll content.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Present techniques of airborne chlorophyll measurement are discussed as an approach to water pollution assessment. The differential radiometer, the chlorophyll correlation radiometer, and an infrared radiometer for water temperature measurements are described as the key components of the equipment. Also covered are flight missions carried out to evaluate the capability of the chlorophyll correlation radiometer in measuring the chlorophyll content in water bodies with widely different levels of nutrients, such as fresh-water lakes of high and low eutrophic levels, marine waters of high and low productivity, and an estuary with a high sediment content. The feasibility and usefulness of these techniques are indicated.

Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

1971-01-01

415

Water Pollution: Organic Compounds in the Charles River, Boston  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major lipophilic organic compounds present in water collected during November and December 1971 from the Charles River Basin (Boston) are as follows: normal alkanes (C15 to C31), alkyl naphthalenes, alkyl anthracenes or phenanthrenes, pyrene, fluoranthene, dibutyl phthalate, and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. The concentration of the naphthalenes (determined by liquid chromatography) correlates with the effective storm-water runoff content of the river.

Ronald A. Hites; K. Biemann

1972-01-01

416

Remote sensing applied to environmental pollution detection and management. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of remote sensing techniques and equipment to study air and water pollution. Topics include the use of aerial photographs, radar, and spaceborne photography to study oil spills, ocean dumping sites, plume dispersions, and pollution problems in estuaries. Data interpretation and processing techniques are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

417

Sources of Atmospheric Pollutants Impacting Air and Water Quality in the Lake Tahoe Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting in the second half of the 20th century, decline in Lake Tahoe's water clarity and degradation in the basin's air quality have become major concerns due to its unique scenic features. Gaseous and particulate nitrogen (N) and particulate phosphorus (P) loading via direct atmospheric deposition and sediment transport to the lake have also been implicated as responsible for its eutrophication and decline in water clarity. Estimates suggest that atmospheric N deposition contributes 55% of the total N loading to the lake, while atmospheric P deposition contributes 15% of the total P loading. In order to improve both air quality and, as a consequence, water quality, it is necessary to develop an understanding of the sources of the atmospheric pollutants. Once this is accomplished, it is possible to implement cost-effective strategies to reduce this impact. This paper summarizes the findings of a series of studies performed to determine the levels and sources of ambient air pollutants in the basin. Projects have included the development of a Tahoe-specific emissions inventory, long-term measurements of road dust resuspension, modeling to determine the fraction of pollutants coming from in-basin vs. out-of-basin sources, particulate source apportionment, and estimates of nitric acid deposition. These studies found that the pollutants most closely connected to the decline in water quality come largely from within basin sources, as opposed to those coming from the Central Valley and upwind urban areas of California. These results indicate regulators need to control pollutant emissions within the Tahoe basin in order to reduce the impact of atmospheric pollutants on both air and water quality.

Gertler, A. W.; Cahill, T. A.; Gillies, J.; Kuhns, H.

2008-12-01

418

Monitoring the effects of water pollution on Cyprinus carpio in Karakaya Dam Lake, Turkey.  

PubMed

Karakaya Dam Lake (KDL) is one of the most important water sources, both for irrigation and fishery, located in eastern part of Turkey. This study is concerned with the pollution of the lake contributed by urban, industrial and agricultural activities. The parameters selected for this aim were the enzymes commonly used as biomarkers of environmental pollution. The activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST), carboxylesterase (CE), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (ACP) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) has been determined in liver tissue samples of Cyprinus carpio, a representative species of KDL. Furthermore, brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity which is mainly affected by pesticides such as organophosphates, has been assayed. Chemical analysis results showed that KDL was polluted by various heavy metals as it was apparent from water, sediment and gill tissue. The activity of brain AChE was significantly lower in all localities than Tecimli area (St-5) where there is no agricultural and industrial activities in the immediate periphery. Thus, this change of AChE activity may relate to agricultural pollution in KDL. On the other hand, no significant differences were found for selected enzyme biomarkers, but condition factor (CF) or hepatosomatic index were significantly different from the St-5 samples, a result that may be attributed to water pollution in KDL by various contaminants. PMID:16374666

Ozmen, Murat; Güngördü, Abbas; Kucukbay, F Zehra; Güler, R Elif

2006-03-01

419

Water purification from organic pollutants by optimized micelle-clay systems.  

PubMed

Removal of anionic pollutants (imazaquin, sulfentrazone, sulfosulfuron) and neutral pollutants (alachlor, acetochlor, chlorotoluron, bromacil) from water by micelles preadsorbed on montmorillonite was studied. Micelles of octadecyltrimethylammonium and benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium (BDMHDA) were used. The micelle-clay systems (1% w/w) removed 87-99% of the pollutants from their water solutions containing 1-33 mg/L of herbicide. The nature of the headgroup of the organic cation, which forms the micelles, is critical. Desorption of imazaquin and acetochlor from 0.3% (w/w) suspension of BDMHDA-clay complex after 24 h was around 7% in the range of adsorbed amounts from 0.6 to 15.3 mg/g. These results indicate rather slow rates and small extents of release of pollutants from micelle-clay complexes. Column filters (25 cm) made of a mixture of quartz sand and BDMHDA micelle-clay complex at 100:1 w/w ratio removed at least 99% of above pollutants from initial solutions containing 10 mg/L; 99.5 and 97% of sulfosulfuron and alachlor were removed from their initial solutions containing 200 and 5 microg/L, respectively. These data indicate that micelle-clay complexes are very efficient for water purification from organic contaminants. PMID:15871274

Polubesova, Tamara; Nir, Shlomo; Zadaka, Dikla; Rabinovitz, Onn; Serban, Carina; Groisman, Ludmila; Rubin, Baruch

2005-04-01

420

Exchanges across land-water-scape boundaries in urban systems: strategies for reducing nitrate pollution.  

