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1

Water Pollution Detection by Reflectance Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement of the intensity of light reflected from various planar liquid surfaces has been performed. The results of this brief study show that the presence of a film of foreign material floating on a reference substrate is easily detected by reflectance measurement if the two liquids possess significantly different refractive indices, for example, oil (n = 1.40) and water (n = 1.33). Additional study of various optical configurations, and the building and testing of a prototype monitoring device revealed that the method is sufficiently practical for application to continuous water quality monitoring.

Goolsby, A. D.

1971-01-01

2

Rapid Quantitative Method for Salmonella Detection in Polluted Waters  

PubMed Central

A procedure has been developed for the enumeration of salmonellae in polluted waters using several modifications of existing techniques. Confirmation of salmonellae is achieved within 48 hr. This procedure includes selective enrichment in m-Tetrathionate Broth (22 ± 1 hr), plating on Brilliant Green Sulfa Agar (20 ± 1 hr), and confirmation by flagellar (H) agglutination of the growth in a mannosecontaining medium (6 ± 1 hr). An incubation temperature of 41.5 C was used throughout this procedure. Dilution to extinction techniques (most probable number) were employed to enumerate salmonellae. Large sample volumes were concentrated through the use of membrane filters. This technique proved to be rapid and reliable for the enumeration of salmonellae in water, waste water, and waste-water sludges.

Cheng, Chu Ming; Boyle, William C.; Goepfert, J. M.

1971-01-01

3

Water Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

4

Method of and device for detecting oil pollutions on water surfaces  

DOEpatents

Detection of oil pollution on water surfaces includes providing echo signals obtained from optical radiation of a clean water area at two wavelengths, optically radiating an investigated water area at two wavelengths and obtaining echo signals from the optical radiation of the investigated water area at the two wavelengths, comparing the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the investigated area at two wavelengths with the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the clean water area, and based on the comparison, determining presence or absence of oil pollution in the investigated water area.

Belov, Michael Leonidovich (Moscow, RU); Gorodnichev, Victor Aleksandrovich (Moscow, RU); Kozintsev, Valentin Ivanovich (Moscow, RU); Smimova, Olga Alekseevna (Moscow, RU); Fedotov, Yurii Victorovich (Moscow, RU); Khroustaleva, Anastasiva Michailovnan (Moscow, RU)

2008-08-26

5

Infrared photography helps detect pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A University of Rhode Island geologist is developing a method to give new eyes to scientists looking for water pollution. John Fisher is learning to detect estuarine or coastal water pollution with infrared photography by taking aerial pictures of polluted waterways and confirming the pollution with ground sampling.According to Fisher, infrared photography enables scientists to double the spectrum of their

Anonymous

1971-01-01

6

Sensitive Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Detection of Nitroaromatic Pollutants in Water.  

PubMed

The increasing and urgent demand for clean water requires new approaches for identifying possible contaminants. In the present study, polymer substrates with embedded silver nanoparticles are employed to reveal the presence of traces of nitroaromatic compounds in water on the basis of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect. These platforms provide an easy and sensitive method of detecting of low concentrations of these organic pollutants in contaminated water. PMID:25014844

Wang, Menghan; De Vivo, Benedetto; Lu, Wanjun; Muniz-Miranda, Maurizio

2014-07-01

7

Remote sensing of water pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

White, P. G.

1971-01-01

8

Water Bottle Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The effect of water bottles and pollution around the world. Print off 3 copies of this form. W s First, let's learn about Water Bottle Pollution records on your w's form what you learned. Now let's learn about jaguars. Jaguars how can jaguars be harmed by water bottle pollution? Project: Create a travel brochure in Publisher using what you learned about water bottle pollution and jaguars. See ...

awl000422

2011-10-27

9

Storm Water Runoff Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (located on page 8 of the PDF) introduces learners to the concept of Non-point Source Pollution--what happens when rain washes garbage and other pollutants into rivers and lakes. Through this demonstration, learners observe how water systems are connected and how pollution in their own backyard can affect larger water supplies.

Museum, Chicago C.

2008-01-01

10

Detection of human-derived fecal pollution in environmental waters by use of a PCR-based human polyomavirus assay.  

PubMed

Regulatory agencies mandate the use of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli or Enterococcus spp., as microbial indicators of recreational water quality. These indicators of fecal pollution do not identify the specific sources of pollution and at times underestimate health risks associated with recreational water use. This study proposes the use of human polyomaviruses (HPyVs), which are widespread among human populations, as indicators of human fecal pollution. A method was developed to concentrate and extract HPyV DNA from environmental water samples and then to amplify it by nested PCR. HPyVs were detected in as little as 1 microl of sewage and were not amplified from dairy cow or pig wastes. Environmental water samples were screened for the presence of HPyVs and two additional markers of human fecal pollution: the Enterococcus faecium esp gene and the 16S rRNA gene of human-associated Bacteroides. The presence of human-specific indicators of fecal pollution was compared to fecal coliform and Enterococcus concentrations. HPyVs were detected in 19 of 20 (95%) samples containing the E. faecium esp gene and Bacteroides human markers. Weak or no correlation was observed between the presence/absence of human-associated indicators and counts of indicator bacteria. The sensitivity, specificity, and correlation with other human-associated markers suggest that the HPyV assay could be a useful predictor of human fecal pollution in environmental waters and an important component of the microbial-source-tracking "toolbox." PMID:16997988

McQuaig, Shannon M; Scott, Troy M; Harwood, Valerie J; Farrah, Samuel R; Lukasik, Jerzy O

2006-12-01

11

Detection of Human-Derived Fecal Pollution in Environmental Waters by Use of a PCR-Based Human Polyomavirus Assay?  

PubMed Central

Regulatory agencies mandate the use of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli or Enterococcus spp., as microbial indicators of recreational water quality. These indicators of fecal pollution do not identify the specific sources of pollution and at times underestimate health risks associated with recreational water use. This study proposes the use of human polyomaviruses (HPyVs), which are widespread among human populations, as indicators of human fecal pollution. A method was developed to concentrate and extract HPyV DNA from environmental water samples and then to amplify it by nested PCR. HPyVs were detected in as little as 1 ?l of sewage and were not amplified from dairy cow or pig wastes. Environmental water samples were screened for the presence of HPyVs and two additional markers of human fecal pollution: the Enterococcus faecium esp gene and the 16S rRNA gene of human-associated Bacteroides. The presence of human-specific indicators of fecal pollution was compared to fecal coliform and Enterococcus concentrations. HPyVs were detected in 19 of 20 (95%) samples containing the E. faecium esp gene and Bacteroides human markers. Weak or no correlation was observed between the presence/absence of human-associated indicators and counts of indicator bacteria. The sensitivity, specificity, and correlation with other human-associated markers suggest that the HPyV assay could be a useful predictor of human fecal pollution in environmental waters and an important component of the microbial-source-tracking “toolbox.”

McQuaig, Shannon M.; Scott, Troy M.; Harwood, Valerie J.; Farrah, Samuel R.; Lukasik, Jerzy O.

2006-01-01

12

Comprehensive Water Pollution Control Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Comprehensive water pollution control planning; Columbia River basin comprehensive water pollution control project; Use and role of water pollution control plan by other federal agencies; The state's role and use of pollution control plan; Why s...

1965-01-01

13

Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays for Sensitive Detection of Canada Goose-Specific Fecal Pollution in Water Sources ? †  

PubMed Central

Canada geese (Branta canadensis) are prevalent in North America and may contribute to fecal pollution of water systems where they congregate. This work provides two novel real-time PCR assays (CGOF1-Bac and CGOF2-Bac) allowing for the specific and sensitive detection of Bacteroides 16S rRNA gene markers present within Canada goose feces.

Fremaux, B.; Boa, T.; Yost, C. K.

2010-01-01

14

Application of selected methods of remote sensing for detecting carbonaceous water pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of aerial photography to determine the nature and extent of water pollution from carbonaceous materials is discussed. Flights were conducted over the Galveston Bay estuarine complex. Ground truth data were developed from field sampling of the waters in a region near the Houston Ship Channel. Tests conducted in the field were those for the following physical and chemical factors: (1) ph, (2) dissolved oxygen, (3) temperature, and (4) light penetration. Laboratory analyses to determine various properties of the water are described and the types of instruments used are identified. Results of the analyses are presented as charts and graphs.

Davis, E. M.; Fosbury, W. J.

1972-01-01

15

Fecal Pollution of Water.  

EPA Science Inventory

Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

16

ALGAE AND WATER POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Algae are involved in water pollution in a number of important ways. It requires a continuous monitoring and study of algae existing in waters of various quality in order to determine what controls or what changes or what uses can be instituted for the benefit of man and for cons...

17

Fecal Pollution of Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

18

Water Pollution Prevention and Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is designed to help students apply the pollution prevention (P2) concept to water. It contains the needed background information about water pollution and provides guidance and activities to help students describe water uses and sources, explain why water conservation is important, and explain how pollution prevention concepts can be used to conserve water and prevent water pollution. The preceding pages of the fact sheet contain background information and the definitions necessary to implement this lesson plan.

19

Algal fluorescence sensor integrated into a microfluidic chip for water pollutant detection.  

PubMed

We report the first miniaturized fluorescent sensor based on algae, with an organic light emitting diode (OLED) and an organic photodetector (OPD) integrated into a microfluidic chip. The blue emission OLED was used as the excitation source, while a blend of PTB3/PC(61)BM was used for the fabrication of the organic photodetector. Excitation and emission color filters based on acid/base dyes and a metal complex were developed and assembled with the organic optoelectronic components in order to complete the fluorescent detection system. The detection system was then integrated in a microfluidic chip made from (poly)dimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The complete sensor is designed to detect algal fluorescence in the microfluidic chamber. Algal chlorophyll fluorescence enables evaluation of the toxicity of pollutants like herbicides and metals-ions from agricultural run-offs. The entirely organic bioassay here presented allowed detection of the toxic effects of the herbicide Diuron on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii green algae that gave 50% inhibition of the algae photochemistry (EC(50)) with a concentration as low as 11 nM. PMID:22193420

Lefèvre, Florent; Chalifour, Annie; Yu, Luping; Chodavarapu, Vamsy; Juneau, Philippe; Izquierdo, Ricardo

2012-02-21

20

Water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

I am writing in reference to an article by Leonard B. Dworsky in the August issue of EOS dealing with what the author feels are the necessary steps toward an effective and credible program of water pollution control.That public expectations need to be adjusted to real world solutions can hardly be denied. The general public is all too often led

Donald F. Kostecki

1970-01-01

21

Water Pollution Control Industry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

1974-01-01

22

Identification of Bacterial DNA Markers for the Detection of Human Fecal Pollution in Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used genome fragment enrichment and bioinformatics to identify several microbial DNA sequences with high potential for use as markers in PCR assays for detection of human fecal contamination in water. Following competitive solution-phase hybridization of total DNA from human and pig fecal samples, 351 plasmid clones were sequenced and were determined to define 289 different genomic DNA regions. These

Orin C. Shanks; Jingrang Lu; Catherine A. Kelty; James E. Graham

2007-01-01

23

IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL DNA MARKERS FOR THE DETECTION OF HUMAN FECAL POLLUTION IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

We used genome fragment enrichment and bioinformatics to identify several microbial DNA sequences with high potential for use as markers in PCR assays for detection of human fecal contamination in water. Following competitive solution-phase hybridization of total DNA from human a...

24

Ground water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment, methodologies. In-situ technologies. Aquifer restoration. Applications and case studies. Decision-making. Risk assessment. References include 225 with complete abstracts. This work covers technologies for ground water pollution control in part one and deals in depth with aquifer restoration decision-making in part two, while part three gives range of case studies and detailed abstracts of 225 references. CONTENTS: 1-Introduction. Technologies for

Canter

1985-01-01

25

Storm water pollution prevention plans  

SciTech Connect

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) general permit applications for industrial storm water discharge were to have been filed by October 1992. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies are now issuing permits based on these applications. One compliance aspect of the permits is the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3). The plan must identify the facility's potential sources of storm water pollution and develop and implement best management practices (BMPs) to reduce pollutants in storm water runoff. The objectives of the NPDES storm water program are to eliminate illegal dumping and illicit connections, and to reduce pollutants in industrial storm water discharge. These regulations require industry to develop detailed facility site maps, and describe the types, amounts and locations of potential pollutants. Based on this information, industry can develop and implement best management practices to reduce pollutants in storm water runoff.

Rossmiller, R.L. (HDR Engineering, Inc., Bellevue, WA (United States))

1993-03-01

26

[Research of a bioluminent bacterial-based optical fiber sensor to detecting acute effects of pollutants in water].  

PubMed

Field detection of general toxicity is urgent demand in these years, therefore rapid, sensitive, convenient biosensor was studied to detect cute toxicity of water pollutant, which is a novel optical fiber sensor immobilized bioluminent bacterial, Photobacterium phosphorem T3. This bioluminence light was measured by light detection system after it coupling to optical fiber. For the activity and bioluminence of bacterial was seriously affected by immobilizing conditions, optimization of immobilization was studied, including the concentration of Sodium alga gel and CaCl2, immobilizing time, pH, and the preservation time. When the bacteria was immobilized with 3% sodium alga in 3% CaCl2 solution for 15 minutes, the bacteria had the best activity, and the immobilized bacteria would maintain its activity for the longest time in the 3% NaCl solution. The dose-response curves of Zn2+, NH3, nitrobenzenne and cresol are detected, and the EC50 are also calculated, which are 5.1, 10.2, 70.4, 77.0 mg x L(-1). The EC50 are quite coherent to the results of standard bioluminescent bacteria method. The optical fiber biosensor could be disposable, small sized, convenient operation for field application. PMID:18613508

Yu, Hai; He, Miao; Cai, Qiang; Zhang, Li-bing

2008-02-01

27

Water Detectives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this introductory classroom activity, students exercise their scientific skills of observation and deduction as they use their senses and simple laboratory assays, such as pH indicator paper, to identify mystery pollutants in water samples. Activity includes a student worksheet. This is a learning activity within the Hydrology chapter, GLOBE Teacher's Guide.

28

Water Pollution (Causes, Mechanisms, Solution).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show what…

Strandberg, Carl

29

Biology and Water Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

Warren, Charles E.

30

Exploring Water Pollution. Part 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists over 30 outdoor science activities dealing with water formation, erosion, pollution, and other water-related topics. Provides, in addition, a selected bibliography of films, tapes, booklets and pamphlets, and filmstrips as additional reference materials. (CP)

Rillo, Thomas J.

1976-01-01

31

Bacteriological Water Quality Methods for Determining Ruminant Fecal Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies have been completed on development of microbiological methods for detection of farm animal waste pollution of lake and river water. To differentiate ruminant fecal pollution from domestic sources, the fecal streptococcus, Streptococcus bovis, whic...

P. R. Middaugh

1975-01-01

32

A simple field test for the detection of mercury in polluted water, air and soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple field test for the detection of mercury is described. The test is based on the ligand exchange reaction where hexacyanoferrate(III) exchanges its cyanide ions with chromogenic organic ligand succinyl dihydroxamic acid (SDHA). In the reaction the colourless SDHA reacts with yellow K3Fe(CN)6 to give a greenish blue coloured complex in a slightly acidic solution containing mercury. The reaction

Lata Cherian; V. K. Gupta

1990-01-01

33

Pollutants in Airport Runoff Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Runoff waters from airport areas constitute a serious environmental problem. It is essential to monitor levels of pollutants emitted into the environment and measure their toxicity on a continuous basis. The authors’ aim was to critically review data on pollution from aviation fuel combustion, aviation fuel spillage, the washing and cleaning of aircraft and airport service equipment, and the use

Anna Maria Sulej; ?aneta Polkowska; Jacek Namie?nik

2012-01-01

34

How Does Water Get Polluted?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a hands-on modeling of the effects of pollution on our ground and surface water. Students will observe and record their observations as pollution is placed on the ground in their model and it is rained upon.

Anderson, Deb V.

35

Detection of Pollution Caused by Solid Wastes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To develop a means of detecting pollution, it s necessary to know something about the source and nature of the pollution. The type of pollution rising from solid wastes differs considerably from hat from liquid wastes or that from gaseous wastes ni its effect on the immediate environment. It may be "defined" by a series of negatives. When solid wastes are discarded on land, the resulting pollution is not land pollution in the sense of air and water pollution. For one thing, the solid wastes do not become a "part" of the land in that the wastes are neither intimately mixed nor homogenized into the land as are liquid and gaseous wastes into their respective media. The waste particles retain not only their chemical identity but also their visible (i.e., physical) characteristics. When buried, for example, the soil is under, above, and around the solids, because the wastes are there as discrete units. Secondly, solid wastes neither diffuse nor are they carried from the place at which they were deposited. In other words they remain stationary, providing of course the disposal site is land and not moving water. In a given area, solid wastes be not distributed uniformly over that area. Even the solid wastes falling into the specification of letter meets these specifications. In contrast liquid and gaseous wastes become intimately mixed, homogenized, and even dissolved in their media. Because solid wastes remain stationary, pollution constituted by their presence is highly localized and heavily concentrated, even to the extent that the pollution could be termed "micro" when compared to the macro-pollution arising from liquid and gasequs wastes.

Golueke, Clarence G.

1971-01-01

36

Water Pollution: Monitoring the Source.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an advanced biology class project involving study of the effects of organic pollution on an aquatic ecosystem from an sewage treatment plant overflow to evaluate the chemical quality and biological activity of the river water. (DS)

Wilkes, James W.

1980-01-01

37

Comparison of Four Polymerase Chain Reaction Methods for the Rapid Detection of Human Fecal Pollution in Marine and Inland Waters  

PubMed Central

We compared the effectiveness of three PCR protocols for the detection of Bifidobacterium adolescentis and one PCR protocol for detecting Bacteroidales as indicators of human fecal pollution in environmental samples. Quantitative PCR indicated that a higher concentration of B. adolescentis DNA was recovered from sewage samples on the 0.2??m filters compared to the 0.45??m filters, and there was no evidence of qPCR inhibitors in the DNA extracts. With the Matsuki method (1999), B. adolescentis was detected only in undiluted sewage samples. The King method (2007) performed well and detected B. adolescentis in all of the sewage dilutions (from undiluted to 10?4). In contrast, the Bonjoch approach (2004) was effective at detecting B. adolescentis at lower dilutions (10?3) of sewage samples and it gave false positive results with some (3/8) pig fecal samples. Human-specific Bacteroidales (HuBacs) were detected in the lower diluents of sewage samples but was positive in pig (6/8) and cattle fecal samples. PCR detection of B. adolescentis in marine samples from Puerto Rico and freshwater samples from Georgia indicated that the PCR method of King et al. (2007) and the modified Layton method for HuBac were in agreement in detecting human fecal pollution in most sites.

Bachoon, Dave S.; Miller, Cortney M.; Green, Christen P.; Otero, Ernesto

2010-01-01

38

Good operating practices cut water pollution  

SciTech Connect

This paper explains how the pipeline industry can avoid violating the Clean Water Act (PL 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act), which states that pollution of US waters from any cause other than an act of God, war or Government negligence is the responsibility of the owner or operator of the facility. Reporting pollution to the National Response Center will limit the maximum penalty to $5,000 Rectifiers must be kept in top operating condition, and visual inspections of the right-of-way by aerial or ground patrols must detect construction of new pipelines or other facilities. Accidental damage by third parties is the major cause of failures in pipeline systems, which can be prevented by periodic contact with landowners. Conclusion is that if a pipeline operator follows good operating and maintenance practices, his exposure to effects of the Clean Water Act will be minimal.

West, D.E.

1982-07-12

39

Water Pollution Control courses offered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manhattan College will conduct the Nineteenth Summer Institute in Water Pollution Control, May 2024, 1974. Two one-week courses will be offered concurrently for advanced study in biological waste treatment and mathematical modeling of natural water systems. Enrollment, on a preregistration basis, will be limited.This continuing engineering education program is designed to enhance the competence of practicing engineers and scientists in

Anonymous

1974-01-01

40

Ground water. [Water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence that the Nation's ground water is contaminated by a variety of sources. These include unprotected industrial, municipal, and radioactive disposal sites, petroleum exploration and mining activities, agricultural operations such as insecticide spraying, high de-icing salts and others. As of March 1980, more than 8000 chemical tests have been performed on well water, with chlorinated organic solvents

Costle

1980-01-01

41

Water Pollution Scrubber Activity Simulates Pollution Control Devices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory activity caused students to think actively about water pollution. The students realized that it would be easier to keep water clean than to remove pollutants. They created a water scrubbing system allowing them to pour water in one end and have it emerge clean at the other end. (JOW)

Kennedy, Edward C., III; Waggoner, Todd C.

2003-01-01

42

Combined air and water pollution control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

Wolverton, Billy C. (inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (inventor)

1990-01-01

43

Careers in Water Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are the activities, responsibilities, and educational and training requirements of the major occupations directly concerned with water pollution control. Also provided is an overview of employment trends, salaries, and projected demand for employees. Included in the appendix is a list of colleges and universities which offer…

Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

44

Testing Water for Bacterial Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of water pollution control. It is a learning activity directed toward high school students of biology and/or ecology. A general knowledge of microbiology techniques is regarded as a prerequisite for the lesson. Behavioral objectives are given. Emphasis is placed on use of techniques and materials…

Dillner, Harry

45

How Did That Get There?: Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a group, learners consider sources of water pollution to understand where pollution starts and where it ends up. Also explored are the natural and human-made options for cleaning up our water supply. This activity encourages learners to use their powers of observation, imagination, and public speaking skills as they describe possible pollution stories and scenarios, and brainstorm pollution prevention efforts.

Illinois, University O.

2009-01-01

46

Groundwater and surface water pollution  

SciTech Connect

This book contains almost all the technical know-how that is required to clean up the water supply. It provides a survey of up-to-date technologies for remediation, as well as a step-by-step guide to pollution assessment for both ground and surface waters. In addition to focusing on causes, effects, and remedies, the book stresses reuse, recycling, and recovery of resources. The authors suggest that through total recycling wastes can become resources.

Chae, Y.S.; Hamidi, A. [eds.

2000-07-01

47

Groundwater and surface water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book contains almost all the technical know-how that is required to clean up the water supply. It provides a survey of up-to-date technologies for remediation, as well as a step-by-step guide to pollution assessment for both ground and surface waters. In addition to focusing on causes, effects, and remedies, the book stresses reuse, recycling, and recovery of resources. The

Y. S. Chae; A. Hamidi

2000-01-01

48

Water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The `Act of 76' arose out of an inquiry about `...how far the present use of rivers or running waters...for the purpose of carrying off the sewage of towns...and the refuse from industrial processes and manufacturers...can be prevented without risk to the public health or serious injury to such processes...and how far such sewage and refuse can be utilized and

Bernard B. Berger; Leonard B. Dworsky

1977-01-01

49

Good operating practices cut water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explains how the pipeline industry can avoid violating the Clean Water Act (PL 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act), which states that pollution of US waters from any cause other than an act of God, war or Government negligence is the responsibility of the owner or operator of the facility. Reporting pollution to the National Response Center will

1982-01-01

50

Marine oil pollution detection with MODIS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine oil pollution is one of the most serious pollutants on the damage to the contemporary marine environment, with the characteristics of a wide range of proliferation, which is difficult to control and eliminate. As a result, marine oil pollution has caused huge economic losses. The remote sensing sensors can detect and record the spectral information of sea film and background seawater. Here we chose to use 250-resolution MODIS data in the area of Dalian Xingang, China where ill spill case was happened on April.4th, 2005. Based on the image pre-processing and enhanced image processing, the spectral features of different bands were analyzed. More obvious characteristics of the spectral range of film was obtained. The oil-water contrast was calculated to evaluate the feature of oil at different spectral band. The result indicates that IR band has the maximum value of reflective. So band ratio was used between 400nm and 800nm and the original radiance images were used between 800nm and 2130nm. In order to get the most obvious images of entropy windows of different sizes were tested in order to decide the optimum window. At last, a FCM fuzzy clustering method and image texture analysis was combined for the MODIS images of the oil spill area segmentation. At last, the oil spill zone was estimated, the results were satisfied.

Xu, Lina; Niu, Ruiqing; Xiao, Kang; Fang, Shenghui; Dong, Yanfang

2013-10-01

51

Energy analysis of regional water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of water pollution control that were used to restore water quality of Oregon's Willamette River basin are reviewed. A water pollution control strategy that takes environmental, economic, and energy use impacts into consideration is proposed based on experiences in the Willamette basin. In the control strategy, site-specific data are used to devise a water quality index for the basin.

R. J. Heggen; K. J. Williamson

1979-01-01

52

Air pollution: sensitive detection of ten pollutant gases by carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide lasers.  

PubMed

Detection sensitivities of a few parts per billion for ten gaseous pollutants have been evaluated by measuring the strength of the absorption of infrared radiation from carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide lasers. Ethylene concentrations as small as 5 parts per billion have been detected in air. The measured absorption strengths indicate that in mixtures of pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide and water vapor, the sensitivity is reduced by overlapping absorption bands. However, calculations indicate that it should be possible to detect nitrogen dioxide concentrations of 0.01 part per million in the presence of water vapor concentrations of 105 parts per million. PMID:5035485

Kreuzer, L B; Kenyon, N D; Patel, C K

1972-07-28

53

Infrared differential absorption for atmospheric pollutant detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress made in the generation of tunable infrared radiation and its application to remote pollutant detection by the differential absorption method are summarized. It is recognized that future remote pollutant measurements depended critically on the availability of high energy tunable transmitters. Futhermore, due to eye safety requirements, the transmitted frequency must lie in the 1.4 micron to 13 micron infrared spectral range.

Byer, R. L.

1974-01-01

54

Agricultural water pollution control: An interdisciplinary approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation and control of agricultural water pollution is unique and difficult to accomplish. Water quality standards are often proposed without adequate consideration of the overall economic impact on agricultural production. This article illustrates how economists and physical scientists can cooperate to develop appropriate control strategies for agricultural water pollution. Data provided by physical scientists and economists are used in a

Watkins W. Miller; Chauncey T. K. Ching; John F. Yanagida; Paul Jakus

1985-01-01

55

Rural industries and water pollution in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pollution from small rural industries is a serious problem throughout China. Over half of all river sections monitored for water quality are rated as being unsafe for human contact, and this pollution is estimated to cost several per cent of GDP. While China has some of the toughest environmental protection laws in the world, the implementation of these laws

Mark Wang; Michael Webber; Brian Finlayson; Jon Barnett

2008-01-01

56

Global trends in water pollution control legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope of legislation on water pollution control is initially examined. Then, the administrative machinery responsible for implementing water pollution control programs is examined, after which the approaches taken by selected countries (Norway, India, USA, Netherlands, Mexico, and New South Wales) to deal with the problem is reviewed. There follows an analysis of the policies adopted by various countries to

G. Ozolins; S. S. Fluss; R. Helmer

1977-01-01

57

Symposium on costs of water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A National Symposium on Costs of Water Pollution Control will be held in Raleigh, North Carolina, April 67, 1972. The symposium is sponsored by the Research Triangle Universities (Duke University, North Carolina State University, and the University of North Carolina and several national societies. The program will include sessions on economic implications of national goals for water pollution control cost

Anonymous

1972-01-01

58

The Practice of Water Pollution Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water pollution techniques and practices, including data analysis, interpretation and display are described in this book intended primarily for the biologist inexperienced in this work, and for sanitary engineers, chemists, and water pollution control administrators. The characteristics of aquatic environments, their biota, and the effects of…

Mackenthun, Kenneth M.

59

Factors controlling bioindicators for industrial pollution detection.  

PubMed

This study describes the use of algae as potential bioindicators of pollution containing industrial metals. Phytoplanktonic algae varied with waste type and with environmental and growth conditions. In water samples containing ceramic waste Euglenophyta species and Cyclotella sp. (Bacillariophyta) were determined as potential indicator species of pollution, while in sample containing metallic waste, Cyclotella sp. was most dominant. Under laboratory growth conditions, phytoplankton collected from a major stream of the Nile River were cultivated by using Algal Growth Bottle Test (EPA, 1972). This revealed that Scenedesmus sp., Actinastrum hantzschii (Chlorophyta), Oscillatoria limnetica (Cyanophyta) and Nitzschia linearis (Bacillariophyta) were also potential indicators of pollution. PMID:10674183

Ali, G H; Abd el-Salam, N F

1999-09-01

60

Multiple Interactive Pollutants in Water Quality Trading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient environmental management calls for the consideration of multiple pollutants, for which two main types of transferable discharge permit (TDP) program have been described: separate permits that manage each pollutant individually in separate markets, with each permit based on the quantity of the pollutant or its environmental effects, and weighted-sum permits that aggregate several pollutants as a single commodity to be traded in a single market. In this paper, we perform a mathematical analysis of TDP programs for multiple pollutants that jointly affect the environment (i.e., interactive pollutants) and demonstrate the practicality of this approach for cost-efficient maintenance of river water quality. For interactive pollutants, the relative weighting factors are functions of the water quality impacts, marginal damage function, and marginal treatment costs at optimality. We derive the optimal set of weighting factors required by this approach for important scenarios for multiple interactive pollutants and propose using an analytical elasticity of substitution function to estimate damage functions for these scenarios. We evaluate the applicability of this approach using a hypothetical example that considers two interactive pollutants. We compare the weighted-sum permit approach for interactive pollutants with individual permit systems and TDP programs for multiple additive pollutants. We conclude by discussing practical considerations and implementation issues that result from the application of weighted-sum permit programs.

Sarang, Amin; Lence, Barbara J.; Shamsai, Abolfazl

2008-10-01

61

Review of water pollution control in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resource shortage and pollution has seriously threatened the survival and development of developing countries. Because\\u000a of China’s specific economical and social circumstances, complete adoption of developed countries’ experience is unrealistic.\\u000a At present, China needs to develop strategies and technologies in source water pollution control and municipal environmental\\u000a remediation that embrace the country’s specific need to battle the water resource

Tingyao Gao; Hongbin Chen; Siqing Xia; Zengyan Zhou

2008-01-01

62

Some Thoughts on Water Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To set the background for stress related atherosclerosis in fish a review of what pollution does as a stress factor in the Delaware River is presented. It is pointed out that pollution, especially of industrial origin, stresses fish by causing pH changes,...

C. G. Wilber

1966-01-01

63

Pollution of surface water in Europe  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses pollution of surface water in 18 European countries. For each an account is given of its physical character, population, industries, and present condition of water supplies; the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling pollution are then described, and an outline is given of current research on the difficulties peculiar to each country. A general discussion of various aspects common to the European problem of water pollution follows; standards of quality are suggested; some difficulties likely to arise in the near future are indicated, and international collaboration, primarily by the exchange of information, is recommended to check or forestall these trends.

Key, A.

1956-01-01

64

Water Pollution Control Revolving Fund (Revised Edition).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since passage of the Illinois Environmental Protection Act and the Illinois Anti-Pollution Bond Act in 1970 and the federal Water Pollution Control Act in 1972, massive State and federal grant assistance programs have been directed towards meeting the Sta...

1993-01-01

65

Engineering aspects of water pollution control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of proper engineering when providing pollution control systems is emphasized. Organization of engineering projects is described in detail. Included are discussions of: (1) collection and evaluation of available data; (2) establishment of survey and test program; (3) integration and evaluation of findings; (4) establishment of pollution control and water utilization systems; and (5) specification and detailed design preparation.

R. G. Dalbke; A. J. Turk

1967-01-01

66

Special Topics in Water Science (Water Pollution)  

MedlinePLUS

... Site map Help Home Water Basics Water Properties Water Cycle Surface Water Groundwater Water Quality Water Use Activities ... saline water, watersheds, runoff, and hydrology. Investigate the water cycle (in many languages!) Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and ...

67

Detection of Water and Sediments Pollution of An Arid Saltern (Sfax, Tunisia) by Coupling the Distribution of Microorganisms With Hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the coupling of abundance of bacteria, phytoplankton and ciliates with hydrocarbons in the surface water and\\u000a sediments of five interconnected ponds in the arid Sfax solar salterns. This study aimed at determining the potential sources\\u000a of hydrocarbons and the effects of salinity gradients on microorganism metabolism. Hydrocarbon analysis was performed by gas\\u000a chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled

Jannet Elloumi; Wassim Guermazi; Habib Ayadi; Abderrahmen Bouaïn; Lotfi Aleya

2008-01-01

68

Belastung von Boeden und Gewaessern. (Soil and water pollution).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Findings of soil and water pollution studies were presented at a conference of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Grossfroschungseinrichtungen (AGF). The problem of soil and water pollution is past of the general subject 'analysis of environmental pollution' in envi...

1991-01-01

69

Analysis considerations relating to water pollution emergency incidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planning for high impact very low probability events is very difficult. This is particularly true when dealing with the analysis arising from potable water emergency pollution incidents. The main issues are: how to rapidly detect when significant contamination has occurred; to identify the cause or convincingly prove a negative in the absence of contamination and finally maintain an efficient and

K. Clive Thompson; Peter Benke

2005-01-01

70

Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

71

Sensitivity Analysis for some Water Pollution Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensitivity Analysis for Some Water Pollution Problems Francois-Xavier Le Dimet1 & Tran Thu Ha2 & M. Yousuff Hussaini3 1Université de Grenoble, France, 2Vietnamese Academy of Sciences, 3 Florida State University Sensitivity analysis employs some response function and the variable with respect to which its sensitivity is evaluated. If the state of the system is retrieved through a variational data assimilation process, then the observation appears only in the Optimality System (OS). In many cases, observations have errors and it is important to estimate their impact. Therefore, sensitivity analysis has to be carried out on the OS, and in that sense sensitivity analysis is a second order property. The OS can be considered as a generalized model because it contains all the available information. This presentation proposes a method to carry out sensitivity analysis in general. The method is demonstrated with an application to water pollution problem. The model involves shallow waters equations and an equation for the pollutant concentration. These equations are discretized using a finite volume method. The response function depends on the pollutant source, and its sensitivity with respect to the source term of the pollutant is studied. Specifically, we consider: • Identification of unknown parameters, and • Identification of sources of pollution and sensitivity with respect to the sources. We also use a Singular Evolutive Interpolated Kalman Filter to study this problem. The presentation includes a comparison of the results from these two methods. .

Le Dimet, François-Xavier; Tran Thu, Ha; Hussaini, Yousuff

2014-05-01

72

Water hyacinths for removal of phenols from polluted waters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Removal of phenol by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in static water was investigated. 2.75 g dry weight of this aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to absorb 100 mg of phenol per plant per 72 hours from distilled water, river water, and bayou water. One hectare of water hyacinth plants is shown to be potentially capable of removing 160 kg of phenol per 72 hours from waters polluted with this chemical.

Wolverton, B. C.

