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1

Water Pollution Detection by Reflectance Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement of the intensity of light reflected from various planar liquid surfaces has been performed. The results of this brief study show that the presence of a film of foreign material floating on a reference substrate is easily detected by reflectance measurement if the two liquids possess significantly different refractive indices, for example, oil (n = 1.40) and water (n = 1.33). Additional study of various optical configurations, and the building and testing of a prototype monitoring device revealed that the method is sufficiently practical for application to continuous water quality monitoring.

Goolsby, A. D.

1971-01-01

2

Water Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

Bowen, H. J. M.

1975-01-01

3

Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of activities is designed to help students understand water pollution and its potential effects on human and wildlife habitats. They will understand that pollutants can be divided into three groups: chemical, thermal, and biological. Learning objectives include identification of two or more pollutants in a bog, marsh, stream or other wetland area, using words and art to relate a message about pollution, and understanding that some pollutants cannot be seen.

4

Water Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

5

Method of and device for detecting oil pollutions on water surfaces  

DOEpatents

Detection of oil pollution on water surfaces includes providing echo signals obtained from optical radiation of a clean water area at two wavelengths, optically radiating an investigated water area at two wavelengths and obtaining echo signals from the optical radiation of the investigated water area at the two wavelengths, comparing the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the investigated area at two wavelengths with the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the clean water area, and based on the comparison, determining presence or absence of oil pollution in the investigated water area.

Belov, Michael Leonidovich (Moscow, RU); Gorodnichev, Victor Aleksandrovich (Moscow, RU); Kozintsev, Valentin Ivanovich (Moscow, RU); Smimova, Olga Alekseevna (Moscow, RU); Fedotov, Yurii Victorovich (Moscow, RU); Khroustaleva, Anastasiva Michailovnan (Moscow, RU)

2008-08-26

6

Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

Lantz, H. B., Jr.

7

Broad spectrum detection and "barcoding" of water pollutants by a genome-wide bacterial sensor array.  

PubMed

An approach for the rapid detection and classification of a broad spectrum of water pollutants, based on a genome-wide reporter bacterial live cell array, is proposed and demonstrated. An array of ca. 2000 Escherichia coli fluorescent transcriptional reporters was exposed to 25 toxic compounds as well as to unpolluted water, and its responses were recorded after 3 h. The 25 toxic compounds represented 5 pollutant classes: genotoxicants, metals, detergents, alcohols, and monoaromatic hydrocarbons. Identifying unique gene expression patterns, a nearest neighbour-based model detected pollutant presence and predicted class attribution with an estimated accuracy of 87%. Sensitivity and positive predictive values varied among classes, being higher for pollutant classes that were defined by mode of action than for those defined by structure only. Sensitivity for unpolluted water was 0.90 and the positive predictive value was 0.79. All pollutant classes induced the transcription of a statistically significant proportion of membrane associated genes; in addition, the sets of genes responsive to genotoxicants, detergents and alcohols were enriched with genes involved in DNA repair, iron utilization and the translation machinery, respectively. Following further development, a methodology of the type described herein may be suitable for integration in water monitoring schemes in conjunction with existing analytical and biological detection techniques. PMID:23726715

Elad, Tal; Belkin, Shimshon

2013-07-01

8

Group 8 - Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BACKGROUND Investigate the issues of water pollution in the world. TASK - What is making the water so polluted? How bad is it? How does nature clean its own water? Who are the worst polluters? What can be done to stop so much pollution? What is the water cycle? What can be done to fix the problem? Explain all this, and 5 ...

Mecham, Mrs.

2006-11-30

9

Remote Sensing of Water Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

White, P. G.

1971-01-01

10

Water Pollution Control Legislation  

E-print Network

systems. Nonpoint source pollution from agriculture, urban stormwater runoff, septic systems, marinas of pollution, including urban runoff, agriculture, and forestry. In partnership with httpReference: Water Pollution Control Legislation ALISON JONES is Watershed Management Initiative

Pasternack, Gregory B.

11

Water Bottle Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The effect of water bottles and pollution around the world. Print off 3 copies of this form. W s First, let's learn about Water Bottle Pollution records on your w's form what you learned. Now let's learn about jaguars. Jaguars how can jaguars be harmed by water bottle pollution? Project: Create a travel brochure in Publisher using what you learned about water bottle pollution and jaguars. See ...

awl000422

2011-10-27

12

The Other Water Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

Barton, Kathy

1978-01-01

13

Storm Water Runoff Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (located on page 8 of the PDF) introduces learners to the concept of Non-point Source Pollution--what happens when rain washes garbage and other pollutants into rivers and lakes. Through this demonstration, learners observe how water systems are connected and how pollution in their own backyard can affect larger water supplies.

Museum, Chicago C.

2008-01-01

14

Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

15

Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays for Sensitive Detection of Canada Goose-Specific Fecal Pollution in Water Sources ? †  

PubMed Central

Canada geese (Branta canadensis) are prevalent in North America and may contribute to fecal pollution of water systems where they congregate. This work provides two novel real-time PCR assays (CGOF1-Bac and CGOF2-Bac) allowing for the specific and sensitive detection of Bacteroides 16S rRNA gene markers present within Canada goose feces. PMID:20511425

Fremaux, B.; Boa, T.; Yost, C. K.

2010-01-01

16

Water Pollution, Causes and Cures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

17

Application of selected methods of remote sensing for detecting carbonaceous water pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of aerial photography to determine the nature and extent of water pollution from carbonaceous materials is discussed. Flights were conducted over the Galveston Bay estuarine complex. Ground truth data were developed from field sampling of the waters in a region near the Houston Ship Channel. Tests conducted in the field were those for the following physical and chemical factors: (1) ph, (2) dissolved oxygen, (3) temperature, and (4) light penetration. Laboratory analyses to determine various properties of the water are described and the types of instruments used are identified. Results of the analyses are presented as charts and graphs.

Davis, E. M.; Fosbury, W. J.

1972-01-01

18

Fecal Pollution of Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

19

ALGAE AND WATER POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Algae are involved in water pollution in a number of important ways. It requires a continuous monitoring and study of algae existing in waters of various quality in order to determine what controls or what changes or what uses can be instituted for the benefit of man and for cons...

20

Water Pollution Prevention and Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is designed to help students apply the pollution prevention (P2) concept to water. It contains the needed background information about water pollution and provides guidance and activities to help students describe water uses and sources, explain why water conservation is important, and explain how pollution prevention concepts can be used to conserve water and prevent water pollution. The preceding pages of the fact sheet contain background information and the definitions necessary to implement this lesson plan.

21

A battery of in vivo and in vitro tests useful for genotoxic pollutant detection in surface waters.  

PubMed

Since the 1980s, stricter water quality regulations have been promulgated in many countries throughout the world. We discuss the application of a battery of both in vivo and in vitro genotoxicity tests on lake water as a tool for a more complete assessment of surface water quality. The lake water concentrated by adsorption on C18 silica cartridges were used for the following in vitro biological assays: gene conversion, point mutation, mitochondrial DNA mutability assays on the diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain, with or without endogenous P450 complex induction; DNA damage on fresh human leukocytes by the comet. Toxicity testing on yeast and human cells was also performed. In vivo genotoxicity was determined by the comet assay on two well-established bio-indicator organisms of water quality (Cyprinus carpio erythrocytes and Dreissena polymorpha haemocytes) exposed in situ. The in vivo experiments and the water samplings were carried out during different campaigns to detect seasonal variations of both the water contents and physiological state of the animals. Temperature and oxygen level seasonal variations and different pollutant contents in the lake water appeared to affect the DNA migration in carp and zebra mussel cells. Seasonal variability of lake water quality was also evident in the in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity tests, with regards to water pollutant quantity and quality (direct-acting compounds or indirect-acting compounds on yeast cells). However, the measured biological effects did not appear clearly related to the physical-chemical characteristics of lake waters. Therefore, together with the conventional chemical analysis, mutagenicity/genotoxicity assays should be included as additional parameters in water quality monitoring programs: their use could permit the quantification of mutagenic hazard in surface waters. PMID:16313981

Pellacani, Claudia; Buschini, Annamaria; Furlini, Mariangela; Poli, Paola; Rossi, Carlo

2006-04-20

22

Water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

I am writing in reference to an article by Leonard B. Dworsky in the August issue of EOS dealing with what the author feels are the necessary steps toward an effective and credible program of water pollution control.That public expectations need to be adjusted to real world solutions can hardly be denied. The general public is all too often led

Donald F. Kostecki

1970-01-01

23

Water Pollution Control Industry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

1974-01-01

24

IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL DNA MARKERS FOR THE DETECTION OF HUMAN FECAL POLLUTION IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

We used genome fragment enrichment and bioinformatics to identify several microbial DNA sequences with high potential for use as markers in PCR assays for detection of human fecal contamination in water. Following competitive solution-phase hybridization of total DNA from human a...

25

Detection limits of a biological monitoring system for chemical water pollution based on mussel activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on their ability to accumulate a variety of chemicals, mussels have been widely adopted as useful indicators of pollutant contamination in chemical surveillance programs (PHILIPS 1976; GOLDBERG et al. 1978; DAVIES + PIRIE 1980; NAS 1980; JENSEN et al. 1981). However, sentinel organisms living close to input sources of pollutants may respond rapidly to changes in pollutant flux. Several

W. Slooff; D. de Zwart; J. M. Marquenie

1983-01-01

26

Ground water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment, methodologies. In-situ technologies. Aquifer restoration. Applications and case studies. Decision-making. Risk assessment. References include 225 with complete abstracts. This work covers technologies for ground water pollution control in part one and deals in depth with aquifer restoration decision-making in part two, while part three gives range of case studies and detailed abstracts of 225 references. CONTENTS: 1-Introduction. Technologies for

Canter

1985-01-01

27

Identification of Bacterial DNA Markers for the Detection of Human Fecal Pollution in Water? †  

PubMed Central

We used genome fragment enrichment and bioinformatics to identify several microbial DNA sequences with high potential for use as markers in PCR assays for detection of human fecal contamination in water. Following competitive solution-phase hybridization of total DNA from human and pig fecal samples, 351 plasmid clones were sequenced and were determined to define 289 different genomic DNA regions. These putative human-specific fecal bacterial DNA sequences were then analyzed by dot blot hybridization, which confirmed that 98% were present in the source human fecal microbial community and absent from the original pig fecal DNA extract. Comparative sequence analyses of these sequences suggested that a large number (43.5%) were predicted to encode bacterial secreted or surface-associated proteins. Deoxyoligonucleotide primers capable of annealing to a subset of 26 of the candidate sequences predicted to encode factors involved in interactions with host cells were then used in the PCR and did not amplify markers in DNA from any additional pig fecal specimens. These 26 PCR assays exhibited a range of specificity in tests with 11 other animal sources, with more than half amplifying markers only in specimens from dogs or cats. Four assays were more specific, detecting markers only in specimens from humans, including those from 18 different human populations examined. We then demonstrated the potential utility of these assays by using them to detect human fecal contamination in several impacted watersheds. PMID:17209067

Shanks, Orin C.; Domingo, Jorge W. Santo; Lu, Jingrang; Kelty, Catherine A.; Graham, James E.

2007-01-01

28

The Management of Water: Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the official water pollution site for Canada. In the introduction, the problem is stated with reference to pollutants of the Great Lakes over 360 chemical compounds have been identified. Many are persistent toxic chemicals - alkylated lead, benzo(a)pyrene, DDT, mercury and mirex - potentially dangerous to humans and already destructive to the aquatic ecosystems. In referring to water quality, pollutants, toxic substances, and acid rain in the aquatic environment are discussed along with long-range transport of airborne pollutants and toxic chemicals said to be the legacy of a chemical society. Efforts to control water pollution include a multi-barrier approach to protecting drinking water, stated water quality objectives and guidelines, regulations, and advice on how to be a responsible consumer. Other sections include the effects of pollution and groundwater pollution.

29

Clean Water and Oceans: Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the water pollution portal for the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). NRDC works to continue reductions in industrial water pollution while pressing for effective pollution controls on agriculture, logging and other sources previously exempt from them. They help develop and promote strong federal laws and regulations to address polluted runoff, raw sewage discharges, and factory farm wastes and to sue polluters when the Clean Water Act is violated. This site contains simple issue overviews, news, how-to guides, frequently asked questions, photo essays and more in a section called In Brief. The In Depth section offers reports, white papers, policy analyses and other materials by NRDCs lawyers, scientists and analysts.

30

Water Detectives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this introductory classroom activity, students exercise their scientific skills of observation and deduction as they use their senses and simple laboratory assays, such as pH indicator paper, to identify mystery pollutants in water samples. Activity includes a student worksheet. This is a learning activity within the Hydrology chapter, GLOBE Teacher's Guide.

2012-08-03

31

Exploring Water Pollution. Part 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists over 30 outdoor science activities dealing with water formation, erosion, pollution, and other water-related topics. Provides, in addition, a selected bibliography of films, tapes, booklets and pamphlets, and filmstrips as additional reference materials. (CP)

Rillo, Thomas J.

1976-01-01

32

Biology and Water Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

Warren, Charles E.

33

Water Pollution (Causes, Mechanisms, Solution).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show what…

Strandberg, Carl

34

How Does Water Get Polluted?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a hands-on modeling of the effects of pollution on our ground and surface water. Students will observe and record their observations as pollution is placed on the ground in their model and it is rained upon.

Anderson, Deb V.

35

Landsat and water pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents data derived from satellite images predicting pollution loads after rainfall. It explains method for converting Landsat images of Eastern United States into cover maps for Baltimore/five county region.

Castruccio, P.; Fowler, T.; Loats, H., Jr.

1979-01-01

36

Water Pollution: Monitoring the Source.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an advanced biology class project involving study of the effects of organic pollution on an aquatic ecosystem from an sewage treatment plant overflow to evaluate the chemical quality and biological activity of the river water. (DS)

Wilkes, James W.

1980-01-01

37

Comparison of Four Polymerase Chain Reaction Methods for the Rapid Detection of Human Fecal Pollution in Marine and Inland Waters  

PubMed Central

We compared the effectiveness of three PCR protocols for the detection of Bifidobacterium adolescentis and one PCR protocol for detecting Bacteroidales as indicators of human fecal pollution in environmental samples. Quantitative PCR indicated that a higher concentration of B. adolescentis DNA was recovered from sewage samples on the 0.2??m filters compared to the 0.45??m filters, and there was no evidence of qPCR inhibitors in the DNA extracts. With the Matsuki method (1999), B. adolescentis was detected only in undiluted sewage samples. The King method (2007) performed well and detected B. adolescentis in all of the sewage dilutions (from undiluted to 10?4). In contrast, the Bonjoch approach (2004) was effective at detecting B. adolescentis at lower dilutions (10?3) of sewage samples and it gave false positive results with some (3/8) pig fecal samples. Human-specific Bacteroidales (HuBacs) were detected in the lower diluents of sewage samples but was positive in pig (6/8) and cattle fecal samples. PCR detection of B. adolescentis in marine samples from Puerto Rico and freshwater samples from Georgia indicated that the PCR method of King et al. (2007) and the modified Layton method for HuBac were in agreement in detecting human fecal pollution in most sites. PMID:20811614

Bachoon, Dave S.; Miller, Cortney M.; Green, Christen P.; Otero, Ernesto

2010-01-01

38

Detection of Pollution Caused by Solid Wastes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To develop a means of detecting pollution, it s necessary to know something about the source and nature of the pollution. The type of pollution rising from solid wastes differs considerably from hat from liquid wastes or that from gaseous wastes ni its effect on the immediate environment. It may be "defined" by a series of negatives. When solid wastes are discarded on land, the resulting pollution is not land pollution in the sense of air and water pollution. For one thing, the solid wastes do not become a "part" of the land in that the wastes are neither intimately mixed nor homogenized into the land as are liquid and gaseous wastes into their respective media. The waste particles retain not only their chemical identity but also their visible (i.e., physical) characteristics. When buried, for example, the soil is under, above, and around the solids, because the wastes are there as discrete units. Secondly, solid wastes neither diffuse nor are they carried from the place at which they were deposited. In other words they remain stationary, providing of course the disposal site is land and not moving water. In a given area, solid wastes be not distributed uniformly over that area. Even the solid wastes falling into the specification of letter meets these specifications. In contrast liquid and gaseous wastes become intimately mixed, homogenized, and even dissolved in their media. Because solid wastes remain stationary, pollution constituted by their presence is highly localized and heavily concentrated, even to the extent that the pollution could be termed "micro" when compared to the macro-pollution arising from liquid and gasequs wastes.

Golueke, Clarence G.

1971-01-01

39

Water Pollution Control courses offered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manhattan College will conduct the Nineteenth Summer Institute in Water Pollution Control, May 2024, 1974. Two one-week courses will be offered concurrently for advanced study in biological waste treatment and mathematical modeling of natural water systems. Enrollment, on a preregistration basis, will be limited.This continuing engineering education program is designed to enhance the competence of practicing engineers and scientists in

Anonymous

1974-01-01

40

Ground water. [Water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence that the Nation's ground water is contaminated by a variety of sources. These include unprotected industrial, municipal, and radioactive disposal sites, petroleum exploration and mining activities, agricultural operations such as insecticide spraying, high de-icing salts and others. As of March 1980, more than 8000 chemical tests have been performed on well water, with chlorinated organic solvents

Costle

1980-01-01

41

Water Pollution Scrubber Activity Simulates Pollution Control Devices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory activity caused students to think actively about water pollution. The students realized that it would be easier to keep water clean than to remove pollutants. They created a water scrubbing system allowing them to pour water in one end and have it emerge clean at the other end. (JOW)

Kennedy, Edward C., III; Waggoner, Todd C.

2003-01-01

42

Testing Water for Bacterial Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of water pollution control. It is a learning activity directed toward high school students of biology and/or ecology. A general knowledge of microbiology techniques is regarded as a prerequisite for the lesson. Behavioral objectives are given. Emphasis is placed on use of techniques and materials…

Dillner, Harry

43

Water Pollution in School Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water pollution curriculum units of four environmental secondary science programs in Britain, Germany, Israel, and the United States are examined. Comparisons reveal the use of quite different approaches in central topic selection, use of the laboratory and other media, controversial issues, and teacher-student roles. (CS)

Blum, Abraham

1979-01-01

44

Careers in Water Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are the activities, responsibilities, and educational and training requirements of the major occupations directly concerned with water pollution control. Also provided is an overview of employment trends, salaries, and projected demand for employees. Included in the appendix is a list of colleges and universities which offer…

Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

45

Exploring Water Pollution. Part II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

Rillo, Thomas J.

1975-01-01

46

Groundwater and surface water pollution  

SciTech Connect

This book contains almost all the technical know-how that is required to clean up the water supply. It provides a survey of up-to-date technologies for remediation, as well as a step-by-step guide to pollution assessment for both ground and surface waters. In addition to focusing on causes, effects, and remedies, the book stresses reuse, recycling, and recovery of resources. The authors suggest that through total recycling wastes can become resources.

Chae, Y.S.; Hamidi, A. [eds.

2000-07-01

47

Combined air and water pollution control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

Wolverton, Billy C. (inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (inventor)

1990-01-01

48

How Did That Get There?: Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a group, learners consider sources of water pollution to understand where pollution starts and where it ends up. Also explored are the natural and human-made options for cleaning up our water supply. This activity encourages learners to use their powers of observation, imagination, and public speaking skills as they describe possible pollution stories and scenarios, and brainstorm pollution prevention efforts.

Illinois, University O.

2009-01-01

49

Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

50

Energy analysis of regional water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of water pollution control that were used to restore water quality of Oregon's Willamette River basin are reviewed. A water pollution control strategy that takes environmental, economic, and energy use impacts into consideration is proposed based on experiences in the Willamette basin. In the control strategy, site-specific data are used to devise a water quality index for the basin.

R. J. Heggen; K. J. Williamson

1979-01-01

51

Phytotoxicity evaluation of five pharmaceutical pollutants detected in surface water on germination and growth of cultivated and spontaneous plants.  