PubMed

Conservation in urban areas typically focuses on biodiversity and large green spaces. However, opportunities exist throughout urban areas to enhance ecological functions. An important function of urban landscapes is retaining nitrogen thereby reducing nitrate pollution to streams and coastal waters. Control of nonpoint nitrate pollution in urban areas was originally based on the documented importance of riparian zones in agricultural and forested ecosystems. The watershed and boundary frameworks have been used to guide stream research and a riparian conservation strategy to reduce nitrate pollution in urban streams. But is stream restoration and riparian-zone conservation enough? Data from the Baltimore Ecosystem Study and other urban stream research indicate that urban riparian zones do not necessarily prevent nitrate from entering, nor remove nitrate from, streams. Based on this insight, policy makers in Baltimore extended the conservation strategy throughout larger watersheds, attempting to restore functions that no longer took place in riparian boundaries. Two urban revitalization projects are presented as examples aimed at reducing nitrate pollution to stormwater, streams, and the Chesapeake Bay. An adaptive cycle of ecological urban design synthesizes the insights from the watershed and boundary frameworks, from new data, and from the conservation concerns of agencies and local communities. This urban example of conservation based on ameliorating nitrate water pollution extends the initial watershed-boundary approach along three dimensions: 1) from riparian to urban land-water-scapes; 2) from discrete engineering solutions to ecological design approaches; and 3) from structural solutions to inclusion of individual, household, and institutional behavior. PMID:18566096

Cadenasso, M L; Pickett, S T A; Groffman, P M; Band, L E; Brush, G S; Galvin, M F; Grove, J M; Hagar, G; Marshall, V; McGrath, B P; O'Neil-Dunne, J P M; Stack, W P; Troy, A R

2008-01-01

421

Detection and monitoring of volatile and semivolatile pollutants in soil through different sensing strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollutants in environments are more and more threatening the maintenance of health of habitats and their inhabitants. A proper evaluation of the impact of contaminants from several different potential sources on soil quality and health and then on organisms living therein, and the possible and sometime probable related risk of transfer of pollutants, with their toxic effects, to organisms living in different environmental compartments, through the trophic chain up to humans is strongly required by decision makers, in order to promptly take adequate actions to prevent environmental and health damages and monitor the exposure rate of individuals to toxicants. Then, a reliable detection of pollutants in environments and the monitoring of dynamics and fate of contaminants therein are of utmost importance to achieve this goal. In soil, chemical and physical techniques to detect pollutants have been well known for decades, but can often drive to both over- and underestimations of the actual bioavailable (and then toxic) fraction of contaminants, and then of the real risk for organisms, deriving from their presence therein. The use of bioindicators (both living organisms and enzyme activities somehow derived from them) can supply more reliable information about the quantification of the bioavailable fraction of soil pollutants. In the last decades, a physicochemical technique, such as SPME (solid phase microextraction) followed by GC-MS analysis, has been demonstrated to provide similar results to those obtained from some pedofaunal populations, used as bioindicators, as concerns the bioavailable pollutant quantification in soil. More recently, we have applied a sensing technology, namely electronic nose (EN), which comprises several unspecific sensors arranged in an array and that is capable of providing more qualitative than quantitative information about complex air samples, to the study of soils contaminated with semivolatile (SVOCs) pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The EN device set up on purpose involved suitable sensors and it was demonstrated to be capable of supplying information related to the whole soil environment as well as to the presence of contaminants and their dynamics, such as their biodegradation by soil microorganisms and the contemporary increase of CO2 release. These results were also somehow related to those obtained through SPME-GC/MS analyses, since a list of substances could be identified to be responsible for the different classification of contaminated and uncontaminated soil samples obtained through EN. Presently, we also have got evidences that more complex sensing devices can be used for in situ monitoring of contaminated soils. We have designed and fabricated a multi-parametric hybrid sensing system, based on the assembly of several different sensors and sensing systems (i.e. single sensors and a sensor array), some of which are commercially available, while some others were created by design in laboratory and tested for their specificity. The main target of such a hybrid sensing device was to be capable of measuring various soil parameters and volatile pollutants (VOCs) in soil, such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), in order to relate the quantification and behaviour of contaminants in soil (e.g. solubility, volatility, phase partitioning, adsorption and desorption, etc.) to the relative environmental conditions, by measuring physical (temperature and moisture) and chemical (pH) parameters, which can affect such processes. Furthermore, a suitable procedure was set up on purpose to provide VOCs quantifications actually related to the bioavailable fraction of pollutants (passive vs. active sampling). That sensing system was also set up for a wireless communication of the recorded values to a data-collecting centre. Such a tool was designed to be used as a proper probe to insert into soil for in situ monitoring of contaminated sites in order to provide semi-continuous information about soil pollution conditions and evolutions, suitable for unskilled

De Cesare, Fabrizio; Macagnano, Antonella

2013-04-01

422

Feasibility study of detection of hazardous airborne pollutants using passive open-path FTIR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years open-path FTIR systems (active and passive) have demonstrated great potential and success for monitoring air pollution, industrial stack emissions, and trace gas constituents in the atmosphere. However, most of the studies were focused mainly on monitoring gaseous species and very few studies have investigated the feasibility of detecting bio-aerosols and dust by passive open-path FTIR measurements. The goal of the present study was to test the feasibility of detecting a cloud of toxic aerosols by a passive mode open-path FTIR. More specifically, we are focusing on the detection of toxic organophosphorous nerve agents for which we use Tri-2-ethyl-hexyl-phosphate as a model compound. We have determined the compounds' optical properties, which were needed for the radiative calculations, using a procedure developed in our laboratory. In addition, measurements of the aerosol size distribution in an airborne cloud were performed, which provided the additional input required for the radiative transfer model. This allowed simulation of the radiance signal that would be measured by the FTIR instrument and hence estimation of the detection limit of such a cloud. Preliminary outdoor measurements have demonstrated the possibility of detecting such a cloud using two detection methods. However, even in a simple case consisting of the detection of a pure airborne cloud, detection is not straightforward and reliable identification of the compound would require more advanced methods than simple correlation with spectral library.

Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; Dubowski, Y.; Jahn, C.; Schäfer, K.; Gerl, G.; Linker, R.

2010-04-01

423

Determination of phenols in environmental waters using liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a liquid chromatographic method for the determination of priority pollutant phenols at low ?g\\/l levels in environmental waters is discussed. The phenols were separated using a Nova-Pak Phenyl column with concave gradient elution from 20 mM ammonium acetate (19% acetonitrile) to 20 mM ammonium acetate (54% acetonitrile) over 12 min, and subsequently detected using an electrochemical detector

B. Paterson; C. E. Cowie; P. E. Jackson

1996-01-01

424

Concentrations of mercury in tissues of striped dolphins suggest decline of pollution in Mediterranean open waters.  

PubMed

The Mediterranean is a semi-enclosed sea subject to high mercury (Hg) pollution from both natural and anthropogenic sources. With the objective of discerning temporal changes in marine Hg pollution in the oceanic waters of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, we analysed liver and kidney from striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) collected during 2007-2009 and compared them with previous results from a similar sample from 1990-1993. The effect of body length and sex on tissue Hg concentrations was investigated to ensure an unbiased comparison between the periods. The Hg concentrations did not show significant sex-related differences in any tissue or period but were correlated positively with body length. Using body length as a covariate, Hg concentrations in liver and kidney were higher in 1990-1993 than in 2007-2009. This result suggests that measures to reduce emissions in Western European countries have been effective in reducing mercury pollution in Mediterranean open waters. PMID:24461428

Borrell, A; Aguilar, A; Tornero, V; Drago, M

2014-07-01

425

ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANT ANALYSIS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a widely used technique for the identification of organic chemicals in water. This paper describes the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer system, the preparation and separation of samples, the selection of ionizing processes, the integrati...