1975-01-01

73

The spectral absorption coefficient at 254nm as a real-time early warning proxy for detecting faecal pollution events at alpine karst water resources  

PubMed Central

Because spring water quality from alpine karst aquifers can change very rapidly during event situations, water abstraction management has to be performed in near real-time. Four summer events (2005-2008) at alpine karst springs were investigated in detail in order to evaluate the spectral absorption coefficient at 254nm (SAC254) as a real-time early warning proxy for faecal pollution. For the investigation Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Satellite-based data communication between portable hydrometeorological measuring stations and an automated microbiological sampling device was used. The method for event triggered microbial sampling and analyzing was already established and described in a previous paper (Stadler et al., Wat. Sci. Technol. 58(4): 899-909, 2008). Data analysis including on-line event characterisation (i.e. precipitation, discharge, turbidity, SAC254) and comprehensive E. coli determination (n > 800) indicated that SAC254 is a useful early warning proxy. Irrespective of the studied event situations SAC254 always increased 3 to 6 hours earlier than the onset of faecal pollution, featuring different correlation phases. Furthermore, it seems also possible to use SAC254 as a real-time proxy parameter for estimating the extent of faecal pollution after establishing specific spring and event-type calibrations that take into consideration the variability of the occurrence and the transferability of faecal material It should be highlighted that diffuse faecal pollution from wildlife and live stock sources was responsible for spring water contamination at the investigated catchments. In this respect, the SAC254 can also provide useful information to support microbial source tracking efforts where different situations of infiltration have to be investigated.

Stadler, H.; Klock, E.; Skritek, P.; Mach, R.L.; Zerobin, W.; Farnleitner, A.H.

2011-01-01

74

Magnitude of pollution indicator organisms in rural potable water.  

PubMed Central

A total of 460 water samples were randomly drawn from the potable water supply sources of rural communities in three counties of South Carolina. About 10% of the population, not incorporated in municipalities, was sampled. The samples were tested for total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci. Significant levels of these pollution indicator organisms were detected in almost all the water supplies. Total coliforms were the most common, and only 7.5% of the water supplies were uncontaminated. E. coli, considered a reliable indicator of recent and dangerous pollution, was observed in 43% of the water supplies. Statistical analyses indicated that the bacterial populations, especially E. coli, were associated with the supply source depth and its distance from the septic tank. Total coliform counts were also weakly correlated to the pH of the water.

Sandhu, S S; Warren, W J; Nelson, P

1979-01-01

75

E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (water pollution and control). E-mail newsletter  

SciTech Connect

Topics of discussion include the following: Pollution by municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mine wastes, radioactive contaminants; Chemistry and analysis of pollutants; Thermal pollution; Oil pollution; Control techniques and equipment; Sewage treatment; Industrial waste water pretreatment; Hydrology and limnology; Biological and ecological effects; Waste water reuse; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

NONE

1999-04-01

76

Effects of Water Pollution on Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an inquiry activity that, while based on a local area (the San Francisco Bay), could be adapted to the teacher's/student's local area. Students perform an experiment in which they observe how water pollution is absorbed into plants. The site contains a teacher's guide and printable student worksheet.

77

Mathematical modeling for water pollution control processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic and steady-state mathematical models have been developed to the extent that they can be used to evaluate, through a series of simulations, design and operation alternatives as well as control strategies for any system. This book focuses on process performance models in water pollution control. Its purpose is: to establish the current status of existing models with emphasis on

T. M. Keinath; M. P. Wanielista

1975-01-01

78

Water Pollution Control Across the Nation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewed are accomplishments, problems, and frustrations faced by individual states in meeting requirements of P.L. 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. State Environmental officials complain the new law may be a hindrance to established cleanup programs. Statistics and charts are given. (BL)

Environmental Science and Technology, 1973

1973-01-01

79

Public Information for Water Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a handbook for water pollution control personnel to guide them towards a successful public relations program. This handbook was written to incorporate the latest methods of teaching basic public information techniques to the non-professional in this area. Contents include: (1) a rationale for a public information program; (2)…

Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

80

Good operating practices cut water pollution  

SciTech Connect

This article advises the pipeline industry on how to comply with the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (PL 92-500), which states that pollution of US waters by any cause other than an ''Act of God,'' ''Act of War,'' or US Government negligence is the responsibility of the owner or operator of the facility. Points out that the actions of third parties do not relieve owners or operators of liability unless they are the sole cause of pollution. Emphasizes that liability can be reduced by prompt reporting of pollution to the National Response Center. Reveals that the major cause of failures in pipeline systems is accidental damage by third parties. Proposes tha the best defense against pipeline damage resulting from landowner activity is periodic contact of the landowner by the operator. Recommends aerial and ground patrols as sources of information on construction activities. Concludes that assessing a penalty against the party causing the pollution would be better than merely penalizing the pipeline operator.

West, D.E.

1982-07-12

81

Environmental impact analysis in water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for a wide?ranging environmental impact analysis to guide the establishment of water quality objectives and the associated effluent discharge standards is discussed. The particular problems associated with water pollution control are identified including: multiple and conflicting demands; multiple parameter objective specifications, the stochastic and time varying nature of the system; secondary and tertiary effects; and time?delay.Current environmental impact

Jeremy P. Lumbers

1985-01-01

82

Development of a System to Detect and Monitor Sediment Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A system to monitor sediment pollution is presented. A modified electrical resistivity device was used to study laboratory and offshore sediment pollution. In the laboratory, several different soil types saturated in a simulated sea water with or without ...

V. A. Nacci

1976-01-01

83

Agricultural water pollution control: An interdisciplinary approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regulation and control of agricultural water pollution is unique and difficult to accomplish. Water quality standards are often proposed without adequate consideration of the overall economic impact on agricultural production. This article illustrates how economists and physical scientists can cooperate to develop appropriate control strategies for agricultural water pollution. Data provided by physical scientists and economists are used in a linear programming model to describe salt discharge as a function of water management, production levels, and an associated effluent charge. Four water management activities were chosen on the basis of different costs of production (including a parametrically varied effluent charge), water requirements, alfalfa yields, and levels of salt discharge. Results indicate that when the effluent charge is low (<0.20/metric ton salt discharged), maximum production with maximum salt discharge is most profitable. As the effluent charge is increased (0.20 0.40/metric ton salt discharged), it becomes progressively less profitable to produce alfalfa at maximum levels of pollutant discharge. When the effluent charge is >0.40/metric ton salt discharged, alfalfa production is no longer economically feasible. An important aspect of this approach is that it permits policy makers to identify explicitly the relationship between the environmental standard and the effect on agricultural production.

Miller, Watkins W.; Ching, Chauncey T. K.; Yanagida, John F.; Jakus, Paul

1985-01-01

84

Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

Rowbotham, N.

1973-01-01

85

Water pollution control in Canada: cleanup through collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent survey indicates that Canadians are willing to pay more taxes and higher prices to solve their country's air and water pollution problems. The political pollution control organization in Canada, the development of regulations for water pollution control, municipal facility construction and treatment levels, and the challenge for the Great Lakes are discussed. Environmental problems in Canada, particularly water

Feliciano

1979-01-01

86

Experimental infrared measurements for hydrocarbon pollutant determination in subterranean waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subterranean waters are often polluted by industrial and anthropic effluents that are drained in subsoil. To prevent and control pollution, legislations of different developed countries require an online monitoring measurement, especially for detecting organic solvents (chlorinated and unchlorinated ones). Online measurements include both real-time and no real-time measurements. In general, it is difficult to implement real-time measurements in stricto sensu for online acquisitions on aqueous effluents since they need to be processed by a modeling. This research presents an experimental measurement system based on infrared (IR) spectroscopy for aqueous effluents containing hydrocarbons and capable of displaying excellent values of pollutant concentrations even in instable conditions; the system is able to detect pollutants either in laminar or turbulent flow. The results show the possibility of avoiding the use of ``Pitot tube'' that is employed to create a stagnation point in order to convert kinetic energy into potential one. This conversion allows the transformation of a turbulent flow in a laminar flow making easy measurement of pollutants included in an aqueous effluent. Obviously, ``Pitot tube'' is also used for other fluid effluents. The obtained results have been compared with those produced by means of sophisticated IR instrumentation for laboratory applications.

Lay-Ekuakille, A.; Palamara, I.; Caratelli, D.; Morabito, F. C.

2013-01-01

87

Correlation of tetrachloroethylene in blood and in drinking water: A case of well water pollution  

SciTech Connect

Tetrachloroethylene has been widely used for the cleaning of cloth for many years. Currently, this chemical together with trichloroethylene (TRI) appears to be the most prevailing pollutant of ground water in various countries including Japan. While the biological monitoring of TETRA exposure is popular in occupational health, TETRA was seldom analyzed in the subjects exposed through the general environment. In the present report, a case of water pollution with TETRA is described in which up to 5 {mu}g/L TETRA was detected in the blood of the inhabitants in a area where well water was contaminated with TETRA.

Kido, Kazuhiro; Shiratori, Takehiko; Watanabe, Takao; Nakatsuka, Haruo; Ohashi, Mariko; Ikeda, Masayuki (Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan))

1989-09-01

88

The national recreational fishing benefits of water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented of an effort to estimate the fresh water recreational fishing benefit derived from water pollution control efforts. Methodology is potentially applicable to other subcategories. (PSB)

Clifford S. Russell; William J. Vaughan

1982-01-01

89

A Pollution Offset System for Trading NonPoint Source Water Pollution Permits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pollution from non-point sources is a global environmental concern. Economists propose tradable permit systems as a\\u000a solution, but they are difficult to implement due to the nature of non-point sources. We present a pollution offset system\\u000a for trading non-point source water pollution permits. Conventional pollution offset systems suffer from thin markets and transaction\\u000a costs. In this paper, we show

R. A. Ranga Prabodanie; John F. Raffensperger; Mark W. Milke

2010-01-01

90

The Pollution Detectives, Part III: Roadside Lead Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a simple test tube method developed lead analysis of samples of roadside soil. The relationship between the results and the traffic flow indicate car exhausts are the major source of lead pollution. Materials and procedures are detailed. An example of results is provided. (Author/CW)

Sanderson, Phil

1989-01-01

91

Assessing the effectiveness of regulatory controls on farm pollution using chemical and biological indices of water quality and pollution statistics.  

PubMed

Water quality was measured in 42 streams in the Colebrooke and Upper Bann catchments in Northern Ireland over the period 1990-1998. Despite ongoing pollution control measures, biological water quality, as determined by the invertebrate average score per taxon (ASPT) index, did not improve and there was no appreciable decline in recorded farm pollution incidents. However, the lack of decline in pollution incidents could reflect changes in detection policy, as a greater proportion of incidents were recorded from less polluting discharges such as farm-yard runoff. In contrast, there was an improvement during 1997 and 1998 in annual chemical water quality classification based on exceedence values (90th percentiles) for dissolved oxygen, ammonium and BOD concentrations. In 1998, 11.9% of streams were severely polluted compared to 26.2% in 1990, while the proportion classed as of salmonid water quality, increased from 40.5% in 1990 to 59.6% in 1998. Although water quality in 1996 did not improve relative to 1990 values, there was a notable increasing trend from 1990 in the numbers of samples taken during the summer which had good water quality with low ammonium (<0.6mgN l(-1)) and high dissolved oxygen (> 70% sat). The trend for samples with low BOD (<4 mgl(-1)) was more erratic, but an improvement was apparent from 1994. These improvements in chemical water quality suggest that point-source farm pollution declined after 1990. The fact that this was not reflected in stream biology may reflect the limited time scale for biological recovery. An important factor preventing biological recovery may be the high pollution capacity of manures and silage effluent, so that even reduced numbers of farm pollution incidents can severely perturb stream ecosystems. The intractable nature of farm pollution suggests that there is a need to consider an interactive approach to problem resolution involving both farmers and regulators. PMID:11471701

Foy, R H; Lennox, S D; Smith, R V

2001-08-01

92

Implementation of water-pollution-control measures: section 208 of the Water Pollution Control Act Amendments  

SciTech Connect

Federal water pollution abatement legislation has incorporated more localized implementation provisions in recent years, such as Section 208 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. The goal is to spur local and regional abatement efforts through cooperation by various local governmental entities. But that goal has not been met in the majority of cases because of political opposition and lack of statutory clarity. Any future attempt at localized implementation of federal mandates can profit from the experience of Section 208 and include true flexibility and opportunity for cooperation. 64 references.

Wilkins, L.P.

1980-01-01

93

Loading of water and soil by pollutants in Shelby County  

SciTech Connect

Our environment is constantly being polluted by humans and animals. Pollution is increased by modern practices, such as the use of pesticides, herbicides and other chemicals. The number of household pets in the US is increasing and they add to the pollution. In a city, such as Memphis, where production of chemical compounds is relatively high, the pollution of the environment may grow worse unless concerted efforts are made to control it. This study was undertaken to indicate the possible extent of pollution of the surface soil in and near Memphis. Runoff contributes to the pollution of the waterways and their ultimate resting sites. So, water analyses are useful indicators of pollution.

Madhavan, K. (Christian Brothers Univ., Memphis, TN (USA))

1990-10-01

94

Biocomposting of distillery waste to control water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a developing country like India, distillery industries have become a major source of pollution, as 88% of its raw materials are converted into waste and discharged into the water bodies, causing water pollution. The waste water from distilleries carry appreciable organic load. The spent wash is colored, highly acidic with very offensive odor, which poses serious environmental problems. To

Ashok Kumar Ghosh; Bihari Singh; Nupur Bose; K. K. Tiwari

2003-01-01

95

The study of venous channel water pollution load reduction technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, Hongqi River of WuJin River watershed (china) was selected as an example, aims to use QUAL2K water quality model simulation water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, forecasting the pollution load of the Hongqi River basin, and compared to the actual emissions of pollution load, calculated the load reduction rate for satisfying the water quality objectives. At

Ruibin Zhang; Yanyan Dou; Ping Sun; Yiyao Bai; Xin Qian

2011-01-01

96

Controlling Nonpoint-Source Water Pollution: A Citizen's Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Citizens can play an important role in helping their states develop pollution control programs and spurring effective efforts to deal with nonpoint-source pollution. This guide takes the reader step-by-step through the process that states must follow to comply with water quality legislation relevant to nonpoint-source pollution. Part I provides…

Hansen, Nancy Richardson; And Others

97

Continuous surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy for the detection of trace organic pollutants in aqueous systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Raman spectroscopy, detection limits for organic pollutants in water can be lowered by several orders of magnitude when surface enhanced techniques are applied. In this work a continuous analytical device based on flow injection analysis using SERS detection is proposed. This system was tested with model analytes such as pyridine and nicotinic acid as well as several pesticides (carbendazim, metazachlorine).

Wei?enbacher, N.; Lendl, B.; Frank, J.; Wanzenböck, H. D.; Mizaikoff, B.; Kellner, R.

1997-06-01

98

Oil Pollution Detection and Discrimination by Remot Sensing Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Airborne remote sensing techniques were applied to the detection and discrimination of pollution by oil on the ocean surface. The tests were performed in the Gulf of Mexico during April, 1970. Pollutants investigated included No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oi...

J. C. Aukland D. T. Trexler

1970-01-01

99

The Current State of Water Quality and Technology Development for Water Pollution Control in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes and presents an overview of the current state of water pollution, as well as recent progress and the potential future development of water pollution control technology, in China. Although China has made significant strides in water environmental protection over the past decades, analysis reveals that water pollution in the nation is still not sufficiently controlled, with a

Jiuhui Qu; Maohong Fan

2010-01-01

100

Detection of persistent organic pollutants in the Mississippi Delta using semipermeable membrane devices  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) placed in five Mississippi Delta streams in 1996 and 1997, the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) aldrin, chlordane, DCPA, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, mirex, nonachlor, and toxaphene were detected. In addition, the insecticides chlorpyriphos, endosulfan, and hexachlorocyclohexanes were detected. Two low-solubility herbicides not detected commonly in surface water, pendimethalin and trifluralin, were also detected. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

Zimmerman, L. R.; Thurman, E. M.; Bastian, K. C.

2000-01-01

101

Water system virus detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of a waste water reclamation system is monitored by introducing a non-pathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, into the waste-water prior to treatment and, thereafter, testing the reclaimed water for the presence of the marker virus. A test sample is first concentrated by absorbing any marker virus onto a cellulose acetate filter in the presence of a trivalent cation at low pH and then flushing the filter with a limited quantity of a glycine buffer solution to desorb any marker virus present on the filter. Photo-optical detection of indirect passive immune agglutination by polystyrene beads indicates the performance of the water reclamation system in removing the marker virus. A closed system provides for concentrating any marker virus, initiating and monitoring the passive immune agglutination reaction, and then flushing the system to prepare for another sample.

Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J. (inventors)

1978-01-01

102

Semiconducting Metal Oxide Based Sensors for Selective Gas Pollutant Detection  

PubMed Central

A review of some papers published in the last fifty years that focus on the semiconducting metal oxide (SMO) based sensors for the selective and sensitive detection of various environmental pollutants is presented.

Kanan, Sofian M.; El-Kadri, Oussama M.; Abu-Yousef, Imad A.; Kanan, Marsha C.

2009-01-01

103

Investigation of Remote Sensing Techniques for Agricultural Feedlot Pollution Detection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research effort was directed toward the application of remote sensing techniques to the detection and monitoring of pollution from cattle feeding operations. Five livestock feeding operations were selected for the study along the James River from Hur...

F. A. Schmer D. W. Ryland F. A. Waltz

1973-01-01

104

Water system virus detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A monitoring system developed to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water is described. A nonpathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. Detection of the marker virus consists of two major components, concentration and isolation of the marker virus, and detection of the marker virus. The concentration system involves adsorption of virus to cellulose acetate filters in the presence of trivalent cations and low pH with subsequent desorption of the virus using volumes of high pH buffer. The detection of the virus is performed by a passive immune agglutination test utilizing specially prepared polystyrene particles. An engineering preliminary design was performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation are presented. The instrument consists of reagent pump/metering system, reagent storage containers, a filter concentrator, an incubation/detector system, and an electronic readout and control system.

Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.

1975-01-01

105

Effect of Water Source Pollution on the Water Quality of Shanghai Water Supply System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the quality of water source in Shanghai, China and its water supply system. The effect of purification by traditional water treatment process and the effluent biological stability were evaluated by measuring quality parameters in the water supply system. The data showed that the main pollutants in the water source of Huangpu River were organics and ammonia. The

XIAOHUI BAI; XIAOHONG ZHANG; QUN SUN; XINZE WANG; BIN ZHU

2006-01-01

106

Pollution-control equipment (Colombia). Water-pollution-control equipment, May 1992. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

There are few manufacturers of water pollution control equipment in Colombia. Imports of water pollution equipment decreased 14 percent from US $16.3 million in 1990 to US $14.2 million in 1991. For 1992, they may fall 5 percent to US $13.5 million due to the slow performance of the economy. The close relationship with U.S. suppliers and the possible enforcement of water quality standards could influence favorably the growth of imports within the next three years. For many years, the U.S. has been the major supplier of water pollution control equipment.

Not Available

1992-05-01

107

Diel Variability of Water Quality in a Tropical Polluted Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective is to describe and quantify the diel variability of water quality in a tropical coastal system, Guanabara Bay, Brazil. Water samples were collected in spring and neap tide cycles over 24 h periods at three strategic sites. A pollution gradient was evident between the sampling sites. The average fecal coliform values decreased from 106 (site 3, most polluted)

Rodolfo Paranhos; André P. Pereira; Letícia M. Mayr

1998-01-01

108

Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

Fowler, K. E. M.

109

EFFECTIVENESS OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential water quality effects and economic implications of soil and water conservation practices (SWCPs) are identified. Method for estimating the effects of SWCPs on pollutant losses from croplands are presented. Mathematical simulation and linear programming models were u...

110

The Role of Tradable Permits in Water Pollution Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This working paper first introduces tradable permits as part of an overall taxonomy of economic instruments in the field of water management. In this context, three fundamentally different fields of application of tradable permits systems relating to water are presented: tradable water abstraction rights, tradable rights to water-based resources and tradable water pollution rights. Next, the authors provide literature-based empirical

R. Andreas Kraemer; Eleftheria Kampa; Eduard Interwies

2004-01-01

111

Toxicity and mutagenicity of waste waters from Baikalsk Pulp and Paper Mill: Evaluation of pollutant contamination in Lake Baikal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Baikal has no agricultural and only little municipal pollution. Instead a potential source of pollution is the Baikalsk Pulp and Paper Mill (BPPM). All waste waters of the mill are mechanically, biologically and chemically purified and there are sedimentation and aeration ponds at the final stage. In this study the efficiency of the waste water purification was detected by

P. Lindström-Seppä; S. Huuskonen; S. Kotelevtsev; P. Mikkelson; T. Räänen; L. Stepanova; O. Hänninen

1998-01-01

112

Enforcement of Section 208 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 to control nonpoint source pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpoint source pollution (NPS) caused by agriculture, road building, and other activities is, while less visible than point source pollution, recognized as such a major contributor to water pollution that it must be brought under control. Section 208 is the only portion of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 to deal directly with the NPS problem. The

Wicker

1979-01-01

113

[Watershed water environment pollution models and their applications: a review].  

PubMed

Watershed water environment pollution model is the important tool for studying watershed environmental problems. Through the quantitative description of the complicated pollution processes of whole watershed system and its parts, the model can identify the main sources and migration pathways of pollutants, estimate the pollutant loadings, and evaluate their impacts on water environment, providing a basis for watershed planning and management. This paper reviewed the watershed water environment models widely applied at home and abroad, with the focuses on the models of pollutants loading (GWLF and PLOAD), water quality of received water bodies (QUAL2E and WASP), and the watershed models integrated pollutant loadings and water quality (HSPF, SWAT, AGNPS, AnnAGNPS, and SWMM), and introduced the structures, principles, and main characteristics as well as the limitations in practical applications of these models. The other models of water quality (CE-QUAL-W2, EFDC, and AQUATOX) and watershed models (GLEAMS and MIKE SHE) were also briefly introduced. Through the case analysis on the applications of single model and integrated models, the development trend and application prospect of the watershed water environment pollution models were discussed. PMID:24483100

Zhu, Yao; Liang, Zhi-Wei; Li, Wei; Yang, Yi; Yang, Mu-Yi; Mao, Wei; Xu, Han-Li; Wu, Wei-Xiang

2013-10-01

114

9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. 381.151... Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. (a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited to...

2014-01-01

115

9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. 318.14... Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. (a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited to...

2014-01-01

116

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and...et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

2010-10-01

117

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923.45...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program...established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

2010-01-01

118

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923.45...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program...established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

2009-01-01

119

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and...et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

2009-10-01

120

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2010-01-01

121

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2009-01-01

122

Environmental economics: capital expenditures for air and water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey showed that in the period 1970-76, capital expenditures by industries and utilities for air pollution abatement of stationary sources was $19.8 billion compared with $12.9 billion for water pollution control. During the 1977-85 period, capital expenditures by industries and utilities for air pollution abatement are expected to total over $36 billion, of which $6.75 billion will be for

de la Rue

1977-01-01

123

CONTROLLING POLLUTION FROM THE MANUFACTURING AND COATING OF METAL PRODUCTS. 3. WATER POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

Volume 3 addresses managers, engineers and other industry personnel responsible for resolving the water pollution problems of a manufacturing facility. It covers regulations, in-plant controls, three methods for wastewater treatment, establishment of a working relationship with a...

124

Single Laboratory Comparison of Quantitative Real-time PCR Assays for the Detection of Fecal Pollution  

EPA Science Inventory

There are numerous quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays available to detect and enumerate fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each assay employs distinct primers and probes that target different rRNA genes and microorganisms leading to potential variations in concentration es...

125

Stable Isotope Mixing Models as a Tool for Tracking Sources of Water and Water Pollutants  

EPA Science Inventory

One goal of monitoring pollutants is to be able to trace the pollutant to its source. Here we review how mixing models using stable isotope information on water and water pollutants can help accomplish this goal. A number of elements exist in multiple stable (non-radioactive) i...

126

IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF FECAL POLLUTION IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of Microbial Source Tracking (MST) methods are currently used to determine the origin of fecal pollution impacting environmental waters. MST is based on the assumption that given the appropriate method and indicator organism, the source of fecal microbial pollution can ...

127

Toward an effective and credible program: Water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the public demand for water pollution control remains loud, the political response has become deafening. The responsible political leadership in both parties has avoided the temptation to engage in competitive promises. But those seeking instant solutions and those whose political response has been guided by the pressure of Earth Day have created an image about the pollution problem that

Leonard B. Dworsky

1970-01-01

128

Conflict between energy conservation and water pollution control standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential conflict in national needs for both energy conservation and water pollution control is indicated. Meeting broader obligations in reconciling these apparent differences has failed. Major contributions to energy conservation efforts needed today could be made without giving up any important pollution control goals. Hopefully, state and Federal regulatory agencies soon will recognize their obligations in this respect and

Lamb

1980-01-01

129

Pollution nitrique des eaux souterraines au Tadia (Maroc) Ground water nitrate pollution in Tadia (Morocco)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reçu le 28 avril 2000, accepté le 28 février 2002* SUMMARY In Morocco, diffuse ground water pollution by nitrates in irrigated areas has caused an increase in the risk of water quality détérioration. This has genera- ted a health risk in rural areas, since most of the rural population get their drinking water supply from the aquifer. The présent study

N. AGHZAR; H. BERDAI; A. BELLOUTI; B. SOUDI

130

The problems of water pollution: an overview.  

PubMed

Most potentially toxic chemicals eventually find their way into waterways. The most common source of this pollution is from the air. More than 50 percent of the chemical pollution of the Great Lakes is believed to come from airborne pollutants, and the main sources of this pollution are smokestacks (energy plants, nuclear or conventional; trash-to-steam incinerators; industrial factories, chemical and wood pulp) and road traffic exhaust. Chemicals may reach waterways directly through partially filtered or untreated sewage and waterway traffic, both industrial and pleasure; or they may be deposited into the soil and reach rivers and estuaries through leakage (PCBs on cables, landfills, and regular or low-level nuclear waste) or locally from fields (fertilizers, herbicides, phosphates, and other chemicals. PMID:1560988

Lumb, G; Clare, A S

1992-03-01

131

Alternative Policies for Controlling Nonpoint Agricultural Sources of Water Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study of policies for controlling water pollution from nonpoint agricultural sources includes a survey of existing state and Federal programs, agencies, and laws directed to the control of soil erosion. Six policies representing a variety of approach...

W. D. Seitz D. M. Gardner S. K. Gove K. L. Guntermann J. R. Karr

1978-01-01

132

Assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote measurement of chlorophyll concentrations to determine extent of water pollution is discussed. Construction and operation of radiometer to provide measurement capability are explained. Diagram of equipment is provided.

Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

1972-01-01

133

Environmental Health Planning Guide. Air Pollution. Sewerage, Water, Housing. Refuse.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Today the explosive population growth and the continued concentration of people, production and services in metropolitan areas are making the environmental health problems still more complex and difficult. Polluted water and air, open refuse dumps, substa...

1973-01-01

134

A Philosophy of Water Pollution Control--Past and Present.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview of water pollution control in the U.S. is given, leading to an analysis of present policy trends. A "rational environmental program" is called for to provide economic growth and environmental quality. (MDR)

Schroeffer, George J.

1978-01-01

135

Recruitment and Employment of the Water Pollution Control Specialist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are the basic principles of personnel recruitment and employment for the water pollution control field. Attention is given to determination of staffing requirements, effective planning, labor sources, affirmative action, and staffing policies. (CS)

Sherrard, J. H.; Sherrard, F. A.

1979-01-01

136

Nutrient removal from polluted river water by using constructed wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Erh-Ren River is one of the most polluted rivers in Taiwan. Although its flow rate is relatively low, the rate is still beyond the capacity of any traditional water treatment facility. A pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) is the attempt used to purify the highly polluted river water and to collect data for the construction and operation of a full-scale

Shuh-Ren Jing; Yin-Feng Lin; Der-Yuan Lee; Tze-Wen Wang

2001-01-01

137

Energy requirements for industrial water pollution control. a perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of available information on energy requirements (ER) for industrial air and water pollution control to meet the existing U.S. Legislation (e.g., the Public Law 92-500) includes estimates of the ER by sector (industry, powerplants, and municipal wastes), by pollutant type (water, sulfur oxides, particulates, and thermal wastes), and by industry for 1977-1983, showing the relative importance of the

Serth

1978-01-01

138

New Photocatalysis for Effective Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of harmful compounds in water supplies and in the discharge of wastewater from chemical industries, power plants, and agricultural sources is a topic of global concern. The processes and technologies available at the present time for the treatment of polluted water are varied that include traditional water treatment processes such as biological, thermal and chemical treatment. All these

M. Zarei Chaleshtori; G. B. Saupe; S. Masoud

2009-01-01

139

Water pollution in the USSR and other Eastern European countries*  

PubMed Central

The condition of water bodies and measures taken to prevent their pollution in the USSR, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Bulgaria and Romania are the main subjects of this paper. For each of these countries information is given on population and area, physical features, rain-fall and rivers, the distribution of population and industry, water supply and sewerage, the condition of surface and ground waters, the authorities and legislation concerned with the protection of water resources, and research on pollution. The author draws attention to the experience gained in these countries in the setting up of special State bodies to take charge of water resources and in classifying rivers according to the uses to which they are put, a factor which determines the regulations governing the discharge of effluent into them. A plea is also made for the convening of specialized international conferences on problems connected with the protection of European water resources from pollution.

Litvinov, N.

1962-01-01

140

Quantitation and detection of vanadium in biologic and pollution materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is presented of special considerations and methodology for determining vanadium in biological and air pollution materials. In addition to descriptions of specific analysis procedures, general sections are included on quantitation of analysis procedures, sample preparation, blanks, and methods of detection of vanadium. Most of the information presented is applicable to the determination of other trace elements in addition to vanadium.

Gordon, W. A.

1974-01-01

141

LOW COST IMAGER FOR POLLUTANT GAS LEAK DETECTION - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

Infrared (IR) imaging is the best method for detecting leaks of pollutant gases, but current technology based on cooled IR imagers is far too expensive ($75,000 to $150,000) for everyday field use by those who need it to meet regulatory limits—electric and petrochemical ...

142

INVESTIGATION OF REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES FOR AGRICULTURAL FEEDLOT POLLUTION DETECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This research effort was directed toward the application of remote sensing techniques to the detection and monitoring of pollution from cattle feeding operations. Five livestock feeding operations were selected for the study along the James River from Huron to Redfield, South Dak...

143

Water hyacinth as indicator of heavy metal pollution the tropics  

SciTech Connect

The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a common aquatic plant in many tropical countries. Its ability absorb nutrients and other elements from the water has made it possible to use it for water purification purposes. Eichhornia, especially stems and leaves, have been successfully used as indicators of heavy metal pollution in tropical countries. The uptake of heavy metals in this plant is stronger in the roots than in the floating shoots. Metallothionein-like compounds have been found from roots of this species after cadmium exposure. The purpose of this investigation was to study the possibilities of using roots of water hyacinth as a biological indicator of metal pollution in tropical aquatic ecosystems.

Gonzalez, H.; Otero, M. (Institute of Transport Investigations, Havana (Cuba)); Lodenius, M. (Univ. of Helsinki (Finland))

1989-12-01

144

Industrial storm water pollution prevention: Effectiveness and limitations of source controls in the transportation industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial activities that are sources of pollutants in storm water runoff at typical facilities of the transportation industry are identified by site investigations at five facilities. This research then evaluates pollution prevention measures implemented to reduce those pollutants, as required by storm water regulations under the U.S. Clean Water Act. Activities that potentially generate storm water pollutants, particular to facilities

L. Donald Duke; Y. Jae Chung

1995-01-01

145

Water pollution caused by tourism development in the Lijiang Ancient Town, Yunnan Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pollution caused by tourism development not only occurs in water-scarce areas but also exists in the areas where water resource is relatively abundant. In this paper, the relationship between water pollution and tourism development in the Lijiang Ancient Town was discussed because there were no industrial or agricultural pollutant sources except the tourism pollution. Meanwhile, questionnaires survey was adopted

Baoying Ning; Yuanqing He

2011-01-01

146

Radioactive pollution of the waters of the baltic sea during 1986  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented from an investigation of radioactive pollution of the waters of the Baltic Sea during 1986. Inhomogeneities in the pollution of this area of water, due to varying density of atmospheric radioactive fallout, are detected. It is found that among the radionuclides entering the surface of the Baltic Sea in 1986 as a result of atmospheric transport, the main one in terms of radiation dose is cesium-137. Comparisons are made of the level of cesium-137 content in the waters of the Baltic Sea in 1986 and in preceding years. It is noted that even in the most polluted regions of the sea the cesium-137 content was 500 times less than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) in the USSR for drinking water. The first results of the determination of plutonium-239 and 240 in the Baltic Sea are presented.

Lazarev, L.N.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Gavrilov, V.M.; Gritchenko, Z.G.; Ivanova, L.M.; Orlova, T.E.; Tishkova, N.A.

1989-01-01

147

Protamine precipitation of two reovirus particle types from polluted waters.  

PubMed

Two forms of virus particle are released from reovirus-infected cell cultures, infectious reovirus and potentially infectious reovirus (PIV). PIV particle forms have a complete outer coat and are not infectious until the outer coat is altered or removed. The PIV concentration in polluted waters, however, has not been determined. Protamine sulfate precipitation, using 0.25% fetal bovine serum and 0.005% protamine sulfate for the first precipitation of the sample and 0.0025% for the second, was employed to concentrate infectious reovirus and PIV from water and sewage. Infectious reovirus and PIV particles were concentrated over 500-fold from river water inoculated with virus, and virus recoveries of between 80 and 100% were achieved. Virus precipitates stored at -20 degrees C as a protamine-virus concentrate showed a 5% loss of PIV after 14 days. Virus preparations were assayed, before and after treatment, with 200 micrograms of chymotrypsin per ml, using a fluorescent-antibody procedure. Protamine sulfate precipitation and fluorescent-antibody detection are effective ways to recover and assay reoviruses present in raw sewage. PMID:7138002

Adams, D J; Ridinger, D N; Spendlove, R S; Barnett, B B

1982-09-01

148

Defining urban diffuse pollution loadings and receiving water hazard.  