PubMed

The phytotoxicity of 5 pharmaceuticals detected in Italian rivers, atorvastatin (7-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-phenyl-4-(phenylcarbamoyl)-5-propan-2-yl-pyrrol-1-yl]-3,5-dihydroxy-heptanoic acid), gemfibrozil (5-(2,5-dimethylphenoxy)-2,2-dimethyl-pentanoic acid), tamoxifene (2-[4-(1,2-diphenylbut-1-enyl)phenoxy]-N,N-dimethyl-ethanamine), ethinyl estradiol (17-ethynyl-13-methyl-7,8,9,11, 12,13,14,15,16,17-decahydro-6H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthrene-3,17-diol) and sildenafil (methyl-9-propyl-2,4,7,8-tetrazabicyclo[4.3.0] nona-3,8,10-trien-5-one), has been assessed in a laboratory model. The treatment system consists of three main successive sections. The first one includes the phytotoxic evaluation of the single compounds on crops, Lactuca sativa (lettuce), Dacus carota subsp. sativa (carrot), and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), until the 10(-9) M, concentration lower then the environmental amounts. The second section includes the phytotoxicity assessment of all the selected chemicals on wild species, Avena fatua (wild oats), Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed), Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), and Chenopodium album (lambsquarter), at the same concentration as previously used. The third section of the procedure includes the evaluation of the effects of the five pharmaceuticals, at 1 microM and 1 nM environmental concentrations, on the metabolism of L. sativa. The variation of the composition of the photosynthetic pigments, sugars, lipids, phenols, fatty acids and flavonoids in lettuce seedlings exposed to the pollutants in respect to the blank was evaluated. The results of the phytotoxicity assays showed the possibility of a notable impact on the different vegetal communities and evidenced different sensitivity among cultivated and wild species, probably due to the different plant physiology. PMID:18205060

D'Abrosca, Brigida; Fiorentino, Antonio; Izzo, Angelina; Cefarelli, Giuseppe; Pascarella, Maria Teresa; Uzzo, Piera; Monaco, Pietro

2008-02-15

52

Agricultural water pollution control: An interdisciplinary approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation and control of agricultural water pollution is unique and difficult to accomplish. Water quality standards are often proposed without adequate consideration of the overall economic impact on agricultural production. This article illustrates how economists and physical scientists can cooperate to develop appropriate control strategies for agricultural water pollution. Data provided by physical scientists and economists are used in a

Watkins W. Miller; Chauncey T. K. Ching; John F. Yanagida; Paul Jakus

1985-01-01

53

Water Pollution. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water is one of the most polluted resources in our environment. Since everyone has the same basic need for pure water, it follows that all people should have a basic knowledge of the causes, results and solutions to the water pollution problem. This unit is designed for use with Level II and III educable mentally retarded students to present…

Topeka Public Schools, KS.

54

Managing Bacteria Pollution in Texas Waters  

E-print Network

Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 2 BACTERIA MANAGING tx H2O | pg. 3 IN TEXAS WATERS POLLUTION Managing Bacteria Pollution in Texas Waters tx H2O | pg. 4 W ith 310 water bodies in Texas failing to meetwater quality standards because... of bacteria,managing bacteria pollution is commanding the attention of water agencies, researchers and stake- holders across Texas. These water bodies are listed in the 2006 Texas Water Quality Inventory and 303(d) List for failing to meet the standards...

Wythe, Kathy

2007-01-01

55

Infrared differential absorption for atmospheric pollutant detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress made in the generation of tunable infrared radiation and its application to remote pollutant detection by the differential absorption method are summarized. It is recognized that future remote pollutant measurements depended critically on the availability of high energy tunable transmitters. Futhermore, due to eye safety requirements, the transmitted frequency must lie in the 1.4 micron to 13 micron infrared spectral range.

Byer, R. L.

1974-01-01

56

Water Conservation and Nonpoint Source Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains science activities that are designed to make learning and demonstrating nonpoint source pollution concepts exciting and fun. These activities can either be used alone or with an existing water resources education curricula. Activities include: Water Tasting, Acting Out the Hydrologic Cycle, Concentration of Chemical Pollutants

Farrell-Poe, Kitt

57

Symposium on costs of water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A National Symposium on Costs of Water Pollution Control will be held in Raleigh, North Carolina, April 67, 1972. The symposium is sponsored by the Research Triangle Universities (Duke University, North Carolina State University, and the University of North Carolina and several national societies. The program will include sessions on economic implications of national goals for water pollution control cost

Anonymous

1972-01-01

58

Global trends in water pollution control legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope of legislation on water pollution control is initially examined. Then, the administrative machinery responsible for implementing water pollution control programs is examined, after which the approaches taken by selected countries (Norway, India, USA, Netherlands, Mexico, and New South Wales) to deal with the problem is reviewed. There follows an analysis of the policies adopted by various countries to

G. Ozolins; S. S. Fluss; R. Helmer

1977-01-01

59

The Practice of Water Pollution Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water pollution techniques and practices, including data analysis, interpretation and display are described in this book intended primarily for the biologist inexperienced in this work, and for sanitary engineers, chemists, and water pollution control administrators. The characteristics of aquatic environments, their biota, and the effects of…

Mackenthun, Kenneth M.

60

Chapter 14 Water Pollution Factory-style hog farms in  

E-print Network

Chapter 14 Water Pollution #12;Factory-style hog farms in North Carolina Each pig produces, September 1999. #12;Hogs killed by flooding #12; Water pollution Common water pollutants Treating water pollution Wastewater treatment and renovation Learning Objectives #12; Water pollution refers

Pan, Feifei

61

Review of water pollution control in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resource shortage and pollution has seriously threatened the survival and development of developing countries. Because\\u000a of China’s specific economical and social circumstances, complete adoption of developed countries’ experience is unrealistic.\\u000a At present, China needs to develop strategies and technologies in source water pollution control and municipal environmental\\u000a remediation that embrace the country’s specific need to battle the water resource

Tingyao Gao; Hongbin Chen; Siqing Xia; Zengyan Zhou

2008-01-01

62

Pollution of surface water in Europe  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses pollution of surface water in 18 European countries. For each an account is given of its physical character, population, industries, and present condition of water supplies; the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling pollution are then described, and an outline is given of current research on the difficulties peculiar to each country. A general discussion of various aspects common to the European problem of water pollution follows; standards of quality are suggested; some difficulties likely to arise in the near future are indicated, and international collaboration, primarily by the exchange of information, is recommended to check or forestall these trends. PMID:13374532

Key, A.

1956-01-01

63

Engineering aspects of water pollution control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of proper engineering when providing pollution control systems is emphasized. Organization of engineering projects is described in detail. Included are discussions of: (1) collection and evaluation of available data; (2) establishment of survey and test program; (3) integration and evaluation of findings; (4) establishment of pollution control and water utilization systems; and (5) specification and detailed design preparation.

R. G. Dalbke; A. J. Turk

1967-01-01

64

Sheep dip chemicals and water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tweed River Purification Board's objective of reducing the numbers and significance of water pollution incidents by a proactive approach based on persuasion and education is described. This has consisted of prioritising potential pollutant sources which have then been investigated in detail followed by discussion and agreement with discharges as to remedial measures. The paper describes in detail the Board's

W. A. Virtue; J. W. Clayton

1997-01-01

65

SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Based on experiments with model systems of known organic water pollutants and environmental samples, conclusions are reached concerning the best general solvent for extraction and the most appropriate methods for related manipulations. Chloroform, methylene chloride-ether mixture...

66

Pollution of Natural Waters 1. Redox chemistry  

E-print Network

Pollution of Natural Waters Outline: 1. Redox chemistry 2. Redox potential in aquatic systems 3. Eutrophication 4. Water treatment 1. Redox chemistry #15; Principle of equilibration of chemical system R Keq on pH since Q r often dependent on pH 2. Redox potential in natural waters #15; Can be viewed

Schofield, Jeremy

67

Laser spectroscopic detection of air pollutants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief review is presented of the operating principles and applications of laser systems for monitoring pollution based on absorption spectroscopy. Particular consideration is given to an active bistatic system involving a cooperative reflector; an active monostatic system involving natural reflectors; an active monostatic system involving aerosol backscattering; and passive monostatic heterodyne detection.

Hinkley, E. D.

1978-01-01

68

POLLUTION OF WATER Blank page retained for pagination  

E-print Network

CHAPTER XX POLLUTION OF WATER #12;Blank page retained for pagination #12;ASPECTS OF WATER POLLUTION IN THE COASTAL AREA OF THE GULF OF MEXICOl Prepared in the DIVISION of WATER POLLUTION CONTROL and SHELLFISH, and Welfare Principal natural resources of the Gulf that ap- pear susceptible to damages from water pollution

69

Lab 3 GEO 465/565 Storm Water Pollution  

E-print Network

1 Lab 3 ­ GEO 465/565 Storm Water Pollution The Nation's Most Significant Water Quality Problem our rivers, lakes and coastal waters by controlling pollution from industry and sewage treatment, is that we have not done enough to stop storm water pollution, or non-point source pollution, that runs off

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

70

Special Topics in Water Science (Water Pollution)  

MedlinePLUS

... A Teachers Contact Back to previous page Special Topics in Water Science Our Special Topics section lets you explore other water-science topic areas, such as water quality, urbanization and water, ...

71

Urbanization, Water Pollution, and Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewed in this report is a study concerned with water pollution as it relates to urbanization within the Regional Plan Association's set of 21 contiguous New York, New Jersey and Connecticut counties centered upon the numerous bay and estuarial reaches of the Port of New York and New Jersey. With a time frame covering a decade of water quality…

Carey, George W.; And Others

72

Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

73

Water hyacinths for removal of phenols from polluted waters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Removal of phenol by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in static water was investigated. 2.75 g dry weight of this aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to absorb 100 mg of phenol per plant per 72 hours from distilled water, river water, and bayou water. One hectare of water hyacinth plants is shown to be potentially capable of removing 160 kg of phenol per 72 hours from waters polluted with this chemical.

Wolverton, B. C.

1975-01-01

74

Sensitivity Analysis for some Water Pollution Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensitivity Analysis for Some Water Pollution Problems Francois-Xavier Le Dimet1 & Tran Thu Ha2 & M. Yousuff Hussaini3 1Université de Grenoble, France, 2Vietnamese Academy of Sciences, 3 Florida State University Sensitivity analysis employs some response function and the variable with respect to which its sensitivity is evaluated. If the state of the system is retrieved through a variational data assimilation process, then the observation appears only in the Optimality System (OS). In many cases, observations have errors and it is important to estimate their impact. Therefore, sensitivity analysis has to be carried out on the OS, and in that sense sensitivity analysis is a second order property. The OS can be considered as a generalized model because it contains all the available information. This presentation proposes a method to carry out sensitivity analysis in general. The method is demonstrated with an application to water pollution problem. The model involves shallow waters equations and an equation for the pollutant concentration. These equations are discretized using a finite volume method. The response function depends on the pollutant source, and its sensitivity with respect to the source term of the pollutant is studied. Specifically, we consider: • Identification of unknown parameters, and • Identification of sources of pollution and sensitivity with respect to the sources. We also use a Singular Evolutive Interpolated Kalman Filter to study this problem. The presentation includes a comparison of the results from these two methods. .

Le Dimet, François-Xavier; Tran Thu, Ha; Hussaini, Yousuff

2014-05-01

75

Detection of spatial fluctuations of non-point source fecal pollution in coral reef surrounding waters in southwestern Puerto Rico using PCR-based assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human fecal contamination of coral reefs is a major cause of concern. Conventional methods used to monitor microbial water quality cannot be used to discriminate between different fecal pollution sources. Fecal coliforms, enterococci, and human-specific Bacteroides (HF183, HF134), general Bacteroides-Prevotella (GB32), and Clostridium coccoides group (CP) 16S rDNA PCR assays were used to test for the presence of non-point source

M. Bonkosky; E. A. Hernández-Delgado; B. Sandoz; I. E. Robledo; J. Norat-Ramírez; H. Mattei

2009-01-01

76

Behavioural early warning responses to polluted water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural early warning responses to polluted surface water from an industrial effluent have been measured in two freshwater\\u000a macroinvertebrate species using the four electrode impedance conversion technique. Specimens ofGammarus pulex (L.) andHydropsycho angustipennis (Curtis) were caught from reference streams and exposed to water from above and below the factory and to reference water\\u000a for about 1 h with different kinds

Almut Gerhardt

1996-01-01

77

Modelling and Simulation of a Polluted Water Pumping Process  

E-print Network

Modelling and Simulation of a Polluted Water Pumping Process Chitra Alavani1 , Roland Glowinski2 concentration when a polluted water pumping ship follows a pre­assigned trajectory to remove the pollutant. We for simplicity that the density of the pollutant is smaller than the one of the sea water (so that it remains

Tradacete, Pedro

78

The spectral absorption coefficient at 254nm as a real-time early warning proxy for detecting faecal pollution events at alpine karst water resources  

PubMed Central

Because spring water quality from alpine karst aquifers can change very rapidly during event situations, water abstraction management has to be performed in near real-time. Four summer events (2005-2008) at alpine karst springs were investigated in detail in order to evaluate the spectral absorption coefficient at 254nm (SAC254) as a real-time early warning proxy for faecal pollution. For the investigation Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Satellite-based data communication between portable hydrometeorological measuring stations and an automated microbiological sampling device was used. The method for event triggered microbial sampling and analyzing was already established and described in a previous paper (Stadler et al., Wat. Sci. Technol. 58(4): 899-909, 2008). Data analysis including on-line event characterisation (i.e. precipitation, discharge, turbidity, SAC254) and comprehensive E. coli determination (n > 800) indicated that SAC254 is a useful early warning proxy. Irrespective of the studied event situations SAC254 always increased 3 to 6 hours earlier than the onset of faecal pollution, featuring different correlation phases. Furthermore, it seems also possible to use SAC254 as a real-time proxy parameter for estimating the extent of faecal pollution after establishing specific spring and event-type calibrations that take into consideration the variability of the occurrence and the transferability of faecal material It should be highlighted that diffuse faecal pollution from wildlife and live stock sources was responsible for spring water contamination at the investigated catchments. In this respect, the SAC254 can also provide useful information to support microbial source tracking efforts where different situations of infiltration have to be investigated. PMID:20962406

Stadler, H.; Klock, E.; Skritek, P.; Mach, R.L.; Zerobin, W.; Farnleitner, A.H.

2011-01-01

79

Farm Solutions to Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this KET video from Common Ground and Cleaner Water, Tribby Vice, a Kentucky farmer, talks about the changes he has made on his farm to protect the water quality of the stream running through his property and the watershed in which he lives.

Ket

2008-09-02

80

COLLABORATIVE INVESTIGATIONS OF WATER QUALITY POLLUTION PATTERNS: WORKING WITH  

E-print Network

COLLABORATIVE INVESTIGATIONS OF WATER QUALITY POLLUTION PATTERNS: WORKING WITH THE KYUQUOT and Environmental Management Title of Research Project: Collaborative Investigations of Water Quality Pollution about water quality sampling and policy agenda setting. Through time and repeated interactions

81

E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (water pollution and control). E-mail newsletter  

SciTech Connect

Topics of discussion include the following: Pollution by municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mine wastes, radioactive contaminants; Chemistry and analysis of pollutants; Thermal pollution; Oil pollution; Control techniques and equipment; Sewage treatment; Industrial waste water pretreatment; Hydrology and limnology; Biological and ecological effects; Waste water reuse; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

NONE

1999-04-01

82

Mathematical modeling for water pollution control processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic and steady-state mathematical models have been developed to the extent that they can be used to evaluate, through a series of simulations, design and operation alternatives as well as control strategies for any system. This book focuses on process performance models in water pollution control. Its purpose is: to establish the current status of existing models with emphasis on

T. M. Keinath; M. P. Wanielista

1975-01-01

83

Public Information for Water Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a handbook for water pollution control personnel to guide them towards a successful public relations program. This handbook was written to incorporate the latest methods of teaching basic public information techniques to the non-professional in this area. Contents include: (1) a rationale for a public information program; (2)…

Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

84

Water Pollution, Environmental Science Curriculum Guide Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is a 40-day unit plan on water pollution developed, in part, from the National Science Foundation Environmental Science Institutes' Ninth Grade Environmental Science Curriculum Guide. This unit contains teacher lesson plans, suggested teacher and student modules, case studies, and activities to be developed by teachers…

McKenna, Harold J.

85

Water Pollution Control Across the Nation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewed are accomplishments, problems, and frustrations faced by individual states in meeting requirements of P.L. 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. State Environmental officials complain the new law may be a hindrance to established cleanup programs. Statistics and charts are given. (BL)

Environmental Science and Technology, 1973

1973-01-01

86

Magnetic separation in water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic separation as applied to waterborne contaminants is successful in reducing the solids content of a water sample and in removing the dissolved orthophosphate from the aqueous slurry. The contaminants are chemically associated with a magnetic seeding material, and subsequent removal of this seed sweeps the pollutants from the system. The advantage of this form of treatment over conventional techniques

CHRISTOPHER DE LATOUR

1973-01-01

87

Effects of Water Pollution on Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an inquiry activity that, while based on a local area (the San Francisco Bay), could be adapted to the teacher's/student's local area. Students perform an experiment in which they observe how water pollution is absorbed into plants. The site contains a teacher's guide and printable student worksheet.

88

Environmental impact analysis in water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for a wide?ranging environmental impact analysis to guide the establishment of water quality objectives and the associated effluent discharge standards is discussed. The particular problems associated with water pollution control are identified including: multiple and conflicting demands; multiple parameter objective specifications, the stochastic and time varying nature of the system; secondary and tertiary effects; and time?delay.Current environmental impact

Jeremy P. Lumbers

1985-01-01

89

Agricultural water pollution control: An interdisciplinary approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regulation and control of agricultural water pollution is unique and difficult to accomplish. Water quality standards are often proposed without adequate consideration of the overall economic impact on agricultural production. This article illustrates how economists and physical scientists can cooperate to develop appropriate control strategies for agricultural water pollution. Data provided by physical scientists and economists are used in a linear programming model to describe salt discharge as a function of water management, production levels, and an associated effluent charge. Four water management activities were chosen on the basis of different costs of production (including a parametrically varied effluent charge), water requirements, alfalfa yields, and levels of salt discharge. Results indicate that when the effluent charge is low (<0.20/metric ton salt discharged), maximum production with maximum salt discharge is most profitable. As the effluent charge is increased (0.20 0.40/metric ton salt discharged), it becomes progressively less profitable to produce alfalfa at maximum levels of pollutant discharge. When the effluent charge is >0.40/metric ton salt discharged, alfalfa production is no longer economically feasible. An important aspect of this approach is that it permits policy makers to identify explicitly the relationship between the environmental standard and the effect on agricultural production.

Miller, Watkins W.; Ching, Chauncey T. K.; Yanagida, John F.; Jakus, Paul

1985-01-01

90

LANDFILL UNDERGROUND POLLUTION DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION USING INORGANIC TRACES  

E-print Network

LANDFILL UNDERGROUND POLLUTION DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION USING INORGANIC TRACES M. O. LOOSER1 contamination arrow in the underground, it is necessary to get good indicators to be able to detect pollution of underground pollution. Particularly, it is necessary to demonstrate if we are able to separate

Short, Daniel

91

Receiving Water Uses, Impairments, and Sources of Stormwater Pollutants  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 2 Receiving Water Uses, Impairments, and Sources of Stormwater Pollutants "Bathing in sewage-polluted seawater carries only a negligible risk to health, even on beaches that are aesthetically) .........................................................................26 Recreation (Non-Water Contact) Uses

Pitt, Robert E.