426

INTEGRATED STEEL PLANT POLLUTION STUDY FOR TOTAL RECYCLE OF WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an engineering study of five integrated U.S. steel plants to determine how each might ultimately achieve total recycle of water. The plants represent a broad cross section of plant-specific factors (e.g., size, age, location, and available space) that ...

427

ECONOMIC AND ENERGY ANALYSES OF REGIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

Two strategic approaches to water quality control in Oregon's Willamette River are presently being utilized: point source treatment and flow augmentation from reservoirs. Input/Output analysis (I/O) provides an econometric methodology to study direct and indirect energy response ...

428

Health risks from large-scale water pollution: Current trends and implications for improving drinking water quality in the lower Amu Darya drainage basin, Uzbekistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safe drinking water is a primary prerequisite to human health, well being and development. Yet, there are roughly one billion people around the world that lack access to safe drinking water supply. Health risk assessments are effective for evaluating the suitability of using various water sources as drinking water supply. Additionally, knowledge of pollutant transport processes on relatively large scales is needed to identify effective management strategies for improving water resources of poor quality. The lower Amu Darya drainage basin close to the Aral Sea in Uzbekistan suffers from physical water scarcity and poor water quality. This is mainly due to the intensive agriculture production in the region, which requires extensive freshwater withdrawals and use of fertilizers and pesticides. In addition, recurrent droughts in the region affect the surface water availability. On average 20% of the population in rural areas in Uzbekistan lack access to improved drinking water sources, and the situation is even more severe in the lower Amu Darya basin. In this study, we consider health risks related to water-borne contaminants by dividing measured substance concentrations with health-risk based guideline values from the World Health Organisation (WHO). In particular, we analyse novel results of water quality measurements performed in 2007 and 2008 in the Mejdurechye Reservoir (located in the downstream part of the Amu Darya river basin). We furthermore identify large-scale trends by comparing the Mejdurechye results to reported water quality results from a considerable stretch of the Amu Darya river basin, including drainage water, river water and groundwater. The results show that concentrations of cadmium and nitrite exceed the WHO health-risk based guideline values in Mejdurechye Reservoir. Furthermore, concentrations of the since long ago banned and highly toxic pesticides dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) were detected in the reservoir water for the first time in a decade. However, a relatively pronounced temporal variability in concentrations was observed for many of the substances, implying that the reservoir could contain low-risk waters temporarily. Health risk factors related to lead and chromium concentrations in groundwater were up to 200 times higher than for river water. The identified major divergence in health risk between groundwater and surface water illuminates the risk of using groundwater for drinking water supply during recurrent surface water deficits in the study area. However, the severe water scarcity and lack of financial resources in the region makes the choices of alternative water supply sources limited. Due to the presence of multiple contaminants, it appears reasonable that the aggregated toxicity of contaminant mixtures should be in focus in surface and groundwater water monitoring and management in the region. Key words: Aral Sea, Drinking water, Groundwater, Health Risk, Surface Water

Törnqvist, Rebecka; Jarsjö, Jerker

2010-05-01

429

IMMUNOLOGICAL AND BIOSENSOR TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING NON-MICROBIAL INDICATORS OF HUMAN FECAL POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Limitations exist in applying the conventional microbial methods to the detection of human fecal contamination in water. Recently, there has been an increased interest in developing supplemental and/or alternate indicators of human contamination to better define water quality an...

430

Costs and water quality effects of controlling point and nonpoint pollution sources  

SciTech Connect

Costs and water quality effects of controlling point and nonpoint pollution sources are compared for the DuPage River basin in northern Illinois. Costs are estimated for effluent standards for municipal wastewater treatment plants and for the alternative, controlling runoff from nonpoint sources such as streets, agricultural lands, and forests. A dynamic water-quality/hydrology simulation model is used to determine water quality effects of various treatment plant standards and nonpoint-source controls. Costs and water quality data are combined, and the point-source and nonpoint-source plans are compared on a cost-effectiveness basis. Nonpoint-source controls are found to be more cost-effective than stricter control of pollutants from point sources.

Macal, C.M.; Broomfield, B.J.

1980-01-01

431

Requiring Pollutant Discharge Permits for Pesticide Applications that Deposit Residues in Surface Waters  

PubMed Central

Agricultural producers and public health authorities apply pesticides to control pests that damage crops and carry diseases. Due to the toxic nature of most pesticides, they are regulated by governments. Regulatory provisions require pesticides to be registered and restrictions operate to safeguard human health and the environment. Yet pesticides used near surface waters pose dangers to non-target species and drinking water supplies leading some governments to regulate discharges of pesticides under pollution discharge permits. The dual registration and discharge permitting provisions are burdensome. In the United States, agricultural interest groups are advancing new legislation that would exempt pesticide residues from water permitting requirements. An analysis of the dangers posed by pesticide residues in drinking water leads to a conclusion that both pesticide registration and pollutant discharge permitting provisions are needed to protect human health and aquatic species. PMID:24814945

Centner, Terence; Eberhart, Nicholas

2014-01-01

432

Nano?adsorbents for the removal of metallic pollutants from water and wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the variety of adsorbents available for the removal of heavy and toxic metals, activated carbon has been the most popular. A number of minerals, clays and waste materials have been regularly used for the removal of metallic pollutants from water and industrial effluents. Recently there has been emphasis on the application of nanoparticles and nanostructured materials as efficient and

Y. C. Sharma; V. Srivastava; V. K. Singh; S. N. Kaul; C. H. Weng

2009-01-01

433

Water Pollution Control Act of 1972. Economic Impacts. Non-Ferrous Metals Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The requirements of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 will alter the cost structure of non-ferrous smelters and refineries (primarily aluminum, copper, lead and zinc). In the short run, impacted plants may not feel immediate effec...

L. W. Lee, R. A. Leone, C. Smith

1975-01-01

434

Spatio-temporal patterns and source apportionment of coastal water pollution in eastern Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comprehensive application of different multivariate methods and geographic information systems (GIS) was used to evaluate the spatio-temporal patterns and source apportionment of coastal water pollution in eastern Hong Kong. Fourteen variables were surveyed at 27 sites monthly from 2000 to 2004. After data pretreatment, cluster analysis grouped the 12 months into two groups, June–September and the remaining months, and

Feng Zhou; Gordon H. Huang; Huaicheng Guo; Wei Zhang; Zejia Hao

2007-01-01

435

12 Sustainable Agriculture: A Technical or Economic Issue? Reducing Nitrate Water Pollution with Market Incentives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of the economic dimension into the design of sustainable agro-ecological systems is essential to the different stages involved in identifying the problem and finding viable solutions within a sustainable development perspective. Taken as an example, the problem of nitrate water pollution caused by agriculture is faced by analysing the possible employment of economic instruments as market incentives for