PubMed

The use of unit area loading approaches to address the requirements of the US Clean Water Act (CWA) and the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) to identify and manage diffuse urban pollution sources is outlined. Issues relating to traditional volume-concentration probabilistic modelling are highlighted and the robustness of total maximum daily load (TMDL) approaches is discussed. A hazard assessment methodology for catchment scale identification of source area pollutant loadings and receiving water ecological impacts is developed based on urban land use activities. PMID:18547936

Ellis, J B; Revitt, D M

2008-01-01

149

Photochemical Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Liquid Water and Ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic snow and ice play an important role as reactive media in the environment. A variety of species are photochemically generated from snow/ice, including carbonyl compounds, alkyl halides, molecular halogens, and nitrogen oxides. However, the fate of anthropogenic organic pollutants in snow and ice is largely unknown. Volatile pollutants evaporate from lower, warmer latitudes and condense out in the higher, colder latitudes by a process known as global distillation, leading to enhanced concentrations of a variety of pollutants in polar regions. Here we present recent results of photochemical degradation studies of several important organic pollutants including aldrin, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, and 3,3',4,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl. Direct and indirect (with H2O2) pathways were studied in both liquid water and ice forms. Aldrin and 3,3',4,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl have shown the most reactivity, both degrading significantly via the direct and indirect pathway in liquid water and ice. Dieldrin has shown reactivity under both direct and indirect liquid conditions, while HCB is only reactive under indirect liquid conditions. These results indicate that ice can serve as an important reactive surface for anthropogenic organic pollutants. Snow/ice photochemistry should be included in models of pollutant fate, but further studies are necessary to determine which pollutants are most affected by ice photochemistry under typical environmental conditions.

Sprenkle, A. M.; Grannas, A. M.

2006-12-01

150

Spectral reflectance and radiance characteristics of water pollutants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral reflectance characteristics of water pollutants and water bodies were compiled using the existing literature. Radiance calculations were performed at satellite altitude for selected illumination angles and atmospheric conditions. The work described in this report was limited to the reflective portion of the spectrum between 0.40 micrometer to 1.0 micrometer.

Wezernak, C. T.; Turner, R. E.; Lyzenga, D. R.

1976-01-01

151

Linking Air, Land, and Water Pollution for Effective Environmental Management  

EPA Science Inventory

Since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, other federal agencies, and the states have made substantial progress in improving the Nation?s air and water quality. Traditionally, the air, land, and water pollution ...

152

Bibliography of water pollution control benefits and costs. [3000 references  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computer-listed bibliography includes approximately 3000 references to environmental quality management issues. The primary selection criteria for including the sources referenced was that the citation pertains to water pollution control benefits and costs. However, numerous listings include more general environmental issues within which water quality problems are embedded. Also, much of the economic cost-benefit analysis research has been conceptually developed

S. G. Unger; D. L. Jordening

1974-01-01

153

Water pollution control: the case for local control and accountability  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a time when substantial changes are taking place, or are proposed, in the organizational structure for preventing water pollution in Scotland, the paper makes the case for maintaining the status quo. The Scottish system relies on 10 independent river purification authorities comprising elected and appointed members, with considerable freedom to set water quality objectives and standards in light of

David W. Mackay

1993-01-01

154

Identification and Control of Pollution from Salt Water Intrusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains informational guidelines for identifying and evaluating the nature and extent of pollution from salt water intrusion. The intent of these guidelines is to provide a basic framework for assessing salt water intrusion problems and their relationship to the total hydrologic system, and to provide assistance in developing…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

155

Team Approaches for Agricultural Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpoint source water pollution, primarily from agricultural sources, is a major cause of water quality impairment. Uncertainty and asymmetric information are the key regulatory difficulties in the control of agricultural NPSP. The main target of this study is to describe a potential incentive scheme that can be applied in limited information situations. Team contracts built upon principal-agent theory are proposed.

Zou Jiliang; Yuan Yongkang

2009-01-01

156

Gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis of four polluted river waters for phenolic and organic compounds.  

PubMed

Forty-four water samples from eleven sampling points were collected from four highly polluted rivers of northern India once in each four seasons during 1988-1989. The samples were analyzed for phenol, chlorophenols, a few bromophenols and other organics. Phenol was found to be absent in all the analyzed samples. Trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol were frequently detected. Comparatively, the Ganges river was most polluted at Kannauj followed by Narora, Kachala and Fatehgarh. Maximum phenols were found at Mathura downstream of the Yamuna river followed by Mathura upstream, Okhla, ITO and none at Wazirabad. No phenols were detected in the water of the rivers Hindon and Kali at Ghaziabad and Aligarh, respectively. Some other organic pollutants were also identified by their mass spectra and supported by data from the computerized library, but, not quantified. PMID:24198068

Nomani, A A; Ajmal, M; Ahmad, S

1996-03-01

157

Water Pollution Control: Lessons from Transnational Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is fundamental to life, as reflected in space scientists' compulsive search for signs of its presence when scrutinizing other planets for possible life forms. Fortunately for our species, more than two-thirds of our planet is covered with water, creating an environment richly conducive to life. Humans have just begun to appreciate how precious earth's water resources are and how

Robert V. Percival

1998-01-01

158

Implications of Metal Load Randomness for Mine Water Pollution Abatement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial and temporal variability of pollution transport from point and diffuse mine water sources (e.g. mine wastes, abandoned mine voids, contaminated groundwater) in catchments imply uncertainty in mine water pollution loads at important compliance boundaries (CB) and in cost-efficient abatement solutions for handling these loads. We use a stochastic description of total pollution loading from different possible mine water sources and quantify the effect of random load variance on minimum abatement costs for various targeted zinc load reductions to the Dal River, Sweden. Consideration of randomness in mine water pollution loads implies that, under certain conditions, compliance costs may be lower for higher than for lower load reduction targets, for the same load coefficient of variation and required probability to reach targeted load reductions. In addition, we illustrate that total costs in the cost-efficient abatement solutions converge with increasing zinc load reduction targets. Cost-efficient abatement solutions and costs are therefore more sensitive to uncertainty in pollution loading at lower than at higher compliance targets. For the example case of the Dal River Basin, we also show that the generally increasing abatement costs with increasing load variance and desired probability to reach targeted load reductions is only step-wise continuous, because cost-efficient abatement requires both continuous (e.g. constructed wetlands) and discrete (e.g. soil covers) abatement measures.

Baresel, C.; Destouni, G.

2004-12-01

159

DETERMINATION OF OCTANOL/WATER DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENTS, WATER SOLUBILITIES, AND SEDIMENT/WATER PARTITION COEFFICIENTS FOR HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Octanol/water distribution coefficients, water solubilities, and sediment/water partition coefficients are basic to any assessment of transport or dispersion of organic pollutants. In addition, these determinations are prerequisites for many chemical or biological process studies...

160

MERCURY SEPARATION FROM POLLUTANT WATER USING ZEOLITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water has been examined at room temperature. Experiments have...

161

An evaluation of free water surface wetlands as tertiary sewage water treatment of micro-pollutants.  

PubMed

Increased attention is currently directed towards potential negative effects of pharmaceuticals and other micro-pollutants discharged into the aquatic environment via municipal sewage water. A number of additional treatment technologies, such as ozonation, have therefore been suggested as promising tools for improving the removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in existing Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs). Constructed wetlands are also capable of removing a variety of micro-pollutants, including some pharmaceuticals, and could hence be a resource efficient complement to more advanced treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was therefore to increase the knowledge base concerning the potential use of constructed wetlands as a treatment step to reduce emissions of organic micro-pollutants from municipal sewage effluents. Under cold winter conditions, incoming and outgoing waters from four Swedish free water surface wetlands, operated as final treatment steps of sewage effluent from municipal STPs, were sampled and analyzed for levels of a set of 92 pharmaceuticals and 22 inorganic components as well as assessed using subchronic ecotoxicity tests with a macro-alga and a crustacean. Sixty-five pharmaceuticals were detected in the range from 1 ng L(-1) to 7.6 ?g L(-1) in incoming and outgoing waters from the four investigated wetlands. Although the sampling design used in the present study lacks the robustness of volume proportional to 24h composite samples, the average estimated removal rates ranged from 42% to 52%, which correlates to previous published values. The effects observed in the ecotoxicity tests with the macro-alga (EC(50)s in the range of 7.5-46%) and the crustacean (LOECs in the range of 11.25-90%) could not be assigned to either pharmaceutical residues or metals, but in general showed that these treatment facilities release water with a relatively low toxic potential, comparable to water that has been treated with advanced tertiary treatments. From the present study it can be concluded that constructed wetlands may provide a complementary sewage treatment option, especially where other treatment is lacking today. To fully remove micro-pollutants from sewage effluent, however, other more advanced treatment technologies are likely needed. PMID:22192709

Breitholtz, Magnus; Näslund, Maria; Stråe, Daniel; Borg, Hans; Grabic, Roman; Fick, Jerker

2012-04-01

162

EU-wide survey of polar organic persistent pollutants in European river waters.  

PubMed

This study provides the first EU-wide reconnaissance of the occurrence of polar organic persistent pollutants in European river waters. More than 100 individual water samples from over 100 European rivers from 27 European Countries were analysed for 35 selected compounds, comprising pharmaceuticals, pesticides, PFOS, PFOA, benzotriazoles, hormones, and endocrine disrupters. Around 40 laboratories participated in this sampling exercise. The most frequently and at the highest concentration levels detected compounds were benzotriazole, caffeine, carbamazepine, tolyltriazole, and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NPE(1)C). Only about 10% of the river water samples analysed could be classified as "very clean" in terms of chemical pollution. The rivers responsible for the major aqueous emissions of PFOS and PFOA from the European Continent could be identified. For the target compounds chosen, we are proposing "indicative warning levels" in surface waters, which are (for most compounds) close to the 90th percentile of all water samples analysed. PMID:18952330

Loos, Robert; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; Locoro, Giovanni; Rimaviciute, Erika; Contini, Serafino; Bidoglio, Giovanni

2009-02-01

163

Clean Water. National Estuarine Pollution Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the proceedings of the public meeting held at Wilmington, Delaware, June 27, 1968 and written statements concerning tidal waters of the Delaware coast and the Delaware River Estuary.

1968-01-01

164

VOLATILIZATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS FROM WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The volatilization of organic environmental contaminants from water bodies to the atmosphere was investigated. The general aim was to elucidate the factors that control the volatilization process and develop predictive methods for calculating volatilization rates for various comp...

165

Institutional instruments for water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the articulation of policies in the interface between economic production and water quality. One problem\\u000a is the introduction, at this production-ecologic interface, of unwanted water-borne residuals by firms and municipalities.\\u000a The policy objective is to absorb the social cost of environmental degradation into the production function within the two\\u000a constraints of efficiency in the allocation of

A. P. Grima

1981-01-01

166

Water pollution control by aquatic vegetation of treatment wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplying polluted river water to nature reserves in The Netherlands often leads to eutrophication of the reserve. The eutrophication can be caused directly by the high nutrient input (external eutrophication) or indirectly by altering nutrient availability due to changes in nutrient desorption or mineralization. This paper investigates the potential of a ditch system that is tested for its potential to

Arthur F. M. Meuleman; Boudewijn Beltman; Robbert A. Scheffer

2004-01-01

167

How is water pollution related to economy and human health?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study are not only to examine the rel ationship between water pollution and economy but also to test the interrelations hips between them and human health. This study applies global data over nearly twenty-five years. In addition, a dynamic model and several changes in the spe cification have been applied for the reason of robustness and

Yi-Jung WANG

168

Introduction to Instrumental Analysis of Water Pollutants. Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course is designed for those requiring an introduction to instruments commonly used in water pollution analyses. Examples are: pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen meters, spectrophotometers, turbidimeters, carbon analyzer, and gas chromatographs. Students should have a basic knowledge of analytical chemistry. (CO)

Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

169

Water Pollution, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed are the reasons why present mechanisms for the control of water purity are inadequate. The control of waterborne epidemics is discussed to illustrate a problem which has been solved, then degradation of the environment is presented as an unsolved problem. Case histories are given of pollution and attempts at control in rivers, lakes,…

Berg, George G.

170

Cost-Benefit Analysis and Water Pollution Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The editors and 17 other authors probe the state of the art of cost-benefit analysis as related to water pollution. They survey the existing literature on costs and benefits, discuss the difficulties of measuring both costs and benefits, and suggest measu...

E. P. Seskin H. M. Peskin

1975-01-01

171

Water Pollution Problems of Lake Michigan and Tributaries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A conference was held in the matter of pollution of the waters of Lake Michigan and its trinbutary basin (Illinois-Indiana-Michigan-Wisconsin). The report prepared for the information of the conference and other interested parties, and for use by the conf...

1968-01-01

172

The Role of Monitoring in Controlling Water Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of trends in the national water pollution control effort and to describe the role of monitoring in that effort, particularly in relation to the responsibilities of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). I hope the paper will serve as a useful framework for the more specific discussions of monitoring technology to follow.

Hirsch, Allan

1971-01-01

173

Retrofit conserves energy at a water pollution control facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major retrofit of process structures and incorporation of additional mechanical equipment was undertaken to replace the existing chemical phosphorus removal process with a biological phosphorus removal process. The new process will reduce energy use up to 81% and lime use up to 86% at the Amherst, New York water pollution control facility.

A. S. Haimes; J. Dedyo

1980-01-01

174

Annual literature review. Water pollution by oil spillage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The various sources that potentially could release large quantities of persistent oil into bodies of water and their potential magnitudes and probabilities include the following: (1) oil tankers and other ships; (2) offshore production; (3) natural seepage; and (4) industrial waste. Moss stated that there was general agreement that the most significant source of oil which pollutes the sea has

Walkup

1971-01-01

175

Solidification\\/Stabilization of Power Plants Wastes Potential Water Pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intensive firing of coal in power plants can harm the environment. The problems are caused by the emission of solid particles, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, as well as by pollution of the surrounding waters and the degradation of the land due to the disposition of the solid wastes: fly ash, bottom ash

Aleksandra Kosti?-Pulek; Svetlana Popov

176

Mine water pollution in Scotland: nature, extent and preventative strategies.  

PubMed

Scotland was one of the world's first industrialised countries, and has therefore also been one of the first countries to experience wholesale post-industrial dereliction. Water pollution arising from abandoned mines, particularly abandoned coal mines, is second only to sewage as a source of freshwater pollution nation-wide, and in many coalfield catchments it is the pre-eminent source. Most of the pollution is due to net-alkaline ferruginous waters emerging from deep mines. Scrutiny of records from 80 deep mine discharges reveals that iron concentrations in these waters are only likely to exceed 20 mg/l, and the pH to be below 6.5, where the discharge emerges within 0.5 km of the outcrop of the shallowest mined seam. The bulk of mature near-outcrop mine water discharges in Scotland have < 50 mg/l total Fe, and concentrations > 100 mg/l are only likely where a marine bed lies within 25 m of the worked seam. Where the nearest marine bed is more than 80 m above or below the seam, then the total iron will be less than 4 mg/l, and in most cases less than 1 mg/l. Net-acidic mine waters are far more rare than net-alkaline waters in Scotland, and are most commonly associated with unreclaimed spoil heaps (bings). Both net-alkaline and net-acidic discharges have detrimental effects on the hydrochemistry and biological integrity of receiving waters. Scotland has recently pioneered the use of pre-emptive pump-and-treat solutions to prevent mine water pollution, and has also experienced the successful introduction of passive treatment technology for both abandoned and active workings. PMID:11227275

Younger, P L

2001-01-29

177

Ferrioxalate-mediated photodegradation of organic pollutants in contaminated water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UV-visible photolysis of ferrioxalate in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (the UV-vis\\/ferrioxalate\\/H2O2 process) is investigated for the treatment of contaminated groundwater and industrial wastewater. This process generates the hydroxyl radical, which is a strong oxidant and reacts rapidly with most organic compounds present in solution. Tap water spiked with various organic pollutants, a process water containing chlorobenzene, a tank-bottom

Ali Safarzadeh-Amiri; James R. Bolton; Stephen R. Cater

1997-01-01

178

Acrylamide encephaloneuropathy due to well water pollution.  

PubMed Central

All five members of a family developed subacutely mental confusion and/or truncal ataxia. Symptoms and signs of polyneuropathy were seen later. The well water in the patients' home contained 400 ppm acrylamide. The present cases are unique in that they are cases of acrylamide poisoning induced by oral intake and percutaneous penetration, and that central nervous system symptoms were prominent.

Igisu, H; Goto, I; Kawamura, Y; Kato, M; Izumi, K

1975-01-01

179

Reducing the cost of water-pollution control under the Clean Water Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present water-pollution-regulation system focuses on treatment by the individual and ignores the aggregate cost of pollution control. Economists have proposed three methods to create pollution-control systems that cost less than the present one: effluent charges, marketable effluent permits, and private ownership of the waterway. Of these methods, only the marketable permit system has any potential for use within the

Rothfelder

1982-01-01

180

A simulation of water pollution model parameter estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parameter estimation procedure for a water pollution transport model is elaborated. A two-dimensional instantaneous-release shear-diffusion model serves as representative of a simple transport process. Pollution concentration levels are arrived at via modeling of a remote-sensing system. The remote-sensed data are simulated by adding Gaussian noise to the concentration level values generated via the transport model. Model parameters are estimated from the simulated data using a least-squares batch processor. Resolution, sensor array size, and number and location of sensor readings can be found from the accuracies of the parameter estimates.

Kibler, J. F.

1976-01-01

181

Self-propelled micromotors for cleaning polluted water.  

PubMed

We describe the use of catalytically self-propelled microjets (dubbed micromotors) for degrading organic pollutants in water via the Fenton oxidation process. The tubular micromotors are composed of rolled-up functional nanomembranes consisting of Fe/Pt bilayers. The micromotors contain double functionality within their architecture, i.e., the inner Pt for the self-propulsion and the outer Fe for the in situ generation of ferrous ions boosting the remediation of contaminated water.The degradation of organic pollutants takes place in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which acts as a reagent for the Fenton reaction and as main fuel to propel the micromotors. Factors influencing the efficiency of the Fenton oxidation process, including thickness of the Fe layer, pH, and concentration of hydrogen peroxide, are investigated. The ability of these catalytically self-propelled micromotors to improve intermixing in liquids results in the removal of organic pollutants ca. 12 times faster than when the Fenton oxidation process is carried out without catalytically active micromotors. The enhanced reaction-diffusion provided by micromotors has been theoretically modeled. The synergy between the internal and external functionalities of the micromotors, without the need of further functionalization, results into an enhanced degradation of nonbiodegradable and dangerous organic pollutants at small-scale environments and holds considerable promise for the remediation of contaminated water. PMID:24180623

Soler, Lluís; Magdanz, Veronika; Fomin, Vladimir M; Sanchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G

2013-11-26

182

Self-Propelled Micromotors for Cleaning Polluted Water  

PubMed Central

We describe the use of catalytically self-propelled microjets (dubbed micromotors) for degrading organic pollutants in water via the Fenton oxidation process. The tubular micromotors are composed of rolled-up functional nanomembranes consisting of Fe/Pt bilayers. The micromotors contain double functionality within their architecture, i.e., the inner Pt for the self-propulsion and the outer Fe for the in situ generation of ferrous ions boosting the remediation of contaminated water.The degradation of organic pollutants takes place in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which acts as a reagent for the Fenton reaction and as main fuel to propel the micromotors. Factors influencing the efficiency of the Fenton oxidation process, including thickness of the Fe layer, pH, and concentration of hydrogen peroxide, are investigated. The ability of these catalytically self-propelled micromotors to improve intermixing in liquids results in the removal of organic pollutants ca. 12 times faster than when the Fenton oxidation process is carried out without catalytically active micromotors. The enhanced reaction–diffusion provided by micromotors has been theoretically modeled. The synergy between the internal and external functionalities of the micromotors, without the need of further functionalization, results into an enhanced degradation of nonbiodegradable and dangerous organic pollutants at small-scale environments and holds considerable promise for the remediation of contaminated water.

2013-01-01

183

Water Pollution Problems and Improvement Needs Lake Ontario and St. Lawrence River Basins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes the water pollution problems of the United States water of Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River and their tributaries. It identifies the causes of these problems or sources of pollution, discusses the improvements needed, and pres...

1968-01-01

184

Proceedings of University Seminar on Pollution and Water Resources. Volume IV: 1970-71.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Water problems of the mining industry in the U.S.; Contrasts and convergence in engineering and economic approaches to water development and pollution control; Pollution of the Rhine River and environmental protection problems in the Ruhr areas;...

G. J. Halasi-Kun

1971-01-01

185

The Allocative Efficiency Implications of Water Pollution Abatement Cost Comparisons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessments of the efficiency of water pollution control allocations are usually based on abatement cost comparisons. The general rule is that efficiency is improved by reallocating abatement from sources with high marginal costs to low-cost sources. The welfare-theoretic foundation of this rule is well established for situations with nonstochastic emissions. In situations with stochastic emissions, pollution control involves improving the distribution of emissions. Nevertheless, efficiency analyses involving stochastic emissions usually sidestep formal consideration of the stochastic element by measuring pollution control and control costs with respect to changes in long-term average flows. An economic model of stochastic emissions is used to demonstrate that this approach can give misleading results. An alternative procedure is briefly discussed.

Shortle, James S.

1990-05-01

186

Questionable Specificity of Genetic Total Faecal Pollution Markers for Integrated Water Quality Monitoring and Source Tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterisation of microbial faecal hazards in water is a fundamental aspect for target-orientated water resources management to achieve appropriate water quality for various purposes like water supply or agriculture and thus to minimize related health risks. Nowadays the management of water resources increasingly demands detailed knowledge on the extent and the origin of microbial pollution. Cultivation of standard faecal indicator bacteria, which has been used for over a century to test the microbiological water quality, cannot sufficiently meet these challenges. The abundant intestinal bacterial populations are very promising alternative targets for modern faecal indication systems. Numerous assays for the detection of genetic markers targeting source-specific populations of the phylum Bacteroidetes have been developed in recent years. In some cases markers for total faecal pollution were also proposed in order to relate source-specific marker concentrations to general faecal pollution levels. However, microbial populations in intestinal and non-intestinal systems exhibit a dazzling array of diversity and molecular analysis of microbial faecal pollution has been based on a fragmentary puzzle of very limited sequence information. The aim of this study was to test the available qPCR-based methods detecting genetic Bacteroidetes markers for total faecal pollution in terms of their value and specificity as indicators of faecal pollution. We applied the AllBac (Layton et al., 2006) the BacUni (Kildare et al., 2007) and the Bacteroidetes (Dick and Field, 2004) assays on soil DNA samples. Samples were collected in well characterised karst spring catchments in Austria's Eastern Calcareous Alps. They were at various levels of altitude between 800 and 1800 meters above sea level and from several different habitats (woodland, alpine pastures, krummholz). In addition we tried to choose sampling sites representing a presumptive gradient of faecal pollution levels. For example sites with obvious faecal influence (e.g. right next to a cowpat) were included as well as more pristine sites without faecal influence from large animals (e.g. fenced areas). Surprisingly, results from investigations with the AllBac assay showed concentrations of the total faecal marker in soil in the range of 106 to 109 Marker Equivalents per g of soil, which is equal or only slightly lower than the concentrations of this particular marker in faeces or raw sewage. Preliminary results from the other tested assays seem to confirm that the targeted markers are also highly abundant in soils. In addition, the markers were present in comparable concentrations in soils from pristine locations as well as in soils under the potential influence of faeces giving a strong indication that these methods also target non-intestinal, autochthonous soil populations. In contrast, source-specific markers (ruminant-specific BacR and human-specific BacH, Reischer et al., 2007, 2006) could only be detected in 30 to 50% of the soil samples at concentrations close to the detection limit, which is at least four orders of magnitude lower than in faecal samples of the respective target sources, ruminant animals and humans. The achieved results call the applicability of the proposed qPCR-based assays for total faecal pollution into question. In fact the assays do not seem to be specific for intestinal Bacteroidetes populations at all and the respective marker concentration levels in pristine soils negate their applicability in the investigated areas. This study also emphasizes the need to test the specificity and sensitivity of qPCR-based assays for total faecal pollution on the local level and especially against non-intestinal environmental samples, which might contribute to marker levels in the aquatic compartment. In conclusion there is a strong demand for marker-based detection techniques for total faecal pollution in water quality monitoring and risk assessment but currently none of the tested assays seems to meet the methodical requirements.

Vierheilig, Julia; Reischer, Georg H.; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

2010-05-01

187

Transjurisdictional Water Pollution Disputes and Measures of Resolution: Examples from the Yellow River Basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transjurisdictional water pollution problems are increasing in number and are becoming a significant governance problem in China. A large number of transjurisdictional water pollution disputes that have far-reaching social effects are occurring between provinces and are also frequent between municipalities, counties, towns, and villages. In this paper, several transjurisdictional water pollution cases in China, particularly in the Yellow River Basin,

Xuejun WANG; Edwin D. Ongley

2004-01-01

188

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...and Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The...requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

2014-01-01

189

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section 2543... Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants...7401 et seq. ) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

2013-10-01

190

Bromate pollutant in ozonated bottled Zamzam water from Saudi Arabia determined by LC\\/ICP-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bromate (BrO3 ) as a human carcinogenic pollutant in bottled drinking Zamzam water from Mecca, Saudi Arabia has been determined using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC\\/ICP-MS). For analysis, samples were injected directly without any further pretreatment, using only 50 ?L injection volume. The method showed: 0.5 ?g\\/L detection limit, 1.0 ?g\\/L limit of quantification and 1.0–200.0 ?g\\/L

Seham A. Al-Ansi; Ahmed A. Othman; Mohammed A. Al-Tufail

2011-01-01

191

Managing water and pollutants in soil with electric currents  

SciTech Connect

The technique of dewatering soils with electrical currents (electroosmosis) has been known since World War II, and has been used since to desalinate water and to extract solvents and other toic organic chemicals from groundwater. However, some researchers feel that the technology can be extended to battle friction and pollution on agricultural land. In addition, work has been done on the lubricating effects of electroosmosis on drill bits and other equipment. This article describes recent work in the area.

Raloff, J.

1995-09-09

192

Photocatalytic membrane reactors for water treatment from organic pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of research in the field of development and application of photocatalytic membrane reactors for water treatment\\u000a from organic pollutants has been analyzed. The main types of these reactors and the construction techniques and properties\\u000a of catalytically active membranes were discussed. The combination of photocatalysis and the membrane methods was shown to\\u000a facilitate the effective removal of different

V. M. Kochkodan; E. A. Rolya; V. V. Goncharuk

2009-01-01

193

Adaptive hierarchical grid model of water-borne pollutant dispersion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water pollution by industrial and agricultural waste is an increasingly major public health issue. It is therefore important for water engineers and managers to be able to predict accurately the local behaviour of water-borne pollutants. This paper describes the novel and efficient coupling of dynamically adaptive hierarchical grids with standard solvers of the advection-diffusion equation. Adaptive quadtree grids are able to focus on regions of interest such as pollutant fronts, while retaining economy in the total number of grid elements through selective grid refinement. Advection is treated using Lagrangian particle tracking. Diffusion is solved separately using two grid-based methods; one is by explicit finite differences, the other a diffusion-velocity approach. Results are given in two dimensions for pure diffusion of an initially Gaussian plume, advection-diffusion of the Gaussian plume in the rotating flow field of a forced vortex, and the transport of species in a rectangular channel with side wall boundary layers. Close agreement is achieved with analytical solutions of the advection-diffusion equation and simulations from a Lagrangian random walk model. An application to Sepetiba Bay, Brazil is included to demonstrate the method with complex flows and topography.

Borthwick, A. G. L.; Marchant, R. D.; Copeland, G. J. M.

194

Roofing as a source of nonpoint water pollution.  

PubMed

Sixteen wooden structures with two roofs each were installed to study runoff quality for four commonly used roofing materials (wood shingle, composition shingle, painted aluminum, and galvanized iron) at Nacogdoches, Texas. Each roof, either facing NW or SE, was 1.22 m wide x 3.66 m long with a 25.8% roof slope. Thus, there were 32 alternatively arranged roofs, consisting of four roof types x two aspects x four replicates, in the study. Runoff from the roofs was collected through galvanized gutters, downspouts, and splitters. The roof runoff was compared to rainwater collected by a wet/dry acid rain collector for the concentrations of eight water quality variables, i.e. Cu(2+), Mn(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Mg(2+), Al(3+), EC and pH. Based on 31 storms collected between October 1997 and December 1998, the results showed: (1) concentrations of pH, Cu, and Zn in rainwater already exceed the EPA freshwater quality standards even without pollutant inputs from roofs, (2) Zn and Cu, the two most serious pollutants in roof runoff, exceeded the EPA national freshwater water quality standards in virtually 100% and more than 60% of the samples, respectively, (3) pH, EC, and Zn were the only three variables significantly affected by roofing materials, (4) differences in Zn concentrations were significant among all roof types and between all roof runoff and rainwater samples, (5) although there were no differences in Cu concentrations among all roof types and between roof runoff and rainwater, all means and medians of runoff and rainwater exceeded the national water quality standards, (6) water quality from wood shingles was the worst among the roof types studied, and (7) although SE is the most frequent and NW the least frequent direction for incoming storms, only EC, Mg, Mn, and Zn in wood shingle runoff from the SE were significantly higher than those from the NW; the two aspects affected no other elements in runoff from the other three roof types. Also, Zn concentrations from new wood-shingle roofs were significantly higher than those from aged roofs of a previous study. The study demonstrated that roofs could be a serious source of nonpoint water pollution. Since Zn is the most serious water pollutant and wood shingle is the worst of the four roof types, using less compounds and materials associated with Zn along with good care and maintenance of roofs are critical in reducing Zn pollution in roof runoff. PMID:15531389

Chang, Mingteh; McBroom, Matthew W; Scott Beasley, R

2004-12-01

195

System engineering for water pollution control at the watershed level in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present water pollution situation at watershed level in China has been systematically analyzed. The causes of water pollution\\u000a are attributed to the extensive economic developmental pattern, poor wastewater treatment, and a lack of nonpoint pollution\\u000a control. The problems of water pollution control at watershed level include a lack of thought and approach, developmental\\u000a delay in the environmental standard system,

Wei Meng

2009-01-01

196

Designing of water pollution control technology database platform based on general management information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced was the development and implementation for the water pollution control technology database platform based on general management information system. The technology research and application demonstration of the system were developed, covering six fields such as lake water pollution treatment and ecological restoration, improvement of environment quality of urban water, drinking water safety, new technology of physical-chemical-biology water treatment, packaged

Chunhong Shi; Nan Li; Beihai Zhou; Wenjuan Song

2010-01-01

197

Generation of novel bacterial regulatory proteins that detect priority pollutant phenols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic systems of bacteria that have the ability to use organic pollutants as carbon and energy sources can be adapted to create bacterial biosensors for the detection of industrial pollution. The creation of bacterial biosensors is hampered by a lack of information about the genetic systems that control production of bacterial enzymes that metabolize pollutants. The authors have attempted

ARLENE A. WISE; CHERYL R. KUSKE

2000-01-01

198

[Water pollution and health risks at Yaoundé, Cameroon].  

PubMed

The aim of this article consists of developing an ecosystemic approach to collect information about groundwater pollution in order to determine its origin and infer the health risks in Mingoa's watershed through the study of 12 spontaneous settlements. From an environmental point of view, family interviews and direct observations allowed us to inventory springs, wells and latrines, and to collect information. So, we have selected, on the basis of predefined criteria, 21 wells and springs for physico-chemical and bacteriological laboratory analyses. Two hundred children aged less than 5 years were subjected to KOAP examination. A number of 1224 latrines were inventoried, for an average use of 15 people per latrine, producing 913.3 kg/year of excreta. Most of 91% of people use these latrines. The superficial aquifers, connected to the wells and springs, present high values of nitrogen, phosphorous pollutant and fecal contamination indicators (coliforms and fecal streptococcus), which make water inappropriate to human consumption. PCA analysis establishes that water pollution comes mainly from traditional pit latrines. The overall prevalence of diarrhea and parasite infestation was important (=40%). The presence of cysts of Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris limbricoides, and Entamoeba coli confirms this high prevalence and testify to very approximate hygiene and environment conditions. PMID:23916209

Youmbi, Jean Ghislain Tabué; Feumba, Roger; Njitat, Valérie Tsama; de Marsily, Ghislain; Ekodeck, Georges Emmanuel

2013-01-01

199

Oil pollution detection and sensing. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques used to detect and sense oil spills and slicks. Citations discuss remote sensing, chemical and biological monitoring, satellite imagery, surveilllance, and models. Topics include pollution information systems, environmental monitoring, coastal ecology, and paths of pollutants. Pollution effects on fisheries, leak detectors, artificial oil pollution, remedial actions, and international cooperation are covered. (Contains a minimum of 236 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

200

Oil pollution detection and sensing. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques used to detect and sense oil spills and slicks. Citations discuss remote sensing, chemical and biological monitoring, satellite imagery, surveilllance, and models. Topics include pollution information systems, environmental monitoring, coastal ecology, and paths of pollutants. Pollution effects on fisheries, leak detectors, artificial oil pollution, remedial actions, and international cooperation are covered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-02-01

201

An air and water pollution prevention primer for small businesses  

SciTech Connect

Pollution prevention is one of the few areas in which environmental goals and economic interests clearly coincide. Benefits include reduced costs, liabilities and regulatory burdens, and an improved environment. Minimizing the quantity and toxicity of waste also reduces the need for waste treatment operations. Because economics is one of the factors weighed when adopting pollution prevent technologies, economic analysis based on equipment's payback period is important to determine whether a system should be adopted and, if so, what equipment should be selected. Many air pollution control methods, wastewater treatment systems and sludge dewatering processes can be used for materials recovery and water reuse. Factors to consider when selecting a waste treatment system include legal limitations or effluent criteria imposed for public protection, social limitations imposed by the community in which the pollution source is or will be located, and economic limitations. The latter two factors are critical for small businesses, which typically are located in or near metropolitan areas, and often have limited financial resources. Another factor to consider is whether a waste treatment system can be designed to accommodate future expansion or operational modifications. Although small businesses tend to prefer traditional, proven environmental technologies, some new technologies can be adopted easily to reduce waste generation and costs. In addition, several relatively simple and inexpensive practices have proven successful in eliminating or minimizing wastes. These include: improving housekeeping practices; segregating wastes; changing materials purchasing and inventory control procedures; substituting less toxic materials; recycling and reusing wastes; reducing wastewater flows; changing production methods or modifying production processes; and training employees in pollution prevention.

Huang, C.S. (Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States))

1995-03-01

202

Fish Robots for Water Pollution Monitoring Using Ubiquitous Sensor Networks with Sonar Localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method is proposed to build an autonomous water pollution monitoring map by fish robots using ubiquitous sensor networks with sonar localization. Autonomous fish robots are introduced instead of fixed data logging stations to track pollutant sources as well as monitoring. Autonomous tracking is one of important functions in mobile underwater vehicles which monitor water pollution indices. When fish

Daejung Shin; Seung You Na; Jin Young Kim; Seong-Joon Baek

2007-01-01

203

ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL POLICIES. 1. A NATIONAL NETWORK MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to study the national implications of federal water pollution control policies, the authors developed a water pollution network model. The model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lake...

