Sample records for water pollution detection

  1. Water Pollution

    MedlinePLUS

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  2. Method of and device for detecting oil pollutions on water surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Belov, Michael Leonidovich (Moscow, RU); Gorodnichev, Victor Aleksandrovich (Moscow, RU); Kozintsev, Valentin Ivanovich (Moscow, RU); Smimova, Olga Alekseevna (Moscow, RU); Fedotov, Yurii Victorovich (Moscow, RU); Khroustaleva, Anastasiva Michailovnan (Moscow, RU)

    2008-08-26

    Detection of oil pollution on water surfaces includes providing echo signals obtained from optical radiation of a clean water area at two wavelengths, optically radiating an investigated water area at two wavelengths and obtaining echo signals from the optical radiation of the investigated water area at the two wavelengths, comparing the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the investigated area at two wavelengths with the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the clean water area, and based on the comparison, determining presence or absence of oil pollution in the investigated water area.

  3. Simultaneous detection of multiple bioactive pollutants using a multiparametric biochip for water quality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Guijarro, Christian; Fuchs, Karen; Bohrn, Ulrich; Stütz, Evamaria; Wölfl, Stefan

    2015-10-15

    Water is a renewable resource but yet finite. Its sustainable usage and the maintenance of a good quality are essential for an intact environment, human life and a stable economy. Emerging technologies aim for a continuous monitoring of water quality, overcoming periodic analytical sampling, and providing information on the current state of inshore waters in real time. So does the here presented cell-based sensor system which uses RLC-18 cells (rat liver cells) as the detection layer for the detection of water pollutants. The electrical read-out of the system, cellular metabolism, oxygen consumption and morphological integrity detects small changes in the water quality and indicates a possible physiological damage caused. A generalized functional linear model was implemented in order to regress the chemicals present in the sample on the electrical read-out. The chosen environmental pollutants to test the system were chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide, and tetrabromobisphenol A, a flame retardant. Each chemical gives a very characteristic response, but the toxicity is mitigated if both chemicals are present at once. This will focus our attention on the statistical approach which is able to discriminate between these pollutants. PMID:25957833

  4. Water Pollution Control Legislation

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    ) administer many of the Clean Water Act's provisions. This law addresses water pollution and water quality, including pollution from irrigated agriculture. FEDERAL LAWS Clean Water Act -- 1972 and 1987 The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 and 1987, known as the Clean Water Act, are the principal

  5. Detection of adenoviruses and enteroviruses in polluted waters by nested PCR amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Puig, M; Jofre, J; Lucena, F; Allard, A; Wadell, G; Girones, R

    1994-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for the rapid detection of enteroviruses and adenoviruses in environmental samples. Several systems for virus concentration and extraction of nucleic acid were tested by adding adenovirus type 2 and poliovirus type 1 to different sewage samples. The most promising method for virus recovery involved the concentration of viruses by centrifugation and elution of the virus pellets by treatment with 0.25 N glycine buffer, pH 9.5. Nucleic acid extraction by adsorption of RNA and DNA to silica particles was the most efficient. One aliquot of the extracted nucleic acids was used for a nested two-step PCR, with specific primers for all adenoviruses; and another aliquot was used to synthesize cDNA for a nested two-step PCR with specific primers for further detection of seeded polioviruses or all enteroviruses in the river water and sewage samples. The specificity and sensitivity were evaluated, and 24 different enterovirus strains and the 47 human adenovirus serotypes were recognized by the primers used. The sensitivity was estimated to be between 1 and 10 virus particles for each of the species tested. Twenty-five samples of sewage and polluted river water were analyzed and showed a much higher number of positive isolates by nested PCR than by tissue culture analysis. The PCR-based detection of enteroviruses and adenoviruses shows good results as an indicator of possible viral contamination in environmental wastewater. Images PMID:8085832

  6. Fecal Pollution of Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

  7. Fecal Pollution of Water.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

  8. Recommendations on methods for the detection and control of biological pollution in marine coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Olenin, Sergej; Elliott, Michael; Bysveen, Ingrid; Culverhouse, Phil F; Daunys, Darius; Dubelaar, George B J; Gollasch, Stephan; Goulletquer, Philippe; Jelmert, Anders; Kantor, Yuri; Mézeth, Kjersti Bringsvor; Minchin, Dan; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Olenina, Irina; Vandekerkhove, Jochen

    2011-12-01

    Adverse effects of invasive alien species (IAS), or biological pollution, is an increasing problem in marine coastal waters, which remains high on the environmental management agenda. All maritime countries need to assess the size of this problem and consider effective mechanisms to prevent introductions, and if necessary and where possible to monitor, contain, control or eradicate the introduced impacting organisms. Despite this, and in contrast to more enclosed water bodies, the openness of marine systems indicates that once species are in an area then eradication is usually impossible. Most institutions in countries are aware of the problem and have sufficient governance in place for management. However, there is still a general lack of commitment and concerted action plans are needed to address this problem. This paper provides recommendations resulting from an international workshop based upon a large amount of experience relating to the assessment and control of biopollution. PMID:21889171

  9. Water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald F. Kostecki

    1970-01-01

    I am writing in reference to an article by Leonard B. Dworsky in the August issue of EOS dealing with what the author feels are the necessary steps toward an effective and credible program of water pollution control.That public expectations need to be adjusted to real world solutions can hardly be denied. The general public is all too often led

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL DNA MARKERS FOR THE DETECTION OF HUMAN FECAL POLLUTION IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used genome fragment enrichment and bioinformatics to identify several microbial DNA sequences with high potential for use as markers in PCR assays for detection of human fecal contamination in water. Following competitive solution-phase hybridization of total DNA from human a...

  11. Likely detection of water-rich asteroid debris in a metal-polluted white dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddi, R.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Koester, D.; Farihi, J.; Hermes, J. J.; Scaringi, S.; Breedt, E.; Girven, J.

    2015-06-01

    The cool white dwarf SDSS J124231.07+522626.6 exhibits photospheric absorption lines of eight distinct heavy elements in medium resolution optical spectra, notably including oxygen. The Teff = 13 000 K atmosphere is helium-dominated, but the convection zone contains significant amounts of hydrogen and oxygen. The four most common rock-forming elements (O, Mg, Si, and Fe) account for almost all the accreted mass, totalling at least 1.2 × 1024 g, similar to the mass of Ceres. The time-averaged accretion rate is 2 × 1010 g s-1, one of the highest rates inferred among all known metal-polluted white dwarfs. We note a large oxygen excess, with respect to the most common metal oxides, suggesting that the white dwarf accreted planetary debris with a water content of ?38 per cent by mass. This star, together with GD 61, GD 16, and GD 362, form a small group of outliers from the known population of evolved planetary systems accreting predominantly dry, rocky debris. This result strengthens the hypothesis that, integrated over the cooling ages of white dwarfs, accretion of water-rich debris from disrupted planetesimals may significantly contribute to the build-up of trace hydrogen observed in a large fraction of helium-dominated white dwarf atmospheres.

  12. Ground water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Canter

    1985-01-01

    Treatment, methodologies. In-situ technologies. Aquifer restoration. Applications and case studies. Decision-making. Risk assessment. References include 225 with complete abstracts. This work covers technologies for ground water pollution control in part one and deals in depth with aquifer restoration decision-making in part two, while part three gives range of case studies and detailed abstracts of 225 references. CONTENTS: 1-Introduction. Technologies for

  13. Storm water pollution prevention plans

    SciTech Connect

    Rossmiller, R.L. (HDR Engineering, Inc., Bellevue, WA (United States))

    1993-03-01

    National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) general permit applications for industrial storm water discharge were to have been filed by October 1992. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies are now issuing permits based on these applications. One compliance aspect of the permits is the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3). The plan must identify the facility's potential sources of storm water pollution and develop and implement best management practices (BMPs) to reduce pollutants in storm water runoff. The objectives of the NPDES storm water program are to eliminate illegal dumping and illicit connections, and to reduce pollutants in industrial storm water discharge. These regulations require industry to develop detailed facility site maps, and describe the types, amounts and locations of potential pollutants. Based on this information, industry can develop and implement best management practices to reduce pollutants in storm water runoff.

  14. Heavy metal pollution in farmland irrigated with river water near a steel plant - detection by magnetic and geochemical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C. X.

    2012-04-01

    The presence of heavy metals in the environment has become an increasing problem during the last several decades. It is a key scientific issue to disclose the source, degree and extent of pollution in farmland near to heavy industries. In this study the efficiency of magnetic methods for such a purpose is tested at a Chinese city (Loudi, Hunan Province) with fast developing steel industry. Lianshui River flows through the city and passes a large steel plant at the entrance of the urban area. Previous results revealed higher heavy metal contents in the vicinity of the Fe-smelting plant and in the city region[1]. Nearby farmland usually is irrigated with water from this river. We collected vertical soil profiles to about 60 cm depth within farmland nearby Lianshui River with sampling sites distributed from the upstream (before entering the city) to the downstream region (after leaving the city area). These samples were comprehensively investigated by integrating both magnetic and chemical analyses. Heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd etc) pollution in farmland soils in the downstream region is clearly higher than in the upstream region. Magnetic susceptibility and SIRM is correlating with heavy metals contents. The SIRM background in the upstream section of unpolluted farmland soils and river sediments is low (< 7-10-3Am2kg-1), whereas the polluted soils at the surrounding of the steel plant reveal higher SIRM intensities (30 to 40-10-3Am2kg-1) within the topmost 20 cm. SIRM in river sediments also correlates with heavy metals contents; it is strongly enhanced (80 to 200-10-3Am2kg-1) at the same sites, from surface to 40 cm deep depth. Magnetic enhancement is found to be related to the presence of spherical magnetite particles with a diameter of 10~30 ?m. These findings demonstrate that magnetic methods have a convenient practical application for detecting and mapping heavy metal pollution in farmland soils irrigated by river water from nearby industrial areas. Reference 1. Zhang, C. X., Q. Qiao, J.D.A. Piper and B. Huang, Assessment of heavy metal pollution from a Fe-smelting plant in urban river sediments using environmental magnetic and geochemical methods. Environmental Pollution, 2011, 159:3057-3070.

  15. Detection and mapping of water pollution variation in the Nile Delta using multivariate clustering and GIS techniques.

    PubMed

    Shaban, M; Urban, B; El Saadi, A; Faisal, M

    2010-08-01

    The limited water resources of Egypt lead to widespread water-stress. Consequently, the use of marginal water sources, such as agricultural drainage waters, provides one of the national feasible solutions to the problem. However, the marginal quality of the drainage waters may restrict their use. The objective of this research is to develop a tool for planning and managing the reuse of agricultural drainage water for irrigation in the Nile Delta. This is achieved by classifying the pollution levels of drainage water into several categories using a statistical clustering approach that may ensure simple but accurate information about the pollution levels and water characteristics at any point within the drainage system. The derived clusters are then visualized by using a Geographical Information System (GIS) to draw thematic maps based on the entire Nile Delta, thus making GIS as a decision support system. The obtained maps may assist the decision makers in managing and controlling pollution in the Nile Delta regions. The clustering process also provides an effective overview of those spots in the Nile Delta where intensified monitoring activities are required. Consequently, the obtained results make a major contribution to the assessment and redesign of the Egyptian national water quality monitoring network. PMID:20413208

  16. Chemical analysis of trace elements for water pollution detection. August 1972-May 1990 (A Bibliography from the NTIS data base). Report for August 1972-May 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the identification and analysis of trace elements and compounds occurring in water and water-related samples. The citations present methods of analysis and the equipment required for the determinations. Analytical techniques include spectrometry, inductively-coupled plasma, neutron activation, x-ray diffraction, fluorescence, and chromatography. A separate Published Search covers analysis of trace elements in air pollution detection. (Contains 134 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  17. Eutrophication. [Water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Medine, A.J. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder); Porcella, D.B.

    1982-06-01

    A literature review dealing with the process of eutrophication with respect to the sources and transport of pollutants is presented. Topics include the mathematical modeling of nutrient loading, eutrophication, and aquatic ecosystems. Biological and environmental indicators of eutrophication are reviewed, and the interactions between various chemical and biological pollutants are considered. Several lake management projects are discussed. (KRM)

  18. Pollutants in airport runoff waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Maria Sulej; ?aneta Polkowska; Jacek Namie?nik

    2011-01-01

    Runoff waters from airport areas constitute a serious environmental problem. It is essential to monitor levels of pollutants emitted into the environment and measure their toxicity on a continuous basis.The aim of this paper is to critically review data on pollution from aviation fuel combustion, aviation fuel spillage, the washing and cleaning of aircraft and airport service equipment, the use

  19. Texas Water Pollution Control Officers 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    are coming down. In addition, public opinion in Texas is broadly supportive of measures aimed at improving and protecting the environment, and Texans may be receptive to proposals to reduce and control water pollution via market mechanisms. A key... vehicle for protecting and restoring water quality under the CWA has been the discharge permit. There are four permit types issued in Texas: National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit. Issued to point source dischargers of wastewater...

  20. Good operating practices cut water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    West, D.E.

    1982-07-12

    This paper explains how the pipeline industry can avoid violating the Clean Water Act (PL 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act), which states that pollution of US waters from any cause other than an act of God, war or Government negligence is the responsibility of the owner or operator of the facility. Reporting pollution to the National Response Center will limit the maximum penalty to $5,000 Rectifiers must be kept in top operating condition, and visual inspections of the right-of-way by aerial or ground patrols must detect construction of new pipelines or other facilities. Accidental damage by third parties is the major cause of failures in pipeline systems, which can be prevented by periodic contact with landowners. Conclusion is that if a pipeline operator follows good operating and maintenance practices, his exposure to effects of the Clean Water Act will be minimal.

  1. Water Pollution Control courses offered

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anonymous

    1974-01-01

    Manhattan College will conduct the Nineteenth Summer Institute in Water Pollution Control, May 2024, 1974. Two one-week courses will be offered concurrently for advanced study in biological waste treatment and mathematical modeling of natural water systems. Enrollment, on a preregistration basis, will be limited.This continuing engineering education program is designed to enhance the competence of practicing engineers and scientists in

  2. Ground water. [Water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Costle

    1980-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the Nation's ground water is contaminated by a variety of sources. These include unprotected industrial, municipal, and radioactive disposal sites, petroleum exploration and mining activities, agricultural operations such as insecticide spraying, high de-icing salts and others. As of March 1980, more than 8000 chemical tests have been performed on well water, with chlorinated organic solvents

  3. Evaluation of L-Cystine-amended H 2 S test for the detection of faecal pollution in potable water: comparison with standard multiple tube fermentation method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hema Pant; Sami Sarfaraz; Leela Iyengar

    2002-01-01

    L-Cystine-amended H2S strip test was compared with conventional multiple tube fermentation tests for detecting faecal pollution in 200 drinking\\u000a water samples drawn from different water sources. Of these, 134 samples were positive for total coliforms (TC), whereas the\\u000a cystine-amended H2S test was positive with 116 samples. Faecal coliforms were present in 99 samples. Seventy-seven samples were also tested\\u000a with presence–absence

  4. Testing Water for Bacterial Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillner, Harry

    This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of water pollution control. It is a learning activity directed toward high school students of biology and/or ecology. A general knowledge of microbiology techniques is regarded as a prerequisite for the lesson. Behavioral objectives are given. Emphasis is placed on use of techniques and materials…

  5. Groundwater and surface water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Y.S.; Hamidi, A. [eds.

    2000-07-01

    This book contains almost all the technical know-how that is required to clean up the water supply. It provides a survey of up-to-date technologies for remediation, as well as a step-by-step guide to pollution assessment for both ground and surface waters. In addition to focusing on causes, effects, and remedies, the book stresses reuse, recycling, and recovery of resources. The authors suggest that through total recycling wastes can become resources.

  6. Solid-liquid extraction laser excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectrometry: a facile method for the direct detection of 15 priority pollutants in water samples.

    PubMed

    Bystol, A J; Whitcomb, J L; Campiglia, A D

    2001-06-15

    A unique method for monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is reported for routine analysis of water samples. The assay consists of a three-step procedure. One hundred milliliters of water is processed through an octadecyl extraction membrane via solid-liquid extraction. The pollutants are eluted with 5 mL of n-hexane and directly determined in the eluting solvent by laser excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectrometry. Seventy-seven K fluorescence measurements are made with the aid of an optical fiber probe that avoids the complications of classical low-temperature methodology. The total analysis time from the extraction to PAH identification is approximately 5 min per sample. Limits of detection are at the subparts per billion levels. The simplicity of the experimental procedure, the short analysis time, the selectivity, and the excellent analytical figures of merit demonstrate the advantages of this approach for routine analysis of water samples. PMID:11432565

  7. Pollution of ground water in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, S.; Key, A.

    1956-01-01

    This paper discusses pollution of ground water in 20 countries of the European region, giving for each an account of the geology and hydrogeology, water supplies, the extent and nature of ground water pollution, and the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling that pollution. For the countries not considered in the preceding article on surface water pollution, an account is also given of the superficial physical features, rainfall, population, and industries. A general discussion follows of such questions as the ways in which ground water pollution may occur, the factors mitigating or aggravating pollution, and ways of protection against pollution. The authors consider that the problem of ground water pollution in Europe may well be more serious than it would appear to be on the evidence so far obtained. PMID:13374533

  8. Energy analysis of regional water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Heggen; K. J. Williamson

    1979-01-01

    Methods of water pollution control that were used to restore water quality of Oregon's Willamette River basin are reviewed. A water pollution control strategy that takes environmental, economic, and energy use impacts into consideration is proposed based on experiences in the Willamette basin. In the control strategy, site-specific data are used to devise a water quality index for the basin.

  9. Marine oil pollution detection with MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lina; Niu, Ruiqing; Xiao, Kang; Fang, Shenghui; Dong, Yanfang

    2013-10-01

    Marine oil pollution is one of the most serious pollutants on the damage to the contemporary marine environment, with the characteristics of a wide range of proliferation, which is difficult to control and eliminate. As a result, marine oil pollution has caused huge economic losses. The remote sensing sensors can detect and record the spectral information of sea film and background seawater. Here we chose to use 250-resolution MODIS data in the area of Dalian Xingang, China where ill spill case was happened on April.4th, 2005. Based on the image pre-processing and enhanced image processing, the spectral features of different bands were analyzed. More obvious characteristics of the spectral range of film was obtained. The oil-water contrast was calculated to evaluate the feature of oil at different spectral band. The result indicates that IR band has the maximum value of reflective. So band ratio was used between 400nm and 800nm and the original radiance images were used between 800nm and 2130nm. In order to get the most obvious images of entropy windows of different sizes were tested in order to decide the optimum window. At last, a FCM fuzzy clustering method and image texture analysis was combined for the MODIS images of the oil spill area segmentation. At last, the oil spill zone was estimated, the results were satisfied.

  10. Agricultural water pollution control: An interdisciplinary approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Watkins W. Miller; Chauncey T. K. Ching; John F. Yanagida; Paul Jakus

    1985-01-01

    Regulation and control of agricultural water pollution is unique and difficult to accomplish. Water quality standards are often proposed without adequate consideration of the overall economic impact on agricultural production. This article illustrates how economists and physical scientists can cooperate to develop appropriate control strategies for agricultural water pollution. Data provided by physical scientists and economists are used in a

  11. Managing Bacteria Pollution in Texas Waters 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 2 BACTERIA MANAGING tx H2O | pg. 3 IN TEXAS WATERS POLLUTION Managing Bacteria Pollution in Texas Waters tx H2O | pg. 4 W ith 310 water bodies in Texas failing to meetwater quality standards because... of bacteria,managing bacteria pollution is commanding the attention of water agencies, researchers and stake- holders across Texas. These water bodies are listed in the 2006 Texas Water Quality Inventory and 303(d) List for failing to meet the standards...

  12. Water Conservation and Nonpoint Source Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell-Poe, Kitt

    This book contains science activities that are designed to make learning and demonstrating nonpoint source pollution concepts exciting and fun. These activities can either be used alone or with an existing water resources education curricula. Activities include: Water Tasting, Acting Out the Hydrologic Cycle, Concentration of Chemical Pollutants

  13. Rural industries and water pollution in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Wang; Michael Webber; Brian Finlayson; Jon Barnett

    2008-01-01

    Water pollution from small rural industries is a serious problem throughout China. Over half of all river sections monitored for water quality are rated as being unsafe for human contact, and this pollution is estimated to cost several per cent of GDP. While China has some of the toughest environmental protection laws in the world, the implementation of these laws

  14. Global trends in water pollution control legislation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Ozolins; S. S. Fluss; R. Helmer

    1977-01-01

    The scope of legislation on water pollution control is initially examined. Then, the administrative machinery responsible for implementing water pollution control programs is examined, after which the approaches taken by selected countries (Norway, India, USA, Netherlands, Mexico, and New South Wales) to deal with the problem is reviewed. There follows an analysis of the policies adopted by various countries to

  15. Symposium on costs of water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anonymous

    1972-01-01

    A National Symposium on Costs of Water Pollution Control will be held in Raleigh, North Carolina, April 67, 1972. The symposium is sponsored by the Research Triangle Universities (Duke University, North Carolina State University, and the University of North Carolina and several national societies. The program will include sessions on economic implications of national goals for water pollution control cost

  16. Water pollution abatement through forest irrigation with municipal waste water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E. Sopper

    Serious pollution problems are often created by the disposal of municipal waste water into surface waters. An obvious alternative-method is diversion of these waste waters to the land. Such non-aqueous methods of disposal might eliminate or alleviate many water pollution problems and, in some cases, could even provide secondary benefits such as recharge of groundwater reservoirs, and increased production of

  17. Review of water pollution control in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tingyao Gao; Hongbin Chen; Siqing Xia; Zengyan Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Water resource shortage and pollution has seriously threatened the survival and development of developing countries. Because\\u000a of China’s specific economical and social circumstances, complete adoption of developed countries’ experience is unrealistic.\\u000a At present, China needs to develop strategies and technologies in source water pollution control and municipal environmental\\u000a remediation that embrace the country’s specific need to battle the water resource

  18. Factors controlling bioindicators for industrial pollution detection.

    PubMed

    Ali, G H; Abd el-Salam, N F

    1999-09-01

    This study describes the use of algae as potential bioindicators of pollution containing industrial metals. Phytoplanktonic algae varied with waste type and with environmental and growth conditions. In water samples containing ceramic waste Euglenophyta species and Cyclotella sp. (Bacillariophyta) were determined as potential indicator species of pollution, while in sample containing metallic waste, Cyclotella sp. was most dominant. Under laboratory growth conditions, phytoplankton collected from a major stream of the Nile River were cultivated by using Algal Growth Bottle Test (EPA, 1972). This revealed that Scenedesmus sp., Actinastrum hantzschii (Chlorophyta), Oscillatoria limnetica (Cyanophyta) and Nitzschia linearis (Bacillariophyta) were also potential indicators of pollution. PMID:10674183

  19. Long-term decreases in persistent organic pollutants in South African coastal waters detected from beached polyethylene pellets.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Peter G; Bouwman, Hindrik; Moloney, Coleen L; Yuyama, Masaki; Takada, Hideshige

    2012-12-01

    Polyethylene pellets provide a convenient means to monitor Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in marine systems. Pellets collected between 1984 and 2008 at three South African beaches were analysed for PCB, HCH and DDT. Concentrations of all three POPs decreased over the last two decades, although this signal was less clear for PCBs, and further monitoring is needed to assess trends in this family of compounds. DDT concentrations at two sites were higher than previous records for southern Africa, but there is no evidence of a link to the ongoing use of DDT for malaria control. HCHs concentrations were lower than in pellets from the east coast of southern Africa, suggesting that this pesticide was mainly used in the eastern part of the region. Our study demonstrates the potential for International Pellet Watch to track temporal as well as geographical patterns in the abundance of POPs in marine environments. PMID:23067541

  20. Pollution of surface water in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Key, A.

    1956-01-01

    This paper discusses pollution of surface water in 18 European countries. For each an account is given of its physical character, population, industries, and present condition of water supplies; the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling pollution are then described, and an outline is given of current research on the difficulties peculiar to each country. A general discussion of various aspects common to the European problem of water pollution follows; standards of quality are suggested; some difficulties likely to arise in the near future are indicated, and international collaboration, primarily by the exchange of information, is recommended to check or forestall these trends. PMID:13374532

  1. Engineering aspects of water pollution control systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Dalbke; A. J. Turk

    1967-01-01

    The importance of proper engineering when providing pollution control systems is emphasized. Organization of engineering projects is described in detail. Included are discussions of: (1) collection and evaluation of available data; (2) establishment of survey and test program; (3) integration and evaluation of findings; (4) establishment of pollution control and water utilization systems; and (5) specification and detailed design preparation.

  2. Combined use of passive sampling and in vitro bioassays for the detection of emerging pollutants in surface water

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    such as pharmaceuticals compounds, personal care products (PCPs), steroid hormones and their metabolites. A number of information on other nuclear receptor-related activities in the environment. Nonetheless, xenobiotic and pharmaceuticals. Hence, monitoring EDCs by using a panel of complementary bioassays should increase the detection

  3. Detection and Characterization of Waterborne Gastroenteritis Viruses in Urban Sewage and Sewage-Polluted River Waters in Caracas, Venezuela

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Rodriguez-Diaz; L. Querales; L. Caraballo; E. Vizzi; F. Liprandi; H. Takiff; W. Q. Betancourt

    2009-01-01

    The detection and molecular characterization of pathogenic human viruses in urban sewage have been used extensively to derive information on circulating viruses in given populations throughout the world. In this study, a similar approach was applied to provide an overview of the epidemiology of waterborne gastroenteritis viruses circulating in urban areas of Caracas, the capital city of Venezuela in South

  4. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on experiments with model systems of known organic water pollutants and environmental samples, conclusions are reached concerning the best general solvent for extraction and the most appropriate methods for related manipulations. Chloroform, methylene chloride-ether mixture...

  5. Human and bovine adenoviruses for the detection of source-specific fecal pollution in coastal waters in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Ahmed; A. Goonetilleke; T. Gardner

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the host-specificity and -sensitivity of human- and bovine-specific adenoviruses (HS-AVs and BS-AVs) were evaluated by testing wastewater\\/fecal samples from various animal species in Southeast, Queensland, Australia. The overall specificity and sensitivity of the HS-AVs marker were 1.0 and 0.78, respectively. These figures for the BS-AVs were 1.0 and 0.73, respectively. Twenty environmental water samples were collected during

  6. Special Topics in Water Science (Water Pollution)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Q&A Teachers Contact Back to previous page Water Basics Earth's Water Where is Earth's water? How much water is ... wet is your state? Glaciers and icecaps Watersheds Water Properties Water properties Adhesion and cohesion Capillary action ...

  7. Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan For: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Computation;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) LBNL CRTF UC Project No.912314 LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL........................................................................................... 9 2.5 Potential Construction Site Pollutant Sources

  8. Laser spectroscopic detection of air pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, E. D.

    1978-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the operating principles and applications of laser systems for monitoring pollution based on absorption spectroscopy. Particular consideration is given to an active bistatic system involving a cooperative reflector; an active monostatic system involving natural reflectors; an active monostatic system involving aerosol backscattering; and passive monostatic heterodyne detection.

  9. Chemiluminescent detection of organic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, N.A.; Gaffney, J.S.; Chen, Yu-Harn

    1996-04-01

    Chemiluminescent reactions can be used for specific and highly sensitive detection of a number of air pollutants. Among these are chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with NO or organics and reactions of luminol with a variety of oxidants. Reported here are studies exploring (1) the use of the temperature dependence of the chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with organic pollutants as a means of differentiating types of hydrocarbon classes and (2) the use of luminol techniques to monitor atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and organic oxidants, specifically peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs). Coupling gas chromatography to the chemiluminescent detectors allows the measurement of individual species at very low concentrations.

  10. Water hyacinths for removal of phenols from polluted waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Removal of phenol by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in static water was investigated. 2.75 g dry weight of this aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to absorb 100 mg of phenol per plant per 72 hours from distilled water, river water, and bayou water. One hectare of water hyacinth plants is shown to be potentially capable of removing 160 kg of phenol per 72 hours from waters polluted with this chemical.

  11. Urbanization, Water Pollution, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, George W.; And Others

    Reviewed in this report is a study concerned with water pollution as it relates to urbanization within the Regional Plan Association's set of 21 contiguous New York, New Jersey and Connecticut counties centered upon the numerous bay and estuarial reaches of the Port of New York and New Jersey. With a time frame covering a decade of water quality…

  12. Magnitude of pollution indicator organisms in rural potable water.

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, S S; Warren, W J; Nelson, P

    1979-01-01

    A total of 460 water samples were randomly drawn from the potable water supply sources of rural communities in three counties of South Carolina. About 10% of the population, not incorporated in municipalities, was sampled. The samples were tested for total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci. Significant levels of these pollution indicator organisms were detected in almost all the water supplies. Total coliforms were the most common, and only 7.5% of the water supplies were uncontaminated. E. coli, considered a reliable indicator of recent and dangerous pollution, was observed in 43% of the water supplies. Statistical analyses indicated that the bacterial populations, especially E. coli, were associated with the supply source depth and its distance from the septic tank. Total coliform counts were also weakly correlated to the pH of the water. PMID:36849

  13. Technological Innovation to Remove Water Pollutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas D. Parker; Margriet F. Caswell

    \\u000a Irrigation and precipitation runoff from agricultural fields contributes to topsoil loss and to the sedimentation of river\\u000a basins. The movement of suspended soil particles from fields to streams can also serve as a transport mechanism for agricultural\\u000a chemicals. These agricultural nonpoint sources of pollution (NSP) are receiving increased attention from water quality regulators.\\u000a Potential actions to curb such pollutants include

  14. Sensitivity Analysis for some Water Pollution Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Dimet, François-Xavier; Tran Thu, Ha; Hussaini, Yousuff

    2014-05-01

    Sensitivity Analysis for Some Water Pollution Problems Francois-Xavier Le Dimet1 & Tran Thu Ha2 & M. Yousuff Hussaini3 1Université de Grenoble, France, 2Vietnamese Academy of Sciences, 3 Florida State University Sensitivity analysis employs some response function and the variable with respect to which its sensitivity is evaluated. If the state of the system is retrieved through a variational data assimilation process, then the observation appears only in the Optimality System (OS). In many cases, observations have errors and it is important to estimate their impact. Therefore, sensitivity analysis has to be carried out on the OS, and in that sense sensitivity analysis is a second order property. The OS can be considered as a generalized model because it contains all the available information. This presentation proposes a method to carry out sensitivity analysis in general. The method is demonstrated with an application to water pollution problem. The model involves shallow waters equations and an equation for the pollutant concentration. These equations are discretized using a finite volume method. The response function depends on the pollutant source, and its sensitivity with respect to the source term of the pollutant is studied. Specifically, we consider: • Identification of unknown parameters, and • Identification of sources of pollution and sensitivity with respect to the sources. We also use a Singular Evolutive Interpolated Kalman Filter to study this problem. The presentation includes a comparison of the results from these two methods. .

  15. The spectral absorption coefficient at 254nm as a real-time early warning proxy for detecting faecal pollution events at alpine karst water resources

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, H.; Klock, E.; Skritek, P.; Mach, R.L.; Zerobin, W.; Farnleitner, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Because spring water quality from alpine karst aquifers can change very rapidly during event situations, water abstraction management has to be performed in near real-time. Four summer events (2005-2008) at alpine karst springs were investigated in detail in order to evaluate the spectral absorption coefficient at 254nm (SAC254) as a real-time early warning proxy for faecal pollution. For the investigation Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Satellite-based data communication between portable hydrometeorological measuring stations and an automated microbiological sampling device was used. The method for event triggered microbial sampling and analyzing was already established and described in a previous paper (Stadler et al., Wat. Sci. Technol. 58(4): 899-909, 2008). Data analysis including on-line event characterisation (i.e. precipitation, discharge, turbidity, SAC254) and comprehensive E. coli determination (n > 800) indicated that SAC254 is a useful early warning proxy. Irrespective of the studied event situations SAC254 always increased 3 to 6 hours earlier than the onset of faecal pollution, featuring different correlation phases. Furthermore, it seems also possible to use SAC254 as a real-time proxy parameter for estimating the extent of faecal pollution after establishing specific spring and event-type calibrations that take into consideration the variability of the occurrence and the transferability of faecal material It should be highlighted that diffuse faecal pollution from wildlife and live stock sources was responsible for spring water contamination at the investigated catchments. In this respect, the SAC254 can also provide useful information to support microbial source tracking efforts where different situations of infiltration have to be investigated. PMID:20962406

  16. The spectral absorption coefficient at 254?nm as a real-time early warning proxy for detecting faecal pollution events at alpine karst water resources.

    PubMed

    Stadler, H; Klock, E; Skritek, P; Mach, R L; Zerobin, W; Farnleitner, A H

    2010-01-01

    Because spring water quality from alpine karst aquifers can change very rapidly during event situations, water abstraction management has to be performed in near real-time. Four summer events (2005-2008) at alpine karst springs were investigated in detail in order to evaluate the spectral absorption coefficient at 254?nm (SAC254) as a real-time early warning proxy for faecal pollution. For the investigation Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Satellite-based data communication between portable hydrometeorological measuring stations and an automated microbiological sampling device was used. The method for event triggered microbial sampling and analyzing was already established and described in a previous paper. Data analysis including on-line event characterisation (i.e. precipitation, discharge, turbidity, SAC254) and comprehensive E. coli determination (n>800) indicated that SAC254 is a useful early warning proxy. Irrespective of the studied event situations SAC254 always increased 3 to 6 hours earlier than the onset of faecal pollution, featuring different correlation phases. Furthermore, it seems also possible to use SAC254 as a real-time proxy parameter for estimating the extent of faecal pollution after establishing specific spring and event-type calibrations that take into consideration the variability of the occurrence and the transferability of faecal material It should be highlighted that diffuse faecal pollution from wildlife and live stock sources was responsible for spring water contamination at the investigated catchments. In this respect, the SAC254 can also provide useful information to support microbial source tracking efforts where different situations of infiltration have to be investigated. PMID:20962406

  17. A Study of Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkis, Vahak D.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a method (involving a Hach Colorimeter and simplified procedures) that can be used for the analysis of up to 56 different chemical constituents of water. Presents the results of student analysis of waters of Fulton and Montgomery counties in New York. (GS)

  18. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (water pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Pollution by municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mine wastes, radioactive contaminants; Chemistry and analysis of pollutants; Thermal pollution; Oil pollution; Control techniques and equipment; Sewage treatment; Industrial waste water pretreatment; Hydrology and limnology; Biological and ecological effects; Waste water reuse; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

  19. Effects of Water Pollution on Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an inquiry activity that, while based on a local area (the San Francisco Bay), could be adapted to the teacher's/student's local area. Students perform an experiment in which they observe how water pollution is absorbed into plants. The site contains a teacher's guide and printable student worksheet.

  20. Mathematical modeling for water pollution control processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Keinath; M. P. Wanielista

    1975-01-01

    Dynamic and steady-state mathematical models have been developed to the extent that they can be used to evaluate, through a series of simulations, design and operation alternatives as well as control strategies for any system. This book focuses on process performance models in water pollution control. Its purpose is: to establish the current status of existing models with emphasis on

  1. Water pollution and the public trust doctrine

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    The prior appropriation system has served well in the Western US for 125 years, providing a legal regime that permits and encourages enormous economic growth of agriculture, industry and municipalities. This system, however, both in its inception and current application, fails to address or protect public interests in fisheries, recreation, environmental quality, and clean water. As a result, serious nonpoint water pollution problems are occurring throughout the West. Such pollution can be regulated either by the courts or the legislatures under the public trust doctrine, which antedates the prior appropriation system, and which protects fisheries and water quality. No one - including irrigators, industries or cities with appropriative rights - has a vested, constitutionally protected property right to degrade the quality of public waters. Some states are adopting police power regulations to control nonpoint pollution. Others are approaching the problem through the prior appropriation system itself, taking the position that beneficial use means use that does not harm the public through pollution. The public trust doctrine is not a panacea that will instantly solve all the conflicts that now surround the prior appropriation system. It should be considered, however, as a basis for setting standards as best practicable technology or best management practice.

  2. Environmental impact analysis in water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy P. Lumbers

    1985-01-01

    The need for a wide?ranging environmental impact analysis to guide the establishment of water quality objectives and the associated effluent discharge standards is discussed. The particular problems associated with water pollution control are identified including: multiple and conflicting demands; multiple parameter objective specifications, the stochastic and time varying nature of the system; secondary and tertiary effects; and time?delay.Current environmental impact

  3. Good operating practices cut water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    West, D.E.

    1982-07-12

    This article advises the pipeline industry on how to comply with the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (PL 92-500), which states that pollution of US waters by any cause other than an ''Act of God,'' ''Act of War,'' or US Government negligence is the responsibility of the owner or operator of the facility. Points out that the actions of third parties do not relieve owners or operators of liability unless they are the sole cause of pollution. Emphasizes that liability can be reduced by prompt reporting of pollution to the National Response Center. Reveals that the major cause of failures in pipeline systems is accidental damage by third parties. Proposes tha the best defense against pipeline damage resulting from landowner activity is periodic contact of the landowner by the operator. Recommends aerial and ground patrols as sources of information on construction activities. Concludes that assessing a penalty against the party causing the pollution would be better than merely penalizing the pipeline operator.

  4. Agricultural water pollution control: An interdisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Watkins W.; Ching, Chauncey T. K.; Yanagida, John F.; Jakus, Paul

    1985-01-01

    Regulation and control of agricultural water pollution is unique and difficult to accomplish. Water quality standards are often proposed without adequate consideration of the overall economic impact on agricultural production. This article illustrates how economists and physical scientists can cooperate to develop appropriate control strategies for agricultural water pollution. Data provided by physical scientists and economists are used in a linear programming model to describe salt discharge as a function of water management, production levels, and an associated effluent charge. Four water management activities were chosen on the basis of different costs of production (including a parametrically varied effluent charge), water requirements, alfalfa yields, and levels of salt discharge. Results indicate that when the effluent charge is low (<0.20/metric ton salt discharged), maximum production with maximum salt discharge is most profitable. As the effluent charge is increased (0.20 0.40/metric ton salt discharged), it becomes progressively less profitable to produce alfalfa at maximum levels of pollutant discharge. When the effluent charge is >0.40/metric ton salt discharged, alfalfa production is no longer economically feasible. An important aspect of this approach is that it permits policy makers to identify explicitly the relationship between the environmental standard and the effect on agricultural production.

  5. Polluted water concentrates: Induction of genetic alterations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Moretton; P. Baró; A. Zelazny; M. D'Aquino

    1991-01-01

    In a previous paper the authors showed that samples of raw water obtained from the Riachuelo (a heavily polluted watercourse) induced genetic effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain. In those tests the raw water samples were assayed within 24 hr and only the mutagenic activity of the non-volatile, water soluble constituents could be detected. The detection and quantitation of genetic

  6. Water pollution control in Canada: cleanup through collaboration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feliciano

    1979-01-01

    A recent survey indicates that Canadians are willing to pay more taxes and higher prices to solve their country's air and water pollution problems. The political pollution control organization in Canada, the development of regulations for water pollution control, municipal facility construction and treatment levels, and the challenge for the Great Lakes are discussed. Environmental problems in Canada, particularly water

  7. Experimental infrared measurements for hydrocarbon pollutant determination in subterranean waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay-Ekuakille, A.; Palamara, I.; Caratelli, D.; Morabito, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Subterranean waters are often polluted by industrial and anthropic effluents that are drained in subsoil. To prevent and control pollution, legislations of different developed countries require an online monitoring measurement, especially for detecting organic solvents (chlorinated and unchlorinated ones). Online measurements include both real-time and no real-time measurements. In general, it is difficult to implement real-time measurements in stricto sensu for online acquisitions on aqueous effluents since they need to be processed by a modeling. This research presents an experimental measurement system based on infrared (IR) spectroscopy for aqueous effluents containing hydrocarbons and capable of displaying excellent values of pollutant concentrations even in instable conditions; the system is able to detect pollutants either in laminar or turbulent flow. The results show the possibility of avoiding the use of "Pitot tube" that is employed to create a stagnation point in order to convert kinetic energy into potential one. This conversion allows the transformation of a turbulent flow in a laminar flow making easy measurement of pollutants included in an aqueous effluent. Obviously, "Pitot tube" is also used for other fluid effluents. The obtained results have been compared with those produced by means of sophisticated IR instrumentation for laboratory applications.

  8. Evaluation of an hPXR reporter gene assay for the detection of aquatic emerging pollutants: screening of chemicals and application to water samples

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -60550 Verneuil-en- Hallate, France 2 INSERM U896, IRCM - UM1-CRLC Val d'Aurelle, Montpellier, France 3 in (waste) water samples. Of the 57 compounds tested, 37 were active in the bioassay and 10 were identified powerful methodology to detect and identify bioactive com

  9. The national recreational fishing benefits of water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clifford S. Russell; William J. Vaughan

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of an effort to estimate the fresh water recreational fishing benefit derived from water pollution control efforts. Methodology is potentially applicable to other subcategories. (PSB)

  10. DETECTING VIRUSES IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article, which reviews the subject of detecting viruses in water, encompasses two topics. he first topic consists of methods used for concentrating viruses from large volumes of water into smaller, more manageable volumes. he second topic consists of assay methods used for e...

  11. Detection of persistent organic pollutants in the Mississippi Delta using semipermeable membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, L.R.; Thurman, E.M.; Bastian, K.C.