92

Dielectric properties of polluted soils as a potential tool to detect low level organic pollution in unsaturated soils  

SciTech Connect

The detection of organic pollution in soils is usually made by chemical analysis. Some geophysical methods are available to detect massive and transient pollution. But the standards used in Europe to define a non polluted soil are very strict : some organic compounds (as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) have to be less than 10 ppm. Hence, a geophysical tool allowing to prospect large areas with low rate organic pollution has to be developed. In this aim, our work is the first step of the evaluation of a geophysical method based on the dielectric characteristics of soils, our final goal being in situ measurements of those parameters. Several geophysical methods are already used to monitor organic pollution of groundwater. Both electric and dielectric properties of these pollutants can be used. Conventional DC resistivity measurements and EM methods can provide good results when polluted groundwater is linked with high salinity, while GPR and radiowave EM can be used to detect hydrocarbons by measuring soil dielectric properties. The problem of detecting organic compounds is different for saturated and unsaturated media because the dielectric constant {epsilon}{sub w} of water ({approx} 80, depending on temperature and frequency) is higher than that of dry soils (2<{epsilon}{sub s}<6) and organic liquids ({epsilon}{sub ol} < 6 if the compound is not polar). For saturated soils or rocks, the presence of organic liquid reduces the water saturation component and, consequently, the global dielectric constant of the soil in comparison with non-polluted soil or rock. GPR method can detect contrasting dielectric permittivities due to such phenomena. This method is efficient for high levels of pollution ( > 30% by weight) in a saturated zone and for transient flow because it is easier to compare several GPR sections versus time than to interpret one section without references.

Porokhovoie, S.; Mouza, J. du [Centre de Geologie de l`Ingenieur, Paris (France); Reiter, M. [Houilleres de Bassin Centre-Midi, Saint-Etienne (France)

1996-11-01

93

Water pollution control in Canada: cleanup through collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent survey indicates that Canadians are willing to pay more taxes and higher prices to solve their country's air and water pollution problems. The political pollution control organization in Canada, the development of regulations for water pollution control, municipal facility construction and treatment levels, and the challenge for the Great Lakes are discussed. Environmental problems in Canada, particularly water

Feliciano

1979-01-01

94

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN (RISK LEVEL 1)  

E-print Network

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN (RISK LEVEL 1) for BUILDING 90 USER TEST BED FACILITY.G., GEOLOGIST/QSD (530) 222-4339 SWPPP Preparation Date: JUNE 10, 2012 #12;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan) 222-4339 Name and Title Telephone Number #12;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan Building 90 User

Eisen, Michael

95

Experimental infrared measurements for hydrocarbon pollutant determination in subterranean waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subterranean waters are often polluted by industrial and anthropic effluents that are drained in subsoil. To prevent and control pollution, legislations of different developed countries require an online monitoring measurement, especially for detecting organic solvents (chlorinated and unchlorinated ones). Online measurements include both real-time and no real-time measurements. In general, it is difficult to implement real-time measurements in stricto sensu for online acquisitions on aqueous effluents since they need to be processed by a modeling. This research presents an experimental measurement system based on infrared (IR) spectroscopy for aqueous effluents containing hydrocarbons and capable of displaying excellent values of pollutant concentrations even in instable conditions; the system is able to detect pollutants either in laminar or turbulent flow. The results show the possibility of avoiding the use of "Pitot tube" that is employed to create a stagnation point in order to convert kinetic energy into potential one. This conversion allows the transformation of a turbulent flow in a laminar flow making easy measurement of pollutants included in an aqueous effluent. Obviously, "Pitot tube" is also used for other fluid effluents. The obtained results have been compared with those produced by means of sophisticated IR instrumentation for laboratory applications.

Lay-Ekuakille, A.; Palamara, I.; Caratelli, D.; Morabito, F. C.

2013-01-01

96

Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

Rowbotham, N.

1973-01-01

97

Ship'S Ballast Water And Marine Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of invasive marine species into new environments by ships' ballast water attached to ships' hulls and via\\u000a other vectors has been identified as one of the four greatest threats to the world's oceans. The other three are land-based\\u000a sources of marine pollution, over exploitation of living marine resources and physical alteration\\/destruction of marine habitat.\\u000a Ballast is any material

T. Satir

98

The national recreational fishing benefits of water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented of an effort to estimate the fresh water recreational fishing benefit derived from water pollution control efforts. Methodology is potentially applicable to other subcategories. (PSB)

Clifford S. Russell; William J. Vaughan

1982-01-01

99

On Detecting Pollution Attacks in Inter-Session Network Coding  

E-print Network

On Detecting Pollution Attacks in Inter-Session Network Coding Anh Le, Athina Markopoulou University of California, Irvine {anh.le, athina}@uci.edu Abstract--Dealing with pollution attacks in inter be malicious. In this work, we precisely define corrupted packets in inter-session pollution based

Markopoulou, Athina

100

On Detecting Pollution Attacks in Inter-Session Network Coding  

E-print Network

On Detecting Pollution Attacks in Inter-Session Network Coding Anh Le, Athina Markopoulou University of California, Irvine {anh.le, athina}@uci.edu Abstract--Dealing with pollution attacks in inter be malicious. In this work, we first define precisely corrupted packets in inter-session pollution based

Markopoulou, Athina

101

Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, & Infant Mortality in India  

E-print Network

Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, environmental regulations, and infant mortality from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental ...

Greenstone, Michael

2011-07-01

102

Water pollution in Lake Michigan by trace elements from pollution aerosol fallout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain trace elements which are strongly associated with air pollution sources in the Lake Michigan basin may be contributing significantly to lake water pollution by an atmospheric fallout route. In this paper a partial inventory of air pollution emissions for 30 trace elements is presented for the Chicago, Milwaukee, and northwest Indiana metropolitan areas, based on available published information. The

John W. Winchester; Gordon D. Nifong

1971-01-01

103

2.0 Storm Water Pollution Prevention Team  

E-print Network

Sample SWPPP Note: a DNR storm water permit does not require use of this particular Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP). This SWPPP is provided solely for voluntary use by industrial storm water permittees.

unknown authors

104

Controlling the entrance of toxic pollutants into U. S. waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statutory authority for water pollution control is mandated primarily by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act; however, eight other federal laws also apply. These are: Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972; Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974; Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1974; Ports and Waterways Safety Act of 1972; Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act of

Barrett

1978-01-01

105

Removal of Estrogenic Pollutants from Contaminated Water Using  

E-print Network

Removal of Estrogenic Pollutants from Contaminated Water Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Z I H that this material may be appropriate for treating a complex mixture of estrogenic pollutants. The feasibility of removing estrogenic compounds from environmental water by the MIP was demonstrated using lake water spiked

Chen, Wilfred

106

Controlling Nonpoint-Source Water Pollution: A Citizen's Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Citizens can play an important role in helping their states develop pollution control programs and spurring effective efforts to deal with nonpoint-source pollution. This guide takes the reader step-by-step through the process that states must follow to comply with water quality legislation relevant to nonpoint-source pollution. Part I provides…

Hansen, Nancy Richardson; And Others

107

Preventing Water Pollution Tips for Vehicle Washing and Detailing Businesses  

E-print Network

Vehicle washing and detailing practices can produce: • soaps and cleaners • oil and antifreeze • dirt and grease • metals If these pollutants reach waterways, they can cause significant water pollution problems. YOU can prevent that. Standing on the edge of a storm drain is like standing on the shore of a stream. Stormwater carries pollutants that harm aquatic life and impact swimming and fishing. According to the Washington State Department of Ecology, stormwater is the number one source of water pollution in the urban areas of Western Washington. Thousands of small spills from many of us add up to our biggest pollution problem.

Stormwater Bmps For The Automotive

108

The Current State of Water Quality and Technology Development for Water Pollution Control in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes and presents an overview of the current state of water pollution, as well as recent progress and the potential future development of water pollution control technology, in China. Although China has made significant strides in water environmental protection over the past decades, analysis reveals that water pollution in the nation is still not sufficiently controlled, with a

Jiuhui Qu; Maohong Fan

2010-01-01

109

Detection of persistent organic pollutants in the Mississippi Delta using semipermeable membrane devices  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) placed in five Mississippi Delta streams in 1996 and 1997, the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) aldrin, chlordane, DCPA, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, mirex, nonachlor, and toxaphene were detected. In addition, the insecticides chlorpyriphos, endosulfan, and hexachlorocyclohexanes were detected. Two low-solubility herbicides not detected commonly in surface water, pendimethalin and trifluralin, were also detected. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

Zimmerman, L.R.; Thurman, E.M.; Bastian, K.C.

2000-01-01

110

Water system virus detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of a waste water reclamation system is monitored by introducing a non-pathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, into the waste-water prior to treatment and, thereafter, testing the reclaimed water for the presence of the marker virus. A test sample is first concentrated by absorbing any marker virus onto a cellulose acetate filter in the presence of a trivalent cation at low pH and then flushing the filter with a limited quantity of a glycine buffer solution to desorb any marker virus present on the filter. Photo-optical detection of indirect passive immune agglutination by polystyrene beads indicates the performance of the water reclamation system in removing the marker virus. A closed system provides for concentrating any marker virus, initiating and monitoring the passive immune agglutination reaction, and then flushing the system to prepare for another sample.

Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J. (inventors)

1978-01-01

111

Pollution-control equipment (Colombia). Water-pollution-control equipment, May 1992. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

There are few manufacturers of water pollution control equipment in Colombia. Imports of water pollution equipment decreased 14 percent from US $16.3 million in 1990 to US $14.2 million in 1991. For 1992, they may fall 5 percent to US $13.5 million due to the slow performance of the economy. The close relationship with U.S. suppliers and the possible enforcement of water quality standards could influence favorably the growth of imports within the next three years. For many years, the U.S. has been the major supplier of water pollution control equipment.

Not Available

1992-05-01

112

EFFECTIVENESS OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential water quality effects and economic implications of soil and water conservation practices (SWCPs) are identified. Method for estimating the effects of SWCPs on pollutant losses from croplands are presented. Mathematical simulation and linear programming models were u...

113

Method for detecting pollutants. [through chemical reactions and heat treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for detecting and measuring trace amounts of pollutants of the group consisting of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide in a gaseous environment. A sample organic solid material that will undergo a chemical reaction with the test pollutant is exposed to the test environment and thereafter, when heated in the temperature range of 100-200 C., undergoes chemiluminescence that is measured and recorded as a function of concentration of the test pollutant. The chemiluminescence of the solid organic material is specific to the pollutant being tested.

Rogowski, R. S.; Richards, R. R.; Conway, E. J. (inventors)

1976-01-01

114

Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

Fowler, K. E. M.

115

Loading functions for assessment of water pollution from nonpoint sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for evaluating the quantity of water pollutants generated from nonpoint sources including agriculture, silviculture, construction, mining, runoff from urban areas and rural roads, and terrestrial disposal are developed and compiled for use in water quality planning. The loading functions, plus in some instances emission values, permit calculation of nonpoint source pollutants from available data and information. Natural background was

A. D. McElroy; S. Y. Chiu; J. W. Nebgen; A. Aleti; F. W. Bennett

1976-01-01

116

Water system virus detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A monitoring system developed to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water is described. A nonpathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. Detection of the marker virus consists of two major components, concentration and isolation of the marker virus, and detection of the marker virus. The concentration system involves adsorption of virus to cellulose acetate filters in the presence of trivalent cations and low pH with subsequent desorption of the virus using volumes of high pH buffer. The detection of the virus is performed by a passive immune agglutination test utilizing specially prepared polystyrene particles. An engineering preliminary design was performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation are presented. The instrument consists of reagent pump/metering system, reagent storage containers, a filter concentrator, an incubation/detector system, and an electronic readout and control system.

Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.

1975-01-01

117

Semiconducting Metal Oxide Based Sensors for Selective Gas Pollutant Detection  

PubMed Central

A review of some papers published in the last fifty years that focus on the semiconducting metal oxide (SMO) based sensors for the selective and sensitive detection of various environmental pollutants is presented. PMID:22408500

Kanan, Sofian M.; El-Kadri, Oussama M.; Abu-Yousef, Imad A.; Kanan, Marsha C.

2009-01-01

118

The Pollution Detectives: Part II. Lead and Zinc Mining.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a field trip taken to an old mining area to study water pollution. Discussed are methods for silt analysis, reagent preparation, color charts, techniques, fieldwork, field results, and a laboratory study. (CW)

Sanderson, P. L.

1988-01-01

119

NEW LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETECTION SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Resonance enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectrometry (CARS) has been demonstrated as a specific identification system for liquid chromatography for water pollution identification. To achieve this, liquid chromatographic preconcentration and separation and computer control o...

120

The Role of Tradable Permits in Water Pollution Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This working paper first introduces tradable permits as part of an overall taxonomy of economic instruments in the field of water management. In this context, three fundamentally different fields of application of tradable permits systems relating to water are presented: tradable water abstraction rights, tradable rights to water-based resources and tradable water pollution rights. Next, the authors provide literature-based empirical

R. Andreas Kraemer; Eleftheria Kampa; Eduard Interwies

2004-01-01

121

Enforcement of Section 208 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 to control nonpoint source pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpoint source pollution (NPS) caused by agriculture, road building, and other activities is, while less visible than point source pollution, recognized as such a major contributor to water pollution that it must be brought under control. Section 208 is the only portion of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 to deal directly with the NPS problem. The

Wicker

1979-01-01

122

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

2014-07-01

123

9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. 318...14 Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. (a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited...

2014-01-01

124

9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. 381...151 Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. (a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited...

2012-01-01

125

9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. 381...151 Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. (a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited...

2014-01-01

126

9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. 381...151 Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. (a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited...

2013-01-01

127

9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. 318...14 Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. (a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited...

2013-01-01

128

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The...requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

2012-01-01

129

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2011-04-01

130

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The...requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

2011-01-01

131

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2010-01-01

132

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2010-04-01

133

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts...7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

2011-10-01

134

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The...requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

2010-01-01

135

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The...requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

2013-01-01

136

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts...7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

2012-10-01

137

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2014-01-01

138

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2012-01-01

139

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2012-04-01

140

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts...7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

2010-10-01

141

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2013-04-01

142

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

2011-07-01

143

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

2013-07-01

144

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts...et seq. ) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

2013-10-01

145

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2013-01-01

146

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

2010-07-01

147

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

2012-07-01

148

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The...requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

2014-01-01

149

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2014-04-01

150

Environmental economics: capital expenditures for air and water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey showed that in the period 1970-76, capital expenditures by industries and utilities for air pollution abatement of stationary sources was $19.8 billion compared with $12.9 billion for water pollution control. During the 1977-85 period, capital expenditures by industries and utilities for air pollution abatement are expected to total over $36 billion, of which $6.75 billion will be for

de la Rue

1977-01-01

151

Mine water pollution in Scotland: nature, extent and preventative strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scotland was one of the world's first industrialised countries, and has therefore also been one of the first countries to experience wholesale post-industrial dereliction. Water pollution arising from abandoned mines, particularly abandoned coal mines, is second only to sewage as a source of freshwater pollution nation-wide, and in many coalfield catchments it is the pre-eminent source. Most of the pollution

P. L. Younger

2001-01-01

152

The latent causal chain of industrial water pollution in China.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to discover the latent causal chain of industrial water pollution in China and find ways to cure the wanton discharge of toxic waste from industries. It draws evidences from the past pollution incidents in China. Through further digging the back interests and relations by analyzing representative cases, extended theory about loophole derivations and causal chain effect is drawn. This theoretical breakthrough reflects deeper causality. Institutional defect instead of human error is confirmed as the deeper reason of frequent outbreaks of water pollution incidents in China. Ways for collaborative environmental governance are proposed. This paper contributes to a better understanding about the deep inducements of industrial water pollution in China, and, is meaningful for ensuring future prevention and mitigation of environmental pollution. It illuminates multiple dimensions for collaborative environmental governance to cure the stubborn problem. PMID:25467695

Miao, Xin; Tang, Yanhong; Wong, Christina W Y; Zang, Hongyu

2014-11-20

153

Stable Isotope Mixing Models as a Tool for Tracking Sources of Water and Water Pollutants  

EPA Science Inventory

One goal of monitoring pollutants is to be able to trace the pollutant to its source. Here we review how mixing models using stable isotope information on water and water pollutants can help accomplish this goal. A number of elements exist in multiple stable (non-radioactive) i...

154

Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation Division of Water Pollution Control  

E-print Network

Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation Division of Water Pollution Control):_________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Submit Application to: **Department of Environment and Conservation Division of Water Pollution Control

Gray, Matthew

155

Toward an effective and credible program: Water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the public demand for water pollution control remains loud, the political response has become deafening. The responsible political leadership in both parties has avoided the temptation to engage in competitive promises. But those seeking instant solutions and those whose political response has been guided by the pressure of Earth Day have created an image about the pollution problem that

Leonard B. Dworsky

1970-01-01

156

Conflict between energy conservation and water pollution control standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential conflict in national needs for both energy conservation and water pollution control is indicated. Meeting broader obligations in reconciling these apparent differences has failed. Major contributions to energy conservation efforts needed today could be made without giving up any important pollution control goals. Hopefully, state and Federal regulatory agencies soon will recognize their obligations in this respect and

Lamb

1980-01-01

157

IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF FECAL POLLUTION IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of Microbial Source Tracking (MST) methods are currently used to determine the origin of fecal pollution impacting environmental waters. MST is based on the assumption that given the appropriate method and indicator organism, the source of fecal microbial pollution can ...

158

The allocative efficiency implications of water pollution abatement cost comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessments of the efficiency of water pollution control allocations are usually based on abatement cost comparisons. The general rule is that efficiency is improved by reallocating abatement from sources with high marginal costs to low-cost sources. The welfare-theoretic foundation of this rule is well established for situations with nonstochastic emissions. In situations with stochastic emissions, pollution control involves improving the

James S. Shortle

1990-01-01

159

ALTERNATIVE POLICIES FOR CONTROLLING NONPOINT AGRICULTURAL SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This study of policies for controlling water pollution from nonpoint agricultural sources includes a survey of existing state and Federal programs, agencies, and laws directed to the control of soil erosion. Six policies representing a variety of approaches to this pollution prob...

160

Detection of human and animal sources of pollution by microbial and chemical methods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A multi-indicator approach comprising Enterococcus, bacterial source tracking (BST), and sterol analysis was tested for pollution source identification. Fecal contamination was detected in 100% of surface water sites tested. Enterococcus faecium was the dominant species in aged litter samples from p...

161

Single Laboratory Comparison of Host-Specific PCR Assays for the Detection of Bovine Fecal Pollution  

EPA Science Inventory

There are numerous PCR-based methods available to detect bovine fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each method targets a different gene and microorganism leading to differences in method performance, making it difficult to determine which approach is most suitable for field appl...

162

POLLUTION DETECTION DOGS: PROOF OF CONCEPT  

EPA Science Inventory

Dogs have been used extensively in law enforcement and military applications to detect narcotics and explosives for over thirty years. Dogs are regularly used in arson investigations to detect accelerants since they are much more accurate at discriminating between accelerants an...

163

Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen  

E-print Network

information, we are confident that: (1) nonpoint pollution of surface waters with P and N could be reduced by reducing surplus nutrient flows in agricultural systems and processes, reducing agricultural and urban runoff by diverse methods, and reducing N...

Carpenter, S. R.; Caraco, N. F.; Correll, D. L.; Howarth, R. W.; Sharpley, A. N.; Smith, Val H.

1998-08-01

164

NONPOINT POLLUTION OF SURFACE WATERS WITH PHOSPHORUS AND NITROGEN  

E-print Network

to downstream aquatic ecosystems, and which can also volatilize to the atmosphere, redepositing elsewhere and eventually reaching aquatic ecosystems. If current practices continue, nonpoint pollution of surface waters is virtually certain to increase...

Carpenter, Stephen R.; Caraco, Nina F. M.; Correll, David L.; Howarth, Robert W.; Sharpley, Andrew N.; Smith, Val H.