S. Cocco; A. Ciani

436

Bargaining between firms and environmental protection bureaus : Water pollution in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors that affect China's water pollution in the prospective of environmental enforcement using a bargaining approach. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A bargaining model that determines the level of discharge standard and over-discharge fee is constructed. Comparative static analysis is conducted. Findings – Comparative static analysis shows that enlarging the economic incentive

Ruiqing Miao

2011-01-01

437

An improved method of spectral unmixing and its application in water pollution monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectral signature of a pixel in remotely sensed image in most cases is the result of the reflected spectral properties of mixed land cover types constituting the area of a pixel. This paper introduced an improved method of spectral unmixing of a remote sensing image and its application in water pollution monitoring and assessing. In this paper, a TM

Qian Shao-meng; Lin Qi-zhong; Chen Xue

2003-01-01

438

Energy Conservation at the West Dover, Vermont, Water Pollution Control Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An energy audit was conducted at the West Dover, Vermont, water pollution control facility. The audit revealed that aeration, not pumping to the land treatment site, was the largest energy consumer. As a result of the audit, five Energy Conservation Oppor...

C. J. Martel, B. C. Sargent, W. Bronson

1982-01-01

439

Evaluation of pollutant loadings in the runoff waters from a major rural highway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of pavement runoff water from a 275-m motorway section has been studied for 1 year, during which approximately 50 rain events have been sampled. Two different types of pollution have been revealed. One type can be defined as chronic and includes suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, total hydrocarbons, zinc and lead. The second type can be considered to

M. Legret; C. Pagotto

1999-01-01

440

Water Quality and Pollution. Environmental Studies. 4 Color Transparencies, Reproducibles & Teaching Guide. Grade 3, 4, 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The world is faced with a variety of environmental problems. No country has escaped pollution and resource depletion. Basic ecological principles are often ignored and sometimes this contributes to ecological disasters. This volume is designed to provide basic information about the quality of the earth's water resources. The visual aids,…

Ortleb, Edward P.; And Others

441

The municipal continuum: Research on maritime water pollution in Helsinki in the 20th century  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, the history of environmental research is not known very well. Our study contributes to filling this gap by focusing on the history of the methods that were used during the 20th century to study the state of the urban sea area in Helsinki, Finland. From the beginning of the past century, the methodological basis of municipal water pollution

Sari K. Laurila; Simo J. Laakkonen

2004-01-01

442

Patent activity on water pollution and treatment in China - a scientometric perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research intends to investigate the patent activity on water pollution and treatment in China (1985-2007), and then compares the results with patents data about Triadic patents, South Korea, Brazil and India over the same periods, patents data were collected from Derwent World Patents Index between 1985 and May 2008. For this study, 169,312 patents were chosen and examined. Total

JunPeng Yuan; Wei Ping Yue; Cheng Su; Zheng Wu; Zheng Ma; Yuntao Pan; Nan Ma; ZhiYu Hu; Fei Shi; ZhengLu Yu; Yi Shan Wu

2010-01-01

443

Bioavailability of heavy metals monitoring water, sediments and fish species from a polluted estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and As) were measured in water, sediment and two fish species, Sparus aurata and Solea senegalensis, from the estuary of Tinto and Odiel rivers in Huelva (Spain), one of the most metallic polluted estuaries in Europe.As a forward step to understand metal bioavailability and assess the potential impact on aquatic biota, a

Juan J. Vicente-Martorell; María D. Galindo-Riaño; Manuel García-Vargas; María D. Granado-Castro

2009-01-01

444

Nanoparticle-coated quartz sand as a catalyst for degradation of water pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper oxide nanoparticles were immobilized on quartz sand and their catalytic activity for the degradation of an organic dye was investigated. These nanoparticles, in free form, were shown previously to be efficient catalysts for the complete degradation of several organic water pollutants, without formation of hazardous byproducts and without the need for any type of irradiation for activation. However, because

T. Ben Moshe; O. Krichevski; I. Dror; B. Berkowitz

2010-01-01

445

LEAF PHOTOSYNTHETIC AND WATER RELATIONS RESPONSES FOR "VALENCIA" ORANGE TREES EXPOSED TO OXIDANT AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Leaf responses were measured to test a hypothesis that reduced photosynthetic capacity and/or altered water relations were associated with reductions in yield for "Valencia" orange trees exposed to ambient oxidant air pollution. xposures were continuous for four years to three le...

446

Organic pollutants in mussels and sediments of the coastal waters off Perth, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a survey of organic pollutants in the marine sediments and the common mussel, Mytilus edulis, from the southern metropolitan coastal waters off Perth are presented. Organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organotin compounds were analysed in surficial (top 20 mm) sediments from 175 sites and in mussel tissue from 35 sites

James S. Burt; Geoff F. Ebell

1995-01-01

447

Water pollution by Pangasius production in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: causes and options for control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyse water pollution caused by farming and processing Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The results show that 1 tonne of frozen fillets releases 740 kg BOD, 1020 kg COD, 2050 kg TSS, 106 kg nitrogen and 27 kg phosphorus, of which wastewater from fish ponds contributes 60–90% and sludge from fish ponds and

Pham Thi Ahn; C. Kroeze; S. R. Bush; A. P. J. Mol

2010-01-01

448

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF POLLUTED WATERS USING SOURCE TRACKING MOLECULAR TOOLS: LESSONS LEARNED AND FUTURE NEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Different approaches have been used to identify fecal pollution sources in water samples. Early on, the fecal coliforms - fecal streptococci ratio was proposed as a method that could discriminate between human and animal contamination. Several studies showed that the latter appro...

449

Radiation-induced grafting of cellulose for adsorption of hazardous water pollutants: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review paper briefly introduces the radiation chemistry of cellulose, the different grafting techniques used, and the methods of characterization of the grafted material. It shows the application of the grafted polymer for the removal of water pollutants and also the regeneration of the adsorbent.

Wojnárovits, L.; Földváry, Cs. M.; Takács, E.

2010-08-01

450

Field performance of the Chemcatcher passive sampler for monitoring hydrophobic organic pollutants in surface water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six field trials were carried out to assess the performance of the Chemcatcher passive sampler alongside spot sampling for monitoring priority hydrophobic organic pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides) in a wide range of conditions in surface water. The trials were performed in three European rivers: Elbe (Czech Republic), Alna (Norway) and Meuse (Netherlands), in two seasons (April-June

Branislav Vrana; Graham A. Mills; Pim E. G. Leonards; Michiel Kotterman; Mona Weideborg; J. Hajslova; Vladimír Kocourek; M. Tomaniova; J. Pulkrabova; M. Suchanova; K. Hajkova; Sirpa Herve; Heidi Ahkola; Richard Greenwood

2010-01-01

451

Bulletin of Courses. Water Pollution Control Training Program, July 1970 to December 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the courses offered from July 1970 to Dec. 1971 in water pollution control by the U.S. Department of the Interior at five locations in the United States. These locations are the Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center in Cincinnati,...