    2000-01-01

    From semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) placed in five Mississippi Delta streams in 1996 and 1997, the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) aldrin, chlordane, DCPA, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, mirex, nonachlor, and toxaphene were detected. In addition, the insecticides chlorpyriphos, endosulfan, and hexachlorocyclohexanes were detected. Two low-solubility herbicides not detected commonly in surface water, pendimethalin and trifluralin, were also detected. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  12. Controlling Nonpoint-Source Water Pollution: A Citizen's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Nancy Richardson; And Others

    Citizens can play an important role in helping their states develop pollution control programs and spurring effective efforts to deal with nonpoint-source pollution. This guide takes the reader step-by-step through the process that states must follow to comply with water quality legislation relevant to nonpoint-source pollution. Part I provides…

  13. Modelling and simulation of a polluted water pumping process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chitra Alavani; Roland Glowinski; Susana Gomez; Benjamin Ivorra; Pallavi Joshi; Angel Manuel Ramos

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article is to discuss the modeling and simulation of the motion of oil spots in the open sea, and the effect on the pollutant concentration when a polluted water pumping ship follows a pre-assigned trajectory to remove the pollutant. We assume here that the oil spots mo- tion is due to the coupling of diffusion, the

  14. The Current State of Water Quality and Technology Development for Water Pollution Control in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiuhui Qu; Maohong Fan

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes and presents an overview of the current state of water pollution, as well as recent progress and the potential future development of water pollution control technology, in China. Although China has made significant strides in water environmental protection over the past decades, analysis reveals that water pollution in the nation is still not sufficiently controlled, with a

  15. Analysis considerations relating to water pollution emergency incidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, K. Clive; Benke, Peter

    2005-05-01

    Planning for high impact very low probability events is very difficult. This is particularly true when dealing with the analysis arising from potable water emergency pollution incidents. The main issues are: how to rapidly detect when significant contamination has occurred; to identify the cause or convincingly prove a negative in the absence of contamination and finally maintain an efficient and effective 24h/365d response system on a long-term basis for very low frequency events. This paper considers the handling of these issues for a water laboratory responsible for the regulatory analysis of drinking water for a population of over 8 million. Other key issue are how to assess the emergency response performance on a regular basis and the need to minimise operational costs. Chemical, radiological and ecotoxicological screening protocols are discussed. Microbiological emergency incidents are not covered. The numerous benefits of setting up a mutual aid laboratory response scheme are outlined.

  16. Water system virus detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    A monitoring system developed to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water is described. A nonpathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. Detection of the marker virus consists of two major components, concentration and isolation of the marker virus, and detection of the marker virus. The concentration system involves adsorption of virus to cellulose acetate filters in the presence of trivalent cations and low pH with subsequent desorption of the virus using volumes of high pH buffer. The detection of the virus is performed by a passive immune agglutination test utilizing specially prepared polystyrene particles. An engineering preliminary design was performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation are presented. The instrument consists of reagent pump/metering system, reagent storage containers, a filter concentrator, an incubation/detector system, and an electronic readout and control system.

  17. Advancing towards universal screening for organic pollutants in waters.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Félix; Ibáñez, María; Portolés, Tania; Cervera, María I; Sancho, Juan V; López, Francisco J

    2015-01-23

    Environmental analytical chemists face the challenge of investigating thousands of potential organic pollutants that may be present in the aquatic environment. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) hyphenated to chromatography offers the possibility of detecting a large number of contaminants without pre-selection of analytes due to its accurate-mass full-spectrum acquisition at good sensitivity. Interestingly, large screening can be made even without reference standards, as the valuable information provided by HRMS allows the tentative identification of the compound detected. In this work, hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) MS was combined with both liquid and gas chromatography (using a single instrument) for screening of around 2000 compounds in waters. This was feasible thanks to the use of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source in GC. The screening was qualitatively validated for around 300 compounds at three levels (0.02, 0.1, 0.5?g/L), and screening detection limits were established. Surface, ground water and effluent wastewater samples were analyzed, detecting and identifying a notable number of pesticides and transformation products, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and illicit drugs, among others. This is one of the most universal approaches in terms of comprehensive measurement for broad screening of organic contaminants within a large range of polarity and volatility in waters. PMID:25204505

  18. EFFECTIVENESS OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential water quality effects and economic implications of soil and water conservation practices (SWCPs) are identified. Method for estimating the effects of SWCPs on pollutant losses from croplands are presented. Mathematical simulation and linear programming models were u...

  19. Method for detecting pollutants. [through chemical reactions and heat treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, R. S.; Richards, R. R.; Conway, E. J. (inventors)

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for detecting and measuring trace amounts of pollutants of the group consisting of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide in a gaseous environment. A sample organic solid material that will undergo a chemical reaction with the test pollutant is exposed to the test environment and thereafter, when heated in the temperature range of 100-200 C., undergoes chemiluminescence that is measured and recorded as a function of concentration of the test pollutant. The chemiluminescence of the solid organic material is specific to the pollutant being tested.

  20. Semiconducting Metal Oxide Based Sensors for Selective Gas Pollutant Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kanan, Sofian M.; El-Kadri, Oussama M.; Abu-Yousef, Imad A.; Kanan, Marsha C.

    2009-01-01

    A review of some papers published in the last fifty years that focus on the semiconducting metal oxide (SMO) based sensors for the selective and sensitive detection of various environmental pollutants is presented. PMID:22408500

  1. Pollution-control equipment (Colombia). Water-pollution-control equipment, May 1992. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    There are few manufacturers of water pollution control equipment in Colombia. Imports of water pollution equipment decreased 14 percent from US $16.3 million in 1990 to US $14.2 million in 1991. For 1992, they may fall 5 percent to US $13.5 million due to the slow performance of the economy. The close relationship with U.S. suppliers and the possible enforcement of water quality standards could influence favorably the growth of imports within the next three years. For many years, the U.S. has been the major supplier of water pollution control equipment.

  2. Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, K. E. M.

    This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

  3. NEW LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETECTION SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resonance enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectrometry (CARS) has been demonstrated as a specific identification system for liquid chromatography for water pollution identification. To achieve this, liquid chromatographic preconcentration and separation and computer control o...

  4. The Role of Tradable Permits in Water Pollution Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Andreas Kraemer; Eleftheria Kampa; Eduard Interwies

    2004-01-01

    This working paper first introduces tradable permits as part of an overall taxonomy of economic instruments in the field of water management. In this context, three fundamentally different fields of application of tradable permits systems relating to water are presented: tradable water abstraction rights, tradable rights to water-based resources and tradable water pollution rights. Next, the authors provide literature-based empirical

  5. Evaluation of an hPXR reporter gene assay for the detection of aquatic emerging pollutants: screening of chemicals and application to water samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Creusot; Saïd Kinani; Patrick Balaguer; Nathalie Tapie; Karyn LeMenach; Emmanuelle Maillot-Maréchal; Jean-Marc Porcher; Hélène Budzinski; Sélim Aït-Aïssa

    2010-01-01

    Many environmental endocrine-disrupting compounds act as ligands for nuclear receptors. Among these receptors, the human pregnane\\u000a X receptor (hPXR) is well described as a xenobiotic sensor to various classes of chemicals, including pharmaceuticals, pesticides,\\u000a and steroids. To assess the potential use of PXR as a sensor for aquatic emerging pollutants, we employed an in vitro reporter\\u000a gene assay (HG5LN-hPXR cells)

  6. Enforcement of Section 208 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 to control nonpoint source pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wicker

    1979-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution (NPS) caused by agriculture, road building, and other activities is, while less visible than point source pollution, recognized as such a major contributor to water pollution that it must be brought under control. Section 208 is the only portion of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 to deal directly with the NPS problem. The

  7. Environmental economics: capital expenditures for air and water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    de la Rue

    1977-01-01

    A survey showed that in the period 1970-76, capital expenditures by industries and utilities for air pollution abatement of stationary sources was $19.8 billion compared with $12.9 billion for water pollution control. During the 1977-85 period, capital expenditures by industries and utilities for air pollution abatement are expected to total over $36 billion, of which $6.75 billion will be for

  8. Single Laboratory Comparison of Host-Specific PCR Assays for the Detection of Bovine Fecal Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are numerous PCR-based methods available to detect bovine fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each method targets a different gene and microorganism leading to differences in method performance, making it difficult to determine which approach is most suitable for field appl...

  9. The geopressured geothermal resources of Texas. Regulatory controls over water pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Rogers; A. W. Oberbeck

    1977-01-01

    Contents: Overview of control framework; Federal pollution control of surface waters; State water pollution control in Texas; New federal standards for underground injection control; Summary assessment.

  10. Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation Division of Water Pollution Control

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation Division of Water Pollution Control):_________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Submit Application to: **Department of Environment and Conservation Division of Water Pollution Control

  11. CONTROLLING POLLUTION FROM THE MANUFACTURING AND COATING OF METAL PRODUCTS. 3. WATER POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volume 3 addresses managers, engineers and other industry personnel responsible for resolving the water pollution problems of a manufacturing facility. It covers regulations, in-plant controls, three methods for wastewater treatment, establishment of a working relationship with a...

  12. Stable Isotope Mixing Models as a Tool for Tracking Sources of Water and Water Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    One goal of monitoring pollutants is to be able to trace the pollutant to its source. Here we review how mixing models using stable isotope information on water and water pollutants can help accomplish this goal. A number of elements exist in multiple stable (non-radioactive) i...

  13. The latent causal chain of industrial water pollution in China.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xin; Tang, Yanhong; Wong, Christina W Y; Zang, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discover the latent causal chain of industrial water pollution in China and find ways to cure the want on discharge of toxic waste from industries. It draws evidences from the past pollution incidents in China. Through further digging the back interests and relations by analyzing representative cases, extended theory about loophole derivations and causal chain effect is drawn. This theoretical breakthrough reflects deeper causality. Institutional defect instead of human error is confirmed as the deeper reason of frequent outbreaks of water pollution incidents in China. Ways for collaborative environmental governance are proposed. This paper contributes to a better understanding about the deep inducements of industrial water pollution in China, and, is meaningful for ensuring future prevention and mitigation of environmental pollution. It illuminates multiple dimensions for collaborative environmental governance to cure the stubborn problem. PMID:25467695

  14. ALTERNATIVE POLICIES FOR CONTROLLING NONPOINT AGRICULTURAL SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study of policies for controlling water pollution from nonpoint agricultural sources includes a survey of existing state and Federal programs, agencies, and laws directed to the control of soil erosion. Six policies representing a variety of approaches to this pollution prob...

  15. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: WATER POLLUTANTS FROM COAL STORAGE AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a study of water pollution levels that result from coal stockpiles maintained outdoors. A representative source was defined to characterize the pollution levels. Effluent data was obtained by placing coals, collected from various regions in the U.S., under a...

  16. Toward an effective and credible program: Water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard B. Dworsky

    1970-01-01

    While the public demand for water pollution control remains loud, the political response has become deafening. The responsible political leadership in both parties has avoided the temptation to engage in competitive promises. But those seeking instant solutions and those whose political response has been guided by the pressure of Earth Day have created an image about the pollution problem that

  17. Conflict between energy conservation and water pollution control standards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lamb

    1980-01-01

    The potential conflict in national needs for both energy conservation and water pollution control is indicated. Meeting broader obligations in reconciling these apparent differences has failed. Major contributions to energy conservation efforts needed today could be made without giving up any important pollution control goals. Hopefully, state and Federal regulatory agencies soon will recognize their obligations in this respect and

  18. Gulls identified as major source of fecal pollution in coastal waters: a microbial source tracking study.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Susana; Henriques, Isabel S; Leandro, Sérgio Miguel; Alves, Artur; Pereira, Anabela; Correia, António

    2014-02-01

    Gulls were reported as sources of fecal pollution in coastal environments and potential vectors of human infections. Microbial source tracking (MST) methods were rarely tested to identify this pollution origin. This study was conducted to ascertain the source of water fecal contamination in the Berlenga Island, Portugal. A total of 169 Escherichia coli isolates from human sewage, 423 isolates from gull feces and 334 water isolates were analyzed by BOX-PCR. An average correct classification of 79.3% was achieved. When an 85% similarity cutoff was applied 24% of water isolates were present in gull feces against 2.7% detected in sewage. Jackknifing resulted in 29.3% of water isolates classified as gull, and 10.8% classified as human. Results indicate that gulls constitute a major source of water contamination in the Berlenga Island. This study validated a methodology to differentiate human and gull fecal pollution sources in a real case of a contaminated beach. PMID:24140684

  19. POLLUTION DETECTION DOGS: PROOF OF CONCEPT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dogs have been used extensively in law enforcement and military applications to detect narcotics and explosives for over thirty years. Dogs are regularly used in arson investigations to detect accelerants since they are much more accurate at discriminating between accelerants an...

  20. NATION WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ASSESSMENT MODEL - VERSION 2.1.

    EPA Science Inventory

    NWPCAM brings together large amounts of environmental data and complex hydrologic and water quality modeling techniques into a system whose purpose is to estimate the water quality and economic benefits of water pollution control policies. NWPCAM began as a point source evaluati...

  1. New Photocatalysis for Effective Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zarei Chaleshtori; G. B. Saupe; S. Masoud

    2009-01-01

    The presence of harmful compounds in water supplies and in the discharge of wastewater from chemical industries, power plants, and agricultural sources is a topic of global concern. The processes and technologies available at the present time for the treatment of polluted water are varied that include traditional water treatment processes such as biological, thermal and chemical treatment. All these

  2. Energy requirements for industrial water pollution control. a perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serth

    1978-01-01

    A summary of available information on energy requirements (ER) for industrial air and water pollution control to meet the existing U.S. Legislation (e.g., the Public Law 92-500) includes estimates of the ER by sector (industry, powerplants, and municipal wastes), by pollutant type (water, sulfur oxides, particulates, and thermal wastes), and by industry for 1977-1983, showing the relative importance of the

  3. Salmonella pollution in ground and surface waters. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the contamination of ground waters and surface waters by Salmonella bacteria. Articles discuss the occurence, survival, origin, and control of these bacteria in water sources including rivers, reservoirs, swimming pools, wastewater, aquifers, and ground water. Citations also address the use of Salmonella populations as biological indicators of pollution in aquatic systems. (Contains a minimum of 102 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Water hyacinth as indicator of heavy metal pollution the tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, H.; Otero, M. (Institute of Transport Investigations, Havana (Cuba)); Lodenius, M. (Univ. of Helsinki (Finland))

    1989-12-01

    The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a common aquatic plant in many tropical countries. Its ability absorb nutrients and other elements from the water has made it possible to use it for water purification purposes. Eichhornia, especially stems and leaves, have been successfully used as indicators of heavy metal pollution in tropical countries. The uptake of heavy metals in this plant is stronger in the roots than in the floating shoots. Metallothionein-like compounds have been found from roots of this species after cadmium exposure. The purpose of this investigation was to study the possibilities of using roots of water hyacinth as a biological indicator of metal pollution in tropical aquatic ecosystems.

  5. Science, Pollution, and Clean Drinking Water: Choosing Between Tap Water, Bottled Water, and Home Purification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franz Foltz

    1999-01-01

    Focusing on the recent explosion in the use of bottled water, this article—originally written for my NASTS conference presentation—will examine the rhetoric used by the bottled water industry and home purification system providers to affect the public’s idea of clean, pure, dirty, and polluted water. Bottlers argue that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides better regulation of bottled water

  6. Water quality . . . potential sources of pollution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank, (artist)

    1996-01-01

    What is water quality? To most students, water quality may suggest only "clean" water for drinking, swimming, and fishing. But to the farmer or manufacturer, water quality may have an entirely different meaning. One of the most important issues concerning the quality of water is how that water will be used. Water that is perfectly fine for irrigation might not be suitable for drinking or swimming.

  7. Industrial storm water pollution prevention: Effectiveness and limitations of source controls in the transportation industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Donald Duke; Y. Jae Chung

    1995-01-01

    Industrial activities that are sources of pollutants in storm water runoff at typical facilities of the transportation industry are identified by site investigations at five facilities. This research then evaluates pollution prevention measures implemented to reduce those pollutants, as required by storm water regulations under the U.S. Clean Water Act. Activities that potentially generate storm water pollutants, particular to facilities

  8. Protamine precipitation of two reovirus particle types from polluted waters.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, D J; Ridinger, D N; Spendlove, R S; Barnett, B B

    1982-01-01

    Two forms of virus particle are released from reovirus-infected cell cultures, infectious reovirus and potentially infectious reovirus (PIV). PIV particle forms have a complete outer coat and are not infectious until the outer coat is altered or removed. The PIV concentration in polluted waters, however, has not been determined. Protamine sulfate precipitation, using 0.25% fetal bovine serum and 0.005% protamine sulfate for the first precipitation of the sample and 0.0025% for the second, was employed to concentrate infectious reovirus and PIV from water and sewage. Infectious reovirus and PIV particles were concentrated over 500-fold from river water inoculated with virus, and virus recoveries of between 80 and 100% were achieved. Virus precipitates stored at -20 degrees C as a protamine-virus concentrate showed a 5% loss of PIV after 14 days. Virus preparations were assayed, before and after treatment, with 200 micrograms of chymotrypsin per ml, using a fluorescent-antibody procedure. Protamine sulfate precipitation and fluorescent-antibody detection are effective ways to recover and assay reoviruses present in raw sewage. PMID:7138002

  9. LOW COST IMAGER FOR POLLUTANT GAS LEAK DETECTION - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Infrared (IR) imaging is the best method for detecting leaks of pollutant gases, but current technology based on cooled IR imagers is far too expensive ($75,000 to $150,000) for everyday field use by those who need it to meet regulatory limits—electric and petrochemical ...

  10. Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis with Electrochemical Detection for Monitoring Environmental Pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2006-01-15

    This invited paper reviews recent advances and the key strategies in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical detection (ECD) for separating and detecting a variety of environmental pollutants. The subjects covered include the fabrication of microfluidic chips, sample pretreatments, ECD, typical applications of microchip CE with ECD in environmental analysis, and future prospects. It is expected that microchip CE-ECD will become a powerful tool in the environmental field and will lead to the creation of truly portable devices.

  11. A Monitor for 22 Water Pollutants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Examples of user experiences of the Enviro Monitor are cited together with advantages for its use. This is an all-weather instrument capable of making a continuous record of pollutants and controlling unattended operations at remote locations under adverse weather conditions. (BL)

  12. Models of Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Surface Waters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okome, Gloria Eloho

    2013-01-01

    There is the need to answer very crucial questions of "what happens to pollutants in surface waters?" This question must be answered to determine the factors controlling fate and transport of chemicals and their evolutionary state in surface waters. Monitoring and experimental methods are used in establishing the environmental states.…

  13. Regulating Industrial Water Pollution in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winston Harrington

    2003-01-01

    The performance of the industrial point-source water pollution abatement program in the U.S. Clean Water Act is examined. I begin with a brief description of the statute and then turn to a description of the process used to develop the rules that govern effluent discharges. This is followed by a discussion of the outcomes resulting from efforts to apply these

  14. Identification and Control of Pollution from Salt Water Intrusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This document contains informational guidelines for identifying and evaluating the nature and extent of pollution from salt water intrusion. The intent of these guidelines is to provide a basic framework for assessing salt water intrusion problems and their relationship to the total hydrologic system, and to provide assistance in developing…

  15. Linking Air, Land, and Water Pollution for Effective Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, other federal agencies, and the states have made substantial progress in improving the Nation?s air and water quality. Traditionally, the air, land, and water pollution ...

  16. Bibliography of water pollution control benefits and costs. [3000 references

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Unger; D. L. Jordening

    1974-01-01

    The computer-listed bibliography includes approximately 3000 references to environmental quality management issues. The primary selection criteria for including the sources referenced was that the citation pertains to water pollution control benefits and costs. However, numerous listings include more general environmental issues within which water quality problems are embedded. Also, much of the economic cost-benefit analysis research has been conceptually developed

  17. Team Approaches for Agricultural Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zou Jiliang; Yuan Yongkang

    2009-01-01

    Nonpoint source water pollution, primarily from agricultural sources, is a major cause of water quality impairment. Uncertainty and asymmetric information are the key regulatory difficulties in the control of agricultural NPSP. The main target of this study is to describe a potential incentive scheme that can be applied in limited information situations. Team contracts built upon principal-agent theory are proposed.

  18. Water pollution control: the case for local control and accountability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Mackay

    1993-01-01

    At a time when substantial changes are taking place, or are proposed, in the organizational structure for preventing water pollution in Scotland, the paper makes the case for maintaining the status quo. The Scottish system relies on 10 independent river purification authorities comprising elected and appointed members, with considerable freedom to set water quality objectives and standards in light of

  19. Spectral reflectance and radiance characteristics of water pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wezernak, C. T.; Turner, R. E.; Lyzenga, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    Spectral reflectance characteristics of water pollutants and water bodies were compiled using the existing literature. Radiance calculations were performed at satellite altitude for selected illumination angles and atmospheric conditions. The work described in this report was limited to the reflective portion of the spectrum between 0.40 micrometer to 1.0 micrometer.

  20. [Pollution hazard for water bodies at oil production].

    PubMed

    Zholdakova, Z I; Belyaeva, N I

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there have been summarizes the concepts of the danger of the pollution ofwater bodies in oil production (the most dangerous are reagents used in the drilling, drilling waste, oil and petrochemicals, oil biodestructors. There was shown the danger of the spread of oil pollution. New indices, presenting a hazard during drilling and oil production have been substantiated The tasks aimed to the improvement of the standards and methods of the control of the water pollution by oil, as well as of the documents regulating the conditions of environmental protection during the drilling have been conceived. PMID:26031037

  1. Water Pollution Control: Lessons from Transnational Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert V. Percival

    1998-01-01

    Water is fundamental to life, as reflected in space scientists' compulsive search for signs of its presence when scrutinizing other planets for possible life forms. Fortunately for our species, more than two-thirds of our planet is covered with water, creating an environment richly conducive to life. Humans have just begun to appreciate how precious earth's water resources are and how

  2. 64 FR 73414 - Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants; Available Cyanide in Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-12-30

    ...e.g., the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) maximum contaminant...Constants of Cyano Complexes,'' Pure & Appl. Chem...Waste treatment and disposal, Water pollution control. Dated...1251, et seq.) (The Federal Water Pollution Control Act...

  3. RADARSAT automatic algorithms for detecting coastal oil spill pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maged Marghany

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents work done for oil spill detection along coastal waters. Consumers are primarily interested in automatic detection of oil spills. The main objective of this study is to develop an automatic model for oil spill detection. This model includes texture analysis and two types of algorithms (Lee and Gamma). Texture analysis, such as contrast analysis, was used to

  4. MERCURY SEPARATION FROM POLLUTANT WATER USING ZEOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water has been examined at room temperature. Experiments have...

  5. Needed: Clean Water. Problems of Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet utilizes illustrations and captions to indicate the demands currently made on our water resources and the problems associated with that demand. Current and future solutions are described with suggestions for personal conservation efforts to help provide enough clean water for everyone in the future. (CS)

  6. WATER TREATMENT MODEL FOR POLLUTANT EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mathematical model of potable water treatment for toxic substance removal for use in exposure assessment modeling has been developed. The sedimentation, coagulation-flocculation, filtration, aeration, chemical oxidation, and granular activated carbon adsorption treatment proces...

  7. Institutional instruments for water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Grima

    1981-01-01

    This paper focuses on the articulation of policies in the interface between economic production and water quality. One problem\\u000a is the introduction, at this production-ecologic interface, of unwanted water-borne residuals by firms and municipalities.\\u000a The policy objective is to absorb the social cost of environmental degradation into the production function within the two\\u000a constraints of efficiency in the allocation of

  8. Monitoring environmental pollutants by microchip capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2006-01-15

    This is a review article. During the past decade, significant progress in the development of miniaturized microfluidic systems has Occurred due to the numerous advantages of microchip analysis. This review focuses on recent advances and the key strategies in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical detection (ECD) for separating and detecting a variety of environmental pollutants. The subjects covered include the fabrication of microfluidic chips, ECD, typical applications of microchip CE with ECD in environmental analysis, and future prospects. It is expected that microchip CE-ECD will become a powerful tool in the environmental field and will lead to the creation of truly portable devices.

  9. Spectroscopic methods for detection of impurities in water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalia V. Strashnikova; Nona Papiashvili; Rivka Cohen-Luria; Shlomo Mark; Guy Shilon; Daniel Khankin; Yehoshua Kalisky; Ofra Kalisky; Abraham H. Parola

    2011-01-01

    Optical photoluminescence spectroscopic method for detection of impurities, hazardous materials, pesticides, and pollutants in water resources, both qualitatively and quantitatively, is presented. The method is based on synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) of organic aromatic compounds, or poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and is carried out by following simultaneously their excitation and emission spectra. The full excitation emission matrix (EEM) generated in this

  10. Introduction to Instrumental Analysis of Water Pollutants. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This course is designed for those requiring an introduction to instruments commonly used in water pollution analyses. Examples are: pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen meters, spectrophotometers, turbidimeters, carbon analyzer, and gas chromatographs. Students should have a basic knowledge of analytical chemistry. (CO)

  11. Water Pollution, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, George G.

    Analyzed are the reasons why present mechanisms for the control of water purity are inadequate. The control of waterborne epidemics is discussed to illustrate a problem which has been solved, then degradation of the environment is presented as an unsolved problem. Case histories are given of pollution and attempts at control in rivers, lakes,…

  12. Solidification\\/Stabilization of Power Plants Wastes Potential Water Pollutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandra Kosti?-Pulek; Svetlana Popov

    The intensive firing of coal in power plants can harm the environment. The problems are caused by the emission of solid particles, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, as well as by pollution of the surrounding waters and the degradation of the land due to the disposition of the solid wastes: fly ash, bottom ash

  13. Retrofit conserves energy at a water pollution control facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Haimes; J. Dedyo

    1980-01-01

    A major retrofit of process structures and incorporation of additional mechanical equipment was undertaken to replace the existing chemical phosphorus removal process with a biological phosphorus removal process. The new process will reduce energy use up to 81% and lime use up to 86% at the Amherst, New York water pollution control facility.

  14. ISOLATION OF ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS BY XAD RESINS AND CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recovery efficiencies of XAD resins -2, -4, -7, and -8 and of resin mixtures were measured using distilled water samples containing 13 organic pollutants. An equal-weight mixture of XAD-4 and XAD-8 was most efficient. XAD-2 and XAD-4/8 were further tested and found effective ...

  15. The means and problems of preventing pollution of surface waters by waste waters from cities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Bolotina

    One of the tasks most urgent for the conservation of water is to stop the pollution of water bodies by waste water discharged by the sewers of large industrial cities. At present industrial wastes are prevalent in urban waste water, but a substantial decrease in the quantity of industrial ef­ fluents is expected. At the same time the volume of

  16. Mine water pollution in Scotland: nature, extent and preventative strategies.

    PubMed

    Younger, P L

    2001-01-29

    Scotland was one of the world's first industrialised countries, and has therefore also been one of the first countries to experience wholesale post-industrial dereliction. Water pollution arising from abandoned mines, particularly abandoned coal mines, is second only to sewage as a source of freshwater pollution nation-wide, and in many coalfield catchments it is the pre-eminent source. Most of the pollution is due to net-alkaline ferruginous waters emerging from deep mines. Scrutiny of records from 80 deep mine discharges reveals that iron concentrations in these waters are only likely to exceed 20 mg/l, and the pH to be below 6.5, where the discharge emerges within 0.5 km of the outcrop of the shallowest mined seam. The bulk of mature near-outcrop mine water discharges in Scotland have < 50 mg/l total Fe, and concentrations > 100 mg/l are only likely where a marine bed lies within 25 m of the worked seam. Where the nearest marine bed is more than 80 m above or below the seam, then the total iron will be less than 4 mg/l, and in most cases less than 1 mg/l. Net-acidic mine waters are far more rare than net-alkaline waters in Scotland, and are most commonly associated with unreclaimed spoil heaps (bings). Both net-alkaline and net-acidic discharges have detrimental effects on the hydrochemistry and biological integrity of receiving waters. Scotland has recently pioneered the use of pre-emptive pump-and-treat solutions to prevent mine water pollution, and has also experienced the successful introduction of passive treatment technology for both abandoned and active workings. PMID:11227275

  17. Facades: a source of water pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andri Bryner

    For many years, fingers have been pointed at agriculture whenever pesticides are detected in rivers and streams. Studies carried out by Eawag and Empa now show that built-up areas also account for a considerable proportion of such inputs. For example, substances can be leached out of facade renders and paints by rainwater and enter the environment, where they may have

  18. Water pollution and the public trust doctrine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johnson

    1989-01-01

    The prior appropriation system has served well in the Western US for 125 years, providing a legal regime that permits and encourages enormous economic growth of agriculture, industry and municipalities. This system, however, both in its inception and current application, fails to address or protect public interests in fisheries, recreation, environmental quality, and clean water. As a result, serious nonpoint

  19. New technological methods for protecting underground waters from agricultural pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavlyanov, Gani

    2015-04-01

    The agricultural production on the irrigated grounds can not carry on without mineral fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Especially it is shown in Uzbekistan, in cultivation of cotton. There is an increase in mineralization, rigidity, quantity of heavy metals, phenols and other pollutions in the cotton fields. Thus there is an exhaustion of stocks of fresh underground waters. In the year 2003 we were offered to create the ecological board to prevent pollution to get up to a level of subsoil waters in the top 30 centimeter layer of the ground. We carried out an accumulation and pollution processing. This layer possesses a high adsorbing ability for heavy metals, mineral oil, mineral fertilizers remnants, defoliants and pesticides. In order to remediate a biological pollution treatment processing should be take into account. The idea is consisted in the following. The adsorption properties of coal is all well-known that the Angren coal washing factories in Tashkent area have collected more than 10 million tons of the coal dust to mix with clays. We have picked up association of anaerobic microorganisms which, using for development, destroys nutrients of coal waste pollutions to a harmless content for people. Coal waste inoculation also are scattered by these microorganisms on the field before plowing. Deep (up to 30 cm) plowing brings them on depth from 5 up to 30 cm. Is created by a plough a layer with necessary protective properties. The norm of entering depends on the structure of ground and the intensity of pollutions. Laboratory experiments have shown that 50% of pollutions can be treated by the ecological board and are processed up to safe limit.

  20. Reducing the cost of water-pollution control under the Clean Water Act

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rothfelder

    1982-01-01

    The present water-pollution-regulation system focuses on treatment by the individual and ignores the aggregate cost of pollution control. Economists have proposed three methods to create pollution-control systems that cost less than the present one: effluent charges, marketable effluent permits, and private ownership of the waterway. Of these methods, only the marketable permit system has any potential for use within the

  1. Self-Propelled Micromotors for Cleaning Polluted Water

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We describe the use of catalytically self-propelled microjets (dubbed micromotors) for degrading organic pollutants in water via the Fenton oxidation process. The tubular micromotors are composed of rolled-up functional nanomembranes consisting of Fe/Pt bilayers. The micromotors contain double functionality within their architecture, i.e., the inner Pt for the self-propulsion and the outer Fe for the in situ generation of ferrous ions boosting the remediation of contaminated water.The degradation of organic pollutants takes place in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which acts as a reagent for the Fenton reaction and as main fuel to propel the micromotors. Factors influencing the efficiency of the Fenton oxidation process, including thickness of the Fe layer, pH, and concentration of hydrogen peroxide, are investigated. The ability of these catalytically self-propelled micromotors to improve intermixing in liquids results in the removal of organic pollutants ca. 12 times faster than when the Fenton oxidation process is carried out without catalytically active micromotors. The enhanced reaction–diffusion provided by micromotors has been theoretically modeled. The synergy between the internal and external functionalities of the micromotors, without the need of further functionalization, results into an enhanced degradation of nonbiodegradable and dangerous organic pollutants at small-scale environments and holds considerable promise for the remediation of contaminated water. PMID:24180623

  2. 9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling...REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.14 Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for...

  3. 9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling...Other Reinspections; Processing Requirements § 381.151 Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for...

  4. The geopressured geothermal resources of Texas: regulatory controls over water pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Rogers; A. W. Oberbeck

    1977-01-01

    The following are presented: an overview of the control framework, Federal pollution control of surface waters, state water pollution control in Texas, new Federal standards for underground injection control, and a summary assessment. (MHR)

  5. A CRITICAL APPRAlSAL OF THE WATER POLLUTION PROBLEM IN INDIA IN RELATION TO AQUACULTURE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. G. JKINGRAN

    A satisfactory solution to the problem of inland water pollution in India has bocome an urgent and accepted necessity for sustained human health and the conservation of aquatic resources. -A bill entitled #'The Prevention of Water Pollution Bill, 1969\\

  6. Stochastic Analysis of A Randomized Detection Algorithm for Pollution Attack in P2P Live Streaming

    E-print Network

    Lui, John C.S.

    Stochastic Analysis of A Randomized Detection Algorithm for Pollution Attack in P2P Live Streaming Systems Yongkun Li John C.S. Lui The Chinese University of Hong Kong Abstract Pollution attack is known- width. We propose a distributed defense and detection mechanism to resolve pollution attacks

  7. The Allocative Efficiency Implications of Water Pollution Abatement Cost Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shortle, James S.

    1990-05-01

    Assessments of the efficiency of water pollution control allocations are usually based on abatement cost comparisons. The general rule is that efficiency is improved by reallocating abatement from sources with high marginal costs to low-cost sources. The welfare-theoretic foundation of this rule is well established for situations with nonstochastic emissions. In situations with stochastic emissions, pollution control involves improving the distribution of emissions. Nevertheless, efficiency analyses involving stochastic emissions usually sidestep formal consideration of the stochastic element by measuring pollution control and control costs with respect to changes in long-term average flows. An economic model of stochastic emissions is used to demonstrate that this approach can give misleading results. An alternative procedure is briefly discussed.

  8. Bromate pollutant in ozonated bottled Zamzam water from Saudi Arabia determined by LC\\/ICP-MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seham A. Al-Ansi; Ahmed A. Othman; Mohammed A. Al-Tufail

    2011-01-01

    Bromate (BrO3 ) as a human carcinogenic pollutant in bottled drinking Zamzam water from Mecca, Saudi Arabia has been determined using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC\\/ICP-MS). For analysis, samples were injected directly without any further pretreatment, using only 50 ?L injection volume. The method showed: 0.5 ?g\\/L detection limit, 1.0 ?g\\/L limit of quantification and 1.0–200.0 ?g\\/L

  9. Pesticide pollution of multiple drinking water sources in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: evidence from two provinces.

    PubMed

    Chau, N D G; Sebesvari, Z; Amelung, W; Renaud, F G

    2015-06-01

    Pollution of drinking water sources with agrochemicals is often a major threat to human and ecosystem health in some river deltas, where agricultural production must meet the requirements of national food security or export aspirations. This study was performed to survey the use of different drinking water sources and their pollution with pesticides in order to inform on potential exposure sources to pesticides in rural areas of the Mekong River delta, Vietnam. The field work comprised both household surveys and monitoring of 15 frequently used pesticide active ingredients in different water sources used for drinking (surface water, groundwater, water at public pumping stations, surface water chemically treated at household level, harvested rainwater, and bottled water). Our research also considered the surrounding land use systems as well as the cropping seasons. Improper pesticide storage and waste disposal as well as inadequate personal protection during pesticide handling and application were widespread amongst the interviewed households, with little overall risk awareness for human and environmental health. The results show that despite the local differences in the amount and frequency of pesticides applied, pesticide pollution was ubiquitous. Isoprothiolane (max. concentration 8.49 ?g L(-1)), fenobucarb (max. 2.32 ?g L(-1)), and fipronil (max. 0.41 ?g L(-1)) were detected in almost all analyzed water samples (98 % of all surface samples contained isoprothiolane, for instance). Other pesticides quantified comprised butachlor, pretilachlor, propiconazole, hexaconazole, difenoconazole, cypermethrin, fenoxapro-p-ethyl, tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin, quinalphos, and thiamethoxam. Among the studied water sources, concentrations were highest in canal waters. Pesticide concentrations varied with cropping season but did not diminish through the year. Even in harvested rainwater or purchased bottled water, up to 12 different pesticides were detected at concentrations exceeding the European Commission's parametric guideline values for individual or total pesticides in drinking water (0.1 and 0.5 ?g L(-1); respectively). The highest total pesticide concentration quantified in bottled water samples was 1.38 ?g L(-1). Overall, we failed to identify a clean water source in the Mekong Delta with respect to pesticide pollution. It is therefore urgent to understand further and address drinking water-related health risk issues in the region. PMID:25572267

  10. f " International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control. Vienna 1996 XIII/4 -1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    96/0852 f í " International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control. Vienna 1996 for water pollution control, Vienna : Austria (1996)" #12;í>tn International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control. Vienna 1996 XIII/4 - 2 · It is also planned that districts will be able to take

  11. Evaluation of the Pollutant Content in Road Runoff First Flush Waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanna Mangani; Arnaldo Berloni; Francesca Bellucci; Fabio Tatàno; Michela Maione

    2005-01-01

    Road runoff waters are able to convey a number of organic and inorganic pollutants originated by different non-point sources and by the road surface itself. Such pollutants can enter aquatic systems, thus contributing to water and soil contamination. This study was aimed at evaluating the pollutant content in first flush runoff waters from a highway located in Central Italy. A

  12. Diffuse pollution of surface water by pharmaceutical products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. M. Derksen; G. B. J. Rijs; R. H. Jongbloed

    2004-01-01

    Pharmaceutical products for humans or animals, as well as their related metabolites (degradation products) end up in the aquatic environment after use. Recent investigations from abroad show that low concentrations of pharmaceuticals are detectable in municipal waste water, surface water, groundwater and even drinking water. Little is known about the effects, and with that the risk, of long term exposure

  13. Models of Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Surface Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okome, Gloria Eloho

    There is the need to answer very crucial questions of "what happens to pollutants in surface waters?" This question must be answered to determine the factors controlling fate and transport of chemicals and their evolutionary state in surface waters. Monitoring and experimental methods are used in establishing the environmental states. These measurements are used with the known scientific principles to identify processes and to estimate the future environmental conditions. Conceptual and computational models are needed to analyze environmental processes by applying the knowledge gained from experimentation and theory. Usually, a computational framework includes the mathematics and the physics of the phenomenon, and the measured characteristics to model pollutants interactions and transport in surface water. However, under certain conditions, the complexity of the situation in the actual environment precludes the utilization of these techniques. Pollutants in several forms: Nitrogen (Nitrate, Nitrite, Kjeldhal Nitrogen and Ammonia), Phosphorus (orthophosphate and total phosphorus), bacteria (E-coli and Fecal coliform), Salts (Chloride and Sulfate) are chosen to follow for this research. The objective of this research is to model the fate and transport of these pollutants in non-ideal conditions of surface water measurements and to develop computational methods to forecast their fate and transport. In an environment of extreme drought such as in the Brazos River basin, where small streams flow intermittently, there is added complexity due to the absence of regularly sampled data. The usual modeling techniques are no longer applicable because of sparse measurements in space and time. Still, there is a need to estimate the conditions of the environment from the information that is present. Alternative methods for this estimation must be devised and applied to this situation, which is the task of this dissertation. This research devices a forecasting technique that is based upon sparse data. The method uses the equations of functions that fit the time series data for pollutants at each water quality monitoring stations to interpolate and extrapolate the data and to make estimates of present and future pollution levels. This method was applied to data obtained from the Leon River watershed (Indian creek) and Navasota River.

  14. Phase behavior of organic pollutants in supercritical water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Artemenko; P. Krijgsman; V. A. Mazur

    2010-01-01

    Methods for analyzing, ranking, and predicting the global phase behavior and possible heterogeneous fluid equilibria in supercritical\\u000a water-organic pollutant systems are discussed in terms of present-day conceptions of the global phase diagrams of binary mixtures.\\u000a The phase equilibria of some classes of organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated\\u000a dibenzodioxins and furans as well as some pesticides) in supercritical

  15. Hydrocarbon analysis of shrimp from oil polluted waters 

    E-print Network

    DeWitt, Bernard John

    1982-01-01

    ), serious pollution problems are caused by crude oils, residual fuel oils, lubricating oils and miscel- laneous tank washings, sludges and tarsi known collectively as persis- tant oils, to distinguish them from light fuel oils such as gasoline, kerosene... evaluation by taste was conducted on shrimp boiled in water for three minutes. Each member of the panel was given five sets of three different, color tagged shrimp for each phase (raw and cooked). The shrimp were selected at random, however each set...

  16. An Empirical Test of Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krishna P. Paudel; Hector Zapata; Dwi Susanto

    2005-01-01

    The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) on water pollution was investigated with both semiparametric and parametric models using watershed level data for the state of Louisiana, USA. The parametric model indicated the turning points within the range $10241–$12993, $6636–$13877, and $6467–$12758 for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and dissolved oxygen (DO), respectively. However, only the parameters associated with N EKC were found

  17. Designing of water pollution control technology database platform based on general management information system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunhong Shi; Nan Li; Beihai Zhou; Wenjuan Song

    2010-01-01

    Introduced was the development and implementation for the water pollution control technology database platform based on general management information system. The technology research and application demonstration of the system were developed, covering six fields such as lake water pollution treatment and ecological restoration, improvement of environment quality of urban water, drinking water safety, new technology of physical-chemical-biology water treatment, packaged

  18. System engineering for water pollution control at the watershed level in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Meng

    2009-01-01

    The present water pollution situation at watershed level in China has been systematically analyzed. The causes of water pollution\\u000a are attributed to the extensive economic developmental pattern, poor wastewater treatment, and a lack of nonpoint pollution\\u000a control. The problems of water pollution control at watershed level include a lack of thought and approach, developmental\\u000a delay in the environmental standard system,

  19. Modelling Regional Hotspots of Water Pollution Induced by Salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malsy, M.; Floerke, M.

    2014-12-01

    Insufficient water quality is one of the main global topics causing risk to human health, biodiversity, and food security. At this, salinization of water and land resources is widely spread especially in arid to semi-arid climates, where salinization, often induced by irrigation agriculture, is a fundamental aspect of land degradation. High salinity is crucial to water use for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes, and therefore poses a risk to human health and ecosystem status. However, salinization is also an economic problem, in particular in those regions where agriculture makes a significant contribution to the economy and/or where agriculture is mainly based on irrigation. Agricultural production is exposed to high salinity of irrigation water resulting in lower yields. Hence, not only the quantity of irrigation water is of importance for growing cops but also its quality, which may further reduce the available resources. Thereby a major concern for food production and security persists, as irrigated agriculture accounts for over 30% of the total agricultural production. In this study, the large scale water quality model WorldQual was applied to simulate recent total dissolved solids (TDS) loadings and in-stream concentrations from point and diffuse sources to get an insight on potential environmental impacts as well as risks to food security. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries, as these are most threatened by water pollution. Furthermore, insufficient water quality for irrigation and therefore restrictions in irrigation water use were examined, indicating limitations to crop production. For this purpose, model simulations were conducted for the year 2010 to show the recent status of surface water quality and to identify hotspots and main causes of pollution. Our results show that salinity hotspots mainly occur in peak irrigation regions as irrigated agriculture is by far the dominant sector contributing to water abstractions as well as TDS loadings. Additionally, large urban areas are initially loading hotspots and pollution prevention becomes important as point sources are dependent on sewer connection rates. River discharge plays a crucial role due to the dilution potential, especially in semi-arid to arid regions and in terms of seasonal variability.