1998-01-01

165

Recruitment and Employment of the Water Pollution Control Specialist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are the basic principles of personnel recruitment and employment for the water pollution control field. Attention is given to determination of staffing requirements, effective planning, labor sources, affirmative action, and staffing policies. (CS)

Sherrard, J. H.; Sherrard, F. A.

1979-01-01

166

A Philosophy of Water Pollution Control--Past and Present.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview of water pollution control in the U.S. is given, leading to an analysis of present policy trends. A "rational environmental program" is called for to provide economic growth and environmental quality. (MDR)

Schroeffer, George J.

1978-01-01

167

Assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote measurement of chlorophyll concentrations to determine extent of water pollution is discussed. Construction and operation of radiometer to provide measurement capability are explained. Diagram of equipment is provided.

Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

1972-01-01

168

Gulls identified as major source of fecal pollution in coastal waters: a microbial source tracking study.  

PubMed

Gulls were reported as sources of fecal pollution in coastal environments and potential vectors of human infections. Microbial source tracking (MST) methods were rarely tested to identify this pollution origin. This study was conducted to ascertain the source of water fecal contamination in the Berlenga Island, Portugal. A total of 169 Escherichia coli isolates from human sewage, 423 isolates from gull feces and 334 water isolates were analyzed by BOX-PCR. An average correct classification of 79.3% was achieved. When an 85% similarity cutoff was applied 24% of water isolates were present in gull feces against 2.7% detected in sewage. Jackknifing resulted in 29.3% of water isolates classified as gull, and 10.8% classified as human. Results indicate that gulls constitute a major source of water contamination in the Berlenga Island. This study validated a methodology to differentiate human and gull fecal pollution sources in a real case of a contaminated beach. PMID:24140684

Araújo, Susana; Henriques, Isabel S; Leandro, Sérgio Miguel; Alves, Artur; Pereira, Anabela; Correia, António

2014-02-01

169

Energy requirements for industrial water pollution control. a perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of available information on energy requirements (ER) for industrial air and water pollution control to meet the existing U.S. Legislation (e.g., the Public Law 92-500) includes estimates of the ER by sector (industry, powerplants, and municipal wastes), by pollutant type (water, sulfur oxides, particulates, and thermal wastes), and by industry for 1977-1983, showing the relative importance of the

Serth

1978-01-01

170

Hydrocarbon analysis of shrimp from oil polluted waters  

E-print Network

HYDROCARBON ANALYSIS OF SHRIMP FROM OIL POLLUTED WATERS A Thesis by BERNARD JOHN DEWITT III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1982... Major Subject: Food Science and Technology HYDROCARBON ANALYSIS OF SHRIMP FROM OIL POLLUTED WATERS A Thesis BERNARD JOHN DEWITT III Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) (Head of apartment) May 1982...

DeWitt, Bernard John

2012-06-07

171

Outbreak of Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome occurred in the third week of a diarrhoea epidemic caused by water pollution in EL-Sult, Jordan. Of 30 000 people exposed to polluted water, 5000 developed diarrhoea, 74 typhoid, and 30 infectious hepatitis. Thirteen of the 16 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had been mildly affected by diarrhoea 8-24 days before the onset of peripheral neuropathy.

N A Sliman

1978-01-01

172

NATION WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ASSESSMENT MODEL - VERSION 2.1.  

EPA Science Inventory

NWPCAM brings together large amounts of environmental data and complex hydrologic and water quality modeling techniques into a system whose purpose is to estimate the water quality and economic benefits of water pollution control policies. NWPCAM began as a point source evaluati...

173

Water pollution in the USSR and other Eastern European countries*  

PubMed Central

The condition of water bodies and measures taken to prevent their pollution in the USSR, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Bulgaria and Romania are the main subjects of this paper. For each of these countries information is given on population and area, physical features, rain-fall and rivers, the distribution of population and industry, water supply and sewerage, the condition of surface and ground waters, the authorities and legislation concerned with the protection of water resources, and research on pollution. The author draws attention to the experience gained in these countries in the setting up of special State bodies to take charge of water resources and in classifying rivers according to the uses to which they are put, a factor which determines the regulations governing the discharge of effluent into them. A plea is also made for the convening of specialized international conferences on problems connected with the protection of European water resources from pollution. PMID:14465925

Litvinov, N.

1962-01-01

174

Remote Sensing and GIS Approach for the Water Pollution and  

E-print Network

The present study area confined only to the Tiruchirappalli taluk which was surrounded by Srirangam taluk in north and west, Thanjavur district in east and southern portion was covered by Pudukottai district. Water resource development has taken place all over the world. There is a tremendous amount of pressure in protecting the water resources available in the country. Protecting the surface water resources from wastewater pollution plays a vital role for the development. The disposal of wastewater into the surface water bodies leads to serious problems and affects the people in health aspects. Especially in the urban areas, the pollution of domestic effluent discharges into the nearby surface water bodies created problems for the public. There are many ways of safe disposal of wastewater. But improper management of wastewater generation in the urban areas find its own way of getting into the surface water. To prepare base map from SOI Toposheets within 1:50000 scale. To demarcate the administrative division of the study area with prepare various thematic layers in the block. Remote sensing study through IRS 1D LISS III, satellite imagery and SRTM data. The above details gathered from government and NGOs, the study objectives came into a final target that the urbanization and industrialization preferably the main reason for the water pollution in the environment. Water pollution promotes the disturbances in the total surroundings in relation to health, traffic concession, over exploitation in and around the polluted area.

Alaguraja P; Yuvaraj D

175

Salmonella pollution in ground and surface waters. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the contamination of ground waters and surface waters by Salmonella bacteria. Articles discuss the occurence, survival, origin, and control of these bacteria in water sources including rivers, reservoirs, swimming pools, wastewater, aquifers, and ground water. Citations also address the use of Salmonella populations as biological indicators of pollution in aquatic systems. (Contains a minimum of 102 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-04-01

176

New developments in the trace analysis of organic water pollutants.  

PubMed

Challenging tasks, increasing demands, and new generations of powerful analytical instruments initiated considerable progress in aquatic environmental analysis and led to a considerable improvement of analytical performance during the last few years. The ever growing number of emerging pollutants is tackled by specific and highly sensitive analytical methods with detection limits of a few nanogram per liter and even lower. Wide-scope monitoring techniques and multiclass and multiresidue analysis allow for the simultaneous determination of hundreds of compounds. The high mass resolution capability and mass accuracy of advanced mass spectrometric instruments, i.e., time-of-flight (TOF) MS or Fourier transform (FT)-Orbitrap MS, enable combined target and non-target analysis, including the identification of metabolites and abiotic degradation products. This minireview highlights some of the most recent developments in the trace analysis of important organic water pollutants and focuses on some specific groups of emerging contaminants, i.e., pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, disinfection by-products, surfactants, per- and polyfluorinated compounds, benzotriazoles, and benzothiazoles, as well as on the identification of transformation products and on non-target analysis. References were selected according to their exemplary and innovative character and to their practical relevance. PMID:22358315

Fischer, Klaus; Fries, Elke; Körner, Wolfgang; Schmalz, Christina; Zwiener, Christian

2012-04-01

177

Erbium Doped Fiber Sensor for Ammonia Detection into Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water pollution is a health problem around the world. One of the most common pollutants in water is the Ammonia. Some sensors have been developed for Ammoniac detection even though most of them are not in real time and could be expensive. In this work an Erbium-doped fibre-sensor for Ammonia detection with a mechanical long period fibre grating and a taper in cascade for improving the sensitivity; the detection bandwidth is in the 1550 nm region from 1460 nm to 1640 nm. Output optical spectrum for Ammonia concentrations from 1ml to 5 ml is shown

Pérez-Sánchez, G. G.; Pinzón-Escobar, E. F.; Sandoval-Romero, G. E.; Álvarez Chávez, J. A.

2015-01-01

178

Prioritizing hazardous pollutants in two Nigerian water supply schemes: a risk-based approach  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To rank pollutants in two Nigerian water supply schemes according to their effect on human health using a risk-based approach. Methods Hazardous pollutants in drinking-water in the study area were identified from a literature search and selected pollutants were monitored from April 2010 to December 2011 in catchments, treatment works and consumer taps. The disease burden due to each pollutant was estimated in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) using data on the pollutant’s concentration, exposure to the pollutant, the severity of its health effects and the consumer population. Findings The pollutants identified were microbial organisms, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc. All were detected in the catchments but only cadmium, cobalt, chromium, manganese and lead exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) guideline values after water treatment. Post-treatment contamination was observed. The estimated disease burden was greatest for chromium in both schemes, followed in decreasing order by cadmium, lead, manganese and cobalt. The total disease burden of all pollutants in the two schemes was 46?000 and 9500 DALYs per year or 0.14 and 0.088 DALYs per person per year, respectively, much higher than the WHO reference level of 1?×?10?6 DALYs per person per year. For each metal, the disease burden exceeded the reference level and was comparable with that due to microbial contamination reported elsewhere in Africa. Conclusion The estimated disease burden of metal contamination of two Nigerian water supply systems was high. It could best be reduced by protection of water catchment and pretreatment by electrocoagulation. PMID:23940402

Etchie, Ayotunde T; Etchie, Tunde O; Krishnamurthi, Kannan; SaravanaDevi, S; Wate, Satish R

2013-01-01

179

LOW COST IMAGER FOR POLLUTANT GAS LEAK DETECTION - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

Infrared (IR) imaging is the best method for detecting leaks of pollutant gases, but current technology based on cooled IR imagers is far too expensive ($75,000 to $150,000) for everyday field use by those who need it to meet regulatory limits—electric and petrochemical ...

180

Quantitation and detection of vanadium in biologic and pollution materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is presented of special considerations and methodology for determining vanadium in biological and air pollution materials. In addition to descriptions of specific analysis procedures, general sections are included on quantitation of analysis procedures, sample preparation, blanks, and methods of detection of vanadium. Most of the information presented is applicable to the determination of other trace elements in addition to vanadium.

Gordon, W. A.

1974-01-01

181

River Pollution: Part II. Biological Methods for Assessing Water Quality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses methods used in the biological assessment of river quality and such indicators of clean and polluted waters as the Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score System, and species diversity indexes. Includes a summary of a river classification scheme based on quality criteria related to water use. (JN)

Openshaw, Peter

1984-01-01

182

Team Approaches for Agricultural Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpoint source water pollution, primarily from agricultural sources, is a major cause of water quality impairment. Uncertainty and asymmetric information are the key regulatory difficulties in the control of agricultural NPSP. The main target of this study is to describe a potential incentive scheme that can be applied in limited information situations. Team contracts built upon principal-agent theory are proposed.

Zou Jiliang; Yuan Yongkang

2009-01-01

183

Water pollution control: the case for local control and accountability  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a time when substantial changes are taking place, or are proposed, in the organizational structure for preventing water pollution in Scotland, the paper makes the case for maintaining the status quo. The Scottish system relies on 10 independent river purification authorities comprising elected and appointed members, with considerable freedom to set water quality objectives and standards in light of

David W. Mackay

1993-01-01

184

Bibliography of water pollution control benefits and costs. [3000 references  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computer-listed bibliography includes approximately 3000 references to environmental quality management issues. The primary selection criteria for including the sources referenced was that the citation pertains to water pollution control benefits and costs. However, numerous listings include more general environmental issues within which water quality problems are embedded. Also, much of the economic cost-benefit analysis research has been conceptually developed

S. G. Unger; D. L. Jordening

1974-01-01

185

Identification and Control of Pollution from Salt Water Intrusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains informational guidelines for identifying and evaluating the nature and extent of pollution from salt water intrusion. The intent of these guidelines is to provide a basic framework for assessing salt water intrusion problems and their relationship to the total hydrologic system, and to provide assistance in developing…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

186

Spectral reflectance and radiance characteristics of water pollutants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral reflectance characteristics of water pollutants and water bodies were compiled using the existing literature. Radiance calculations were performed at satellite altitude for selected illumination angles and atmospheric conditions. The work described in this report was limited to the reflective portion of the spectrum between 0.40 micrometer to 1.0 micrometer.

Wezernak, C. T.; Turner, R. E.; Lyzenga, D. R.

1976-01-01

187

Research progress of nuclear, biological and chemical polluted water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a major victim of the biochemical warfare in the history, China is confronting the threat of new nuclear, chemical and biological warfare nowadays. Water is the main transmission mode of nuclear, chemical and biological warfare agent. Therefore pure water treatment becomes an important mode of Three Defenses. This paper mainly introduces the characteristics of chemical and biological pollution, the

Wang Xiaojie; Li Xiaojing; Ji Yunzhe

2011-01-01

188

NON-POINT SOURCE GROUND WATER POLLUTANTS IN SOUTH FLORIDA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Non-point source water pollutants resulting from agricultural areas have been implicated as a source of water quality degradation in South Florida, USA. The nutrients loading from agricultural and urban areas have increased nutrient concentrations, particularly phosphorus, at the Everglades National...

189

Pollution Of Ground Sources Of Drinking Water With Technogenic Tritium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems of fresh groundwater pollution with technogenic tritium are considered with Obninsk (Russia) for illustration. The\\u000a paper deals with engineering and geological reasons of groundwater pollution with tritium near Obninsk. Tritium concentrations\\u000a in municipal water intakes and springs are by 20–100 and 10,000 times, respectively, higher as compared to the background\\u000a value in Russia as a whole. The highest concentrations

Olga Momot; Boris Synzynys; Gennady Kozmin; Igor Silin

190

Water Pollution Control: Lessons from Transnational Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is fundamental to life, as reflected in space scientists' compulsive search for signs of its presence when scrutinizing other planets for possible life forms. Fortunately for our species, more than two-thirds of our planet is covered with water, creating an environment richly conducive to life. Humans have just begun to appreciate how precious earth's water resources are and how

Robert V. Percival

1998-01-01

191

Economic Instruments for Water Pollution Control Policy making issues: Experiences from Colombia.  

E-print Network

??As part of the pollution control effort several developing countries have established economic-based initiatives to improve environmental quality. In this study the Colombian water pollution… (more)

Montoya, Monica Mildrei

2006-01-01

192

Water-Quality Trading: Can We Get the Price of Pollution Right?1  

E-print Network

Water-Quality Trading: Can We Get the Price of Pollution Right?1 Yoshifumi Konishi Faculty for pollution can work for air. Should they not work for water pollution too? The U.S. Environmental Protection known (Mauzerall et al., 2005). Spatial dependence is likely even more prominent for water pollution

Weiblen, George D

193

DETERMINATION OF OCTANOL/WATER DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENTS, WATER SOLUBILITIES, AND SEDIMENT/WATER PARTITION COEFFICIENTS FOR HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Octanol/water distribution coefficients, water solubilities, and sediment/water partition coefficients are basic to any assessment of transport or dispersion of organic pollutants. In addition, these determinations are prerequisites for many chemical or biological process studies...

194

VOLATILIZATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS FROM WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The volatilization of organic environmental contaminants from water bodies to the atmosphere was investigated. The general aim was to elucidate the factors that control the volatilization process and develop predictive methods for calculating volatilization rates for various comp...

195

Institutional instruments for water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the articulation of policies in the interface between economic production and water quality. One problem\\u000a is the introduction, at this production-ecologic interface, of unwanted water-borne residuals by firms and municipalities.\\u000a The policy objective is to absorb the social cost of environmental degradation into the production function within the two\\u000a constraints of efficiency in the allocation of

A. P. Grima

1981-01-01

196

Retrofit conserves energy at a water pollution control facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major retrofit of process structures and incorporation of additional mechanical equipment was undertaken to replace the existing chemical phosphorus removal process with a biological phosphorus removal process. The new process will reduce energy use up to 81% and lime use up to 86% at the Amherst, New York water pollution control facility.

A. S. Haimes; J. Dedyo

1980-01-01

197

Introduction to Instrumental Analysis of Water Pollutants. Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course is designed for those requiring an introduction to instruments commonly used in water pollution analyses. Examples are: pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen meters, spectrophotometers, turbidimeters, carbon analyzer, and gas chromatographs. Students should have a basic knowledge of analytical chemistry. (CO)

Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

198

Water Pollution, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed are the reasons why present mechanisms for the control of water purity are inadequate. The control of waterborne epidemics is discussed to illustrate a problem which has been solved, then degradation of the environment is presented as an unsolved problem. Case histories are given of pollution and attempts at control in rivers, lakes,…

Berg, George G.

199

ISOLATION OF ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS BY XAD RESINS AND CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

The recovery efficiencies of XAD resins -2, -4, -7, and -8 and of resin mixtures were measured using distilled water samples containing 13 organic pollutants. An equal-weight mixture of XAD-4 and XAD-8 was most efficient. XAD-2 and XAD-4/8 were further tested and found effective ...

200

Storm water pollution in the urban environment of Genoa, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpoint pollution resulting from urban surface runoff is recognized as one of the major causes of quality deterioration in the receiving water bodies. In order to investigate the first flush phenomenon connected to different types of urban surfaces, two monitoring systems have been installed in the experimental catchment of Villa Cambiaso, University of Genoa (Italy), to sample separately roof and

I. Gnecco; C. Berretta; L. G. Lanza; P. La Barbera

2005-01-01

201

The Role of Monitoring in Controlling Water Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of trends in the national water pollution control effort and to describe the role of monitoring in that effort, particularly in relation to the responsibilities of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). I hope the paper will serve as a useful framework for the more specific discussions of monitoring technology to follow.

Hirsch, Allan

1971-01-01

202

Optical multiple-analyte immunosensor for water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype of a portable optical immunosensor (called river analyser) has been developed. It can be applied for the monitoring of surface water quality. Antibodies carrying a fluorescent label are used for the specific recognition of pollutants, such as frequently applied pesticides. The transduction principle is based on total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF). The outstanding advantage of the river analyser

Claudia Barzen; Andreas Brecht; Guenter Gauglitz

2002-01-01

203

Water pollution and habitat degradation in the Gulf of Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gulf of Thailand has been a major marine resource for Thai people for a long time. However, recent industrialization and community development have exerted considerable stress on the marine environments and provoked habitat degradation. The following pollution problems in the Gulf have been prioritized and are discussed in details: (1) Untreated municipal and industrial waste water are considered to

Voravit Cheevaporn; Piamsak Menasveta

2003-01-01

204

Acrylamide encephaloneuropathy due to well water pollution.  

PubMed Central

All five members of a family developed subacutely mental confusion and/or truncal ataxia. Symptoms and signs of polyneuropathy were seen later. The well water in the patients' home contained 400 ppm acrylamide. The present cases are unique in that they are cases of acrylamide poisoning induced by oral intake and percutaneous penetration, and that central nervous system symptoms were prominent. PMID:168322

Igisu, H; Goto, I; Kawamura, Y; Kato, M; Izumi, K

1975-01-01

205

Acrylamide encephaloneuropathy due to well water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

All five members of a family developed subacutely mental confusion and\\/or truncal ataxia. Symptoms and signs of polyneuropathy were seen later. The well water in the patients' home contained 400 ppm acrylamide. The present cases are unique in that they are cases of acrylamide poisoning induced by oral intake and percutaneous penetration, and that central nervous system symptoms were prominent.

H Igisu; I Goto; Y Kawamura; M Kato; K Izumi

1975-01-01

206

Awakening Seed Pond Water ChemistryAwakening Seed Pond Water Chemistry Our Question: Is our pond polluted?Our Question: Is our pond polluted?  

E-print Network

Awakening Seed Pond Water ChemistryAwakening Seed Pond Water Chemistry Our Question: Is our pond polluted?Our Question: Is our pond polluted? Our InvestigationOur Investigation We discussed what kinds of pollutants we should look for. We narrowed down the aspects of pond chemistry that we would investigate

Hall, Sharon J.

207

Health hazards associated with windsurfing on polluted water  

SciTech Connect

We documented the risks associated with windsurfing on sewage polluted water. Seventy-nine windsurfers and 41 controls were studied over a nine-day period for occurrence of symptoms of gastroenteritis, otitis, conjunctivitis, and skin infection. Relative risks were 2.9 for occurrence of one or more of these symptoms and 5.5 for symptoms of gastroenteritis. Relative risk increased with the reported number of falls into the water.