1971-01-01

452

Water Pollution: Application of National Cleanup Standards to the Pulp and Paper Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Billions of gallons of polluted wastewater are generated each day from industries across the country. Left untreated, this contaminated waste enters the nation's waterways and may kill fish and other aquatic life and leave the water unfit for human use. T...

1987-01-01

453

Factors affecting the enumeration of coliphages in sewage and sewage-polluted waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The count of coliphages in naturally polluted waters was found to be dependent on many experimental factors. If Escherichia coli C was used as a host strain, consistently higher counts were obtained than with other strains (B, K-12-derivatives). This could be explained partly by the absence of a restriction system in C. A nutrient medium (modified Scholtens' agar, MSA) was

A. H. Havelaar; W. M. Hogeboom

1983-01-01

454

Water Quality & Pollutant Source Monitoring: Field and Laboratory Procedures. Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual presents material on techniques and instrumentation used to develop data in field monitoring programs and related laboratory operations concerned with water quality and pollution monitoring. Topics include: collection and handling of samples; bacteriological, biological, and chemical field and laboratory methods; field…

Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

455

EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL POLLUTION OF NATURAL WATER BY TRACE ELEMENTS ORIGINATING FROM POWER PLANT ASHES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal ashes (flay ash and bottom ash) from pawer plants contain trace elements that have been possible pollutants of surface and ground waters. Some of trace elements in coal ashes are naturally radioactive and make possible risk of radiation. Because of that the examination of leaching of trace elements from coal ashes and determination of radioactivity of coal ashes are

Slobodanka Marinkovic; Prvoslav Trifunovic; Rade Tokali; Aleksandra Kostic-Pulek

2010-01-01

456

CRITICAL REVIEW OF ESTIMATING BENEFITS OF AIR AND WATER POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report provides a critical review of the current state-of-the-art and future prospects of estimating benefits of air and water pollution control. This report represents three independent critiques by three experts of benefit assessment methodologies. Specific aspects discuss...

457

REVIEW OF WESTERN EUROPEAN AND JAPANESE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY EXEMPLARY WATER POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a literature survey of current Western European and Japanese water pollution control technology in the iron and steel industry. Further information was obtained through personal communication. Recycle technology was identified as being practiced to a h...

458

Cadmium and Lead Levels in Fish (Tilapia Nilotica) Tissues as Biological Indicator for Lake Water Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium and lead were determined in different tissues (muscle,gill, stomach, intestine, liver, vertebral column and scales) of Tilapia nilotica from the High Dam Lake, Aswan (Egypt) to assess the lake water pollution with those toxic metals. Fish samples were chosen from different ages and weights to be analyzed along with samples of the aquatic plant(Najas armeta), sediment and lake water.The

M. N. Rashed

2001-01-01

459

40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

(b) Effluent limitations established pursuant to this section shall be calculated on the basis of the amount of section 307(a) toxic pollutant(s) present in the water after any water supply treatment steps have been performed by or for the owner or...

2011-07-01

460

Estimating the economic burden from illnesses associated with recreational coastal water pollution—a case study in Orange County, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cost-of-illness framework was applied to health and income data to quantify the health burden from illnesses associated with exposure to polluted recreational marine waters. Using data on illness severity due to exposure to polluted coastal water and estimates of mean annual salaries and medical costs (adjusted to 2001 values) for residents of Orange County, California, we estimated that the

Ryan H. Dwight; Linda M. Fernandez; Dean B. Baker; Jan C. Semenza; Betty H. Olson

2005-01-01

461

Tracking Non-point Fecal Pollution in the Guadalupe River: Distinguishing Urban and Rural Influences upon Water Quality  

E-print Network

, Assistant Professor University of Houston - Victoria Non-point fecal pollution is a problem in water bodiesTracking Non-point Fecal Pollution in the Guadalupe River: Distinguishing Urban and Rural Influences upon Water Quality Matthew Boyett University of Houston - Victoria boyettmr@uhv.edu Dmitri Sobolev

462

Treatment of waters polluted with radioactive elements and heavy metals by means of a laboratory passive system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waters polluted with toxic heavy metals, radioactive elements, arsenic and sulphates were efficiently treated by means of a laboratory-scale passive system consisting of an anaerobic cell and a constructed wetland. These waters were polluted in a stream receiving leachates from an operating copper tailings dam and other effluents from man-induced activities at the area of Vromos Bay in Bulgaria. The

S. N. Groudev; S. G. Bratcova; K. Komnitsas

1999-01-01

463

Modelling and field application of the Chemcatcher passive sampler calibration data for the monitoring of hydrophobic organic pollutants in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive sampling of dissolved pollutants in water has been gaining acceptance for environmental monitoring. Previously, an integrative passive sampler consisting of a C18 Empore® disk receiving phase saturated with n-octanol and fitted with low density polyethylene membrane, was developed and calibrated for the measurement of time weighted average (TWA) concentrations of hydrophobic pollutants in water. In this study, the exchange

Branislav Vrana; Graham A. Mills; Michiel Kotterman; P. E. G. Leonards; Kees Booij; Richard Greenwood

2007-01-01

464

Nonpoint Source Pollution: Agriculture, Forestry, and Mining. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nonpoint sources of pollution have diffuse origins and are major contributors to water quality problems in both urban and rural areas. Addressed in this instructor's manual are the identification, assessment, and management of nonpoint source pollutants resulting from mining, agriculture, and forestry. The unit, part of the Working for Clean Water

Buskirk, E. Drannon, Jr.

465

Water pollution monitoring using optical sensor based on transmitted light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical sensor has been designed and developed to measure transmitted light through water samples for the retrieval of total suspended solids TSS concentrations. The proposed optical system uses light emitting diodes LEDs to transmit light through the total suspended solids in water samples. The transmitted radiation values were obtained from output voltage readings of the multimeter of the optical detector. The voltage readings are correlated with the TSS concentrations of the samples. A developed algorithm was used to determine the relationship between these two parameters. The results showed a good correlation between the radiation values and the total suspended solids TSS concentrations. The accuracy is high and low value of the root mean square.

Daraigan, Sami Gumaan; Matjafri, Mohd Zubir; Abdullah, Khiruddin; San, Lim Hwee; Jeng, Wong Chow; Hashim, Syahril Amin

2006-05-01

466

Impact of informal regulation of pollution on water quality in rivers in India.  