  20. Pollution prevention and water conservation in metals finishing operations

    SciTech Connect

    O`Shaughnessy, J.; Clark, W. [Worcester Polytechnic Inst., MA (United States); Lizotte, R.P. Jr.; Mikutel, D. [Texas Instruments Inc., Attleboro, MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Attleboro, Massachusetts is the headquarters of the Materials and Controls Group of Texas Instruments Incorporated (Texas Instruments). In support of their activities, Texas Instruments operates a number of metal finishing and electroplating processes. The water supply and the wastewater treatment requirements are supplied throughout the facility from a central location. Water supply quality requirements varies with each manufacturing operation. As a result, manufacturing operations are classified as either high level or a lower water quality. The facility has two methods of wastewater treatment and disposal. The first method involves hydroxide and sulfide metals precipitation prior to discharge to a surface water. The second method involves metals precipitation, filtration, and discharge via sewer to the Attleboro WTF. The facility is limited to a maximum wastewater discharge of 460,000 gallons per day to surface water under the existing National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. There is also a hydraulic flow restriction on pretreated wastewater that is discharged to the Attleboro WTF. Both of these restrictions combined with increased production could cause the facility to reach the treatment capacity. The net effect is that wastewater discharge problems are becoming restrictive to the company`s growth. This paper reviews Texas Instruments efforts to overcome these restrictions through pollution prevention and reuse practices rather than expansion of end of pipe treatment methods.

  1. HPLC-PFD determination of priority pollutant PAHs in water, sediment, and semipermeable membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, K.S.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Lebo, J.A.; Kaiser, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography coupled with programmable fluorescence detection was employed for the determination of 15 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPPAHs) in water, sediment, and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). Chromatographic separation using this analytical method facilitates selectivity, sensitivity (ppt levels), and can serve as a non-destructive technique for subsequent analysis by other chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Extraction and sample cleanup procedures were also developed for water, sediment, and SPMDs using various chromatographic and wet chemical methods. The focus of this publication is to examine the enrichment techniques and the analytical methodologies used in the isolation, characterization, and quantitation of 15 PPPAHs in different sample matrices.

  2. Estimation of heavy metals in drinking water and development of heavy metal pollution index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Venkata Mohan; P. Nithila; S. Jayarama Reddy

    1996-01-01

    Four heavy metals (Copper, Cadmium, Lead and Zinc) are monitored in drinking water at twelve important residential areas using DPASV Technique. The results indicate the water to free of heavy metal pollution. The data monitored have been used to compute Heavy metal pollution index (HPI) using weighted arithmetic mean method and the proposed Pollution Index (HPI) seems to be applicable

  3. Source assessment: water pollutants from coal storage areas. Final task report Nov 1976Dec 1977

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Wachter; T. R. Blackwood

    1978-01-01

    This report describes a study of water pollution levels that result from coal stockpiles maintained outdoors. A representative source was defined to characterize the pollution levels. Effluent data was obtained by placing coals, collected from various regions in the U.S., under a rainfall simulator. Drainage samples were analyzed for water quality parameters, organic and inorganic substances, and pollutants covered by

  4. Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 1. A national network model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin; G. K. Young

    1981-01-01

    In order to study the national implications of federal water pollution control policies, the authors developed a water pollution network model. This model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and bays. While the geographical scope of the model and existing data availability required

  5. 40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water. 129.6 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS TOXIC POLLUTANT EFFLUENT STANDARDS Toxic Pollutant Effluent Standards and Prohibitions...

  6. Water infiltration control to achieve mine water pollution control. A feasibility study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Zaval; J. D. Robins

    1973-01-01

    The study determined the feasibility of conducting a full-scale demonstration to document the effectiveness of land reclamation at mined-out areas in establishing surface water infiltration control to prevent acid mine water pollution. The study site was the Dents Run Watershed, Monongalia County, West Virginia. Investigative measures included: investigation of each mine area and opening; a detailed description of each site;

  7. Diffuse pollution of soil and water: Long term trends at large scales?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grathwohl, P.

    2012-04-01

    Industrialization and urbanization, which consequently increased pressure on the environment to cause degradation of soil and water quality over more than a century, is still ongoing. The number of potential environmental contaminants detected in surface and groundwater is continuously increasing; from classical industrial and agricultural chemicals, to flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. While point sources of pollution can be managed in principle, diffuse pollution is only reversible at very long time scales if at all. Compounds which were phased out many decades ago such as PCBs or DDT are still abundant in soils, sediments and biota. How diffuse pollution is processed at large scales in space (e.g. catchments) and time (centuries) is unknown. The relevance to the field of processes well investigated at the laboratory scale (e.g. sorption/desorption and (bio)degradation kinetics) is not clear. Transport of compounds is often coupled to the water cycle and in order to assess trends in diffuse pollution, detailed knowledge about the hydrology and the solute fluxes at the catchment scale is required (e.g. input/output fluxes, transformation rates at the field scale). This is also a prerequisite in assessing management options for reversal of adverse trends.

  8. Development of a Master Plan for Water Pollution Control Using MCDM Techniques: A Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Karamouz; Banafsheh Zahraie; Reza Kerachian

    2003-01-01

    Excessive demand for water due to a growing population, agricultural, and industrial development, along with climate change and depletion of nonrenewable resources have intensified the need for integrated water resources management and water pollution control. This paper presents different aspects of a master plan for water pollution control and the results of a case study for developing a master plan

  9. Oil pollution detection and sensing. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques used to detect and sense oil spills and slicks. Citations discuss remote sensing, chemical and biological monitoring, satellite imagery, surveilllance, and models. Topics include pollution information systems, environmental monitoring, coastal ecology, and paths of pollutants. Pollution effects on fisheries, leak detectors, artificial oil pollution, remedial actions, and international cooperation are covered. (Contains a minimum of 236 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. The status of pesticide pollution in surface waters (rivers and lakes) of Greece. Part I. Review on occurrence and levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioannis K. Konstantinou; Dimitra G. Hela; Triantafyllos A. Albanis

    2006-01-01

    This review evaluates and summarizes the results of long-term research projects, monitoring programs and published papers concerning the pollution of surface waters (rivers and lakes) of Greece by pesticides. Pesticide classes mostly detected involve herbicides used extensively in corn, cotton and rice production, organophosphorus insecticides as well as the banned organochlorines insecticides due to their persistence in the aquatic environment.

  11. Water hyacinths for removal of cadmium and nickel from polluted waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Removal of cadmium and nickel from static water systems utilizing water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) was investigated. This aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to rapidly remove heavy metals from aqueous systems by root absorption and concentration. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to absorb and concentrate up to 0.67 mg of cadmium and 0.50 mg of nickel per gram of dry plant material when exposed for a 24-hour period to waters polluted with from 0.578 to 2.00 ppm of these toxic metals. It is found that one hectare of water hyacinths has the potential of removing 300 g of cadmium or nickel from 240,000 liters of water polluted with these metals during a 24-hour period.

  12. Nanostructures in environmental pollution detection, monitoring, and remediation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Vaseashta; M. Vaclavikova; S. Vaseashta; G. Gallios; P. Roy; O. Pummakarnchana

    2007-01-01

    We present preliminary results of our joint investigations to monitor and mitigate environmental pollution, a leading contributor to chronic and deadly health disorders and diseases affecting millions of people each year. Using nanotechnology-based gas sensors; pollution is monitored at several ground stations. The sensor unit is portable, provides instantaneous ground pollution concentrations accurately, and can be readily deployed to disseminate

  13. Impacts of soil and water pollution on food safety and health risks in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Song, Shuai; Wang, Ruoshi; Liu, Zhaoyang; Meng, Jing; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Li, Hong; Luo, Wei; Wang, Tieyu

    2015-04-01

    Environmental pollution and food safety are two of the most important issues of our time. Soil and water pollution, in particular, have historically impacted on food safety which represents an important threat to human health. Nowhere has that situation been more complex and challenging than in China, where a combination of pollution and an increasing food safety risk have affected a large part of the population. Water scarcity, pesticide over-application, and chemical pollutants are considered to be the most important factors impacting on food safety in China. Inadequate quantity and quality of surface water resources in China have led to the long-term use of waste-water irrigation to fulfill the water requirements for agricultural production. In some regions this has caused serious agricultural land and food pollution, especially for heavy metals. It is important, therefore, that issues threatening food safety such as combined pesticide residues and heavy metal pollution are addressed to reduce risks to human health. The increasing negative effects on food safety from water and soil pollution have put more people at risk of carcinogenic diseases, potentially contributing to 'cancer villages' which appear to correlate strongly with the main food producing areas. Currently in China, food safety policies are not integrated with soil and water pollution management policies. Here, a comprehensive map of both soil and water pollution threats to food safety in China is presented and integrated policies addressing soil and water pollution for achieving food safety are suggested to provide a holistic approach. PMID:25603422

  14. Detection of oil pollution along the pipeline routes in tropical ecosystem from multi-spectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamu, Bashir; Tansey, Kevin; Ogutu, Booker

    2014-05-01

    The study was conducted in an oil producing environment dominated by mangrove and swamp vegetation in Niger Delta, Nigeria. Ancillary data including oil pipeline map and GPS of spill points were used in selecting sample sites to identify and detect polluted locations. A number of polluted and non-polluted sites were selected and vegetation spectral reflectance and indices for these sample sites were extracted from TM data of January and December 1986. A statistical T-test was used to test for significant differences between vegetation spectral reflectance and indices from polluted and non-polluted sites. The initial results from the analysis of spectral reflectance between polluted and non-polluted did not show any significant difference in all the six spectral bands with p-value <0.005. The results from analysis of various vegetation indices some did not show any significance differences between the polluted and non-polluted sites (e.g. the SRI, SAVI and EVI2). Other VIs (NDVI, MSAVI2 and ARVI2) showed significant differences between the polluted and non-polluted sites. From these preliminary results we can conclude that pollution from oil spills may result to the changes in leaf biochemistry of the Mangroves in the Niger Delta which are detectable from remote sensing data. Future work will focus on undertaking further temporal analysis of additional spill sites to determine what quantity of spilt oil arises in spectral changes of vegetation.

  15. Destruction of environmental organic pollutants by supercritical water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Williams, P T; Onwudili, J A

    2006-08-01

    The supercritical water oxidation of two environmental pollutants in the form of diesel fuel and two waste landfill leachate samples have been examined in relation to sub-critical and supercritical water oxidation conditions. Supercritical water oxidation involves reactions in an aqueous fluid phase under conditions below and around the critical point of water (T(c) = 374 degrees C, P(c) = 22.1 MPa). Experiments were carried out using a batch autoclave reactor at temperatures between 300 degrees C and 380 degrees C corresponding to pressures between 10.5 MPa and 22.8 MPa. The oxidative decomposition of the diesel fuel, which was loaded onto a sand matrix to simulate a contaminated land sample, was determined in relation to process conditions. The results showed that almost complete destruction of the components of the diesel fuel could be achieved. In addition, intermediate oxygenated compounds were formed and identified. The level of loading of the diesel fuel onto the sand matrix influenced the level of compound decomposition and the amount of intermediate oxygenated compounds formed. The characteristics of the waste landfill leachates were determined and were shown to be highly chemically complex. The high chloride concentration of the leachate resulted in significant corrosion of the reactor. However, almost complete oxidation of the organic components of the leachate could be achieved under supercritical water oxidation conditions. PMID:16972378

  16. DEVELOPMENTS AT FOURTEENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WATER POLLUTION RESEARCH - BRIGHTON, ENGLAND, JULY 17-22, 1988

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this report is to provide a mechanism whereby current water research developments from around the world as reported at the 14th International Conference on Water Pollution Research of the International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control can be high...

  17. The River Basin Model: Computer Output. Water Pollution Control Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This research report is part of the Water Pollution Control Research Series which describes the results and progress in the control and abatement of pollution in our nation's waters. The River Basin Model described is a computer-assisted decision-making tool in which a number of computer programs simulate major processes related to water use that…

  18. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Luther L.

    1970-01-01

    Our mechanized environment has produced a variety of man-made pollutants. Prevention of pollution and resulting health hazards is a primary challenge. The Federal Government undertakes a large responsibility in the field of environmental control. (CK)

  19. Controlling agricultural nonpoint water pollution: costs of implementing the Maryland Water Quality Improvement Act of 1998

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doug Parker

    2000-01-01

    The Maryland Water Quality Improvement Act of 1998 (WQIA) seeks to create environmental and other benefits to the Chesapeake Bay through reductions in nonpoint source nutrient pollution. This paper analyzes the economic impacts of the WQIA on agricultural users of nutrients (commercial fertilizers or animal manures) and on poultry growers in the state of Maryland. The net economic impacts to

  20. WATER INFILTRATION CONTROL TO ACHIEVE MINE WATER POLLUTION CONTROL: THE DENTS RUN WATERSHED DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of surface mined land reclamation measures in establishing surface water infiltratin control to prevent or reduce pollution from acid mine drainage. The Dents Run watershed, located in Monongalia County, West Virgin...

  1. 40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...the owner's or operator's intake water will not be removed by any wastewater treatment systems whose design capacity and...toxic pollutant(s) present in the water after any water supply treatment steps have been performed by or...

  2. 40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...the owner's or operator's intake water will not be removed by any wastewater treatment systems whose design capacity and...toxic pollutant(s) present in the water after any water supply treatment steps have been performed by or...

  3. 40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...the owner's or operator's intake water will not be removed by any wastewater treatment systems whose design capacity and...toxic pollutant(s) present in the water after any water supply treatment steps have been performed by or...

  4. Water Detection and Removal From Shuttle Tiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Youngquist

    2003-01-01

    Current methods for detecting and removing water from the Space Shuttle tiles have proved inadequate in cases of excessive water exposure. This paper describes two new tools that are currently being introduced to Shuttle processing to supplement the existing methods. A capacitive device has been developed to augment the IR camera method of detecting water in the tiles and a

  5. Linking Near Real-Time Water Quality Measurements to Fecal Coliforms and Trace Organic Pollutants in Urban Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henjum, M.; Wennen, C.; Hondzo, M.; Hozalski, R. M.; Novak, P. J.; Arnold, W. A.

    2009-05-01

    Anthropogenic pollutants, including pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, and estrogens are detected in urban water bodies. Effective examination of dilute organic and microbial pollutant loading rates within surface waters is currently prohibitively expensive and labor intensive. Effort is being placed on the development of improved monitoring methodologies to more accurately assess surface water quality and evaluate the effectiveness of water quality management practices. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008 a "real-time" wireless network equipped with high frequency fundamental water quality parameter sensors measured turbidity, conductivity, pH, depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen and nitrate above and below stormwater inputs at two urban stream locations. At each location one liter grab samples were concurrently collected by ISCO automatic samplers at two hour intervals for 24 hour durations during three dry periods and five rain events. Grab samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms, atrazine (agricultural herbicide), prometon (residential herbicide) and caffeine (wastewater indicator). Surrogate relationships between easy-to-measure water quality parameters and difficult-to-measure pollutants were developed, subsequently facilitating monitoring of these pollutants without the development of new, and likely costly, technologies. Additionally, comparisons were made between traditional grab sampling techniques and the "real-time" monitoring to assess the accuracy of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) calculations.

  6. Development and validation of a rapid and wide-scope qualitative screening method for detection and identification of organic pollutants in natural water and wastewater by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Portolés, Tania; Pitarch, Elena; López, Francisco J; Hernández, Félix

    2011-01-14

    In this work, a multiclass screening method for organic contaminants in natural and wastewater has been developed and validated for qualitative purposes, i.e. to ensure the reliable and sensitive identification of compounds detected in samples at a certain level of concentration. The screening is based on the use of GC-TOF MS, and the sample procedure involves solid phase extraction with C(18) cartridges. Around 150 organic contaminants from different chemical families were investigated, including PAHs, octyl/nonyl phenols, PCBs, PBDEs and a notable number of pesticides, such as insecticides (organochlorines, organophosphorus, carbamates and pyrethroids), herbicides (triazines and chloroacetanilides), fungicides and several relevant metabolites. Surface water, ground water and effluent wastewater were spiked with all target analytes at three concentration levels (0.02, 0.1 and 1 ?g/L). Influent wastewater and raw leachate from a municipal solid waste treatment plant were spiked at two levels (0.1 and 1 ?g/L). Up to five m/z ions were evaluated for every compound. The identification criterion was the presence of, at least, two m/z ions at the expected retention time, measured at their accurate mass, and the accomplishment of the Q/q(i) intensity ratio within specified tolerances. The vast majority of compounds investigated were correctly identified in the samples spiked at 1 ?g/L. When analyte concentration was lowered down to 0.1 ?g/L the identification was more problematic, especially in complex-matrix samples like influent wastewater. On the contrary, many contaminants could be properly identified at the lowest level 0.02 ?g/L in cleaner matrices. The procedure was applied to the screening of water samples of different origin and matrix composition and allowed the detection of several target contaminants. A highly reliable identification could be carried out thanks to the sensitive full-spectrum acquisition at accurate mass, the high selectivity reached with the use of narrow-mass window extracted ion chromatograms, the low mass errors observed in the positive detections and the Q/q ratio accomplishment. PMID:21134677

  7. Analysis of national water-pollution-control policies. 1. A national network model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin; G. K. Young

    1981-01-01

    In order to study the national implications of federal water-pollution-control policies, the authors developed a water-pollution-network model. This model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and bays. While the geographical scope of the model and existing data availability required make many simplifying assumptions,

  8. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    Such projects must also be for the further purpose of developing preliminary plans for providing such safe water and such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in the State of...

  9. Is a heftier administrative law required to prevent state hollowing?: the issue of transborder water pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Breena E. Coates

    2004-01-01

    Concerns regarding the management of water and air pollution in border regions – such as the California-Mexico Border, is an old issue, which has bubbled up to its current crisis situation. Health and safety disasters, stemming from water pollution on both sides of the border mount as do related costs to local financially-strapped communities in California. One such impacted community

  10. Characterization and source apportionment of water pollution in Jinjiang River, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Yue, Weifeng; Song, Liuting

    2013-11-01

    Characterizing water quality and identifying potential pollution sources could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river ecosystem. In this study, fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA), pollution index (PI), principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) were combined to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal-spatial characterization and sources of water pollution with a case study of the Jinjiang River, China. Measurement data were obtained with 17 water quality variables from 20 sampling sites in the December 2010 (withered water period) and June 2011 (high flow period). FCA and PI were used to comprehensively estimate the water quality variables and compare temporal-spatial variations, respectively. Rotated PCA and receptor model (APCS-MLR) revealed potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions. Application results showed that comprehensive application of various multivariate methods were effective for water quality assessment and management. In the withered water period, most sampling sites were assessed as low or moderate pollution with characteristics pollutants of permanganate index and total nitrogen (TN), whereas 90% sites were classified as high pollution in the high flow period with higher TN and total phosphorus. Agricultural non-point sources, industrial wastewater discharge, and domestic sewage were identified as major pollution sources. Apportionment results revealed that most variables were complicatedly influenced by industrial wastewater discharge and agricultural activities in withered water period and primarily dominated by agricultural runoff in high flow period. PMID:23737126

  11. Managing Beach Amenities to Reduce Exposure to Coastal Hazards: Storm Water Pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linwood Pendleton

    2001-01-01

    Despite posted warnings and educational campaigns warning about the health risks associated with storm water pollution, swimmers continue to swim in coastal areas polluted by storm water run-off. This study uses a simple spatial model of beach visitation to show how beach amenities and storm drains influence the way in which beach goers choose to locate themselves at beaches in

  12. Water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the studies of water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. Citations examine the development, management, and protection of estuary and coastal resources. Topics include pollution sources, environmental monitoring, water chemistry, eutrophication, models, land use, government policy, and laws and regulations. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  13. WATER POLLUTION CAUSED BY INACTIVE ORE AND MINERAL MINES - A NATIONAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report identifies the scope and magnitude of water pollution from inactive ore and mineral mines. Data collected from Federal, State, and local agencies indicates water pollution from acids, heavy metals, and sedimentation occurs at over 100 locations and affects over 1200 ki...

  14. Study of CPAM\\/ bentonite microparticle retention system on reducing pollution load of papermaking white water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sha Li-zheng; Zhao Hui-fang

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of CPAM\\/bentonite microparticle retention system on reducing pollution load of papermaking white water, the dynamic drainage jar was used to simulate the wet end of low grammage fresh-keeping case board production. The turbidity and CODcr of the filtrate were measured to express the pollution load of white water. Results showed that the turbidity and

  15. Water pollution control: assessing the impacts and costs of environmental standards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Luken; E. H. Pechan

    1977-01-01

    This book addresses one of the key policy changes enacted into law by the Congress in 1972, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, that of requiring certain categories of industries and municipalities to meet pollution-discharge standards based on specific technology objectives regardless of the prior conditions or desired uses of the water. The procedures used to address

  16. Political crisis and the politics of water pollution control in the 1970s

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsoukalas

    1991-01-01

    This research investigates the sociopolitical context and formation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1977 in light of the theory of the relative autonomy of the state. Data on state legitimacy and political crisis are derived from previous studies on public trust in government and business and the

  17. Federal environmental litigation in 1976: the Federal Water Pollution Control Act

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Hunciker; V. Pagano

    1976-01-01

    The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 forms a vital part of EPA's national battle against pollution. The general objective of the act, to ''restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters,'' will hopefully be achieved through the completion of specific goals set and carried out by EPA and the federal government. The application

  18. Feasibility study: Fuel cell cogeneration in a water pollution control facility, volume 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Hirschenhofer; D. B. Baillieul; L. M. Barton; R. J. Brumberg; C. E. Hannan; H. H. Fiedler; M. G. Kile; M. G. Klett; G. A. Malone; H. P. Milliron

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of a cogeneration fuel cell power plant operating in a large water pollution control facility. In this particular application, the fuel cell power plant would use methane rich digester gas from the water pollution control facility as a fuel feedstock to provide electrical and thermal energy. Several

  19. BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSES FOR DETECTION AND ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTION IN THE SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Selected biochemical analysis techniques were investigated for potential use in detecting and assessing pollution of subsurface environments. Procedures for determining protein, nucleic acids, organic phosphate, lipopolysaccharides, and various coenzymes and enzyme systems were e...

  20. Optical detection of oil on water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Arvesen, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Three radiometric techniques utilizing sunlight reflected and backscattered from water bodies have potential application for remote sensing of oil spills. Oil on water can be detected by viewing perpendicular polarization component of reflected light or difference between polarization components. Best detection is performed in ultraviolet or far-red portions of spectrum and in azimuth directions toward or opposite sun.

  1. INFLUENCE OF DIET ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BOVINE FECAL POLLUTION DETECTION METHODS AND MICROBIAL POPULATION STRUCTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT Background and Aims. Waterborne diseases originating from bovine fecal material are a significant public health issue. Ensuring water quality requires the use of methods that can consistently identify pollution across a broad range of management practices. One practi...

  2. Pollution detection in Lake Champlain using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, A. O. (principal investigator); Henson, E. B.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A major waste water discharge plume generated by a large paper mill along the New York shore of Lake Champlain was visually detected on ERTS-1 imagery. The plume is best displayed in 9.5 inch positive transparencies of MSS bands 4 and 5. Observation of the magnitude and extent of this plume is feasible, under magnification of 4 times. The chemical parameters of this plume have been documented by limnological studies. An enhancement technique useful for documenting the presence of waste water discharge plumes in Lake Champlain utilizes Polaroid MP-3 copy camera equipment and Spectral Data Corporation's multispectral viewer. The 9.5 inch, ERTS-1, positive transparency is enlarged using the Polaroid MP-3 copy camera to produce an enlarged lantern slide size positive transparency. These are projected through the multispectral viewer for enhancement and the scene is viewed directly on the screen or copied by an additional photographic step. The technique is simple and produces rapid results.

  3. Continuous flow fluorescence based immunosensor for the detection of explosives and environmental pollutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul T. Charles; John C. Bart; Linda L. Judd; Paul R. Gauger; Frances S. Ligler; Anne W. Kusterbeck

    1997-01-01

    A continuous flow fluorescence based immunosensor has been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory as an inexpensive, field portable device to detect environmental pollutants. Detection of environmental pollutants such as explosives [e.g. trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5 trinitro- 1,3,5-triazine (RDX)[ and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been achieved at low level concentrations. The continuous flow immunosensor (CFI) employs antibodies as recognition elements

  4. Water relations and photosynthesis in pine trees exposed to industrial pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Kaipianen, L.K.; Bolondinskii, V.K.; Sazonova, T.A.; Sofronova, G.I. [Karelian Scientific Center, Karelia (Russian Federation)

    1995-05-01

    The temporal and spatial variability of the shoot water potential, a sensitive characteristic of plant water relations, was investigated in common pine growing under conditions of industrial pollution. The alterations in the xylem structure that made the plants more susceptible to water deficit were revealed. It is concluded that water stress, enhanced by pollutants, negatively affects the diurnal pattern and light curves of CO{sub 2}-gas exchange; this additional factor, along the damage to assimilatory apparatus and stomata, accounts for photosynthesis decline in the pollutant-exposed pine trees. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Removal of some heavy metals from polluted water by water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Muramoto; Y. Oki

    1983-01-01

    Water hyacinth(Eichhornia crassipes.(Mart.) Solms) grows abunduntly throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world (PENFOUND & EARLE 1948), and is also widely distributed in the southwest regions in Japan(UEKl et ai.1976). Recently, this plant has received attention because of its potential for removal of pollutants when utilized as a biological filtration system(WOLVERTON ~t al. 1978). There are many reports

  6. Water Detection Based on Object Reflections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Matthies, Larry H.

    2012-01-01

    Water bodies are challenging terrain hazards for terrestrial unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) for several reasons. Traversing through deep water bodies could cause costly damage to the electronics of UGVs. Additionally, a UGV that is either broken down due to water damage or becomes stuck in a water body during an autonomous operation will require rescue, potentially drawing critical resources away from the primary operation and increasing the operation cost. Thus, robust water detection is a critical perception requirement for UGV autonomous navigation. One of the properties useful for detecting still water bodies is that their surface acts as a horizontal mirror at high incidence angles. Still water bodies in wide-open areas can be detected by geometrically locating the exact pixels in the sky that are reflecting on candidate water pixels on the ground, predicting if ground pixels are water based on color similarity to the sky and local terrain features. But in cluttered areas where reflections of objects in the background dominate the appearance of the surface of still water bodies, detection based on sky reflections is of marginal value. Specifically, this software attempts to solve the problem of detecting still water bodies on cross-country terrain in cluttered areas at low cost.

  7. Leak Detection and Water Loss Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zacharia M. Lahlou

    Summary Utilities can no longer tolerate inefficiencies in water distribution systems and the resulting loss of revenue associated with underground water system leakage. Increases in pumping, treatment and operational costs make these losses prohibitive. To combat water loss, many utilities are developing methods to detect, locate, and correct leaks. Old and poorly con- structed pipelines, inadequate corrosion protection, poorly maintained

  8. Ion-chromatographic screening method for monitoring arsenate and other anionic pollutants in ground waters of Northern Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Polesello; S Valsecchi; S Cavalli; C Reschiotto

    2001-01-01

    A novel, rapid ion-chromatographic method for screening anionic pollutants in ground water, based on both conductivity and postcolumn spectrophotometric detection, has been developed. A relatively rapid separation of more than ten inorganic and polarizable anions was achieved by coupling an high capacity, hydroxide selective anion-exchange columns (Dionex IonPac AS16) supplied with an electrolytic eluent generator operating in gradient mode. The

  9. Treatment and recycling facilities of highly polluted water-based paint wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mairambek Mamadiev; Gulsum Yilmaz

    2011-01-01

    The study presented focuses on treatment and recycling facilities of highly polluted water-based paint wastewater from electronics industry, using coagulation-flocculation, Fenton’s oxidation and membrane processes. The treated water is sought after for recycling purposes within the painting unit and the water quality is negligible except suspended solids. The wastewater used in this study was characterized as highly polluted wastewater with

  10. Oceanic deep water formation as a sink of persistent organic pollutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Lohmann; Elena Jurado; Michael E. Q. Pilson; Jordi Dachs

    2006-01-01

    The formation of deep oceanic waters occurs as part of the global thermohaline circulation due to gradients in salinity and temperature, and moves surface waters, including persistent organic pollutants (POPs), directly to the deep Ocean. For the four main deep water formation regions, removal fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were calculated based on their surface water concentrations and deep

  11. Nonpoint source water pollution management in Canada and the United States: A comparative analysis of institutional arrangements and policy instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn M Johns

    2000-01-01

    Nearly thirty years after the introduction of water pollution management legislation in Canada and the United States, water pollution remains an important public policy problem. Very basically, water pollution problems can be divided into two types: point source and non-point source. Point source categorizes those cases where inputs into natural ecosystems come from easily identifiable sources such as industrial effluent

  12. Removal of phosphate from polluted water by lanthanum doped vesuvianite.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng; Ru, Jingyu; Yin, Wen; Liu, Xiaohai; Wang, Jiaqiang; Zhang, Wudi

    2009-08-30

    The adsorption capacities of vesuvianite and lanthanum doped vesuvianite were studied. The effects of different mass ratios of La/vesuvianite at different contact times, pHs, and temperatures on adsorption capacity were also studied. It was found that lanthanum doped vesuvianite exhibited higher adsorption capacity than undoped one due to the reaction of bounded lanthanum with phosphate. The adsorption capacity of lanthanum doped vesuvianite for phosphate removal increased with the increase of La/vesuvianite mass ratio. The Freundlich and Langmuir models were used to simulate the sorption equilibrium, and the results indicate that the Langmuir model had a better correlation with the experimental data than the Freundlich model did. When the initial phosphate concentration was 1mgP/L, the adsorptive capacity rate would be 1.32 mg P/g lanthanum doped vesuvianite (La/vesuvianite mass ratio >or=0.14) at pH between 6 and 9 after 40h. The concentrations of residual lanthanum ions in solution at different conditions were measured. Lanthanum doped vesuvianite was also used for the removal of phosphate in a polluted river water and it could be easily recycled once without losing its activity to a greater extent. PMID:19297092

  13. Spectroscopic methods for detection of impurities in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strashnikova, Natalia V.; Papiashvili, Nona; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Mark, Shlomo; Shilon, Guy; Khankin, Daniel; Kalisky, Yehoshua; Kalisky, Ofra; Parola, Abraham H.

    2011-11-01

    Optical photoluminescence spectroscopic method for detection of impurities, hazardous materials, pesticides, and pollutants in water resources, both qualitatively and quantitatively, is presented. The method is based on synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) of organic aromatic compounds, or poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and is carried out by following simultaneously their excitation and emission spectra. The full excitation emission matrix (EEM) generated in this way provides a 2-D and 3-D fluorescence map of the tested sample and the diagonals through the axes origin provide the synchronous fluorescence spectra at a constant wavelengths differences between the emission and excitation wavelengths, thus enabling multitude components identification. This map contains all the relevant spectroscopic information of the tested sample, and serves as a unique "fingerprint" with a very specific and accurate identification. When compared with pre-determined spectra and calibration curves from a "databank", there is a one-toone correspondence between the image and the specific compound, and it can be identified accurately both qualitatively and quantitatively. This method offers several significant advantages, and it provides a sensitive (ppm detection level), accurate and simple spectroscopic tool to monitor impurities and pollutants in water. The design and performance of the spectrofluorimeter prototype, as well as the software development and analysis of chemical organic compounds and mixtures in water will be discussed in this paper.

  14. Water pollution: EPA controls over ballast water at Trans-Alaska Pipeline Marine Terminal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The Alyeska Pipeline Service Company at Valdez, Alaska, operates a water treatment plant at the terminal to treat ballast water, oily sea water that is carried in tankers to provide stability, before it is discharged into the bay. The Environmental Protection Agency is nearly 4 years late in issuing a new permit to Alyeska which regulates the types and amounts of pollution that can be discharged. Alyeska has been operating under an extension of its old permit whose conditions may be less stringent than the new permit will require. Prior to 1984, EPA monitored Alyeska's permit and identified instances of noncompliance with permit conditions, but its enforcement actions were limited to discussions and correspondence with Alyeska. In contrast, since 1984, EPA has begun taking enforcement actions as well as investigating allegations of other environmental problems. EPA should have acted sooner and until the new permit is issued, questions about the protection of marine life and water quality in Valdez Bay will remain unanswered.

  15. Water pollutant fingerprinting tracks recent industrial transfer from coastal to inland China: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Tian, Dajun; Jiang, Songhui; Andersen, Melvin E.; He, Genhsjeng; Crabbe, M. James C.; Zheng, Yuxin; Zhong, Yang; Qu, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, China’s developed regions have transferred industries to undeveloped regions. Large numbers of unlicensed or unregistered enterprises are widespread in these undeveloped regions and they are subject to minimal regulation. Current methods for tracing industrial transfers in these areas, based on enterprise registration information or economic surveys, do not work. We have developed an analytical framework combining water fingerprinting and evolutionary analysis to trace the pollution transfer features between water sources. We collected samples in Eastern China (industrial export) and Central China (industrial acceptance) separately from two water systems. Based on the water pollutant fingerprints and evolutionary trees, we traced the pollution transfer associated with industrial transfer between the two areas. The results are consistent with four episodes of industrial transfers over the past decade. Our results also show likely types of the transferred industries - electronics, plastics, and biomedicines - that contribute to the water pollution transfer. PMID:23301152

  16. Water pollutant fingerprinting tracks recent industrial transfer from coastal to inland China: a case study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Tian, Dajun; Jiang, Songhui; Andersen, Melvin E; He, Genhsjeng; Crabbe, M James C; Zheng, Yuxin; Zhong, Yang; Qu, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, China's developed regions have transferred industries to undeveloped regions. Large numbers of unlicensed or unregistered enterprises are widespread in these undeveloped regions and they are subject to minimal regulation. Current methods for tracing industrial transfers in these areas, based on enterprise registration information or economic surveys, do not work. We have developed an analytical framework combining water fingerprinting and evolutionary analysis to trace the pollution transfer features between water sources. We collected samples in Eastern China (industrial export) and Central China (industrial acceptance) separately from two water systems. Based on the water pollutant fingerprints and evolutionary trees, we traced the pollution transfer associated with industrial transfer between the two areas. The results are consistent with four episodes of industrial transfers over the past decade. Our results also show likely types of the transferred industries - electronics, plastics, and biomedicines - that contribute to the water pollution transfer. PMID:23301152

  17. Transport of sludge-derived organic pollutants to deep-sea sediments at deep water dump site 106

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takada, H.; Farrington, J.W.; Bothner, Michael H.; Johnson, C.G.; Tripp, B.W.

    1994-01-01

    Linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), coprostanol and epi-coprostanol, were detected in sediment trap and bottom sediment samples at the Deep Water Dump Site 106 located 185 km off the coast of New Jersey, in water depths from 2400 to 2900 m. These findings clearly indicate that organic pollutants derived from dumped sludge are transported through the water column and have accumulated on the deep-sea floor. No significant difference in LABs isomeric composition was observed among sludge and samples, indicating little environmental biodegradation of these compounds. LABs and coprostanol have penetrated down to a depth of 6 cm in sediment, indicating the mixing of these compounds by biological and physical processes. Also, in artificially resuspended surface sediments, high concentrations of LABs and coprostanols were detected, implying that sewage-derived organic pollutants initially deposited on the deep-sea floor can be further dispersed by resuspension and transport processes. Small but significant amounts of coprostanol were detected in the sediment from a control site at which no LABs were detected. The coprostanol is probably derived from feces of marine mammals and sea birds and/or from microbial or geochemical transformations of cholesterol. Polcyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment trap samples from the dump site were largely from the sewage sludge and had a mixed petroleum and pyrogenic composition. In contrast, PAHs in sediments in the dump site were mainly pyrogenic; contributed either from sewage sludge or from atmospheric transport to the overlying waters. & 1994 American Chemical Society.

  18. Sequestration of priority pollutant PAHs from sediment pore water employing semipermeable membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, K.S.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Lebo, J.A.; Kaiser, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were employed to sample sediment pore water in static exposure studies under controlled laboratory conditions using (control pond and formulated) sediments fortified with 15 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPPAHs). The sediment fortification level of 750 ng/g was selected on the basis of what might be detected in a sediment sample from a contaminated area. The sampling interval consisted of 0, 4, 7, 14, and 28 days for each study. The analytical methodologies, as well as the extraction and sample cleanup procedures used in the isolation, characterization, and quantitation of 15 PPPAHs at different fortification levels in SPMDs, water, and sediment were reported previously (Williamson, M.S. Thesis, University of Missouri - Columbia, USA; Williamson et al., Chemosphere (This issue - PII: S0045-6535(02)00394-6)) and used for this project. Average (mean) extraction recoveries for each PPPAH congener in each matrix are reported and discussed. No procedural blank extracts (controls) were found to contain any PPPAH residues above the method quantitation limit, therefore, no matrix interferences were detected. The focus of this publication is to demonstrate the ability to sequester environmental contaminants, specifically PPPAHs, from sediment pore water using SPMDs and two different types of fortified sediment.

  19. ANALYSIS OF EXTRACTABLE PRIORITY POLLUTANTS IN WATER BY GC/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following the June 1976 Consent Decree (NRDC et al. vs. EPA), there has been a continuously increasing demand for the analysis of water samples for the 129 priority pollutants. The protocol originally designed for the analysis of the priority pollutants that are extractable into ...

  20. A Bi-Enzymatic Whole-Cell Algal Biosensor for Monitoring Waste Water Pollutants

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Bi-Enzymatic Whole-Cell Algal Biosensor for Monitoring Waste Water Pollutants Claude Durrieu,1 Ce biosensors are developed to measure specific toxicity of freshwater pollutants. Both optical and conductometric biosensors are based on inhibition of algal alkaline phosphatase (AP) and esterase activi- ties

  1. Towards a Holistic Classification of Diffuse Agricultural Water Pollution from Intensively Managed Grasslands on Heavy Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Granger; R. Bol; S. Anthony; P. N. Owens; S. M. White; P. M. Haygarth

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing demand for food security comes an increasing pressure on the environment. Contamination of surface water by diffuse agricultural pollutants is widely recognized as an area of concern; however, this has still led to a fragmented approach to scientific research. Pollutants tend to be treated in isolation and only infrequently in the context of an environment where other

  2. An information Grid-based model for sharing water pollution control and prevention technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Minghu; Gao Zhenji; Xu Chunlian; Huang Haiming

    2010-01-01

    Though water pollution control and prevention technologies have made a great progress, most polluting enterprises even have never heard of them, not to mention use them. So we design an technologies sharing model based on information Grid, and focus our discussion on the process of searching and invoking the wanted technologies with mobile agents.

  3. Implementation of intergovernmental regulatory programs: Section 402 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wassenberg

    1985-01-01

    This study develops and tests a theoretical framework for the study of the process by which intergovernmental regulatory policies are implemented. The framework is applied to the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program of the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. The general question addressed is why some states have the authority to implement intergovernmental regulatory

  4. Experimental study of effectiveness of nonpoint source water pollution control group contract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen N. Pushkarskaya; Hal Arkes; Jason Pieratt; Ibrahim Bamba

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this experimental study was to test an effectiveness of a group contract designed to control nonpoint source water pollution from farms' runoff (Pushkarskaya 2003). In particular, the regulator pays for pollution reduction credits earned by the group of the farmers, who voluntary enter the contract, and is concerned only with the total level of the abatement achieved,

  5. State-of-art review: water pollution control benefits and costs. Volume I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Unger; M. J. Emerson; D. L. Jordening

    1973-01-01

    A survey and assessment are presented of the state-of-art of economic ; analyses dealing with water pollution control benefits and costs. The ; investigation includes the extension of traditional benefit cost analysis into ; the area of pollution control. Implications for planning and research plus some ; directions of needed study are also developed. A conceptual basis for benefit ;

  6. Making Water Pollution a Problem in the Classroom Through Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, John D.

    Alternative means for dealing with water pollution control are presented for students and teachers. One computer oriented program is described in terms of teaching wastewater treatment and pollution concepts to middle and secondary school students. Suggestions are given to help teachers use a computer simulation program in their classrooms.…

  7. Waste water treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment of industrial pollutants. The use and effectiveness of biological treatments and carbon additives are examined. References also discuss problems and recommendations for the removal of mercury and its compounds, fertilizers, and pesticides from polluted waste water. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. 'GIARDIA' DETECTION IN WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method has been developed combining immunofluorescence and phase-contrast to microscopically locate and identify Giardia cysts among particulates filtered from water samples. Selective staining of cysts with anti-Giardia antiserum and a fluorochrom enhances the contrast between...

  9. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution abatement cost functions in central portugal.