204

Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 1. A national network model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the national implications of federal water pollution control policies, the authors developed a water pollution network model. This model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and bays. While the geographical scope of the model and existing data availability required

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin; G. K. Young

1981-01-01

205

HPLC-PFD determination of priority pollutant PAHs in water, sediment, and semipermeable membrane devices  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High performance liquid chromatography coupled with programmable fluorescence detection was employed for the determination of 15 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPPAHs) in water, sediment, and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). Chromatographic separation using this analytical method facilitates selectivity, sensitivity (ppt levels), and can serve as a non-destructive technique for subsequent analysis by other chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Extraction and sample cleanup procedures were also developed for water, sediment, and SPMDs using various chromatographic and wet chemical methods. The focus of this publication is to examine the enrichment techniques and the analytical methodologies used in the isolation, characterization, and quantitation of 15 PPPAHs in different sample matrices.

Williamson, K. S.; Petty, J. D.; Huckins, J. N.; Lebo, J. A.; Kaiser, E. M.

2002-01-01

206

Bacteriological methods for distinguishing between human and animal faecal pollution of water: results of fieldwork in Nigeria and Zimbabwe  

PubMed Central

Bacteriological techniques have traditionally been used to detect faecal pollution of drinking water supplies. Recently, methods have been developed to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution in temperate climates. The present study assessed the applicability and practicality of these methods in tropical countries. Fieldwork in Nigeria and Zimbabwe has shown that animal faecal pollution can reliably be identified by the detection and enumeration of Rhodococcus coprophilus using modified M3 agar, whereas human faecal contamination can be identified by the detection of sorbitol-fermenting bifidobacteria. Each of these organisms was detected only in the faeces of the type (human or animal) that it was meant to indicate. Although Streptococcus bovis has been used in the past in mainly temperate countries to distinguish animal from human faecal contamination, the present study has shown that this organism is not a reliable indicator of animal pollution in the tropics because it was excreted by a proportion of the human population in both Nigeria and Zimbabwe. Water sources known to be contaminated by human or animal excreta were examined for these indicator organisms. The results correlated with the results obtained from examining human and animal faecal specimens for these organisms. The role of these bacteriological methods in water pollution control programmes is discussed.

Mara, D. Duncan; Oragui, John

1985-01-01

207

Detection of stressed vegetation for mapping heavy metal polluted soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maatheide' in the northern part of Belgium is polluted with heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, …) due to several decades of historical non-ferrous industrial activities. In the 1970's the industrial activities ceased and the premises including highly polluted waste were spread over the industrial site. The heavy metal pollution causing vegetation stress introduces subtle changes in the reflectance spectrum

I. Reusen; L. Bertels; S. Debacker; P. Scheunders; S. Sterckx; Wouter Van den Broek

208

Water infiltration control to achieve mine water pollution control. A feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study determined the feasibility of conducting a full-scale demonstration to document the effectiveness of land reclamation at mined-out areas in establishing surface water infiltration control to prevent acid mine water pollution. The study site was the Dents Run Watershed, Monongalia County, West Virginia. Investigative measures included: investigation of each mine area and opening; a detailed description of each site;

F. J. Zaval; J. D. Robins

1973-01-01

209

UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN REMOVAL OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange, adsorption and acid catalysis properties. Different inorganic and organic pollutants have been removed from water at room temperature using various zeolites. Synthetic zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove inorganic pollutants...

210

Landsat change detection can aid in water quality monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparison between Landsat-1 and -2 imagery of Arkansas provided evidence of significant land use changes during the 1972-75 time period. Analysis of Arkansas historical water quality information has shown conclusively that whereas point source pollution generally can be detected by use of water quality data collected by state and federal agencies, sampling methodologies for nonpoint source contamination attributable to surface runoff are totally inadequate. The expensive undertaking of monitoring all nonpoint sources for numerous watersheds can be lessened by implementing Landsat change detection analyses.

Macdonald, H. C.; Steele, K. F.; Waite, W. P.; Shinn, M. R.

1977-01-01

211

A novel water pollution monitoring approach based on 3s technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Use of 3S techniques can provide a firm foundation for the dynamic monitoring and forecasting of water pollution and cause effective control of water environment, as it has no limit to space-time and region and can provide a timely, accurate and fast access to water pollution monitoring, so it will be a great revolution in utilization of water resources.

Tian Jinghuan; Wang Yi

2010-01-01

212

Development of a Master Plan for Water Pollution Control Using MCDM Techniques: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive demand for water due to a growing population, agricultural, and industrial development, along with climate change and depletion of nonrenewable resources have intensified the need for integrated water resources management and water pollution control. This paper presents different aspects of a master plan for water pollution control and the results of a case study for developing a master plan

Mohammad Karamouz; Banafsheh Zahraie; Reza Kerachian

2003-01-01

213

Polluted water concentrates: Induction of genetic alterations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain  

SciTech Connect

In a previous paper the authors showed that samples of raw water obtained from the Riachuelo (a heavily polluted watercourse) induced genetic effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain. In those tests the raw water samples were assayed within 24 hr and only the mutagenic activity of the non-volatile, water soluble constituents could be detected. The detection and quantitation of genetic toxicity in the organic water-insoluble fraction becomes much more difficult. This organic material consists of thousands of unidentified compounds in dilute mixtures which are not amenable to current analytical technology. Consequently, concentration of organic compounds is required before performance of biological tests. The development of analytical methods involving XAD resins for the isolation and identification of pesticides and other compounds led to the use of XAD resins in the concentration of organics in water. In the experiments reported here the genotoxic potential of XAD2 concentrates, obtained from samples of a heavily polluted stream, were evaluated by the induction of gene conversion and point mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain.

Moretton, J.; Baro, P.; Zelazny, A.; D'Aquino, M.D. (School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

1991-02-01

214

BTX removal from polluted water through bioleaching processes.  

PubMed

In this study, benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) removal from contaminated water by physical, chemical, and biological processes was studied. Results showed that air sparging in polluted water can reduce monoaromatic compounds from 140,000 to about 5 microg/l in only 1 h process with a gassing rate of 0.33 VVM. This method cannot be considered as a green technology as pollutants are only transferred from the liquid phase to the gas phase The ultimate objective of this research was thus to evaluate the efficiency of a strategy involving BTX adsorption by granular-activated charcoal (GAC) and subsequent regeneration of this support by a bioleaching process. Analysis of such processes requires the building of analytical tools able to accurately determine the contents of the contaminants in samples containing biomass to make possible the calculation of reliable material balances. Current investigation showed that BTX are readily trapped by GAC particles with low further release in the liquid medium whereas they remain at least partially available for in situ biodegradation. BTX adsorption onto the GAC was shown to reach maximum solute retention close to 350, 250, and 150 (as mg/g GAC) for xylenes, toluene, and benzene, respectively. This approach, which could afford efficient biological active carbon regeneration, is very promising for the removal of BTX compounds from water without any further environment damage. PMID:18427740

Farhadian, Mehrdad; Duchez, David; Vachelard, Cédric; Larroche, Christian

2008-12-01

215

Water hyacinths for removal of cadmium and nickel from polluted waters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Removal of cadmium and nickel from static water systems utilizing water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) was investigated. This aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to rapidly remove heavy metals from aqueous systems by root absorption and concentration. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to absorb and concentrate up to 0.67 mg of cadmium and 0.50 mg of nickel per gram of dry plant material when exposed for a 24-hour period to waters polluted with from 0.578 to 2.00 ppm of these toxic metals. It is found that one hectare of water hyacinths has the potential of removing 300 g of cadmium or nickel from 240,000 liters of water polluted with these metals during a 24-hour period.

Wolverton, B. C.

1975-01-01

216

The status of pesticide pollution in surface waters (rivers and lakes) of Greece. Part I. Review on occurrence and levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review evaluates and summarizes the results of long-term research projects, monitoring programs and published papers concerning the pollution of surface waters (rivers and lakes) of Greece by pesticides. Pesticide classes mostly detected involve herbicides used extensively in corn, cotton and rice production, organophosphorus insecticides as well as the banned organochlorines insecticides due to their persistence in the aquatic environment.

Ioannis K. Konstantinou; Dimitra G. Hela; Triantafyllos A. Albanis

2006-01-01

217

Genetic and environmental factors involved in increased resistance of brook trout to sulfuric acid solutions and mine acid polluted waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several strains of hatchery-reared brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), were exposed to low pH in the laboratory (sulfuric acid solutions) and in the field (mine acid polluted waters). Wild brook trout were also used in some field tests. Tests were both acute and chronic (up to 2 mo). Pronounced strain differences in survival ability were detected among embryonic, juvenile, and

FREDERICK A. SWARTS; WILLIAM A. DUNSON; JAMES E. WRIGHT

1978-01-01

218

Quantitative PCR for Detection and Enumeration of Genetic Markers of Bovine Fecal Pollution? †  

PubMed Central

Accurate assessment of health risks associated with bovine (cattle) fecal pollution requires a reliable host-specific genetic marker and a rapid quantification method. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for the detection of two recently described bovine feces-specific genetic markers and a method for the enumeration of these markers using a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. Both assays exhibited a range of quantification from 25 to 2 × 106 copies of target DNA, with a coefficient of variation of <2.1%. One of these assays can be multiplexed with an internal amplification control to simultaneously detect the bovine-specific genetic target and presence of amplification inhibitors. The assays detected only cattle fecal specimens when tested against 204 fecal DNA extracts from 16 different animal species and also demonstrated a broad distribution among individual bovine samples (98 to 100%) collected from five geographically distinct locations. The abundance of each bovine-specific genetic marker was measured in 48 individual samples and compared to quantitative PCR-enumerated quantities of rRNA gene sequences representing total Bacteroidetes, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, and enterococci in the same specimens. Acceptable assay performance combined with the prevalence of DNA targets across different cattle populations provides experimental evidence that these quantitative assays will be useful in monitoring bovine fecal pollution in ambient waters.

Shanks, Orin C.; Atikovic, Emina; Blackwood, A. Denene; Lu, Jingrang; Noble, Rachel T.; Domingo, Jorge Santo; Seifring, Shawn; Sivaganesan, Mano; Haugland, Richard A.

2008-01-01

219

REMOVAL OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS FROM SUBCRITICAL WATER WITH ACTIVATED CARBON  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has demonstrated that controlling the temperature (and to a lesser extent, the pressure) of water can dramatically change its ability to extract organics and inorganics from matrices ranging from soils and sediments to waste sludges and coal. The dielectric constant of water can be changed from about 80 (a very polar solvent) to <5 (similar to a nonpolar organic solvent) by controlling the temperature (from ambient to about 400 C) and pressure (from about 5 to 350 bar). The EERC has shown that hazardous organic pollutants such as pesticides, PACS (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) can be completely removed from soils, sludges, and sediments at temperatures (250 C) and pressures (<50 atm) that are much milder than typically used for supercritical water processes (temperature >374 C, pressure >221 atm). In addition, the process has been demonstrated to be particularly effective for samples containing very high levels of contaminants (e.g., part per thousand). Current projects include demonstrating the subcritical water remediation process at the pilot scale using an 8-liter system constructed under separate funding during 1997. To date, subcritical water has been shown to be an effective extraction fluid for removing a variety of organic pollutants from soils and sludges contaminated with fossil fuel products and waste products, including PACS from soil (e.g., town gas sites), refining catalysts, and petroleum tank bottom sludges; PCBs from soil and sediments; toxic gasoline components (e.g., benzene) from soil and waste sludge; and phenols from petroleum refinery sludges. The obvious need to clean the wastewater from subcritical water processes led to preliminary experiments with activated carbon placed in line after the extractor. Initial experiments were performed before and after cooling the extractant water (e.g., with water at 200 C and with water cooled to 25 C). Surprisingly, the ability of activated carbon to remove organics from the water is better at a high temperature than at room temperature. These initial results are opposite to those expected from chromatographic theory, since the solubility of the organics is about 100,000-fold higher in the hot water than in ambient water. At present, the physicochemical mechanism accounting for these results is unknown; however, it is possible that the lower surface tension and lower viscosity of subcritical water (compared to water at ambient conditions) greatly increases the available area of the carbon by several orders of magnitude. Regardless of the mechanism involved, the optimal use of activated carbon to clean the wastewater generated from subcritical water remediation will depend on obtaining a better understanding of the controlling parameters. While these investigations focused on the cleanup of wastewater generated from subcritical water remediation, the results also apply to cleanup of any wastewater contaminated with nonpolar and moderately polar organics such as wastewaters from coal and petroleum processing.

Steven B. Hawthorne; Arnaud J. Lagadec

1999-08-01

220

Research on ground water pollution by leacheate of waste dump of open pit coal mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of investigation and research on the pollution source and pollution pathway of Yujiagou area, by the ground water\\u000a quality analysis and the leaching and soaking experiments of the gangue, reliable data were obtained. The experiment results\\u000a prove that these inorganic salt elements are easily dissolved by the water. The main pollution factors in the ground water\\u000a are

Zhi-bin Liu; Hong-kun Yan; Zhao-jun Wang

2008-01-01

221

Ground-water pollution from natural gas and oil production in New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas is produced throughout the central and W. part of New York State; whereas, oil production has been limited mainly to Allegheny and Cattaraugus counties. Oil production, and particularly secondary recovery by the water-flooding method, has resulted in pollution of ground- and surface-water supplies with oil and salt water. Pollution from active oil fields has been caused by separator

Crain

1970-01-01

222

Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Surface water data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report summarizes the surface water sampling program at the Amoco Refinery at Yorktown, Virginia. This was undertaken as a part of the joint project between Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency to review pollution prevention alternatives at a petroleum refinery. The surface water data provides a snapshot of surface water pollutant generation and discharge from the

Baloo

1991-01-01

223

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section 4.66b Customs...66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any Customs officer has...being or has been deposited in navigable waters or any tributary of any...

2014-04-01

224

Pollutants in our water: Effects on human health and the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery has concerns about the effects of our environment on human health. In this review we evaluate waterborne biologic organisms, microorganisms, and other disease-causing agents that might pollute our drinking water. Next, we evaluate chemical toxins that might pollute our drinking water. Then we examine our drinking water and wastewater treatment systems. Finally,

JULIUS N. HICKS

1998-01-01

225

The River Basin Model: Computer Output. Water Pollution Control Research Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research report is part of the Water Pollution Control Research Series which describes the results and progress in the control and abatement of pollution in our nation's waters. The River Basin Model described is a computer-assisted decision-making tool in which a number of computer programs simulate major processes related to water use that…

Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

226

Operation and Maintenance of Water Pollution Control Facilities: A WPCF White Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are the recommendations of the Water Pollution Control Federation for operation and maintenance consideration during the planning design, construction, and operation of wastewater treatment facilities. (CS)

Hill, William R.; And Others

1979-01-01

227

WATER INFILTRATION CONTROL TO ACHIEVE MINE WATER POLLUTION CONTROL: THE DENTS RUN WATERSHED DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of surface mined land reclamation measures in establishing surface water infiltratin control to prevent or reduce pollution from acid mine drainage. The Dents Run watershed, located in Monongalia County, West Virgin...

228

Daytime Water Detection Based on Sky Reflections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A water body s surface can be modeled as a horizontal mirror. Water detection based on sky reflections and color variation are complementary. A reflection coefficient model suggests sky reflections dominate the color of water at ranges > 12 meters. Water detection based on sky reflections: (1) geometrically locates the pixel in the sky that is reflecting on a candidate water pixel on the ground (2) predicts if the ground pixel is water based on color similarity and local terrain features. Water detection has been integrated on XUVs.

Rankin, Arturo; Matthies, Larry; Bellutta, Paolo

2011-01-01

229

75 FR 58023 - Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Analysis of Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act; Analysis and Sampling Procedures...Analysis of Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act; Analysis and Sampling Procedures...methods (test procedures) for use in Clean Water Act programs. The changes include...

2010-09-23

230

77 FR 29757 - Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Analysis of Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act; Analysis and Sampling Procedures...Analysis of Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act; Analysis and Sampling Procedures...for analysis and sampling under the Clean Water Act. EPA proposed these changes for...

2012-05-18

231

75 FR 7627 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Notice is hereby given that on February 16...the pre-treatment requirements of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act), 40 CFR part 403...

2010-02-22

232

Spectroscopic analyses of pollutants in water, sediment and fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water ways in Egypt is suffering from continual discharge without adequate treatment especially in the Delta and greater Cairo area. Accordingly water, sediments and catfishes were collected from El Mouheet El Youmna drain in Giza. Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn were determined furthermore the molecular structure of sediment and catfish were conducted with FTIR spectroscopy. Although studied metals were lower in water, higher values are recorded in sediment and catfish samples. FTIR shows possible interaction among metals and organic structures mainly proteins. The bioaccumulation of Pb and Cd proportion was significantly increased in the liver tissues of catfish. A correlation coefficient among sediment and fish liver metals accumulation exist. This infers that the waste assimilation capacity for the drain is high, a phenomena that could be ascribed to dilution, sedimentation and continual water exchange. Furthermore, the genotoxicity affect in catfish genomic corroborates the genus diagnostic markers which attributed to long pollution. This is an indication that agriculture and industrial wastes discharged into the drain has badly a significant effect on the ecological balance.

Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh.; Ibrahim, Hanan S.; Ammar, Nabila S.; Ibrahim, Medhat

2012-11-01

233

Spectroscopic analyses of pollutants in water, sediment and fish.  

PubMed

Water ways in Egypt is suffering from continual discharge without adequate treatment especially in the Delta and greater Cairo area. Accordingly water, sediments and catfishes were collected from El Mouheet El Youmna drain in Giza. Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn were determined furthermore the molecular structure of sediment and catfish were conducted with FTIR spectroscopy. Although studied metals were lower in water, higher values are recorded in sediment and catfish samples. FTIR shows possible interaction among metals and organic structures mainly proteins. The bioaccumulation of Pb and Cd proportion was significantly increased in the liver tissues of catfish. A correlation coefficient among sediment and fish liver metals accumulation exist. This infers that the waste assimilation capacity for the drain is high, a phenomena that could be ascribed to dilution, sedimentation and continual water exchange. Furthermore, the genotoxicity affect in catfish genomic corroborates the genus diagnostic markers which attributed to long pollution. This is an indication that agriculture and industrial wastes discharged into the drain has badly a significant effect on the ecological balance. PMID:22898112

Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh; Ibrahim, Hanan S; Ammar, Nabila S; Ibrahim, Medhat

2012-11-01

234

'Water Systems' Coordination Plan and Development Program. Phase I. 'Water' Supply 'Systems', Waste 'Water' Pollution Control 'Systems' and Surface 'Water' Drainage 'Systems'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is the first in a series of three reports treating with the water supply, wastewater pollution control and surface water drainage problems of the 3-county area around Memphis, Tennessee: DeSoto County, Mississippi, Crittenden County, Arkansas; ...

1972-01-01

235

Remote sensing in the mixing zone. [water pollution in Wisconsin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characteristics of dispersion and diffusion as the mechanisms by which pollutants are transported in natural river courses were studied with the view of providing additional data for the establishment of water quality guidelines and effluent outfall design protocols. Work has been divided into four basic categories which are directed at the basic goal of developing relationships which will permit the estimation of the nature and extent of the mixing zone as a function of those variables which characterize the outfall structure, the effluent, and the river, as well as climatological conditions. The four basic categories of effort are: (1) the development of mathematical models; (2) laboratory studies of physical models; (3) field surveys involving ground and aerial sensing; and (4) correlation between aerial photographic imagery and mixing zone characteristics.

Villemonte, J. R.; Hoopes, J. A.; Wu, D. S.; Lillesand, T. M.

1973-01-01

236

Selectivity improvement of semi-conducting gas sensors by selective filter for atmospheric pollutants detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monitoring of atmospheric pollution using chemical gas sensors is a challenge due to the lack of selectivity of most existing devices. However, their performances can be improved using filtering films achieving the separation or the removal of some gases. This study is focused on the detection of carbon monoxide and of oxidant pollutants (nitrogen dioxide and ozone) by sensors

J. P. Viricelle; A. Pauly; L. Mazet; J. Brunet; M. Bouvet; C. Varenne; C. Pijolat

2006-01-01

237

High-throughput multiplexed competitive immunoassay for pollutants sensing in water.  

PubMed

The present study described the development and evaluation of a new fully automated multiplex competitive immunoassay enabling the simultaneous detection of five water pollutants (okadaic acid (OA), 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine (atrazine), 2.4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)). The technology is taking advantage of an optical-clear pressure-sensitive adhesive on which biomolecules can be immobilized and that can be integrated within a classical 96-well format. The optimization of the microarray composition and cross-reaction was performed using an original approach where probe molecules (haptens) were conjugated to different carriers such as protein (bovine serum albumin or ovalbumin), amino-functionalized latex beads, or dextran polymer and arrayed at the surface of the adhesive. A total of 17 different probes were then arrayed together with controls on the adhesive surface and screened toward their specific reactivity and cross-reactivity. Once optimized, the complete setup was used for the detection of the five target molecules (less than 3 h for 96 samples). Limits of detection of 0.02, 0.01, 0.01, 100, and 0.02 ?g L(-1) were found for OA, atrazine, 2,4-D, TNT, and RDX, respectively. The proof of concept of the multiplex competitive detection (semiquantitative or qualitative) of the five pollutants was also demonstrated on 16 spiked samples. PMID:23106571

Desmet, Cloé; Blum, Loic J; Marquette, Christophe A

2012-12-01

238

Lake Eutrophication - Water Pollution Causes, Effects and Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Papers presented at 'Save the Lakes Symposium' focused on lake pollution and eutrophication. The life cycle of a lake is described. Improved methods of lake management may be uncovered in fundamental studies dealing with present sources of pollution, muni...

1970-01-01

239

Natural Disasters and Surface and Subsurface Water Pollution Risk Assessment for Some Regions of Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, some hydrological specifications of Georgian water resources are presented. The river Rioni's possible\\u000a pollution by oil in a period of flooding is studied by numerical modelling. Some results of the investigation of pollution\\u000a of Georgia's largest river, the River Kura, are also given. With the purpose of studying subsurface water pollution by oil\\u000a in case of

T. Davitashvili

240

Method Study of Water Quality Control in Polluted Hun-Tai River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the pollutant origin, category and generating mechanism, the paper gives the calculation method of pollutants discharged into Hun-Tai River from point and non-point source aspects. With water resources network-node graph, calculating element water supply and demand balance data and rainfall-runoff, related amount of pollution has been forecasted in the future year (year 2020, 2030). By comprehensively consideration the

Yi-cheng Fu; Chuan-jiang Wei; Lun Miao; Zhi-zhang Wang

2011-01-01

241

Analysis of national water-pollution-control policies. 1. A national network model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the national implications of federal water-pollution-control policies, the authors developed a water-pollution-network model. This model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and bays. While the geographical scope of the model and existing data availability required make many simplifying assumptions,

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin; G. K. Young

1981-01-01

242

Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 1. A national network model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study the national implications of federal water pollution control policies, the authors developed a water pollution network model. This model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and bays. While the geographical scope of the model and existing data availability required making many simplifying assumptions, the model permits comprehensive analyses that are not possible with existing techniques.

Gianessi, Leonard P.; Peskin, Henry M.; Young, G. K.

1981-08-01

243

Linking Near Real-Time Water Quality Measurements to Fecal Coliforms and Trace Organic Pollutants in Urban Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic pollutants, including pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, and estrogens are detected in urban water bodies. Effective examination of dilute organic and microbial pollutant loading rates within surface waters is currently prohibitively expensive and labor intensive. Effort is being placed on the development of improved monitoring methodologies to more accurately assess surface water quality and evaluate the effectiveness of water quality management practices. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008 a "real-time" wireless network equipped with high frequency fundamental water quality parameter sensors measured turbidity, conductivity, pH, depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen and nitrate above and below stormwater inputs at two urban stream locations. At each location one liter grab samples were concurrently collected by ISCO automatic samplers at two hour intervals for 24 hour durations during three dry periods and five rain events. Grab samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms, atrazine (agricultural herbicide), prometon (residential herbicide) and caffeine (wastewater indicator). Surrogate relationships between easy-to-measure water quality parameters and difficult-to-measure pollutants were developed, subsequently facilitating monitoring of these pollutants without the development of new, and likely costly, technologies. Additionally, comparisons were made between traditional grab sampling techniques and the "real-time" monitoring to assess the accuracy of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) calculations.

Henjum, M.; Wennen, C.; Hondzo, M.; Hozalski, R. M.; Novak, P. J.; Arnold, W. A.

2009-05-01

244

GIS-based source identification and apportionment of diffuse water pollution: perfluorinated compound pollution in the Tokyo Bay basin.  

PubMed

To efficiently reduce perfluorinated compound (PFC) pollution, it is important to have an understanding of PFC sources and their contribution to the pollution. In this study, source identification of diffuse water pollution by PFCs was conducted using a GIS-based approach. Major components of the source identification were collection of the monitoring data and preparation of the corresponding geographic information that was extracted from a constructed GIS database. The spatially distributed pollution factors were then explored by multiple linear regression analysis, after which they were visually expressed using GIS. Among the 35 PFC homologues measured in a survey of the Tokyo Bay basin, 18 homologues were analyzed. Pollution by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was explained well by the percentage of arterial traffic area in the basin, and the 84% variance of the measured PFOS concentration was explained by two geographic variables, arterial traffic area and population. Source apportionment between point and nonpoint sources was conducted based on the results of the analysis. The contribution of PFOS from nonpoint sources was comparable to that from point sources in several major rivers flowing into Tokyo Bay. Source identification and apportionment using the GIS-based approach was shown to be effective, especially for ubiquitous types of pollution, such as PFC pollution. PMID:21885084

Zushi, Yasuyuki; Masunaga, Shigeki

2011-11-01

245

Mathematical Models for Water Quality for the Hudson-Champlain and Metropolitan Coastal Water Pollution Control Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water discharges from urban population centers, industries, rural runoff, and storm overflows carry significant quantities of nutrients, organic and inorganic pollution to our waterways. Programs to control water quality invariably require large capital a...

1968-01-01

246

75 FR 43554 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (“Clean Water...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (``Clean Water Act'') Notice is hereby given that on July 21, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree in...

2010-07-26

247

A wind tunnel investigation of the distortion of polluted water drops in the horizontal electric fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distortion of the water drops freely suspended in a vertical wind tunnel is investigated when these drops are polluted with sulphate\\/nitrate salt and are also subjected to the horizontal electric fields. Results show that although the drops' average shape is not significantly affected, the magnitudes of drop oscillations decrease when these are formed from the water polluted with sulphate\\/nitrate salt.

Rohini V. Bhalwankar; A. K. Kamra

2009-01-01

248

Laser-enhanced photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants from water using ZnO semiconductor catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater contaminated with organic pollutants creates serious environmental problems. Laser induced photocatalysis has been investigated for removal of organic pollutant like phenol from water. The important mechanism for degradation of phenol by UV laser irradiation is redox reactions triggered by semiconductor catalyst in presence of water. In this study the potential of a ZnO semiconductor catalyst has been explored as

Mohammed A. Gondal; Mohammad N. Sayeed

2007-01-01

249

The study of PAC-coagulation sedimentation-UF process for treating micro-polluted water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process of powdered activated carbon?ƒ PAC?? - coagulation sedimentation - Ultrafiltration?ƒ UF ?? was used to investigate the effect of removing organic matter in micro- polluted water. The results showed that the PAC-coagulation sedimentation - UF combined process could remove effectively dissolved organic matter in micro-polluted water. After pre- dosing 15mg \\/ L PAC, the whole removal of CODMn,

Tao Lin; Liang Li; Wei Chen

2011-01-01

250

A USER'S GUIDE TO IPX, THE IN-PLACE POLLUTANT EXPORT WATER QUALITY MODELLING SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The in-place pollutant export water quality modeling system (IPX) framework was designed to address the transport and fate of pollutants in rivers and streams while retaining the flexibility needed to analyze a variety of water quality problems. This manual describes IPX and is d...

251

WATER POLLUTION CAUSED BY INACTIVE ORE AND MINERAL MINES - A NATIONAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report identifies the scope and magnitude of water pollution from inactive ore and mineral mines. Data collected from Federal, State, and local agencies indicates water pollution from acids, heavy metals, and sedimentation occurs at over 100 locations and affects over 1200 ki...

252

Water pollution control: assessing the impacts and costs of environmental standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book addresses one of the key policy changes enacted into law by the Congress in 1972, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, that of requiring certain categories of industries and municipalities to meet pollution-discharge standards based on specific technology objectives regardless of the prior conditions or desired uses of the water. The procedures used to address

R. A. Luken; E. H. Pechan

1977-01-01

253

Feasibility study: Fuel cell cogeneration in a water pollution control facility, volume 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual design study was conducted to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of a cogeneration fuel cell power plant operating in a large water pollution control facility. In this particular application, the fuel cell power plant would use methane rich digester gas from the water pollution control facility as a fuel feedstock to provide electrical and thermal energy. Several

J. H. Hirschenhofer; D. B. Baillieul; L. M. Barton; R. J. Brumberg; C. E. Hannan; H. H. Fiedler; M. G. Kile; M. G. Klett; G. A. Malone; H. P. Milliron

1980-01-01

254

Federal environmental litigation in 1976: the Federal Water Pollution Control Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 forms a vital part of EPA's national battle against pollution. The general objective of the act, to ''restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters,'' will hopefully be achieved through the completion of specific goals set and carried out by EPA and the federal government. The application

K. M. Hunciker; V. Pagano

1976-01-01

255

Political crisis and the politics of water pollution control in the 1970s  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigates the sociopolitical context and formation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1977 in light of the theory of the relative autonomy of the state. Data on state legitimacy and political crisis are derived from previous studies on public trust in government and business and the

Tsoukalas

1991-01-01

256

BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSES FOR DETECTION AND ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTION IN THE SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Selected biochemical analysis techniques were investigated for potential use in detecting and assessing pollution of subsurface environments. Procedures for determining protein, nucleic acids, organic phosphate, lipopolysaccharides, and various coenzymes and enzyme systems were e...

257

Comprehensive Water Supply, Sewerage, Solid Waste and Air Pollution Control Plans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Part One of this study, which included an inventory of Palm Beach County's water resources, water supply systems, sewerage systems, solid wastes systems, and air pollution control systems, and the legal and administrative aspects of each, was completed an...

D. B. Smith W. R. Sabis D. H. Scott

1970-01-01

258

The influence of light and air on the purification of polluted water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study was made between the organic polluted water from the river Lieve (Ghent, Belgium), and the same water treated in the laboratory aquaria, with light and atmospheric air at a constant temperature.

WILLEM H. O. DE SMET; Frans M. J. C. Evens

1970-01-01

259

9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...condemned. (b) After the polluted water has receded from an official...the equipment therein, shall, under the supervision of an inspector...personnel. An adequate supply of hot water under pressure is essential to make such...

2009-01-01

260

9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...condemned. (b) After the polluted water has receded from an official...the equipment therein, shall, under the supervision of an inspector...personnel. An adequate supply of hot water under pressure is essential to make such...

2010-01-01

261

9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...condemned. (b) After the polluted water has receded from an official...the equipment therein, shall, under the supervision of an inspector...personnel. An adequate supply of hot water under pressure is essential to make such...

2009-01-01

262

9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...condemned. (b) After the polluted water has receded from an official...the equipment therein, shall, under the supervision of an inspector...personnel. An adequate supply of hot water under pressure is essential to make such...

2010-01-01

263

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

Such projects must also be for the further purpose of developing preliminary plans for providing such safe water and such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in the State of...

2013-07-01

264

DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS IN WATER MATRICES  

EPA Science Inventory

Since the advent and recognition of waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis great effort has been expended on development of methods for detecting Cryptosporidium oocysts in water. Oocysts recovery rates using a method originally developed for detecting Giardia cysts ranged fr...

265

Pollution detection in Lake Champlain using ERTS-1 imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. A major waste water discharge plume generated by a large paper mill along the New York shore of Lake Champlain was visually detected on ERTS-1 imagery. The plume is best displayed in 9.5 inch positive transparencies of MSS bands 4 and 5. Observation of the magnitude and extent of this plume is feasible, under magnification of 4 times. The chemical parameters of this plume have been documented by limnological studies. An enhancement technique useful for documenting the presence of waste water discharge plumes in Lake Champlain utilizes Polaroid MP-3 copy camera equipment and Spectral Data Corporation's multispectral viewer. The 9.5 inch, ERTS-1, positive transparency is enlarged using the Polaroid MP-3 copy camera to produce an enlarged lantern slide size positive transparency. These are projected through the multispectral viewer for enhancement and the scene is viewed directly on the screen or copied by an additional photographic step. The technique is simple and produces rapid results.

Lind, A. O. (principal investigator); Henson, E. B.

1972-01-01

266

Daytime water detection based on color variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robust water detection is a critical perception requirement for unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) autonomous navigation. This is particularly true in wide open areas where water can collect in naturally occurring terrain depressions during periods of heavy precipitation and form large water bodies (such as ponds). At far range, reflections of the sky provide a strong cue for water. But at

Arturo Rankin; Larry Matthies

2010-01-01

267

Daytime Water Detection Based on Sky Reflections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robust water detection is a critical perception requirement for unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) autonomous navigation. This is particularly true in wide-open areas where water can collect in naturally occurring terrain depressions during periods of heavy precipitation and form large water bodies. One of the properties of water useful for detecting it is that its surface acts as a horizontal mirror at large incidence angles. Water bodies can be indirectly detected by detecting reflections of the sky below the horizon in color imagery. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has implemented a water detector based on sky reflections that geometrically locates the pixel in the sky that is reflecting on a candidate water pixel on the ground and predicts if the ground pixel is water based on color similarity and local terrain features. This software detects water bodies in wide-open areas on cross-country terrain at mid- to far-range using imagery acquired from a forward-looking stereo pair of color cameras mounted on a terrestrial UGV. In three test sequences approaching a pond under a clear, overcast, and cloudy sky, the true positive detection rate was 100% when the UGV was beyond 7 meters of the water's leading edge and the largest false positive detection rate was 0.58%. The sky reflection based water detector has been integrated on an experimental unmanned vehicle and field tested at Ft. Indiantown Gap, PA, USA.