Dewailly, E.; Poirier, C.; Meyer, F.M.

1986-06-01

208

Reducing the cost of water-pollution control under the Clean Water Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present water-pollution-regulation system focuses on treatment by the individual and ignores the aggregate cost of pollution control. Economists have proposed three methods to create pollution-control systems that cost less than the present one: effluent charges, marketable effluent permits, and private ownership of the waterway. Of these methods, only the marketable permit system has any potential for use within the

Rothfelder

1982-01-01

209

A simulation of water pollution model parameter estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parameter estimation procedure for a water pollution transport model is elaborated. A two-dimensional instantaneous-release shear-diffusion model serves as representative of a simple transport process. Pollution concentration levels are arrived at via modeling of a remote-sensing system. The remote-sensed data are simulated by adding Gaussian noise to the concentration level values generated via the transport model. Model parameters are estimated from the simulated data using a least-squares batch processor. Resolution, sensor array size, and number and location of sensor readings can be found from the accuracies of the parameter estimates.

Kibler, J. F.

1976-01-01

210

Design an effective storm water pollution prevention plan  

SciTech Connect

A case history shows ``how`` to plan and organize a storm water pollution prevention program (SWPPP). Using easy-to-use worksheets and guidelines, hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) operators can build upon existing best management practices (i.e., housekeeping procedures, visual inspections, spill prevention programs, etc.) to meet tighter restrictions set by National Pollutant Discharge Elimination system (NPDES) permits. Especially in high rainfall areas, storm water poses an intermittent, but large volume problem. The facility`s site size is another factor that impacts the scope and cost for SWPPP. The five steps to implementing a SWPPP are: Planning and organization; Assessment; Best management practice (BMP) identification; Implementation; Evaluation and monitoring. Initially, HPI operators must identify all potential contamination sources and past spills and leak areas. Following the SWPP guidelines, operators can map out a cost-effective storm water program that meets all NPDES requirements.

Vivona, M.A. [Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-08-01

211

The Allocative Efficiency Implications of Water Pollution Abatement Cost Comparisons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessments of the efficiency of water pollution control allocations are usually based on abatement cost comparisons. The general rule is that efficiency is improved by reallocating abatement from sources with high marginal costs to low-cost sources. The welfare-theoretic foundation of this rule is well established for situations with nonstochastic emissions. In situations with stochastic emissions, pollution control involves improving the distribution of emissions. Nevertheless, efficiency analyses involving stochastic emissions usually sidestep formal consideration of the stochastic element by measuring pollution control and control costs with respect to changes in long-term average flows. An economic model of stochastic emissions is used to demonstrate that this approach can give misleading results. An alternative procedure is briefly discussed.

Shortle, James S.

1990-05-01

212

Questionable Specificity of Genetic Total Faecal Pollution Markers for Integrated Water Quality Monitoring and Source Tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterisation of microbial faecal hazards in water is a fundamental aspect for target-orientated water resources management to achieve appropriate water quality for various purposes like water supply or agriculture and thus to minimize related health risks. Nowadays the management of water resources increasingly demands detailed knowledge on the extent and the origin of microbial pollution. Cultivation of standard faecal indicator bacteria, which has been used for over a century to test the microbiological water quality, cannot sufficiently meet these challenges. The abundant intestinal bacterial populations are very promising alternative targets for modern faecal indication systems. Numerous assays for the detection of genetic markers targeting source-specific populations of the phylum Bacteroidetes have been developed in recent years. In some cases markers for total faecal pollution were also proposed in order to relate source-specific marker concentrations to general faecal pollution levels. However, microbial populations in intestinal and non-intestinal systems exhibit a dazzling array of diversity and molecular analysis of microbial faecal pollution has been based on a fragmentary puzzle of very limited sequence information. The aim of this study was to test the available qPCR-based methods detecting genetic Bacteroidetes markers for total faecal pollution in terms of their value and specificity as indicators of faecal pollution. We applied the AllBac (Layton et al., 2006) the BacUni (Kildare et al., 2007) and the Bacteroidetes (Dick and Field, 2004) assays on soil DNA samples. Samples were collected in well characterised karst spring catchments in Austria's Eastern Calcareous Alps. They were at various levels of altitude between 800 and 1800 meters above sea level and from several different habitats (woodland, alpine pastures, krummholz). In addition we tried to choose sampling sites representing a presumptive gradient of faecal pollution levels. For example sites with obvious faecal influence (e.g. right next to a cowpat) were included as well as more pristine sites without faecal influence from large animals (e.g. fenced areas). Surprisingly, results from investigations with the AllBac assay showed concentrations of the total faecal marker in soil in the range of 106 to 109 Marker Equivalents per g of soil, which is equal or only slightly lower than the concentrations of this particular marker in faeces or raw sewage. Preliminary results from the other tested assays seem to confirm that the targeted markers are also highly abundant in soils. In addition, the markers were present in comparable concentrations in soils from pristine locations as well as in soils under the potential influence of faeces giving a strong indication that these methods also target non-intestinal, autochthonous soil populations. In contrast, source-specific markers (ruminant-specific BacR and human-specific BacH, Reischer et al., 2007, 2006) could only be detected in 30 to 50% of the soil samples at concentrations close to the detection limit, which is at least four orders of magnitude lower than in faecal samples of the respective target sources, ruminant animals and humans. The achieved results call the applicability of the proposed qPCR-based assays for total faecal pollution into question. In fact the assays do not seem to be specific for intestinal Bacteroidetes populations at all and the respective marker concentration levels in pristine soils negate their applicability in the investigated areas. This study also emphasizes the need to test the specificity and sensitivity of qPCR-based assays for total faecal pollution on the local level and especially against non-intestinal environmental samples, which might contribute to marker levels in the aquatic compartment. In conclusion there is a strong demand for marker-based detection techniques for total faecal pollution in water quality monitoring and risk assessment but currently none of the tested assays seems to meet the methodical requirements.

Vierheilig, Julia; Reischer, Georg H.; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

2010-05-01

213

Framework for Restoring Polluted Waters Adopt Water Quality Standards  

E-print Network

Western Interstate Region and National Conference Meetings “Tools Tools for Protecting and Improving Water Quality ” Workshop County ounty issue brief with TMDL case studies NACo wins EPA grant for water quality capacity-building capacity building project

Sarah Furtak; Menchu Martinez; Stormwater Stormwater; Urban Runoff Webinar

2009-01-01

214

Bromate pollutant in ozonated bottled Zamzam water from Saudi Arabia determined by LC\\/ICP-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bromate (BrO3 ) as a human carcinogenic pollutant in bottled drinking Zamzam water from Mecca, Saudi Arabia has been determined using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC\\/ICP-MS). For analysis, samples were injected directly without any further pretreatment, using only 50 ?L injection volume. The method showed: 0.5 ?g\\/L detection limit, 1.0 ?g\\/L limit of quantification and 1.0–200.0 ?g\\/L

Seham A. Al-Ansi; Ahmed A. Othman; Mohammed A. Al-Tufail

2011-01-01

215

40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.145-2 Section...GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) No person...or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State...

2014-07-01

216

40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.145-2 Section...GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) No person...or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State...

2012-07-01

217

40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.145-2 Section...GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) No person...or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State...

2011-07-01

218

f " International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control. Vienna 1996 XIII/4 -1  

E-print Network

96/0852 f í " International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control. Vienna 1996 for water pollution control, Vienna : Austria (1996)" #12;í>tn International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control. Vienna 1996 XIII/4 - 2 · It is also planned that districts will be able to take

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

219

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. ...2543.86 Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. ...pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S...the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as...

2014-10-01

220

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2011-01-01

221

Finite-Volume-Particle Methods for Models of Transport of Pollutant in Shallow Water  

E-print Network

Finite-Volume-Particle Methods for Models of Transport of Pollutant in Shallow Water Alina Chertock of shallow water equations and the pollutant propagation is described by a transport equation. The idea and the pollution computations: the shallow water equations are numerically integrated using a #12;nite- volume

Kurganov, Alexander

222

Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process  

E-print Network

Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process Abstract: The study investigates water quality pollution impacts on urbanization by analyzing temporal the greatest contributors of surface water quality pollution from 1996 to 2003. High values existed

Yu, Qian

223

Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual to tidal periods  

E-print Network

Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual to tidal periods. G. Monismith (2004), Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual the relationship between water temperature and fecal pollution in the surf zone at Huntington and Newport Beach

Winant, Clinton D.

224

Estimation of pollution by fire extinguishing water D. Calogine, S. Duplantier  

E-print Network

Estimation of pollution by fire extinguishing water D. Calogine, S. Duplantier INERIS, Accidentai by combustion and consequently the water will be loaded with pollutants such as HCI and HCN. The project O2FEU of pollution for soil and subsoil. The project consists in studying the fate of run-off waters in environment

Boyer, Edmond

225

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN BUILDING B51 AND BEVATRON DEMOLITION PROJECT  

E-print Network

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN FOR: BUILDING B51 AND BEVATRON DEMOLITION PROJECT PROJECT NO;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) Building B51 and Bevatron Demolition Project Lawrence............................................................................................300-3 300.4 Project Schedule/Water Pollution Control Schedule

226

Adaptive hierarchical grid model of water-borne pollutant dispersion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water pollution by industrial and agricultural waste is an increasingly major public health issue. It is therefore important for water engineers and managers to be able to predict accurately the local behaviour of water-borne pollutants. This paper describes the novel and efficient coupling of dynamically adaptive hierarchical grids with standard solvers of the advection-diffusion equation. Adaptive quadtree grids are able to focus on regions of interest such as pollutant fronts, while retaining economy in the total number of grid elements through selective grid refinement. Advection is treated using Lagrangian particle tracking. Diffusion is solved separately using two grid-based methods; one is by explicit finite differences, the other a diffusion-velocity approach. Results are given in two dimensions for pure diffusion of an initially Gaussian plume, advection-diffusion of the Gaussian plume in the rotating flow field of a forced vortex, and the transport of species in a rectangular channel with side wall boundary layers. Close agreement is achieved with analytical solutions of the advection-diffusion equation and simulations from a Lagrangian random walk model. An application to Sepetiba Bay, Brazil is included to demonstrate the method with complex flows and topography.

Borthwick, A. G. L.; Marchant, R. D.; Copeland, G. J. M.

227

Single Laboratory Comparison of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays for the Detection of Human Fecal Pollution  

EPA Science Inventory

There are numerous quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods available to detect and enumerate human fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each assay employs distinct primers and/or probes and many target different genes and microorganisms leading to potential variations in method ...

228

Single Laboratory Comparison of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays for the Detection of Human Fecal Pollution - Poster  

EPA Science Inventory

There are numerous quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods available to detect and enumerate human fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each assay employs distinct primers and/or probes and many target different genes and microorganisms leading to potential variations in method p...

229

Designing of water pollution control technology database platform based on general management information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced was the development and implementation for the water pollution control technology database platform based on general management information system. The technology research and application demonstration of the system were developed, covering six fields such as lake water pollution treatment and ecological restoration, improvement of environment quality of urban water, drinking water safety, new technology of physical-chemical-biology water treatment, packaged

Chunhong Shi; Nan Li; Beihai Zhou; Wenjuan Song

2010-01-01

230

The impact of land use on microbial surface water pollution.  

PubMed

Our knowledge relating to water contamination from point and diffuse sources has increased in recent years and there have been many studies undertaken focusing on effluent from sewage plants or combined sewer overflows. However, there is still only a limited amount of microbial data on non-point sources leading to diffuse pollution of surface waters. In this study, the concentrations of several indicator micro-organisms and pathogens in the upper reaches of a river system were examined over a period of 16 months. In addition to bacteria, diffuse pollution caused by Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. was analysed. A single land use type predestined to cause high concentrations of all microbial parameters could not be identified. The influence of different land use types varies between microbial species. The microbial concentration in river water cannot be explained by stable non-point effluent concentrations from different land use types. There is variation in the ranking of the potential of different land use types resulting in surface water contamination with regard to minimum, median and maximum effects. These differences between median and maximum impact indicate that small-scale events like spreading manure substantially influence the general contamination potential of a land use type and may cause increasing micro-organism concentrations in the river water by mobilisation during the next rainfall event. PMID:25456147

Schreiber, Christiane; Rechenburg, Andrea; Rind, Esther; Kistemann, Thomas

2014-10-01

231

Precipitation suppression by anthropogenic air pollution: major loss of water resources where we need them most  

E-print Network

Precipitation suppression by anthropogenic air pollution: major loss of water resources where we inferences of air pollution suppressing precipitation lead us to investigate historical climate records precipitation, decreases with time in the polluted regions and remains unchanged where no pollution sources were

Daniel, Rosenfeld

232

System engineering for water pollution control at the watershed level in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present water pollution situation at watershed level in China has been systematically analyzed. The causes of water pollution\\u000a are attributed to the extensive economic developmental pattern, poor wastewater treatment, and a lack of nonpoint pollution\\u000a control. The problems of water pollution control at watershed level include a lack of thought and approach, developmental\\u000a delay in the environmental standard system,

Wei Meng

2009-01-01

233

Chemistry and pollution of natural waters in western Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selected water analyses from the literature and current research in western Kenya are tabulated and the relationships between critical water quality parameters described. The waters are chemically characterised with Na as the dominant cation and bicarbonate as the dominant anion and, while waters of obviously different sources are represented, the available chemical data point to a general classification of bicarbonate-Na-rich waters, even for the saline waters of Lake Magadi. Potassium and chloride are among the less abundandt constituents. The concentration level of nutrients (nitrate, phosphate and sulphate) is mostly lower than maxium permissible drinking water levels, and salinity is not yet a serious problem in water bodies that are exploited for domestic and industrial purposes. Fluoride levels are variable with the higher values occurring in waters in and around the Rift Valley. Limited analytical data for I in waters from the Eldoret, Kiambu and Nairobi areas indicate concentrations well above world average figures. Mean values of some key water quality indicators such as total dissolved solids, total suspended solids and heavy metals are well below the threshold for contaminated water. These values are however exceeded by several factors in saline waters of lakes and in some springs. Significant organic pollution is reflected by mean values of parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand and faecal coliforms. The present quality of most of the water bodies in this part of the country is considered to be adequate at present for domestic and other purposes, though a gradual decrease in quality is evident from the recent upsurge in industrial activities in the subregion.

Davies, T. C.

1996-11-01

234

[Water pollution and health risks at Yaoundé, Cameroon].  

PubMed

The aim of this article consists of developing an ecosystemic approach to collect information about groundwater pollution in order to determine its origin and infer the health risks in Mingoa's watershed through the study of 12 spontaneous settlements. From an environmental point of view, family interviews and direct observations allowed us to inventory springs, wells and latrines, and to collect information. So, we have selected, on the basis of predefined criteria, 21 wells and springs for physico-chemical and bacteriological laboratory analyses. Two hundred children aged less than 5 years were subjected to KOAP examination. A number of 1224 latrines were inventoried, for an average use of 15 people per latrine, producing 913.3 kg/year of excreta. Most of 91% of people use these latrines. The superficial aquifers, connected to the wells and springs, present high values of nitrogen, phosphorous pollutant and fecal contamination indicators (coliforms and fecal streptococcus), which make water inappropriate to human consumption. PCA analysis establishes that water pollution comes mainly from traditional pit latrines. The overall prevalence of diarrhea and parasite infestation was important (=40%). The presence of cysts of Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris limbricoides, and Entamoeba coli confirms this high prevalence and testify to very approximate hygiene and environment conditions. PMID:23916209

Youmbi, Jean Ghislain Tabué; Feumba, Roger; Njitat, Valérie Tsama; de Marsily, Ghislain; Ekodeck, Georges Emmanuel

2013-01-01

235

An air and water pollution prevention primer for small businesses  

SciTech Connect

Pollution prevention is one of the few areas in which environmental goals and economic interests clearly coincide. Benefits include reduced costs, liabilities and regulatory burdens, and an improved environment. Minimizing the quantity and toxicity of waste also reduces the need for waste treatment operations. Because economics is one of the factors weighed when adopting pollution prevent technologies, economic analysis based on equipment's payback period is important to determine whether a system should be adopted and, if so, what equipment should be selected. Many air pollution control methods, wastewater treatment systems and sludge dewatering processes can be used for materials recovery and water reuse. Factors to consider when selecting a waste treatment system include legal limitations or effluent criteria imposed for public protection, social limitations imposed by the community in which the pollution source is or will be located, and economic limitations. The latter two factors are critical for small businesses, which typically are located in or near metropolitan areas, and often have limited financial resources. Another factor to consider is whether a waste treatment system can be designed to accommodate future expansion or operational modifications. Although small businesses tend to prefer traditional, proven environmental technologies, some new technologies can be adopted easily to reduce waste generation and costs. In addition, several relatively simple and inexpensive practices have proven successful in eliminating or minimizing wastes. These include: improving housekeeping practices; segregating wastes; changing materials purchasing and inventory control procedures; substituting less toxic materials; recycling and reusing wastes; reducing wastewater flows; changing production methods or modifying production processes; and training employees in pollution prevention.

Huang, C.S. (Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States))

1995-03-01

236

In Hot Water: Thermoelectric Power and Thermal Pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of surface water for thermoelectric power plant cooling significantly impacts river water temperatures, posing risks to aquatic ecosystems. In addition, surface water temperatures in summer can exceed limits for power plant compliance with thermal effluent limitations, jeopardizing energy security during periods of peak power demand. For example, Brown's Ferry Nuclear Plant in Alabama curtailed power production by 50% for over 40 days in July-August of 2010 when river temperatures exceeded 90°F. Future increases in surface water temperatures due to climate change may further endanger energy security. This study examines summer intake and outflow water temperature data reported by power plants during peak production months across the United States to determine the impact of thermoelectric power plants on surface water temperatures in the summer. Initial results indicate that U.S. coal plants (n= 625) raised water temperatures by an average of 17°F (± 12°F) and discharged cooling water with median peak temperatures of 100°F (± 13°F) in the summer of 2005, the last year when this data was reliably reported. Further analysis will extend the time period of this study from 2000-2005 and expand the scope to various energy sources and cooling technologies. In addition, we explore regional variation to assess the relative threat that thermal pollution poses to energy security across the U.S.

Madden, N. T.

2010-12-01

237

Investigating and evaluating surface water pollution: The integrated chemical and biological approach  

SciTech Connect

Surface water can get contaminated from diffused and point sources of pollution. The implementation therefore of both biological and chemical methods is essential. The efficiency of the integrated approach in evaluating surface water pollution in Cyprus will be presented. The use of biofractionation to select the most toxic fraction increases cost-effectiveness. To get maximum information and certainty at minimum cost, a Tier Approach is applied for the evaluation of Industrial and Pesticide Pollution and to assess possible ecotoxicological effects. On the first Tier biofractionation is applied in combination with the measurement of aggregated parameters related to industrial pollution e.g. TOX, General FID/GC profile of base/neutral extracts, HPLC screening with multidetection systems (UV and Fluorescence detector) to identify the presence of major pollutants groups of intermediate to high polarity, i.e. acids, aldehydes/ketones, phenols, PAHs, phthalates etc., and purge and trap for volatiles (VOCs). Under the same Tier most of the metals are screened by ICP and pesticides by multi-residues methods. Under the 1st Tier the basic 99% Microtox test is carried out directly on water samples or fractions and the solid phase Microtox test on sediments. Mutagenicity testing (Mutatox) is also applied. The 2nd Tier (more specific oriented) is based on results from Tier 1 and comprises an extensive testing of group parameters identified at Tier 1 and a confirmatory stage using GC/MS or HPLC Photodiode Array detection. Water concentrates on XAD are tested by Microtox to evaluate pT values (potential Toxicity value). The overall assessment is done based not only on numerical criteria (limits) which are not always sufficient, but also on narrative criteria according to the international practice. This work indicates the capabilities of integrating approaches in evaluating environmental problems.