    PubMed

    Roebeling, P C; Rocha, J; Nunes, J P; Fidélis, T; Alves, H; Fonseca, S

    2014-01-01

    Coastal aquatic ecosystems are increasingly affected by diffuse source nutrient water pollution from agricultural activities in coastal catchments, even though these ecosystems are important from a social, environmental and economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance marginal costs from coastal catchment water pollution abatement and associated marginal benefits from coastal resource appreciation. Diffuse-source water pollution abatement costs across agricultural sectors are not easily determined given the spatial heterogeneity in biophysical and agro-ecological conditions as well as the available range of best agricultural practices (BAPs) for water quality improvement. We demonstrate how the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) can be used to estimate diffuse-source water pollution abatement cost functions across agricultural land use categories based on a stepwise adoption of identified BAPs for water quality improvement and corresponding SWAT-based estimates for agricultural production, agricultural incomes, and water pollution deliveries. Results for the case of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) surface water pollution by the key agricultural land use categories ("annual crops," "vineyards," and "mixed annual crops & vineyards") in the Vouga catchment in central Portugal show that no win-win agricultural practices are available within the assessed BAPs for DIN water quality improvement. Estimated abatement costs increase quadratically in the rate of water pollution abatement, with largest abatement costs for the "mixed annual crops & vineyards" land use category (between 41,900 and 51,900 € tDIN yr) and fairly similar abatement costs across the "vineyards" and "annual crops" land use categories (between 7300 and 15,200 € tDIN yr). PMID:25602550

  10. Electronic-nose for detecting environmental pollutants: signal processing and analog front-end design

    E-print Network

    of detecting pollutants in real-time. An integrated chemical sensor array system is developed for detection and require trained personnel [6]. These techniques are not appropriate for real-time on-site operation [15] and odor emission rate of a compost hall [16]. However they have not been applied for real-time

  11. Application of Ion Exchange Technique to Decontamination of Polluted Water Generated by Fukushima Nuclear Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshita, Kenji; Ogata, Takeshi

    By the Fukushima nuclear disaster, large amounts of water and sea water polluted mainly with radioactive Cs were generated and the environment around the nuclear site was contaminated by the fallout from the nuclear site. The coagulation settling process using ferric ferrocyanide and an inorganic coagulant and the adsorption process using ferric ferrocyanide granulated by silica binder were applied to the treatment of polluted water. In the coagulation settling process, Cs was removed completely from polluted water and sea water (DF?104). In the adsorption process, the recovery of trace Cs (10 ppb) in sea water, which was not suitable for the use of zeolite, was attained successfully. Finally, the recovery of Cs from sewage sludge was tested by a combined process with the hydrothermal process using subcritical water and the coagulation settling process using ferric ferrocyanide. 96% of radioactive Cs was recovered successfully from sewage sludge with the radioactivity of 10,000 Bq/kg.

  12. A microbial signature approach to identify fecal pollution in the waters off an urbanized coast of Lake Michigan.

    PubMed

    Newton, Ryan J; Bootsma, Melinda J; Morrison, Hilary G; Sogin, Mitchell L; McLellan, Sandra L

    2013-05-01

    Urban coasts receive watershed drainage from ecosystems that include highly developed lands with sewer and stormwater infrastructure. In these complex ecosystems, coastal waters are often contaminated with fecal pollution, where multiple delivery mechanisms that often contain multiple fecal sources make it difficult to mitigate the pollution. Here, we exploit bacterial community sequencing of the V6 and V6V4 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to identify bacterial distributions that signal the presence of sewer, fecal, and human fecal pollution. The sequences classified to three sewer infrastructure-associated bacterial genera, Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, and Trichococcus, and five fecal-associated bacterial families, Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae, served as signatures of sewer and fecal contamination, respectively. The human fecal signature was determined with the Bayesian source estimation program SourceTracker, which we applied to a set of 40 sewage influent samples collected in Milwaukee, WI, USA to identify operational taxonomic units (? 97 % identity) that were most likely of human fecal origin. During periods of dry weather, the magnitudes of all three signatures were relatively low in Milwaukee's urban rivers and harbor and nearly zero in Lake Michigan. However, the relative contribution of the sewer and fecal signature frequently increased to > 2 % of the measured surface water communities following sewer overflows. Also during combined sewer overflows, the ratio of the human fecal pollution signature to the fecal pollution signature in surface waters was generally close to that of sewage, but this ratio decreased dramatically during dry weather and rain events, suggesting that nonhuman fecal pollution was the dominant source during these weather-driven scenarios. The qPCR detection of two human fecal indicators, human Bacteroides and Lachno2, confirmed the urban fecal footprint in this ecosystem extends to at least 8 km offshore. PMID:23475306

  13. A Microbial Signature Approach to Identify Fecal Pollution in the Waters Off an Urbanized Coast of Lake Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Ryan J.; Bootsma, Melinda J.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2014-01-01

    Urban coasts receive watershed drainage from ecosystems that include highly developed lands with sewer and stormwater infrastructure. In these complex ecosystems, coastal waters are often contaminated with fecal pollution, where multiple delivery mechanisms that often contain multiple fecal sources make it difficult to mitigate the pollution. Here, we exploit bacterial community sequencing of the V6 and V6V4 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to identify bacterial distributions that signal the presence of sewer, fecal, and human fecal pollution. The sequences classified to three sewer infrastructure-associated bacterial genera, Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, and Trichococcus, and five fecal-associated bacterial families, Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae, served as signatures of sewer and fecal contamination, respectively. The human fecal signature was determined with the Bayesian source estimation program SourceTracker, which we applied to a set of 40 sewage influent samples collected in Milwaukee, WI, USA to identify operational taxonomic units (?97 % identity) that were most likely of human fecal origin. During periods of dry weather, the magnitudes of all three signatures were relatively low in Milwaukee's urban rivers and harbor and nearly zero in Lake Michigan. However, the relative contribution of the sewer and fecal signature frequently increased to >2 % of the measured surface water communities following sewer overflows. Also during combined sewer overflows, the ratio of the human fecal pollution signature to the fecal pollution signature in surface waters was generally close to that of sewage, but this ratio decreased dramatically during dry weather and rain events, suggesting that nonhuman fecal pollution was the dominant source during these weather-driven scenarios. The qPCR detection of two human fecal indicators, human Bacteroides and Lachno2, confirmed the urban fecal footprint in this ecosystem extends to at least 8 km offshore. PMID:23475306

  14. Integrated planning for water quality management: The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 and Coastal Zone Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allayaud

    1980-01-01

    The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments were enacted by Congress in response to the severe water quality problems our nation has been experiencing. Section 208 of the Amendments establishes regional planning for water quality management as being necessary and provides strong incentives for states and municipalities to implement the Section's requirements. Section 208 planning is the subject of this

  15. Water renewal and risk assessment of water pollution in semi-enclosed domains: Application to Bilbao Harbour (Bay of Biscay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grifoll, Manel; Del Campo, Andrea; Espino, Manuel; Mader, Julien; González, Manuel; Borja, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of water renewal behaviour in the risk assessment of water pollution for Bilbao harbour (located within the Nervión estuary, southeastern Bay of Biscay) is analysed. Several parameterisations of water renewal (integral and local perspectives), obtained from the numerical evolution analysis of a Eulerian tracer, were used. The local characterisation of water renewal confirmed a strong horizontal spatial variability. In addition, vertical variability on water renewal patterns, due to the 3-dimensional structure of the flow was also appreciated. For the period analysed (August 2008) the water renewal was less effective at the surface, than in deeper waters, because marine breezes counteracted water renewal at the surface, during the observed period. The incidence of this vertical variability, on harbour environmental management, was analysed in implementing a recently developed methodology to evaluate the risk of water pollution. Since this methodology takes into account water renewal, the values of risk of water pollution in Bilbao harbour differed considerably, as a function of the renewal pattern at the surface or within deeper waters. In conclusion, it was found that the water renewal should be parameterised properly, in order to improve environmental management strategies in semi-enclosed water bodies in coastal areas. The findings permitted knowledge to be gained on water renewal behaviour within Bilbao harbour, advancing the framework for the environmental management of harbour waters.

  16. 9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure...318.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  17. 9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure...318.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  18. 9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure...318.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  19. [Safety concentration of genotoxic carcinogens in water pollution accident based on human health risk].

    PubMed

    Luo, Jin-Hong; Zheng, Bing-Hui; Fu, Qing; Hung, Min-Sheng

    2012-02-01

    It was an urgent problem to determine short-term exposure safety concentration of genetic carcinogens in water pollution accident in China. Based on the hypothesis that the relationship between exposure dosage and carcinogenic risk was linear, the calculation process of genetic carcinogens safety concentration was put forwarded, and the method using life-time exposed safety concentration to calculate short-term exposure safety concentration was set up. Based on the statistical result of water pollution accident occurred in china during 2000-2010, arsenic was a major characteristic contaminate in water pollution accident. According to the method of short-term exposure safety concentration of genotoxic carcinogens, the safety concentration of arsenic was 0.5 mg x L(-1), it showed that the method was feasible in emergence management of water pollution accident. PMID:22509565

  20. OVERALL MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FOR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM SMALL WATER POOLS UNDER SIMULATED INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small chamber tests were conducted to experimentally determine the overall mass transfer coefficient for pollutant emissions from still water under simulated indoor-residential or occupational-environmental conditions. Fourteen tests were conducted in small environmental chambers...

  1. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    Arkansas Water Resources Center LASER-PHOTOACOUSTIC DETECTION OF WATER POLLUTANTS PHASE I Principal. '. 18 #12;cor~PLETIONREPORT LASER-PHOTOACOUSTICDETECTIONOF WATER POLLUTANTS: PHASEI October ls 1977 their waters. Recognizing that water pollution can pose serious health hazards and unknown long term effects

  2. THE USE OF WETLANDS FOR WATER POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands such as marshes, swamps and artificial wetlands, have been shown to remove selected pollutants from urban stormwater runoff and treated municipal wastewaters. Wetlands have produced reduction in BOD, pathogens, and some hydrocarbons, and excel in nitrogen removal. They h...

  3. 9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    (a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited to flood water) in an official establishment, all products and ingredients for use in the preparation of such products that have been rendered adulterated by the water shall be...

  4. NATIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ASSESSMENT MODEL, VERSION 2.0 (NWPCAM 2.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    NWPCAM 2.0 is a national-level water quality modeling system that can be used to simulate the water quality changes and economic benefits that result from various pollution control policies. It builds and significantly improves on an earlier model the Clean Water Act Effects Mode...

  5. The effect of water pollution control regulations on the cost of production of electric power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Deyak; A. N. Link

    1979-01-01

    The impact of water pollution control regulations, such as those outlined in 1972 FWPCA Amendments, on production costs in the electric utility industry are examined. The use of water by electric utilities, and the impact that water regulations will have on those uses are discussed. The production process of electric utilities is discussed, and a cost function from a cross-section

  6. Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 2. Agricultural sediment control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin

    1981-01-01

    Application of a national water network model permits an analysis of the likely affects of agricultural sediment control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier

  7. Water quality along the sone river polluted by the orient Paper Mill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Srivastava; W. S. Fargo; V. S. Sai; K. C. Mathur

    1988-01-01

    Changes in water quality along the Sone River, which is polluted by effluents from the Orient Paper Mills (OPM), Amlai, M.P., India were studied in the present work. The water samples from fifteen stations, covering a distance of about 216 km along the river course were subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis to determine similarity relations with respect to seven water

  8. Water hyacinth as indicator of heavy metal pollution in the tropics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Humberto Gonzalez; Martin Lodenius; Mirta Otero

    1989-01-01

    The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a common aquatic plant in many tropical countries. Its ability absorb nutrients and other elements from the water has made it possible to use it for water purification purposes. Eichhornia, especially stems and leaves, have been successfully used as indicators of heavy metal pollution in tropical countries. The uptake of heavy metals in this

  9. Pollution Status of Surface Water Resources in Arid Region of Rajasthan (india)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachhawa, Chanchal

    Present investigation deals with the evaluation of DO, BOD and COD of six surface water resources of Bikaner district which fall in arid region of Rajasthan - a part of Great Indian Desert, to determine pollution status. Water sample analysed for two years 2008-2009 showed these parameters beyond the limit of standard prescribed by WHO. These parameters also showed great seasonal fluctuation, indicating the degree of organic pollution more during summer season and least during winter season.

  10. Industry sector analysis Canada: Water pollution control equipment and instrumentation. Export trade information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Bryan; S. Lee

    1992-01-01

    U.S. suppliers of water pollution control equipment are in a prime position to benefit from Canadian industries' needs to modernize equipment in order to comply with tough, new legislation to control water pollution. In selling to the Canadian market, U.S. suppliers clearly benefit from the advantages of advanced technical know-how, proximity to the market, and reduced tariffs under the U.S.-Canada

  11. [Spatio-temporal characteristics and source identification of water pollutants in Wenruitang River watershed].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-xue; Wang, La-chun; Liao, Ling-ling

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the temp-spatial distribution and sources of water pollutants is of great significance for efficient water quality management pollution control in Wenruitang River watershed, China. A total of twelve water quality parameters, including temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+ -N), electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity (Turb), nitrite-N (NO2-), nitrate-N(NO3-), phosphate-P(PO4(3-), total organic carbon (TOC) and silicate (SiO3(2-)), were analyzed from September, 2008 to October, 2009. Geographic information system(GIS) and principal component analysis(PCA) were used to determine the spatial distribution and to apportion the sources of pollutants. The results demonstrated that TN, NH4+ -N, PO4(3-) were the main pollutants during flow period, wet period, dry period, respectively, which was mainly caused by urban point sources and agricultural and rural non-point sources. In spatial terms, the order of pollution was tertiary river > secondary river > primary river, while the water quality was worse in city zones than in the suburb and wetland zone regardless of the river classification. In temporal terms, the order of pollution was dry period > wet period > flow period. Population density, land use type and water transfer affected the water quality in Wenruitang River. PMID:25898648

  12. What is Nonpoint Source Pollution? Nonpoint Source Pollution, or people pollution, is a contamination of our ground water,

    E-print Network

    Rainforth, Emma C.

    , recreational water activities, the fishing industry, tourism and our precious drinking water resources lifestyle can make a tremendous difference in the quality of New Jersey's water resources. Here are just a pesticide, follow the label directions carefully. HOUSEHOLD HAZARDOUS PRODUCTS: Many common household

  13. Sunscreen Products as Emerging Pollutants to Coastal Waters

    PubMed Central

    Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Sánchez-Quiles, David; Basterretxea, Gotzon; Benedé, Juan L.; Chisvert, Alberto; Salvador, Amparo; Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio; Blasco, Julián

    2013-01-01

    A growing awareness of the risks associated with skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation over the past decades has led to increased use of sunscreen cosmetic products leading the introduction of new chemical compounds in the marine environment. Although coastal tourism and recreation are the largest and most rapidly growing activities in the world, the evaluation of sunscreen as source of chemicals to the coastal marine system has not been addressed. Concentrations of chemical UV filters included in the formulation of sunscreens, such as benzophehone 3 (BZ-3), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), TiO2 and ZnO, are detected in nearshore waters with variable concentrations along the day and mainly concentrated in the surface microlayer (i.e. 53.6–577.5 ng L-1 BZ-3; 51.4–113.4 ng L-1 4-MBC; 6.9–37.6 µg L-1 Ti; 1.0–3.3 µg L-1 Zn). The presence of these compounds in seawater suggests relevant effects on phytoplankton. Indeed, we provide evidences of the negative effect of sunblocks on the growth of the commonly found marine diatom Chaetoceros gracilis (mean EC50?=?125±71 mg L-1). Dissolution of sunscreens in seawater also releases inorganic nutrients (N, P and Si forms) that can fuel algal growth. In particular, PO43? is released by these products in notable amounts (up to 17 µmol PO43? g?1). We conservatively estimate an increase of up to 100% background PO43? concentrations (0.12 µmol L-1 over a background level of 0.06 µmol L-1) in nearshore waters during low water renewal conditions in a populated beach in Majorca island. Our results show that sunscreen products are a significant source of organic and inorganic chemicals that reach the sea with potential ecological consequences on the coastal marine ecosystem. PMID:23755233

  14. Sunscreen products as emerging pollutants to coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Sánchez-Quiles, David; Basterretxea, Gotzon; Benedé, Juan L; Chisvert, Alberto; Salvador, Amparo; Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio; Blasco, Julián

    2013-01-01

    A growing awareness of the risks associated with skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation over the past decades has led to increased use of sunscreen cosmetic products leading the introduction of new chemical compounds in the marine environment. Although coastal tourism and recreation are the largest and most rapidly growing activities in the world, the evaluation of sunscreen as source of chemicals to the coastal marine system has not been addressed. Concentrations of chemical UV filters included in the formulation of sunscreens, such as benzophehone 3 (BZ-3), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), TiO? and ZnO, are detected in nearshore waters with variable concentrations along the day and mainly concentrated in the surface microlayer (i.e. 53.6-577.5 ng L?¹ BZ-3; 51.4-113.4 ng L?¹ 4-MBC; 6.9-37.6 µg L?¹ Ti; 1.0-3.3 µg L?¹ Zn). The presence of these compounds in seawater suggests relevant effects on phytoplankton. Indeed, we provide evidences of the negative effect of sunblocks on the growth of the commonly found marine diatom Chaetoceros gracilis (mean EC???=?125±71 mg L?¹). Dissolution of sunscreens in seawater also releases inorganic nutrients (N, P and Si forms) that can fuel algal growth. In particular, PO?³? is released by these products in notable amounts (up to 17 µmol PO?³?g?¹). We conservatively estimate an increase of up to 100% background PO?³? concentrations (0.12 µmol L?¹ over a background level of 0.06 µmol L?¹) in nearshore waters during low water renewal conditions in a populated beach in Majorca island. Our results show that sunscreen products are a significant source of organic and inorganic chemicals that reach the sea with potential ecological consequences on the coastal marine ecosystem. PMID:23755233

  15. Water pollution risk simulation and prediction in the main canal of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Cheng, Xi

    2014-11-01

    The middle route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (MRP) will divert water to Beijing Tuancheng Lake from Taocha in the Danjiangkou reservoir located in the Hubei province of China. The MRP is composed of a long canal and complex hydraulic structures and will transfer water in open channel areas to provide drinking water for Beijing, Shijiazhuang and other cities under extremely strict water quality requirements. A large number of vehicular accidents, occurred on the many highway bridges across the main canal would cause significant water pollution in the main canal. To ensure that water quality is maintained during the diversion process, the effects of pollutants on water quality due to sudden pollution accidents were simulated and analyzed in this paper. The MIKE11 HD module was used to calculate the hydraulic characteristics of the 42-km Xishi-to-Beijuma River channel of the MRP. Six types of hydraulic structures, including inverted siphons, gates, highway bridges, culverts and tunnels, were included in this model. Based on the hydrodynamic model, the MIKE11 AD module, which is one-dimensional advection dispersion model, was built for TP, NH3-N, CODMn and F. The validated results showed that the computed values agreed well with the measured values. In accordance with transportation data across the Dianbei Highway Bridge, the effects of traffic accidents on the bridge on water quality were analyzed. Based on simulated scenarios with three discharge rates (ranged from 12 m3/s to 17 m3/s, 40 m3/s, and 60 m3/s) and three pollution loading concentration levels (5 t, 10 t and 20 t) when trucks spill their contents (i.e., phosphate fertilizer, cyanide, oil and chromium solution) into the channel, emergency measures were proposed. Reasonable solutions to ensure the water quality with regard to the various types of pollutants were proposed, including treating polluted water, maintaining materials, and personnel reserves.

  16. Modular fibre optic sensor for the detection of hydrocarbons in water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. McCue; J. E. Walsh; F. Walsh; F. Regan

    2006-01-01

    A novel modular, mid-infrared, evanescent wave fibre optic sensor for the detection of hydrocarbon pollutants in water has been designed, constructed and tested. The key sensor design feature, its modularity, utilises simple, low cost, optical components and provides the potential for low cost production of rugged field based sensors. In addition, novel optical design upgrades, such as tapered, coiled and

  17. Deposition of Air Pollutants to the Great Waters, Third Report to Congress, June 2000

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    Released on June 8 2000, this report is the third in a series from the Environmental protection Agency (EPA) "to Congress on atmospheric deposition of pollution to the Great Waters, which include the Great Lakes, Chesapeake Bay and several other major U.S. water bodies." This report focuses on fifteen "pollutants of concern," offering updated scientific information about these pollutants and the Great Waters and discussing programs implemented by the EPA, states, tribes, and others to address them. It also describes "recent advancements in scientific research and tools used to improve our understanding of atmospheric deposition to the Great Waters." Background information and an executive summary are offered in HTML format, while the full text is provided by chapter in .pdf format. The previous two reports may be accessed from the Great Waters Program homepage.

  18. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. (Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo, CSIC, Barcelona (ES))

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  19. Nuclear techniques applicable to studies of pollutants in ground water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wogman

    1976-01-01

    The current nuclear methods which can be used for the analysis of inorganic pollutants or tracers, including radioactive species in sediments and in their associated atmospheric and aqueous media are summarized. Nuclear techniques allow many trace elements to be analyzed in the ppM to ppB range in both field and laboratory experiments. For direct in situ field measurements, techniques of

  20. 64 FR 68722 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination SystemRegulations for Revision of the Water Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-12-08

    ...brought into the storm water discharge control...that population and density should not be an...discharge to sensitive waters, high growth or...high population density, contiguity to an...likelihood of adverse water quality impacts at these population and density levels. In...

  1. Public Health Care Management of Water Pollution with Pharmaceuticals: Environmental Classification and Analysis of Pharmaceutical Residues in Sewage Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Åke Wennmalm; Bo Gunnarsson

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in surface water is an emerging problem in developed countries. If such pollution is transferred to drinking water, the resulting involuntary low-dose medication of large population groups may compromise public health. In addition, aquatic life may be compromised. The Stockholm County Council, the provider of public healthcare in the Stockholm, Sweden region, has introduced a classification

  2. Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of CODCr NH3-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH3-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. PMID:23222206

  3. Health damage due to water pollution in Hungary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELONA STRAUB

    The number of the drinking water borne epidemics in Hungary has decreased recently, but the hazard is not over. The number of epidemics caused by water in swimming pools and spas, however, has not decreased. From 1975-1993, approximately 7500 persons (mainly children) became ill due to contaminated swimming pool water. Recrea­ tional waters of lakes and streams have not caused

  4. DETECTING ALGAE BLOOMS IN EUROPEAN WATERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Je Park; Kevin Ruddick

    A near real-time algal bloom detection service has been developed for European waters. Daily chlorophyll a data from Envisat\\/MERIS and Aqua\\/MODIS are compared to a predefined threshold map to determine whether an algal bloom has occurred. The design of the threshold map takes account of two factors. Firstly, over European waters regional differences in typical and extreme levels of chlorophyll

  5. Assessment of commercially available polymeric materials for sorptive microextraction of priority and emerging nonpolar organic pollutants in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Zubiaguirre, Laura; Delgado, Alejandra; Ros, Oihana; Posada-Ureta, Oscar; Vallejo, Asier; Prieto, Ailette; Olivares, Maitane; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2014-10-01

    Among the different organic pollutants, persistent organic pollutants and emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) are of particular concern due to their potentially dangerous effects on the ecosystems and on human health. In the framework of the analysis of some of these organic pollutants in water samples, sorptive extraction devices have proven to be adequate for their monitoring. The efficiency of four commercially available and low-cost polymeric materials [polypropylene, poly(ethylene terephthalate), Raffia, and polyethersulfone (PES)] for the simultaneous extraction of 16 organic compounds from five different families from environmental water samples was evaluated in this work. Firstly, the homogeneity of the sorbent materials was confirmed by means of Raman spectroscopy. After the optimization of the parameters affecting the extraction and the liquid desorption steps, it was found that PES showed the largest efficiencies for slightly polar analytes and, to a lesser extent, for nonpolar analytes. Additionally, Raffia rendered good extraction efficiencies for nonpolar compounds. Thus sorptive extraction methods followed by large volume injection-programmable temperature vaporizer-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were validated using PES and Raffia as sorbent materials. The validation of the method provided good linearity (0.978 < r (2)?< 0.999 for PES and 0.977 < r (2) < 0.999 for Raffia), adequate repeatability (below 19 % and 14 % for PES and Raffia, respectively), and low method detection limits (low ng · l(-1) level). Finally, these materials were applied to the analysis of contaminants in environmental water samples. PMID:24424482

  6. Fluorescence diagnostics of oil pollution in coastal marine waters by use of artificial neural networks

    E-print Network

    Oldenburg, Carl von Ossietzky Universität

    marine waters with fluorescence spectroscopy and of using artificial neural networks for data interpre with an artificial neural network. The results demonstrate the possibility of estimating oil concentrationsFluorescence diagnostics of oil pollution in coastal marine waters by use of artificial neural

  7. Sediment-Water Partition Coefficients of Hydrophobic Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    total organic carbon, black carbon and oil phases model) could model PCB data suc- cessfully whereas on the fraction of organic carbon (foc) and organic carbon­water partition coefficients (Koc) to correctly predict Sediment-Water Partition Coefficients of Hydrophobic Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs

  8. Effects of cattle manure on erosion rates and runoff water pollution by faecal coliforms

    E-print Network

    Quinton, John

    Effects of cattle manure on erosion rates and runoff water pollution by faecal coliforms M that are produced annually in many areas in which cattle are raised could be an important source of organic matter. In this paper, the effects of cattle manure application on soil erosion rates and runoff and on surface water

  9. Social Status Variations in Attitudes and Conceptualization Pertaining to Water Pollution and Supply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Irving A.

    Data, secured by questionnaire from single household dwelling units in Warwick, Rhode Island, were used to ascertain differences among social status groups with respect to attitudes and conceptualization pertaining to water pollution and water supply. A social status index was used to delineate three status groups having high, middle, and low rank…

  10. An Intelligent Decision Support System of Lake Water Pollution Control Based on Multi-agent Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianjun Ni; Chuanbiao Zhang; Li Ren

    2009-01-01

    With the rapidly development of the economic, environmental problem has become one of the most prominent problems of the society. Lake water environmental problem became more and more serious, and it had seriously effect on human health and the socio-economic sustainable development. It is a key project to find a more effective way of water pollution control. An intelligent decision

  11. Manpower and Training Needs in Water Pollution Control. Senate Document No. 49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

    To determine trained manpower needs and training resources in the clean water field, data were gathered from interviews with state and federal agencies as well as the Water Pollution Control Federation, from prior manpower reports, and from Bureau of Census employment data. After analysis of present manpower resources and future requirements,…

  12. Research needs and priorities: water pollution control benefits and costs. Volume II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Jordening; J. K. Allwood

    1973-01-01

    Research needs and priorities involving water pollution control costs ; and benefits are specified. A series of theoretical and methodological research ; needs are presented. Water quality management is required in a dynamic setting ; and over a broad range of hydrologic and economic conditions. The common ; property resource aspects of the problem with the prevalence of externalities ;

  13. Removal of organic pollutants from water via molecular inclusion within a cavitand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrico Dalcanale; Giuliano Costantini; Paolo Soncini

    1992-01-01

    The molecular inclusion chemistry of cavitands provides a useful way for the removal of organic pollutants from water. A wide range of lipophilic organic compounds, present at trace level in water, are efficiently extracted by cavitand1, which can be easily reactivated and reused.

  14. Cloud and the corresponding precipitation chemistry in south China: Water-soluble components and pollution transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minghu Sun; Yan Wang; Tao Wang; Shaojia Fan; Wenxing Wang; Penghui Li; Jia Guo; Yuhua Li

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the transport and deposition of pollutants in south China, the chemical composition of cloud water and rainwater was studied at Mount Heng, which is located in the heart of China's acid rain affected region. A total of 194 cloud samples and 38 event-based precipitation samples from March to May 2009 were analyzed for a wide variety of water-soluble

  15. Array-based detection of persistent organic pollutants via cyclodextrin promoted energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Serio, Nicole; Moyano, Daniel F; Rotello, Vincent M; Levine, Mindy

    2015-07-25

    We report herein the selective array-based detection of 30 persistent organic pollutants via cyclodextrin-promoted energy transfer. The use of three fluorophores enabled the development of an array that classified 30 analytes with 100% accuracy and identified unknown analytes with 96% accuracy, as well as identifying 92% of analytes in urine. PMID:26096542

  16. Detecting industrial pollution in the atmospheres of earth-like exoplanets

    E-print Network

    Lin, Henry W; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Detecting biomarkers, such as molecular oxygen, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biomarker for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). We estimate that for an Earth-mass planet in the habitable zone of a white dwarf, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) can be detected at earth-like concentrations with an integration time of ~1.5 hrs and 12 hrs respectively. Detecting pollutants that are produced nearly exclusively by anthropogenic activities will be significantly more challenging. Of these pollutants, we focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl3F), which will be the easiest to detect. We estimate that ~1.5 days (~3 days) of total integration time will be sufficie...

  17. Time-resolved lidar fluorosensor for sea pollution detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrario, A.; Pizzolati, P. L.; Zanzottera, E.

    1986-01-01

    A contemporary time and spectral analysis of oil fluorescence is useful for the detection and the characterization of oil spills on the sea surface. Nevertheless the fluorosensor lidars, which were realized up to now, have only partial capability to perform this double analysis. The main difficulties are the high resolution required (of the order of 1 nanosecond) and the complexity of the detection system for the recording of a two-dimensional matrix of data for each laser pulse. An airborne system whose major specifications were: time range, 30 to 75 ns; time resolution, 1 ns; spectral range, 350 to 700 nm; and spectral resolution, 10 nm was designed and constructed. The designed system of a short pulse ultraviolet laser source and a streak camera based detector are described.

  18. Colorimetric detection of uranium in water

    DOEpatents

    DeVol, Timothy A. (Clemson, SC); Hixon, Amy E. (Piedmont, SC); DiPrete, David P. (Evans, GA)

    2012-03-13

    Disclosed are methods, materials and systems that can be used to determine qualitatively or quantitatively the level of uranium contamination in water samples. Beneficially, disclosed systems are relatively simple and cost-effective. For example, disclosed systems can be utilized by consumers having little or no training in chemical analysis techniques. Methods generally include a concentration step and a complexation step. Uranium concentration can be carried out according to an extraction chromatographic process and complexation can chemically bind uranium with a detectable substance such that the formed substance is visually detectable. Methods can detect uranium contamination down to levels even below the MCL as established by the EPA.

  19. Airborne optical detection of oil on water.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Arvesen, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Airborne measurements were made over controlled oil-spill test sites to evaluate various techniques, utilizing reflected sunlight, for detecting oil on water. The results of these measurements show that (1) maximum contrast between oil and water is in the UV and red portions of the spectrum; (2) minimum contrast is in the blue-green; (3) differential polarization appears to be a very promising technique; (4) no characteristic absorption bands, which would permit one oil to be distinguished from another, were discovered in the spectral regions measured; (5) sky conditions greatly influence the contrast between oil and water; and (6) highest contrast was achieved under overcast sky conditions.

  20. PHYTO-INDICATORS IN DETECTION OF LINDANE RESIDUES IN WATER.

    PubMed

    Gvozdenac, S; In?i?, D; Vukovi?, S; Markovi?, N; Taka?, A

    2014-01-01

    Intensive use of pesticides, especially insecticides, in agriculture during the past several decades has already led to contamination of surface and underground waters and sediments in some regions, thus presents a serious problem for the environment. Lindane was one of frequently applied insecticides for soil treatment. In Serbia, it has been in use since 1944, but in the period 2001-2007 its use was restricted only to timber treatments. In 2009 an international ban on the use of lindane in agriculture was implemented under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. However, due to a long-term use and persistence, its residues can be present in underground water and sediment, thus present a potential risk for incorporation in food chains. According to Directive 2008/105/EC it is listed as one of the priority water pollutants, whose presence is mainly detected by chemical methods. However, biological tests are gaining in importance in the last few years and since some plant species are highly sensitive to certain pollutants. This work aimed to assess potential of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as phyto-indicators of water contamination with lindane. The effect of lindane (rates 0.1 ?g a.i./L--maximal allowable concentration (MAC) in water; 0.2; 0.5; 1 and 2 ?g a.i./L) was assessed on physiological (germination energy and germination- %) and morphological parameters (root and shoot lengths, fresh and dry weights) of tested species. Assay was carried out using slightly modified filter paper method recommended by ISTA Regulations book (2011). The experiment was set in four replicates. Data were processed using Duncan's multiple range test for determining the differences between treatments for confidence interval 95%. Results of bioassay indicate that germination energy (70.75%) and germination (79.00%) of white mustard were significantly inhibited by lindane applied at MAC rate compared to the control (79.75, 82.00%, respectively). Physiological parameters of other test species were not affected by this insecticide. Lindane inhibited root elongation of barley seedlings at 2 ?g a.i./L (20-fold MAC) and of cucumber at 0.5 ?g a.i./L (5-fold MAC). Only fresh root weight of barley was inhibited by lindane at MAC quantities. Based on presented results, valid and reliable indicators of lindane presence in water can be considered germination energy and germination of white mustard and fresh root weight of barley seedlings. PMID:26080488

  1. Development and validation of a microbial source tracking marker for the detection of fecal pollution by muskrats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Romain Marti; Yun Zhang; David R. Lapen; Edward Topp

    2011-01-01

    Surface waters in mixed-activity watersheds can be compromised by fecal pollution from livestock production, sewage outflows or leaking septic systems, or avian or mammalian wildlife. While undertaking water quality research in Eastern Ontario Canada, we observed an abundance of muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) in some waterways, and sought to determine their significance with respect to fecal pollution loads. To that end,

  2. Enhanced treatment of polluted surface water from Yellow river (China) with biooxidation as pretreatment: Pilot scale studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Xiangyang; ABSTR A C T

    The Yellow River in China is being polluted with artifi cial pollution, which brings great chal- lenges to drinking water treatment plants (DWTP) along the Yellow River. The conventional treatment processes could not ensure satisfactory quality of drinking water, and innovative processes are crucial for the achievement of the newly issued drinking water standard (GB5749- 2006). The DWTP in Zhengzhou

  3. Enhanced treatment of polluted surface water from Yellow river (China) with biooxidation as pretreatment: Pilot scale studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangyang Song

    2009-01-01

    The Yellow River in China is being polluted with artificial pollution, which brings great challenges to drinking water treatment plants (DWTP) along the Yellow River. The conventional treatment processes could not ensure satisfactory quality of drinking water, and innovative processes are crucial for the achievement of the newly issued drinking water standard (GB5749- 2006). The DWTP in Zhengzhou City takes

  4. Permits and effluent charges in the water pollution control policies of France, West Germany, and the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan C. Bongaerts; Andreas Kraemer

    1989-01-01

    In this article the water pollution control policies of these countries and their effects on emitters are analyzed. In the Netherlands, local water control boards levy pollution charges on both direct and indirect emitters. The charges are based upon measured emissions and actual treatment costs and they vary among the boards. Discharges into surface waters are by permission only. West

  5. Polarimetric radars for detection and identification of marine oil pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sineva, Anastasia

    2015-04-01

    The roughness of the sea surface that is responsible for the backscatter is due to the small gravitational waves generated by winds. Oil slicks suppress the waves and backscatter and manifest itself on radar images as dark spots. However, the other processes could be shown on the radar images similarly: upwelling, atmospheric convection, internal waves, calm area, etc. All of them may be falsely interpreted as oil pollution. Polarization SAR data carry additional information directly related to the vector nature of the reflected electromagnetic wave and can assist in the identification of different types of slicks. When polarized wave falls on a surface and reflects from it the reflected wave is also polarized. Sea surface is rough, i.e. consists essentially of a large number of differently oriented elementary areas. Consequently the signals reflected from different elementary areas are characterized by different polarization parameters and total signal carries information about all rough surface scanned [1]. When scanning sea surface, quad-polarization SAR generates scattering matrix for each pixel of radar data, which contains all the information regarding the polarimetric backscattering properties of the study area and that can be used for the classification of SAR images according to different scattering mechanisms. As mentioned above, various surface manifestations (calm area, biogenic film, etc.) may be falsely interpreted as oil slicks. In [2] was proposed a method to distinguish them, for which the following parameters were chosen: the polarization ratio (HH channel to VV) and the difference (VV minus HH channel). Normalized radar cross-section (NRCS) ?0pp can be represented as follows: ?p0p = ?p0pB + ?wb, where ?0Bpp - Bragg scattering, ?wb - non-polarized scattering. Thus the polarization ratio (PR) and the polarization difference (PD) can be expressed respectively as: PR = ?H0H- = ?H0HB-+?wb- ?V0 V ?V0BV+ ?wb PD = ?V0V - ?H0H = ?V0VB + ?wb - ?HH0b - ?wb = ?V0BV- ?H0Hb A number of radar images of German satellite TerraSAR-X were processed to verify the

  6. Identification of hotspots and trends of fecal surface water pollution in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina; Alcamo, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Water is the essential resource ensuring human life on earth, which can only prosper when water is available and accessible. But of importance is not only the quantity of accessible water but also its quality, which in case of pollution may pose a risk to human health. The pollutants which pose a risk to human health are manifold, covering several groups such as pathogens, nutrients, human pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, and others. With regards to human health, pathogen contamination is of major interest as 4% of all death and 5.7% of disability or ill health in the world can be attributed to poor water supply, sanitation and personal and domestic hygiene. In developing countries, 2.6 billion people lacked access to improved sanitation in 2011. The lack of sanitation poses a risk to surface water pollution which is a threat to human health. A typical indicator for pathogen pollution is fecal coliform bacteria. The objective our study is to assess fecal pollution in the developing regions Africa, Asia and Latin America using the large-scale water quality model WorldQual. Model runs were carried-out to calculate in-stream concentrations and the respective loadings reaching rivers for the time period 1990 to 2010. We identified hotspots of fecal coliform loadings and in-stream concentrations which were further analyzed and ranked in terms of fecal surface water pollution. Main findings are that loadings mainly originate from the domestic sector, thus loadings are high in highly populated areas. In general, domestic loadings can be attributed to the two subsectors domestic sewered and domestic non sewered. The spatial distribution of both sectors varies across catchments. Hotspot pattern of in-stream concentrations are similar to the loadings pattern although they are different in seasonality. As the dilution varies with climate its dilution capacity is high during seasons with high precipitation, which in turn decreases the in-stream concentrations. The fecal pollution is increasing from 1990 to 2010 with increased loadings and larger number of river kilometers with high fecal pollution. Fecal pollution is mainly caused by the domestic sector, and hence, the sanitation type, collection and treatment (level) of collected wastewater are highly important to ensure good quality of water bodies.

  7. Polluted and turbid water masses in Osaka Bay and its vicinity revealed with ERTS-A imageries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watanabe, K.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 took very valuable MSS imageries of Osaka Bay and its vicinity on October 24, 1972. In the MSS-4 and MSS-5 imageries a complex grey pattern of water masses can be seen. Though some of grey colored patterns seen in black and white prints of the MSS-4 and MSS-5 imageries are easily identified from their shapes as cloud covers or polluted water masses characterized by their color tone in longer wavelengths in the visible region, any correct distribution pattern of polluted or turbid water masses can be hardly detected separately from thin cloud covers in a quick look analysis. In the present investigation, a simple photographic technique was applied using the fact that reflected sun light from cloud including smog and inclined water surfaces of wave have a certain component in the near infrared region, that MSS-7, whereas the light scattered from fine materials suspended in the sea water has nearly no component sensible in MSS-4 and MSS-5 channels.

  8. A Review of Modelling Tools for Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive in Handling Diffuse Water Pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. S. Yang; L. Wang

    2010-01-01

    A numerical catchment-scale model capable of simulating diffuse water pollution is necessary in sustainable environmental\\u000a management for better implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive. This paper provides critical reviews of most popular\\u000a and free models for diffuse water modelling, with detailed sources and application potential. Based upon these reviews, further\\u000a work of selecting and testing the HSPF model was

  9. The SOLUTIONS project: challenges and responses for present and future emerging pollutants in land and water resources management.

    PubMed

    Brack, Werner; Altenburger, Rolf; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Krauss, Martin; López Herráez, David; van Gils, Jos; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Munthe, John; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; van Wezel, Annemarie; Schriks, Merijn; Hollender, Juliane; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Mekenyan, Ovanes; Dimitrov, Saby; Bunke, Dirk; Cousins, Ian; Posthuma, Leo; van den Brink, Paul J; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià; Faust, Michael; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Scrimshaw, Mark; Ignatova, Svetlana; Engelen, Guy; Massmann, Gudrun; Lemkine, Gregory; Teodorovic, Ivana; Walz, Karl-Heinz; Dulio, Valeria; Jonker, Michiel T O; Jäger, Felix; Chipman, Kevin; Falciani, Francesco; Liska, Igor; Rooke, David; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hollert, Henner; Vrana, Branislav; Hilscherova, Klara; Kramer, Kees; Neumann, Steffen; Hammerbacher, Ruth; Backhaus, Thomas; Mack, Juliane; Segner, Helmut; Escher, Beate; de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela

    2015-01-15

    SOLUTIONS (2013 to 2018) is a European Union Seventh Framework Programme Project (EU-FP7). The project aims to deliver a conceptual framework to support the evidence-based development of environmental policies with regard to water quality. SOLUTIONS will develop the tools for the identification, prioritisation and assessment of those water contaminants that may pose a risk to ecosystems and human health. To this end, a new generation of chemical and effect-based monitoring tools is developed and integrated with a full set of exposure, effect and risk assessment models. SOLUTIONS attempts to address legacy, present and future contamination by integrating monitoring and modelling based approaches with scenarios on future developments in society, economy and technology and thus in contamination. The project follows a solutions-oriented approach by addressing major problems of water and chemicals management and by assessing abatement options. SOLUTIONS takes advantage of the access to the infrastructure necessary to investigate the large basins of the Danube and Rhine as well as relevant Mediterranean basins as case studies, and puts major efforts on stakeholder dialogue and support. Particularly, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) Common Implementation Strategy (CIS) working groups, International River Commissions, and water works associations are directly supported with consistent guidance for the early detection, identification, prioritisation, and abatement of chemicals in the water cycle. SOLUTIONS will give a specific emphasis on concepts and tools for the impact and risk assessment of complex mixtures of emerging pollutants, their metabolites and transformation products. Analytical and effect-based screening tools will be applied together with ecological assessment tools for the identification of toxicants and their impacts. The SOLUTIONS approach is expected to provide transparent and evidence-based candidates or River Basin Specific Pollutants in the case study basins and to assist future review of priority pollutants under the WFD as well as potential abatement options. PMID:24951181

  10. Invertebrate community responses to emerging water pollutants in Iberian river basins.

    PubMed

    De Castro-Català, N; Muñoz, I; Armendáriz, L; Campos, B; Barceló, D; López-Doval, J; Pérez, S; Petrovic, M; Picó, Y; Riera, J L

    2015-01-15

    Chemical pollution is one of the greatest threats to freshwater ecosystems, especially in Mediterranean watersheds, characterized by periodical low flows that may exacerbate chemical exposure. Different groups of emerging pollutants have been detected in these basins during the last decade. This study aims to identify the relationships between the presence and levels of prioritary and emerging pollutants (pesticides, pharmaceutical active compounds--PhACs, Endocrine Disrupting Compounds EDCs and Perfluorinated Compounds--PFCs) and the invertebrate community in four Mediterranean basins: the Ebro, the Llobregat, the Júcar and the Guadalquivir. Structural (species composition and density) and functional (catalase activity of the tricopteran Hydropsyche exocellata and the feeding activity of the cladoceran Daphnia magna) variables were analyzed to determine which of the pollutants would greatly influence invertebrate responses. EDCs and conductivity, followed by PhACs, were the most important variables explaining the invertebrate density changes in the studied basins, showing a gradient of urban and industrial pollutions. Despite this general pattern observed in the four studied basins - impoverishment of species diversity and abundance change with pollution - some basins maintained certain differences. In the case of the Llobregat River, analgesics and anti-inflammatories were the significant pollutants explaining the invertebrate community distribution. In the Júcar River, fungicides were the main group of pollutants that were determining the structure of the invertebrate community. Functional biomarkers tended to decrease downstream in the four basins. Two groups of pollutants appeared to be significant predictors of the catalase activity in the model: EDCs and PhACs. This study provides evidence that the information given by functional biomarkers may complement the results found for the structural community descriptors, and allowed us to detect two emerging contaminant groups that are mainly affecting the invertebrate community in these basins. PMID:25042416

  11. Water pollution effect on population health in an industrial northern region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. I. Moiseenko; V. V. Megorskii; N. A. Gashkina; L. P. Kudryavtseva

    2010-01-01

    The pollution of water sources and drinking water in some towns and settlements of the Kola North by metals, wastewaters,\\u000a and aerial effluents of mining-and-metallurgical industry is characterized. Statistical data on population morbidity are given.\\u000a Relationships were found to exist between water quality indices and heavy metal accumulation in kidney and liver of postmortem-examined\\u000a patients, and the results of their

  12. Extraction of organic pollutants from environmental solids with sub- and supercritical water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven B. Hawthorne; Yu. Yang; David J. Miller

    1994-01-01

    Low-polarity organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) typically have very low solubilities (e.g., ppb) in water at ambient conditions because of water's high polarity (dielectric constant, [epsilon] = 80). However, the dielectric constant can be drastically lowered by raising the temperature of the water under moderate pressure with dramatic increases (e.g., to percent levels) in the solubility of

  13. Criminal sanctions applicable to Federal water pollution control measures. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.C.