PubMed

In this paper an attempt is made to assess the impact of informal regulation of water pollution on water quality in Indian rivers. For this purpose, an econometric analysis of determinants of water quality in Indian rivers is carried out using water quality (water class) data for 106 monitoring points on 10 important rivers for five years, 1995-1999. To explain variations in water quality, an Ordered Probit model is estimated, in which poll percentage in parliamentary elections, a proxy for the intensity of informal regulation, is taken as one of the main explanatory variables. Rainfall, industrialization, irrigation intensity and fertilizer use are some of the other explanatory variables used in the model to control for the influence of these factors. As expected, river water quality is found to be positively related with rainfall, and negatively related with industrialization, irrigation intensity and fertilizer use. A significant positive relationship is found between poll percentage and water quality, and also between the rate of increase in literacy level in a district and the water quality in rivers flowing through the district. These results point to a significant favorable effect of informal regulation of pollution on water quality in rivers in India. PMID:15380317

Goldar, Bishwanath; Banerjee, Nandini

2004-11-01

467

Water-sediment flow models for river reaches sediment related pollution control.  

PubMed

Hybrid water-sediment flow models for river reaches have been for predicting sediment and sediment related pollutions in water courses. The models are developed by combining sediment rating model and the Muskingum model applicable for a reach. The models incorporate sediment concentration and water discharge variables for a river reach; allow defining downstream sediment rating curve in terms of upstream water discharges. The model is useful in generating sediment concentration graph for a station having no water discharge records. The hybrid models provide forecasting forms that can be used to forecast downstream sediment concentration/water discharges 2kx time unit ahead. The forecasting models are useful for applications in real time namely, in the real time management of sediment related pollution in water courses and in issuing flood warning. Integration of sediment rating model and the Muskingum model increases model parameters and nonlinearity requiring efficient estimation technique for parameter identification. To identify parameters in the hybrid models genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique can be used. The new model relies on the Muskingum model, obey continuity requirement and the parameters can be used in the Muskingum model with water discharges to estimate/predict downstream water discharge values. The proposed model formulations are demonstrated for simulating and forecasting sediment concentration and water discharges in the Mississippi River Basin, USA. Model parameters are estimated using non-dominated sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II). Model results show satisfactory model performances. PMID:24749192

Sil, Briti Sundar; Choudhury, Parthasarathi

2012-07-01

468

Spatial and temporal variability of surface water pollution in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.  

PubMed

Surface water pollution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (MD) could threaten human, animal and ecosystem health given the fact that this water source is intensively used for drinking, irrigation and domestic services. We therefore determined the levels of pollution by organic pollutants, salts, metals and microbial indicators by (bi)monthly monitoring of canals between November 2011 and July 2012 at 32 sampling locations, representing fresh and saline/brackish environments. The results were compared with national water quality guidelines, between the studied regions and with water quality data from main waterways. Key factors explaining the observed levels of pollution in surface water were identified through principal component analysis (PCA). Temporal variations due to tidal regime and seasonality were also assessed. Based on regression models, the spatial variability of five water quality parameters was visualized using GIS based maps. Results indicate that pH (max. 8.6), turbidity (max. 461 FTU), maximum concentrations of ammonium (14.7 mg L(-1)), arsenic (44.1 ?g L(-1)), barium (157.5 ?g L(-1)), chromium (84.7 ?g L(-1)), mercury (45.5 ?g L(-1)), manganese (1659.7 ?g L(-1)), aluminum (14.5 mg L(-1)), iron (17.0 mg L(-1)) and the number of Escherichia coli (87,000 CFU 100 mL(-1)) and total coliforms (2,500,000 CFU 100 mL(-1)) in canals exceed the thresholds set by Vietnamese quality guidelines for drinking and domestic purposes. The PCA showed that i) urbanization; ii) metal leaching from soils; iii) aquaculture; and iv) tidal regime explain 85% of the variance of surface water quality attributes. Significant differences in water quality were found due to daily tidal regime and as a result of seasonality. Surface water quality maps for dissolved oxygen, ammonium, ortho-phosphate, manganese and total coliforms were developed to highlight hot-spot areas of pollution. The results of this study can assist policy makers in developing water management strategies and drinking water companies in selecting optimum water extraction locations. PMID:24747257

Wilbers, Gert-Jan; Becker, Mathias; Nga, La Thi; Sebesvari, Zita; Renaud, Fabrice G

2014-07-01

469

Advanced Water Vapor Lidar Detection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the present water vapor lidar system, the detected signal is sent over long cables to a waveform digitizer in a CAMAC crate. This has the disadvantage of transmitting analog signals for a relatively long distance, which is subjected to pickup noise, leading to a decrease in the signal to noise ratio. Generally, errors in the measurement of water vapor with the DIAL method arise from both random and systematic sources. Systematic errors in DIAL measurements are caused by both atmospheric and instrumentation effects. The selection of the on-line alexandrite laser with a narrow linewidth, suitable intensity and high spectral purity, and its operation at the center of the water vapor lines, ensures minimum influence in the DIAL measurement that are caused by the laser spectral distribution and avoid system overloads. Random errors are caused by noise in the detected signal. Variability of the photon statistics in the lidar return signal, noise resulting from detector dark current, and noise in the background signal are the main sources of random error. This type of error can be minimized by maximizing the signal to noise ratio. The increase in the signal to noise ratio can be achieved by several ways. One way is to increase the laser pulse energy, by increasing its amplitude or the pulse repetition rate. Another way, is to use a detector system with higher quantum efficiency and lower noise, on the other hand, the selection of a narrow band optical filter that rejects most of the day background light and retains high optical efficiency is an important issue. Following acquisition of the lidar data, we minimize random errors in the DIAL measurement by averaging the data, but this will result in the reduction of the vertical and horizontal resolutions. Thus, a trade off is necessary to achieve a balance between the spatial resolution and the measurement precision. Therefore, the main goal of this research effort is to increase the signal to noise ratio by a factor of 10 over the current system, using a newly evaluated, very low noise avalanche photo diode detector and constructing a 10 MHz waveform digitizer which will replace the current CAMAC system.

Elsayed-Ali, Hani

1998-01-01

470

Investigating water pollution of the Dareh Morad Beik River in the Hamadan District, Iran.  

PubMed

Water-related hazards, such as drought, floods, erosion, and various kinds of pollution, should be factored into any integrated approach to water-resource management. This research attempt has been made to assess the process of water pollution in the Dareh Morad Beik (DMB) River, whose length is about 18 km and whose average flow rate is 250 L/s. The quality of river water, including chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate, fecal coliform, and total coliform, were all measured and evaluated at three different sampling stations within different months of the year. The information was gathered by conducting experiments and through field visits, as well as by library study. The results of this research showed that, from a microbiological point of view, the water of the DMB was polluted during the year. Based on the results obtained it was determined that the amount of COD and BOD at station 1 was negligible. Also the influx of qantas waters from Hamadan City into the DMB has caused dilution of COD, BOD, and nitrate of that river at station 3. PMID:18991905

Khoram, Mahdi Reyahi; Nafea, Minoo

2008-10-01

471

Detection of water bodies in Saline County, Kansas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. A total of 2,272 water bodies were mapped in Saline County, Kansas in 1972 using ERTS-1 imagery. A topographic map of 1955 shows 1,056 water bodies in the county. The major increase took place in farm ponds. Preliminary comparison of image and maps indicates that water bodies larger than ten acres in area proved consistently detectable. Most water areas between four and ten acres are also detectable, although occasionally image context prevents detection. Water areas less than four acres in extent are sometimes detected, but the number varies greatly depending on image context and the individual interpretor.