Michaelidou, S.C. [State General Lab., Nicosia (Cyprus)

1995-12-31

238

Water infiltration control to achieve mine water pollution control. A feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study determined the feasibility of conducting a full-scale demonstration to document the effectiveness of land reclamation at mined-out areas in establishing surface water infiltration control to prevent acid mine water pollution. The study site was the Dents Run Watershed, Monongalia County, West Virginia. Investigative measures included: investigation of each mine area and opening; a detailed description of each site;

F. J. Zaval; J. D. Robins

1973-01-01

239

Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 1. A national network model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the national implications of federal water pollution control policies, the authors developed a water pollution network model. This model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and bays. While the geographical scope of the model and existing data availability required

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin; G. K. Young

1981-01-01

240

Estimation of heavy metals in drinking water and development of heavy metal pollution index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four heavy metals (Copper, Cadmium, Lead and Zinc) are monitored in drinking water at twelve important residential areas using DPASV Technique. The results indicate the water to free of heavy metal pollution. The data monitored have been used to compute Heavy metal pollution index (HPI) using weighted arithmetic mean method and the proposed Pollution Index (HPI) seems to be applicable

S. Venkata Mohan; P. Nithila; S. Jayarama Reddy

1996-01-01

241

ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL POLICIES. 1. A NATIONAL NETWORK MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to study the national implications of federal water pollution control policies, the authors developed a water pollution network model. The model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lake...

242

Mixed finite element discretization of a model for organic pollution in waters  

E-print Network

Mixed finite element discretization of a model for organic pollution in waters Part I. The problem]), sophisticated modeling of the organic pollution in stream-waters has been elaborated. Taylor's dispersion´ephanie Salmon4 . Abstract We consider a mixed reaction diffusion system describing the organic pollution

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

243

Development of a Master Plan for Water Pollution Control Using MCDM Techniques: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive demand for water due to a growing population, agricultural, and industrial development, along with climate change and depletion of nonrenewable resources have intensified the need for integrated water resources management and water pollution control. This paper presents different aspects of a master plan for water pollution control and the results of a case study for developing a master plan

Mohammad Karamouz; Banafsheh Zahraie; Reza Kerachian

2003-01-01

244

Water Pollution from Urban Stormwater Runoff in the Brunette River Watershed, B.C.  

E-print Network

Water Pollution from Urban Stormwater Runoff in the Brunette River Watershed, B.C. DOE FRAP 1998. The Fraser River Action Plan (FRAP) also provided funding as part of their research and pollution abatement

245

UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN REMOVAL OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange, adsorption and acid catalysis properties. Different inorganic and organic pollutants have been removed from water at room temperature using various zeolites. Synthetic zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove inorganic pollutants...

246

Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, and Infant Mortality in India  

E-print Network

Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, and environmental regulations from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental regulations. ...

Greenstone, Michael

2011-07-01

247

Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, and Infant Mortality in India  

E-print Network

Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, environmental regulations, and infant mortality from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental ...

Greenstone, Michael

248

Oil pollution detection and sensing. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques used to detect and sense oil spills and slicks. Citations discuss remote sensing, chemical and biological monitoring, satellite imagery, surveilllance, and models. Topics include pollution information systems, environmental monitoring, coastal ecology, and paths of pollutants. Pollution effects on fisheries, leak detectors, artificial oil pollution, remedial actions, and international cooperation are covered. (Contains a minimum of 236 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

249

Landsat change detection can aid in water quality monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparison between Landsat-1 and -2 imagery of Arkansas provided evidence of significant land use changes during the 1972-75 time period. Analysis of Arkansas historical water quality information has shown conclusively that whereas point source pollution generally can be detected by use of water quality data collected by state and federal agencies, sampling methodologies for nonpoint source contamination attributable to surface runoff are totally inadequate. The expensive undertaking of monitoring all nonpoint sources for numerous watersheds can be lessened by implementing Landsat change detection analyses.

Macdonald, H. C.; Steele, K. F.; Waite, W. P.; Shinn, M. R.

1977-01-01

250

State of the art molecular markers for fecal pollution source tracking in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most environmental waters are susceptible to fecal contamination from animal and\\/or human pollution sources. To attenuate\\u000a or eliminate such contamination, it is often critical that the pollution sources are rapidly and correctly identified. Fecal\\u000a pollution source tracking (FST) is a promising research area that aims to identify the origin(s) of fecal pollution in water.\\u000a This mini-review focuses on the potentials

Peter Roslev; Annette S. Bukh

2011-01-01

251

Monitoring of 1300 organic micro-pollutants in surface waters from Tianjin, North China.  

PubMed

In spite of the quantities and species of chemicals dramatically increased with rapid economic growth in China in the last decade, the focus of environmental research was mainly on limited number of priority pollutants. Therefore, to elucidate environmental pollution by organic micro-pollutants, this work was conducted as the first systematic survey on the occurrence of 1300 substances in 20 surface water samples of Tianjin, North China, selected as a representative area of China. The results showed the presence of 227 chemicals. The most relevant compounds in terms of frequency of detection and median concentration were bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (100%; 0.26?gL(-1)), siduron (100%; 0.20?gL(-1)), lidocaine (100%; 96ngL(-1)), antipyrine (100%; 76ngL(-1)), caffeine (95%; 0.28?gL(-1)), cotinine (95%; 0.20?gL(-1)), phenanthrene (95%; 0.17?gL(-1)), metformin (90%; 0.61?gL(-1)), diethyl phthalate (90%; 0.19?gL(-1)), quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (90%; 0.14?gL(-1)), 2-(methylthio)-benzothiazole (85%; 0.11?gL(-1)) and anthraquinone (85%; 54ngL(-1)). Cluster analysis discriminated three highly polluted sites from others based on data similarity. Principle component analysis identified four factors, corresponding to industrial wastewater, domestic discharge, tire production and atmospheric deposition, accounting for 78% of the total variance in the water monitoring data set. This work provides a wide reconnaissance on broad spectrum of organic micro-contaminants in surface waters in China, which indicates that the aquatic environment in China has been polluted by a large number of chemicals. PMID:25479805

Kong, Lingxiao; Kadokami, Kiwao; Wang, Shaopo; Duong, Hanh Thi; Chau, Hong Thi Cam

2015-03-01

252

Genetic and environmental factors involved in increased resistance of brook trout to sulfuric acid solutions and mine acid polluted waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several strains of hatchery-reared brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), were exposed to low pH in the laboratory (sulfuric acid solutions) and in the field (mine acid polluted waters). Wild brook trout were also used in some field tests. Tests were both acute and chronic (up to 2 mo). Pronounced strain differences in survival ability were detected among embryonic, juvenile, and

FREDERICK A. SWARTS; WILLIAM A. DUNSON; JAMES E. WRIGHT

1978-01-01

253

Natural Salt Pollution and Water Supply Reliability in the Brazos River Basin  

E-print Network

rights allocations, and water supply contracts, (2) facility expansions and construction of new water supply projects, and (3) projects and strategies for dealing with salt pollution. Consideration of water quality as well as quantity is important...

Wurbs, Ralph A.; Karama, Awes S.; Saleh, Ishtiaque; Ganze, C. Keith

254

REMOVAL OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS FROM SUBCRITICAL WATER WITH ACTIVATED CARBON  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has demonstrated that controlling the temperature (and to a lesser extent, the pressure) of water can dramatically change its ability to extract organics and inorganics from matrices ranging from soils and sediments to waste sludges and coal. The dielectric constant of water can be changed from about 80 (a very polar solvent) to <5 (similar to a nonpolar organic solvent) by controlling the temperature (from ambient to about 400 C) and pressure (from about 5 to 350 bar). The EERC has shown that hazardous organic pollutants such as pesticides, PACS (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) can be completely removed from soils, sludges, and sediments at temperatures (250 C) and pressures (<50 atm) that are much milder than typically used for supercritical water processes (temperature >374 C, pressure >221 atm). In addition, the process has been demonstrated to be particularly effective for samples containing very high levels of contaminants (e.g., part per thousand). Current projects include demonstrating the subcritical water remediation process at the pilot scale using an 8-liter system constructed under separate funding during 1997. To date, subcritical water has been shown to be an effective extraction fluid for removing a variety of organic pollutants from soils and sludges contaminated with fossil fuel products and waste products, including PACS from soil (e.g., town gas sites), refining catalysts, and petroleum tank bottom sludges; PCBs from soil and sediments; toxic gasoline components (e.g., benzene) from soil and waste sludge; and phenols from petroleum refinery sludges. The obvious need to clean the wastewater from subcritical water processes led to preliminary experiments with activated carbon placed in line after the extractor. Initial experiments were performed before and after cooling the extractant water (e.g., with water at 200 C and with water cooled to 25 C). Surprisingly, the ability of activated carbon to remove organics from the water is better at a high temperature than at room temperature. These initial results are opposite to those expected from chromatographic theory, since the solubility of the organics is about 100,000-fold higher in the hot water than in ambient water. At present, the physicochemical mechanism accounting for these results is unknown; however, it is possible that the lower surface tension and lower viscosity of subcritical water (compared to water at ambient conditions) greatly increases the available area of the carbon by several orders of magnitude. Regardless of the mechanism involved, the optimal use of activated carbon to clean the wastewater generated from subcritical water remediation will depend on obtaining a better understanding of the controlling parameters. While these investigations focused on the cleanup of wastewater generated from subcritical water remediation, the results also apply to cleanup of any wastewater contaminated with nonpolar and moderately polar organics such as wastewaters from coal and petroleum processing.

Steven B. Hawthorne; Arnaud J. Lagadec

1999-08-01

255

Laser Remote Sensing of Pollution on Water Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most important problems of modern environmental science is the detection and identification of various impurities in the ocean. Sources of impurities in sea water are diverse. The most common of them are accidental transport, agricultural, and oil industry spills. Once the ecological balance is disturbed, biological processes in sea water become affected, resulting in changes in chlorophyll concentrations, water turbidity, and temperature. During the last few years, we have created new types of lidars and arranged nearly ten aircraft and shipboard expeditions. Some aircraft expeditions dealt with terrestrial investigations. Others were devoted to oceanological research, the results of which are discussed here. Emphasis is on the detection of phytoplankton chlorophyll and hydrocarbon in sea water.

Bunkin, A. F.; Surovegin, Aleksander L.

1992-01-01

256

The River Basin Model: Computer Output. Water Pollution Control Research Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research report is part of the Water Pollution Control Research Series which describes the results and progress in the control and abatement of pollution in our nation's waters. The River Basin Model described is a computer-assisted decision-making tool in which a number of computer programs simulate major processes related to water use that…

Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

257

Relaxation Approximations to Shallow Water and Pollutant Transport Department of Sciences, Division of Mathematics,  

E-print Network

1 Relaxation Approximations to Shallow Water and Pollutant Transport Equations A.I. Delis solution of shallow water flows and the transport and diffusion of pollutant in such flows. By first can be considered as an alternative to classical finite difference methods. Keywords--Shallow water

Katsaounis, Theodoros D.

258

Quantitative PCR for Detection and Enumeration of Genetic Markers of Bovine Fecal Pollution? †  

PubMed Central

Accurate assessment of health risks associated with bovine (cattle) fecal pollution requires a reliable host-specific genetic marker and a rapid quantification method. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for the detection of two recently described bovine feces-specific genetic markers and a method for the enumeration of these markers using a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. Both assays exhibited a range of quantification from 25 to 2 × 106 copies of target DNA, with a coefficient of variation of <2.1%. One of these assays can be multiplexed with an internal amplification control to simultaneously detect the bovine-specific genetic target and presence of amplification inhibitors. The assays detected only cattle fecal specimens when tested against 204 fecal DNA extracts from 16 different animal species and also demonstrated a broad distribution among individual bovine samples (98 to 100%) collected from five geographically distinct locations. The abundance of each bovine-specific genetic marker was measured in 48 individual samples and compared to quantitative PCR-enumerated quantities of rRNA gene sequences representing total Bacteroidetes, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, and enterococci in the same specimens. Acceptable assay performance combined with the prevalence of DNA targets across different cattle populations provides experimental evidence that these quantitative assays will be useful in monitoring bovine fecal pollution in ambient waters. PMID:18065617

Shanks, Orin C.; Atikovic, Emina; Blackwood, A. Denene; Lu, Jingrang; Noble, Rachel T.; Domingo, Jorge Santo; Seifring, Shawn; Sivaganesan, Mano; Haugland, Richard A.

2008-01-01

259

Operation and Maintenance of Water Pollution Control Facilities: A WPCF White Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are the recommendations of the Water Pollution Control Federation for operation and maintenance consideration during the planning design, construction, and operation of wastewater treatment facilities. (CS)

Hill, William R.; And Others

1979-01-01

260

Daytime Water Detection Based on Sky Reflections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A water body s surface can be modeled as a horizontal mirror. Water detection based on sky reflections and color variation are complementary. A reflection coefficient model suggests sky reflections dominate the color of water at ranges > 12 meters. Water detection based on sky reflections: (1) geometrically locates the pixel in the sky that is reflecting on a candidate water pixel on the ground (2) predicts if the ground pixel is water based on color similarity and local terrain features. Water detection has been integrated on XUVs.

Rankin, Arturo; Matthies, Larry; Bellutta, Paolo

2011-01-01

261

75 FR 7627 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Notice is hereby given that on...pre-treatment requirements of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act), 40 CFR part 403 and 33...

2010-02-22

262

Remote sensing in the mixing zone. [water pollution in Wisconsin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characteristics of dispersion and diffusion as the mechanisms by which pollutants are transported in natural river courses were studied with the view of providing additional data for the establishment of water quality guidelines and effluent outfall design protocols. Work has been divided into four basic categories which are directed at the basic goal of developing relationships which will permit the estimation of the nature and extent of the mixing zone as a function of those variables which characterize the outfall structure, the effluent, and the river, as well as climatological conditions. The four basic categories of effort are: (1) the development of mathematical models; (2) laboratory studies of physical models; (3) field surveys involving ground and aerial sensing; and (4) correlation between aerial photographic imagery and mixing zone characteristics.

Villemonte, J. R.; Hoopes, J. A.; Wu, D. S.; Lillesand, T. M.

1973-01-01

263

Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.  

PubMed

Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1). For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1) (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

Van Dijk, Tessa C; Van Staalduinen, Marja A; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P

2013-01-01

264

Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid  

PubMed Central

Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P?=?0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l?1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l?1 (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

Van Dijk, Tessa C.; Van Staalduinen, Marja A.; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

2013-01-01

265

A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection in a chemical factory.  

PubMed

A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection was developed. It is based on the enhanced evaporation by using solar, wind and air temperature energy and additional heat-electric energy. It consists of four parts: (1) evaporation carrier system (evaporation carrier and frame for evaporation carrier) for polluted water; (2) polluted water circulating system (pumping-spraying-collecting); (3) heating system; (4) workshop with polluted water reservoir-tanks and rainfall prevention roof. The polluted water was (heated in case necessary) sprayed to the evaporation carrier system and the water was evaporated when it moved in the space and downward along the carrier mainly by using natural (solar, wind and air temperature energy). In case, when there is no roof for the carrier system, the polluted water can be stored in the reservoirs (storage volume for about 20 days). The first 10-25 mm rainfall also need to be stored in the reservoirs to meet the state standard for discharging wastewater. The dye may be collected at the surface in the reservoir-tanks and the crystallized salt may be collected at the bottom plate. The black-color wastewater released by the factory is no more discharged to the surface water system of Taihu Lake Basin. About 2 kg dye and 200 kg industrial salt may be collected from each tone of the polluted water. The non-pollution production of dye may be realized by using this technology with environmental, economical and social benefits. PMID:11590742

Pu, J P; Pu, P M; Hu, C H; Qian, J L; Pu, J X; Hua, J K

2001-04-01

266

Linking Near Real-Time Water Quality Measurements to Fecal Coliforms and Trace Organic Pollutants in Urban Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic pollutants, including pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, and estrogens are detected in urban water bodies. Effective examination of dilute organic and microbial pollutant loading rates within surface waters is currently prohibitively expensive and labor intensive. Effort is being placed on the development of improved monitoring methodologies to more accurately assess surface water quality and evaluate the effectiveness of water quality management practices. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008 a "real-time" wireless network equipped with high frequency fundamental water quality parameter sensors measured turbidity, conductivity, pH, depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen and nitrate above and below stormwater inputs at two urban stream locations. At each location one liter grab samples were concurrently collected by ISCO automatic samplers at two hour intervals for 24 hour durations during three dry periods and five rain events. Grab samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms, atrazine (agricultural herbicide), prometon (residential herbicide) and caffeine (wastewater indicator). Surrogate relationships between easy-to-measure water quality parameters and difficult-to-measure pollutants were developed, subsequently facilitating monitoring of these pollutants without the development of new, and likely costly, technologies. Additionally, comparisons were made between traditional grab sampling techniques and the "real-time" monitoring to assess the accuracy of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) calculations.

Henjum, M.; Wennen, C.; Hondzo, M.; Hozalski, R. M.; Novak, P. J.; Arnold, W. A.

2009-05-01

267

Citizens' guides to ocean and coastal law: Guide to laws regulating coastal water pollution  

SciTech Connect

The pamphlet is intended to help citizens, like those participating in water quality monitoring programs, who want to understand the complex nature of state, federal, and local laws that apply to the chief sources of coastal water pollution: point source pollution--pollution discharged from pipes which require state and federal permits; and nonpoint source pollution--generally unregulated runoff from agricultural operations and urban land uses, timber harvesting (silviculture), and construction activities. The pamphlet explains the legal standards and penalties established by coastal water quality laws so that citizens can better participate in the implementation and enforcement of these laws.

Not Available

1993-01-01

268

Farmers, Trust, and the Market Solution to Water Pollution: The Role of Social Embeddedness in Water Quality Trading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water quality trading (WQT) is a market arrangement in which a point-source water polluter pays farmers to implement conservation practices and claims the resulting benefits as credits toward meeting a pollution permit. Success rates of WQT programs nationwide are highly variable. Most of the literature on WQT is from an economic perspective…

Mariola, Matt J.

2012-01-01

269

Analysis of national water-pollution-control policies. 1. A national network model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the national implications of federal water-pollution-control policies, the authors developed a water-pollution-network model. This model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and bays. While the geographical scope of the model and existing data availability required make many simplifying assumptions,

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin; G. K. Young

1981-01-01

270

Trading pollution for water quality : assessing the effects of market-based instruments in three basins  

E-print Network

Since its passage in 1972, the majority of pollution reduction under the federal Clean Water Act has resulted from technology-based limits imposed on point source dischargers. However, most U.S. water bodies are unmonitored ...

Wallace, Katherine Hay

2007-01-01

271

Water pollution control: assessing the impacts and costs of environmental standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book addresses one of the key policy changes enacted into law by the Congress in 1972, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, that of requiring certain categories of industries and municipalities to meet pollution-discharge standards based on specific technology objectives regardless of the prior conditions or desired uses of the water. The procedures used to address

R. A. Luken; E. H. Pechan

1977-01-01

272

Political crisis and the politics of water pollution control in the 1970s  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigates the sociopolitical context and formation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1977 in light of the theory of the relative autonomy of the state. Data on state legitimacy and political crisis are derived from previous studies on public trust in government and business and the

Tsoukalas

1991-01-01

273

Feasibility study: Fuel cell cogeneration in a water pollution control facility, volume 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual design study was conducted to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of a cogeneration fuel cell power plant operating in a large water pollution control facility. In this particular application, the fuel cell power plant would use methane rich digester gas from the water pollution control facility as a fuel feedstock to provide electrical and thermal energy. Several

J. H. Hirschenhofer; D. B. Baillieul; L. M. Barton; R. J. Brumberg; C. E. Hannan; H. H. Fiedler; M. G. Kile; M. G. Klett; G. A. Malone; H. P. Milliron

1980-01-01

274

Federal environmental litigation in 1976: the Federal Water Pollution Control Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 forms a vital part of EPA's national battle against pollution. The general objective of the act, to ''restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters,'' will hopefully be achieved through the completion of specific goals set and carried out by EPA and the federal government. The application

K. M. Hunciker; V. Pagano

1976-01-01

275

WATER POLLUTION CAUSED BY INACTIVE ORE AND MINERAL MINES - A NATIONAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report identifies the scope and magnitude of water pollution from inactive ore and mineral mines. Data collected from Federal, State, and local agencies indicates water pollution from acids, heavy metals, and sedimentation occurs at over 100 locations and affects over 1200 ki...