Rankin, Arturo L.; Matthies, Larry H.; Bellutta, Paolo

2011-01-01

268

Questionable Specificity of Genetic Total Faecal Pollution Markers for Integrated Water Quality Monitoring and Source Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterisation of microbial faecal hazards in water is a fundamental aspect for target-orientated water resources management to achieve appropriate water quality for various purposes like water supply or agriculture and thus to minimize related health risks. Nowadays the management of water resources increasingly demands detailed knowledge on the extent and the origin of microbial pollution. Cultivation of standard faecal indicator

Julia Vierheilig; Georg H. Reischer; Andreas H. Farnleitner

2010-01-01

269

EFFECT OF COLLISIONAL LIFETIME IN OPTOACOUSTIC DETECTION OF POLLUTANT GASES  

EPA Science Inventory

The optoacoustic technique shows promise for pollution monitoring due to its small size and high sensitivity. This technique is fundamentally different from most spectroscopy in that absorbed energy is measured indirectly as a pressure change in the surrounding gas. Not all the a...

270

Deposition of air pollutants to the great waters. First report to Congress  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Great Waters program is to evaluate the atmospheric deposition of air pollutants to the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, Chesapeake Bay, and coastal waters. The report to Congress is to include information on the contribution of atmospheric deposition to pollutant loadings, the environmental or public health effects of such pollution, the source or sources of such pollution, and a description of any regulatory revisions under applicable Federal laws that may be necessary to assure protection of human health and the environment. The scientific information currently available is summarized in this report, and recommended actions are described.

Not Available

1994-05-01

271

Removal of some heavy metals from polluted water by water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water hyacinth(Eichhornia crassipes.(Mart.) Solms) grows abunduntly throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world (PENFOUND & EARLE 1948), and is also widely distributed in the southwest regions in Japan(UEKl et ai.1976). Recently, this plant has received attention because of its potential for removal of pollutants when utilized as a biological filtration system(WOLVERTON ~t al. 1978). There are many reports

S. Muramoto; Y. Oki

1983-01-01

272

Membrane bioreactor for the drinking water treatment of polluted surface water supplies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory membrane bioreactor (MBR) using a submerged polyethylene hollow-fibre membrane module with a pore size of 0.4?m and a total surface area of 0.2m2 was used for treating a raw water supply slightly polluted by domestic sewage. The feeding influent had a total organic carbon (TOC) level of 3–5mg\\/L and an ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration of 3–4mg\\/L. The MBR

Xiao-yan Li; Hiu Ping Chu

2003-01-01

273

Fluoroquinolones and qnr Genes in Sediment, Water, Soil, and Human Fecal Flora in an Environment Polluted by Manufacturing Discharges.  

PubMed

There is increasing concern that environmental antibiotic pollution promotes transfer of resistance genes to the human microbiota. Here, fluoroquinolone-polluted river sediment, well water, irrigated farmland, and human fecal flora of local villagers within a pharmaceutical industrial region in India were analyzed for quinolone resistance (qnr) genes by quantitative PCR. Similar samples from Indian villages farther away from industrial areas, as well as fecal samples from Swedish study participants and river sediment from Sweden, were included for comparison. Fluoroquinolones were detected by MS/MS in well water and soil from all villages located within three km from industrially polluted waterways. Quinolone resistance genes were detected in 42% of well water, 7% of soil samples and in 100% and 18% of Indian and Swedish river sediments, respectively. High antibiotic concentrations in Indian sediment coincided with high abundances of qnr, whereas lower fluoroquinolone levels in well water and soil did not. We could not find support for an enrichment of qnr in fecal samples from people living in the fluoroquinolone-contaminated villages. However, as qnr was detected in 91% of all Indian fecal samples (24% of the Swedish) it suggests that the spread of qnr between people is currently a dominating transmission route. PMID:24988042

Rutgersson, Carolin; Fick, Jerker; Marathe, Nachiket; Kristiansson, Erik; Janzon, Anders; Angelin, Martin; Johansson, Anders; Shouche, Yogesh; Flach, Carl-Fredrik; Larsson, D G Joakim

2014-07-15

274

Effects of abandoned arsenic mine on water resources pollution in north west of iran.  

PubMed

Background: Pollution due to mining activities could have an important role in health and welfare of people who are living in mining area. When mining operation finishes, environ-ment of mining area can be influenced by related pollution e.g. heavy metals emission to wa-ter resources. The present study was aimed to evaluate Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine ef-fects on drinking water resources quality and possible health effects on the residents of min-ing area in the North West of Iran. Methods: Water samples and some limited composite wheat samples in downstream of min-ing area were collected. Water samples were analyzed for chemical parameters according to standard methods. For determination of arsenic in water samples, Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Method (GFAAS) and for wheat samples X - Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Method (ICP) were used. Information about possible health effects due to exposure to arsenic was collected through interviews in studied villages and health center of Herris City. Results: The highest concentrations of arsenic were measured near the mine (as high as 2000 µg/L in Valiloo mine opening water). With increasing distance from the mine, concentration was decreased. Arsenic was not detectable in any of wheat samples. Fortunately, no health effects had been reported between residents of studied area due to exposure to arsenic. Conclusion: Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine has caused release of arsenic to the around en-vironment of the mine, so arsenic concentration has been increased in the groundwater and also downstream river that requires proper measures to mitigate spread of arsenic. PMID:24688901

Hajalilou, Behzad; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Khaleghi, Fazel; Jadidi, Sakineh; Vosugh, Bahram; Fatehifar, Esmail

2011-01-01

275

Optical detection of oil on water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three radiometric techniques utilizing sunlight reflected and backscattered from water bodies have potential application for remote sensing of oil spills. Oil on water can be detected by viewing perpendicular polarization component of reflected light or difference between polarization components. Best detection is performed in ultraviolet or far-red portions of spectrum and in azimuth directions toward or opposite sun.

Millard, J. P.; Arvesen, J. C.

1973-01-01

276

Emerging pollutants in sewage, surface and drinking water in Galicia (NW Spain).  

PubMed

A monitoring programme was carried out on wastewater, surface and drinking water on the NW area of Spain during the four seasons of a year period (November 2007-September 2008). This study covered a series of emerging pollutants of different classes, including pharmaceuticals, neutral and acidic organophosphorus flame retardant/plasticizers (OPs), triclosan, phenoxy-herbicides, insect repellents and UV filters. From the total set of 53 compounds, 19 were found in raw wastewater with median concentrations higher than 0.1 ?g L(-1). Among them, salicylic acid, ibuprofen and the UV filter benzophenone-4 (BP-4) were the most concentrated, exceeding the 1 ?g L(-1) median value. Subsequently, 11 of these contaminants are not efficiently enough removed in the small WWTPs tested and their median concentrations in effluents still surpassed the 0.1 ?g L(-1), so that they can spread through surface water. These chemicals are the pharmaceuticals naproxen, diclofenac and atenolol; the OPs tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tri(chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP), tri-n-butyl phosphate (TnBP), diphenyl phosphate (DPhP) and diethylhexyl phosphate (DEHP); and the sulphonate UV filters BP-4 and 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulphonic acid (PBSA). These OPs were then the dominant emerging pollutants occurring in surface and drinking water, where they are detected in the 20-200 ng L(-1) range. Pharmaceuticals and UV filters are typically below the 10 ng L(-1) level. Finally, herbicides were only detected in the last sampling campaign under the 100 ng L(-1) drinking water European Union limit. PMID:22189380

Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; Concha-Graña, Estefanía; López-Mahía, Purificación; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío

2012-03-01

277

Pollution of the Black Sea coastal waters: Sources, present-day level, annual variability  

SciTech Connect

Results of regular (for the last 10 years) observations at marine and coastal hydrometeorological posts are analyzed. These are observations of volumes and concentrations of pollutants entering the sea with the flow of the Danube and Dnieper rivers and wastewaters of coastal industrial enterprises, as a result of oil spills caused by ship accidents, pipeline damage, and sea shipping. An integral criterion used to estimate the overall specific anthropogenic load of pollutants in the coastal zone is calculated. The pollutants were compared with regard to their overall specific load, taking into account the percentage of each of them. A water pollution index is calculated for 19 regions of the sea; water quality is evaluated for three types of pollutants and oxygen content. Pollution structure is revealed, physical and dynamic causes of its changes are investigated.

Fashchuk, D.Ya.; Shaporenko, S.I. [Institute of Geography, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-05-01

278

Sources of water pollution and evolution of water quality in the Wuwei basin of Shiyang river, Northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on surveys and chemical analyses, we performed a case study of the surface water and groundwater quality in the Wuwei basin, in order to understand the sources of water pollution and the evolution of water quality in Shiyang river. Concentrations of major chemical elements in the surface water were related to the distance downstream from the source of the

Jinzhu Ma; Zhenyu Ding; Guoxiao Wei; Hua Zhao; Tianming Huang

2009-01-01

279

Water Detection Based on Object Reflections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water bodies are challenging terrain hazards for terrestrial unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) for several reasons. Traversing through deep water bodies could cause costly damage to the electronics of UGVs. Additionally, a UGV that is either broken down due to water damage or becomes stuck in a water body during an autonomous operation will require rescue, potentially drawing critical resources away from the primary operation and increasing the operation cost. Thus, robust water detection is a critical perception requirement for UGV autonomous navigation. One of the properties useful for detecting still water bodies is that their surface acts as a horizontal mirror at high incidence angles. Still water bodies in wide-open areas can be detected by geometrically locating the exact pixels in the sky that are reflecting on candidate water pixels on the ground, predicting if ground pixels are water based on color similarity to the sky and local terrain features. But in cluttered areas where reflections of objects in the background dominate the appearance of the surface of still water bodies, detection based on sky reflections is of marginal value. Specifically, this software attempts to solve the problem of detecting still water bodies on cross-country terrain in cluttered areas at low cost.

Rankin, Arturo L.; Matthies, Larry H.

2012-01-01

280

Novel detection of Escherichia coli ?- d -glucuronidase activity using a microbially-modified glassy carbon electrode and its potential for faecal pollution monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical detection of Escherichia coli ?-d-glucuronidase activity as a means of monitoring water pollution by faecal material was investigated using separate Moraxella- and Pseudomonas putida-modified glassy carbon electrodes. The former was more sensitive and selective. The Moraxella-modified biosensor was 100 times more rapid and sensitive than the spectrophotometric detection of ?-d-glucuronidase activity. The experimental limit of detection of the biosensor

Chamunorwa Aloius Togo; Victor Collins Wutor; Janice Leigh Limson; Brett Ivan Pletschke

2007-01-01

281

23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are included in...

2010-04-01

282

Tourism Development and Water Pollution: Case Study in Lijiang Ancient Town  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tourism development results in water pollution not only in water-scarce areas, but also in areas with relatively abundant water resources, such as Lijiang Ancient Town (LAT). In this article, LAT is described for its use of the freshwater resource, on account of its attractive landscaping. Tourism here has grown rapidly in recent years and at the same time the water

Ning Baoying; He Yuanqing

2007-01-01

283

Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 2. Agricultural sediment control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of a national water network model permits an analysis of the likely affects of agricultural sediment control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier assessments concluded that agriculture-related pollution problems are widespread and ubiquitous, this analysis concludes that it is probably more efficient to focus sediment-related pollution control policies on about one third of the nation's agricultural regions.

Gianessi, Leonard P.; Peskin, Henry M.

1981-08-01

284

Water pollutant fingerprinting tracks recent industrial transfer from coastal to inland China: A case study  

PubMed Central

In recent years, China’s developed regions have transferred industries to undeveloped regions. Large numbers of unlicensed or unregistered enterprises are widespread in these undeveloped regions and they are subject to minimal regulation. Current methods for tracing industrial transfers in these areas, based on enterprise registration information or economic surveys, do not work. We have developed an analytical framework combining water fingerprinting and evolutionary analysis to trace the pollution transfer features between water sources. We collected samples in Eastern China (industrial export) and Central China (industrial acceptance) separately from two water systems. Based on the water pollutant fingerprints and evolutionary trees, we traced the pollution transfer associated with industrial transfer between the two areas. The results are consistent with four episodes of industrial transfers over the past decade. Our results also show likely types of the transferred industries - electronics, plastics, and biomedicines - that contribute to the water pollution transfer.

Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Tian, Dajun; Jiang, Songhui; Andersen, Melvin E.; He, Genhsjeng; Crabbe, M. James C.; Zheng, Yuxin; Zhong, Yang; Qu, Weidong

2013-01-01

285

Remote detection of air pollution stress to vegetation - Laboratory-level studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of the role of leaf chemistry, anatomy, moisture content, and canopy density on spectral reflectance in healthy and pollution stressed western conifer needles and broad-leafed species of California coastal sage scrub is presented. Acid mist at a level of pH 2.0 is found to more severely effect chlorophyll loss and leaf death than ozone at a level of 0.2 ppm for a four-week period. Both pollutants cause water loss, affecting Bands 4 and 5 in nonlinear ways. The infrared bands initially rise as free water is lost, and subsequently, scattering and reflectance decline. The net effect is shown to be a reduction in TM 4/3 and a rise in TM 5/4 with pollution stress. Under more severe pollution stresses, the decline of leaf area indices due to accelerated leaf drop accentuates the expected TM 4/3 and TM 5/4 changes.

Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

1987-01-01

286

ANALYSIS OF EXTRACTABLE PRIORITY POLLUTANTS IN WATER BY GC/MS  

EPA Science Inventory

Following the June 1976 Consent Decree (NRDC et al. vs. EPA), there has been a continuously increasing demand for the analysis of water samples for the 129 priority pollutants. The protocol originally designed for the analysis of the priority pollutants that are extractable into ...

287

Waste water treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment of industrial pollutants. The use and effectiveness of biological treatments and carbon additives are examined. References also discuss problems and recommendations for the removal of mercury and its compounds, fertilizers, and pesticides from polluted waste water. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-05-01

288

Use of CV and TPP-montmorillonite for the removal of priority pollutants from water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term “priority pollutants” is used to define chemicals hazardous to aquatic life or human health. Thus, it is essential to remove such pollutants from water and try to reduce their impact. Clay minerals might be helpful in the removal of hazardous chemicals, due to impressive adsorption properties. Natural clay minerals adsorb cations and non-charged hydrophilic compounds, but almost do

Giora Rytwo; Ynon Kohavi; Ilan Botnick; Yotam Gonen

2007-01-01

289

Identification of Critical Nonpoint Pollution Source Areas Using Geographic Information Systems and Water Quality Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated approach coupling water quality computer simulation modeling with a geographic information system (GIS) was used to delineate critical areas of nonpoint source (NPS) pollution at the watershed level. Two simplified pollutant export models were integrated with the Virginia Geographic Information System (VIrGIS) to estimate soil erosion, sediment yield, and phosphorus (1\\\\') loading from the Nomini Creek watershed located

Saied Mostaghimi; V. O. Shanholtz

1992-01-01

290

Agricultural nonpoint source water pollution policy: The case of California's Central Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpoint sources of pollution, primarily from agricultural sources, are a major cause of water quality impairment. Yet policies to address this issue remain underexplored in the literature. This article first reviews the agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution policy literature and categorizes its major findings. The North American literature, in particular, rarely analyses NPS policies already in force, and pays even

Brian M. Dowd; Marc Los Huertos

2008-01-01

291

Water tank studies of atmospheric boundary layer structure and air pollution transport in upslope flow systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heated mountain slopes sometimes vent air pollutants out of the boundary layer over the slope top and at other times trap pollutants in closed circulations. Field, numerical, and water tank studies of fair weather atmospheric conditions over complex terrain have shown more complicated vertical distributions of temperature, moisture, and aerosols than over horizontal terrain. To study these phenomena, we analyze

C. Reuten; D. G. Steyn; S. E. Allen

2007-01-01

292

Recovery and reuse of chromium from chrome tanning waste water aiming towards zero discharge of pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leather industry faces very challenging task because of the regulations enforced by the various pollution control bodies to maintain the discharged norms of the chemical in the treated water. The pollution due to the use of chromium and other chemicals in the leather industry is critically analyzed for the harmful effects. Many studies have been undertaken to optimize the

J. Kanagaraj; N. K. Chandra Babu; A. B. Mandal

2008-01-01

293

State-of-art review: water pollution control benefits and costs. Volume I  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey and assessment are presented of the state-of-art of economic ; analyses dealing with water pollution control benefits and costs. The ; investigation includes the extension of traditional benefit cost analysis into ; the area of pollution control. Implications for planning and research plus some ; directions of needed study are also developed. A conceptual basis for benefit ;

S. G. Unger; M. J. Emerson; D. L. Jordening

1973-01-01

294

Experimental study of effectiveness of nonpoint source water pollution control group contract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this experimental study was to test an effectiveness of a group contract designed to control nonpoint source water pollution from farms' runoff (Pushkarskaya 2003). In particular, the regulator pays for pollution reduction credits earned by the group of the farmers, who voluntary enter the contract, and is concerned only with the total level of the abatement achieved,

Helen N. Pushkarskaya; Hal Arkes; Jason Pieratt; Ibrahim Bamba

2005-01-01

295

An information Grid-based model for sharing water pollution control and prevention technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though water pollution control and prevention technologies have made a great progress, most polluting enterprises even have never heard of them, not to mention use them. So we design an technologies sharing model based on information Grid, and focus our discussion on the process of searching and invoking the wanted technologies with mobile agents.

Wang Minghu; Gao Zhenji; Xu Chunlian; Huang Haiming

2010-01-01

296

Implementation of intergovernmental regulatory programs: Section 402 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops and tests a theoretical framework for the study of the process by which intergovernmental regulatory policies are implemented. The framework is applied to the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program of the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. The general question addressed is why some states have the authority to implement intergovernmental regulatory

Wassenberg

1985-01-01

297

Making Water Pollution a Problem in the Classroom Through Computer Assisted Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternative means for dealing with water pollution control are presented for students and teachers. One computer oriented program is described in terms of teaching wastewater treatment and pollution concepts to middle and secondary school students. Suggestions are given to help teachers use a computer simulation program in their classrooms.…

Flowers, John D.

298

Application of Ion Exchange Technique to Decontamination of Polluted Water Generated by Fukushima Nuclear Disaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By the Fukushima nuclear disaster, large amounts of water and sea water polluted mainly with radioactive Cs were generated and the environment around the nuclear site was contaminated by the fallout from the nuclear site. The coagulation settling process using ferric ferrocyanide and an inorganic coagulant and the adsorption process using ferric ferrocyanide granulated by silica binder were applied to the treatment of polluted water. In the coagulation settling process, Cs was removed completely from polluted water and sea water (DF?104). In the adsorption process, the recovery of trace Cs (10 ppb) in sea water, which was not suitable for the use of zeolite, was attained successfully. Finally, the recovery of Cs from sewage sludge was tested by a combined process with the hydrothermal process using subcritical water and the coagulation settling process using ferric ferrocyanide. 96% of radioactive Cs was recovered successfully from sewage sludge with the radioactivity of 10,000 Bq/kg.

Takeshita, Kenji; Ogata, Takeshi

299

A Microbial Signature Approach to Identify Fecal Pollution in the Waters Off an Urbanized Coast of Lake Michigan  

PubMed Central

Urban coasts receive watershed drainage from ecosystems that include highly developed lands with sewer and stormwater infrastructure. In these complex ecosystems, coastal waters are often contaminated with fecal pollution, where multiple delivery mechanisms that often contain multiple fecal sources make it difficult to mitigate the pollution. Here, we exploit bacterial community sequencing of the V6 and V6V4 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to identify bacterial distributions that signal the presence of sewer, fecal, and human fecal pollution. The sequences classified to three sewer infrastructure-associated bacterial genera, Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, and Trichococcus, and five fecal-associated bacterial families, Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae, served as signatures of sewer and fecal contamination, respectively. The human fecal signature was determined with the Bayesian source estimation program SourceTracker, which we applied to a set of 40 sewage influent samples collected in Milwaukee, WI, USA to identify operational taxonomic units (?97 % identity) that were most likely of human fecal origin. During periods of dry weather, the magnitudes of all three signatures were relatively low in Milwaukee's urban rivers and harbor and nearly zero in Lake Michigan. However, the relative contribution of the sewer and fecal signature frequently increased to >2 % of the measured surface water communities following sewer overflows. Also during combined sewer overflows, the ratio of the human fecal pollution signature to the fecal pollution signature in surface waters was generally close to that of sewage, but this ratio decreased dramatically during dry weather and rain events, suggesting that nonhuman fecal pollution was the dominant source during these weather-driven scenarios. The qPCR detection of two human fecal indicators, human Bacteroides and Lachno2, confirmed the urban fecal footprint in this ecosystem extends to at least 8 km offshore.

Newton, Ryan J.; Bootsma, Melinda J.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Sogin, Mitchell L.

2014-01-01

300

Pollution Concentrations in Runoff Water from Refuse Piles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the processes of removal, refinement and disposal of raw materials, large quantities of waste products become exposed to weathering forces. Subsequent percolation, flushing, and oxidation results in the pollution of waterways, low-lying farmlands and u...

J. A. Guin

1977-01-01

301

Removal of Hydrocarbon Pollutants from Water by 'Prototheca zopfii'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bioaccumulation of Kepone and some other chemical pollutants from aquatic sources was greatly enhanced by passage through a fixed-bed column containing the immobilized alga Prototheca zopfii. The living algae, immobilized in agar beads, removed the trace-...

R. S. Pore

1980-01-01

302

THE USE OF WETLANDS FOR WATER POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

Wetlands such as marshes, swamps and artificial wetlands, have been shown to remove selected pollutants from urban stormwater runoff and treated municipal wastewaters. Wetlands have produced reduction in BOD, pathogens, and some hydrocarbons, and excel in nitrogen removal. They h...

303

Sequestration of priority pollutant PAHs from sediment pore water employing semipermeable membrane devices  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were employed to sample sediment pore water in static exposure studies under controlled laboratory conditions using (control pond and formulated) sediments fortified with 15 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPPAHs). The sediment fortification level of 750 ng/g was selected on the basis of what might be detected in a sediment sample from a contaminated area. The sampling interval consisted of 0, 4, 7, 14, and 28 days for each study. The analytical methodologies, as well as the extraction and sample cleanup procedures used in the isolation, characterization, and quantitation of 15 PPPAHs at different fortification levels in SPMDs, water, and sediment were reported previously (Williamson, M.S. Thesis, University of Missouri - Columbia, USA; Williamson et al., Chemosphere (This issue - PII: S0045-6535(02)00394-6)) and used for this project. Average (mean) extraction recoveries for each PPPAH congener in each matrix are reported and discussed. No procedural blank extracts (controls) were found to contain any PPPAH residues above the method quantitation limit, therefore, no matrix interferences were detected. The focus of this publication is to demonstrate the ability to sequester environmental contaminants, specifically PPPAHs, from sediment pore water using SPMDs and two different types of fortified sediment.

Williamson, K. S.; Petty, J. D.; Huckins, J. N.; Lebo, J. A.; Kaiser, E. M.

2002-01-01

304

Electrocoagulation-Microfiltration for Drinking Water Treatment: A Case Study with the Typical Micro-Polluted Source Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of slightly-polluted surface water by Electrocoagulation-Microfiltration (EC-MF) was studied. The factors influences on removal efficiencies of TOC, NH3-N and oil, such as current density, electrolytic time and pH value had been investigated. Based on the optimize experiments on the single factor, Xuzhou section of Beijing-Hangzhou Canal water was cleaned by EC-MF. The results showed that the above pollutants decreased

Feng Qiyan; Lu Ping; Li Xiangdong; Meng Qingjun; Sun Yue

2009-01-01

305

OVERALL MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FOR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM SMALL WATER POOLS UNDER SIMULATED INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Small chamber tests were conducted to experimentally determine the overall mass transfer coefficient for pollutant emissions from still water under simulated indoor-residential or occupational-environmental conditions. Fourteen tests were conducted in small environmental chambers...

306

Use of Macro and Microphytes for Water Pollution Control: A Practical Demonstration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Different biological systems, most frequently used in water pollution control, are reviewed. Photosynthetic bacteria and microalgae have been considered both for their theoretical potentiality and the possibility of practical applications. Among the macro...

P. Marzetti F. Pacciaroni A. Severi

1981-01-01

307

Corrosion of underground water pipes due to acidification by air pollution - Damage frequency analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this investigation is to study how the corrosion of underground water pipes is influenced by acidification generated due to anthropogenic air pollution and the subsequent precipitation which affects the chemical properties of soil and the g...

E. Levlin

1991-01-01

308

76 FR 43230 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System-Cooling Water Intake Structures at Existing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and 125 [EPA-HQ-OW-2008-0667, FRL-9441-8] RIN 2040-AE95 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System--Cooling Water Intake Structures at Existing Facilities and Phase I Facilities AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)....

2011-07-20

309

Detection of chemical pollutants by passive LWIR hyperspectral imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) represent a major threat to public health and security. Their detection constitutes a real challenge to security and first responder's communities. One promising detection method is based on the passive standoff identification of chemical vapors emanating from the laboratory under surveillance. To investigate this method, the Department of National Defense and Public Safety Canada have mandated Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC) - Valcartier to develop and test passive Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) sensors for standoff detection. The initial effort was focused to address the standoff detection and identification of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) and precursors. Sensors such as the Multi-option Differential Detection and Imaging Fourier Spectrometer (MoDDIFS) and the Improved Compact ATmospheric Sounding Interferometer (iCATSI) were developed for this application. This paper describes the sensor developments and presents initial results of standoff detection and identification of TICs and precursors. The standoff sensors are based on the differential Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) radiometric technology and are able to detect, spectrally resolve and identify small leak plumes at ranges in excess of 1 km. Results from a series of trials in asymmetric threat type scenarios will be presented. These results will serve to establish the potential of the method for standoff detection of TICs precursors and surrogates.

Lavoie, Hugo; Thériault, Jean-Marc; Bouffard, François; Puckrin, Eldon; Dubé, Denis

2012-09-01

310

USING CANINES IN SOURCE DETECTION OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Dogs have been used extensively in law enforcement and military applications to detect narcotics and explosives for over thirty years. Dogs are regularly used in arson investigations to detect accelerants since they are much more accurate at discriminating between accelerants an...

311

Research on multi-angle near infrared spectral-polarimetric characteristic for polluted water by spilled oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the incidence of oil spills increases, the detection and measurement of oil pollution in the marine environment are receiving augmented attention. Remote sensing is an increasingly important tool for the effective direction of oil spill countermeasures. The most available physical quantities in optical remote sensing domain are the intensity and spectral information obtained by visible or infrared sensors. However, besides the intensity and wavelength, polarization is another primary physical quantity associated with an optical field. While the spectral information tells us about materials, polarization information tells us about surface feature, shape, shading and roughness, and has the potential to enhance many applications in optical remote sensing. During the course of reflecting light-wave, water-surface spilled oil will cause polarimetric characteristic which is related to the nature of itself. Thus, detection of the polarization information for polluted water by spilled oil has become a new remote sensing monitoring method. In this paper, four kinds of oils, they are gasoline, diesel oil, motorcycle oil and soybean oil, were regarded as the experimental samples for polluted water, and the multi-angle spectral-polarimetric instrument was used to obtain the multi-angle near infrared spectralpolarimetric characteristic data of different oil-spilled water specimens. Then, the change rule between polarimetric characteristic with different affecting factors, such as viewing zenith angle, incidence zenith angle of the light source, relative azimuth angle as well as waveband of the detector were discussed, so as to provide a scientific basis for the research on polarization remote sensing for polluted water by spilled oil.

Shen, Hui-Yan; Zhou, Pu-Cheng; Feng, Shao-Ru

2011-06-01

312

Cure for the nation`s water pollution problem: Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses federal and state implementation of the water quality-based strategy. It focuses on the development and implementation of water quality standards-based limitations (namely, total maximum daily loads or TMDLs) under section 303(d). It addresses the impact of such limitations on entities and activities that generate water pollution.

McCune, J.F.

1998-08-31

313

Integrated planning for water quality management: The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 and Coastal Zone Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments were enacted by Congress in response to the severe water quality problems our nation has been experiencing. Section 208 of the Amendments establishes regional planning for water quality management as being necessary and provides strong incentives for states and municipalities to implement the Section's requirements. Section 208 planning is the subject of this

Allayaud

1980-01-01

314

Baseline metals pollution profile of tropical estuaries and coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca.  

PubMed

The status report on metal pollution in tropical estuaries and coastal waters is important to understand potential environmental health hazards. Detailed baseline measurements were made on physicochemical parameters (pH, temperature, redox potential, electrical conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solid), major ions (Na, Ca, Mg, K, HCO3, Cl, SO4 and NO3) and metals concentrations ((27)Al, (75)As, (138)Ba, (9)Be, (111)Cd, (59)Co, (63)Cu, (52)Cr, (57)Fe, (55)Mn, (60)Ni, (208)Pb, (80)Se, (66)Zn) at estuaries and coastal waters along the Straits of Malacca. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to reveal potential pollution sources. Seven principal components were extracted with relation to pollution contribution from minerals-related parameters, natural and anthropogenic sources. The output from this study will generate a profound understanding on the metal pollution status and pollution risk of the estuaries and coastal system. PMID:23809293

Looi, Ley Juen; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Wan Johari, Wan Lutfi; Md Yusoff, Fatimah; Hashim, Zailina

2013-09-15

315

The Impact of Economic Development on Water Pollution: Trends and Policy Actions in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the impact of development activities on water pollution in Malaysia. Hence, the main objective of this\\u000a paper is not just to examine the trends of development-induced water pollution around the region of the country but to know\\u000a where the problems are and the policy measures taken by the government. It evaluates the probable causative relationship between\\u000a problems

Suleyman A. Muyibi; Abdul Raufu Ambali; Garoot Suleiman Eissa

2008-01-01

316

Investigation of water pollution in the Yalvac basin into Egirdir Lake, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to understand the effects of pollution of anthropogenic origin on water quality in Yalvac Basin,\\u000a part of the Egirdir Lake catchment. Surface discharge from the basin to the lake is 63 m3\\/year and underground discharge is 114 m3\\/year. Possible water pollution is categorized into domestic, industrial and agricultural origin. Domestic and industrial\\u000a wastewaters, including effluents from

I. Iskender Soyaslan; Remzi Karagüzel

2008-01-01

317

Paradox of nutrient removal in coupled socioeconomic and ecological dynamics for lake water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study coupled socioeconomical and ecological dynamics for lake water pollution. Players choose between cooperative (but\\u000a costly) option and economical option, and their decision is affected by the fraction of cooperators in the community and by\\u000a the importance of water pollution problem. When an opportunity for choice arrives, players take the option with the higher\\u000a utility (best response dynamics). This

Yoh Iwasa; Yukari Suzuki-Ohno; Hiroyuki Yokomizo

2010-01-01

318

Pollution Status of Surface Water Resources in Arid Region of Rajasthan (india)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present investigation deals with the evaluation of DO, BOD and COD of six surface water resources of Bikaner district which fall in arid region of Rajasthan - a part of Great Indian Desert, to determine pollution status. Water sample analysed for two years 2008-2009 showed these parameters beyond the limit of standard prescribed by WHO. These parameters also showed great seasonal fluctuation, indicating the degree of organic pollution more during summer season and least during winter season.

Kachhawa, Chanchal

319

Industry sector analysis Canada: Water pollution control equipment and instrumentation. Export trade information  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. suppliers of water pollution control equipment are in a prime position to benefit from Canadian industries' needs to modernize equipment in order to comply with tough, new legislation to control water pollution. In selling to the Canadian market, U.S. suppliers clearly benefit from the advantages of advanced technical know-how, proximity to the market, and reduced tariffs under the U.S.-Canada

T. Bryan; S. Lee

1992-01-01

320

Air pollution - Remote detection of several pollutant gases with a laser heterodyne radiometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An infrared heterodyne radiometer with a spectral resolution of 0.04 reciprocal centimeters has been used to remotely detect samples of ozone, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, and ethylene at room temperature, and samples of nitric oxide at 390 K. Each gas was observed in a background of nitrogen or oxygen at atmospheric pressure. Sensitivities to some of these gases are adequate for detection of ambient concentrations as low as a few parts per billion.

Menzies, R. T.; Shumate, M. S.

1974-01-01

321

Water hyacinth as indicator of heavy metal pollution in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a common aquatic plant in many tropical countries. Its ability absorb nutrients and other elements from the water has made it possible to use it for water purification purposes. Eichhornia, especially stems and leaves, have been successfully used as indicators of heavy metal pollution in tropical countries. The uptake of heavy metals in this

Humberto Gonzalez; Martin Lodenius; Mirta Otero

1989-01-01

322

Water quality along the sone river polluted by the orient Paper Mill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in water quality along the Sone River, which is polluted by effluents from the Orient Paper Mills (OPM), Amlai, M.P., India were studied in the present work. The water samples from fifteen stations, covering a distance of about 216 km along the river course were subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis to determine similarity relations with respect to seven water

R. K. Srivastava; W. S. Fargo; V. S. Sai; K. C. Mathur

1988-01-01

323

Efficacy of New Formulations of the Microbial Larvicide Bacillus sphaericus against Polluted Water Mosquitoes in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new water dispersible granular (WDG) formulations of the microbial control agent Bacillus sphaericus (strain 2362) were extensively evaluated in polluted waters against Culex quinquefasciatus in Thailand. The studies were carried out in stagnant as well as flowing waters during August 1997 to July 1998. The trail period covered both rainy and dry seasons. The two WDG formulations of B.

Mir S. Mulla; Tianyun Su; Usavadee Thavara; Apiwat Tawatsin; Wichai Kong-ngamsuk; Prakong Phan-Urai

324

NATIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ASSESSMENT MODEL, VERSION 2.0 (NWPCAM 2.0)  

EPA Science Inventory

NWPCAM 2.0 is a national-level water quality modeling system that can be used to simulate the water quality changes and economic benefits that result from various pollution control policies. It builds and significantly improves on an earlier model the Clean Water Act Effects Mode...

325

Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 2. Agricultural sediment control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of a national water network model permits an analysis of the likely affects of agricultural sediment control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin

1981-01-01

326

The effect of water pollution control regulations on the cost of production of electric power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of water pollution control regulations, such as those outlined in 1972 FWPCA Amendments, on production costs in the electric utility industry are examined. The use of water by electric utilities, and the impact that water regulations will have on those uses are discussed. The production process of electric utilities is discussed, and a cost function from a cross-section

T. A. Deyak; A. N. Link

1979-01-01

327

Analysis of national water-pollution-control policies. 2. Agricultural sediment control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national water network model is used to analyze the likely effects of agricultural sediment-control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier assessments concluded that

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin

1981-01-01

328

Ocean pollution detection: Petroleum. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection and monitoring of oil pollution in the ocean. The citations examine identification and mapping of oil spills, the monitoring of ocean dumping, and detection of pollution resulting from off-shore drilling for petroleum. Techniques discussed include satellite sensing, infrared imagery, UV fluorescence, thermal mapping, microwave radiometry, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Methodology for monitoring the persistence of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine sediments, their bioconcentration in marine organisms, and their effects on marine ecosystems is also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 179 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-09-01

329

Pollution detection by digital correlation of multispectral, stero-image pairs.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote detection of air pollution circulation patterns is proposed to eventually predict the accumulation of hazardous surface concentrations in time for preventive emission control operations. Earth observations from space platforms will contain information on the height, mean velocity and lateral mixing scales of inversion layers and pollution plumes. Although this information is often not visible on photographs, it could conceivably be retrieved through a digital cross-correlation of multispectral stereo image pairs. Laboratory and field test results are used to illustrate the detection of non-visual inversion layers, the reduction of dominant signal interference, and the spectroscopic identification of combustion products.