    1991-09-30

    Overkill or not enough: Two decades ago, Congress realized that a system of civil remedies alone, devoid of any lasting punitive consequences, was inadequate to insure compliance with environmental protection statutes. Other than the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, which was designed to protect navigation, Federal criminal sanctions were not applicable to water pollution offenses. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, more commonly known as the Clean Water Act (CWA), was twenty-four years old before Federal criminal enforcement of its provisions was allowed. But since the early 1970's, the criminal provisions of the CWA have been strengthened, the United States Department of Justice has beefed up its environmental enforcement efforts, and environmental polluters have been prosecuted. This Federal effort is now approaching overkill.

  14. Modeling and detection of oil in sea water.

    PubMed

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-10-01

    The challenge of a deep-water oil leak is that a significant quantity of oil remains in the water column and possibly changes properties. There is a need to quantify the oil settled within the water column and determine its physical properties to assist in the oil recovery. There are currently no methods to map acoustically submerged oil in the sea. In this paper, high-frequency acoustic methods are proposed to localize the oil polluted area and characterize the parameters of its spatial covariance, i.e., variance and correlation. A model is implemented to study the underlying mechanisms of backscattering due to spatial heterogeneity of the medium and predict backscattering returns. An algorithm for synthetically generating stationary, Gaussian random fields is introduced which provides great flexibility in implementing the physical model of an inhomogeneous field with spatial covariance. A method for inference of spatial covariance parameters is proposed to describe the scattering field in terms of its second-order statistics from the backscattered returns. The results indicate that high-frequency acoustic methods not only are suitable for large-scale detection of oil contamination in the water column but also allow inference of the spatial covariance parameters resulting in a statistical description of the oil field. PMID:24116417

  15. DETECTION OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN TREATED DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of viruses in conventionally treated drinking water derived from a heavily polluted source was evaluated by collecting and analyzing 38 large volume (65 to 756 liter) samples of water from a 9m3/sec (205 mgd) water treatment plant. Samples of raw, clarified, filter...

  16. Organic pollutants in biological waste water treatment. Results of mass and tandem mass spectrometry of the flow injection mode compared with liquid chromatographic examinations: Polar compounds under positive ionization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Fr. Schröder; K. Fytianos

    1999-01-01

    Summary  Polar pollutants in the waste water of the Thessaloniki waste water treatment plant were qualitatively examined by substance-specific\\u000a detection and identification methods. Many pollutants contained in the inflow could even be observed in the effluent together\\u000a with their metabolites. To characterize these difficult to degrade and non-removable compounds, screening methods applying\\u000a flow injection analysis and liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric techniques, both

  17. Methods for detecting change in hydrochemical time series in response to targeted pollutant mitigation in river catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, C. E. M.; Freer, J. E.; Collins, A. L.; Johnes, P. J.; Jones, J. I.

    2014-06-01

    Detecting changes in catchment hydrochemistry driven by targeted pollutant mitigation is high on the scientific agenda, following the introduction of the European Union Water Framework Directive. Previous research has shown that understanding natural variability in hydrochemistry time series is vital if changes due to mitigation are to be detected. In order for change to be detected in a statistically robust manner, the data analysis methods need careful consideration. Previous work has shown that erroneous results have often been obtained when statistical analyses have been carried out despite the associated test assumptions not being met. This paper discusses the principal data issues which must be considered when analysing hydrochemical datasets, including non-normality and non-stationarity. A range of statistical techniques is discussed which could be used to detect gradual or abrupt changes in hydrochemistry, including parametric, non-parametric and signal decomposition methods. The statistical power of these techniques as well as their suitability for identifying change is discussed. Using the uniquely detailed hydrochemical datasets generated under the Demonstration Test Catchments programme in England, the efficacy and robustness of change detection methods for hydrochemical data series is assessed. A conceptual framework for choosing a change detection method is proposed, based on this analysis, in order to raise awareness of the types of questions a researcher should consider in order to perform robust statistical analyses, for informing river catchment management and policy support decisions.

  18. Underground coal mining methods to abate water pollution: a state of the art literature review. Water pollution control research series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. W. Wilson; N. J. Matthews; J. L. Stump

    1970-01-01

    The report reviews published information concerning the abatement of harmful drainage from underground coal mines. Although much has been written on mine water management, very little literature is available on the specific area of preventing the formation of acid water. The references used in this report include mining engineering and hydrology studies and spans the period of time when water

  19. GROUND-WATER POLLUTION PROBLEMS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evaluation of principal sources of ground-water contamination has been carried out in seven southeastern States--Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia. Natural ground-water quality is good to excellent, except for the presence of ...

  20. USE OF SYNTHETIC ZEOLITES FOR ARSENATE REMOVAL FROM POLLUTANT WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water below the current and proposed EPA MCL has been examined...

  1. WATER CONSERVATION AND POLLUTION CONTROL IN COAL CONVERSION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to determine water consumption and environmental impacts of coal conversion processes in Western states. Part 1 gives brief descriptions and process water requirements for nine conversion processes. Detailed designs and analyses are given for t...

  2. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: PRIORITIZATION OF STATIONARY WATER POLLUTION SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives priority lists to aid in selecting specific sources of water effluents for detailed assessment. It describes the general water prioritization model, explains its implementation, and gives a detailed example of its use. It describes hazard factors that were develo...

  3. Use of synthetic zeolites for arsenate removal from pollutant water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siddhesh Shevade; Robert G. Ford

    2004-01-01

    Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water below the current and proposed EPA MCL has been examined at room temperature. Experiments have been conducted to examine the extent of arsenic

  4. Sorption of aromatic organic pollutants to grasses from water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbour, J.P.; Smith, J.A.; Chiou, C.T.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of plant lipids on the equilibrium sorption of three aromatic solutes from water was studied. The plant-water sorption isotherms of benzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and phenanthrene were measured over a large range of solute concentrations using sealed vessels containing water, dried plant material, and solute. The plant materials studied include the shoots of annual rye, tall fescue, red fescue, and spinach as well as the roots of annual rye. Seven out of eight sorption isotherms were linear with no evidence of competitive effects between the solutes. For a given plant type, the sorption coefficient increased with decreasing solute water solubility. For a given solute, sorption increased with increasing plant lipid content. The estimated lipid-water partition coefficients of individual solutes were found to be significantly greater than the corresponding octanol-water partition coefficients. This indicates that plant lipids are a more effective partition solvent than octanol for the studied aromatic compounds. As expected, the solute lipid-water partition coefficients were log-linearly related to the respective water solubilities. For the compounds studied, partitioning into the lipids is believed to be the primary sorption mechanism. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  5. The photocatalytic removal of bacterial pollutants from drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. M. Dunlop; J. A. Byrne; N. Manga; B. R. Eggins

    2002-01-01

    Pathogens in drinking water supplies can be removed by sand filtration followed by chlorine or ozone disinfection. These processes reduce the possibility of any pathogens entering the drinking water distribution network. However, there is doubt about the ability of these methods to remove chlorine resistant microorganisms including protozoan oocysts. Concern has also been raised about the production of disinfection by-products

  6. Generation of novel bacterial regulatory proteins that detect priority pollutant phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, A.A.; Kuske, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    The genetic systems of bacteria that have the ability to use organic pollutants as carbon and energy sources can be adapted to create bacterial biosensors for the detection of industrial pollution. The creation of bacterial biosensors is hampered by a lack of information about the genetic systems that control production of bacterial enzymes that metabolize pollutants. The authors have attempted to overcome this problem through modification of DmpR, a regulatory protein for the phenol degradation pathway of Pseudomonas sp. strain CF600. The phenol detection capacity of DmpR was altered by using mutagenic PCR targeted to the DmpR sensor domain. DmpR mutants were identified that both increased sensitivity to the phenolic effectors of wild-type DmpR and increased the range of molecules detected. The phenol detection characteristics of seven DmpR mutants were demonstrated through their ability to activate transcription of a lacZ reporter gene. Effectors of the DmpR derivatives included phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, 2-nitrophenol, and 4-nitrophenol.

  7. Exchanges across land-water-scape boundaries in urban systems: strategies for reducing nitrate pollution.

    PubMed

    Cadenasso, M L; Pickett, S T A; Groffman, P M; Band, L E; Brush, G S; Galvin, M F; Grove, J M; Hagar, G; Marshall, V; McGrath, B P; O'Neil-Dunne, J P M; Stack, W P; Troy, A R

    2008-01-01

    Conservation in urban areas typically focuses on biodiversity and large green spaces. However, opportunities exist throughout urban areas to enhance ecological functions. An important function of urban landscapes is retaining nitrogen thereby reducing nitrate pollution to streams and coastal waters. Control of nonpoint nitrate pollution in urban areas was originally based on the documented importance of riparian zones in agricultural and forested ecosystems. The watershed and boundary frameworks have been used to guide stream research and a riparian conservation strategy to reduce nitrate pollution in urban streams. But is stream restoration and riparian-zone conservation enough? Data from the Baltimore Ecosystem Study and other urban stream research indicate that urban riparian zones do not necessarily prevent nitrate from entering, nor remove nitrate from, streams. Based on this insight, policy makers in Baltimore extended the conservation strategy throughout larger watersheds, attempting to restore functions that no longer took place in riparian boundaries. Two urban revitalization projects are presented as examples aimed at reducing nitrate pollution to stormwater, streams, and the Chesapeake Bay. An adaptive cycle of ecological urban design synthesizes the insights from the watershed and boundary frameworks, from new data, and from the conservation concerns of agencies and local communities. This urban example of conservation based on ameliorating nitrate water pollution extends the initial watershed-boundary approach along three dimensions: 1) from riparian to urban land-water-scapes; 2) from discrete engineering solutions to ecological design approaches; and 3) from structural solutions to inclusion of individual, household, and institutional behavior. PMID:18566096

  8. Hypothesis-Driven Approach for the Identification of Fecal Pollution Sources in Water Resources

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Water resource management must strive to link catchment information with water quality monitoring. The present study attempted this for the field of microbial fecal source tracking (MST). A fecal pollution source profile based on catchment data (e.g., prevalence of fecal sources) was used to formulate a hypothesis about the dominant sources of pollution in an Austrian mountainous karst spring catchment. This allowed a statistical definition of methodical requirements necessary for an informed choice of MST methods. The hypothesis was tested in a 17-month investigation of spring water quality. The study followed a nested sampling design in order to cover the hydrological and pollution dynamics of the spring and to assess effects such as differential persistence between parameters. Genetic markers for the potential fecal sources as well as microbiological, hydrological, and chemo?physical parameters were measured. The hypothesis that ruminant animals were the dominant sources of fecal pollution in the catchment was clearly confirmed. It was also shown that the concentration of ruminant markers in feces was equally distributed in different ruminant source groups. The developed approach provides a tool for careful decision-making in MST study design and might be applied on various types of catchments and pollution situations. PMID:21466151

  9. Sulfonated Graphene Nanosheets as a Superb Adsorbent for Various Environmental Pollutants in Water.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi; Chen, Baoliang

    2015-06-16

    Graphene nanosheets, as a novel nanoadsorbent, can be further modified to optimize the adsorption capability for various pollutants. To overcome the structural limits of graphene (aggregation) and graphene oxide (hydrophilic surface) in water, sulfonated graphene (GS) was prepared by diazotization reaction using sulfanilic acid. It was demonstrated that GS not only recovered a relatively complete sp(2)-hybridized plane with high affinity for aromatic pollutants but also had sulfonic acid groups and partial original oxygen-containing groups that powerfully attracted positively charged pollutants. The saturated adsorption capacities of GS were 400 mg/g for phenanthrene, 906 mg/g for methylene blue and 58 mg/g for Cd(2+), which were much higher than the corresponding values for reduced graphene oxide and graphene oxide. GS as a graphene-based adsorbent exhibits fast adsorption kinetic rate and superior adsorption capacity toward various pollutants, which mainly thanks to the multiple adsorption sites in GS including the conjugate ? region sites and the functional group sites. Moreover, the sulfonic acid groups endow GS with the good dispersibility and single or few nanosheets which guarantee the adsorption processes. It is great potential to expose the adsorption sites of graphene nanosheets for pollutants in water by regulating their microstructures, surface properties and water dispersion. PMID:26008607

  10. Health risks from large-scale water pollution: Current trends and implications for improving drinking water quality in the lower Amu Darya drainage basin, Uzbekistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnqvist, Rebecka; Jarsjö, Jerker

    2010-05-01

    Safe drinking water is a primary prerequisite to human health, well being and development. Yet, there are roughly one billion people around the world that lack access to safe drinking water supply. Health risk assessments are effective for evaluating the suitability of using various water sources as drinking water supply. Additionally, knowledge of pollutant transport processes on relatively large scales is needed to identify effective management strategies for improving water resources of poor quality. The lower Amu Darya drainage basin close to the Aral Sea in Uzbekistan suffers from physical water scarcity and poor water quality. This is mainly due to the intensive agriculture production in the region, which requires extensive freshwater withdrawals and use of fertilizers and pesticides. In addition, recurrent droughts in the region affect the surface water availability. On average 20% of the population in rural areas in Uzbekistan lack access to improved drinking water sources, and the situation is even more severe in the lower Amu Darya basin. In this study, we consider health risks related to water-borne contaminants by dividing measured substance concentrations with health-risk based guideline values from the World Health Organisation (WHO). In particular, we analyse novel results of water quality measurements performed in 2007 and 2008 in the Mejdurechye Reservoir (located in the downstream part of the Amu Darya river basin). We furthermore identify large-scale trends by comparing the Mejdurechye results to reported water quality results from a considerable stretch of the Amu Darya river basin, including drainage water, river water and groundwater. The results show that concentrations of cadmium and nitrite exceed the WHO health-risk based guideline values in Mejdurechye Reservoir. Furthermore, concentrations of the since long ago banned and highly toxic pesticides dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) were detected in the reservoir water for the first time in a decade. However, a relatively pronounced temporal variability in concentrations was observed for many of the substances, implying that the reservoir could contain low-risk waters temporarily. Health risk factors related to lead and chromium concentrations in groundwater were up to 200 times higher than for river water. The identified major divergence in health risk between groundwater and surface water illuminates the risk of using groundwater for drinking water supply during recurrent surface water deficits in the study area. However, the severe water scarcity and lack of financial resources in the region makes the choices of alternative water supply sources limited. Due to the presence of multiple contaminants, it appears reasonable that the aggregated toxicity of contaminant mixtures should be in focus in surface and groundwater water monitoring and management in the region. Key words: Aral Sea, Drinking water, Groundwater, Health Risk, Surface Water

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES: DRINKING WATER TREATMENT FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides information for small system owners, operators, managers, and local decision makers, such as town officials, regarding drinking water treatment requirements and the treatment technologies suitable for small systems. t is not intended to be a comprehensive m...

  12. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF SELECTED ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Widespread contamination of ground water by a variety of synthetic organic compounds has created a need for information about the biotransformation of these contaminants in aquifers and associated regions of the unsaturated subsurface. Uncontaminated samples of the subsurface wer...

  13. MUNICIPAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ABSTRACTS: NOVEMBER 1976-OCTOBER 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Franklin Institute Research Laboratories, Science Information Services Department, prepared for the Environmental Protection Agency Volume 4 of the Municipal Technology Bulletin, a current-awareness abstracting bulletin covering methods of municipal waste water treatment, pro...

  14. MUNICIPAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ABSTRACTS: APRIL 1975-MARCH 1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Franklin Institute Research Laboratories, Science Information Services Department prepared for the Environmental Protection Agency, Volume 3 of a monthly current-awareness abstracting bulletin, Municipal Technology Bulletin, which dealt with methods of municipal waste water t...

  15. MUNICIPAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ABSTRACTS: MAY-OCTOBER 1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Franklin Institute Research Laboratories, Science Information Services Department prepared for the Environmental Protection Agency, Volume 4 of a monthly current-awareness abstracting bulletin, Municipal Technology Bulletin, which dealt with methods of municipal waste water t...

  16. Hazardous Pollutant Database for Kura—Araks Water Quality Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bahruz Suleymanov; Majid Ahmedov; Famil Humbatov; Navai Ibadov

    Historically, there has been a deficiency of data for important chemicals, such as heavy metals, radionuclides and pesticides\\u000a contents from Kura—Araks river waters. A NATO—OSCE 977991 project began to fill such information gaps as well as develop a\\u000a scientifically based platform for transboundary water quality management issues. The results of 2 years monthly studies of\\u000a 12 heavy metals, Ag, As,

  17. H. R. 3282: To amend the Federal Water Pollution Control Act to provide for the renewal of the quality of the Nation's waters, and for other purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    H.R. 3282, also called the Water Quality Renewal Act of 1984, amends the Federal Water Pollution Act in ways that make budget and authorization adjustments, limit construction grants, and modify compliance deadlines by replacing specific deadlines with instructions for as expeditious action as is possible. The Bill also deals with control strategies for toxic pollutants, civil penalties, implementation programs for nonpoint pollution source control, and dates for complying with coal mining pollution requirements. Specific areas dealt with in the legislation include agricultural stormwater discharge into lakes and streams, raw sewage discharges, alternative processing, pretreatment of toxic pollutants, and sulfide corrosion studies in designated areas.

  18. A Comparison of Erosion and Water Pollution Control Strategies for an Agricultural Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prato, Tony; Shi, Hongqi

    1990-02-01

    The effectiveness and efficiency of two erosion control strategies and one water pollution control (riparian) strategy are compared for Idaho's Tom Beall watershed. Erosion control strategies maximize annualized net returns per hectare on each field and restrict field erosion rates to no more than 11.2 or 16.8 tons per hectare. The riparian strategy uses good vegetative cover on all fields adjacent to the creek and in noncropland areas and the resource management system that maximizes annualized net returns per hectare on remaining fields. The Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution model is used to simulate the levels and concentrations of sediment, nitrogen, phosphorus, and chemical oxygen demand at the outlet of the watershed. Erosion control strategies generate less total erosion and water pollution but are less efficient than the riparian strategy. The riparian strategy is less equitable for farmers than the erosion control strategies.

  19. Tracing transfer processes of metal pollutants from soils to surface water using environmental magnetic techniques - results from Paris suburbia (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Christine; Lamy, Isabelle; van Oort, Folkert; Thiesson, Julien; Barsalini, Luca

    2015-04-01

    Major river systems in Europe are potential sinks for environmental pollutions and therefore reflect the consequences of European industrialization and urbanization. Surface water pollution is a major concern for the health of the population and its related ecosystems as well as for the water quality. Within the variety of different typical pollutants in a river watershed, the metallic fraction embraces many toxic/dangerous contaminants. Each of these elements comprises different sources and follows specific processes throughout its pathways from its origin to and within the river system. But the detection, estimation and follow up of the different contaminants is highly complex. Physico-chemical techniques such as environmental and rock magnetics are powerful complementary tools to traditional methods because they comprise the possibility to trace the entire metal fraction and do offer the possibility to perform spatio-temporal analyze campaigns directly in the field and on a relative high number of samples from both the river and the adjacent areas (suspended particular matter, soils, dust, sediments, etc). In this study, we took advantages of the recent results on the Seine river (France) that have shown the high potential of environmental magnetic methods to estimate the metal fraction in suspended particular matter samples, and to allow the discrimination of its natural detrital, biogenic or anthropogenic origin (see parallel EGU abstract of Kayvantash et al. in this session). We focused on a suburban agricultural area west of Paris (Pierrelaye-Bessancourt) adjacent to the Seine river, which suffers from a high accumulation of heavy metal pollutants caused by long-term historical irrigation with urban waste waters. For the time being, these heavy metals seem to be geochemically fixed in the surface layer mainly by the soil organic matter. Future land use planning, however, arises questions on the fate of these pollutants and their potential remobilization by acidification (forestation, lixiviation by rain water, etc). Such anthropogenic metal phases were found in the suspended particular matter of the Seine river system, but the transfer mechanisms and pathways from the polluted soils to the surface waters are not yet fully understood and lack high resolution quantitative methods. In this work we aime at calibrating the environmental magnetic measurements that are tested as complementary tracer tools in combination with more classical geochemical analyses. We performed a magnetic cartography using susceptibility along a topographic profile from the different types of polluted soils (agricultural soil, forest deposits, waste land, flooding plains, etc) towards the surface waters (sediment traps of suspended particular matter) draining this area. The results were compared with laboratory susceptibility and elementary composition (XRF) analyses on the freeze dried bulk samples to evaluate the field work approach. Detailed magnetic hysteresis analyses were used to obtain additional information on the magneto-mineralogy and grain-size distribution in order to deconvolute the magnetic bulk signal in terms of the different "natural" and "anthropogenic" ferruginous phases present in the samples and therefore allowing a better tracking of the pathways of the metallic pollutants.

  20. State revolving fund: Final report to Congress. Financial status and operations of water pollution control revolving funds

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This is the final report to Congress. The SRF final report addresses the financial status and operations of water pollution control revolving funds established by the States under Title VI of the Clean Water Act (CWA).

  1. [Analysis of fluorescence spectrum of petroleum-polluted water].

    PubMed

    Huang, Miao-Fen; Song, Qing-Jun; Xing, Xu-Feng; Jian, Wei-Jun; Liu, Yuan; Zhao, Zu-Long

    2014-09-01

    In four ratio experiments, natural waters, sampled from the mountain reservoir and the sea water around Dalian city, were mixed with the sewage from petroleum refinery and petroleum exploitation plants. The fluorescence spectra of water samples containing only chromophoric dissolved organic matters(CDOM), samples containing only petroleum, and samples containing a mixture of petroleum and CDOM were analyzed, respectively. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a basis for determining the contribution of petroleum substances and CDOM to the total absorption coefficient of the petroleum-contaminated water by using fluorescence technique. The results showed that firstly, CDOM in seawater had three main fluorescence peaks at Ex: 225-230 nm/Em: 320-330 nm, Ex: 280 nm/Em: 340 nm and Ex: 225-240 nm/Em: 430-470 nm, respectively, and these may arise from the oceanic chlorophyll. CDOM in natural reservoir water had two main fluorescence peaks at EX: 240- 260 nm/Em: 420-450 nm and Ex: 310~350 nm/Em: 420--440 nm, respectively, and these may arise from the terrestrial sources; secondly, the water samples containing only petroleum extracted with n-hexane had one to three fluorescence spectral peaksat Ex: 220-240 nm/Em: 320-340 nm, Ex: 270-290 nm/Em: 310-340 nm and Ex: 220-235 nm/Em: 280-310 nm, respectively, caused by their hydrocarbon component; finally, the water samples containing both petroleum and CDOM showed a very strong fluorescence peak at Ex: 230-250 nm/Em: 320-370 nm, caused by the combined effect of CDOM and petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:25532346

  2. 40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    (b) Effluent limitations established pursuant to this section shall be calculated on the basis of the amount of section 307(a) toxic pollutant(s) present in the water after any water supply treatment steps have been performed by or for the owner or...

  3. Nonpoint Source Pollution: Agriculture, Forestry, and Mining. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskirk, E. Drannon, Jr.

    Nonpoint sources of pollution have diffuse origins and are major contributors to water quality problems in both urban and rural areas. Addressed in this instructor's manual are the identification, assessment, and management of nonpoint source pollutants resulting from mining, agriculture, and forestry. The unit, part of the Working for Clean Water

  4. Areawide planning under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972: intergovernmental and land-use implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jungman

    1977-01-01

    By 1972 Congress had recognized the impossibility of controlling water pollution without some degree of land use management. Congress subsequently amended the Federal Water Pollution Control Act by adding section 208, which creates a Federal system of areawide planning. This comment analyzes the planning responsibilities that section 208 imposed upon state and metropolitan governments, the new element of Federal control

  5. Sanitary landfills: Water pollution. January 1980-August 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Aug 91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, operation, and management of sanitary landfills as related to water pollution. Topics include water pollution control, leachate analyses, site studies, environmental monitoring, and solid waste management strategies. Hazardous materials, public health, refuse disposal, and waste disposal are considered. (Contains 126 citations with title list and subject index.)

  6. Costs and water quality effects of controlling point and nonpoint pollution sources

    SciTech Connect

    Macal, C.M.; Broomfield, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    Costs and water quality effects of controlling point and nonpoint pollution sources are compared for the DuPage River basin in northern Illinois. Costs are estimated for effluent standards for municipal wastewater treatment plants and for the alternative, controlling runoff from nonpoint sources such as streets, agricultural lands, and forests. A dynamic water-quality/hydrology simulation model is used to determine water quality effects of various treatment plant standards and nonpoint-source controls. Costs and water quality data are combined, and the point-source and nonpoint-source plans are compared on a cost-effectiveness basis. Nonpoint-source controls are found to be more cost-effective than stricter control of pollutants from point sources.

  7. Water pollution control in river basin by interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective programming

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, N.B.; Chen, H.W. [National Cheng-Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Shaw, D.G.; Yang, C.H. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Economics

    1997-12-01

    The potential conflict between protection of water quality and economic development by different uses of land within river basins is a common problem in regional planning. Many studies have applied multiobjective decision analysis under uncertainty to problems of this kind. This paper presents the interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming (IFIMOMIP) model to evaluate optimal strategies of wastewater treatment levels within a river system by considering the uncertainties in decision analysis. The interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming approach is illustrated in a case study for the evaluation of optimal wastewater treatment strategies for water pollution control in a river basin. In particular, it demonstrates how different types of uncertainty in a water pollution control system can be quantified and combined through the use of interval numbers and membership functions. The results indicate that such an approach is useful for handling system complexity and generating more flexible policies for water quality management in river basins.

  8. Assessment of water quality and identification of polluted risky regions based on field observations & GIS in the Honghe River watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chang-An; Zhang, Wanchang; Zhang, Zhijie; Liu, Yuanmin; Deng, Cai; Nie, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Water quality assessment at the watershed scale requires not only an investigation of water pollution and the recognition of main pollution factors, but also the identification of polluted risky regions resulted in polluted surrounding river sections. To realize this objective, we collected water samplings from 67 sampling sites in the Honghe River watershed of China with Grid GIS method to analyze six parameters including dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). Single factor pollution index and comprehensive pollution index were adopted to explore main water pollutants and evaluate water quality pollution level. Based on two evaluate methods, Geo-statistical analysis and Geographical Information System (GIS) were used to visualize the spatial pollution characteristics and identifying potential polluted risky regions. The results indicated that the general water quality in the watershed has been exposed to various pollutants, in which TP, NO2-N and TN were the main pollutants and seriously exceeded the standard of Category III. The zones of TP, TN, DO, NO2-N and NH3-N pollution covered 99.07%, 62.22%, 59.72%, 37.34% and 13.82% of the watershed respectively, and they were from medium to serious polluted. 83.27% of the watershed in total was polluted by comprehensive pollutants. These conclusions may provide useful and effective information for watershed water pollution control and management. PMID:25768942

  9. Assessment of Water Quality and Identification of Polluted Risky Regions Based on Field Observations & GIS in the Honghe River Watershed, China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chang-An; Zhang, Wanchang; Zhang, Zhijie; Liu, Yuanmin; Deng, Cai; Nie, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Water quality assessment at the watershed scale requires not only an investigation of water pollution and the recognition of main pollution factors, but also the identification of polluted risky regions resulted in polluted surrounding river sections. To realize this objective, we collected water samplings from 67 sampling sites in the Honghe River watershed of China with Grid GIS method to analyze six parameters including dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). Single factor pollution index and comprehensive pollution index were adopted to explore main water pollutants and evaluate water quality pollution level. Based on two evaluate methods, Geo-statistical analysis and Geographical Information System (GIS) were used to visualize the spatial pollution characteristics and identifying potential polluted risky regions. The results indicated that the general water quality in the watershed has been exposed to various pollutants, in which TP, NO2-N and TN were the main pollutants and seriously exceeded the standard of Category III. The zones of TP, TN, DO, NO2-N and NH3-N pollution covered 99.07%, 62.22%, 59.72%, 37.34% and 13.82% of the watershed respectively, and they were from medium to serious polluted. 83.27% of the watershed in total was polluted by comprehensive pollutants. These conclusions may provide useful and effective information for watershed water pollution control and management. PMID:25768942

  10. Evaluation of pollutant loadings in the runoff waters from a major rural highway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Legret; C. Pagotto

    1999-01-01

    The quality of pavement runoff water from a 275-m motorway section has been studied for 1 year, during which approximately 50 rain events have been sampled. Two different types of pollution have been revealed. One type can be defined as chronic and includes suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, total hydrocarbons, zinc and lead. The second type can be considered to

  11. Water Pollution from Urban Stormwater Runoff in the Brunette River Watershed, B.C.

    E-print Network

    Water Pollution from Urban Stormwater Runoff in the Brunette River Watershed, B.C. DOE FRAP 1998. of Civil Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z2 May 1998 #12;ii Columbia. B.C. Research Corp. conducted the Microtox bioassays. Several students assisted with the field

  12. Pollution control of surface waters by coupling gliding discharge treatment with incorporated oyster shell powder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Njoyim-Tamungang; S. Laminsi; P. Ghogomu; D. Njopwouo; J.-L. Brisset

    2011-01-01

    Highly oxidizing gaseous species (OH, NO and derivatives) formed in an electrical discharge (a gliding discharge burning in humid air), are suitable for abating the organic pollutant concentration of surface waters sampled in Cameroonian brooks, e.g., 47% (Total Organic Carbon, TOC) within 10min exposure. The plasma technique coupled with the use of finely powdered oyster shell (OS) acting as a

  13. Water Quality and Pollution. Environmental Studies. 4 Color Transparencies, Reproducibles & Teaching Guide. Grade 3, 4, 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortleb, Edward P.; And Others

    The world is faced with a variety of environmental problems. No country has escaped pollution and resource depletion. Basic ecological principles are often ignored and sometimes this contributes to ecological disasters. This volume is designed to provide basic information about the quality of the earth's water resources. The visual aids,…

  14. The extent of chronic marine oil pollution in southeastern Newfoundland waters assessed through beached

    E-print Network

    Jones, Ian L.

    The extent of chronic marine oil pollution in southeastern Newfoundland waters assessed through Cooperative Wildlife Ecology Research Network, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. JohnÕs Newfoundland The Grand Banks south of Newfoundland provide year-round feeding habitat for tens of millions of seabirds

  15. New Paradigm for Sizing Riparian Buffers to Reduce Risks of Polluted Storm Water: Practical Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    available rainfall and stream discharge data to parameterize the buffer-sizing equations and use variable-width, it is not surprising that recommendations for riparian buffer widths range over two orders of magnitude e.g., HawesNew Paradigm for Sizing Riparian Buffers to Reduce Risks of Polluted Storm Water: Practical

  16. Water Quality & Pollutant Source Monitoring: Field and Laboratory Procedures. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on techniques and instrumentation used to develop data in field monitoring programs and related laboratory operations concerned with water quality and pollution monitoring. Topics include: collection and handling of samples; bacteriological, biological, and chemical field and laboratory methods; field…

  17. EQUILIBRIUM DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENTS FOR EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC PRIORITY POLLUTANTS FROM WATER - II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is the second of a series of two reports dealing with the removal of certain of the organic EPA Priority Pollutants from water by means of solvent extraction. The principal focus of the project has been measurement of equilibrium distribution coefficients (equivalent ...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF POLLUTED WATERS USING SOURCE TRACKING MOLECULAR TOOLS: LESSONS LEARNED AND FUTURE NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Different approaches have been used to identify fecal pollution sources in water samples. Early on, the fecal coliforms - fecal streptococci ratio was proposed as a method that could discriminate between human and animal contamination. Several studies showed that the latter appro...

  19. LEAF PHOTOSYNTHETIC AND WATER RELATIONS RESPONSES FOR "VALENCIA" ORANGE TREES EXPOSED TO OXIDANT AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Leaf responses were measured to test a hypothesis that reduced photosynthetic capacity and/or altered water relations were associated with reductions in yield for "Valencia" orange trees exposed to ambient oxidant air pollution. xposures were continuous for four years to three le...

  20. Radiation-induced grafting of cellulose for adsorption of hazardous water pollutants: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnárovits, L.; Földváry, Cs. M.; Takács, E.

    2010-08-01

    This review paper briefly introduces the radiation chemistry of cellulose, the different grafting techniques used, and the methods of characterization of the grafted material. It shows the application of the grafted polymer for the removal of water pollutants and also the regeneration of the adsorbent.

  1. Training Course on Water Pollution. Red Sea & Gulf of Aden Programme (PERSGA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arab Organization for Education and Science, Cairo (Egypt).

    This document presents a training course on water pollution developed by the staff of the National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt. This course, which is organized by the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO), is intended for Junior Bachelor of Science (B.S.) graduates from various Arab countries. The duration of the…

  2. Water-pollution control: guidelines for project planning and financing. World Bank technical paper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Palange; A. Zavala

    1987-01-01

    This publication provides guidelines to managers, supervisors, and others who are involved with decisions on filling needs for water-pollution-control facilities, but who may be lacking the detailed background in engineering, economics, financial management, or other applicable specialties. Political and economic planning leaders, who must provide the financial resources and overall policies, will also find the document useful in making themselves

  3. Development of a CFD Model for Secondary Final Settling Tanks in Water Pollution Control Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minwei Gong; Savvas Xanthos; Krish Ramalingam; John Fillos

    2007-01-01

    To assess performance and evaluate alternatives to improve efficiency of the New York City the Wards Island Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) FSTs at peak loads, a 3D CFD model has been developed. Fluent was utilized as the base platform, where sub-models of the Suspended Solids (SS), settling characteristics, density currents and SS flocculation were incorporated. This was supplemented by

  4. The value of incorporating bioindicators in economic approaches to water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew G. Keeler; Donna McLemore

    1996-01-01

    Bioindicators provide better information about environmental quality than chemical and physical measures alone. This paper addresses how this information can improve the efficiency of water pollution control policy. We model bioindicators as a means of resolving uncertainty about the relationship of human activities and environmental effects. Two economic policy models are developed to formalize efficiency gains that result from biological

  5. A study on volatile organic sulfide causes of odors at Philadelphia's Northeast Water Pollution Control Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianhao Cheng; Earl Peterkin; Gary A. Burlingame

    2005-01-01

    Volatile organic sulfide (VOS) causes of odors were studied at Philadelphia's Northeast Water Pollution Control Plant between September 11 and November 25, 2003. Results showed that dimethyl sulfide (DMS) dominated the VOS pool whenever VOS concentration rose above the background level (<50?g\\/L). Methanethiol was generally less than 10% of VOS and it was mainly found at sites with limited or

  6. REVIEW OF WESTERN EUROPEAN AND JAPANESE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY EXEMPLARY WATER POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a literature survey of current Western European and Japanese water pollution control technology in the iron and steel industry. Further information was obtained through personal communication. Recycle technology was identified as being practiced to a h...

  7. Laws of the United States Relating to Water Pollution Control and Environmental Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Public Works.

    This compilation of Federal legislation contains copies of twelve Public Laws, four Executive Orders, and five International Conventions relevant to water pollution control. It also contains two Public Laws and two Executive Orders pertaining to environmental quality. There is a brief introduction summarizing the provisions of each Act. (AL)

  8. Post Evaluation of Water Pollution Control Planning for Huai River Basin in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siyu Zeng; Mi Tian; Jing Li; Jining Chen

    2008-01-01

    Post evaluation methodology for river basin water pollution control planning has been applied to Huai River Basin plan (2001-2005). It consists of assessment on plan enforcement results and enforcement process. The former is conducted through the multi-criteria comprehensive evaluation method based on an indicator system. And the latter is to assess the impact of natural endowment, plan preparation assumptions, policy

  9. Impacts of full secondary treatment at the joint water pollution control plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Miele

    1985-01-01

    In September 1979, the Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County applied for a 301(h) waiver for modification of secondary treatment requirements for the Joint Water Pollution Control Plant. As specified by Environmental Protection Agency regulations, the waiver evaluated the environmental impacts associated with implementation of partial secondary treatment as compared to elimination of the wastewater discharge entirely. This paper presents

  10. Application of Genetic Algorithm in the Optimization of Water Pollution Control Scheme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui-Ming Zhao; Dong-Ping Qian

    2007-01-01

    Genetic Algorithm (Genetic Algorithm Chine write for the GA) is a kind of hunting Algorithm bionic global optimization imitating the Darwinian biological evolution theories, is advancing front of complex nonlinear science and artificial intelligence science. In the basic of introducing the GA basic principle and optimization Algorithm, this text leads the GA into the domain of the water pollution control

  11. CRITICAL REVIEW OF ESTIMATING BENEFITS OF AIR AND WATER POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides a critical review of the current state-of-the-art and future prospects of estimating benefits of air and water pollution control. This report represents three independent critiques by three experts of benefit assessment methodologies. Specific aspects discuss...

  12. Incidence of water pollution control costs: partial vs. general equilibrium computations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES S. SHORTLE; KEITH D. WILLETT

    1986-01-01

    A comparison of two computations of the distributional effects of a fully implemented federal water pollution control policy, one based on an extreme partial equilibrium method and one on a computable general equilibrium model, finds some differences that show the importance of the general equilibrium computations. The application, however, only demonstrates the feasibility of the approach and illustrates the importance

  13. Industry sector analysis, Indonesia: Water pollution control equipment. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Bhinekawati, R.

    1992-10-21

    The market survey covers the water pollution control equipment market in Indonesia. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Indonesian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

  14. Research on Decision Support System of Water Pollution Control Based on Immune Agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo-ping Zhang; Guo-xi Wu; Shi-yu Shang

    2008-01-01

    A new method of decision support system (DSS) is put forward, and the theory of immune arithmetic and agent is applied in the scopes. Based on immune agent, a decision support system of urban river water pollution control based on immune agent is proposed. The system includes apperceive agent, control agent and response agent, which solves the problem that DSS

  15. Energy conservation at the West Dover, Vermont, Water Pollution Control facility. Special report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Martel; B. C. Sargent; W. Bronson

    1982-01-01

    An energy audit was conducted at the West Dover, Vermont, water pollution control facility. The audit revealed that aeration, not pumping to the land treatment site, was the largest energy consumer. As a result of the audit, five Energy Conservation Opportunities (EOC) were evaluated. Three of the ECOs were recommended for implementation; these could result in annual savings of more

  16. Industry sector analysis, Indonesia: Water pollution control equipment. Export trade information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhinekawati

    1992-01-01

    The market survey covers the water pollution control equipment market in Indonesia. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Indonesian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

  17. Review of the literature of 1966 on wastewater and water pollution control. Part 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Weiss; R. S. Engelbrecht

    1967-01-01

    The 1966 literature on wastewater and water pollution control for a number of industrial plants is reviewed. This article is divided into discussions for each industrial application covered. One such discussion is on petroleum processing waste. This reveals that Standard Oil Co. of Ohio has begun a $1 million program to modernize wastewater treating facilities at its Toledo, Ohio, refinery.