Barr, B. G. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

472

Trace analysis of pollutants by use of honeybees, immunoassays, and chemiluminescence detection.  

PubMed

Specific and sensitive analysis to reveal and monitor the wide variety of chemical contaminants polluting all environment compartments, feed, and food is urgently required because of the increasing attention devoted to the environment and health protection. Our research group has been involved in monitoring the presence and distribution of agrochemicals by monitoring beehives distributed throughout the area studied. Honeybees have been used both as biosensors, because the pesticides affect their viability, and as "contaminant collectors" for all environmental pollutants. We focused our research on the development of analytical procedures able to reveal and quantify pesticides in different samples but with a special attention to the complex honeybee matrix. Specific extraction and purification procedures have been developed and some are still under optimization. The analytes of interest were determined by gas or liquid chromatographic methods and by compound-specific or group-specific immunoassays in the ELISA format, the analytical performance of which was improved by introducing luminescence detection. The range of chemiluminescent immunoassays developed was extended to include the determination of completely different pollutants, for example explosives, volatile organic compounds (including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes), and components of plastics, for example bisphenol A. An easier and portable format, a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) was added to the ELISA format to increase application flexibility in these assays. Aspects of the novelty, the specific characteristics, the analytical performance, and possible future development of the different chromatographic and immunological methods are described and discussed. PMID:23064670

Girotti, S; Ghini, S; Maiolini, E; Bolelli, L; Ferri, E N

2013-01-01

473

Are interactive effects of harmful algal blooms and copper pollution a concern for water quality management?  

PubMed

Toxicity of mixtures of stressors is one of the major challenges in water quality management. Yet until now risk assessment focuses almost exclusively on the effect characterization of individual stressors. An important concern is the potential interactive effects of cyanobacteria, sometimes referred to as harmful algal blooms, with chemical stressors. Here, we evaluated the response of two clones of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna to the combined effects of five cyanobacteria and copper. The latter remains the most commonly applied chemical algaecide and is also often detected in eutrophic run-offs that promote harmful algal blooms. Because the different cyanobacteria studied here have known modes of action that are similar, as well as dissimilar compared to the known modes of actions of copper, we based our assessment on two widely used reference models, i.e. the Concentration Addition (CA) model for similarly acting stressors and the Independent Action (IA) model for dissimilarly acting stressors. We highlight four major findings. First, the conclusions drawn on the interaction type (non-interaction vs. synergism or antagonism) between either of the five cyanobacteria species and copper were the same for both D. magna clones. Second, the interaction type differed between the Microcystis + copper mixture (non-interaction according to CA and synergism according to IA) and the four other cyanobacteria + copper mixtures (antagonism according to CA and non-interaction according to IA). Third, both reference models provided reasonable predictions for all observed mixture toxicities. Fourth, we consistently obtained different results with the IA reference model compared to the CA model. More specifically, mixtures of Cu and Microcystis were synergistic with IA whereas non-interaction was observed with CA, while the remaining four cyanobacteria + copper combinations all displayed non-interaction with IA and antagonism with CA. Despite the IA reference model providing a marginally better fit to the data in general, the CA reference model delivered more conservative predictions for mixture toxicity of cyanobacteria + copper in all cases compared to the IA reference model. Thus, the CA model could serve as a conservative model to account for mixture toxicity of cyanobacteria and copper in water quality management, as it gives rise to conservative predictions of mixed stressor toxicity at sub-lethal effect levels in D. magna. Finally, and in accordance with other studies of cyanobacteria + chemical mixtures, we did not detect any strong synergistic effects of copper and cyanobacteria mixtures on D. magna. Consequently, based on our study with the model freshwater zooplankton species Daphnia, interactive effects of harmful algal blooms and copper pollution appear to be of limited concern for water quality management. PMID:24821194

Hochmuth, Jennifer D; Asselman, Jana; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

2014-09-01

474

Health Risk from Exposure of Organic Pollutants Through Drinking Water Consumption in Nanjing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human health risk analysis for 24 organic pollutants in drinking water of Nanjing was conducted. For non-carcinogenic risk,\\u000a the 95th percentile hazard quotient (HQ) values of pollutants were all less than the unacceptable level of one. Considering\\u000a the lifetime carcinogenic risk (LCR), however, the 95th percentile LCR values of 2,6-dinitrotoluene (1.30E-05), benzo(b)fluoranthene\\u000a (3.10E-05), benzo(a)pyrene (3.37E-05) and dibenz(a,h)anthracene (2.09E-05) exceeded the

Bing WuYan; Yan Zhang; Xuxiang Zhang; Shupei Cheng

2010-01-01

475

Applied research reduces air pollution from platforms in offshore California waters  

SciTech Connect

The monumental task of reducing air pollutants generated from offshore oil and gas platforms while preserving safety and production safeguards is difficult. Recently, a group of scientists have pioneered the smokeless oil spill burn concept using Enhanced Burning Additives (EBA), while the Minerals Management Service (MMS) entered the 89th year of monitoring the safe operational practices under air pollutant reducing measures such as water injected turbine generators and the use of new fuels on platforms along the Californian Pacific coast. This paper presents the conclusions of this trial period of selecting the right, technically feasible concepts.

Konczvald, A.; Shackell, G.C.

1996-12-31

476

Measuring air pollutants in presence of high water vapour concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In industrial emission monitoring applications sometimes very high water vapour concentrations can occur. In order to find out which accuracy a relatively simple FTS-based measuring system can achieve under such conditions, we performed NO measurements in presence of up to 60 vol.% water vapour. We used a Bruker IFS 66 with a spectral resolution of 1 cm-1 equipped with a pyroelectric DTGS-detector and a gas cell with 0.8 m path length. Concentrations were calculated from the measured spectra using the nonlinear NLS method. We found out that the loss of measuring effect caused by the reduction of path length is partially compensated by the absence of losses normally encountered with White cells. Furthermore, the capability of the NLS method to evaluate spectra with a low signal/noise ration made it possible to obtain sufficient accuracies for most industrial applications. The results make clear, that it is possible to build a relatively simple multicompound emission monitoring system based on an FTS.