Krause, F. R.; Betz, H. T.; Lysobey, D. H.

1971-01-01

330

The effects of air and water pollution controls on solid waste generation, 1971--1985. Executive summary. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of air and water pollution controls on solid waste ; generation were evaluated. The solid wastes from pollution control were ; identified for individual industrial sectors by their original air or water ; pollutant constituents, and the treatment process applied. The wastes were ; categorized by type and by location (rural or urban). Total solid wastes from ;

1974-01-01

331

Marine pollution  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

Albaiges, J. (Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo, CSIC, Barcelona (ES))

1989-01-01

332

Water level detection using a numerical camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrometric measurement system using a numerical video camera is presented. This system can feed the manager with images of the flood in real-time, which is an efficient way to assess the flood hazard. In the same time, detection algorithm are performed on the images of the video camera to get two additional informations: the water level and the water

G. Fourquet; G. M. Saulnier

2003-01-01

333

Storm water pollution prevention plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. An NPDES permit was issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and was effective on July 1, 1995. The permit requires that a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3) be developed by December 28, 1995, and be fully implemented by July 1, 1996; this plan has been developed to fulfill that requirement. The outfalls and monitoring points described in this plan contain storm water discharges associated with industrial activities as defined in the NPDES regulations. For storm water discharges associated with industrial activity, including storm water discharges associated with construction activity, that are not specifically monitored or limited in this permit, Y-12 Plant personnel will meet conditions of the General Storm Water Rule 1200-4-10. This document presents the programs and physical controls that are in place to achieve the following objectives: ensure compliance with Section 1200-4-10-.04(5) of the TDEC Water Quality Control Regulations and Part 4 of the Y-12 Plant NPDES Permit (TN0002968); provide operating personnel with guidance relevant to storm water pollution prevention and control requirements for their facility and/or project; and prevent or reduce pollutant discharge to the environment, in accordance with the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Tennessee Water Quality Control Act.

NONE

1995-09-01

334

[Fish parasites as bioindicators of the pollution of bodies of water].  

PubMed

The paper presents the results of studies on the effect of wastes of the Cherepovets iron-and-steel works containing phenol, naphthaline and oil products on fish parasites of the Sheksna part of the Rybinsk water reservoir (the Volga river system). It has been shown that the number of highly sensitive ectoparasites of Abramis brama (Protozoa, Dactylogyrus monogeneans, Ergasilus sieboldi crustaceans and Caspiobdella fadejewi leeches) considerably decreases in the zone of pollution. It has been first suggested to use Diplozoon paradoxum and Caryophyllaeus laticeps, parasites of bream highly resistant to toxic effect, the number of which considerably increases in the zone of pollution, as indicators of anthropogenic pollution and ecological state of a water body. Among diplozoons there have been first discovered individuals having structural anomalies (reduction of the attachment organs, violation in the symmetry of arrangement and number of valves) that serves as evidence of mutagenic effect of toxic substances of polluted waters on morphogenesis of the parasite. PMID:1299804

Kuperman, B I

1992-01-01

335

Advanced Atmospheric Water Vapor DIAL Detection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement of atmospheric water vapor is very important for understanding the Earth's climate and water cycle. The remote sensing Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique is a powerful method to perform such measurement from aircraft and space. This thesis describes a new advanced detection system, which incorporates major improvements regarding sensitivity and size. These improvements include a low noise advanced avalanche photodiode detector, a custom analog circuit, a 14-bit digitizer, a microcontroller for on board averaging and finally a fast computer interface. This thesis describes the design and validation of this new water vapor DIAL detection system which was integrated onto a small Printed Circuit Board (PCB) with minimal weight and power consumption. Comparing its measurements to an existing DIAL system for aerosol and water vapor profiling validated the detection system.

Refaat, Tamer F.; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.; DeYoung, Russell J. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

336

Deposition of Air Pollutants to the Great Waters, Third Report to Congress, June 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on June 8 2000, this report is the third in a series from the Environmental protection Agency (EPA) "to Congress on atmospheric deposition of pollution to the Great Waters, which include the Great Lakes, Chesapeake Bay and several other major U.S. water bodies." This report focuses on fifteen "pollutants of concern," offering updated scientific information about these pollutants and the Great Waters and discussing programs implemented by the EPA, states, tribes, and others to address them. It also describes "recent advancements in scientific research and tools used to improve our understanding of atmospheric deposition to the Great Waters." Background information and an executive summary are offered in HTML format, while the full text is provided by chapter in .pdf format. The previous two reports may be accessed from the Great Waters Program homepage.

2000-01-01

337

Ecotoxicological assessment of water pollution in Sariyar Dam Lake, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the effects of environmental pollution and different biotic factors on some important biochemical markers, as enzymes, two fish species inhabiting the Sariyar Dam Lake, Turkey have been investigated. Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, glutathion S-transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and alanine and aspartate amino transferase activities have been measured in liver samples of Cyprinus carpio and Capoeta tinca. Also, brain

Murat Ozmen; Zafer Ayas; Abbas Güngördü; Guler F. Ekmekci; Sedat Yerli

2008-01-01

338

Electro-Osmosis in Ground-Water Pollution Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The finite element method was employed to investigate the feasibility of using electro-osmosis as a tool in groundwater pollution control in soils of low hydraulic conductivity. Two types of groundwater flow problems were considered. The first of these de...

J. C. Bruch

1976-01-01

339

Pan-European survey on the occurrence of selected polar organic persistent pollutants in ground water.  

PubMed

This study provides the first pan-European reconnaissance of the occurrence of polar organic persistent pollutants in European ground water. In total, 164 individual ground-water samples from 23 European Countries were collected and analysed (among others) for 59 selected organic compounds, comprising pharmaceuticals, antibiotics, pesticides (and their transformation products), perfluorinated acids (PFAs), benzotriazoles, hormones, alkylphenolics (endocrine disrupters), Caffeine, Diethyltoluamide (DEET), and Triclosan. The most relevant compounds in terms of frequency of detection and maximum concentrations detected were DEET (84%; 454 ng/L), Caffeine (83%; 189 ng/L), PFOA (66%; 39 ng/L), Atrazine (56%; 253 ng/L), Desethylatrazine (55%; 487 ng/L), 1H-Benzotriazole (53%; 1032 ng/L), Methylbenzotriazole (52%; 516 ng/L), Desethylterbutylazine (49%; 266 ng/L), PFOS (48%, 135 ng/L), Simazine (43%; 127 ng/L), Carbamazepine (42%; 390 ng/L), nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NPE(1)C) (42%; 11 microg/L), Bisphenol A (40%; 2.3 microg/L), PFHxS (35%; 19 ng/L), Terbutylazine (34%; 716 ng/L), Bentazone (32%; 11 microg/L), Propazine (32%; 25 ng/L), PFHpA (30%; 21 ng/L), 2,4-Dinitrophenol (29%; 122 ng/L), Diuron (29%; 279 ng/L), and Sulfamethoxazole (24%; 38 ng/L). The chemicals which were detected most frequently above the European ground water quality standard for pesticides of 0.1 microg/L were Chloridazon-desphenyl (26 samples), NPE(1)C (20), Bisphenol A (12), Benzotriazole (8), N,N'-Dimethylsulfamid (DMS) (8), Desethylatrazine (6), Nonylphenol (6), Chloridazon-methyldesphenyl (6), Methylbenzotriazole (5), Carbamazepine (4), and Bentazone (4). However, only 1.7% of all single analytical measurements (in total 8000) were above this threshold value of 0.1 microg/L; 7.3% were > than 10 ng/L. PMID:20554303

Loos, Robert; Locoro, Giovanni; Comero, Sara; Contini, Serafino; Schwesig, David; Werres, Friedrich; Balsaa, Peter; Gans, Oliver; Weiss, Stefan; Blaha, Ludek; Bolchi, Monica; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred

2010-07-01

340

OPTIMUM MACROBENTHIC SAMPLING PROTOCOL FOR DETECTING POLLUTION IMPACTS IN THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA BIGHT  

EPA Science Inventory

The optimum macrobenthic sampling protocol sampling unit, sieve mesh size, and sample size (n)] was determined for detecting ecologically important pollution impacts in the Southern California Bight, U.S.A. Cost, in laboratory processing time, was determined for samples obtained ...

341

A simple activity quotient for detecting pollution?induced stress in fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An activity quotient (Aq) is described which can be used to detect the stress response of fishes to sublethal concentrations of pollutants. The quotient considers three variables; ventilation frequency (Y), coughing rate (C), and pectoral fin activity (PA), and is represented importance of a respiratory component.(numerator values) and an activity component (denominator value) are indicated and constancy of one variable

A. Dennis Lemly

1983-01-01

342

Passive remote detection of atmospheric pollutants using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feasibility studies on the use of passive FTIR spectroscopy for the remote detection of atmospheric pollutants have shown that gases may be identified remotely with an optically modified commercial FTIR spectrometer when only a small 7 degree(s)C) temperature difference exists between the gas and a background IR emitter. A correlation technique was used to extract information from noisy (SNR on

Moira Hilton; Alan H. Lettington; Ian M. Mills

1994-01-01

343

Detection limits and variability in testing methods for environmental pollutants: Misuse may produce significant liabilities  

SciTech Connect

Environmental regulatory compliance under both federal and state statutes is commonly determined by detecting the presence of measuring the quantity of particular pollutants present at or near regulated facilities. Because such regulatory schemes set numerical standards for determining compliance, serious civil or criminal liability may arise whenever compliance standards are set too near the detection limits of the test method used. This generic problem arises from the variability inherent in all testing methods when they are used to determine the presence or the quantity of extremely low levels of pollutants. WHile this area is highly complex, the basic idea is that as the level of detection gets lower and lower, the chances of error increase to the point that the range of error is larger than the measurement itself. Yet, surprisingly, some federal and state environmental agencies continue to propose permit limits or cleanup levels for toxic pollutants at levels near the detection level, where total compliance may be impossible or may require the expenditure of significant costs to remedy false indications of the presence or excess of certain pollutants.

Scroggin, D.G. [Jenner and Block, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-12-31

344

Time-resolved lidar fluorosensor for sea pollution detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A contemporary time and spectral analysis of oil fluorescence is useful for the detection and the characterization of oil spills on the sea surface. Nevertheless the fluorosensor lidars, which were realized up to now, have only partial capability to perform this double analysis. The main difficulties are the high resolution required (of the order of 1 nanosecond) and the complexity of the detection system for the recording of a two-dimensional matrix of data for each laser pulse. An airborne system whose major specifications were: time range, 30 to 75 ns; time resolution, 1 ns; spectral range, 350 to 700 nm; and spectral resolution, 10 nm was designed and constructed. The designed system of a short pulse ultraviolet laser source and a streak camera based detector are described.

Ferrario, A.; Pizzolati, P. L.; Zanzottera, E.

1986-01-01

345

Detection of air pollution events over Évora-Portugal during 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All over the world pollutant industries, traffic and other natural and anthropogenic sources are responsible for air pollution affecting health and also the climate. At the moment the monitoring of air quality in urban and country regions become an urgent concern in the atmospheric studies due to the impact of global air pollution on climate and on the environment. One of the evidences of the global character of air pollution is that it not only affects industrialized countries but also reaches less developed countries with pollution gases and particles generated for elsewhere. The development and the employment of instruments and techniques for measure the variation of atmospheric trace gases and perform their monitoring are crucial for the improvement of the air quality and the control of pollutants emissions. One of the instruments able to perform the air quality monitoring is the Spectrometer for Atmospheric TRacers Measurements (SPATRAM) and it is installed at the CGÉs Observatory in Évora (38.5° N, 7.9° W, 300 m asl). This UV-VIS Spectrometer is used to carry out measurements of the zenith scattered radiation (290- 900 nm) to retrieve the vertical content of some atmospheric trace gases such as O3 and NO2 in stratosphere, using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) methodology. Although SPATRAM, in its actual geometric and operational configuration - zenith sky looking and passive mode measurements, is not able to detect small variations of tracers in the troposphere it is possible to identify enhancements in the pollution loads due to air masses movements from polluted sites. In spite of the fact that Evora is a quite unpolluted city the deep analysis of the DOAS output, namely the quantity of gas (in this case NO2) present along the optical path of measurements (SCD - Slant Column Density) allows for the detection of unpredicted variations in the diurnal NO2 cycle. The SPATRA?s data allows the identification of polluting events which sources are known, like power plant sites. The association of the SPATRAM data, namely the SCDs and HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) maps showing the air masses course, allows for the identification of the sources responsible for the pollution events recorded at the Evora Station. The preliminary results of some case studies occurred during 2009 are presented and discussed. The main sources are identified in power plant sites and industrialized cities in Portugal and Spain.

Filipa Domingues, Ana; Bortoli, Daniele; Silva, Ana Maria; Kulkarni, Pavan; Antón, Manuel

2010-05-01

346

Report on the Immediate Water Pollution Control Needs for the Interstate and Intrastate Waters of the New Jersey Coastal Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews the water pollution problem in the New Jersey Coastal Region, which extends from Sandy Hook to Cape May and includes those streams draining eastward to the Atlantic Ocean, the various bays and harbors, and the immediate Coastal waters. ...

1967-01-01

347

Simulation of water environmental capacity and pollution load reduction using QUAL2K for water environmental management.  

PubMed

In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of COD(Cr) NH(3)-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH(3)-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. PMID:23222206

Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

2012-12-01

348

Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management  

PubMed Central

In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of CODCr NH3-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH3-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making.

Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

2012-01-01

349

Water Quality Status and Trends in Minnesota - Indices for Water Supply and Ground Water Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The status of water quality in Minnesota was examined in relation to the chemical data available on public water supplies based upon sample analyses by the Minnesota Department of Health, reported in 1971 and upgraded in 1972. Information presented includ...

C. P. Straub V. M. Goppers A. DuChene

1976-01-01

350

Delocalized organic pollutant destruction through a self-sustaining supercritical water oxidation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a recent development aiming at the destruction of organic pollutants present with low concentrations in waste waters. The present paper focuses on the process simulation of SCWO with emphasis on the proper modelling of supercritical thermodynamic conditions and on the possibility to make the SCWO process self-sufficient from the energetic viewpoint. Self-sufficiency may be of

E. D. Lavric; H. Weyten; J. De Ruyck; V. Ple?u; V. Lavric

2005-01-01

351

Social Status Variations in Attitudes and Conceptualization Pertaining to Water Pollution and Supply.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data, secured by questionnaire from single household dwelling units in Warwick, Rhode Island, were used to ascertain differences among social status groups with respect to attitudes and conceptualization pertaining to water pollution and water supply. A social status index was used to delineate three status groups having high, middle, and low rank…

Spaulding, Irving A.

352

A Proposed Shipboard Continuous Oil Pollution Control Process for Bilge Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A continuous gravitational process to separate oil pollutant from ships' bilge water using simple and compact equipment is proposed. The principle of the process is discussed. For an oil-water mixture of known concentration and density, the location of th...

T. S. Yu

1969-01-01

353

Water Pollution Control Training: The Educational Role of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are the results of a study to determine the perceived needs of environmental control education programs as seen by students, instructors, deans or program directors, and field-related employers in the field of water pollution control. Data were collected utilizing three approaches: survey instruments, information from Water Quality…

Williams, Frederick D.

354

Research needs and priorities: water pollution control benefits and costs. Volume II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research needs and priorities involving water pollution control costs ; and benefits are specified. A series of theoretical and methodological research ; needs are presented. Water quality management is required in a dynamic setting ; and over a broad range of hydrologic and economic conditions. The common ; property resource aspects of the problem with the prevalence of externalities ;

D. L. Jordening; J. K. Allwood

1973-01-01

355

An Intelligent Decision Support System of Lake Water Pollution Control Based on Multi-agent Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapidly development of the economic, environmental problem has become one of the most prominent problems of the society. Lake water environmental problem became more and more serious, and it had seriously effect on human health and the socio-economic sustainable development. It is a key project to find a more effective way of water pollution control. An intelligent decision

Jianjun Ni; Chuanbiao Zhang; Li Ren

2009-01-01

356

Manpower and Training Needs in Water Pollution Control. Senate Document No. 49.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine trained manpower needs and training resources in the clean water field, data were gathered from interviews with state and federal agencies as well as the Water Pollution Control Federation, from prior manpower reports, and from Bureau of Census employment data. After analysis of present manpower resources and future requirements,…

Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

357

Seasonal effect on ammonia nitrogen removal by constructed wetlands treating polluted river water in southern Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) system, combining a free water surface wetland and a subsurface wetland in series, was used to purify highly polluted river water. The concentrations of constituents varied seasonally. The effects of season-dependent parameters, such as temperature, mass loading rate and inflow salinity, on the removal of ammonia nitrogen (AN) in the wetland system were examined at

Shuh-Ren Jing; Ying-Feng Lin

2004-01-01

358

System and method for removing pollutants from water  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A system and method for removing pollutants from wastewater. The system includes a constructed wetland cell in which the filtered wastewater is flowed generally vertically. The flow of wastewater is unsaturated through the wetland cell to aerate the wastewater. The wastewater may be further aerated by a blower or injector. The treated wastewater from the wetland cell is blended with untreated wastewater, then either recirculated through the wetland cell or conveyed to a disposal system.

2003-11-25

359

Pollution of water during underground coal gasification of hard coal and lignite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater pollution is considered the most serious potential environmental risk related to the underground coal gasification technology (UCG). A variety of hazardous water-born contaminants have been identified during different UCG operations conducted so far, and in some locations long-term groundwater contaminations were observed. Characteristic organic UCG-related pollutions are mostly the phenols, benzene with its derivatives, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heterocycles.

Krzysztof Kapusta; Krzysztof Sta?czyk

2011-01-01

360

Do Plants Overcomply with Water Pollution Regulations? The Role of Discharge Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses previously unexploited data to examine polluters' compliance with point-source water pollution regulations, a line of inquiry motivated by widespread apparent overcompliance. We use a nationwide panel of monthly plant-level effluent concentrations from 1991-1999. These monthly data allow us to observe month-to-month variability in discharges and therefore to test hypotheses not previously examined. We find that plants that

Sushenjit Bandyopadhyay; John Horowitz

2006-01-01

361

Influence on Shallow Ground Water by Heavy Metal in Polluted River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of the research is to study the influence on shallow ground water by heavy metal in polluted river. In the lab-scale experiment polluted rivers were simulated by domestic sewage, and three kinds of natural sand were chosen as infiltration medium, it was found that Cr(VI) penetrated on the 13th day and then had a removal ratio of

Li Zhi ping; Chen Xiao gang; Shen Zhao li; Zhong Zuo xin

2010-01-01

362

40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pollutant in the intake water. 129.6 Section...of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS TOXIC...operator's intake water will not be removed...systems whose design capacity and operation...

2010-07-01

363

40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pollutant in the intake water. 129.6 Section...of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS TOXIC...operator's intake water will not be removed...systems whose design capacity and operation...

2009-07-01

364

Chemical sensors for the detection of organic pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vapor detection has been realized by the shift of the whole surface plasmon resonance (SPR) curve under dynamic state of adsorption as well as by measuring SPR reflectivity signal at a fixed angle of incidence. Selective, fast and reversible adsorption of the vapor molecules has been observed. The increase of both film thickness and refractive index of spun films during adsorption are found to correspond to the calixarenes behavior and may be explained by capturing of guest molecules in the film matrix, followed by their condensation. A model of the vapor registration system has been established and we also report in this paper on the extent of the selectivity, thus leading to the establishment of a sensor array.

Hassan, Aseel K.; Molina, Maria V.; Ray, Asim K.; Nabok, Alexei V.; Ghassemlooy, Zabih F.; Yates, Robert B.; Saatchi, Reza

1999-07-01

365

Application of advanced characterization techniques to assess DOM treatability of micro-polluted and un-polluted drinking source waters in China.  

PubMed

China has a very complex water supply system which relies on many rivers and lakes. As the population and economic development increases, water quality is greatly impacted by anthropogenic processes. This seriously affects the character of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) and imposes operational challenges to the water treatment facilities in terms of process optimization. The aim of this investigation was to compare selected drinking water sources (raw) with different DOM character, and the respective treated waters after coagulation, using simple organic characterization techniques to obtain a better understanding of the impact of source water quality on water treatment. Results from the analyses of selected water samples showed that the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of polluted waters is generally higher than that of un-polluted waters, but the specific UV absorbance value has the opposite trend. After resolving the high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) peak components of source waters using peak fitting, the twelve waters studied can be divided into two main groups (micro-polluted and un-polluted) by using cluster analysis. The DOM removal efficiency (treatability) of these waters has been compared using four coagulants. For water sources allocated to the un-polluted group, traditional coagulants (Al(2)(SO(4))(3) and FeCl(3)) achieved better removal. High performance poly aluminum chloride, a new type of composite coagulant, performed very well and more efficiently for polluted waters. After peak fitting the HPSEC chromatogram of each of the treated waters, average removal efficiency of the profiles can be calculated and these correspond well with DOC and UV removal. This provides a convenient tool to assess coagulation removal and coagulant selection. PMID:20692013

Wang, Dongsheng; Xing, Linan; Xie, Jiankun; Chow, Christopher W K; Xu, Zhizhen; Zhao, Yanmei; Drikas, Mary

2010-09-01

366

Effects of warm water inflows on the dispersion of pollutants in small reservoirs.  

PubMed

The effects of the warm water discharged by a nuclear power plant (NPP) into a small reservoir are studied. A case study is presented (José Cabrera NPP-Zorita Hidráulica Reservoir) with experimental data of the reservoir stratification and predicted data of the dispersion of radioactive pollutants from operative or accidental releases. The vertical and longitudinal temperature profiles, electrical conductivity and transparency of the reservoir water were measured for an annual cycle. The results indicate that the continuous warm water discharge from the NPP causes permanent and artificial reservoir stratification. The stratification is significant within 1500 m upstream and 1000 m downstream from the warm water outfall. The pollutant dispersion has been predicted by using a flow model based on N(T) perfect-mixing compartments in series with feedback. The model parameter, N(T), is calculated from the longitudinal diffusion coefficient. The prediction of pollutant dispersion by means of this model shows that the stratification slows down the vertical mixing in the whole water body, and reduces the reservoir volume that is effective for the dilution and dispersion of pollutants. This means that, in the case of a radioactive pollutant release, the reservoir radioactivity level could increase significantly. PMID:16574305

Palancar, María C; Aragón, José M; Sánchez, Fernando; Gil, Roberto

2006-11-01

367

Remote measurements of water pollution with a lidar polarimeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines a dual polarization laser backscatter system as a method for remote measurements of certain water quality parameters. Analytical models for describing the backscatter from turbid water and oil on turbid water are presented and compared with experimental data. Laser backscatter field measurements from natural waterways are presented and compared with simultaneous ground observations of the water quality parameters: turbidity, suspended solids, and transmittance. The results of this study show that the analytical models appear valid and that the sensor investigated is applicable to remote measurements of these water quality parameters and oil spills on water.-

Sheives, T. C.; Rouse, J. W., Jr.; Mayo, W. T., Jr.

1974-01-01

368

Detecting leachate plumes and groundwater pollution at Ruseifa municipal landfill utilizing VLF-EM method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Very Low Frequency-Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) survey was carried out in two sites of domestic waste of old and recent landfills. The landfill structures lie on a major highly fractured limestone aquifer of shallow groundwater less than 30 m, which is considered as the main source of fresh water in Amman-Zarqa region. A total of 18 VLF-EM profiles were conducted with length ranges between 250 and 1500 m. Hydrochemical and biochemical analysis of water samples, taken from wells in the region, has also been conducted. The integrated results of previous DC resistivity method of the same study area and the outcomes of the 2-D tipper inversion of VLF-EM data proved the efficiency of this method in locating shallow and deep leachate plume with resistivity less than 20 ? m, and enabling the mapping of anomalous bodies and their extensions down to 40 m depth. The sign of groundwater contamination was noticed in many surrounding wells resulting in the high number of fecal coliform bacteria and total coliform bacteria and the increase in inorganic parameters such as chloride (Cl). The pollution of groundwater wells in the landfill area is attributed to the leachate bodies which flow through the upper part of Wadi Es Sir (A7) or Amman-Wadi Es Sir Aquifer (B2/A7). Furthermore, several structural features were detected and the direction of local groundwater movement has been determined. The structural features have been found to have critical effects on the flowing of leachate plume towards north-northeast and west-southwest of the potable aquifer in the area.

Al-Tarazi, E.; Abu Rajab, J.; Al-Naqa, A.; El-Waheidi, M.

2008-09-01

369

Permits and effluent charges in the water pollution control policies of France, West Germany, and the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the water pollution control policies of these countries and their effects on emitters are analyzed. In the Netherlands, local water control boards levy pollution charges on both direct and indirect emitters. The charges are based upon measured emissions and actual treatment costs and they vary among the boards. Discharges into surface waters are by permission only. West

Jan C. Bongaerts; Andreas Kraemer

1989-01-01

370

Enhanced treatment of polluted surface water from Yellow river (China) with biooxidation as pretreatment: Pilot scale studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yellow River in China is being polluted with artifi cial pollution, which brings great chal- lenges to drinking water treatment plants (DWTP) along the Yellow River. The conventional treatment processes could not ensure satisfactory quality of drinking water, and innovative processes are crucial for the achievement of the newly issued drinking water standard (GB5749- 2006). The DWTP in Zhengzhou

S. Xiangyang; ABSTR A C T

371

Enhanced treatment of polluted surface water from Yellow river (China) with biooxidation as pretreatment: Pilot scale studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yellow River in China is being polluted with artificial pollution, which brings great challenges to drinking water treatment plants (DWTP) along the Yellow River. The conventional treatment processes could not ensure satisfactory quality of drinking water, and innovative processes are crucial for the achievement of the newly issued drinking water standard (GB5749- 2006). The DWTP in Zhengzhou City takes

Xiangyang Song

2009-01-01

372

Detecting air pollution stress in southern California vegetation using Landsat Thematic Mapper band data  

SciTech Connect

Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and aircraft-borne Thematic Mapper simulator (TMS) data were collected over two areas of natural vegetation in southern California exposed to gradients of pollutant dose, particularly in photochemical oxidants: the coastal sage scrub of the Santa Monica Mountains in the Los Angeles basin, and the yellow pine forests in the southern Sierra Nevada. In both situations, natural variations in canopy closure, with subsequent exposure of understory elements (e.g.,rock or soil, chaparral, grasses, and herbs), were sufficient to cause changes in spectral variation that could obscure differences due to visible foliar injury symptoms observed in the field. TM or TMS data are therefore more likely to be successful in distinguishing pollution injury from background variation when homogeneous communities with closed canopies are subjected to more severe pollution-induced structural and/or compositional change. The present study helps to define the threshold level of vegetative injury detectable by TM data. 26 references.

Westman, W.E.; Price, C.V.

1988-09-01

373

Detecting air pollution stress in southern California vegetation using Landsat Thematic Mapper band data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and aircraft-borne Thematic Mapper simulator (TMS) data were collected over two areas of natural vegetation in southern California exposed to gradients of pollutant dose, particularly in photochemical oxidants: the coastal sage scrub of the Santa Monica Mountains in the Los Angeles basin, and the yellow pine forests in the southern Sierra Nevada. In both situations, natural variations in canopy closure, with subsequent exposure of understory elements (e.g.,rock or soil, chaparral, grasses, and herbs), were sufficient to cause changes in spectral variation that could obscure differences due to visible foliar injury symptoms observed in the field. TM or TMS data are therefore more likely to be successful in distinguishing pollution injury from background variation when homogeneous communities with closed canopies are subjected to more severe pollution-induced structural and/or compositional change. The present study helps to define the threshold level of vegetative injury detectable by TM data.

Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

1988-01-01

374

Recovery, Separation, and Identification of Phenolic Compounds From Polluted Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A four-year research program was completed wherein the rivers and ground waters of New Jersey were sampled and tested for phenolic compounds. These chemicals originate in industrial manufacturing processes and are discharged into rivers and ground waters ...

S. D. Faust H. Stutz O. M. Aly P. W. Anderson

1971-01-01

375

Carcinogenic Nitrosamines and Their Precursors in Fresh and Polluted Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of methods was developed and tested for the analysis of nitrosamines that might be present in natural waters. Initially, the recovery of added nitrosamines in distilled water was quite poor. In sewage amended with nitrosamines, recovery of dimeth...

M. Alexander

1976-01-01

376

Colorimetric detection of uranium in water  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are methods, materials and systems that can be used to determine qualitatively or quantitatively the level of uranium contamination in water samples. Beneficially, disclosed systems are relatively simple and cost-effective. For example, disclosed systems can be utilized by consumers having little or no training in chemical analysis techniques. Methods generally include a concentration step and a complexation step. Uranium concentration can be carried out according to an extraction chromatographic process and complexation can chemically bind uranium with a detectable substance such that the formed substance is visually detectable. Methods can detect uranium contamination down to levels even below the MCL as established by the EPA.

DeVol, Timothy A. (Clemson, SC); Hixon, Amy E. (Piedmont, SC); DiPrete, David P. (Evans, GA)

2012-03-13

377

Verification of a method for microcoulometric determination of adsorbable organic halide pollutants in natural, drinking, waste, and treated waters.  

PubMed

A microcoulometric method is described for the determination of organic-halide pollutants at 2-2000 microg/L in natural, drinking, waste, and treated waters. The conditions for the adsorption of organic halides, using a microcolumn with activated charcoal-and for the desorption of inorganic halides-as well as for the pyrolysis process, were optimized for the successful determination of priority organic halide pollutants. An appropriate criterion was proposed to stop the desorption step. The mean recovery was 100.3%, and the mean relative standard deviation was 9.9%. The detection limit based on 3 times the standard deviation of the blank sample was 2 microg/L. PMID:16792073

Ivanova, Pavlina; Stratiev, Ditso; Pavlova, Antoaneta

2006-01-01

378

A Review of Modelling Tools for Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive in Handling Diffuse Water Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical catchment-scale model capable of simulating diffuse water pollution is necessary in sustainable environmental\\u000a management for better implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive. This paper provides critical reviews of most popular\\u000a and free models for diffuse water modelling, with detailed sources and application potential. Based upon these reviews, further\\u000a work of selecting and testing the HSPF model was

Y. S. Yang; L. Wang

2010-01-01

379

Intrusion of radioactive industrially polluted water from North Sea into central Baltic Sea  

SciTech Connect

The problem of penetration of radioactive industrially polluted water into the central Baltic Sea was studied. The content of Cs-134 as determined in water near the bottom of deep water trenches along the path traveled by North Sea water entering the Baltic. Samples were taken at 5 locations, with Cs-134 concentrated from samples of several thousands of liters. It was found that radioactive pollution caused by the entry of water from the North Sea extends through the system of deep water depressions into the Baltic as far as the Gotland trench. The greatest degree of contamination is found in the Arkona depression adjacent to the straits. The concentration of Cs-134 in the Gdansk trench is one-half as great and in the Gotland trench one-third as great as in the Arkona depression. Radioactive contamination in the Baltic is attributed to discharge of radioactive wastes by plants at Windscale.

Vakulovskiy, S.M.; Nikitin, A.I.

1985-02-01

380

Assessment of susceptibility to pollution in littoral waters using the concept of recovery time.  

PubMed

Susceptibility to pollution can be related to the flushing capacity of aquatic systems. Transport time scales constitute a useful tool for representing the water exchange and transport processes. A new transport time scale, recovery time, and a methodology to estimate it by means of numerical models is hereby developed. Recovery time, calculated in Gijon, Santander and Tarragona harbours, is significantly related to physical, chemical and biological water quality indicators. Susceptibility, assessed through recovery time values, provides spatial patterns of expected flushing capacity, being sensitive to physical and hydrodynamic characteristics. The developed method is appropriate to estimate recovery time and assess susceptibility against pollution in littoral waters having great potential to be applied to different disciplines. Recovery time could be used in littoral waters as a surrogate of water quality indicators, to establish efficient monitoring programs, to define and characterize modified water bodies or to improve the design of marine infrastructures. PMID:24576391

Gómez, Aina G; Juanes, José A; Ondiviela, Bárbara; Revilla, José A

2014-04-15

381

Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: Progresses and perspectives*  

PubMed Central

Environmental pollution affects the quality of pedosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Great efforts have been made in the last two decades to reduce pollution sources and remedy the polluted soil and water resources. Phytoremediation, being more cost-effective and fewer side effects than physical and chemical approaches, has gained increasing popularity in both academic and practical circles. More than 400 plant species have been identified to have potential for soil and water remediation. Among them, Thlaspi, Brassica, Sedum alfredii H., and Arabidopsis species have been mostly studied. It is also expected that recent advances in biotechnology will play a promising role in the development of new hyperaccumulators by transferring metal hyperaccumulating genes from low biomass wild species to the higher biomass producing cultivated species in the times to come. This paper attempted to provide a brief review on recent progresses in research and practical applications of phytoremediation for soil and water resources.

Lone, Mohammad Iqbal; He, Zhen-li; Stoffella, Peter J.; Yang, Xiao-e

2008-01-01

382

Criminal sanctions applicable to Federal water pollution control measures. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

Overkill or not enough: Two decades ago, Congress realized that a system of civil remedies alone, devoid of any lasting punitive consequences, was inadequate to insure compliance with environmental protection statutes. Other than the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, which was designed to protect navigation, Federal criminal sanctions were not applicable to water pollution offenses. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, more commonly known as the Clean Water Act (CWA), was twenty-four years old before Federal criminal enforcement of its provisions was allowed. But since the early 1970's, the criminal provisions of the CWA have been strengthened, the United States Department of Justice has beefed up its environmental enforcement efforts, and environmental polluters have been prosecuted. This Federal effort is now approaching overkill.

Thompson, J.C.

1991-09-30

383

Advanced Water Vapor Lidar Detection System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the present water vapor lidar system, the detected signal is sent over long cables to a waveform digitizer in a CAMAC crate. This has the disadvantage of transmitting analog signals for a relatively long distance, which is subjected to pickup noise, le...