  18. Action for Environmental Quality. Standards and Enforcement for Air and Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for setting and enforcing environmental quality standards for the nation. With the Clean Air Act of 1970 (P.L. 91-604) and the Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (P.L. 92-500), the first truly nationwide control programs were established. This booklet is designed to inform the public…

  19. Consequences of Decentralization: Environmental Impact Assessment and Water Pollution Control in Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ADRIAAN BEDNER

    2010-01-01

    After having been one of the most centralized states in the world for more than thirty years, in 2001 Indonesia introduced a sweeping program of decentralization with important consequences for the management of the industrial sector. This article explores whether the decentralization process has led to substantial changes in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and enforcement of water pollution law. Its

  20. A comparison of erosion and water pollution control strategies for an agricultural watershed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony Prato; Hongqi Shi

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness and efficiency of two erosion control strategies and one water pollution control (riparian) strategy are compared for Idaho's Tom Beall watershed. Erosion control strategies maximize annualized net returns per hectare on each field and restrict field erosion rates to no more than 11.2 or 16.8 tons per hectare. The riparian strategy uses good vegetative cover on all fields

  1. Effects of long term irrigation with polluted water and sludge amendment on some soil enzyme activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. O. Topac; H. S. Baskaya; U. Alkan; A. V. Katkat

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of wastewater sludge-fly ash mixtures on urease, dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and beta-glucosidase activities in soils. In order to evaluate the probable effects of previous soil management practices (irrigation with polluted water) on soil enzymes, two different soil samples which were similar in physical properties, but different in irrigation practice were

  2. Spatial cluster detection of air pollution exposure inequities across the United States.

    PubMed

    Zou, Bin; Peng, Fen; Wan, Neng; Mamady, Keita; Wilson, Gaines J

    2014-01-01

    Air quality is known to be a key factor in affecting the wellbeing and quality of life of the general populous and there is a large body of knowledge indicating that certain underrepresented groups may be overexposed to air pollution. Therefore, a more precise understanding of air pollution exposure as a driving cause of health disparities between and among ethnic and racial groups is necessary. Utilizing 52,613 urban census tracts across the United States, this study investigates age, racial, educational attainment and income differences in exposure to benzene pollution in 1999 as a case. The study examines spatial clustering patterns of these inequities using logistic regression modeling and spatial autocorrelation methods such as the Global Moran's I index and the Anselin Local Moran's I index. Results show that the age groups of 0 to 14 and those over 60 years old, individuals with less than 12 years of education, racial minorities including Blacks, American Indians, Asians, some other races, and those with low income were exposed to higher levels of benzene pollution in some census tracts. Clustering analyses stratified by age, education, and race revealed a clear case of disparities in spatial distribution of exposure to benzene pollution across the entire United States. For example, people aged less than 4 years from the western south and the Pacific coastal areas exhibit statistically significant clusters. The findings confirmed that there are geographical-location based disproportionate pattern of exposures to benzene air pollution by various socio-demographic factors across the United States and this type of disproportionate exposure pattern can be effectively detected by a spatial autocorrelation based cluster analysis method. It is suggested that there is a clear and present need for programs and services that will reduce inequities and ultimately improve environmental conditions for all underrepresented groups in the United States. PMID:24647354

  3. Elimination of air and water pollution by double-stage scrubber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Athanassiadis

    1982-01-01

    This new scrubbing system has been developed to eliminate entirely air pollution caused by water cooling towers during oil\\u000a or fat deodorization. It also minimizes water effluent. In industrial application for more than one year, this system is based\\u000a on the action of two scrubbers placed in series. The first scrubber is a conventional one, whereas the second uses concentrated

  4. Bio-diatomite dynamic membrane reactor for micro-polluted surface water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huaqiang Chu; Dawen Cao; Bingzhi Dong; Zhimin Qiang

    2010-01-01

    This work investigated the feasibility of treating micro-polluted surface water for drinking water production with a bio-diatomite dynamic membrane reactor (BDDMR) at lab-scale in continuous-flow mode. Results indicate that the BDDMR was effective in removing CODMn, DOC, UV254, NH3-N and trihalomethanes' formation potential (THMFP) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.5h due to its high concentrations of mixed liquor

  5. Total energy concept at the joint water pollution control plant. [Carson, CA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Adams; J. D. Eppich; W. E. Garrison; J. C. Gratteau

    1980-01-01

    The proposed total-energy facilities at the Joint Water Pollution Control Plant (Carson, Calif.) are designed to maximize electrical power production to meet significant increases in demands resulting from secondary treatment, and to minimize dependence on public utilities for natural gas and water by reusing waste heat and plant effluent. The generator prime-mover selection process includes analyses of reciprocating engines, simple-cycle

  6. The Distribution of the Costs of Federal Water Pollution Control Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin

    1980-01-01

    The complex problem of assigning dollar-costs to Federal programs is approached by comparing the distributional costs of implementing the Clean Water Act of 1972 with those of the Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, which are found to be more equitable. The study is limited to short-term tax and price burdens and neglects both the long-term costs and the

  7. Spatial and temporal variability of surface water pollution in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Wilbers, Gert-Jan; Becker, Mathias; Nga, La Thi; Sebesvari, Zita; Renaud, Fabrice G

    2014-07-01

    Surface water pollution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (MD) could threaten human, animal and ecosystem health given the fact that this water source is intensively used for drinking, irrigation and domestic services. We therefore determined the levels of pollution by organic pollutants, salts, metals and microbial indicators by (bi)monthly monitoring of canals between November 2011 and July 2012 at 32 sampling locations, representing fresh and saline/brackish environments. The results were compared with national water quality guidelines, between the studied regions and with water quality data from main waterways. Key factors explaining the observed levels of pollution in surface water were identified through principal component analysis (PCA). Temporal variations due to tidal regime and seasonality were also assessed. Based on regression models, the spatial variability of five water quality parameters was visualized using GIS based maps. Results indicate that pH (max. 8.6), turbidity (max. 461 FTU), maximum concentrations of ammonium (14.7 mg L(-1)), arsenic (44.1 ?g L(-1)), barium (157.5 ?g L(-1)), chromium (84.7 ?g L(-1)), mercury (45.5 ?g L(-1)), manganese (1659.7 ?g L(-1)), aluminum (14.5 mg L(-1)), iron (17.0 mg L(-1)) and the number of Escherichia coli (87,000 CFU 100 mL(-1)) and total coliforms (2,500,000 CFU 100 mL(-1)) in canals exceed the thresholds set by Vietnamese quality guidelines for drinking and domestic purposes. The PCA showed that i) urbanization; ii) metal leaching from soils; iii) aquaculture; and iv) tidal regime explain 85% of the variance of surface water quality attributes. Significant differences in water quality were found due to daily tidal regime and as a result of seasonality. Surface water quality maps for dissolved oxygen, ammonium, ortho-phosphate, manganese and total coliforms were developed to highlight hot-spot areas of pollution. The results of this study can assist policy makers in developing water management strategies and drinking water companies in selecting optimum water extraction locations. PMID:24747257

  8. Evaluation of Immunomagnetic Separation for the Detection of Salmonella in Surface Waters by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chao-Yu; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Chang, Tien-Yu; Hsu, Tsui-Kang; Shen, Shu-Min; Chiu, Yi-Chou; Wang, Hung-Jen; Ji, Wen-Tsai; Fan, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Jyh-Larng

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella spp. is associated with fecal pollution and capable of surviving for long periods in aquatic environments. Instead of the traditional, time-consuming biochemical detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows rapid identification of Salmonella directly concentrated from water samples. However, prevalence of Salmonella may be underestimated because of the vulnerability of PCR to various environmental chemicals like humic acid, compounded by the fact that various DNA polymerases have different susceptibility to humic acid. Because immunomagnetic separation (IMS) theoretically could isolate Salmonella from other microbes and facilitate removal of aquatic PCR inhibitors of different sizes, this study aims to compare the efficiency of conventional PCR combined with immunomagnetic separation (IMS) for Salmonella detection within a moderately polluted watershed. In our study, the positive rate was increased from 17.6% to 47% with nearly ten-fold improvement in the detection limit. These results suggest the sensitivity of Salmonella detection could be enhanced by IMS, particularly in low quality surface waters. Due to its effects on clearance of aquatic pollutants, IMS may be suitable for most DNA polymerases for Salmonella detection. PMID:25243887

  9. Evaluation of immunomagnetic separation for the detection of Salmonella in surface waters by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chao-Yu; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Chang, Tien-Yu; Hsu, Tsui-Kang; Shen, Shu-Min; Chiu, Yi-Chou; Wang, Hung-Jen; Ji, Wen-Tsai; Fan, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Jyh-Larng

    2014-09-01

    Salmonella spp. is associated with fecal pollution and capable of surviving for long periods in aquatic environments. Instead of the traditional, time-consuming biochemical detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows rapid identification of Salmonella directly concentrated from water samples. However, prevalence of Salmonella may be underestimated because of the vulnerability of PCR to various environmental chemicals like humic acid, compounded by the fact that various DNA polymerases have different susceptibility to humic acid. Because immunomagnetic separation (IMS) theoretically could isolate Salmonella from other microbes and facilitate removal of aquatic PCR inhibitors of different sizes, this study aims to compare the efficiency of conventional PCR combined with immunomagnetic separation (IMS) for Salmonella detection within a moderately polluted watershed. In our study, the positive rate was increased from 17.6% to 47% with nearly ten-fold improvement in the detection limit. These results suggest the sensitivity of Salmonella detection could be enhanced by IMS, particularly in low quality surface waters. Due to its effects on clearance of aquatic pollutants, IMS may be suitable for most DNA polymerases for Salmonella detection. PMID:25243887

  10. Cost and Pollutant Removal of StormWater Treatment Practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter T. Weiss; John S. Gulliver; Andrew J. Erickson

    2007-01-01

    Six storm-water best management practices BMPs for treating urban rainwater runoff were evaluated for cost and effective- ness in removing suspended sediments and total phosphorus. Construction and annual operating and maintenance O and M cost data were collected and analyzed for dry extended detention basins, wet basins, sand filters, constructed wetlands, bioretention filters, and infiltration trenches using literature that reported

  11. ECONOMIC AND ENERGY ANALYSES OF REGIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two strategic approaches to water quality control in Oregon's Willamette River are presently being utilized: point source treatment and flow augmentation from reservoirs. Input/Output analysis (I/O) provides an econometric methodology to study direct and indirect energy response ...

  12. INTEGRATED STEEL PLANT POLLUTION STUDY FOR TOTAL RECYCLE OF WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an engineering study of five integrated U.S. steel plants to determine how each might ultimately achieve total recycle of water. The plants represent a broad cross section of plant-specific factors (e.g., size, age, location, and available space) that ...

  13. ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANT ANALYSIS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a widely used technique for the identification of organic chemicals in water. This paper describes the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer system, the preparation and separation of samples, the selection of ionizing processes, the integrati...

  14. Investigating water pollution of the Dareh Morad Beik River in the Hamadan District, Iran.

    PubMed

    Khoram, Mahdi Reyahi; Nafea, Minoo

    2008-10-01

    Water-related hazards, such as drought, floods, erosion, and various kinds of pollution, should be factored into any integrated approach to water-resource management. This research attempt has been made to assess the process of water pollution in the Dareh Morad Beik (DMB) River, whose length is about 18 km and whose average flow rate is 250 L/s. The quality of river water, including chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate, fecal coliform, and total coliform, were all measured and evaluated at three different sampling stations within different months of the year. The information was gathered by conducting experiments and through field visits, as well as by library study. The results of this research showed that, from a microbiological point of view, the water of the DMB was polluted during the year. Based on the results obtained it was determined that the amount of COD and BOD at station 1 was negligible. Also the influx of qantas waters from Hamadan City into the DMB has caused dilution of COD, BOD, and nitrate of that river at station 3. PMID:18991905

  15. A comparative analysis: storm water pollution policy in California, USA and Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Swamikannu, X; Radulescu, D; Young, R; Allison, R

    2003-01-01

    Urban drainage systems historically were developed on principles of hydraulic capacity for the transport of storm water to reduce the risk of flooding. However, with urbanization the percent of impervious surfaces increases dramatically resulting in increased flood volumes, peak discharge rates, velocities and duration, and a significant increase in pollutant loads. Storm water and urban runoff are the leading causes of the impairment of receiving waters and their beneficial uses in Australia and the United States today. Strict environmental and technology controls on wastewater treatment facilities and industry for more than three decades have ensured that these sources are less significant today as the cause of impairment of receiving waters. This paper compares the approach undertaken by the Environmental Protection Authority Victoria for the Melbourne metropolitan area with the approach implemented by the California Environmental Protection Agency for the Los Angeles area to control storm water pollution. Both these communities are largely similar in population size and the extent of urbanization. The authors present an analysis of the different approaches contrasting Australia with the USA, comment on their comparative success, and discuss the relevance of the two experiences for developed and developing nations in the context of environmental policy making to control storm water and urban runoff pollution. PMID:12793695

  16. Remote sensing applied to environmental pollution detection and management. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of remote sensing techniques and equipment to study air and water pollution. Topics include the use of aerial photographs, radar, and spaceborne photography to study oil spills, ocean dumping sites, plume dispersions, and pollution problems in estuaries. Data interpretation and processing techniques are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Remote sensing applied to environmental-pollution detection and management. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of remote sensing techniques and equipment to study air and water pollution. Topics include the use of aerial photographs, radar, and spaceborne photography to study oil spills, ocean dumping sites, plume dispersions, and pollution problems in estuaries. Data interpretation and processing techniques are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Remote sensing applied to environmental pollution detection and management. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of remote sensing techniques and equipment to study air and water pollution. Topics include the use of aerial photographs, radar, and spaceborne photography to study oil spills, ocean dumping sites, plume dispersions, and pollution problems in estuaries. Data interpretation and processing techniques are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Remote sensing applied to environmental pollution detection and management. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of remote sensing techniques and equipment to study air and water pollution. Topics include the use of aerial photographs, radar, and spaceborne photography to study oil spills, ocean dumping sites, plume dispersions, and pollution problems in estuaries. Data interpretation and processing techniques are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Green analytical determination of emerging pollutants in environmental waters using excitation-emission photoinduced fluorescence data and multivariate calibration.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Sánchez, María del Carmen; Lozano, Valeria A; Rodríguez-Cáceres, María Isabel; Durán-Merás, Isabel; Escandar, Graciela M

    2015-03-01

    An eco-friendly strategy for the simultaneous quantification of three emerging pharmaceutical contaminants is presented. The proposed analytical method, which involves photochemically induced fluorescence matrix data combined with second-order chemometric analysis, was used for the determination of carbamazepine, ofloxacin and piroxicam in water samples of different complexity without the need of chromatographic separation. Excitation-emission photoinduced fluorescence matrices were obtained after UV irradiation, and processed with second-order algorithms. Only one of the tested algorithms was able to overcome the strong spectral overlapping among the studied pollutants and allowed their successful quantitation in very interferent media. The method sensitivity in superficial and underground water samples was enhanced by a simple solid-phase extraction with C18 membranes, which was successful for the extraction/preconcentration of the pollutants at trace levels. Detection limits in preconcentrated (1:125) real water samples ranged from 0.04 to 0.3 ng mL(-1). Relative prediction errors around 10% were achieved. The proposed strategy is significantly simpler and greener than liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods, without compromising the analytical quality of the results. PMID:25618660

  1. Manpower Requirements for Pollution Control and Water Resources in Indiana and a Related Pollution Control Technology Curriculum. Manpower Report 69-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Office of Manpower Studies.

    The purpose of this study was to identify the trained manpower needed to cope with Indiana's mounting problems in air and water pollution control, liquid and solid waste disposal, and water supply and resources. This report contains data concerning the present employment, current job opportunities, and projected manpower needs for related…

  2. Water level detection using a numerical camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourquet, G.; Saulnier, G. M.

    2003-04-01

    A hydrometric measurement system using a numerical video camera is presented. This system can feed the manager with images of the flood in real-time, which is an efficient way to assess the flood hazard. In the same time, detection algorithm are performed on the images of the video camera to get two additional informations: the water level and the water surface velocity (using PIV methods which need the water level estimation to fix the coordinates of the river surface in the three-dimensional referentiel). These informations can be used as it is in alarm system or be assimilated by hydrological model of flood forecast. This is a non-contact measurement system which remains the most expensive part (the camera) sheltered from the floods, costs are low compared to gauge station setting up and it allows non-permanent measurements network for temporary intense observation period for example. Detections algorithms will be presented. Uncertainties estimation have been analyticaly expressed, taking into account the lens properties, the geometrical characteristics of the measurement (distance to the river, ground points reference, etc.). A comparison will be shown between these mathematical uncertainty estimation and real uncertainties estimation got from the observation period performed this 2002 winter on the Isere river at Grenoble (5800 km^2), France. A protoype installed for a long observation period (at least 2 years) will be also presented.

  3. GIS to estimate storm-water pollutant mass loadings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth M. Wong; M. K. Stenstrom; E. W. Strecker

    1997-01-01

    In order to develop a monitoring program for the Santa Monica Bay, Calif., watershed, a land-use runoff model was developed using a geographic information system (GIS) coupled with an empirical runoff model. The GIS\\/model has simple data requirements as compared to more complex models that require routing information; and it is useful for predicting receiving-water loading on an annual basis

  4. Are interactive effects of harmful algal blooms and copper pollution a concern for water quality management?

    PubMed

    Hochmuth, Jennifer D; Asselman, Jana; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2014-09-01

    Toxicity of mixtures of stressors is one of the major challenges in water quality management. Yet until now risk assessment focuses almost exclusively on the effect characterization of individual stressors. An important concern is the potential interactive effects of cyanobacteria, sometimes referred to as harmful algal blooms, with chemical stressors. Here, we evaluated the response of two clones of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna to the combined effects of five cyanobacteria and copper. The latter remains the most commonly applied chemical algaecide and is also often detected in eutrophic run-offs that promote harmful algal blooms. Because the different cyanobacteria studied here have known modes of action that are similar, as well as dissimilar compared to the known modes of actions of copper, we based our assessment on two widely used reference models, i.e. the Concentration Addition (CA) model for similarly acting stressors and the Independent Action (IA) model for dissimilarly acting stressors. We highlight four major findings. First, the conclusions drawn on the interaction type (non-interaction vs. synergism or antagonism) between either of the five cyanobacteria species and copper were the same for both D. magna clones. Second, the interaction type differed between the Microcystis + copper mixture (non-interaction according to CA and synergism according to IA) and the four other cyanobacteria + copper mixtures (antagonism according to CA and non-interaction according to IA). Third, both reference models provided reasonable predictions for all observed mixture toxicities. Fourth, we consistently obtained different results with the IA reference model compared to the CA model. More specifically, mixtures of Cu and Microcystis were synergistic with IA whereas non-interaction was observed with CA, while the remaining four cyanobacteria + copper combinations all displayed non-interaction with IA and antagonism with CA. Despite the IA reference model providing a marginally better fit to the data in general, the CA reference model delivered more conservative predictions for mixture toxicity of cyanobacteria + copper in all cases compared to the IA reference model. Thus, the CA model could serve as a conservative model to account for mixture toxicity of cyanobacteria and copper in water quality management, as it gives rise to conservative predictions of mixed stressor toxicity at sub-lethal effect levels in D. magna. Finally, and in accordance with other studies of cyanobacteria + chemical mixtures, we did not detect any strong synergistic effects of copper and cyanobacteria mixtures on D. magna. Consequently, based on our study with the model freshwater zooplankton species Daphnia, interactive effects of harmful algal blooms and copper pollution appear to be of limited concern for water quality management. PMID:24821194

  5. Toxicity bioassays: Water pollution effects on aquatic animals and plants. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning toxicity bioassay studies of water pollution effects on reproduction, growth, and mortality of aquatic fauna and flora. Industrial and agricultural water pollutants such as heavy metals, chemicals, pesticides, and herbicides are evaluated and tested. Standard fish and algal assays are used to determine effects of potential toxicants. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Toxicity bioassays: Water-pollution effects on aquatic animals and plants. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning toxicity bioassay studies of water pollution effects on reproduction, growth, and mortality of aquatic fauna and flora. Industrial and agricultural water pollutants such as heavy metals, chemicals, pesticides, and herbicides are evaluated and tested. Standard fish and algal assays are used to determine effects of potential toxicants. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Detecting and locating leaks in Underground Water Mains Using Thermography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Fahmy; Osama Moselhi

    2009-01-01

    Water systems all over the world experience water losses. Leakage is the most common reason of water loss. Problems associated with water main leaks are a growing concern around the globe. These problems include water and energy loss, in addition to considerable properties damage. In current practice, not all water leaks can be detected due to intensive time and expensive

  8. Applied research reduces air pollution from platforms in offshore California waters

    SciTech Connect

    Konczvald, A.; Shackell, G.C.

    1996-12-31

    The monumental task of reducing air pollutants generated from offshore oil and gas platforms while preserving safety and production safeguards is difficult. Recently, a group of scientists have pioneered the smokeless oil spill burn concept using Enhanced Burning Additives (EBA), while the Minerals Management Service (MMS) entered the 89th year of monitoring the safe operational practices under air pollutant reducing measures such as water injected turbine generators and the use of new fuels on platforms along the Californian Pacific coast. This paper presents the conclusions of this trial period of selecting the right, technically feasible concepts.

  9. On-site laser probe for the detection of petroleum products in water and soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Schade; Jens Bublitz

    1996-01-01

    Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and fiber optics are shown to be promising tools for the detection of environmental pollutants in water and soil. Time-integrated data accumulation of fluorescence intensities in an `early` and in a `late` time window with respect to the excitation pulse simplifies the method in such a way that it becomes very attractive for practical applications. Results

  10. A Multispectral Look at Oil Pollution Detection, Monitoring, and Law Enforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catoe, C. E.; Mclean, J. T.

    1979-01-01

    The problems of detecting oil films on water, mapping the areal extent of slicks, measuring the slick thickness, and identifying oil types are discussed. The signature properties of oil in the ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave, and radar regions are analyzed.

  11. Political crisis and the politics of water pollution control in the 1970s

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoukalas, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    This research investigates the sociopolitical context and formation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1977 in light of the theory of the relative autonomy of the state. Data on state legitimacy and political crisis are derived from previous studies on public trust in government and business and the National Opinion Research Center's General Social Surveys series. Data on class influence and class political power are derived from the testimony of witnesses at the US Senate hearings. Major findings note that the Act of 1972 was proposed and passed during a period of severe crisis in the public's trust in government and business. The federal government responded to that crisis, in part, through the enactment of a water pollution control policy that featured public participation and strict national water quality standards. The formation of the 1972 act is found to be independent of direct class influences. The Amendments of 1977 extended industrial compliance deadlines for meeting the national water quality standards and weakened the implementation of provisions that encouraged public participation.

  12. [Pilot scale study on emergent treatment for As (III) pollution in water source].

    PubMed

    Yao, Juan-juan; Gao, Nai-yun; Xia, Sheng-ji; Chen, Bei-bei

    2010-02-01

    Based on the conventional water treatment processes widely used in China, a pilot scale study was performed to investigate emergent treatment for arsenite pollution in water source. The results show that As removal efficiency can only reach to 71.85% by conventional water treatment process. The removal efficiencies of dissolved arsenic and total arsenic by mixing, first flocculation, second flocculation, sedimentation, filtration units were 36.00%, 5.42%, 9.30%, 14.95%, 7.88% and 9.10%, -3.62%, 2.74%, 55.12%, 8.51% respectively, when the concentration of As(III) in raw water was 150 microg/L. The arsenic concentration in treated water can not be effectively controlled below 10 microg/L. Hence, the pre-oxidation is necessary. The pre-chlorination-enhanced coagulation process can effectively deal with the sudden As(III) pollution. But for lower chlorine dosage, both ammonia concentration and different pre-chlorination sites have significant effects on arsenic removal, which should be taken into account. Potassium permanganate pre-oxidation-enhanced coagulation process can be more effectively deal with the sudden As(III) pollution than pre-chlorination. Moreover the different pre-oxidation sites have no obvious effect on arsenic removal. As a result, potassium permanganate is recommended as an oxidant for As(III). PMID:20391697

  13. Intensive management in grasslands causes diffuse water pollution at the farm scale.

    PubMed

    Peukert, Sabine; Griffith, Bruce A; Murray, Phillip J; Macleod, Christopher J A; Brazier, Richard E

    2014-11-01

    Arable land use is generally assumed to be the largest contributor to agricultural diffuse pollution. This study adds to the growing evidence that conventional temperate intensively managed lowland grasslands contribute significantly to soil erosion and diffuse pollution rates. This is the first grassland study to monitor hydrological characteristics and multiple pollutant fluxes (suspended sediment [SS] and the macronutrients: total oxidized nitrogen-N [TON], total phosphorus [TP], and total carbon [TC]) at high temporal resolution (monitoring up to every 15 min) over 1 yr. Monitoring was conducted across three fields (6.5-7.5 ha) on the North Wyke Farm Platform, UK. The estimated annual erosion rates (up to 527.4 kg ha), TP losses (up to 0.9 kg ha), and TC losses (up to 179 kg ha) were similar to or exceeded the losses reported for other grassland, mixed land-use, and arable sites. Annual yields of TON (up to 3 kg ha) were less than arable land-use fluxes and earlier grassland N studies, an important result as the study site is situated within a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone. The high-resolution monitoring allowed detailed "system's functioning" understanding of hydrological processes, mobilization- transport pathways of individual pollutants, and the changes of the relative importance of diffuse pollutants through flow conditions and time. Suspended sediment and TP concentrations frequently exceeded water quality guidelines recommended by the European Freshwater Fisheries Directive (25 mg L) and the European Water Framework Directive (0.04 mg soluble reactive P L), suggesting that intensively managed grasslands pose a significant threat to receiving surface waters. Such sediment and nutrient losses from intensively managed grasslands should be acknowledged in land management guidelines and advice for future compliance with surface water quality standards. PMID:25602218

  14. Chapter Five Passive Treatment of Polluted Mine Waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul L. Younger; Steven A. Banwart; Robert S. Hedin

    \\u000a As contaminated mine waters flow into and through receiving systems (streams, rivers, wetlands and lakes), their toxic characteristics\\u000a commonly decrease. Many studies (e.g. Tuttle et al., 1969, Wieder and Lang 1982; Huntsman 1978; Stark et al., 1990; Herlihy and Mills 1985) have shown that this amelioration in quality occurs as a result of:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a  \\u000a \\u000a natural chemical and biological reactions and

  15. Detection and monitoring of volatile and semivolatile pollutants in soil through different sensing strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cesare, Fabrizio; Macagnano, Antonella

    2013-04-01

    Pollutants in environments are more and more threatening the maintenance of health of habitats and their inhabitants. A proper evaluation of the impact of contaminants from several different potential sources on soil quality and health and then on organisms living therein, and the possible and sometime probable related risk of transfer of pollutants, with their toxic effects, to organisms living in different environmental compartments, through the trophic chain up to humans is strongly required by decision makers, in order to promptly take adequate actions to prevent environmental and health damages and monitor the exposure rate of individuals to toxicants. Then, a reliable detection of pollutants in environments and the monitoring of dynamics and fate of contaminants therein are of utmost importance to achieve this goal. In soil, chemical and physical techniques to detect pollutants have been well known for decades, but can often drive to both over- and underestimations of the actual bioavailable (and then toxic) fraction of contaminants, and then of the real risk for organisms, deriving from their presence therein. The use of bioindicators (both living organisms and enzyme activities somehow derived from them) can supply more reliable information about the quantification of the bioavailable fraction of soil pollutants. In the last decades, a physicochemical technique, such as SPME (solid phase microextraction) followed by GC-MS analysis, has been demonstrated to provide similar results to those obtained from some pedofaunal populations, used as bioindicators, as concerns the bioavailable pollutant quantification in soil. More recently, we have applied a sensing technology, namely electronic nose (EN), which comprises several unspecific sensors arranged in an array and that is capable of providing more qualitative than quantitative information about complex air samples, to the study of soils contaminated with semivolatile (SVOCs) pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The EN device set up on purpose involved suitable sensors and it was demonstrated to be capable of supplying information related to the whole soil environment as well as to the presence of contaminants and their dynamics, such as their biodegradation by soil microorganisms and the contemporary increase of CO2 release. These results were also somehow related to those obtained through SPME-GC/MS analyses, since a list of substances could be identified to be responsible for the different classification of contaminated and uncontaminated soil samples obtained through EN. Presently, we also have got evidences that more complex sensing devices can be used for in situ monitoring of contaminated soils. We have designed and fabricated a multi-parametric hybrid sensing system, based on the assembly of several different sensors and sensing systems (i.e. single sensors and a sensor array), some of which are commercially available, while some others were created by design in laboratory and tested for their specificity. The main target of such a hybrid sensing device was to be capable of measuring various soil parameters and volatile pollutants (VOCs) in soil, such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), in order to relate the quantification and behaviour of contaminants in soil (e.g. solubility, volatility, phase partitioning, adsorption and desorption, etc.) to the relative environmental conditions, by measuring physical (temperature and moisture) and chemical (pH) parameters, which can affect such processes. Furthermore, a suitable procedure was set up on purpose to provide VOCs quantifications actually related to the bioavailable fraction of pollutants (passive vs. active sampling). That sensing system was also set up for a wireless communication of the recorded values to a data-collecting centre. Such a tool was designed to be used as a proper probe to insert into soil for in situ monitoring of contaminated sites in order to provide semi-continuous information about soil pollution conditions and evolutions, suitable for unskilled

  16. Horse paddocks - an emerging source of agricultural water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masud Parvage, Mohammed; Ulén, Barbro; Kirchmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Horse farms occupy about 4% of the total agricultural land in the EU but are not well investigated with regard to their impact on water quality. Horse paddocks commonly hold horses on a limited space and the animal density often exceeds the recommended density. Therefore, paddock soils receive significant amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) through feed residues and deposition of faeces and urine, which can lead to nutrient build-up in the soil and subsequent losses to aquatic systems. This study characterized the potential risk of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) leaching losses from Swedish horse paddocks through three stage examination of soil and water P and N status. The experiment began with a pilot study where surface soil P status and eight years of drainage P data were examined from a paddock catchment and an adjacent arable catchment both receiving similar amount of P and N over years. Results showed that there were no signi?cant differences in water-soluble P (WSP) or total P data in soils but the drainage water P concentrations, being higher in the paddock catchment (0.33 mg P l-1, mainly in dissolved reactive form) than the arable catchment (0.10 mg P l-1). In the second experiment, soil P and N status were examined in different parts of horse paddocks (feeding, grazing, and excretion areas) to identify existence of any potential hotspots for losses within the paddock. In total, seven horse farms, covering different grazing densities and soil textures representative of Swedish horse paddocks were examined. The results showed that concentrations of WSP, plant available P or P-AL (P extracted in ammonium acetate lactate solution at pH 3.75), and total N were highest in feeding and excretion areas within the paddocks. It was also observed that the WSP concentration in the paddocks was strongly correlated with horse density (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.001) and P-AL with years of paddock management (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.001). In the final experiment, topsoil columns (0-20 cm) from the different segments of the paddock were isolated and potential leaching losses of P, N and carbon (C) were measured from two representative horse paddock (a clay and a loamy sand) following simulated rainfall events in the laboratory. Results showed that the leachate concentrations and net release of P, N, and dissolved organic C (DOC) from paddock topsoils were highest in feeding and excretion areas and considerably higher from the loamy sand than the clay paddock topsoil. It was concluded that: i) horse paddocks pose a potential threat to water quality via leaching of excess P and N, ii) feeding and excretion areas are potential hotspots for highly enhanced leaching losses, and iii) paddocks established on sandy soils are particularly susceptible to high losses.

  17. Feasibility study of detection of hazardous airborne pollutants using passive open-path FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; Dubowski, Y.; Jahn, C.; Schäfer, K.; Gerl, G.; Linker, R.

    2010-04-01

    In recent years open-path FTIR systems (active and passive) have demonstrated great potential and success for monitoring air pollution, industrial stack emissions, and trace gas constituents in the atmosphere. However, most of the studies were focused mainly on monitoring gaseous species and very few studies have investigated the feasibility of detecting bio-aerosols and dust by passive open-path FTIR measurements. The goal of the present study was to test the feasibility of detecting a cloud of toxic aerosols by a passive mode open-path FTIR. More specifically, we are focusing on the detection of toxic organophosphorous nerve agents for which we use Tri-2-ethyl-hexyl-phosphate as a model compound. We have determined the compounds' optical properties, which were needed for the radiative calculations, using a procedure developed in our laboratory. In addition, measurements of the aerosol size distribution in an airborne cloud were performed, which provided the additional input required for the radiative transfer model. This allowed simulation of the radiance signal that would be measured by the FTIR instrument and hence estimation of the detection limit of such a cloud. Preliminary outdoor measurements have demonstrated the possibility of detecting such a cloud using two detection methods. However, even in a simple case consisting of the detection of a pure airborne cloud, detection is not straightforward and reliable identification of the compound would require more advanced methods than simple correlation with spectral library.

  18. IMMUNOLOGICAL AND BIOSENSOR TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING NON-MICROBIAL INDICATORS OF HUMAN FECAL POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limitations exist in applying the conventional microbial methods to the detection of human fecal contamination in water. Recently, there has been an increased interest in developing supplemental and/or alternate indicators of human contamination to better define water quality an...

  19. Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual to tidal periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Alexandria B.; Lluch-Cota, Daniel B.; Davis, Kristen A.; Winant, Clinton D.; Monismith, Stephen G.

    2004-03-01

    Water temperature and fecal indicator bacteria levels covary along the shoreline of Huntington and Newport Beach, California at interannual to tidal periods. During summer, cooler than average waters caused by interannual variability in sea surface temperature (SST), synoptic upwelling, and tidal-period cooling are coincident with elevated levels of microbial pollution in the surf zone. This relationship can be explained by the effects of weakening in stratification on the fate of a waste water plume and the prolonged persistence of fecal indicator bacteria in colder waters. During winter, warmer than average water caused by basin scale oscillations and atmospheric and oceanographic processes that contribute to the Multivariate El Nino Southern Oscillation Index are indicative of elevated total coliform levels in the surf zone. The elevated coliform levels can be ascribed to increased rainfall, and the resultant storm water inflow to the surf zone.

  20. [Pilot-scale study on riparian mixed plant zones treating polluted river water].

    PubMed

    Li, Rui-hua; Guan, Yun-tao; He, Miao; Hu, Hong-yin; Jiang, Zhan-peng

    2006-04-01

    The polluted river water is treated with pilot-scale riparian zones of no aquatic plant, Vetiveria zizanioides + submerged plants, and weed+ Typha angustifolia L. + Phragmites communis. It is shown that the vegetation water zones are better than the no vegetation water zone and Vetiveria zizanioides + submerged plants zone is the best in improving water quality. The average removals of the Vetiveria zizanioides + submerged plant zone is 43.5% COD, 71.1% ammonia and 69.3% total phosphorus respectively. The dissolved oxygen (DO) and temperature of effluents from the three water zones are also investigated. It shows that DO of effluent from the vegetation zones are more stable than that of effluent from the no vegetation zone, and the temperature of the effluent from the vegetation zones are lower than that from the no vegetation zones. The submerged plants have special role in water quality improvement, and should be studied further. PMID:16767981

  1. Water pollution control technology and strategy for river–lake systems: a case study in Gehu Lake and Taige Canal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yimin Zhang; Yongchun Zhang; Yuexiang Gao; Houhu Zhang; Jianying Cao; Jinbang Cai; Xiangji Kong

    2011-01-01

    The Taoge water system is located in the upstream of Taihu Lake basin and is characterized by its multi-connected rivers and\\u000a lakes. In this paper, current analyses of hydrology, hydrodynamics and water pollution of Gehu Lake and Taige Canal are presented.\\u000a Several technologies are proposed for pollution prevention and control, and water environmental protection in the Taihu Lake\\u000a basin. These

  2. Inhibition of release of phospholipase A sub 2 from sponge cells (Geodia cydonium) by detergent-polluted sea water. A sensitive method to monitor marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Ugarkovic, D. (Inst. of Physiological Chemistry, Mainz (Germany) Inst. Ruder Boscovic, Zagreb (Croatia)); Kurelec, B. (Inst. Ruder Boscovic, Zagreb (Croatia) Inst. Ruder Boskovic, Rovinj (Croatia)); Mueller, W.E.G.; Schroeder, H.C. (Inst. of Physiological Chemistry, Mainz (Germany))

    1991-11-01

    Detergents are important components of the total pollution load of sea water, particularly in the coastal regions in many parts of the world. Many studies have been published on the aquatic effects on cell-cell interaction and gene induction in the low-concentration range. Regenerating sponge cubes of G. cydonium have previously been shown to be a sensitive indicator model in the investigation of pollution of sea water by detergents and by genotoxic xenobiotics. In this paper, the effect of detergents, representing one major component pollutant in the coastal waters of the sea, on the second signal transduction pathway present in Geodia cells, the sponge's lectin-induced PLA{sub 2}/arachidonic acid pathway, was studied. The anionic detergent sodium dodecyl (SDS) and the cationic detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were used in the concentration range from 0.1 ppb to 10 ppm.

  3. [Transportation and risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in water-soil from the Riparian Zone of Daye Lake, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-quan; Li, Xiu; Zhang, Quan-fa; Li, Qiong; Xiao, Wen-sheng; Wang, Yong-kui; Zhang, Jian-chun; Gai, Xi-guang

    2015-01-01

    Each 20 water samples and soil samples (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm) were collected from the riparian zone of Daye Lake in dry season during March 2013. Heavy metals (Cu, Ph, Cd, Zn) have been detected by flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS). The results showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn in the water were 7.14, 25.94, 15.72 and 37.58 microg x L(-1), respectively. The concentration of Cu was higher than the five degree of the surface water environment quality standard. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn in soil(0-10 cm) were 108.38, 53.92, 3.55, 139.26 mg x kg(-1) in soil (10-20 cm) were 93.00, 51.72, 2.08, 171.00 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The Cd concentrations were higher than the three grade value of the national soil environment quality standard. The transportation of Pb from soil to water was relatively stable, and Zn was greatly influenced by soil property and the surrounding environment from soil to water. The transformation of heavy metal in west riparian zone was higher than that of east riparian zone. The potential environmental risk was relatively high. Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn were dominated by residue fraction of the modified BCR sequential extraction method. The overall migration order of heavy metal element was: Pb > Cu > Cd > Zn. There were stronger transformation and higher environmental pollution risk of Cu, Pb. The index of assessment and potential ecological risk coefficient indicated that heavy metal pollution in soil (0-10 cm) was higher than the soil (10-20 cm), Cd was particularly serious. PMID:25898664

  4. Enhanced microgas chromatography using correlation techniques for continuous indoor pollutant detection.

    PubMed

    Cesar, William; Flourens, Frédéric; Kaiser, Claire; Sutour, Christophe; Angelescu, Dan E

    2015-06-01

    We present for the first time a proof-of-concept system implementing the stochastic injection techniques within a silicon-based microgas chromatograph (?GC) which differs from standard laboratory chromatographs by its small size, shorter column and corresponding elution times, and potential low cost when batch manufactured in high volumes. We demonstrate that stochastic injection techniques can enable the continuous detection of pollutants or toxic gases, with high temporal resolution (5 s) and order-of-magnitude improvements in limit of detection compared to a standard single-injection technique, thus greatly improving performance of air quality monitoring devices. Since micro-GC systems have the potential to 1 day become ubiquitous in indoor environments, such stochastic injection techniques could enable faster detection of toxic compounds at lower concentrations in both industrial and residential settings. PMID:25940094

  5. Preliminary results of a lidar-dial integrated system for the automatic detection of atmospheric pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Richetta, M.

    2012-11-01

    In the last decades, atmospheric pollution in urban and industrial areas has become a major concern of both developed and developing countries. In this context, surveying relative large areas in an automatic way is an increasing common objective of public health organisations. The Lidar-Dial techniques are widely recognized as a cost-effective approach to monitor large portions of the atmosphere and, for example, they have been successful applied to the early detection of forest fire. The studies and preliminary results reported in this paper concern the development of an integrated Lidar-Dial system able to detect sudden releases in air of harmful and polluting substances. The propose approach consists of continuous monitoring of the area under surveillance with a Lidar type measurement (by means of a low cost system). Once a significant increase in the density of a pollutant is revealed, the Dial technique is used to identify the released chemicals. In this paper, the specifications of the proposed station are discussed. The most stringent requirement is the need for a very compact system with a range of at least 600-700 m. Of course, the optical wavelengths must be in an absolute eye-safe range for humans. A conceptual design of the entire system is described and the most important characteristic of the main elements are provided. In particular the capability of the envisaged laser sources, Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers, to provide the necessary quality of the measurements is carefully assessed. Since the detection of dangerous substances must be performed in an automatic way, the monitoring station will be equipped with an adequate set of control and communication devices for independent autonomous operation. The results of the first preliminary tests illustrate the potential of the chosen approach.

  6. Water, heat, and airborne pollutants effects on transpiration of urban trees.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Chen, Weiping; Wang, Xiaoke; Zheng, Hua; Ren, Yufen

    2011-01-01

    Transpiration rates of six urban tree species in Beijing evaluated by thermal dissipation method for one year were correlated to environmental variables in heat, water, and pollutant groups. To sort out colinearity of the explanatory variables, their individual and joint contributions to variance of tree transpiration were determined by the variation and hierarchical partitioning methods. Majority of the variance in transpiration rates was associated with joint effects of variables in heat and water groups and variance due to individual effects of explanatory group were in comparison small. Atmospheric pollutants exerted only minor effects on tree transpiration. Daily transpiration rate was most affected by air temperature, soil temperature, total radiation, vapor pressure deficit, and ozone. Relative humidity would replace soil temperature when factors influencing hourly transpiration rate was considered. PMID:21411197

  7. Nonpoint source water pollution abatement and the feasibility of voluntary programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicki, David S.; Judd, Lynne B.

    1983-09-01

    This article details a case study of a voluntary, decentralized institutional arrangement for nonpint source water pollution control used in the Root River watershed in southeastern Wisconsin. This watershed was chosen because of its mix of urban, agricultural, and urbanizing land uses. The project objectives were to monitor and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of a voluntary, decentralized institutional system, to specify deficiencies of the approach and suggest means to correct them, and to use the conclusions to speculate about the need for regulations regarding nonpoint source pollution control or the appropriateness of financial incentives for nonpoint source control. Institutional factors considered include diversity of land uses in the watershed, educational needs, economic conditions, personality, water quality, number of agencies involved, definition of authority, and bureaucratic requirements

  8. Industry sector analysis Canada: Water pollution control equipment and instrumentation. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, T.; Lee, S.

    1992-08-01

    U.S. suppliers of water pollution control equipment are in a prime position to benefit from Canadian industries' needs to modernize equipment in order to comply with tough, new legislation to control water pollution. In selling to the Canadian market, U.S. suppliers clearly benefit from the advantages of advanced technical know-how, proximity to the market, and reduced tariffs under the U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement (CFTA). The Industry Sector Analysis (ISA) contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Canadian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation (Canadian production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, competitive factors), and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). The ISA also contains Key Contact information.