276

Bacterial community composition in low-flowing river water with different sources of pollutants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pollution of water resources is a major risk to human health and water quality throughout the world. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of pollutant sources from agricultural activities, urban runoffs, and runoffs from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on bacterial communitie...

277

Getting Research-based Information on Water and Pollutants to Those Who Need It  

E-print Network

Getting Research-based Information on Water and Pollutants to Those Who Need It By Steve Ress Becoming a one-stop shop for information on watershed management and agricultural nonpoint source pollution is a goal of the Heartland Regional Water Quality Coordination Initiative. The new initiative, developed

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

278

Discrimination of source (human or animal) of fecal pollution of water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fecal pollution is a serious environmental problem that affects many coastal and inland waters worldwide. Both human and animal fecal pollution impose risks to human health from exposure to pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. To assist authorities with the implementation of the changes suggested by more restricted legislation concerning water quality in Europe, methods are needed which can identify more

Apostolos Vantarakis

279

DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS IN WATER MATRICES  

EPA Science Inventory

Since the advent and recognition of waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis great effort has been expended on development of methods for detecting Cryptosporidium oocysts in water. Oocysts recovery rates using a method originally developed for detecting Giardia cysts ranged fr...

280

Detecting river pollution using fluorescence spectrophotometry: case studies from the Ouseburn, NE England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in fluorescence spectrophotometry enable the analysis of river dissolved organic matter. We investigate the potential of detecting sewage pollution in a small, urbanised catchment. Downstream sampling highlighted a summer maximum in tryptophan fluorescence intensity during low flow. No correlation is observed between ammonia and tryptophan fluorescence intensity. In contrast, two sewage related point-pollution events had both high tryptophan

Andy Baker; Roger Inverarity; Martin Charlton; Susie Richmond

2003-01-01

281

A trading-ratio system for trading water pollution discharge permits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fact that water flows to the lowest level uni-directionally is a very specific and useful property of water. By utilizing this property, we design a trading-ratio system (TRS) of tradable discharge permits for water pollution control. Such a trading-ratio system has three main characteristics: (1) the zonal effluent cap is set by taking into account the water pollutant loads

Ming-Feng Hung; Daigee Shaw

2005-01-01

282

A Nonparametric Instrumental Variable Approach to Estimating the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollutants at the Global Level1  

E-print Network

for Water Pollutants at the Global Level1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lin,2 Krishna P. Paudel, Mahesh Pandit for Water Pollutants at the Global Level Abstract We examine the relationship between income and water pollutants using country- level global water quality data over the period 1980 to 2012. We include civil

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

283

A Nonparametric Instrumental Variable Approach to Estimating the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollutants at the Global Level  

E-print Network

for Water Pollutants at the Global Level Krishna P. Paudel1 , C.-Y. Cynthia Lin2 , Mahesh Pandit the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollutants at the Global Level Abstract We examine the relationship between income and water pollutants using country- level global water quality data over the period 1980

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

284

Water Source Pollution and Disease Diagnosis in a Nigerian Rural Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Samples from five water sources (spring, borehole, pond, stream, and well) in rural Nigerian communities were tested. Results include source reliabilities in terms of water quality and quantity, pollution effects upon water quality, epidemiological effects related to water quantity and waste disposal, and impact of water quality improvement upon…

Sangodoyin, A. Y.

1991-01-01

285

Daytime Water Detection Based on Sky Reflections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robust water detection is a critical perception requirement for unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) autonomous navigation. This is particularly true in wide-open areas where water can collect in naturally occurring terrain depressions during periods of heavy precipitation and form large water bodies. One of the properties of water useful for detecting it is that its surface acts as a horizontal mirror at large incidence angles. Water bodies can be indirectly detected by detecting reflections of the sky below the horizon in color imagery. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has implemented a water detector based on sky reflections that geometrically locates the pixel in the sky that is reflecting on a candidate water pixel on the ground and predicts if the ground pixel is water based on color similarity and local terrain features. This software detects water bodies in wide-open areas on cross-country terrain at mid- to far-range using imagery acquired from a forward-looking stereo pair of color cameras mounted on a terrestrial UGV. In three test sequences approaching a pond under a clear, overcast, and cloudy sky, the true positive detection rate was 100% when the UGV was beyond 7 meters of the water's leading edge and the largest false positive detection rate was 0.58%. The sky reflection based water detector has been integrated on an experimental unmanned vehicle and field tested at Ft. Indiantown Gap, PA, USA.

Rankin, Arturo L.; Matthies, Larry H.; Bellutta, Paolo

2011-01-01

286

Pollution detection in Lake Champlain using ERTS-1 imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. A major waste water discharge plume generated by a large paper mill along the New York shore of Lake Champlain was visually detected on ERTS-1 imagery. The plume is best displayed in 9.5 inch positive transparencies of MSS bands 4 and 5. Observation of the magnitude and extent of this plume is feasible, under magnification of 4 times. The chemical parameters of this plume have been documented by limnological studies. An enhancement technique useful for documenting the presence of waste water discharge plumes in Lake Champlain utilizes Polaroid MP-3 copy camera equipment and Spectral Data Corporation's multispectral viewer. The 9.5 inch, ERTS-1, positive transparency is enlarged using the Polaroid MP-3 copy camera to produce an enlarged lantern slide size positive transparency. These are projected through the multispectral viewer for enhancement and the scene is viewed directly on the screen or copied by an additional photographic step. The technique is simple and produces rapid results.

Lind, A. O. (principal investigator); Henson, E. B.

1972-01-01

287

INFLUENCE OF DIET ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BOVINE FECAL POLLUTION DETECTION METHODS AND MICROBIAL POPULATION STRUCTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT Background and Aims. Waterborne diseases originating from bovine fecal material are a significant public health issue. Ensuring water quality requires the use of methods that can consistently identify pollution across a broad range of management practices. One practi...

288

Fluoroquinolones and qnr genes in sediment, water, soil, and human fecal flora in an environment polluted by manufacturing discharges.  

PubMed

There is increasing concern that environmental antibiotic pollution promotes transfer of resistance genes to the human microbiota. Here, fluoroquinolone-polluted river sediment, well water, irrigated farmland, and human fecal flora of local villagers within a pharmaceutical industrial region in India were analyzed for quinolone resistance (qnr) genes by quantitative PCR. Similar samples from Indian villages farther away from industrial areas, as well as fecal samples from Swedish study participants and river sediment from Sweden, were included for comparison. Fluoroquinolones were detected by MS/MS in well water and soil from all villages located within three km from industrially polluted waterways. Quinolone resistance genes were detected in 42% of well water, 7% of soil samples and in 100% and 18% of Indian and Swedish river sediments, respectively. High antibiotic concentrations in Indian sediment coincided with high abundances of qnr, whereas lower fluoroquinolone levels in well water and soil did not. We could not find support for an enrichment of qnr in fecal samples from people living in the fluoroquinolone-contaminated villages. However, as qnr was detected in 91% of all Indian fecal samples (24% of the Swedish) it suggests that the spread of qnr between people is currently a dominating transmission route. PMID:24988042

Rutgersson, Carolin; Fick, Jerker; Marathe, Nachiket; Kristiansson, Erik; Janzon, Anders; Angelin, Martin; Johansson, Anders; Shouche, Yogesh; Flach, Carl-Fredrik; Larsson, D G Joakim

2014-07-15

289

Detection of particulate air pollution plumes from major point sources using ERTS-1 imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) launched by NASA in July 1972 has been providing thousands of high resolution multispectral images of interest to geographers, cartographers, hydrologists, and agroculturists. It has been found possible to detect the long-range (over 50 km) transport of suspected particulate plumes from the Chicago-Gary steel mill complex over Lake Michigan. The observed plumes are readily related to known steel mills, a cement plant, refineries, and fossil-fuel power plants. This has important ramifications when discussing the interregional transport of atmospheric pollutants. Analysis reveals that the Multispectral Scanner Band 5 (0.6 to 0.7 micrometer) provides the best overall contrast between the smoke and the underlying water surface.

Lyons, W. A.; Pease, S. R.

1973-01-01

290

Effects of Abandoned Arsenic Mine on Water Resources Pollution in North West of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Pollution due to mining activities could have an important role in health and welfare of people who are living in mining area. When mining operation finishes, environ­ment of mining area can be influenced by related pollution e.g. heavy metals emission to wa­ter resources. The present study was aimed to evaluate Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine ef­fects on drinking water resources quality and possible health effects on the residents of min­ing area in the North West of Iran. Methods: Water samples and some limited composite wheat samples in downstream of min­ing area were collected. Water samples were analyzed for chemical parameters according to standard methods. For determination of arsenic in water samples, Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Method (GFAAS) and for wheat samples X – Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Method (ICP) were used. Information about possible health effects due to exposure to arsenic was collected through interviews in studied villages and health center of Herris City. Results: The highest concentrations of arsenic were measured near the mine (as high as 2000 µg/L in Valiloo mine opening water). With increasing distance from the mine, concentration was decreased. Arsenic was not detectable in any of wheat samples. Fortunately, no health effects had been reported between residents of studied area due to exposure to arsenic. Conclusion: Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine has caused release of arsenic to the around en­vironment of the mine, so arsenic concentration has been increased in the groundwater and also downstream river that requires proper measures to mitigate spread of arsenic. PMID:24688901

Hajalilou, Behzad; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Khaleghi, Fazel; Jadidi, Sakineh; Vosugh, Bahram; Fatehifar, Esmail

2011-01-01

291

Deposition of air pollutants to the great waters. First report to Congress  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Great Waters program is to evaluate the atmospheric deposition of air pollutants to the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, Chesapeake Bay, and coastal waters. The report to Congress is to include information on the contribution of atmospheric deposition to pollutant loadings, the environmental or public health effects of such pollution, the source or sources of such pollution, and a description of any regulatory revisions under applicable Federal laws that may be necessary to assure protection of human health and the environment. The scientific information currently available is summarized in this report, and recommended actions are described.

Not Available

1994-05-01

292

Paying for Pollution: Water Quality and Effluent Charges. Proceedings from a Conference (Chicago, Illinois, May 19, 1977).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication gives the proceedings from a 1977 conference sponsored by the Conservation Foundation. Participants discuss the appropriate means to control water pollution, emphasizing the use of effluent charges as economic incentive for polluters to clean up their waters. (MA)

Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC.

293

Optical detection of oil on water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three radiometric techniques utilizing sunlight reflected and backscattered from water bodies have potential application for remote sensing of oil spills. Oil on water can be detected by viewing perpendicular polarization component of reflected light or difference between polarization components. Best detection is performed in ultraviolet or far-red portions of spectrum and in azimuth directions toward or opposite sun.

Millard, J. P.; Arvesen, J. C.

1973-01-01

294

Water Detection Based on Color Variation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This software has been designed to detect water bodies that are out in the open on cross-country terrain at close range (out to 30 meters), using imagery acquired from a stereo pair of color cameras mounted on a terrestrial, unmanned ground vehicle (UGV). This detector exploits the fact that the color variation across water bodies is generally larger and more uniform than that of other naturally occurring types of terrain, such as soil and vegetation. Non-traversable water bodies, such as large puddles, ponds, and lakes, are detected based on color variation, image intensity variance, image intensity gradient, size, and shape. At ranges beyond 20 meters, water bodies out in the open can be indirectly detected by detecting reflections of the sky below the horizon in color imagery. But at closer range, the color coming out of a water body dominates sky reflections, and the water cue from sky reflections is of marginal use. Since there may be times during UGV autonomous navigation when a water body does not come into a perception system s field of view until it is at close range, the ability to detect water bodies at close range is critical. Factors that influence the perceived color of a water body at close range are the amount and type of sediment in the water, the water s depth, and the angle of incidence to the water body. Developing a single model of the mixture ratio of light reflected off the water surface (to the camera) to light coming out of the water body (to the camera) for all water bodies would be fairly difficult. Instead, this software detects close water bodies based on local terrain features and the natural, uniform change in color that occurs across the surface from the leading edge to the trailing edge.

Rankin, Arturo L.

2012-01-01

295

EFFECT OF COLLISIONAL LIFETIME IN OPTOACOUSTIC DETECTION OF POLLUTANT GASES  

EPA Science Inventory

The optoacoustic technique shows promise for pollution monitoring due to its small size and high sensitivity. This technique is fundamentally different from most spectroscopy in that absorbed energy is measured indirectly as a pressure change in the surrounding gas. Not all the a...

296

An application of Landsat and computer technology to potential water pollution from soil erosion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Agricultural activity has been recognized as the primary source of nonpoint source water pollution. Water quality planners have needed information that is timely, accurate, easily reproducible, and relatively inexpensive to utilize to implement 'Best Management Practices' for water quality. In this paper, a case study shows how the combination of satellite data, which can give accurate land-cover/land-use information, and a computerized geographic information system, can assess nonpoint pollution at a regional scale and be cost effective.

Campbell, W. J.

1981-01-01

297

Observed Increase of TTL Temperature and Water Vapor in Polluted Couds over Asia  

SciTech Connect

Aerosols can affect cloud particle size and lifetime, which impacts precipitation, radiation and climate. Previous studies1-4 suggested that reduced ice cloud particle size and fall speed due to the influence of aerosols may increase evaporation of ice crystals and/or cloud radiative heating in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), leading to higher water vapor abundance in air entering the stratosphere. Observational substantiation of such processes is still lacking. Here, we analyze new observations from multiple NASA satellites to show the imprint of pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. We focus our analysis on the highly-polluted South and East Asia region during boreal summer. We find that "polluted" ice clouds have smaller ice effective radius than "clean" clouds. In the TTL, the polluted clouds are associated with warmer temperature and higher specific humidity than the clean clouds. The water vapor difference between the polluted and clean clouds cannot be explained by other meteorological factors, such as updraft and detrainment strength. Therefore, the observed higher water vapor entry value into the stratosphere in the polluted clouds than in the clean clouds is likely a manifestation of aerosol pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. Given the radiative and chemical importance of stratospheric water vapor, the increasing emission of aerosols over Asia may have profound impacts on stratospheric chemistry and global energy balance and water cycle.

Su, Hui; Jiang, Jonathan; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, J.; Read, William G.; Massie, Steven T.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Colarco, Peter; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Santee, Michelle L.

2011-06-01

298

Water Detection and Removal From Shuttle Tiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current methods for detecting and removing water from the Space Shuttle tiles have proved inadequate in cases of excessive water exposure. This paper describes two new tools that are currently being introduced to Shuttle processing to supplement the existing methods. A capacitive device has been developed to augment the IR camera method of detecting water in the tiles and a vacuum pump system is being tested as a likely replacement to the heat lamps currently used to dry wet tiles.

Youngquist, Robert C.

2003-01-01

299

Hydrochemical evaluation of surface water quality and pollution source apportionment in the Luan River basin, China.  

PubMed

In the context of rapid economic growth in China, hydrochemical characteristics of stream water quality are being influenced by a variety of natural and anthropogenic inputs. We determined 10 hydrochemical parameters of the surface water at 29 monitoring sites in the Luan River basin of northern China during 2007-2009. Water quality hydrochemistry was evaluated using fuzzy comprehensive analysis based on the National Surface Water Environmental Quality Standards of China. Our results showed that 14 sites were classified as 'meeting standard (MS)' while the other 15 sites were classified 'non-meeting standard (NS)'. According to principal component analysis, four potential pollution sources were identified that explained 80.6% of the total variance among these MS sites, and three potential pollution sources that explained 78.3% of the total variance among these NS sites. Furthermore, multi-linear regression of the absolute principal component scores was used to estimate contributions from identified pollution sources. Most water pollution variables were influenced primarily by municipal sewage and non-point pollution in MS sites. In NS sites, chemical industry wastewater pollution dominated. Pollution in the main stream was more serious than that in the small tributaries. Our findings provide useful information for developing better pollution control strategies for the Luan River. PMID:22105137

Wang, Huiliang; Li, Xuyong; Xie, Ying

2011-01-01

300

40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water. 129.6 Section 129.6 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS TOXIC POLLUTANT EFFLUENT STANDARDS...presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water. (a) Upon the request of...

2014-07-01

301

23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are included in...

2011-04-01

302

23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are included in...

2010-04-01

303

23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are included in...

2013-04-01

304

23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are included in...

2014-04-01

305

Uniqueness for an ill-posed reaction-dispersion model. Application to organic pollution in stream-waters  

E-print Network

Uniqueness for an ill-posed reaction-dispersion model. Application to organic pollution in stream-waters waters. The sources we consider are point-wise and simulate stationary or moving pollution sources to measure the pollution extent due to organic agents and then to evaluate the water characteristics. Another

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

306

23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are included in...

2012-04-01

307

Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: Progresses and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental pollution affects the quality of pedosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Great efforts\\u000a have been made in the last two decades to reduce pollution sources and remedy the polluted soil and water resources. Phytoremediation,\\u000a being more cost-effective and fewer side effects than physical and chemical approaches, has gained increasing popularity in\\u000a both academic and practical circles. More than 400

Mohammad Iqbal Lone; Zhen-li He; Peter J. Stoffella; Xiao-e Yang

2008-01-01

308

Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 2. Agricultural sediment control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of a national water network model permits an analysis of the likely affects of agricultural sediment control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier assessments concluded that agriculture-related pollution problems are widespread and ubiquitous, this analysis concludes that it is probably more efficient to focus sediment-related pollution control policies on about one third of the nation's agricultural regions.

Gianessi, Leonard P.; Peskin, Henry M.

1981-08-01

309

Implementation of intergovernmental regulatory programs: Section 402 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops and tests a theoretical framework for the study of the process by which intergovernmental regulatory policies are implemented. The framework is applied to the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program of the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. The general question addressed is why some states have the authority to implement intergovernmental regulatory

Wassenberg

1985-01-01

310

Experimental study of effectiveness of nonpoint source water pollution control group contract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this experimental study was to test an effectiveness of a group contract designed to control nonpoint source water pollution from farms' runoff (Pushkarskaya 2003). In particular, the regulator pays for pollution reduction credits earned by the group of the farmers, who voluntary enter the contract, and is concerned only with the total level of the abatement achieved,

Helen N. Pushkarskaya; Hal Arkes; Jason Pieratt; Ibrahim Bamba

2005-01-01

311

State-of-art review: water pollution control benefits and costs. Volume I  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey and assessment are presented of the state-of-art of economic ; analyses dealing with water pollution control benefits and costs. The ; investigation includes the extension of traditional benefit cost analysis into ; the area of pollution control. Implications for planning and research plus some ; directions of needed study are also developed. A conceptual basis for benefit ;

S. G. Unger; M. J. Emerson; D. L. Jordening

1973-01-01

312

Making Water Pollution a Problem in the Classroom Through Computer Assisted Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternative means for dealing with water pollution control are presented for students and teachers. One computer oriented program is described in terms of teaching wastewater treatment and pollution concepts to middle and secondary school students. Suggestions are given to help teachers use a computer simulation program in their classrooms.…

Flowers, John D.

313

An information Grid-based model for sharing water pollution control and prevention technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though water pollution control and prevention technologies have made a great progress, most polluting enterprises even have never heard of them, not to mention use them. So we design an technologies sharing model based on information Grid, and focus our discussion on the process of searching and invoking the wanted technologies with mobile agents.