H. Elsayed-Ali

1998-01-01

384

Polluted and turbid water masses in Osaka Bay and its vicinity revealed with ERTS-A imageries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ERTS-1 took very valuable MSS imageries of Osaka Bay and its vicinity on October 24, 1972. In the MSS-4 and MSS-5 imageries a complex grey pattern of water masses can be seen. Though some of grey colored patterns seen in black and white prints of the MSS-4 and MSS-5 imageries are easily identified from their shapes as cloud covers or polluted water masses characterized by their color tone in longer wavelengths in the visible region, any correct distribution pattern of polluted or turbid water masses can be hardly detected separately from thin cloud covers in a quick look analysis. In the present investigation, a simple photographic technique was applied using the fact that reflected sun light from cloud including smog and inclined water surfaces of wave have a certain component in the near infrared region, that MSS-7, whereas the light scattered from fine materials suspended in the sea water has nearly no component sensible in MSS-4 and MSS-5 channels.

Watanabe, K.

1973-01-01

385

NBC detection in air and water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Participating in a Navy STTR project to develop a system capable of the 'real-time' detection and quanitification of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) warfare agents, and of related industrial chemicals including NBC agent synthesis by-products in water and in air immediately above the water's surface. This project uses JPL's Soft Ionization Membrane (SIM) technology which totally ionizes molecules without fragmentation (a process that can markedly improve the sensitivity and specificity of molecule compostition identification), and JPL's Rotating Field Mass Spectrometer (RFMS) technology which has large enough dynamic mass range to enable detection of nuclear materials as well as biological and chemical agents. This Navy project integrates these JPL Environmental Monitoring UnitS (REMUS) an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). It is anticipated that the REMUS AUV will be capable of 'real-time' detection and quantification of NBC warefare agents.

Hartley, Frank T.; Smith, Steven J.; McMurtry, Gary M.

2003-01-01

386

Case study on rehabilitation of a polluted urban water body in Yangtze River Basin.  

PubMed

In the past three decades, the fast development of economy and urbanization has caused increasingly severe pollutions of urban water bodies in China. Consequently, eutrophication and deterioration of aquatic ecosystem, which is especially significant for aquatic vegetation, inevitably became a pervasive problem across the Yangtze River Basin. To rehabilitate the degraded urban water bodies, vegetation replanting is an important issue to improve water quality and to rehabilitate ecosystem. As a case study, a representative polluted urban river, Nanfeihe River, in Hefei City, Anhui Province, was chosen to be a rehabilitation target. In October 2009 and May 2010, 13 species of indigenous and prevalent macrophytes, including seven species emergent, one species floating leaved, and five species submersed macrophytes, were planted along the bank slopes and in the river. Through 1.5 years' replanting practice, the water quality and biodiversity of the river had been improved. The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) declined by 46.0, 39.5, and 60.4 %, respectively. The species of macrophytes increased from 14 to 60, and the biodiversity of phytoplankton rose significantly in the river (p<0.05). The biomasses of zooplankton and benthos were also improved after the vegetation replanting. The study confirmed that vegetation replanting could alleviate the increasing water pollution and rehabilitate the degraded aquatic ecosystem. The case study would be an example for polluted urban waters restoration in the middle-downstream area of Yangtze River Base. PMID:23247519

Wu, Juan; Cheng, Shuiping; Li, Zhu; Guo, Weijie; Zhong, Fei; Yin, Daqiang

2013-10-01

387

Isotopes for improved management of nitrate pollution in aqueous resources: review of surface water field studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For water bodies where the nitrate concentrations exceed threshold values environmental agencies can propose measures to either reduce discharges and emissions of nitrate or to remediate nitrate polluted water bodies. Isotope data can support the identification of nitrate pollution sources and natural attenuation processes of nitrate. A review of surface water field studies evaluated the use of isotope data (e.g. ?15N, ?18O and ?17O of nitrate, ?18O of water, ?11B of boron) in environmental monitoring of nitrate pollution in forested, agricultural, mixed and urban watersheds. An overview of the information available to date regarding nitrate source apportionment studies in surface waters is given with the intention to help to improve future studies. An appropriate sampling strategy and statistical approach needs to be developed by means of available data on possible nitrate sources, hydrology and land use. Also transformation, transport and mixing process should be considered since these can change the isotope composition of the original nitrate source. Nitrate isotope data interpreted in combination with hydrological and chemical data provide valuable information on the nitrate pollution sources and on the processes nitrate has undergone during its retention and transport in the watershed. This information is useful for the development of an appropriate water management policy.

Nestler, A.; Berglund, M.; Accoe, F.; Duta, S.; Xue, D.; Boeckx, P. F.; Taylor, P.

2010-12-01

388

Risk assessment of organic pesticides pollution in surface water of Hangzhou.  

PubMed

Advances in research on pollution of organic pesticides (OPs) in surface water, pollution survey and risk assessments of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) of surface water in Hangzhou are conducted. Total concentrations of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and hexachloride-benzene (HCH) in surface water were observed to be 0-0.270 microg/L and 0-0.00625 microg/L respectively. DDE, as a metabolite of DDT and many species of OPP(S) were determined in some samples of surface water. Parathion, the main pollutant among OPPs in surface water of Hangzhou, was observed to be 0-0.445 microg/L. Based on these experimental results, health risk assessments on the organic pollution are developed. It is observed that the total risk "R (T)" at present time of surface water in Hangzhou is mainly contributed by organophosphorus pesticides, especially Parathion; HCH and DDT are not the main contaminants; on the contrary, organophosphorous pesticides, especially Parathion, must be of concern at the present time. PMID:16917719

Sun, Q; Zhu, L; Dong, M

2006-06-01

389

Ammonia pollution characteristics of centralized drinking water sources in China.  

PubMed

The characteristics of ammonia in drinking water sources in China were evaluated during 2005-2009. The spatial distribution and seasonal changes of ammonia in different types of drinking water sources of 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities were investigated. The levels of ammonia in drinking water sources follow the order of river > lake/reservoir > groundwater. The levels of ammonia concentration in river sources gradually decreased from 2005 to 2008, while no obvious change was observed in the lakes/reservoirs and groundwater drinking water sources. The proportion of the type of drinking water sources is different in different regions. In river drinking water sources, the ammonia level was varied in different regions and changed seasonally. The highest value and wide range of annual ammonia was found in South East region, while the lowest value was found in Southwest region. In lake/reservoir drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were not varied obviously in different regions. In underground drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were varied obviously in different regions due to the geological permeability and the natural features of regions. In the drinking water sources with higher ammonia levels, there are enterprises and wastewater drainages in the protected areas of the drinking water sources. PMID:23520842

Fu, Qing; Zheng, Binghui; Zhao, Xingru; Wang, Lijing; Liu, Changming

2012-01-01

390

Generation of novel bacterial regulatory proteins that detect priority pollutant phenols  

SciTech Connect

The genetic systems of bacteria that have the ability to use organic pollutants as carbon and energy sources can be adapted to create bacterial biosensors for the detection of industrial pollution. The creation of bacterial biosensors is hampered by a lack of information about the genetic systems that control production of bacterial enzymes that metabolize pollutants. The authors have attempted to overcome this problem through modification of DmpR, a regulatory protein for the phenol degradation pathway of Pseudomonas sp. strain CF600. The phenol detection capacity of DmpR was altered by using mutagenic PCR targeted to the DmpR sensor domain. DmpR mutants were identified that both increased sensitivity to the phenolic effectors of wild-type DmpR and increased the range of molecules detected. The phenol detection characteristics of seven DmpR mutants were demonstrated through their ability to activate transcription of a lacZ reporter gene. Effectors of the DmpR derivatives included phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, 2-nitrophenol, and 4-nitrophenol.

Wise, A.A.; Kuske, C.R.

2000-01-01

391

Generation of novel bacterial regulatory proteins that detect priority pollutant phenols.  

PubMed

The genetic systems of bacteria that have the ability to use organic pollutants as carbon and energy sources can be adapted to create bacterial biosensors for the detection of industrial pollution. The creation of bacterial biosensors is hampered by a lack of information about the genetic systems that control production of bacterial enzymes that metabolize pollutants. We have attempted to overcome this problem through modification of DmpR, a regulatory protein for the phenol degradation pathway of Pseudomonas sp. strain CF600. The phenol detection capacity of DmpR was altered by using mutagenic PCR targeted to the DmpR sensor domain. DmpR mutants were identified that both increased sensitivity to the phenolic effectors of wild-type DmpR and increased the range of molecules detected. The phenol detection characteristics of seven DmpR mutants were demonstrated through their ability to activate transcription of a lacZ reporter gene. Effectors of the DmpR derivatives included phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, 2-nitrophenol, and 4-nitrophenol. PMID:10618218

Wise, A A; Kuske, C R

2000-01-01

392

DETECTION OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN TREATED DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The occurrence of viruses in conventionally treated drinking water derived from a heavily polluted source was evaluated by collecting and analyzing 38 large volume (65 to 756 liter) samples of water from a 9m3/sec (205 mgd) water treatment plant. Samples of raw, clarified, filter...

393

Methods for detecting change in hydrochemical time series in response to targeted pollutant mitigation in river catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting changes in catchment hydrochemistry driven by targeted pollutant mitigation is high on the scientific agenda, following the introduction of the European Union Water Framework Directive. Previous research has shown that understanding natural variability in hydrochemistry time series is vital if changes due to mitigation are to be detected. In order for change to be detected in a statistically robust manner, the data analysis methods need careful consideration. Previous work has shown that erroneous results have often been obtained when statistical analyses have been carried out despite the associated test assumptions not being met. This paper discusses the principal data issues which must be considered when analysing hydrochemical datasets, including non-normality and non-stationarity. A range of statistical techniques is discussed which could be used to detect gradual or abrupt changes in hydrochemistry, including parametric, non-parametric and signal decomposition methods. The statistical power of these techniques as well as their suitability for identifying change is discussed. Using the uniquely detailed hydrochemical datasets generated under the Demonstration Test Catchments programme in England, the efficacy and robustness of change detection methods for hydrochemical data series is assessed. A conceptual framework for choosing a change detection method is proposed, based on this analysis, in order to raise awareness of the types of questions a researcher should consider in order to perform robust statistical analyses, for informing river catchment management and policy support decisions.

Lloyd, C. E. M.; Freer, J. E.; Collins, A. L.; Johnes, P. J.; Jones, J. I.

2014-06-01

394

Underground coal mining methods to abate water pollution: a state of the art literature review. Water pollution control research series  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report reviews published information concerning the abatement of harmful drainage from underground coal mines. Although much has been written on mine water management, very little literature is available on the specific area of preventing the formation of acid water. The references used in this report include mining engineering and hydrology studies and spans the period of time when water

L. W. Wilson; N. J. Matthews; J. L. Stump

1970-01-01

395

Modeling and detection of oil in sea water.  

PubMed

The challenge of a deep-water oil leak is that a significant quantity of oil remains in the water column and possibly changes properties. There is a need to quantify the oil settled within the water column and determine its physical properties to assist in the oil recovery. There are currently no methods to map acoustically submerged oil in the sea. In this paper, high-frequency acoustic methods are proposed to localize the oil polluted area and characterize the parameters of its spatial covariance, i.e., variance and correlation. A model is implemented to study the underlying mechanisms of backscattering due to spatial heterogeneity of the medium and predict backscattering returns. An algorithm for synthetically generating stationary, Gaussian random fields is introduced which provides great flexibility in implementing the physical model of an inhomogeneous field with spatial covariance. A method for inference of spatial covariance parameters is proposed to describe the scattering field in terms of its second-order statistics from the backscattered returns. The results indicate that high-frequency acoustic methods not only are suitable for large-scale detection of oil contamination in the water column but also allow inference of the spatial covariance parameters resulting in a statistical description of the oil field. PMID:24116417

Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

2013-10-01

396

Investigation of Lake Sapanca water pollution, Adapazari, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Sapanca has been the only source of drinking and recreational water for the city of Adapazari, Turkey. This paper reports a study of the variation of nutrient loading and trophic state of the lake, and also water quality parameters of Lake Sapanca compared to those of the neighbouring Lake Iznik. Through one year, samples were taken every three months

Hasan Arman; Recep Ileri; Emrah Dogan; Beytullah Eren

2009-01-01

397

Trace Metal Water Pollutants Determined by X-Ray Fluorescence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

X-ray fluorescence analysis was evaluated for determining trace metals in samples of interest in the Water Quality Control Program. A number of toxic elements including Pb were determined in Potomac River water and Blue Plains sewage sludge. Analysis by x...

P. G. Burkhalter

1973-01-01

398

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: PRIORITIZATION OF STATIONARY WATER POLLUTION SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives priority lists to aid in selecting specific sources of water effluents for detailed assessment. It describes the general water prioritization model, explains its implementation, and gives a detailed example of its use. It describes hazard factors that were develo...

399

Use of synthetic zeolites for arsenate removal from pollutant water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water below the current and proposed EPA MCL has been examined at room temperature. Experiments have been conducted to examine the extent of arsenic

Siddhesh Shevade; Robert G. Ford

2004-01-01

400

USE OF SYNTHETIC ZEOLITES FOR ARSENATE REMOVAL FROM POLLUTANT WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water below the current and proposed EPA MCL has been examined...

401

Water purification from organic pollutants by optimized micelle-clay systems.  

PubMed

Removal of anionic pollutants (imazaquin, sulfentrazone, sulfosulfuron) and neutral pollutants (alachlor, acetochlor, chlorotoluron, bromacil) from water by micelles preadsorbed on montmorillonite was studied. Micelles of octadecyltrimethylammonium and benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium (BDMHDA) were used. The micelle-clay systems (1% w/w) removed 87-99% of the pollutants from their water solutions containing 1-33 mg/L of herbicide. The nature of the headgroup of the organic cation, which forms the micelles, is critical. Desorption of imazaquin and acetochlor from 0.3% (w/w) suspension of BDMHDA-clay complex after 24 h was around 7% in the range of adsorbed amounts from 0.6 to 15.3 mg/g. These results indicate rather slow rates and small extents of release of pollutants from micelle-clay complexes. Column filters (25 cm) made of a mixture of quartz sand and BDMHDA micelle-clay complex at 100:1 w/w ratio removed at least 99% of above pollutants from initial solutions containing 10 mg/L; 99.5 and 97% of sulfosulfuron and alachlor were removed from their initial solutions containing 200 and 5 microg/L, respectively. These data indicate that micelle-clay complexes are very efficient for water purification from organic contaminants. PMID:15871274

Polubesova, Tamara; Nir, Shlomo; Zadaka, Dikla; Rabinovitz, Onn; Serban, Carina; Groisman, Ludmila; Rubin, Baruch

2005-04-01

402

Small watersheds used to study water transport, pollution, more  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As John Muir, the eminent American naturalist and founder of the Sierra Club wrote, “When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the universe.” Attempting to understand and predict the response of an ecosystem to large-scale stresses such as acid deposition, nonpoint source pollution, or climate change exemplifies this truth. This effort requires the integration of knowledge from a range of physical and biological sciences spanning hydrology and geochemistry to microbial and community ecology. One approach to studying ecosystems is to divide the landscape into small watersheds, which enables input and output budgets for solutes to be constructed. Such budgets can constrain the the problem of comprehending and quantifying mechanisms operating in the ecosystem. The hydrochemistry and biogeochemistry of small watersheds are the subject of “Comparative Analyses of Small Watersheds,” session H-16 of the Fall Meeting.

Church, M. Robbins

403

Rapid assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll content.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Present techniques of airborne chlorophyll measurement are discussed as an approach to water pollution assessment. The differential radiometer, the chlorophyll correlation radiometer, and an infrared radiometer for water temperature measurements are described as the key components of the equipment. Also covered are flight missions carried out to evaluate the capability of the chlorophyll correlation radiometer in measuring the chlorophyll content in water bodies with widely different levels of nutrients, such as fresh-water lakes of high and low eutrophic levels, marine waters of high and low productivity, and an estuary with a high sediment content. The feasibility and usefulness of these techniques are indicated.

Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

1971-01-01

404

Spatial cluster detection of air pollution exposure inequities across the United States.  

PubMed

Air quality is known to be a key factor in affecting the wellbeing and quality of life of the general populous and there is a large body of knowledge indicating that certain underrepresented groups may be overexposed to air pollution. Therefore, a more precise understanding of air pollution exposure as a driving cause of health disparities between and among ethnic and racial groups is necessary. Utilizing 52,613 urban census tracts across the United States, this study investigates age, racial, educational attainment and income differences in exposure to benzene pollution in 1999 as a case. The study examines spatial clustering patterns of these inequities using logistic regression modeling and spatial autocorrelation methods such as the Global Moran's I index and the Anselin Local Moran's I index. Results show that the age groups of 0 to 14 and those over 60 years old, individuals with less than 12 years of education, racial minorities including Blacks, American Indians, Asians, some other races, and those with low income were exposed to higher levels of benzene pollution in some census tracts. Clustering analyses stratified by age, education, and race revealed a clear case of disparities in spatial distribution of exposure to benzene pollution across the entire United States. For example, people aged less than 4 years from the western south and the Pacific coastal areas exhibit statistically significant clusters. The findings confirmed that there are geographical-location based disproportionate pattern of exposures to benzene air pollution by various socio-demographic factors across the United States and this type of disproportionate exposure pattern can be effectively detected by a spatial autocorrelation based cluster analysis method. It is suggested that there is a clear and present need for programs and services that will reduce inequities and ultimately improve environmental conditions for all underrepresented groups in the United States. PMID:24647354

Zou, Bin; Peng, Fen; Wan, Neng; Mamady, Keita; Wilson, Gaines J

2014-01-01

405

Spatial Cluster Detection of Air Pollution Exposure Inequities across the United States  

PubMed Central

Air quality is known to be a key factor in affecting the wellbeing and quality of life of the general populous and there is a large body of knowledge indicating that certain underrepresented groups may be overexposed to air pollution. Therefore, a more precise understanding of air pollution exposure as a driving cause of health disparities between and among ethnic and racial groups is necessary. Utilizing 52,613 urban census tracts across the United States, this study investigates age, racial, educational attainment and income differences in exposure to benzene pollution in 1999 as a case. The study examines spatial clustering patterns of these inequities using logistic regression modeling and spatial autocorrelation methods such as the Global Moran's I index and the Anselin Local Moran's I index. Results show that the age groups of 0 to 14 and those over 60 years old, individuals with less than 12 years of education, racial minorities including Blacks, American Indians, Asians, some other races, and those with low income were exposed to higher levels of benzene pollution in some census tracts. Clustering analyses stratified by age, education, and race revealed a clear case of disparities in spatial distribution of exposure to benzene pollution across the entire United States. For example, people aged less than 4 years from the western south and the Pacific coastal areas exhibit statistically significant clusters. The findings confirmed that there are geographical-location based disproportionate pattern of exposures to benzene air pollution by various socio-demographic factors across the United States and this type of disproportionate exposure pattern can be effectively detected by a spatial autocorrelation based cluster analysis method. It is suggested that there is a clear and present need for programs and services that will reduce inequities and ultimately improve environmental conditions for all underrepresented groups in the United States.

Zou, Bin; Peng, Fen; Wan, Neng; Mamady, Keita; Wilson, Gaines J.

2014-01-01

406

Groundwater pollution: Are we monitoring appropriate parameters?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater pollution is a worldwide phenomenon with potentially disastrous consequences. Prevention of pollution is the ideal approach. However, in practice groundwater quality monitoring is the main tool for timely detection of pollutants and protection of groundwater resources. Monitoring groundwater quality is a specialised task for a hydrogeologist and a water quality monitoring expert. Although general prescriptions for waste management facilities

Gideon Tredoux; Lisa Cavé; Pannie Engelbrecht

2004-01-01

407

Concentrations of mercury in tissues of striped dolphins suggest decline of pollution in Mediterranean open waters.  

PubMed

The Mediterranean is a semi-enclosed sea subject to high mercury (Hg) pollution from both natural and anthropogenic sources. With the objective of discerning temporal changes in marine Hg pollution in the oceanic waters of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, we analysed liver and kidney from striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) collected during 2007-2009 and compared them with previous results from a similar sample from 1990-1993. The effect of body length and sex on tissue Hg concentrations was investigated to ensure an unbiased comparison between the periods. The Hg concentrations did not show significant sex-related differences in any tissue or period but were correlated positively with body length. Using body length as a covariate, Hg concentrations in liver and kidney were higher in 1990-1993 than in 2007-2009. This result suggests that measures to reduce emissions in Western European countries have been effective in reducing mercury pollution in Mediterranean open waters. PMID:24461428

Borrell, A; Aguilar, A; Tornero, V; Drago, M

2014-07-01

408

Portable RF-Sensor System for the Monitoring of Air Pollution and Water Contamination  

PubMed Central

Monitoring air pollution including the contents of VOC, O3, NO2, and dusts has attracted a lot of interest in addition to the monitoring of water contamination because it affects directly to the quality of living conditions. Most of the current air pollution monitoring stations use the expensive and bulky instruments and are only installed in the very limited area. To bring the information of the air and water quality to the public in real time, it is important to construct portable monitoring systems and distribute them close to our everyday living places. In this work, we have constructed a low-cost portable RF sensor system by using 400?MHz transceiver to achieve this goal. Accuracy of the measurement was comparable to the ones used in the expensive and bulky commercial air pollution forecast systems.

Kang, Joonhee; Kim, Jin Young

2012-01-01

409

Registration pollution of water by method of modulation intracavity laser spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the method of the modulation intracavity laser spectroscopy is shown to be candidate for investigation and quantitative analysis of organic pollutions in water. The test specimen is placed into the cavity of the multimode dye laser. When the Raman scattering line coincides with amplification spectrum of the active medium of the multimode laser the additional gain appears at the Stokes frequency. One can experimentally determine this gain and then determine concentration of pollution. Spectral width of the Raman lines are small (approximately 3 cm-1), therefore a number of organic pollutions may be observed simultaneously. We have investigated stimulated Raman scattering from molecules of peridin (C5H5N) in water. In our conditions concentration sensitivity was 7 IO-4M/1.

Bojko, Sergey; Gamalii, Vladimir F.

1995-09-01

410

A Comparison of Erosion and Water Pollution Control Strategies for an Agricultural Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness and efficiency of two erosion control strategies and one water pollution control (riparian) strategy are compared for Idaho's Tom Beall watershed. Erosion control strategies maximize annualized net returns per hectare on each field and restrict field erosion rates to no more than 11.2 or 16.8 tons per hectare. The riparian strategy uses good vegetative cover on all fields adjacent to the creek and in noncropland areas and the resource management system that maximizes annualized net returns per hectare on remaining fields. The Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution model is used to simulate the levels and concentrations of sediment, nitrogen, phosphorus, and chemical oxygen demand at the outlet of the watershed. Erosion control strategies generate less total erosion and water pollution but are less efficient than the riparian strategy. The riparian strategy is less equitable for farmers than the erosion control strategies.

Prato, Tony; Shi, Hongqi

1990-02-01

411

Chemical analysis of trace elements for air pollution detection. August 1973-May 1990 (A Bibliography from the NTIS data base). Report for August 1973-May 1990  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the identification and analysis of trace elements and compounds occurring in air and airborne particulate samples. The citations present methods of analysis and the equipment required for the determinations. Analytical techniques include spectrometry, inductively-coupled plasma, atomic absorption and atomic emission, Fourier transform infrared analysis, and ion chromatography. A separate Published Search covers analysis of trace elements in water pollution detection. (Contains 103 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1990-06-01

412

MUNICIPAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ABSTRACTS: NOVEMBER 1976-OCTOBER 1977  

EPA Science Inventory

The Franklin Institute Research Laboratories, Science Information Services Department, prepared for the Environmental Protection Agency Volume 4 of the Municipal Technology Bulletin, a current-awareness abstracting bulletin covering methods of municipal waste water treatment, pro...

413

BIOTRANSFORMATION OF SELECTED ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN GROUND WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Widespread contamination of ground water by a variety of synthetic organic compounds has created a need for information about the biotransformation of these contaminants in aquifers and associated regions of the unsaturated subsurface. Uncontaminated samples of the subsurface wer...

414

MUNICIPAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ABSTRACTS: APRIL 1975-MARCH 1976  

EPA Science Inventory

The Franklin Institute Research Laboratories, Science Information Services Department prepared for the Environmental Protection Agency, Volume 3 of a monthly current-awareness abstracting bulletin, Municipal Technology Bulletin, which dealt with methods of municipal waste water t...

415

MUNICIPAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ABSTRACTS: MAY-OCTOBER 1976  

EPA Science Inventory

The Franklin Institute Research Laboratories, Science Information Services Department prepared for the Environmental Protection Agency, Volume 4 of a monthly current-awareness abstracting bulletin, Municipal Technology Bulletin, which dealt with methods of municipal waste water t...

416

Radon, water, and air pollution: risks and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summaries are presented on: (1) what is known about sources, levels, and health effects of radon; (2) how homeowners can have their water and air tested for radon; and (3) how radon levels in the home can be reduced. In Maine, radon levels were found to be highest in granitic regions (with well water averaging 22,000 pCi\\/l). Health risks from

Weiffenbach

1982-01-01

417

Report on the Immediate Water Pollution Control Needs for the Interstate and Intrastate Waters of the St. Lawrence Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews the water pollution problems in the St. Lawrence Region, which is defined to include all streams draining to the St. Lawrence River from the St. Regis River in New York on the west to Lake Memphremagog in Vermont on the east. The major ...

1967-01-01

418

Remote sensing applied to environmental pollution detection and management. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of remote sensing techniques and equipment to study air and water pollution. Topics include the use of aerial photographs, radar, and spaceborne photography to study oil spills, ocean dumping sites, plume dispersions, and pollution problems in estuaries. Data interpretation and processing techniques are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-07-01

419

Remote sensing applied to environmental pollution detection and management. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of remote sensing techniques and equipment to study air and water pollution. Topics include the use of aerial photographs, radar, and spaceborne photography to study oil spills, ocean dumping sites, plume dispersions, and pollution problems in estuaries. Data interpretation and processing techniques are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

420

Remote sensing applied to environmental pollution detection and management. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of remote sensing techniques and equipment to study air and water pollution. Topics include the use of aerial photographs, radar, and spaceborne photography to study oil spills, ocean dumping sites, plume dispersions, and pollution problems in estuaries. Data interpretation and processing techniques are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01

421

Chromatographic air analyser microsystem for the selective and sensitive detection of atmospheric pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of industry and automotive trafic produces Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) whose toxicity can affect seriously human health and environment. The level of those contaminants in air must be as low as possible. In this context, there is a need for in situ systems that could monitor selectively the concentration of these compounds. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the efficiency of a system build with a pre-concentrator, a chromatographic micro-column and a tin oxide-based gas sensor for the selective and sensitive detection of atmospheric pollutants. In particular, this study is focused on the selective detection of benzene and 1,3 butadiene.

Sanchez, Jean-Baptiste; Lahlou, Houda; Mohsen, Yehya; Vilanova, Xavier; Berger, Franck; Correig, Xavier

2011-08-01

422

Sanitary landfills: Water pollution. January 1980-August 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Aug 91  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, operation, and management of sanitary landfills as related to water pollution. Topics include water pollution control, leachate analyses, site studies, environmental monitoring, and solid waste management strategies. Hazardous materials, public health, refuse disposal, and waste disposal are considered. (Contains 126 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1991-07-01

423

Source Apportionment of Water Pollution in the Jinjiang River (China) Using Factor Analysis With Nonnegative Constraints and Support Vector Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Source apportionment studies of water pollution can greatly improve the knowledge of the human impact on the aquatic environment. Factor analysis (FA) has been widely used to identify sources of water pollution because of its relative ease of implementation. Generally, the method of identifying the sources was by qualitatively comparing source emission characteristics with factor loadings derived from FA. However,

Hai-Yang Chen; Yan-Guo Teng; Jin-Sheng Wang; Liu-Ting Song

2012-01-01

424

Occurrence and densities of fungi from northern Greek coastal bathing waters and their relation with faecal pollution indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and densities of yeasts and filamentous fungi in coastal water samples as well as their correlation with the indicator bacteria of faecal pollution. The prevalence of fungi was investigated in parallel with the standard pollution indicator microorganisms in 197 marine water samples from six northern Greek prefectures during the bathing

M Arvanitidou; K Kanellou; V Katsouyannopoulos; A Tsakris

2002-01-01

425

Areawide planning under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972: intergovernmental and land-use implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

By 1972 Congress had recognized the impossibility of controlling water pollution without some degree of land use management. Congress subsequently amended the Federal Water Pollution Control Act by adding section 208, which creates a Federal system of areawide planning. This comment analyzes the planning responsibilities that section 208 imposed upon state and metropolitan governments, the new element of Federal control

Jungman

1977-01-01

426

Water Quality & Pollutant Source Monitoring: Field and Laboratory Procedures. Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual presents material on techniques and instrumentation used to develop data in field monitoring programs and related laboratory operations concerned with water quality and pollution monitoring. Topics include: collection and handling of samples; bacteriological, biological, and chemical field and laboratory methods; field…

Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

427

Industry sector analysis, Indonesia: Water pollution control equipment. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The market survey covers the water pollution control equipment market in Indonesia. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Indonesian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

Bhinekawati, R.

1992-10-21

428

UTILITY OF SYNTHETIC ZEOLITES IN REMOVAL OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange and adsorption properties. Different inorganic and organic pollutants have been removed from water at room temperature using various zeolites. Synthetic zeolites like ZSM-5, Ferrierite, Beta and Faujasite Y have been used to remove i...

429

LEAF PHOTOSYNTHETIC AND WATER RELATIONS RESPONSES FOR "VALENCIA" ORANGE TREES EXPOSED TO OXIDANT AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Leaf responses were measured to test a hypothesis that reduced photosynthetic capacity and/or altered water relations were associated with reductions in yield for "Valencia" orange trees exposed to ambient oxidant air pollution. xposures were continuous for four years to three le...

430

Radar satellites: A new tool for pollution monitoring in coastal waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar satellites are currently being used on a routine basis for near real?time pollution monitoring in Norwegian waters. This article describes the phased introduction of this service, from infrastructure development, basic science, and field experiments, to near real?time demonstrations and knowledge transfer from research laboratories to operational entities. The service is initially based on the European Space Agency's ERS satellites.

Terje Wahl; Åge Skøelv; Jan P. Pedersen; Jørn Harald Andersen; Odd Arne Follum; Tom Anderssen; Guro Dahle Strøm; Heidi Hovland Espedal; Hilde Hamnes; Rune Solberg

1996-01-01

431

Water Quality and Pollution. Environmental Studies. 4 Color Transparencies, Reproducibles & Teaching Guide. Grade 3, 4, 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The world is faced with a variety of environmental problems. No country has escaped pollution and resource depletion. Basic ecological principles are often ignored and sometimes this contributes to ecological disasters. This volume is designed to provide basic information about the quality of the earth's water resources. The visual aids,…

Ortleb, Edward P.; And Others

432

Nature and analysis of chemical species: pollution effects on surface waters and groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature review of 103 items covers: nutrients in surface waters; runoff and waste discharges primarily from energy-intensive activities; groundwater pollution causes, effects, controls and monitoring; land and subsurface wastewater disposal; radionuclides; biological effects; thermal effluents; and biological and mathematical models for rivers. (PCS)

Young; R. H. F

1975-01-01

433

12 Sustainable Agriculture: A Technical or Economic Issue? Reducing Nitrate Water Pollution with Market Incentives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of the economic dimension into the design of sustainable agro-ecological systems is essential to the different stages involved in identifying the problem and finding viable solutions within a sustainable development perspective. Taken as an example, the problem of nitrate water pollution caused by agriculture is faced by analysing the possible employment of economic instruments as market incentives for

S. Cocco; A. Ciani

434

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF POLLUTED WATERS USING SOURCE TRACKING MOLECULAR TOOLS: LESSONS LEARNED AND FUTURE NEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Different approaches have been used to identify fecal pollution sources in water samples. Early on, the fecal coliforms - fecal streptococci ratio was proposed as a method that could discriminate between human and animal contamination. Several studies showed that the latter appro...

435

Bioavailability of heavy metals monitoring water, sediments and fish species from a polluted estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and As) were measured in water, sediment and two fish species, Sparus aurata and Solea senegalensis, from the estuary of Tinto and Odiel rivers in Huelva (Spain), one of the most metallic polluted estuaries in Europe.As a forward step to understand metal bioavailability and assess the potential impact on aquatic biota, a

Juan J. Vicente-Martorell; María D. Galindo-Riaño; Manuel García-Vargas; María D. Granado-Castro

2009-01-01

436

Investigations for heavy metals pollution in the Nile water in Khartoum area using XRF.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to perform measurements for heavy metals pollution in the Nile water in Khartoum area. Ten locations were selected for the study on the white Nile, the Blue Nile and the Nile. Standard methods were used for samples collection...

S. E. Salih

1998-01-01

437

SCIENCE OF INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT: LINKING POLLUTANT CONTROL PRACTICES WITH WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

SCIENCE OF INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT: LINKING POLLUTANT CONTROL PRACTICES WITH WATER QUALITY M. Morrison (NRMRL), C. Nietch (NRMRL), 1. Schubauer-Berigan (NRMRL), M. Hantush (NRMRL), D. Lai (NRMRL), B. Daniel (NERL), M. Griffith (NCEA) Science Questions LTG 3. MYP Sc...

438

Registration pollution of water by method of modulation intracavity laser spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the method of the modulation intracavity laser spectroscopy is shown to be candidate for investigation and quantitative analysis of organic pollutions in water. The test specimen is placed into the cavity of the multimode dye laser. When the Raman scattering line coincides with amplification spectrum of the active medium of the multimode laser the additional gain appears

Sergey Bojko; Vladimir F. Gamalii

1995-01-01

439

Removal of dissolved organic carbon by coagulation and adsorption from polluted source water in Southern Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of dissolved organic carbon from a polluted water source in southern Taiwan by coagulation and powder activated carbon (PAC) adsorption was investigated in light of increasing concern for the production of potentially toxic chlorinated organic products. The results of this study clearly indicated that the effects of coagulation and PAC adsorption on the removal of non-purgeable dissolved organic

Yun-Hwei Shen; Tai-Hua Chaung

1998-01-01

440

Nanoparticle-coated quartz sand as a catalyst for degradation of water pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper oxide nanoparticles were immobilized on quartz sand and their catalytic activity for the degradation of an organic dye was investigated. These nanoparticles, in free form, were shown previously to be efficient catalysts for the complete degradation of several organic water pollutants, without formation of hazardous byproducts and without the need for any type of irradiation for activation. However, because

T. Ben Moshe; O. Krichevski; I. Dror; B. Berkowitz

2010-01-01

441

River water pollution assessment under climate change in Kura-Araks basin: modeling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discrete model for investigation of dynamics of heavy metals accumulation in rivers of Armenia is considered. One of main issues of studying the water chemical composition in a system with spatial heterogeneities and several sources of pollution is defining local parts with almost equal conditions. The boundaries for local subsystems associated with a point oscillator are identified on multidimensional

442

REVIEW OF WESTERN EUROPEAN AND JAPANESE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY EXEMPLARY WATER POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a literature survey of current Western European and Japanese water pollution control technology in the iron and steel industry. Further information was obtained through personal communication. Recycle technology was identified as being practiced to a h...