  9. Mapping the pollutants in surface riverine flood plume waters in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Devlin, M J; McKinna, L W; Alvarez-Romero, J G; Petus, C; Abott, B; Harkness, P; Brodie, J

    2012-01-01

    The extent of flood plume water over a 10 year period was mapped using quasi-true colour imagery and used to calculate long-term frequency of occurrence of the plumes. The proportional contribution of riverine loads of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, total suspended sediments and Photosystem-II herbicides from each catchment was used to scale the surface exposure maps for each pollutant. A classification procedure was also applied to satellite imagery (only Wet Tropics region) during 11 flood events (2000-2010) through processing of level-2 ocean colour products to discriminate the changing characteristics across three water types: "primary plume water", characterised by high TSS values; "secondary plume water", characterised by high phytoplankton production as measured by elevated chlorophyll-a (chl-a), and "tertiary plume water", characterised by elevated coloured dissolved and detrital matter (CDOM+D). This classification is a first step to characterise flood plumes. PMID:22469152

  10. Cotton production and water quality: Economic and environmental effects of pollution prevention. Agricultural economic report

    SciTech Connect

    Crutchfield, S.R.; Ribaudo, M.O.; Hansen, L.T.; Quiroga, R.

    1992-12-01

    Cotton production, compared with other crops, is less likely to cause erosion-induced water-quality problems because cotton acreage is not the major source of erosion in most regions. For cotton production, the most widespread potential damages to water quality are nitrates from fertilizer polluting ground water and pesticides contaminating surface water. This damage could be reduced by restricting chemical and fertilizer use on all cotton production, but doing so could reduce cotton yields and raise cotton prices. The same level of water-quality improvement could be achieved at less cost by targeting the chemical use or erosion restrictions only to cotton farms with the most vulnerable soils. Data come from a 1989 USDA survey of cotton producers.

  11. Trace analysis of pollutants by use of honeybees, immunoassays, and chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Girotti, S; Ghini, S; Maiolini, E; Bolelli, L; Ferri, E N

    2013-01-01

    Specific and sensitive analysis to reveal and monitor the wide variety of chemical contaminants polluting all environment compartments, feed, and food is urgently required because of the increasing attention devoted to the environment and health protection. Our research group has been involved in monitoring the presence and distribution of agrochemicals by monitoring beehives distributed throughout the area studied. Honeybees have been used both as biosensors, because the pesticides affect their viability, and as "contaminant collectors" for all environmental pollutants. We focused our research on the development of analytical procedures able to reveal and quantify pesticides in different samples but with a special attention to the complex honeybee matrix. Specific extraction and purification procedures have been developed and some are still under optimization. The analytes of interest were determined by gas or liquid chromatographic methods and by compound-specific or group-specific immunoassays in the ELISA format, the analytical performance of which was improved by introducing luminescence detection. The range of chemiluminescent immunoassays developed was extended to include the determination of completely different pollutants, for example explosives, volatile organic compounds (including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes), and components of plastics, for example bisphenol A. An easier and portable format, a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) was added to the ELISA format to increase application flexibility in these assays. Aspects of the novelty, the specific characteristics, the analytical performance, and possible future development of the different chromatographic and immunological methods are described and discussed. PMID:23064670

  12. Purification of Polluted Source Water with Ozonoation and Biological Activated Carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Baozhen; Tian Jinzhi; Yin Jun

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine effective processes for purifying polluted source waters 1n Harbin City, various processes consisting of ozonation, sand filtration, and\\/or GAC filtration and adsorption, i.e., ozonation ( “O3” Process), ozonatlon\\/sand filtration ( “O3 + SF” Process), ozonation\\/biological activated carbon ( “O3 + BAC” Process), ozonation\\/sand filtration\\/biological activated carbon ( “O3 + SF + BAC” Process), and granular activated

  13. Pilot-scale hybrid bio-diatomite\\/dynamic membrane reactor for slightly polluted raw water purification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenxun Yu; Huaqiang Chu; Dawen Cao; Yanqiang Ma; Bingzhi Dong; Yong Wei

    This study investigated the performance and mechanisms of a novel pilot-scale bio-diatomite dynamic membrane reactor (BDDMR) for slightly polluted surface water treatment in continuous-flow mode. The results revealed that the pilot-scale BDDMR was very effective at reducing particle number and removing turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (CODMn), UV absorbance at 254nm (UV254), NH3-N and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) with a hydraulic

  14. Removal of Pollutants from Water by Nano-Scale MgO Particles: Feasibility and Disadvantage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi An; Keqiang Zhang; Feng Wang; Lingling Lin; Haigang Guo

    2011-01-01

    Nano-scale MgO particles were utilized to remove pollutants from water, and the disadvantage in the application of nanoMgO was also discussed. In comparison to other oxide nanoparticles (ZnO, CuO, Fe2O3 and Al2O3), nano-MgO exhibited better performance in the removal of organic matters and heavy metals (Fe, Mn). In addition, nano-MgO could not remove nitrate and nitrite, but it could decrease

  15. Pilot-scale study of efficient coagulation sedimentation of micro-polluted water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang Shen; Li Cheng; Heli Wang; Xinying Lian; Jingxian Qi

    2010-01-01

    This pilot-scale study is based on an efficient coagulation sedimentation process technology used for micro-polluted water treatment of Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal(BHGC). The best coagulant among PAC, Al2(SO4)3 and FeCl3 and its optimal dosage were studied in coagulation sedimentation jar test. The best coagulant was PAC, and its optimal dosage was 40 mg\\/L. The coagulation sedimentation jar test showed that the

  16. Operational Internet-based System For Prediction of The Pollution In Coastal Waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Korotenko

    2002-01-01

    An operational integrated system linking observing PORTS (Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System, NOAA) and Coastal Ocean Forecasting System (COFS, NOAA) based on a coupled atmospheric-ocean model is developed for real-time diagnostic and forecasting transport of pollution in coastal waters. Both, sensor and modeled at- mosphere and ocean data are accessible via Internet and utilized by a numerical trans- port model based

  17. Nutrient removal from polluted stream water by artificial aquatic food web system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawoon Jung; Ahnna Cho; Young-Gun Zo; Seung-Ik Choi; Tae-Seok Ahn

    2009-01-01

    For the removal of nutrients from eutrophic stream water polluted by non-point sources, an artificial aquatic food web (AAFW)\\u000a system comprising processes of phytoplankton growth and Daphnia magna grazing was developed. The AAFW system was a continuous-flow system constructed with one storage basin of 3 m3 capacity, one phytoplankton tank of 3 m3 capacity, and one zooplankton growth chamber of 1.5 m3 capacity.

  18. Bio-diatomite dynamic membrane reactor for micro-polluted surface water treatment.

    PubMed

    Chu, Huaqiang; Cao, Dawen; Dong, Bingzhi; Qiang, Zhimin

    2010-03-01

    This work investigated the feasibility of treating micro-polluted surface water for drinking water production with a bio-diatomite dynamic membrane reactor (BDDMR) at lab-scale in continuous-flow mode. Results indicate that the BDDMR was effective in removing COD(Mn), DOC, UV(254), NH(3)-N and trihalomethanes' formation potential (THMFP) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.5h due to its high concentrations of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS). The removal of pollutants was mainly ascribed to microbial degradation in BDDMR because the dynamic membrane alone was much less effective in pollutant removal. Though the diatomite particles (5-20microm) were much smaller in size than the aperture of the stainless steel support mesh (74microm), microorganisms and their extracellular polymer substances could bind these particles tightly to form bio-diatomite particles which were completely retained by the support mesh. The analysis of molecular weight (MW) distribution by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) shows that the BDDMR could effectively remove the hydrophilic fraction of dissolved organic materials present in the raw water. PMID:20005554

  19. Feasibility study: fuel cell cogeneration in a water pollution control facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of a cogeneration fuel cell power plant operating in a large water pollution control facility. The fuel cell power plant would use methane-rich digester gas from the water pollution control facility as a fuel feedstock to provide electrical and thermal energy. Several design configurations were evaluated. These configurations were comprised of combinations of options for locating the fuel cell power plant at the site, electrically connecting it with the water pollution control facility, using the rejected power plant heat, supplying fuel to the power plant, and for ownership and operation. A configuration was selected which met institutional/regulatory constraints and provided a net cost savings to the industry and the electric utility. This volume of the report contains the appendices: (A) abbreviations and definitions, glossary; (B) 4.5 MWe utility demonstrator power plant study information; (C) rejected heat utilization; (D) availability; (E) conceptual design specifications; (F) details of the economic analysis; (G) detailed description of the selected configuration; and (H) fuel cell power plant penetration analysis. (WHK)

  20. Feasibility study: fuel cell cogeneration in a water pollution control facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of a cogeneration fuel cell power plant operating in a large water pollution control facility. In this particular application, the fuel cell power plant would use methane-rich digester gas from the water pollution control facility as a fuel feedstock to provide electrical and thermal energy. Several design configurations were evaluated. These configurations were comprised of combinations of options for locating the fuel cell power plant at the site, electrically connecting it with the water pollution control facility, using the rejected power plant heat, supplying fuel to the power plant, and for ownership and operation. A configuration was selected which met institutional/regulatory constraints and provided a net cost savings to the industry and the electric utility. The displacement of oil and coal resulting from the Bergen County Utilities Authority application was determined. A demonstration program based on the selected configuration was prepared to describe the scope of work, organization, schedules, and costs from preliminary design through actual tests and operation. The potential market for nationwide application of the concept was projected, along with the equivalent oil displacement resulting from estimated commercial application.

  1. Simulations of currents and pollution transport in the coastal waters of Big Sochi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diansky, N. A.; Fomin, V. V.; Zhokhova, N. V.; Korshenko, A. N.

    2013-11-01

    We suggested a method for modelling the transport of pollutants over the Black Sea water basin adjacent to Big Sochi. The model is based on the application of the Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model (INMOM) over the entire basin of Big Sochi in two versions: M1 and M2. In the first version, we use uniform spatial resolution of the model with a step of ˜4 km; in the M2 version, the resolution is not uniform. The step decreases to 50 m in the basin of Big Sochi. The M2 version is used only in the periods when pollution transport is simulated, for which the initial hydrothermodynamic state is specified from the M1 version. Both versions reflect a complex character of Black Sea circulation; however, the M2 version more adequately reproduces the eddy circulation in its eastern part, where the horizontal resolution of the M2 version is higher. A conclusion is made on this basis that, in order to reproduce the eddy structure of the Black Sea circulation, the resolution of the model should be on the order of 1.5 km and the main factor of the formation of the quasi-stationary Batumi anticyclonic eddy is the topographic peculiarities in this part of the sea. The pollution spreading from the Sochi, Khosta, and Mzymta rivers and from 18 pipes of deep-water sewage was simulated for the flood periods from April 1, 2007, to April 30, 2007. It was shown that mesoscale eddy formations that form a complex three-dimensional structure of pollution spreading make the greatest contribution to the spread of pollution.

  2. [Pollution by wastewater from olive oil mills and drinking-water production. Case study of the Sebou river in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Foutlane, A; Saadallah, M; Echihabi, L; Bourchich, L

    2002-01-01

    The National Office for Drinking Water (ONEP), responsible for the drinking-water supply in Morocco, faces serious difficulties in producing water of good quality at a reasonable price from the River Sebou waters. The ONEP's three water treatment plants have been disrupted or even stopped due to the poor quality of waters received. The main source of pollution is the urban and industrial waste of the town of Fes, compounded by episodic pollution caused by the olive oil mills of Fes and its surrounding area. The ONEP study shows that the additional production costs incurred as a result of the pollution by wastewater from olive oil mills far exceeds the drinking-water rates charged in the study area. PMID:15330568

  3. SRF (State Water Pollution Control Revolving Fund): initial guidance for state revolving funds

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The document represents the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) approach to implementation of Title VI of the Clean Water Act (CWA), until interim final regulations on selected provisions in the guidance are issued. The release of the document marks a significant step in the transition of the responsibility for financing, constructing, and managing municipal wastewater-treatment facilities from the Federal government to States and localities. It will assist EPA Regions in their review of proposed State Water Pollution Control Revolving Fund (SRF) programs and provide States with initial guidance on applying for Capitalization Grants.

  4. Assessment of surface water pollutant models of estuaries and coastal zone of Quang Ninh - Hai Phong using Spot-5 images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Luong Chinh; Van Trang, Ho Thi; Liem, Vu Huu; Tuong, Tran Ngoc; Duyen, Pham Thi

    2015-06-01

    The coastal zone and estuaries of Quang Ninh and Hai Phong have great potential not only for economic development but also for protection and conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem. Nowadays, due to industrial, agricultural and anthropogenic activities signs of water pollution in the region have been found. The level of surface water pollution can be determined by traditional methods through observatory stations. However, a traditional approach to determine water contamination is discontinuous, and thereby makes pollution assessment of the entire estuary very difficult. Nowadays, remote sensing technology has been developed and widely applied in many fields, for instance, in monitoring water environments. Remote sensing data combined with information from in-situ observations allow for extraction of polluted components in water and accurate measurements of pollution level in the large regions ensuring objectivity. According to results obtained from Spot-5 imagery of Quang Ninh and Hai Phong, the extracted pollution components, like BOD, COD and TSS can be determined with the root mean square error, the absolute mean error and the absolute mean percentage error (%): ±4.37 (mg/l) 3.86 (mg/l), 27%; ±55.32 (mg/l), 48.30 (mg/l), 14%; and ±32.90 (mg/l), 23.38 (mg/l), 28%; respectively. Obtained outcomes guarantee objectivity in assessing water contaminant levels in the investigated regions and show the advantages of remote sensing applications in Resource and Environmental Monitoring in relation to Water - Air - Land.

  5. Pollution Patrol

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    IEEE

    2014-05-23

    In this activity, learners explore how engineers design devices that can detect the presence of pollutants in the air. Learners work in teams of "engineers" to design and build their own outdoor air pollution detectors out of everyday items. They test their air pollution detectors, evaluate their results, and present to the group.

  6. A thermographic step-heating technique for metallic pollutant detection in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo-Gato, R.; González de Ulloa, L.; Andrés, J. R.; Martínez, S.; Pérez, A.; Madruga, F. J.; López-Higuera, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    A feasibility study of the detection of metallic pollutants in soil with thermographic measurement techniques is presented in this paper. This study proposes an alternative method to current techniques for detection and identification of contaminated soils by non-destructive testing to reduce costs and the required execution time. For this purpose, step-heating thermography is used as measurement technique. Taking into account the soil thermal models, different pre-processing methods are applied to the captured thermogram sequences to characterize the soil thermal response data; and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are used as a processing tool to discern the presence or absence of contaminants in soil. The selected ANN configuration will determine the contaminated soil identification rates, making the false negative rate worse with the false positive improvement.

  7. Pollutant transfer through air and water pathways in an urban environment

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.; Burian, S.; McPherson, T.; Streit, G.; Costigan, K.; Greene, B.

    1998-12-31

    The authors are attempting to simulate the transport and fate of pollutants through air and water pathways in an urban environment. This cross-disciplinary study involves linking together models of mesoscale meteorology, air pollution chemistry and deposition, urban runoff and stormwater transport, water quality, and wetland chemistry and biology. The authors are focusing on the transport and fate of nitrogen species because (1) they track through both air and water pathways, (2) the physics, chemistry, and biology of the complete cycle is not well understood, and (3) they have important health, local ecosystem, and global climate implications. The authors will apply their linked modeling system to the Los Angeles basin, following the fate of nitrates from their beginning as nitrate-precursors produced by auto emissions and industrial processes, tracking their dispersion and chemistry as they are transported by regional winds and eventually wet or dry deposit on the ground, tracing their path as they are entrained into surface water runoff during rain events and carried into the stormwater system, and then evaluating their impact on receiving water bodies such as wetlands where biologically-mediated chemical reactions take place. In this paper, the authors wish to give an overview of the project and at the conference show preliminary results.

  8. Coupling of phytoplankton uptake and air-water exchange of persistent organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Dachs, J.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Baker, J.E.; Ko, F.C.; Jeremiason, J.D.

    1999-10-15

    A dynamic model that couples air-water exchange and phytoplankton uptake of persistent organic pollutants has been developed and then applied to PCB data from a small experimental lake. A sensitivity analysis of the model, taking into account the influence of physical environmental conditions such as temperature, wind speed, and mixing depth as well as plankton-related parameters such as biomass and growth rate was carried out for a number of PCBs with different physical-chemical properties. The results indicate that air-water exchange dynamics are influenced not only by physical parameters but also by phytoplankton biomass and growth rate. New phytoplankton production results in substantially longer times to reach equilibrium. Phytoplankton uptake-induced depletion of the dissolved phase concentration maintains air and water phases out of equilibrium. Furthermore, PCBs in phytoplankton also take longer times to reach equilibrium with the dissolved water phase when the latter is supported by diffusive air-water exchange. However, both model analysis and model application to the Experimental Lakes Area of northwestern Ontario (Canada) suggest that the gas phase supports the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants, such as PCBs, in atmospherically driven aquatic environments.

  9. The application of genetic algorithm and nonlinear fuzzy programming for water pollution control in a river basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ni-Bin Chang; H. W. Chen

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a modified formulation of a fuzzy multiobjective programming model in order to illustrate the tendency of nonlinearity in many environmental problems. The genetic algorithm is described as a tool to solve a typical water pollution control problem

  10. Assessment of toxic metal exposure following the Camelford water pollution incident: evidence of acute mobilization of lead into drinking water.

    PubMed

    Powell, J J; Greenfield, S M; Thompson, R P; Cargnello, J A; Kendall, M D; Landsberg, J P; Watt, F; Delves, H T; House, I

    1995-03-01

    Following the incident of acidic pollution of water by aluminium sulfate centred around Camelford in July 1988, we have carried out a retrospective analysis of the mobilization of toxic metals to residents of the area. An advanced nuclear technique was used to measure trace levels of elements within hair, thus, avoiding surface contamination. In contrast to controls, lead, but no other toxic metals, was consistently found within sections of hair that dated to mid-1988 from four residents; they must, therefore, have consumed this metal around the time of the incident. The source of this lead was probably local water pipe residue, and this was found on analysis to have a matrix specific to such soft-water areas that, prior to the incident, had slowly accumulated certain toxic metals such as cadmium and uranium and particularly lead. Lead is mobilized from such residues by acidic water and could, therefore, have heavily contaminated mains water after the incident. However, analyses of residents' plasma and whole blood, and of urine following a lead-chelation test, showed no evidence of either long-term increased body burdens of toxic metals or depletion of essential elements. In addition, we found no evidence of continued poor water quality in the area. In conclusion, during a short period following the pollution, some residents who consumed mains water would have been acutely exposed to lead and other toxic metals. Prediction of the scale of metal exposure to individuals was not possible owing to heterogeneity of the water distribution network, but long-term effects to residents from lead are not anticipated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7741230

  11. Advanced Water Vapor Lidar Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsayed-Ali, Hani

    1998-01-01

    In the present water vapor lidar system, the detected signal is sent over long cables to a waveform digitizer in a CAMAC crate. This has the disadvantage of transmitting analog signals for a relatively long distance, which is subjected to pickup noise, leading to a decrease in the signal to noise ratio. Generally, errors in the measurement of water vapor with the DIAL method arise from both random and systematic sources. Systematic errors in DIAL measurements are caused by both atmospheric and instrumentation effects. The selection of the on-line alexandrite laser with a narrow linewidth, suitable intensity and high spectral purity, and its operation at the center of the water vapor lines, ensures minimum influence in the DIAL measurement that are caused by the laser spectral distribution and avoid system overloads. Random errors are caused by noise in the detected signal. Variability of the photon statistics in the lidar return signal, noise resulting from detector dark current, and noise in the background signal are the main sources of random error. This type of error can be minimized by maximizing the signal to noise ratio. The increase in the signal to noise ratio can be achieved by several ways. One way is to increase the laser pulse energy, by increasing its amplitude or the pulse repetition rate. Another way, is to use a detector system with higher quantum efficiency and lower noise, on the other hand, the selection of a narrow band optical filter that rejects most of the day background light and retains high optical efficiency is an important issue. Following acquisition of the lidar data, we minimize random errors in the DIAL measurement by averaging the data, but this will result in the reduction of the vertical and horizontal resolutions. Thus, a trade off is necessary to achieve a balance between the spatial resolution and the measurement precision. Therefore, the main goal of this research effort is to increase the signal to noise ratio by a factor of 10 over the current system, using a newly evaluated, very low noise avalanche photo diode detector and constructing a 10 MHz waveform digitizer which will replace the current CAMAC system.

  12. A biomarker for the identification of cattle fecal pollution in water using the LTIIa toxin gene from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Khatib, L A; Tsai, Y L; Olson, B H

    2002-06-01

    This research describes a method based on PCR to identify cattle fecal pollution in water using a portion of the heat labile toxin IIA (LTIIa) gene from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). We describe the development of the primers and target. DNA extracts (221) from different animal fecal and human sewage samples were screened and showed no cross-reactivity. Minimum detection limits using centrifugation and filtration methods to concentrate E. coli seeded into stream, ocean, and secondary effluent waters were found to be at femtogram and attogram levels, respectively. Stability of the biomarker in stream, ocean, and secondary effluent waters was 2-4 weeks for all water types. Finally, 33 farm lagoon and waste samples were collected and 31 tested to validate the method; 93% were positive for the LTIIa trait when >1,000 E. coli were screened and 100% positive when >10(5) E. coli were screened. Prevalence of the toxin gene in the E. coli population affected the outcome of the analyses. The cow biomarker can be used in watershed studies to identify cattle waste with great accuracy if the appropriate numbers of E. coli are screened. PMID:12073139

  13. Quantitative identification of fecal water pollution sources by TaqMan real-time PCR assays using Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genetic markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dae-Young Lee; Susan C. Weir; Hung Lee; Jack T. Trevors

    2010-01-01

    PCR-based analysis of Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genes has emerged as a promising tool to identify sources of fecal water pollution. In this study, three TaqMan\\u000a real-time PCR assays (BacGeneral, BacHuman, and BacBovine) were developed and evaluated for their ability to quantitatively\\u000a detect general (total), human-specific, and bovine-specific Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genetic markers. The detection sensitivity was determined to be 6.5

  14. Pepper mild mottle virus as an indicator and a tracer of fecal pollution in water environments: comparative evaluation with wastewater-tracer pharmaceuticals in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Nakada, Norihide; Hanamoto, Seiya; Inaba, Manami; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Do, An Thuan; Nga, Tran Thi Viet; Oguma, Kumiko; Hayashi, Takeshi; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2015-02-15

    We analyzed pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) in 36 samples taken from surface water, wastewater, groundwater, tap water and bottled water in Hanoi, Vietnam. We then compared the occurrence and fates of PMMoV with pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), which are known wastewater tracers. PMMoV was detected in 94% of the surface water samples (ponds, water from irrigated farmlands and rivers) and in all the wastewater samples. The PMMoV concentration ranged from 5.5×10(6)-7.2×10(6)copies/L in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influents, 6.5×10(5)-8.5×10(5)copies/L in WWTP effluents and 1.0×10(4)-1.8×10(6)copies/L in surface water. Among the sixty PPCPs analyzed, caffeine and carbamazepine had high detection rates in surface water (100% and 88%, respectively). In surface water, the concentration ratio of PMMoV to caffeine remained unchanged than that in WWTP influents, suggesting that the persistence of PMMoV in surface water was comparable to that of caffeine. The persistence and the large concentration ratio of PMMoV in WWTP influents to the method detection limit would account for its ubiquitous detection in surface water. In comparison, human enteric viruses (HEV) were less frequently detected (18-59%) than PMMoV in surface water, probably because of their faster decay. Together with the reported high human feces-specificity, our results suggested that PMMoV is useful as a sensitive fecal indicator for evaluating the potential occurrence of pathogenic viruses in surface water. Moreover, PMMoV can be useful as a moderately conservative fecal tracer for specifically tracking fecal pollution of surface water. PMMoV was detected in 38% of the groundwater samples at low concentrations (up to 19copies/L). PMMoV was not detected in the tap water and bottled water samples. In groundwater, tap water and bottled water samples, the occurrence of PPCPs and HEV disagreed with that of PMMoV, suggesting that PMMoV is not suitable as an indicator or a tracer in those waters. PMID:25460962

  15. Immunoassays and Biosensors for the Detection of Cyanobacterial Toxins in Water

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Algal blooms are a frequent phenomenon in nearly all kinds of fresh water. Global warming and eutrophication by waste water, air pollution and fertilizers seem to lead to an increased frequency of occurrence. Many cyanobacteria produce hazardous and quite persistent toxins, which can contaminate the respective water bodies. This may limit the use of the raw water for many purposes. The purification of the contaminated water might be quite costly, which makes a continuous and large scale treatment economically unfeasible in many cases. Due to the obvious risks of algal toxins, an online or mobile detection method would be highly desirable. Several biosensor systems have been presented in the literature for this purpose. In this review, their mode of operation, performance and general suitability for the intended purpose will be described and critically discussed. Finally, an outlook on current developments and future prospects will be given. PMID:24196435

  16. Detecting Oil on Water: A Comparison of Known Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, Vytautas

    1971-01-01

    This paper reviews new developments in oil pollution detection and compares available techniques according to their effectiveness. Emphasis is on in situ and remote sensing techniques, with a potential for real-time, automated operation. No mention is made of traditional methods, requiring that a sample be taken to a laboratory for tests of solubility, chemical reactions, or other properties.

  17. The effect of water pollution control regulations on the cost of production of electric power. Final technical completion report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Deyak; A. N. Link

    1979-01-01

    The report to examines the impact of water pollution control regulations, such as those outlined in 1972 FWPCA Amendments, on production costs in the electric utility industry. The report discusses the use of water by electric utilities, and the impact that water regulations will have on those uses. It briefly describes the production process of electric utilities, and empirically estimates

  18. Remote sensing applied to environmental pollution detection and management. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of remote sensing techniques and equipment to study air and water pollution. Topics include the use of aerial photographs, radar, and spaceborne photography to study oil spills, ocean dumping sites, plume dispersions, and pollution problems in estuaries. Data interpretation and processing techniques are also discussed.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Remote sensing applied to environmental pollution detection and management. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of remote sensing techniques and equipment to study air and water pollution. Topics include the use of aerial photographs, radar, and spaceborne photography to study oil spills, ocean dumping sites, plume dispersions, and pollution problems in estuaries. Data interpretation and processing techniques are also discussed.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. [Study on the types and water pollution driving forces of the typical and medium-small-sized cities in the southern China based on the analysis of water environment].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Shi-Xing; Wang, La-Chun; Huo, Yu; Chen, Chang-Chun; Teng, Juan

    2009-07-15

    According to the major pollution sources of urban water environment, 10 indexes such as industrial sewage quantity were closen to establish evaluation indexes system about the types and influencing factors of the typical and medium-small-sized cities in the southern China. Case studies of 16 typical and medium-small-sized cities were taken in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hubei and Anhui provinces. Combined with SPSS 11.0 cluster analysis results, city types were divided in reference to the values of water resources comprehensive pollution indexes and economical development indexes. The driving forces about city water environment pollution were studied by principal component analysis method. The result indicates that the 16 cities belong to two categories and four sub-categories, which are rich economy as well as light pollution of water environment and poor economy as well as heavy pollution of water environment. The influencing factors of water environment pollution are in sequence of industrial water pollution, agricultural no-point source pollution and urban domestic water pollution. The main factors of water environment pollution influenced I category cities, II as well as IV category cities and III category cities are industrial water pollution, urban domestic pollution and agricultural no-point source pollution respectively. PMID:19774980

  1. Changes in Escherichia coli to Cryptosporidium ratios for various fecal pollution sources and drinking water intakes.

    PubMed

    Lalancette, Cindy; Papineau, Isabelle; Payment, Pierre; Dorner, Sarah; Servais, Pierre; Barbeau, Benoit; Di Giovanni, George D; Prévost, Michèle

    2014-05-15

    Assessing the presence of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium oocysts in surface water remains a significant water treatment and public health challenge. Most drinking water suppliers rely on fecal indicators, such as the well-established Escherichia coli (E. coli), to avoid costly Cryptosporidium assays. However, the use of E. coli has significant limitations in predicting the concentration, the removal and the transport of Cryptosporidium. This study presents a meta-analysis of E. coli to Cryptosporidium concentration paired ratios to compare their complex relationships in eight municipal wastewater sources, five agricultural fecal pollution sources and at 13 drinking water intakes (DWI) to a risk threshold based on US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Ratios lower than the USEPA risk threshold suggested higher concentrations of oocysts in relation to E. coli concentrations, revealing an underestimed risk for Cryptosporidium based on E. coli measurements. In raw sewage (RS), high ratios proved E. coli (or fecal coliforms) concentrations were a conservative indicator of Cryptosporidium concentrations, which was also typically true for secondary treated wastewater (TWW). Removals of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and parasites were quantified in WWTPs and their differences are put forward as a plausible explanation of the sporadic ratio shift. Ratios measured from agricultural runoff surface water were typically lower than the USEPA risk threshold and within the range of risk misinterpretation. Indeed, heavy precipitation events in the agricultural watershed led to high oocyst concentrations but not to E. coli or enterococci concentrations. More importantly, ratios established in variously impacted DWI from 13 Canadian drinking water plants were found to be related to dominant fecal pollution sources, namely municipal sewage. In most cases, when DWIs were mainly influenced by municipal sewage, E. coli or fecal coliforms concentrations agreed with Cryptosporidium concentrations as estimated by the meta-analysis, but when DWIs were influenced by agricultural runoff or wildlife, there was a poor relationship. Average recovery values were available for 6 out of 22 Cryptosporidium concentration data sets and concomitant analysis demonstrated no changes in trends, with and without correction. Nevertheless, recovery assays performed along with every oocyst count would have enhanced the precision of this work. Based on our findings, the use of annual averages of E. coli concentrations as a surrogate for Cryptosporidium concentrations can result in an inaccurate estimate of the Cryptosporidium risk for agriculture impacted drinking water intakes or for intakes with more distant wastewater sources. Studies of upstream fecal pollution sources are recommended for drinking water suppliers to improve their interpretation of source water quality data. PMID:24607521

  2. The development of policy approaches for reducing nitrogen pollution to coastal waters of the USA.

    PubMed

    Howarth, Robert W

    2005-12-01

    Two-thirds of the coastal rivers and bays in the United States are degraded from nutrient pollution, and nitrogen inputs these waters continue to increase. The nitrogen comes from a variety of sources, including runoff from agricultural fields, concentrated animal feeding operations, atmospheric deposition from fossil fuel combustion, and sewage and septic wastes. Technical solutions for nitrogen pollution exist at reasonable cost. That most of these solutions have not yet been implemented to any significant extent across the United States suggests that new policy approaches are necessary. The best solution may involve a combination of voluntary and mandatory approaches, applying different approaches to different sources of nitrogen pollution. A watershed-based approach that relies heavily on voluntary mechanisms (such as crop-yield insurance to reduce over-fertilization) is likely to be the most effective for some sources of nitrogen (such as runoff from agricultural fields), while a uniform national regulatory approach may be better for others (such as NOx emissions from fossil fuel combustion). Implementation of management strategies should be carefully coupled to monitoring programs to assess the effectiveness of these strategies. While both nitrogen and phosphorus are important to control, the focus should be on nitrogen management, in part because nitrogen is more generally the causal agent of coastal eutrophication. Also, while nitrogen-control practices tend to also reduce phosphorus pollution, phosphorus-control practices often have little effect on nitrogen. Although current scientific and technical knowledge is sufficient to begin to make substantial progress toward solving coastal nitrogen pollution, progress will be made more quickly and more cost effectively with increased investment in appropriate scientific research. PMID:16512202

  3. Bethlehem Steel announces plans to control coke oven air and water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation and the Maryland Department of the Environment have announced an agreement under which Bethlehem will spend an estimated $92-million at its Sparrows Points, Md., plant for technologically-advanced controls to further reduce air and water pollution, mainly from the plant's coke ovens. The two major systems include one to treat by-product coke oven gas and chemicals, and another to upgrade existing pushing emission controls on two older coke oven batteries. One of the new systems will replace most of the existing equipment that cleans gas and treats chemicals created by the coking process at the plant's three coke oven batteries. Because this system has the potential to greatly reduce sulfur dioxide and other pollutants, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) in September announced that its installation qualified for funding as part of the nationwide Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program.

  4. Effects of long term irrigation with polluted water and sludge amendment on some soil enzyme activities

    SciTech Connect

    Topac, F.O.; Baskaya, H.S.; Alkan, U.; Katkat, A.V. [Uludag University, Bursa (Turkey)

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of wastewater sludge-fly ash mixtures on urease, dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and beta-glucosidase activities in soils. In order to evaluate the probable effects of previous soil management practices (irrigation with polluted water) on soil enzymes, two different soil samples which were similar in physical properties, but different in irrigation practice were used. The application of wastewater sludges supplemented with varying doses of fly ash increased potential enzyme activities for a short period of time (3 months) in comparison to unamended soils. However, the activity levels generally showed a decreasing trend with increasing ash ratios indicating the inhibitory effect of fly ash. The urease and dehydrogenase activities were particularly lower in soils irrigated from a polluted stream, indicating the negative effects of the previous soil management on soil microbial activity.

  5. Natural attenuation: A feasible approach to remediation of ground water pollution at landfills?

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, T.H.; Bjerg, P.L.; Kjeldsen, P.

    2000-12-31

    Remediation of ground water pollution at old landfills with no engineered leachate collection system is a demanding and costly operation. It requires control of the landfill body, since the majority of the pollutants are still present in the landfilled waste for decades after the site has been closed. However, natural attenuation of the plume without removing the source is an attractive approach to managing leachate plumes. Natural attenuation has been implemented for petroleum hydrocarbon plumes and for chlorinated solvent plumes, primarily in the US. Natural attenuation has not yet gained a foothold with respect to leachate plumes, however. Based on the experiences gained from 10 years of research on two Danish landfills, it is suggested that natural attenuation is a feasible approach but is more complicated and demanding than in the case of petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvent.

  6. Contamination of potable water by trihalomethanes. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning research on trihalomethanes in drinking water. The citations discuss the formation of trihalomethanes, detection methods, toxicity studies, epidemiological statistics, and disinfection procedures. Methods for removing trihalomethanes at water treatment plants are considered. (Contains a minimum of 156 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Ion-chromatographic screening method for monitoring arsenate and other anionic pollutants in ground waters of Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Polesello, S; Valsecchi, S; Cavalli, S; Reschiotto, C

    2001-06-22

    A novel, rapid ion-chromatographic method for screening anionic pollutants in ground water, based on both conductivity and postcolumn spectrophotometric detection, has been developed. A relatively rapid separation of more than ten inorganic and polarizable anions was achieved by coupling an high capacity, hydroxide selective anion-exchange columns (Dionex IonPac AS16) supplied with an electrolytic eluent generator operating in gradient mode. The good control of the selectivity allowed the determination of polarizable anions including arsenate, thiocyanate, thiosulfate and perchlorate without interference from major components present at levels greater than 100 mg l(-1). This method was applied to the determination of arsenate in ground water samples collected in industrial and agricultural zones of Lombardia (Northern Italy). No traces of arsenate were detected in any sample, but added arsenate cannot be revealed by chromatographic analyses. This fact can be attributed to different causes, from reduction to the more reduced arsenic form to precipitation or dissolution in organic or inorganic based colloids. Oxidation with hydrogen peroxide seems to be useful for a partial recovery of added arsenate, but a stronger oxidation method, compatible with chromatographic separation, must be studied. PMID:11453004

  8. Improved HF183 Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assay for Characterization of Human Fecal Pollution in Ambient Surface Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Green, Hyatt C.; Haugland, Richard A.; Varma, Manju; Millen, Hana T.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Field, Katharine G.; Walters, William A.; Knight, R.; Sivaganesan, Mano; Kelty, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays that target the human-associated HF183 bacterial cluster within members of the genus Bacteroides are among the most widely used methods for the characterization of human fecal pollution in ambient surface waters. In this study, we show that a current TaqMan HF183 qPCR assay (HF183/BFDrev) routinely forms nonspecific amplification products and introduce a modified TaqMan assay (HF183/BacR287) that alleviates this problem. The performance of each qPCR assay was compared in head-to-head experiments investigating limits of detection, analytical precision, predicted hybridization to 16S rRNA gene sequences from a reference database, and relative marker concentrations in fecal and sewage samples. The performance of the modified HF183/BacR287 assay is equal to or improves upon that of the original HF183/BFDrev assay. In addition, a qPCR chemistry designed to combat amplification inhibition and a multiplexed internal amplification control are included. In light of the expanding use of PCR-based methods that rely on the detection of extremely low concentrations of DNA template, such as qPCR and digital PCR, the new TaqMan HF183/BacR287 assay should provide more accurate estimations of human-derived fecal contaminants in ambient surface waters. PMID:24610857

  9. Marine pollution: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentukevi?ien?, Marina; Brannvall, Evelina

    2008-01-01

    This overview of marine pollution follows the methodology as proposed below. Firstly, well-known databases (Science Direct, GeoRef, SpringerLINK, etc.) on technological research were studied. All collected references were divided into 27 sections following the key words associated with marine pollution, oil spills, alien species migration, etc. The most commercially promising research and development (R & D) activities seem to be market-oriented sections: detection of oil spills at sea, containment and recovery of floating oil at sea, detection of oil spills on land, disposal of oil and debris on land, alien species migration prevention from ballast water and underwater hull cleaning in water, NOx and SOx emissions, pollutions from ship-building and repair, and biogeochemical modelling. Great market demands for commercially patented innovations are very attractive for initiating new R & D projects.

  10. Clustering of water bodies in unpolluted and polluted environments based on Escherichia coli phylogroup abundance using a simple interaction database.

    PubMed

    de Castro Stoppe, Nancy; Silva, Juliana Saragiotto; Torres, Tatiana Teixeira; Carlos, Camila; Hachich, Elayse Maria; Sato, Maria Inês Zanoli; Saraiva, Antonio Mauro; Ottoboni, Laura Maria Mariscal

    2014-10-01

    Different types of water bodies, including lakes, streams, and coastal marine waters, are often susceptible to fecal contamination from a range of point and nonpoint sources, and have been evaluated using fecal indicator microorganisms. The most commonly used fecal indicator is Escherichia coli, but traditional cultivation methods do not allow discrimination of the source of pollution. The use of triplex PCR offers an approach that is fast and inexpensive, and here enabled the identification of phylogroups. The phylogenetic distribution of E. coli subgroups isolated from water samples revealed higher frequencies of subgroups A1 and B23 in rivers impacted by human pollution sources, while subgroups D1 and D2 were associated with pristine sites, and subgroup B1 with domesticated animal sources, suggesting their use as a first screening for pollution source identification. A simple classification is also proposed based on phylogenetic subgroup distribution using the w-clique metric, enabling differentiation of polluted and unpolluted sites. PMID:25505844

  11. Oil pollution sampling, detection, and analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the monitoring and analysis of pollution resulting from oil production and transport operations. Citations discuss pollution monitoring methods and devices, tracing and analytical techniques, remote sensing, and oil-laden sediment sampling. Marine pollution assessment and control, offshore oil industry discharges, pollution effects on wildlife, and international cooperation on pollution control are also examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. Oil pollution sampling, detection, and analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the monitoring and analysis of pollution resulting from oil production and transport operations. Citations discuss pollution monitoring methods and devices, tracing and analytical techniques, remote sensing, and oil-laden sediment sampling. Marine pollution assessment and control, offshore oil industry discharges, pollution effects on wildlife, and international cooperation on pollution control are also examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  13. Oil pollution sampling, detection, and analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the monitoring and analysis of pollution resulting from oil production and transport operations. Citations discuss pollution monitoring methods and devices, tracing and analytical techniques, remote sensing, and oil-laden sediment sampling. Marine pollution assessment and control, offshore oil industry discharges, pollution effects on wildlife, and international cooperation on pollution control are also examined. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Detection and quantification of the human-specific HF183 Bacteroides 16S rRNA genetic marker with real-time PCR for assessment of human faecal pollution in freshwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvie Seurinck; Tom Defoirdt; Willy Verstraete; Steven D. Siciliano

    2005-01-01

    Summary The human-specific HF183 Bacteriodes 16S rRNA genetic marker can be used to detect human faecal pollution in water environments. However, there is currently no method to quantify the prevalence of this marker in environmental samples. We developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using SYBR Green I detection to quantify this marker in faecal and environmental samples. To

  15. Influence of eutrophication on air-water exchange, vertical fluxes, and phytoplankton concentrations of persistent organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Dachs, J.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Hoff, R.M.

    2000-03-15

    The influence of eutrophication on the biogeochemical cycles of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is largely unknown. In this paper, the application of a dynamic air-water-phytoplankton exchange model to Lake Ontario is used as a framework to study the influence of eutrophication on air-water exchange, vertical fluxes, and phytoplankton concentrations of POPs. The results of these simulations demonstrate that air-water exchange controls phytoplankton concentrations in remote aquatic environments with little influence from land-based sources of pollutants and supports levels in even historically contaminated systems. Furthermore, eutrophication or high biomass leads to a disequilibrium between the gas and dissolved phase, enhanced air-water exchange, and vertical sinking fluxes of PCBs. Increasing biomass also depletes the water concentrations leading to lower than equilibrium PCB concentrations in phytoplankton. Implications to future trends in PCB pollution in Lake Ontario are also discussed.

  16. Implication of plants and microbial metalloproteins in the bioremediation of polluted waters: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosso-Kankeu, E.; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A. F.

    Traditional approaches to municipal water monitoring barely includes procedures for toxic heavy metals testing. However, the presence of such contaminants in water sources is expected in South African surface and ground waters as a result of dispersion of effluents from acid mine drainage sites. Cheap and eco-friendly methods using microorganisms and plants are discussed in this review. Metal uptake mechanisms involving special proteins namely metalloproteins or metal-binding proteins and peptides, are elaborated and supported with some examples. The potential of phytochelatins and metallothioneins as metal chelating ligands in plants and microorganisms are reviewed and suggestion made to engineer these peptides in microbial sorbents for improved metal uptake. This review covers a number of approaches in the bioremediation of metal polluted effluents and systematically explains the mechanisms involved in the bio-uptake of metals, while highlighting the contribution of metal-binding proteins.