Wülbern, Kai

1998-06-01

477

Pollution Status of Pakistan: A Retrospective Review on Heavy Metal Contamination of Water, Soil, and Vegetables  

PubMed Central

Trace heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. In addition to these metals, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc are also important trace micronutrients. The presence of trace heavy metals in the atmosphere, soil, and water can cause serious problems to all organisms, and the ubiquitous bioavailability of these heavy metal can result in bioaccumulation in the food chain which especially can be highly dangerous to human health. This study reviews the heavy metal contamination in several areas of Pakistan over the past few years, particularly to assess the heavy metal contamination in water (ground water, surface water, and waste water), soil, sediments, particulate matter, and vegetables. The listed contaminations affect the drinking water quality, ecological environment, and food chain. Moreover, the toxicity induced by contaminated water, soil, and vegetables poses serious threat to human health.

Arshad, Jahanzaib; Iqbal, Farhat; Sajjad, Ashif; Mehmood, Zahid

2014-01-01

478

IMPROVEMENT OF STORM-WATER RESERVOIRS FOR REDUCTION OF NON-POINT POLLUTION FROM URBAN AREA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a new measure for reduction of non-point pollution, we apply storm-water reservoirs in which basket mats are wholly and partially installed to improve flow patterns and increase residence time of particulate matter of non-point sources. To clarify the reduction effect of non-point sources using the improved storm-water reservoirs, we conducted field measurements on the bottom sediments in reservoirs located within the watershed of Lake Inba-numa. The measured results reveal that the improvement of the storm-water reservoirs may increase appreciably the trap effect of non-point pollution especially in the basket mats located near the inlet. These facts indicate that the partial improvements neat the inlets may be effective for the reduction of non-point sources in the whole watershed of Lake Inba-numa.

Sato, Kazuhiro; Nihei, Yasuo; Sakai, Jyun; Shigematsu, Manami; Ono, Fumio; Yuasa, Takashi; Uehara, Hiroshi; Syouji, Tarou; Ogura, Hisako

479

Oil-spill cleanup fulfills aim of Federal Water Pollution Control Act  

SciTech Connect

The decision in Union Petroleum Corp. v. United States reaffirms the Federal judiciary's commitment to control water pollution under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Those in charge of oil terminals who have taken reasonable precautions to prevent vandalism and oil spills into navigable rivers will be reimbursed when vandals spill oil from tank cars parked at the terminal. Awarding Union the full $99,952.17 encourages other terminal operators to quickly clean up harmful discharges into the nation's waters. The court implicitly recognized that the general security practice in the industry is a reasonable standard of care. Though the standard tolerates some danger of discharge of harmful substances, this level of industry risk remains unchanged by the decision of the Court of Claims. 12 references.

Silver, M.

1982-04-01

480

Toxicity bioassays: Water pollution effects on aquatic animals and plants. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning toxicity bioassay studies of water pollution effects on reproduction, growth, and mortality of aquatic fauna and flora. Industrial and agricultural water pollutants such as heavy metals, chemicals, pesticides, and herbicides are evaluated and tested. Standard fish and algal assays are used to determine effects of potential toxicants. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01

481

Remote sensing applied to numerical modelling. [water resources pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress and remaining difficulties in the construction of predictive mathematical models of large bodies of water as ecosystems are reviewed. Surface temperature is at present the only variable than can be measured accurately and reliably by remote sensing techniques, but satellite infrared data are of sufficient resolution for macro-scale modeling of oceans and large lakes, and airborne radiometers are useful in meso-scale analysis (of lakes, bays, and thermal plumes). Finite-element and finite-difference techniques applied to the solution of relevant coupled time-dependent nonlinear partial differential equations are compared, and the specific problem of the Biscayne Bay and environs ecosystem is tackled in a finite-differences treatment using the rigid-lid model and a rigid-line grid system.

Sengupta, S.; Lee, S. S.; Veziroglu, T. N.; Bland, R.

1975-01-01

482

Spectral changes in conifers subjected to air pollution and water stress: Experimental studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The roles of leaf anatomy, moisture and pigment content, and number of leaf layers on spectral reflectance in healthy, pollution-stressed, and water-stressed conifer needles were examined experimentally. Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) and giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron gigantea) were exposed to ozone and acid mist treatments in fumigation chambers; red pine (Pinus resinosa) needles were artificially dried. Infrared reflectance from stacked needles rose with free water loss. In an air-drying experiment, cell volume reductions induced by loss of turgor caused near-infrared reflectance (TM band 4) to drop after most free water was lost. Under acid mist fumigation, stunting of tissue development similarly reduced band 4 reflectance. Both artificial drying and pollutant fumigation caused a blue shift of the red edge of spectral reflectance curves in conifers, attributable to chlorophyll denaturation. Thematic mapper band ratio 4/3 fell and 5/4 rose with increasing pollution stress on artificial drying. Loss of water by air-drying, freeze-drying, or oven-drying enhanced spectral features, due in part to greater scattering and reduced water absorption. Grinding of the leaf tissue further enhanced the spectral features by increasing reflecting surfaces and path length. In a leaf-stacking experiment, an asymptote in visible and infrared reflectance was reached at 7-8 needle layers of red pine.

Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

1988-01-01

483

The Use of Bioluminescence in Detecting Biohazardous Substances in Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an inexpensive, reproducible alternative assay that requires minimal preparation and equipment for water testing. It provides students with a direct method of detecting potentially biohazardous material in water by observing the reduction in bacterial luminescence. (PR)

Thomulka, Kenneth William; And Others

1993-01-01

484

Using molecular-scale tracers to investigate transport of agricultural pollutants in soil and water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the use of molecular-scale tracers to investigate the transport of potential pollutants due to the application of slurry to soil. The molecular-scale approach allows us to separate the pollutants which are moved to water bodies through sediment-bound and dissolved transport pathways. Slurry is applied to agricultural land to as a soil-improver across a wide-range of topographic and climatic regimes, hence a set of experiments were designed to assess the effect of changing slope gradient and rainfall intensity on the transport of pollutants. The experiments were carried out using University of Bristol's TRACE (Test Rig for Advancing Connectivity Experiments) facility. The facility includes a dual axis soil slope (6 x 2.5 x 0.3 m3) and 6-nozzle rainfall simulator, which enables the manipulation of the slope to simulate different slope gradient and rainfall scenarios. Cattle slurry was applied to the top 1 metre strip of the experimental soil slope followed by four rainfall simulations, where the gradient (5° & 10°) and the rainfall intensity (60 & 120 mm hr-1) were co-varied. Leachate was sampled from different flow pathways (surface, subsurface and percolated) via multiple outlets on the slope throughout the experiments and soil cores were taken from the slope after each experiment. Novel tracers were used to trace the pollutants in both dissolved and sediment-bound forms. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to trace dissolved slurry-derived material via water flow pathways, as the slurry was found to have a distinct signature compared with the soil. The fluorescence signatures of the leachates were compared with those of many organic compounds in order to characterise the origin of the signal. This allowed the assessment of the longevity of the signal in the environment to establish if it could be used as a robust long-term tracer of slurry material in water or