443

CRITICAL REVIEW OF ESTIMATING BENEFITS OF AIR AND WATER POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report provides a critical review of the current state-of-the-art and future prospects of estimating benefits of air and water pollution control. This report represents three independent critiques by three experts of benefit assessment methodologies. Specific aspects discuss...

444

A Comparison of Erosion and Water Pollution Control Strategies for an Agricultural Watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness and efficiency of two erosion control strategies and one water pollution control (riparian) strategy are compared for Idaho's Tom Beall watershed. Erosion control strategies maximize annualized net returns per hectare on each field and restrict field erosion rates to no more than 11.2 or 16.8 tons per hectare. The riparian strategy uses good vegetative cover on all fields

Tony Prato; Hongqi Shi

1990-01-01

445

Development of a CFD Model for Secondary Final Settling Tanks in Water Pollution Control Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess performance and evaluate alternatives to improve efficiency of the New York City the Wards Island Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) FSTs at peak loads, a 3D CFD model has been developed. Fluent was utilized as the base platform, where sub-models of the Suspended Solids (SS), settling characteristics, density currents and SS flocculation were incorporated. This was supplemented by

Minwei Gong; Savvas Xanthos; Krish Ramalingam; John Fillos

2007-01-01

446

Action for Environmental Quality. Standards and Enforcement for Air and Water Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for setting and enforcing environmental quality standards for the nation. With the Clean Air Act of 1970 (P.L. 91-604) and the Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (P.L. 92-500), the first truly nationwide control programs were established. This booklet is designed to inform the public…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

447

Application of Genetic Algorithm in the Optimization of Water Pollution Control Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic Algorithm (Genetic Algorithm Chine write for the GA) is a kind of hunting Algorithm bionic global optimization imitating the Darwinian biological evolution theories, is advancing front of complex nonlinear science and artificial intelligence science. In the basic of introducing the GA basic principle and optimization Algorithm, this text leads the GA into the domain of the water pollution control

Rui-Ming Zhao; Dong-Ping Qian

2007-01-01

448

Industry sector analysis, Indonesia: Water pollution control equipment. Export trade information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The market survey covers the water pollution control equipment market in Indonesia. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Indonesian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

Bhinekawati

1992-01-01

449

Consequences of Decentralization: Environmental Impact Assessment and Water Pollution Control in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

After having been one of the most centralized states in the world for more than thirty years, in 2001 Indonesia introduced a sweeping program of decentralization with important consequences for the management of the industrial sector. This article explores whether the decentralization process has led to substantial changes in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and enforcement of water pollution law. Its

ADRIAAN BEDNER

2010-01-01

450

Review of the literature of 1966 on wastewater and water pollution control. Part 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1966 literature on wastewater and water pollution control for a number of industrial plants is reviewed. This article is divided into discussions for each industrial application covered. One such discussion is on petroleum processing waste. This reveals that Standard Oil Co. of Ohio has begun a $1 million program to modernize wastewater treating facilities at its Toledo, Ohio, refinery.

C. M. Weiss; R. S. Engelbrecht

1967-01-01

451

A study on volatile organic sulfide causes of odors at Philadelphia's Northeast Water Pollution Control Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile organic sulfide (VOS) causes of odors were studied at Philadelphia's Northeast Water Pollution Control Plant between September 11 and November 25, 2003. Results showed that dimethyl sulfide (DMS) dominated the VOS pool whenever VOS concentration rose above the background level (<50?g\\/L). Methanethiol was generally less than 10% of VOS and it was mainly found at sites with limited or

Xianhao Cheng; Earl Peterkin; Gary A. Burlingame

2005-01-01

452

Laws of the United States Relating to Water Pollution Control and Environmental Quality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This compilation of Federal legislation contains copies of twelve Public Laws, four Executive Orders, and five International Conventions relevant to water pollution control. It also contains two Public Laws and two Executive Orders pertaining to environmental quality. There is a brief introduction summarizing the provisions of each Act. (AL)

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Public Works.

453

Post Evaluation of Water Pollution Control Planning for Huai River Basin in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post evaluation methodology for river basin water pollution control planning has been applied to Huai River Basin plan (2001-2005). It consists of assessment on plan enforcement results and enforcement process. The former is conducted through the multi-criteria comprehensive evaluation method based on an indicator system. And the latter is to assess the impact of natural endowment, plan preparation assumptions, policy

Siyu Zeng; Mi Tian; Jing Li; Jining Chen

2008-01-01

454

Research on Decision Support System of Water Pollution Control Based on Immune Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method of decision support system (DSS) is put forward, and the theory of immune arithmetic and agent is applied in the scopes. Based on immune agent, a decision support system of urban river water pollution control based on immune agent is proposed. The system includes apperceive agent, control agent and response agent, which solves the problem that DSS

Bo-ping Zhang; Guo-xi Wu; Shi-yu Shang

2008-01-01

455

Water-pollution control: guidelines for project planning and financing. World Bank technical paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication provides guidelines to managers, supervisors, and others who are involved with decisions on filling needs for water-pollution-control facilities, but who may be lacking the detailed background in engineering, economics, financial management, or other applicable specialties. Political and economic planning leaders, who must provide the financial resources and overall policies, will also find the document useful in making themselves

R. C. Palange; A. Zavala

1987-01-01

456

Impacts of full secondary treatment at the joint water pollution control plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In September 1979, the Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County applied for a 301(h) waiver for modification of secondary treatment requirements for the Joint Water Pollution Control Plant. As specified by Environmental Protection Agency regulations, the waiver evaluated the environmental impacts associated with implementation of partial secondary treatment as compared to elimination of the wastewater discharge entirely. This paper presents

R. Miele

1985-01-01

457

The value of incorporating bioindicators in economic approaches to water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioindicators provide better information about environmental quality than chemical and physical measures alone. This paper addresses how this information can improve the efficiency of water pollution control policy. We model bioindicators as a means of resolving uncertainty about the relationship of human activities and environmental effects. Two economic policy models are developed to formalize efficiency gains that result from biological

Andrew G. Keeler; Donna McLemore

1996-01-01

458

Energy conservation at the West Dover, Vermont, Water Pollution Control facility. Special report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy audit was conducted at the West Dover, Vermont, water pollution control facility. The audit revealed that aeration, not pumping to the land treatment site, was the largest energy consumer. As a result of the audit, five Energy Conservation Opportunities (EOC) were evaluated. Three of the ECOs were recommended for implementation; these could result in annual savings of more

C. J. Martel; B. C. Sargent; W. Bronson

1982-01-01

459

A comparison of erosion and water pollution control strategies for an agricultural watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness and efficiency of two erosion control strategies and one water pollution control (riparian) strategy are compared for Idaho's Tom Beall watershed. Erosion control strategies maximize annualized net returns per hectare on each field and restrict field erosion rates to no more than 11.2 or 16.8 tons per hectare. The riparian strategy uses good vegetative cover on all fields

Tony Prato; Hongqi Shi

1990-01-01

460

Incidence of water pollution control costs: partial vs. general equilibrium computations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of two computations of the distributional effects of a fully implemented federal water pollution control policy, one based on an extreme partial equilibrium method and one on a computable general equilibrium model, finds some differences that show the importance of the general equilibrium computations. The application, however, only demonstrates the feasibility of the approach and illustrates the importance

JAMES S. SHORTLE; KEITH D. WILLETT

1986-01-01

461

EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL POLLUTION OF NATURAL WATER BY TRACE ELEMENTS ORIGINATING FROM POWER PLANT ASHES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal ashes (flay ash and bottom ash) from pawer plants contain trace elements that have been possible pollutants of surface and ground waters. Some of trace elements in coal ashes are naturally radioactive and make possible risk of radiation. Because of that the examination of leaching of trace elements from coal ashes and determination of radioactivity of coal ashes are

Slobodanka Marinkovic; Prvoslav Trifunovic; Rade Tokali; Aleksandra Kostic-Pulek

2010-01-01

462

Organic pollutants in mussels and sediments of the coastal waters off Perth, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a survey of organic pollutants in the marine sediments and the common mussel, Mytilus edulis, from the southern metropolitan coastal waters off Perth are presented. Organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organotin compounds were analysed in surficial (top 20 mm) sediments from 175 sites and in mussel tissue from 35 sites

James S. Burt; Geoff F. Ebell

1995-01-01

463

State revolving fund: Final report to Congress. Financial status and operations of water pollution control revolving funds  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report to Congress. The SRF final report addresses the financial status and operations of water pollution control revolving funds established by the States under Title VI of the Clean Water Act (CWA).

Not Available

1991-10-01

464

Water pollution control in river basin by interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective programming  

SciTech Connect

The potential conflict between protection of water quality and economic development by different uses of land within river basins is a common problem in regional planning. Many studies have applied multiobjective decision analysis under uncertainty to problems of this kind. This paper presents the interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming (IFIMOMIP) model to evaluate optimal strategies of wastewater treatment levels within a river system by considering the uncertainties in decision analysis. The interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming approach is illustrated in a case study for the evaluation of optimal wastewater treatment strategies for water pollution control in a river basin. In particular, it demonstrates how different types of uncertainty in a water pollution control system can be quantified and combined through the use of interval numbers and membership functions. The results indicate that such an approach is useful for handling system complexity and generating more flexible policies for water quality management in river basins.

Chang, N.B.; Chen, H.W. [National Cheng-Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Shaw, D.G.; Yang, C.H. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Economics

1997-12-01

465

Requiring Pollutant Discharge Permits for Pesticide Applications that Deposit Residues in Surface Waters.  

PubMed

Agricultural producers and public health authorities apply pesticides to control pests that damage crops and carry diseases. Due to the toxic nature of most pesticides, they are regulated by governments. Regulatory provisions require pesticides to be registered and restrictions operate to safeguard human health and the environment. Yet pesticides used near surface waters pose dangers to non-target species and drinking water supplies leading some governments to regulate discharges of pesticides under pollution discharge permits. The dual registration and discharge permitting provisions are burdensome. In the United States, agricultural interest groups are advancing new legislation that would exempt pesticide residues from water permitting requirements. An analysis of the dangers posed by pesticide residues in drinking water leads to a conclusion that both pesticide registration and pollutant discharge permitting provisions are needed to protect human health and aquatic species. PMID:24814945

Centner, Terence; Eberhart, Nicholas

2014-01-01

466

Requiring Pollutant Discharge Permits for Pesticide Applications that Deposit Residues in Surface Waters  

PubMed Central

Agricultural producers and public health authorities apply pesticides to control pests that damage crops and carry diseases. Due to the toxic nature of most pesticides, they are regulated by governments. Regulatory provisions require pesticides to be registered and restrictions operate to safeguard human health and the environment. Yet pesticides used near surface waters pose dangers to non-target species and drinking water supplies leading some governments to regulate discharges of pesticides under pollution discharge permits. The dual registration and discharge permitting provisions are burdensome. In the United States, agricultural interest groups are advancing new legislation that would exempt pesticide residues from water permitting requirements. An analysis of the dangers posed by pesticide residues in drinking water leads to a conclusion that both pesticide registration and pollutant discharge permitting provisions are needed to protect human health and aquatic species.

Centner, Terence; Eberhart, Nicholas

2014-01-01

467

Water pollution: Pesticides in Aquatic environments. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the physicochemical and biochemical dynamics of pesticides in aquatic environments. The effects of organophosphorus, organochlorine, and arsenical pesticides on marine, surface, and groundwater ecosystems are discussed. Topics include biological fate and transformation of pesticides in waters, sources of release and transport of pesticides, bioaccumulation and metabolism of pesticides by aquatic organisms, ecological concentration and degradability of pesticides in model ecosystems, and marine ecology. Guidelines for pesticide registration and pesticide effluents are also referenced. (Contains a minimum of 205 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-01-01

468

Acetylcholinesterase levels in brains of fishes from polluted waters.  

PubMed

Distressed menhaden collected from the Ashley River, South Carolina, were found to have 46.8% less acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in brain homogenates as compared to menhaden collected from offshore waters. Menhaden and croakers also taken from the Ashley River, but not in a distressed condition, were found to be 16.5 and 35.8% inhibited, respectively. AChE inhibiting materials were found in three of twelve waste water samples collected from the vicinity of the Ashley River. PMID:24193108

Williams, A K; Sova, C R

1966-09-01

469

Total energy concept at the joint water pollution control plant. [Carson, CA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed total-energy facilities at the Joint Water Pollution Control Plant (Carson, Calif.) are designed to maximize electrical power production to meet significant increases in demands resulting from secondary treatment, and to minimize dependence on public utilities for natural gas and water by reusing waste heat and plant effluent. The generator prime-mover selection process includes analyses of reciprocating engines, simple-cycle

G. M. Adams; J. D. Eppich; W. E. Garrison; J. C. Gratteau

1980-01-01

470

The Distribution of the Costs of Federal Water Pollution Control Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex problem of assigning dollar-costs to Federal programs is approached by comparing the distributional costs of implementing the Clean Water Act of 1972 with those of the Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, which are found to be more equitable. The study is limited to short-term tax and price burdens and neglects both the long-term costs and the

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin

1980-01-01

471

Water Pollution Simulation and Health Risk Assessment Through a Refined Contaminant Transport Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the growing concerns on water pollution caused by pesticide losses, this study aimed at refining a contaminant\\u000a transport model and applying it to health risk assessment for pesticide-contaminated water. It was an advance of the previous\\u000a modeling works by integrating a dynamic two-big-leaf multilayer pesticide emission module with the existing pesticide runoff\\u000a loss simulation model (PeLM). A risk

Bing Chen

2009-01-01

472

Spatial and temporal variability of surface water pollution in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.  

PubMed

Surface water pollution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (MD) could threaten human, animal and ecosystem health given the fact that this water source is intensively used for drinking, irrigation and domestic services. We therefore determined the levels of pollution by organic pollutants, salts, metals and microbial indicators by (bi)monthly monitoring of canals between November 2011 and July 2012 at 32 sampling locations, representing fresh and saline/brackish environments. The results were compared with national water quality guidelines, between the studied regions and with water quality data from main waterways. Key factors explaining the observed levels of pollution in surface water were identified through principal component analysis (PCA). Temporal variations due to tidal regime and seasonality were also assessed. Based on regression models, the spatial variability of five water quality parameters was visualized using GIS based maps. Results indicate that pH (max. 8.6), turbidity (max. 461 FTU), maximum concentrations of ammonium (14.7 mg L(-1)), arsenic (44.1 ?g L(-1)), barium (157.5 ?g L(-1)), chromium (84.7 ?g L(-1)), mercury (45.5 ?g L(-1)), manganese (1659.7 ?g L(-1)), aluminum (14.5 mg L(-1)), iron (17.0 mg L(-1)) and the number of Escherichia coli (87,000 CFU 100 mL(-1)) and total coliforms (2,500,000 CFU 100 mL(-1)) in canals exceed the thresholds set by Vietnamese quality guidelines for drinking and domestic purposes. The PCA showed that i) urbanization; ii) metal leaching from soils; iii) aquaculture; and iv) tidal regime explain 85% of the variance of surface water quality attributes. Significant differences in water quality were found due to daily tidal regime and as a result of seasonality. Surface water quality maps for dissolved oxygen, ammonium, ortho-phosphate, manganese and total coliforms were developed to highlight hot-spot areas of pollution. The results of this study can assist policy makers in developing water management strategies and drinking water companies in selecting optimum water extraction locations. PMID:24747257

Wilbers, Gert-Jan; Becker, Mathias; Nga, La Thi; Sebesvari, Zita; Renaud, Fabrice G

2014-07-01

473

SUPERCRITICAL WATER OXIDATION MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR SELECTED EPA PRIORITY POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) evaluated for five compounds: acetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenol, pentachlorophenol, pyridine, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (methyl ester). inetic models were developed for acetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and pyridine. he test compounds were e...

474

ECONOMIC AND ENERGY ANALYSES OF REGIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

Two strategic approaches to water quality control in Oregon's Willamette River are presently being utilized: point source treatment and flow augmentation from reservoirs. Input/Output analysis (I/O) provides an econometric methodology to study direct and indirect energy response ...

475

Cost and Pollutant Removal of StormWater Treatment Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six storm-water best management practices BMPs for treating urban rainwater runoff were evaluated for cost and effective- ness in removing suspended sediments and total phosphorus. Construction and annual operating and maintenance O and M cost data were collected and analyzed for dry extended detention basins, wet basins, sand filters, constructed wetlands, bioretention filters, and infiltration trenches using literature that reported

Peter T. Weiss; John S. Gulliver; Andrew J. Erickson

2007-01-01

476

Estimating Economic Health Costs of Not Controlling Toxic Water Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to determine what types of information may be important in determining the welfare benefits of preventing toxic water contamination when a given type of toxification occurs (or is likely to occur) in a given setting. It attempts to identify information and behavior issues that need to be considered when policy makers and others wish

K. William Easter; Yoshifumi Konishi

2006-01-01

477

Water-sediment flow models for river reaches sediment related pollution control.  

PubMed

Hybrid water-sediment flow models for river reaches have been for predicting sediment and sediment related pollutions in water courses. The models are developed by combining sediment rating model and the Muskingum model applicable for a reach. The models incorporate sediment concentration and water discharge variables for a river reach; allow defining downstream sediment rating curve in terms of upstream water discharges. The model is useful in generating sediment concentration graph for a station having no water discharge records. The hybrid models provide forecasting forms that can be used to forecast downstream sediment concentration/water discharges 2kx time unit ahead. The forecasting models are useful for applications in real time namely, in the real time management of sediment related pollution in water courses and in issuing flood warning. Integration of sediment rating model and the Muskingum model increases model parameters and nonlinearity requiring efficient estimation technique for parameter identification. To identify parameters in the hybrid models genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique can be used. The new model relies on the Muskingum model, obey continuity requirement and the parameters can be used in the Muskingum model with water discharges to estimate/predict downstream water discharge values. The proposed model formulations are demonstrated for simulating and forecasting sediment concentration and water discharges in the Mississippi River Basin, USA. Model parameters are estimated using non-dominated sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II). Model results show satisfactory model performances. PMID:24749192

Sil, Briti Sundar; Choudhury, Parthasarathi

2012-07-01

478

Detection and monitoring of volatile and semivolatile pollutants in soil through different sensing strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollutants in environments are more and more threatening the maintenance of health of habitats and their inhabitants. A proper evaluation of the impact of contaminants from several different potential sources on soil quality and health and then on organisms living therein, and the possible and sometime probable related risk of transfer of pollutants, with their toxic effects, to organisms living in different environmental compartments, through the trophic chain up to humans is strongly required by decision makers, in order to promptly take adequate actions to prevent environmental and health damages and monitor the exposure rate of individuals to toxicants. Then, a reliable detection of pollutants in environments and the monitoring of dynamics and fate of contaminants therein are of utmost importance to achieve this goal. In soil, chemical and physical techniques to detect pollutants have been well known for decades, but can often drive to both over- and underestimations of the actual bioavailable (and then toxic) fraction of contaminants, and then of the real risk for organisms, deriving from their presence therein. The use of bioindicators (both living organisms and enzyme activities somehow derived from them) can supply more reliable information about the quantification of the bioavailable fraction of soil pollutants. In the last decades, a physicochemical technique, such as SPME (solid phase microextraction) followed by GC-MS analysis, has been demonstrated to provide similar results to those obtained from some pedofaunal populations, used as bioindicators, as concerns the bioavailable pollutant quantification in soil. More recently, we have applied a sensing technology, namely electronic nose (EN), which comprises several unspecific sensors arranged in an array and that is capable of providing more qualitative than quantitative information about complex air samples, to the study of soils contaminated with semivolatile (SVOCs) pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The EN device set up on purpose involved suitable sensors and it was demonstrated to be capable of supplying information related to the whole soil environment as well as to the presence of contaminants and their dynamics, such as their biodegradation by soil microorganisms and the contemporary increase of CO2 release. These results were also somehow related to those obtained through SPME-GC/MS analyses, since a list of substances could be identified to be responsible for the different classification of contaminated and uncontaminated soil samples obtained through EN. Presently, we also have got evidences that more complex sensing devices can be used for in situ monitoring of contaminated soils. We have designed and fabricated a multi-parametric hybrid sensing system, based on the assembly of several different sensors and sensing systems (i.e. single sensors and a sensor array), some of which are commercially available, while some others were created by design in laboratory and tested for their specificity. The main target of such a hybrid sensing device was to be capable of measuring various soil parameters and volatile pollutants (VOCs) in soil, such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), in order to relate the quantification and behaviour of contaminants in soil (e.g. solubility, volatility, phase partitioning, adsorption and desorption, etc.) to the relative environmental conditions, by measuring physical (temperature and moisture) and chemical (pH) parameters, which can affect such processes. Furthermore, a suitable procedure was set up on purpose to provide VOCs quantifications actually related to the bioavailable fraction of pollutants (passive vs. active sampling). That sensing system was also set up for a wireless communication of the recorded values to a data-collecting centre. Such a tool was designed to be used as a proper probe to insert into soil for in situ monitoring of contaminated sites in order to provide semi-continuous information about soil pollution conditions and evolutions, suitable for unskilled

De Cesare, Fabrizio; Macagnano, Antonella

2013-04-01

479

Investigating water pollution of the Dareh Morad Beik River in the Hamadan District, Iran.  

PubMed

Water-related hazards, such as drought, floods, erosion, and various kinds of pollution, should be factored into any integrated approach to water-resource management. This research attempt has been made to assess the process of water pollution in the Dareh Morad Beik (DMB) River, whose length is about 18 km and whose average flow rate is 250 L/s. The quality of river water, including chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate, fecal coliform, and total coliform, were all measured and evaluated at three different sampling stations within different months of the year. The information was gathered by conducting experiments and through field visits, as well as by library study. The results of this research showed that, from a microbiological point of view, the water of the DMB was polluted during the year. Based on the results obtained it was determined that the amount of COD and BOD at station 1 was negligible. Also the influx of qantas waters from Hamadan City into the DMB has caused dilution of COD, BOD, and nitrate of that river at station 3. PMID:18991905

Khoram, Mahdi Reyahi; Nafea, Minoo

2008-10-01

480

Pulsed electrical discharges in water for removal of organic pollutants: a comparative study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the efficiency of different types of pulsed electrical discharges for the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater has been determined. Three discharge types, either in the water volume or in close proximity to the water surface are studied. The production of hydrogen peroxide in pure water, and the degradation of two typical pollutants (4-chlorophenol and 4-nitrophenol) is measured together with the amount of electrical energy dissipated in discharges. It is shown that the energy yield for the degradation of organic pollutants, expressed in terms of degraded moles per Joule, strongly depends on the discharge type. The highest efficiency is obtained with pulsed corona discharges in humid air above the water surface. A lower efficiency is found with spark discharges in water, and the less efficient process is constituted by streamer discharges in water. The influence of ferrous ions added to solutions is also very different according to the discharge type. This helps to get a better understanding of the degradation processes involved with the different discharge types.

Dang, T. H.; Denat, A.; Lesaint, O.; Teissedre, G.

2009-08-01

481

Manpower Requirements for Pollution Control and Water Resources in Indiana and a Related Pollution Control Technology Curriculum. Manpower Report 69-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify the trained manpower needed to cope with Indiana's mounting problems in air and water pollution control, liquid and solid waste disposal, and water supply and resources. This report contains data concerning the present employment, current job opportunities, and projected manpower needs for related…

Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Office of Manpower Studies.

482

Luminescence Sensors Applied to Water Analysis of Organic Pollutants--An Update  

PubMed Central

The development of chemical sensors for environmental analysis based on fluorescence, phosphorescence and chemiluminescence signals continues to be a dynamic topic within the sensor field. This review covers the fundamentals of this type of sensors, and an update on recent works devoted to quantifying organic pollutants in environmental waters, focusing on advances since about 2005. Among the wide variety of these contaminants, special attention has been paid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, explosives and emerging organic pollutants. The potential of coupling optical sensors with multivariate calibration methods in order to improve the selectivity is also discussed.

Ibanez, Gabriela A.; Escandar, Graciela M.

2011-01-01

483

Integrated optimal management of ground-water pollution and withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated ground-water management model is formulated as a multivariable constrained nonlinear optimization problem. To simulate the physical and chemical processes occurring within a leaky confined aquifer system, the finite-difference forms of the flow and transport equations are embedded in the management model. The Hooke-Jeeves method, a nonlinear programming technique, in conjunction with the exterior penalty function method is used

Ashok K. Keshari; Bithin Datta

1996-01-01

484

Acetylcholinesterase levels in brains of fishes from polluted waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Distressed menhaden collected from the Ashley River, South Carolina, were found to have 46.8% less acetylcholinesterase (AChE)\\u000a activity in brain homogenates as compared to menhaden collected from offshore waters. Menhaden and croakers also taken from\\u000a the Ashley River, but not in a distressed condition, were found to be 16.5 and 35.8% inhibited, respectively. AChE inhibiting\\u000a materials were found in three

A. K. Williams; Carl R. Sova

1966-01-01

485

[Anoxic bioremediation of urban polluted river water with biofilm].  

PubMed

Reactor like oxidation ditch was used for anaerobic bioremediation of urban river water, in which biofilm formed on ceramic honeycomb carrier was used instated of activated sludge. The dissolved oxygen in the wastewater was controlled under 0.5 mg/L for anoxic oxidation, and ammonia nitrogen was removed 40 to 60 percent, and total nitrogen removed 40 to 45 percent, that is ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen were removed at the same time, also, nitrite was not any accumulated during the process. The biofilm was taken into flask to culture under anoxic oxidation condition in order to prove if anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) occurred in the process, and ammonia and nitrite nitrogen were also removed at the same time in the experiment, which suggested that nitrification-denitrification and ANAMMOX occurred in bioremediation of urban surface water with low ratio of carbon and nitrogen at the same time. The anammox bacteria were existed in the biofilm according to molecular biological analysis. The experiment will be significant for bioremediation of eutrophication water body. PMID:19774985

Zhang, Yong-Ming; Hu, Yi-Zhen; Yan, Rong; Liu, Fang

2009-07-15

486

Toxicity bioassays: Water-pollution effects on aquatic animals and plants. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning toxicity bioassay studies of water pollution effects on reproduction, growth, and mortality of aquatic fauna and flora. Industrial and agricultural water pollutants such as heavy metals, chemicals, pesticides, and herbicides are evaluated and tested. Standard fish and algal assays are used to determine effects of potential toxicants. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-08-01

487

[Characteristics of aerosol water-soluble inorganic ions in three types air-pollution incidents of Nanjing City].  

PubMed

In order to compare aerosol water-soluble inorganic species in different air-pollution periods, samples of PM10, PM2.1, PM1.1 and the main water-soluble ions (NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, K+, NO2(-), F(-), NO3(-), Cl(-), SO4(2-)) were measured, which were from 3 air-pollution incidents (continued pollution in October 16-30 of 2009, sandstorm pollution in April 27-30 of 2010, and crop burning pollution in June 14 of 2010. The results show that aerosol pollution of 3 periods is serious. The lowest PM2.1/PM10 is only 0.27, which is from sandstorm pollution period, while the largest is 0. 7 from crop burning pollution period. In continued pollution periods, NO3(-) and SO4(2-) are the dominant ions, and the total anions account for an average of 18.62%, 32.92% and 33.53% of PM10, PM2.1 and PM1.1. Total water-soluble ions only account for 13.36%, 23.72% and 28.54% of PM10, PM2.1 and PM1.1 due to the insoluble species is increased in sandstorm pollution period. The mass concentration of Ca2+ in sandstorm pollution period is higher than the other two pollution periods, and which is mainly in coarse particles with diameter larger than 1 microm. All the ten water-soluble ions are much higher in crop burning pollution especially K+ which is the tracer from crop burning. The peak mass concentrations of NO3(-), SO4(2-) and NH4+ are in 0.43-0.65 microm. PMID:22946180

Zhang, Qiu-Chen; Zhu, Bin; Su, Ji-Feng; Wang, Hong-Lei

2012-06-01

488

Political crisis and the politics of water pollution control in the 1970s  

SciTech Connect

This research investigates the sociopolitical context and formation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1977 in light of the theory of the relative autonomy of the state. Data on state legitimacy and political crisis are derived from previous studies on public trust in government and business and the National Opinion Research Center's General Social Surveys series. Data on class influence and class political power are derived from the testimony of witnesses at the US Senate hearings. Major findings note that the Act of 1972 was proposed and passed during a period of severe crisis in the public's trust in government and business. The federal government responded to that crisis, in part, through the enactment of a water pollution control policy that featured public participation and strict national water quality standards. The formation of the 1972 act is found to be independent of direct class influences. The Amendments of 1977 extended industrial compliance deadlines for meeting the national water quality standards and weakened the implementation of provisions that encouraged public participation.

Tsoukalas, T.H.

1991-01-01

489

Spectral changes in conifers subjected to air pollution and water stress: Experimental studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The roles of leaf anatomy, moisture and pigment content, and number of leaf layers on spectral reflectance in healthy, pollution-stressed, and water-stressed conifer needles were examined experimentally. Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) and giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron gigantea) were exposed to ozone and acid mist treatments in fumigation chambers; red pine (Pinus resinosa) needles were artificially dried. Infrared reflectance from stacked needles rose with free water loss. In an air-drying experiment, cell volume reductions induced by loss of turgor caused near-infrared reflectance (TM band 4) to drop after most free water was lost. Under acid mist fumigation, stunting of tissue development similarly reduced band 4 reflectance. Both artificial drying and pollutant fumigation caused a blue shift of the red edge of spectral reflectance curves in conifers, attributable to chlorophyll denaturation. Thematic mapper band ratio 4/3 fell and 5/4 rose with increasing pollution stress on artificial drying. Loss of water by air-drying, freeze-drying, or oven-drying enhanced spectral features, due in part to greater scattering and reduced water absorption. Grinding of the leaf tissue further enhanced the spectral features by increasing reflecting surfaces and path length. In a leaf-stacking experiment, an asymptote in visible and infrared reflectance was reached at 7-8 needle layers of red pine.

Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

1988-01-01

490

Pollution of the Navigable Waters of Boston Harbor and its Tributaries. Proceedings of Conference, Session (2nd) Held at Boston, Mass. on 30 Apr 69.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the committee was to make an evaluation of pollution of the navigable waters of Boston Harbor and its tributaries held on May 20, 1968. The evaluation includes data in report on: Pollution abatement; water classifications; controlled dumpin...

1969-01-01

491

Are interactive effects of harmful algal blooms and copper pollution a concern for water quality management?  

PubMed

Toxicity of mixtures of stressors is one of the major challenges in water quality management. Yet until now risk assessment focuses almost exclusively on the effect characterization of individual stressors. An important concern is the potential interactive effects of cyanobacteria, sometimes referred to as harmful algal blooms, with chemical stressors. Here, we evaluated the response of two clones of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna to the combined effects of five cyanobacteria and copper. The latter remains the most commonly applied chemical algaecide and is also often detected in eutrophic run-offs that promote harmful algal blooms. Because the different cyanobacteria studied here have known modes of action that are similar, as well as dissimilar compared to the known modes of actions of copper, we based our assessment on two widely used reference models, i.e. the Concentration Addition (CA) model for similarly acting stressors and the Independent Action (IA) model for dissimilarly acting stressors. We highlight four major findings. First, the conclusions drawn on the interaction type (non-interaction vs. synergism or antagonism) between either of the five cyanobacteria species and copper were the same for both D. magna clones. Second, the interaction type differed between the Microcystis + copper mixture (non-interaction according to CA and synergism according to IA) and the four other cyanobacteria + copper mixtures (antagonism according to CA and non-interaction according to IA). Third, both reference models provided reasonable predictions for all observed mixture toxicities. Fourth, we consistently obtained different results with the IA reference model compared to the CA model. More specifically, mixtures of Cu and Microcystis were synergistic with IA whereas non-interaction was observed with CA, while the remaining four cyanobacteria + copper combinations all displayed non-interaction with IA and antagonism with CA. Despite the IA reference model providing a marginally better fit to the data in general, the CA reference model delivered more conservative predictions for mixture toxicity of cyanobacteria + copper in all cases compared to the IA reference model. Thus, the CA model could serve as a conservative model to account for mixture toxicity of cyanobacteria and copper in water quality management, as it gives rise to conservative predictions of mixed stressor toxicity at sub-lethal effect levels in D. magna. Finally, and in accordance with other studies of cyanobacteria + chemical mixtures, we did not detect any strong synergistic effects of copper and cyanobacteria mixtures on D. magna. Consequently, based on our study with the model freshwater zooplankton species Daphnia, interactive effects of harmful algal blooms and copper pollution appear to be of limited concern for water quality management. PMID:24821194

Hochmuth, Jennifer D; Asselman, Jana; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

2014-09-01

492

Regulation of toxic pollutants under the Clean Water Act: EPA's ten-year rulemaking nears completion  

SciTech Connect

Whether it's footdragging, or compliance is impossible, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) usually fails to meet its deadlines for issuing regulations. The best-known case is probably EPA's 10-year struggle to establish regulatory controls on toxic pollutants under the Clean Water Act. The developmental process is reviewed from the initial statutory framework (enacted in 1948) and the effluent limitations amendments (legislated in 1972), through its litigation history, to an analysis of the federal district court's three substantive opinions delivered during 1982. The author considers the possibility of legislative intervention because deadlines for compliance have been issued but the regulations have not. He concludes that without Toxics Consent Decree litigation, the toxic pollutant control program might have become a reality. EPA's toxic pollutant control regulations as of April 1, 1983, are tabulated. 129 references, 4 tables.

Wyche, B.W.

1983-01-01

493

A multispectral look at oil pollution detection monitoring and law enforcement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problems of detecting oil films on water, mapping the areal extent of slicks, measuring the slick thickness, and identifying oil types are discussed. The signature properties of oil in the ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave, and radar regions are analyzed.

Catoe, C. E.; Mclean, J. T.

1979-01-01

494

On-site laser probe for the detection of petroleum products in water and soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and fiber optics are shown to be promising tools for the detection of environmental pollutants in water and soil. Time-integrated data accumulation of fluorescence intensities in an `early` and in a `late` time window with respect to the excitation pulse simplifies the method in such a way that it becomes very attractive for practical applications. Results

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