  17. Water Pollution and Riverbank Filtration for Water Supply Along River Nile, Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Shamrukh; Ahmed Abdel-Wahab

    \\u000a In a developing country such as Egypt, there are growing challenges for providing water supply of good quality. Committing\\u000a to the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) by providing access to clean drinking water supply is an additional challenge. This\\u000a is primarily attributed to treatment costs, especially when large quantities of water are treated. The two sources of potable\\u000a water supply in

  18. Prevention of water pollution by waste waters of the petrochemical industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. I. Gyunter; I. F. Shatalaev

    1987-01-01

    The authors examine the problems of reception of waste waters of petrochemistry for biological treatment, improvement and introduction of new methods of toxicological control permitting active intervention, and management of the process of arrival of waste waters for biological treatment. In the investigations, they used activated sludge of the first stage of biological treatment of waste waters of a petrochemical

  19. Evaluating the metallic pollution of riverine water and sediments: a case study of Aras River.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, F; Hassani, A H; Monavvari, M; Karbassi, A R; Khorasani, N

    2013-01-01

    Metallic pollution caused by elements Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Cd, and Hg in water and sediments of Aras River within a specific area in Ardabil province of Iran is considered. Water and sediment samples were collected seasonally and once respectively from the five selected stations. Regarding WHO published permissible values, only Ni concentration in spring and summer water samples has exceeded the acceptable limit up to four times greater than the limit. The concentration of metals Ni, Pb, and Fe in river water shows a direct relationship with river water discharge and the amount of precipitation. Enhanced soil erosion, bed load dissolution, and runoffs may play a key role in remarkable augmentation of metallic ions concentration. Furthermore, excessive use of pesticides which contain a variety of metallic ions (mainly Cu) in spring and summer may also result in an increase in the metals' concentration. The potential risk of Ni exposure to the water environment of the study area is assigned to juice, dairy products, edible oil, and sugar cane factories as well as soybean crop lands which are located within the sub-basin of Aras River in the study area. Regarding the sediment samples, the bioavailable metal concentrations indicate an ascending order from the first station towards the last one. In comparison with earth crust, sedimental and igneous rocks the reported metallic concentration values, except for Cd, lie within the low-risk status. Regarding Cd, the reported values in some stations (S2, S4, and S5) are up to ten times greater than that of shale which may be considered as a remarkable risk potential. The industrial and municipal wastewater generated by Parsabad moqan industrial complex and residential areas, in addition to the discharges of animal husbandry centers, may be addressed as the key factors in the sharp increase of metallic pollution potential in stations 4 and 5. PMID:22318740

  20. Assessing the well water pollution problem by nitrates in the small scale farming systems of the Niayes region, Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamadou, S.; Vanclooster, M.

    2009-04-01

    Human activities exert many pressures on the quality of groundwater, and advanced assessment programmes are needed to design sustainable water management strategies. To contribute to this challenge, we assessed the nitrate pollution problem of groundwater wells in the small scale farming systems of the Niayes region in Senegal and explained this water pollution problem in terms of well characteristics and land use properties. A fast rural appraisal was performed in 2007 to collect basic back ground data of the small scale farming systems and well water was analysed in 131 wells for nitrate content, pH and electrical conductivity. For a subset of wells, soil analyses were made of the well environment for assessing the attenuation properties of the protecting soil. Cluster analysis was used to define a well typology, while principal component and multiple correspondence analysis was used to explain the nitrate pollution in terms of well characteristics and other physico-chemical properties of the wells, and land use. The study confirms that the wells are seriously affected by the nitrate pollution problem. Wells can be classified in three well classes, which are characterized by a geographical gradient. Nitrate pollution increases from north to south, while the salinity affects particularly the wells in the northern area of the region. The nitrate levels exceeding 50 ppm are more common in residential areas than in the horticultural fields. The results further show that, even if direct pollution problem of wells cannot be excluded, pollution from leaching out of the root zone of vegetable crops to the groundwater is likely. This is confirmed by the assessment of the farming activities in this area and this is consistent with the low attenuation properties of the soils characterizing this region. Considering the nitrate pollution threshold, we further distinguish very few non-polluting crops in this region, which calls for an urgent adoption of agriculture management to protect water resources from further deterioration.

  1. Evaluating the Performance of Unmanned Ground Vehicle Water Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo; Ivanov, Tonislav; Brennan, Shane

    2010-01-01

    Water detection is a critical perception requirement for unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) autonomous navigation over cross-country terrain. During the Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliances (RCTA) program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed a set of water detection algorithms that are used to detect, localize, and avoid water bodies large enough to be a hazard to a UGV. The JPL water detection software performs the detection and localization stages using a forward-looking stereo pair of color cameras. The 3D coordinates of water body surface points are then output to a UGV's autonomous mobility system, which is responsible for planning and executing safe paths. There are three primary methods for evaluating the performance of the water detection software. Evaluations can be performed in image space on the intermediate detection product, in map space on the final localized product, or during autonomous navigation to characterize the avoidance of a variety of water bodies. This paper describes a methodology for performing the first two types of water detection performance evaluations.

  2. The relationship between particulate pollution levels in Australian cities, meteorology, and landscape fire activity detected from MODIS hotspots.

    PubMed

    Price, Owen F; Williamson, Grant J; Henderson, Sarah B; Johnston, Fay; Bowman, David M J S

    2012-01-01

    Smoke from bushfires is an emerging issue for fire managers because of increasing evidence for its public health effects. Development of forecasting models to predict future pollution levels based on the relationship between bushfire activity and current pollution levels would be a useful management tool. As a first step, we use daily thermal anomalies detected by the MODIS Active Fire Product (referred to as "hotspots"), pollution concentrations, and meteorological data for the years 2002 to 2008, to examine the statistical relationship between fire activity in the landscapes and pollution levels around Perth and Sydney, two large Australian cities. Resultant models were statistically significant, but differed in their goodness of fit and the distance at which the strength of the relationship was strongest. For Sydney, a univariate model for hotspot activity within 100 km explained 24% of variation in pollution levels, and the best model including atmospheric variables explained 56% of variation. For Perth, the best radius was 400 km, explaining only 7% of variation, while the model including atmospheric variables explained 31% of the variation. Pollution was higher when the atmosphere was more stable and in the presence of on-shore winds, whereas there was no effect of wind blowing from the fires toward the pollution monitors. Our analysis shows there is a good prospect for developing region-specific forecasting tools combining hotspot fire activity with meteorological data. PMID:23071788

  3. Nanoarray membrane sensor based on a multilayer design for sensing of water pollutants.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Lin; Huang, Yan; Cheng, Ming Soon; Lee, Hian Kee; Toh, Chee-Seng

    2010-06-01

    A ubiquitous electrochemical sensor which can detect pollutants in nonconducting aqueous solutions is prepared using a triple layer design, comprising a polyelectrolyte entrapped within micrometer-length nanochannels and sandwiched between two nanometer-thick electrode layers. Replacement of the polyelectrolyte with an enzyme-polyelectrolyte mixture within the nanochannels confers excellent biosensing characteristics. Its superior analytical performance of quantitating copper ions and formaldehyde at trace levels without additional sample treatment steps is demonstrated in freshwater samples derived from a local reservoir. PMID:20462183

  4. Integrated planning for water quality management: The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 and Coastal Zone Management

    SciTech Connect

    Allayaud, W.K.

    1980-01-01

    The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments were enacted by Congress in response to the severe water quality problems our nation has been experiencing. Section 208 of the Amendments establishes regional planning for water quality management as being necessary and provides strong incentives for states and municipalities to implement the Section's requirements. Section 208 planning is the subject of this thesis. An interesting and important example of the way in which water quality planning processes interact is coastal zone management. The two planning processes, 208 planning and coastal zone management, must be integrated. The problems of integrating the planning processes are examined vis-a-vis five issue discussions. These are: Integration of Land and Water Planning; The Role of Local, State, and Federal Government; Coordination and Integration of Planning Processes; Sewage Disposal in the Coastal Zone; and The 208 Plan. A number of key recommendations are given for understanding and improving the planning processes. These recommendations focus on two major themes. First, the role that the states play is extremely important in the overall success of water quality management. Secondly, the review and approval process for 208 plans must be demanding and help facilitate the achievement of the goals of the law.

  5. Incidence of water pollution control costs: partial vs. general equilibrium computations

    SciTech Connect

    Shortle, J.S.; Willett, K.D.

    1986-04-01

    A comparison of two computations of the distributional effects of a fully implemented federal water pollution control policy, one based on an extreme partial equilibrium method and one on a computable general equilibrium model, finds some differences that show the importance of the general equilibrium computations. The application, however, only demonstrates the feasibility of the approach and illustrates the importance of the general equilibrium analysis. It is not necessarily designed for immediate policy purposes. Real-world application will require a number of extensions, such as more detailed treatment of the government sector or international trade, of the model in its present form. 17 references, 3 tables.

  6. Assessment of total PPCP Pollution in Water Samples Using a New Contamination Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conkle, J. L.; Huang, W.; Sickman, J. O.; Gan, J.

    2012-12-01

    Numerous studies document the presence of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment, specifically near treated wastewater effluent, septic discharge and large-scale agricultural operations. Additionally, managed aquifer recharge may be a source of these contaminants. Groundwater quality is a major concern in California, as ~40% of residents consume it domestically and some communities such as Beaumont, depend on it entirely. Groundwater in Beaumont is influenced by all of the PPCP sources mentioned above. In the Beaumont Groundwater Management Zone we observed four distinct regions of groundwater that could be described according to their levels of anthropogenic impacts. The groundwater regions heavily influenced by wastewater effluent, high densities of septic systems and managed aquifer recharge had the highest concentrations and detections of PPCPs. To better describe the total levels of pollution and place our findings in the context of the greater body of data on PPCPs in the aquatic environment, a PPCP contamination index was developed from the peer-reviewed literature. The index equation was developed and validated using 21 previously published studies (285 total samples) on PPCPs in the aquatic environment as well as through sensitivity analysis. From the published literature we determined index values that fall into three classes: light (<1.8), moderate (1.8 - 4.1) and heavy (>4.1). PPCP contamination in Coopers Creek near the Beaumont WWTP discharge was at the upper end of the moderate range (3.6 to 3.8). The groundwater wells along the flow path of Coopers Creek were lightly contaminated (1.3 to 1.8) and groundwater wells influenced by septic waste and managed aquifer recharge were all <1. These values are typical for groundwater and wastewater effluent mixed with surface water found in the literature at PPCP contaminated sites. In addition to describing total PPCP contamination within a study, this index will also allow for researchers to compare contamination levels across studies, compare the effectiveness of sampling and analytical techniques and simplify statistical analysis such as principal component analysis.

  7. Genotoxic effects of water pollution on two fish species living in Karasu River, Erzurum, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yaz?c?, Zehra; Si?man, Turgay

    2014-11-01

    Karasu River, which is the only river in the Erzurum plain, is the source of the Euphrates River (Eastern Anatolia of Turkey). The river is in a serious environmental situation as a result of pollution by agricultural and industrial sewage and domestic discharges. The present study aims to evaluate genotoxic effects of toxic metals in chub, Leuciscus cephalus, and transcaucasian barb, Capoeta capoeta, collected from contaminated site of the Karasu River, in comparison with fish from an unpolluted reference site. Heavy metal concentrations in surface water of the river were determined. The condition factor (CF) was taken as a general biomarker of the health of the fish, and genotoxicity assays such as micronucleus (MN) and other nuclear abnormalities (NA) were carried out on the fish species studied. MN and NA such as kidney-shaped nucleus, notched nucleus, binucleated, lobed nucleus, and blebbed nucleus were assessed in peripheral blood erythrocytes, gill epithelial cells, and liver cells of the fish. A significant decrease in CF values associated with a significant elevation in MN and NA frequencies was observed in fish collected from the polluted sites compared with those from the reference site. Results of the current study show the significance of integrating a set of biomarkers to identify the effects of anthropogenic pollution. High concentrations of heavy metals have a potential genotoxic effects, and the toxicity is possibly related to industrial, agricultural, and domestic activities. PMID:25117493

  8. Dispersion of pollutants over land-water-land interface: Study using CALPUFF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indumati, S.; Oza, R. B.; Mayya, Y. S.; Puranik, V. D.; Kushwaha, H. S.

    The CALMET/CALPUFF modeling system is used to study atmospheric dispersion of pollutant over land-water-land interface. It is shown that the default scheme used by CALMET/CALPUFF to handle inhomogeneous surfaces does not take care of the different turbulence characteristics over such surfaces. An alternative method is suggested to incorporate different turbulent characteristics over inhomogeneous surfaces by using the appropriate atmospheric stability category over different surfaces. The results show that the presence of water body can increase the ground level concentration by a factor of up to 50 for the width of water body varying from 1 km to 5 km. It is also shown that the effect of water body on the ground level concentration decreases as the distance from the water body increases. The present study showed that for land-water interface, the realistic specification of turbulence characteristics over inhomogeneous surfaces significantly changes the estimation of ground level concentration as compared to the default scheme available in the CALMET/CALPUFF modeling system and is expected to give realistic results.

  9. Prolonged river water pollution due to variable-density flow and solute transport in the riverbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Guangqiu; Tang, Hongwu; Li, Ling; Barry, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    A laboratory experiment and numerical modeling were used to examine effects of density gradients on hyporheic flow and solute transport under the condition of a solute pulse input to a river with regular bed forms. Relatively low-density gradients due to an initial salt pulse concentration of 1.55 kg m-3 applied in the experiment were found to modulate significantly the pore-water flow and solute transport in the riverbed. Such density gradients increased downward flow and solute transport in the riverbed by factors up to 1.6. This resulted in a 12.2% increase in the total salt transfer from the water column to the riverbed over the salt pulse period. As the solute pulse passed, the effect of the density gradients reversed, slowing down the release of the solute back to the river water by a factor of 3.7. Numerical modeling indicated that these density effects intensified as salt concentrations in the water column increased. Simulations further showed that the density gradients might even lead to unstable flow and result in solute fingers in the bed of large bed forms. The slow release of solute from the bed back to the river led to a long tail of solute concentration in the river water. These findings have implications for assessment of impact of pollution events on river systems, in particular, long-term effects on both the river water and riverbed due to the hyporheic exchange.

  10. Atmospheric pollution history at Linfen (China) uncovered by magnetic and chemical parameters of sediments from a water reservoir.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mingming; Hu, Shouyun; Cao, Liwan; Appel, Erwin; Wang, Longsheng

    2015-09-01

    We studied magnetic and chemical parameters of sediments from sediments of a water reservoir at Linfen (China) in order to quantitatively reconstruct the atmospheric pollution history in this region. The results show that the main magnetic phases are magnetite and maghemite originating from the surrounding catchment and from anthropogenic activities, and there is a significant positive relationship between magnetic concentration parameters and heavy metals concentrations, indicating that magnetic proxies can be used to monitor the anthropogenic pollution. In order to uncover the atmospheric pollution history, we combined the known events of environmental improvement with variations of magnetic susceptibility (?) and heavy metals along the cores to obtain a detailed chronological framework. In addition, air comprehensive pollution index (ACPI) was reconstructed from regression equation among magnetic and chemical parameters as well as atmospheric monitoring data. Based on these results, the atmospheric pollution history was successfully reconstructed. PMID:25969376

  11. Water turbidity detection using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarger, H. L.; Mccauley, J. R.; James, G. W.; Magnuson, L. M.; Marzolf, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 images of two federal reservoirs in Kansas exhibit good correlation with suspended load. The major reservoirs in Kansas, as well as in other Great Plains states, are playing increasingly important roles in flood control, recreation, agriculture, and urban water supply. Satellite imagery may prove useful for acquiring timely low cost water quality data required for optimum management of these fresh water resources.

  12. PERFORMANCE AND AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS OF AN EXPERIMENTAL WATER/RESIDUAL OIL EMULSION BURNER IN A COMMERCIAL BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the performance and air pollutant emissions of an experimental water/oil emulsion burner. The burner was fired with two residual oils at selected emulsion water fractions. In addition, various stoichiometric ratios and two load conditions were used to determine...

  13. THE EFFECT OF WATER/RESIDUAL OIL EMULSIONS ON AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS AND EFFICIENCY OF COMMERCIAL BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of tests of two commercially available water-in-oil emulsifiers to determine the effect of water/residual oil emulsions on air pollutant emissions and thermal efficiency of a packaged boiler. Of the two emulsifiers, one (Cottell reactor) used low pressure ...

  14. Remediation of water pollution caused by pharmaceutical residues based on electrochemical separation and degradation technologies: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ignasi Sirés; Enric Brillas

    In the last years, the decontamination and disinfection of waters by means of direct or integrated electrochemical processes are being considered as a very appealing alternative due to the significant improvement of the electrode materials and the coupling with low-cost renewable energy sources. Many electrochemical technologies are currently available for the remediation of waters contaminated by refractory organic pollutants such

  15. Assessment of water quality and toxicity of polluted Rivers Fez and Sebou in the region of Fez (Morocco)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Koukal; J Dominik; D Vignati; P Arpagaus; S Santiago; B Ouddane; L Benaabidate

    2004-01-01

    Water quality assessment in the region of Fez based on the physicochemical and ecotoxicological investigations is presented. The results indicate that sites located close to the most urbanized and industrialized areas are severely impaired. The major water quality problems are: low dissolved oxygen (DO), high turbidity, organic matter and ammonia contents, severe chromium and copper pollution and high acute and

  16. Identification of sources and mechanisms of salt-water pollution ground-water quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Richter; A. R. Dutton; C. W. Kreitler

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on salinization of soils and ground water that is widespread in the Concho River watershed and other semiarid areas in Texas and the United States. Using more than 1,200 chemical analyses of water samples, the authors were able to differentiate various salinization mechanisms by mapping salinity patterns and hydrochemical facies and by analyzing isotopic compositions and ionic

  17. Water hyacinths and alligator weeds for removal of lead and mercury from polluted waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Removal of lead and mercury by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb. was investigated. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to remove 0.176 mg of lead and 0.150 mg of mercury per gram of dry plant material from distilled water and river water in a 24-hour period. One acre of water hyacinths is potentially capable of removing 105.6 grams of lead and 90.0 grams of mercury per day. Alligator weeds removed 0.101 mg of lead per gram of dry plant material in a 24-hour period. This same plant also demonstrated the ability to remove a minimum of 0.153 mg of mercury per gram of dry plant material in a six hour period.

  18. An novel identification method of the environmental risk sources for surface water pollution accidents in chemical industrial parks.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jianfeng; Song, Yonghui; Yuan, Peng; Xiao, Shuhu; Han, Lu

    2013-07-01

    The chemical industry is a major source of various pollution accidents. Improving the management level of risk sources for pollution accidents has become an urgent demand for most industrialized countries. In pollution accidents, the released chemicals harm the receptors to some extent depending on their sensitivity or susceptibility. Therefore, identifying the potential risk sources from such a large number of chemical enterprises has become pressingly urgent. Based on the simulation of the whole accident process, a novel and expandable identification method for risk sources causing water pollution accidents is presented. The newly developed approach, by analyzing and stimulating the whole process of a pollution accident between sources and receptors, can be applied to identify risk sources, especially on the nationwide scale. Three major types of losses, such as social, economic and ecological losses, were normalized, analyzed and used for overall consequence modeling. A specific case study area, located in a chemical industry park (CIP) along the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province, China, was selected to test the potential of the identification method. The results showed that there were four risk sources for pollution accidents in this CIP. Aniline leakage in the HS Chemical Plant would lead to the most serious impact on the surrounding water environment. This potential accident would severely damage the ecosystem up to 3.8 km downstream of Yangtze River, and lead to pollution over a distance stretching to 73.7 km downstream. The proposed method is easily extended to the nationwide identification of potential risk sources. PMID:24218858

  19. Improvement of lake water quality by paying farmers to abate nonpoint source pollution. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Lupi, F.; Farnsworth, R.L.; Braden, J.B.

    1988-12-01

    To mitigate damages caused by agricultural runoff, private lake owners' associations are paying for inlake and instream pollution abatement measures and on land-conservation practices. This phenomenon supports the notion that individuals who benefit from improved water quality should be willing to pay part of the abatement costs. The research suggests that on land-conservation measures can substantially reduce sediment delivery at low cost. The Sediment Economics (SEDEC) model was modified and then used to select and to site management systems that achieved stated sediment goals at least cost. Other resource policies such as T value, no-till, and contouring were compared with the least-cost frontier and shown to be more costly. The noncropland areas substantially reduced sediment delivery to water channels and lowered abatement costs. Further research is needed for long-range watershed-planning models such as SEDEC.

  20. Developing unmanned airship onboard multispectral imagery system for quick-response to drinking water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhigang; Wu, Jun; Yang, Haisheng; Li, Bo; Zhang, Yun; Yang, Shengtian

    2009-10-01

    Satellite multispectral imageries are usually limited in low space resolution, long revisit cycle or high cost. This paper presents our ongoing research on developing cost-effective unmanned airship on board Multispectral imagery system to acquire high-resolution multispectral imagery for quick-response to drinking water pollution issues. First, the overall architecture of developed system is described. After that, system integration including CCD cameras coupling, GPS/INS synchronization, stabilize platform control and wireless communication are discussed in detail. Next, system calibration is implemented in radiance and geometry respectively. An adaptive calibration method is developed to obtain absolute radiance and classic homography principle is employed to relate CCD cameras with each other geometrically. Finally, flight experiments are implemented to acquire high-resolution multispectral imageries along river and imageries are deliberately calibrated for the estimation of water quality. Conclusions are also conducted as well.

  1. Typical low cost biosorbents for adsorptive removal of specific organic pollutants from water.

    PubMed

    Tran, Van Son; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Shuang; Ton-That, Cuong; Zhang, Xinbo

    2015-04-01

    Specific organic pollutants (SOPs) such as phenolic compounds, PAHs, organic pesticides, and organic herbicides cause health and environmental problems due to their excessive toxic properties and poor biodegradability. Low-cost biosorbents are considered as a promising alternative for conventional adsorbents to remove SOPs from water. These materials have several advantages such as high sorption capacities, good modifiability and recoverability, insensitivity to toxic substances, simple operation in the treatment processes. However, previous reports on various types of biosorbents for removing SOPs are still moderately fragmented. Hence, this paper provides a comprehensive review on using typical low-cost biosorbents obtained from lignocellulose and chitin/chitosan for SOPs adsorption. Especially, their characteristics, biosorption mechanism together with utilization for eliminating SOPs are presented and discussed. The paper also gives a critical view regarding future applications of low-cost biosorbents in SOPs-contaminated water treatment. PMID:25690682

  2. Radial interval chance-constrained programming for agricultural non-point source water pollution control under uncertainty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. Tan; G. H. Huang; Y. P. Cai

    2011-01-01

    Inherent uncertainties in agricultural non-point source water pollution control problems cause great difficulties in relevant modeling processes. A radial interval chance-constrained programming (RICCP) approach was developed in this study for supporting source-oriented non-point source pollution control under uncertainty. The proposed RICCP approach could tackle two-layer uncertainty resulting from temporal and spatial variability of many factors and their uncertain interactions. Based

  3. High sensitive gas detection and isotopic measurement for the applications of industrial emission online monitoring and air pollution source tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Fengzhong; Zhang, Zhirong; Xia, Hua; Cui, Xiaojuan; Pang, Tao; Wu, Bian; Chen, Weidong; Sigrist, Markus

    2015-04-01

    High sensitive gas detection and isotopic measurements have been widely employed in the industrial and safety production. The recent progress made by our group on high sensitive gas detection with technologies of TDLAS, off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) and cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) will be briefly summarized in this report. Some works for field applications of industrial emission online monitoring and gas leakage detection in oil tank farm with TDLAS are first presented, and then part of our most recent researches on isotopic gas detection with OA-ICOS and CRDS for tracking of pollution sources are also introduced.

  4. Assessment of water pollution in different bleaching based paper manufacturing and textile dyeing industries in India.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, K; Jeyapaul, S; Sharma, D C

    2007-11-01

    Paper industries using different raw materials such as hard wood, bamboo, baggase, rice-straw and waste papers and bleaching chemicals like chlorine, hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, sulphite and oxygen were studied to estimate organic pollution load and Adsorbable Organic Halides (AOX) per ton of production. The hard wood based paper industries generate higher Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) loads (105-182 kg t(-1)) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) loads (32.0-72 kg t(-1)) compared to the agro and waste paper based industrial effluents. The bleaching sequences such as C-EP-H-H, C-E-H-H, C-E-Do-D1 and O-Do-EOP-D1 are adopted in the paper industries and the molecular elemental chlorine free bleaching sequence discharges low AOX in the effluent. The range of AOX concentration in the final effluent from the paper industries was 0.08-0.99 kg t(-1) of production. Water consumption was in the range of 100-130 m(3) t(-1) of paper production for wood based industries and 30-50 m(3) for the waste paper based industries. Paper machine effluents are partially recycled after treatment and pulp mill black liquor are subject to chemical recovery after evaporation to reduce the water consumption and the total pollution loads. Hypochlorite bleaching units of textile bleaching processes generate more AOX (17.2-18.3 mg l(-1)) and are consuming more water (45-80 l kg(-1)) whereas alkali peroxide bleaching hardly generates the AOX in the effluents and water consumption was also comparatively less (40 l kg(-1) of yarn/cloth). PMID:17294270

  5. Modelling mitigation options to reduce diffuse nitrogen water pollution from agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bouraoui, Fayçal; Grizzetti, Bruna

    2014-01-15

    Agriculture is responsible for large scale water quality degradation and is estimated to contribute around 55% of the nitrogen entering the European Seas. The key policy instrument for protecting inland, transitional and coastal water resources is the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Reducing nutrient losses from agriculture is crucial to the successful implementation of the WFD. There are several mitigation measures that can be implemented to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural areas to surface and ground waters. For the selection of appropriate measures, models are useful for quantifying the expected impacts and the associated costs. In this article we review some of the models used in Europe to assess the effectiveness of nitrogen mitigation measures, ranging from fertilizer management to the construction of riparian areas and wetlands. We highlight how the complexity of models is correlated with the type of scenarios that can be tested, with conceptual models mostly used to evaluate the impact of reduced fertilizer application, and the physically-based models used to evaluate the timing and location of mitigation options and the response times. We underline the importance of considering the lag time between the implementation of measures and effects on water quality. Models can be effective tools for targeting mitigation measures (identifying critical areas and timing), for evaluating their cost effectiveness, for taking into consideration pollution swapping and considering potential trade-offs in contrasting environmental objectives. Models are also useful for involving stakeholders during the development of catchments mitigation plans, increasing their acceptability. PMID:23998504

  6. Land use change detection with LANDSAT-2 data for monitoring and predicting regional water quality degradation. [Arkansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H.; Steele, K. (principal investigators); Waite, W.; Rice, R.; Shinn, M.; Dillard, T.; Petersen, C.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Comparison between LANDSAT 1 and 2 imagery of Arkansas provided evidence of significant land use changes during the 1972-75 time period. Analysis of Arkansas historical water quality information has shown conclusively that whereas point source pollution generally can be detected by use of water quality data collected by state and federal agencies, sampling methodologies for nonpoint source contamination attributable to surface runoff are totally inadequate. The expensive undertaking of monitoring all nonpoint sources for numerous watersheds can be lessened by implementing LANDSAT change detection analyses.

  7. Tracing nitrate pollution sources and transformation in surface- and ground-waters using environmental isotopes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Fadong; Zhang, Qiuying; Li, Jing; Liu, Qiang

    2014-08-15

    Water pollution in the form of nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) contamination is a major concern in most agricultural areas in the world. Concentrations and nitrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of nitrate, as well as oxygen and deuterium isotopic compositions of surface and groundwater from a typical irrigated region in the North China Plain (NCP) collected from May to October in 2012 were analyzed to examine the major nitrate sources and transformations. Concentrations of NO3(-)-N ranged from 0.2 to 29.6 mg/L (mean of 11.2 mg/L) in surface water, and from 0.1 to 19.4 mg/L (mean of 2.8 mg/L) in groundwater. Approximately 46.7% of the surface water samples and 10% of the groundwater samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standard for NO3(-)-N. Surface water samples that exceeded the standard were collected mainly in the dry season (May and October), while groundwater samples that exceeded the standard were collected in the wet season (June). Overall, the highest nitrate levels were observed in surface water in May and in groundwater in June, indicating that fertilizer application, precipitation, and irrigation strongly influence the NO3(-)-N concentrations. Analyses of isotopic compositions suggest that the main sources of nitrate are nitrification of fertilizer and sewage in surface water, in contrast, mineralization of soil organic N and sewage is the groundwater sources during the dry season. When fertilizers are applied, nitrate will be transported by precipitation through the soil layers to the groundwater in the wet season (June). Denitrification only occurred in surface water in the wet season. Attempts should be made to minimize overuse of nitrogen fertilizers and to improve nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated agricultural regions. PMID:24858219

  8. Biomimetic MEMS sensor array for navigation and water detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futterknecht, Oliver; Macqueen, Mark O.; Karman, Salmah; Diah, S. Zaleha M.; Gebeshuber, Ille C.

    2013-05-01

    The focus of this study is biomimetic concept development for a MEMS sensor array for navigation and water detection. The MEMS sensor array is inspired by abstractions of the respective biological functions: polarized skylight-based navigation sensors in honeybees (Apis mellifera) and the ability of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) to detect water. The focus lies on how to navigate to and how to detect water sources in desert-like or remote areas. The goal is to develop a sensor that can provide both, navigation clues and help in detecting nearby water sources. We basically use the information provided by the natural polarization pattern produced by the sunbeams scattered within the atmosphere combined with the capability of the honeybee's compound eye to extrapolate the navigation information. The detection device uses light beam reactive MEMS, which are capable to detect the skylight polarization based on the Rayleigh sky model. For water detection we present various possible approaches to realize the sensor. In the first approach, polarization is used: moisture saturated areas near ground have a small but distinctively different effect on scattering and polarizing light than less moist ones. Modified skylight polarization sensors (Karman, Diah and Gebeshuber, 2012) are used to visualize this small change in scattering. The second approach is inspired by the ability of elephants to detect infrasound produced by underground water reservoirs, and shall be used to determine the location of underground rivers and visualize their exact routes.

  9. Agricultural nitrate monitoring in a lake basin in Central Italy: a further step ahead towards an integrated nutrient management aimed at controlling water pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Garnier; Fabio Recanatesi; Maria Nicoletta Ripa; Antonio Leone

    2010-01-01

    Water pollution from point sources has been considerably reduced over the last few decades. Nevertheless, some water quality\\u000a problems remain, which can be attributed to non-point pollution sources, and in particular to agriculture. In this paper the\\u000a results of a study intended to assess the consequences, in terms of NO3 water pollution, of growing a crop, whose impact in terms

  10. Association between changing mortality of digestive tract cancers and water pollution: a case study in the Huai River Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongyan; Wan, Xia; Yang, Fei; Shi, Xiaoming; Xu, Jianwei; Zhuang, Dafang; Yang, Gonghuan

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the ever-increasing cancer mortality and water pollution is an important public concern in China. This study aimed to explore the association between serious water pollution and increasing digestive cancer mortality in the Huai River Basin (HRB) in China. A series of frequency of serious pollution (FSP) indices including water quality grade (FSPWQG), biochemical oxygen demand (FSPBOD), chemical oxygen demand (FSPCOD), and ammonia nitrogen (FSPAN) were used to characterize the surface water quality between 1997 and 2006. Data on the county-level changing mortality (CM) due to digestive tract cancers between 1975 and 2006 were collected for 14 counties in the study area. Most of investigated counties (eight) with high FSPWQG (>50%) distributed in the northern region of the HRB and had larger CMs of digestive tract cancers. In addition to their similar spatial distribution, significant correlations between FSP indices and CMs were observed by controlling for drinking water safety (DWS), gross domestic product (GDP), and population (POP). Furthermore, the above-mentioned partial correlations were clearly increased when only controlling for GDP and POP. Our study indicated that county-level variations of digestive cancer mortality are remarkably associated with water pollution, and suggested that continuous measures for improving surface water quality and DWS and hygienic interventions should be effectively implemented by local governments. PMID:25546281

  11. An affordable method for the simultaneous determination of the most studied pharmaceutical compounds as wastewater and surface water pollutants.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Muñoz, Dolores; Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2009-09-01

    There is still an increasing need of knowledge about the presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment in many countries. To contribute to the improvement of this knowledge it should be useful to get not only more reliable methods, but also analytical methods that do not require expensive equipment and, consequently, could be used even in the less developed areas. In the present work, a novel analytical method for the simultaneous determination of several priority pharmaceuticals, as aquatic media pollutants, in wastewater and surface water is reported. The method involves sample treatment by SPE, followed by LC with diode array and fluorescence detection. Parameters that affect the efficiency of the SPE step such as elution solvents, sample pH and cartridge sorbents were evaluated and optimized. The best results were obtained using acetone as elution solvent, acidifying samples to pH 2 and employing Oasis HLB as SPE sorbent. Recoveries of the pharmaceuticals from influent and effluent wastewater and surface water samples were in the range from 61.4 to 123%. LODs were in the range of 0.001-0.323 microg/L and LOQs were between 0.020 and 1.078 microg/L. PMID:19705369

  12. Generalist hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities in the oil-polluted water column of the North Sea

    PubMed Central

    Chronopoulou, Panagiota-Myrsini; Sanni, Gbemisola O; Silas-Olu, Daniel I; van der Meer, Jan Roelof; Timmis, Kenneth N; Brussaard, Corina P D; McGenity, Terry J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of light crude oil on bacterial communities during an experimental oil spill in the North Sea and in mesocosms (simulating a heavy, enclosed oil spill), and to isolate and characterize hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from the water column. No oil-induced changes in bacterial community (3?m below the sea surface) were observed 32?h after the experimental spill at sea. In contrast, there was a decrease in the dominant SAR11 phylotype and an increase in Pseudoalteromonas spp. in the oiled mesocosms (investigated by 16S rRNA gene analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), as a consequence of the longer incubation, closer proximity of the samples to oil, and the lack of replenishment with seawater. A total of 216 strains were isolated from hydrocarbon enrichment cultures, predominantly belonging to the genus Pseudoaltero monas; most strains grew on PAHs, branched and straight-chain alkanes, as well as many other carbon sources. No obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria were isolated or detected, highlighting the potential importance of cosmopolitan marine generalists like Pseudoalteromonas spp. in degrading hydrocarbons in the water column beneath an oil slick, and revealing the susceptibility to oil pollution of SAR11, the most abundant bacterial clade in the surface ocean. PMID:25251384

  13. Detection of Plant Water Content with Needle-Type In-Situ Water Content Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayanagi, Hitoshi; Miki, Norihisa

    A needle-type water content sensor with a polyethersulfone (PES) polymer membrane was developed for the low-invasive, direct in-situ measurement of plant water content (PWC) in prior work. In this paper we demonstrate a measurement of plant water stress that represents the demand for water of the plant and greatly affects its sweetness. We inserted the sensor into a stalk of strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) and soil. The variation in both the plant and the soil water content were successfully detected, which revealed the delay between variation in the plant water stress and soil water content after irrigation. Such delay could only be detected by the proposed sensor that could directly measure the variation of PWC in situ and continuously. The experiments also showed the variation in the signals as a function of detection sites and suggested that the detection sites of plant water stress need to be considered when the sensor is applied to irrigation culture.

  14. High sensitivity detection techniques with microphones: a laser optoacoustic approach to the detection of ultra trace quantities of carcinogens and pollutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1985-01-01

    The optoacoustic effect has been investigated as a detection means for ultra trace quantities of environmental carcinogens and pollutants. Three distinct approaches for developing high sensitivity detectors are described. The first utilizes a laser schlieren microphone, where a low-power He-Ne laser beam is defected by a reflecting diaphragm mounted on a Helmholtz resonator. The mathematical description and experimental results of

  15. Detection of water-quality contamination events based on multi-sensor fusion using an extented Dempster-Shafer method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Dibo; He, Huimei; Huang, Pingjie; Zhang, Guangxin; Loaiciga, Hugo

    2013-05-01

    This study presents a method for detecting contamination events of sources of drinking water based on the Dempster-Shafer (D-S) evidence theory. The detection method has the purpose of protecting water supply systems against accidental and intentional contamination events. This purpose is achieved by first predicting future water-quality parameters using an autoregressive (AR) model. The AR model predicts future water-quality parameters using recent measurements of these parameters made with automated (on-line) water-quality sensors. Next, a probabilistic method assigns probabilities to the time series of residuals formed by comparing predicted water-quality parameters with threshold values. Finally, the D-S fusion method searches for anomalous probabilities of the residuals and uses the result of that search to determine whether the current water quality is normal (that is, free of pollution) or contaminated. The D-S fusion method is extended and improved in this paper by weighted averaging of water-contamination evidence and by the analysis of the persistence of anomalous probabilities of water-quality parameters. The extended D-S fusion method makes determinations that have a high probability of being correct concerning whether or not a source of drinking water has been contaminated. This paper's method for detecting water-contamination events was tested with water-quality time series from automated (on-line) water quality sensors. In addition, a small-scale, experimental, water-pipe network was tested to detect water-contamination events. The two tests demonstrated that the extended D-S fusion method achieves a low false alarm rate and high probabilities of detecting water contamination events.

  16. Discrimination Efficacy of Fecal Pollution Detection in Different Aquatic Habitats of a High-Altitude Tropical Country, Using Presumptive Coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens Spores

    PubMed Central

    Byamukama, Denis; Mach, Robert L.; Kansiime, Frank; Manafi, Mohamad; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

    2005-01-01

    The performance of rapid and practicable techniques that presumptively identify total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores (CP) by testing them on a pollution gradient in differing aquatic habitats in a high-altitude tropical country was evaluated during a 12-month period. Site selection was based on high and low anthropogenic influence criteria of paired sites including six spring, six stream, and four lakeshore sites spread over central and eastern parts of Uganda. Unlike the chemophysical water quality, which was water source type dependent (i.e., spring, lake, or stream), fecal indicators were associated with the anthropogenic influence status of the respective sites. A total of 79% of the total variability, including all the determined four bacteriological and five chemophysical parameters, could be assigned to either a pollution, a habitat, or a metabolic activity component by principal-component analysis. Bacteriological indicators revealed significant correlations to the pollution component, reflecting that anthropogenic contamination gradients were followed. Discrimination sensitivity analysis revealed high ability of E. coli to differentiate between high and low levels of anthropogenic influence. CP also showed a reasonable level of discrimination, although FC and TC were found to have worse discrimination efficacy. Nonpoint influence by soil erosion could not be detected during the study period by correlation analysis, although a theoretical contamination potential existed, as investigated soils in the immediate surroundings often contained relevant concentrations of fecal indicators. The outcome of this study indicates that rapid techniques for presumptive E. coli and CP determination may be reliable for fecal pollution monitoring in high-altitude tropical developing countries such as those of Eastern Africa. PMID:15640171

  17. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of water pollution in different administrative zones of Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liping; Mei, Kun; Liu, Xingmei; Wu, Laosheng; Zhang, Minghua; Xu, Jianming; Wang, Fan

    2013-08-01

    Water quality degradation in river systems has caused great concerns all over the world. Identifying the spatial distribution and sources of water pollutants is the very first step for efficient water quality management. A set of water samples collected bimonthly at 12 monitoring sites in 2009 and 2010 were analyzed to determine the spatial distribution of critical parameters and to apportion the sources of pollutants in Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, near the East China Sea. The 12 monitoring sites were divided into three administrative zones of urban, suburban, and rural zones considering differences in land use and population density. Multivariate statistical methods [one-way analysis of variance, principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) methods] were used to investigate the spatial distribution of water quality and to apportion the pollution sources. Results showed that most water quality parameters had no significant difference between the urban and suburban zones, whereas these two zones showed worse water quality than the rural zone. Based on PCA and APCS-MLR analysis, urban domestic sewage and commercial/service pollution, suburban domestic sewage along with fluorine point source pollution, and agricultural nonpoint source pollution with rural domestic sewage pollution were identified to the main pollution sources in urban, suburban, and rural zones, respectively. Understanding the water pollution characteristics of different administrative zones could put insights into effective water management policy-making especially in the area across various administrative zones. PMID:23404042

  18. Water-Cluster-Detecting Breath Sensor and Applications in Cars for Detecting Drunk or Drowsy Driving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minoru Sakairi

    2012-01-01

    Developing safety measures to prevent drunk and drowsy driving is a major technical challenge for the car industry. I have developed a system for this that involves the water-cluster-detecting (WDC) breath sensor. The WCD breath sensor detects breath by measuring electric currents of positively or negatively charged water clusters in breath that are separated by using an electric field. The

  19. Groundbased detection of middle atmospheric water vapor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Hartogh; Christopher Jarchow

    1995-01-01

    Groundbased microwave measurements are well suited for the intercomparison and validation of satellite data. A microwave heterodyne spectrometer, which can be used for this purpose has been developed at our institute. It measures the 22.235 GHz water vapor spectral emission and supplies water vapor profiles in the altitude range from 35 to 85 km with a time resolution of one

  20. Agricultural Land Use and Best Management Practices to Control Nonpoint Water Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripa, Maria Nicoletta; Leone, Antonio; Garnier, Monica; Porto, Antonio Lo

    2006-08-01

    In recent years, improvements in point-source depuration technologies have highlighted the problems regarding agricultural nonpoint (diffuse) sources, and this issue has become highly relevant from the environmental point of view. The considerable extension of the areas responsible for this kind of pollution, together with the scarcity of funds available to local managers, make minimizing the impacts of nonpoint sources on a whole basin a virtually impossible task. This article presents the results of a study intended to pinpoint those agricultural areas, within a basin, that contribute most to water pollution, so that operations aimed at preventing and/or reducing this kind of pollution can be focused on them. With this aim, an innovative approach is presented that integrates a field-scale management model, a simple regression model, and a geographic information system (GIS). The Lake Vico basin, where recent studies highlighted a considerable increase in the trophic state, mainly caused by phosphorus (P) compounds deriving principally from the intensive cultivation of hazelnut trees in the lake basin, was chosen as the study site. Using the management model Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems (GLEAMS), the consequences, in terms of sediment yield and phosphorus export, of hazelnut tree cultivation were estimated on different areas of the basin with and without the application of a best management practice (BMP) that consists of growing meadow under the trees. The GLEAMS results were successively extended to basin scale thanks to the application of a purposely designed regression model and of a GIS. The main conclusions can be summarized as follows: The effectiveness of the above-mentioned BMP is always greater for erosion reduction than for particulate P reduction, whatever the slope value considered; moreover, the effectiveness with reference to both particulate P and sediment yield production decreases as the slope increases. The proposed approach, being completely distributed, represents a considerable step ahead compared to the semidistributed or lumped approaches, which are traditionally employed in research into tools to support the decision-making process for land-use planning aimed at water pollution control.