Wang Minghu; Gao Zhenji; Xu Chunlian; Huang Haiming

2010-01-01

314

Waste water treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment of industrial pollutants. The use and effectiveness of biological treatments and carbon additives are examined. References also discuss problems and recommendations for the removal of mercury and its compounds, fertilizers, and pesticides from polluted waste water. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-05-01

315

Oil Palm Biomass–Based Adsorbents for the Removal of Water Pollutants—A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a review on the role of oil palm biomass (trunks, fronds, leaves, empty fruit bunches, shells, etc.) as adsorbents in the removal of water pollutants such as acid and basic dyes, heavy metals, phenolic compounds, various gaseous pollutants, and so on. Numerous studies on adsorption properties of various low-cost adsorbents, such as agricultural wastes and its based

TANWEER AHMAD; MOHD RAFATULLAH; ARNIZA GHAZALI; OTHMAN SULAIMAN; ROKIAH HASHIM

2011-01-01

316

ANALYSIS OF EXTRACTABLE PRIORITY POLLUTANTS IN WATER BY GC/MS  

EPA Science Inventory

Following the June 1976 Consent Decree (NRDC et al. vs. EPA), there has been a continuously increasing demand for the analysis of water samples for the 129 priority pollutants. The protocol originally designed for the analysis of the priority pollutants that are extractable into ...

317

An Instructors Guide to Water Pollution. Test Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems, No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of several study guides on contemporary problems produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science with support of the National Science Foundation. This study guide on water pollution includes the following units: (1) Overview of World Pollution; (2) History, Definition, Criteria; (3) Ecosystem Theory; (4) Biological…

Kidd, David E.

318

Field Studies for Key Stage 4 on Mine Water Pollution: A University and Museum Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how a university and a museum have worked together to create a "How science works" workshop entitled "What's in our water?" The workshop teaches students about the continuing pollution from a disused coal mine, how the pollution is cleaned up using a state-of-the-art treatment works and how…

Hopwood, Jeremy D.; Berry, Stuart D.; Ambrose, Jayne L.

2013-01-01

319

Diversity as a measure of benthic macroinvertebrate community response to water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assumption that water pollution causes a depression in the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates as measured by the Shannon index and similar diversity indices is questioned. An interpretation of the community response of benthic macroinvertebrates to pollution in the Millers River, Massachusetts is developed from species presence-absence and abundance data in conjunction with published information on the species' environmental tolerances

Paul J. Godfrey

1978-01-01

320

Water pollution abatement by Chinese industry: cost estimates and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factory-level data are used to estimate water pollution abatement costs for Chinese industry. Joint abatement cost functions are utilized which relate total costs to treatment volume and the simultaneous effect of reductions in suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand and other pollutants. Tests of alternative functional forms suggest that a very simple (constant elasticity) model fits the data

Susmita Dasgupta; Mainul Huq; David Wheeler; Chonghua Zhang

2001-01-01

321

Pay Attention to Rural NonPoint Source Pollution, Guarantee the Security of Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of agricultural modernization in China great changes have taken place in the rural economy visage. But subsequently various pollution problems emerge out more frequently and especially because of the aggravating non-point source pollution the safety of drinking water in the vast rural areas has suffered a lot from severe threats which is drawing more and more

Jingdong Zhang; Yuan Zhou; Jiawen Wang

2009-01-01

322

Sequestration of priority pollutant PAHs from sediment pore water employing semipermeable membrane devices  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were employed to sample sediment pore water in static exposure studies under controlled laboratory conditions using (control pond and formulated) sediments fortified with 15 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPPAHs). The sediment fortification level of 750 ng/g was selected on the basis of what might be detected in a sediment sample from a contaminated area. The sampling interval consisted of 0, 4, 7, 14, and 28 days for each study. The analytical methodologies, as well as the extraction and sample cleanup procedures used in the isolation, characterization, and quantitation of 15 PPPAHs at different fortification levels in SPMDs, water, and sediment were reported previously (Williamson, M.S. Thesis, University of Missouri - Columbia, USA; Williamson et al., Chemosphere (This issue - PII: S0045-6535(02)00394-6)) and used for this project. Average (mean) extraction recoveries for each PPPAH congener in each matrix are reported and discussed. No procedural blank extracts (controls) were found to contain any PPPAH residues above the method quantitation limit, therefore, no matrix interferences were detected. The focus of this publication is to demonstrate the ability to sequester environmental contaminants, specifically PPPAHs, from sediment pore water using SPMDs and two different types of fortified sediment.

Williamson, K.S.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Lebo, J.A.; Kaiser, E.M.

2002-01-01

323

Raman Scattering of Water and Photoluminescence of Pollutants Arising from Solid-Water Interaction  

E-print Network

Systematic Raman experiments performed on water and water-ethanol samples, stored in different containers (fused silica, polypropylene, soda-lime glass type III) for several hours, have shown that the luminescence contribution to the Raman signal fluctuations is directly related to the container composition. Intensity fluctuations as large as 98%, have been observed in the spectral regions corresponding to the both water intramolecular and intermolecular vibrations, despite the fact that the wavenumbers of the modes remained unchanged. We undoubtedly attribute these fluctuations to a luminescence phenomenon on the basis of : i) the absence of such effect in the anti-Stokes domain, ii) its dependence on the excitation laser wavelength, iii) other relevant photoluminescence experiments. This luminescence is attributed to pollutants at ultra-low concentration coming from the different containers.

Vallée, P; Ghomi, M; Jouanne, M; Vall\\'{e}e, Philippe; Lafait, Jacques; Ghomi, Mahmoud; Jouanne, Michel

2003-01-01

324

Impact of land-use on water pollution in a rapidly urbanizing catchment in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many catchments in developing countries are undergoing fast urbanization which is usually characterized by population increase, economic growth as well as drastic changes of land-use from natural/rural to urban area. During the urbanization process, some catchments experience water quality deterioration due to rapid increase of pollution loads. Nonpoint source pollution resulting from storm water runoff has been recognized as one of the major causes of pollutants in many cities in developing countries. The composition of land-use for a rapidly urbanizing catchment is usually heterogeneous, and this may result in significant spatial variations of storm runoff pollution and increase the difficulties of water quality management in the catchment. The Shiyan Reservoir catchment, a typical rapidly urbanizing area in China, is chosen as the study area, and temporary monitoring sites were set at the outlets of its 6 sub-catchments to synchronously measured rainfall, runoff and water quality during 4 storm events. Three indicators, event pollutant loads per unit area (EPL), event mean concentration (EMC) and pollutant loads transported by the first 50% of runoff volume (FF50), were used to describe the runoff pollution for different pollutants (such as COD, BOD, NH3-N, TN, TP and SS) in each sub-catchment during the storm events; and the correlations between runoff pollution spatial variations and land-use patterns were tested by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The results indicated that similar spatial variation trends were found for different pollutants (EPL or EMC) in light storm events, which strongly correlate with the proportion of residential land-use; however, they have different trends in heavy storm events, which correlate with the different proportional combination of residential, industrial, agricultural and bare land-use. It is also shown that it is necessary to consider some pervious land-use types in runoff pollution monitoring or management for a rapidly urbanizing area, particularly in heavy storm.

Khu, Soon-Thiam; Qin, Huapeng

2010-05-01

325

Electronic-nose for detecting environmental pollutants: signal processing and analog front-end design  

E-print Network

Electronic-nose for detecting environmental pollutants: signal processing and analog front February 2011 / Accepted: 24 March 2011 / Published online: 11 April 2011 Ã? Springer Science+Business Media algorithms are used for analyte detection and the comparative results are presented. Keywords Electronic nose

326

Remote detection of air pollution stress to vegetation - Laboratory-level studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of the role of leaf chemistry, anatomy, moisture content, and canopy density on spectral reflectance in healthy and pollution stressed western conifer needles and broad-leafed species of California coastal sage scrub is presented. Acid mist at a level of pH 2.0 is found to more severely effect chlorophyll loss and leaf death than ozone at a level of 0.2 ppm for a four-week period. Both pollutants cause water loss, affecting Bands 4 and 5 in nonlinear ways. The infrared bands initially rise as free water is lost, and subsequently, scattering and reflectance decline. The net effect is shown to be a reduction in TM 4/3 and a rise in TM 5/4 with pollution stress. Under more severe pollution stresses, the decline of leaf area indices due to accelerated leaf drop accentuates the expected TM 4/3 and TM 5/4 changes.

Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

1987-01-01

327

A Microbial Signature Approach to Identify Fecal Pollution in the Waters Off an Urbanized Coast of Lake Michigan  

PubMed Central

Urban coasts receive watershed drainage from ecosystems that include highly developed lands with sewer and stormwater infrastructure. In these complex ecosystems, coastal waters are often contaminated with fecal pollution, where multiple delivery mechanisms that often contain multiple fecal sources make it difficult to mitigate the pollution. Here, we exploit bacterial community sequencing of the V6 and V6V4 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to identify bacterial distributions that signal the presence of sewer, fecal, and human fecal pollution. The sequences classified to three sewer infrastructure-associated bacterial genera, Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, and Trichococcus, and five fecal-associated bacterial families, Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae, served as signatures of sewer and fecal contamination, respectively. The human fecal signature was determined with the Bayesian source estimation program SourceTracker, which we applied to a set of 40 sewage influent samples collected in Milwaukee, WI, USA to identify operational taxonomic units (?97 % identity) that were most likely of human fecal origin. During periods of dry weather, the magnitudes of all three signatures were relatively low in Milwaukee's urban rivers and harbor and nearly zero in Lake Michigan. However, the relative contribution of the sewer and fecal signature frequently increased to >2 % of the measured surface water communities following sewer overflows. Also during combined sewer overflows, the ratio of the human fecal pollution signature to the fecal pollution signature in surface waters was generally close to that of sewage, but this ratio decreased dramatically during dry weather and rain events, suggesting that nonhuman fecal pollution was the dominant source during these weather-driven scenarios. The qPCR detection of two human fecal indicators, human Bacteroides and Lachno2, confirmed the urban fecal footprint in this ecosystem extends to at least 8 km offshore. PMID:23475306

Newton, Ryan J.; Bootsma, Melinda J.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Sogin, Mitchell L.

2014-01-01

328

A microbial signature approach to identify fecal pollution in the waters off an urbanized coast of Lake Michigan.  

PubMed

Urban coasts receive watershed drainage from ecosystems that include highly developed lands with sewer and stormwater infrastructure. In these complex ecosystems, coastal waters are often contaminated with fecal pollution, where multiple delivery mechanisms that often contain multiple fecal sources make it difficult to mitigate the pollution. Here, we exploit bacterial community sequencing of the V6 and V6V4 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to identify bacterial distributions that signal the presence of sewer, fecal, and human fecal pollution. The sequences classified to three sewer infrastructure-associated bacterial genera, Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, and Trichococcus, and five fecal-associated bacterial families, Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae, served as signatures of sewer and fecal contamination, respectively. The human fecal signature was determined with the Bayesian source estimation program SourceTracker, which we applied to a set of 40 sewage influent samples collected in Milwaukee, WI, USA to identify operational taxonomic units (? 97 % identity) that were most likely of human fecal origin. During periods of dry weather, the magnitudes of all three signatures were relatively low in Milwaukee's urban rivers and harbor and nearly zero in Lake Michigan. However, the relative contribution of the sewer and fecal signature frequently increased to > 2 % of the measured surface water communities following sewer overflows. Also during combined sewer overflows, the ratio of the human fecal pollution signature to the fecal pollution signature in surface waters was generally close to that of sewage, but this ratio decreased dramatically during dry weather and rain events, suggesting that nonhuman fecal pollution was the dominant source during these weather-driven scenarios. The qPCR detection of two human fecal indicators, human Bacteroides and Lachno2, confirmed the urban fecal footprint in this ecosystem extends to at least 8 km offshore. PMID:23475306

Newton, Ryan J; Bootsma, Melinda J; Morrison, Hilary G; Sogin, Mitchell L; McLellan, Sandra L

2013-05-01

329

Integrated planning for water quality management: The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 and Coastal Zone Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments were enacted by Congress in response to the severe water quality problems our nation has been experiencing. Section 208 of the Amendments establishes regional planning for water quality management as being necessary and provides strong incentives for states and municipalities to implement the Section's requirements. Section 208 planning is the subject of this

Allayaud

1980-01-01

330

Cure for the nation`s water pollution problem: Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses federal and state implementation of the water quality-based strategy. It focuses on the development and implementation of water quality standards-based limitations (namely, total maximum daily loads or TMDLs) under section 303(d). It addresses the impact of such limitations on entities and activities that generate water pollution.

McCune, J.F.

1998-08-31

331

75 FR 43554 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (“Clean Water...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (``Clean Water Act'') Notice is hereby given that on July...Defendants violated Sections 301 and 308 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311 and 1318, at...

2010-07-26

332

The extent of chronic marine oil pollution in southeastern Newfoundland waters assessed through beached  

E-print Network

The extent of chronic marine oil pollution in southeastern Newfoundland waters assessed through fingerprinting; Oil Vulnerability Index 1. Introduction Oil enters the marine environment from land runoff, natural seeps, vessels, pipelines and offshore exploration and production platforms (Clark, 1992; Schmidt

Jones, Ian L.

333

Setting Up a Special Collection on Water Pollution in a University Library  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The establishment of a special collection within the university library, the complexities of identifying and collecting reports in the environmental area, locating agencies concerned with water pollution, and recording the location of other local collections of data are described. (Author)

Friedlander, Janet

1974-01-01

334

Selenium detected in fish otoliths: a novel tracer for a polluted lake?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test if otoliths can be used to track fish migration in polluted areas, fish sampled from Onondaga Lake, heavily polluted\\u000a with mercury, were used in an assay to determine whether mercury was detectable in the fishes’ otoliths using synchrotron-based\\u000a scanning X-ray fluorescence microscopy (SXFM). Mercury was undetectable, but selenium, rarely reported in otoliths and known\\u000a as a physiological antagonist

Karin E. Limburg; Aude Lochet; Debra Driscoll; Darren S. Dale; Rong Huang

2010-01-01

335

Industry sector analysis Canada: Water pollution control equipment and instrumentation. Export trade information  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. suppliers of water pollution control equipment are in a prime position to benefit from Canadian industries' needs to modernize equipment in order to comply with tough, new legislation to control water pollution. In selling to the Canadian market, U.S. suppliers clearly benefit from the advantages of advanced technical know-how, proximity to the market, and reduced tariffs under the U.S.-Canada

T. Bryan; S. Lee

1992-01-01

336

Pollution Status of Surface Water Resources in Arid Region of Rajasthan (india)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present investigation deals with the evaluation of DO, BOD and COD of six surface water resources of Bikaner district which fall in arid region of Rajasthan - a part of Great Indian Desert, to determine pollution status. Water sample analysed for two years 2008-2009 showed these parameters beyond the limit of standard prescribed by WHO. These parameters also showed great seasonal fluctuation, indicating the degree of organic pollution more during summer season and least during winter season.

Kachhawa, Chanchal

337

Assessment of water quality of polluted lake using multivariate statistical techniques: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariate statistical techniques, cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to the data on water quality of Manchar Lake (Pakistan), generated during 2005–06, with monitoring at five different sites for 36 parameters. This study evaluated and interpreted complex water quality data sets and apportioned of pollution sources to get better information about water quality and to design

T. G. Kazi; M. B. Arain; M. K. Jamali; N. Jalbani; H. I. Afridi; R. A. Sarfraz; J. A. Baig; Abdul Q. Shah

2009-01-01

338

9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

(a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited to flood water) in an official establishment, all products and ingredients for use in the preparation of such products that have been rendered adulterated by the water shall be...

2011-01-01

339

Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 2. Agricultural sediment control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of a national water network model permits an analysis of the likely affects of agricultural sediment control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin

1981-01-01

340

The effect of water pollution control regulations on the cost of production of electric power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of water pollution control regulations, such as those outlined in 1972 FWPCA Amendments, on production costs in the electric utility industry are examined. The use of water by electric utilities, and the impact that water regulations will have on those uses are discussed. The production process of electric utilities is discussed, and a cost function from a cross-section

T. A. Deyak; A. N. Link

1979-01-01

341

How much water can pollution aerosols hold in the cloud by  

E-print Network

How much water can pollution aerosols hold in the cloud by suppressing warm rain Daniel Rosenfeld) aerosols. #12;Small CCN aerosols have been known for 50 years to slow down the conversion of cloud water.7ºC Hyderabad, India 22 June 2009 #12;Growing Mature DissipatingHail 0°C #12;How much water can

Einat, Aharonov

342

A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume II - Appendices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of water pollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…

Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

343

Analysis of national water-pollution-control policies. 2. Agricultural sediment control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national water network model is used to analyze the likely effects of agricultural sediment-control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier assessments concluded that

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin

1981-01-01

344

Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process  

E-print Network

Abstract: The study investigates water quality pollution impacts on urbanization by analyzing temporal and spatial characteristics of different water quality parameters, and simulating economic loss of water quality pollution in Xi’an, China from 1996 to 2003. Results show that organic pollutants were the greatest contributors of surface water quality pollution from 1996 to 2003. High values existed in petroleum concentration, chemical oxygen demand index ?KMnO4?, biochemical oxygen demand index, and phenol concentration, followed by nitrogen concentration ?TN and NH3-N?. From spatial analysis in different buffers from central urban area ?inner buffers: 1–5 km; central buffers: 5–10 km; outer buffers: ?10 km?, socioeconomic activities such as business activities, car transportation, industry factories, agriculture practices, and households were likely to lead to different behaviors of water quality parameters in nature. Results also reveal that both surface and ground water quality improved gradually after enforcement of control measures within the 7 years from 1996 to 2003. It shows the total economic loss, including cost of water use and supply, agriculture economic loss, ecosystem conservation costs, and economic loss of human health, reached $1.12?10 9 from 1996 to 2003, which increased $1.79?10 7 from $1.26?10 8 in 1996 to $1.46?10 8 in 2003. However, economic loss of water quality pollution increased while water quality pollution alleviated in the past years. This can be explained by more intensive social activities in broader regions, more populations were moved from rural area into urban area, and more costs were input in water quality pollution treatment.

unknown authors

345

Sunscreen products as emerging pollutants to coastal waters.  

PubMed

A growing awareness of the risks associated with skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation over the past decades has led to increased use of sunscreen cosmetic products leading the introduction of new chemical compounds in the marine environment. Although coastal tourism and recreation are the largest and most rapidly growing activities in the world, the evaluation of sunscreen as source of chemicals to the coastal marine system has not been addressed. Concentrations of chemical UV filters included in the formulation of sunscreens, such as benzophehone 3 (BZ-3), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), TiO? and ZnO, are detected in nearshore waters with variable concentrations along the day and mainly concentrated in the surface microlayer (i.e. 53.6-577.5 ng L?¹ BZ-3; 51.4-113.4 ng L?¹ 4-MBC; 6.9-37.6 µg L?¹ Ti; 1.0-3.3 µg L?¹ Zn). The presence of these compounds in seawater suggests relevant effects on phytoplankton. Indeed, we provide evidences of the negative effect of sunblocks on the growth of the commonly found marine diatom Chaetoceros gracilis (mean EC???=?125±71 mg L?¹). Dissolution of sunscreens in seawater also releases inorganic nutrients (N, P and Si forms) that can fuel algal growth. In particular, PO?³? is released by these products in notable amounts (up to 17 µmol PO?³?g?¹). We conservatively estimate an increase of up to 100% background PO?³? concentrations (0.12 µmol L?¹ over a background level of 0.06 µmol L?¹) in nearshore waters during low water renewal conditions in a populated beach in Majorca island. Our results show that sunscreen products are a significant source of organic and inorganic chemicals that reach the sea with potential ecological consequences on the coastal marine ecosystem. PMID:23755233

Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Sánchez-Quiles, David; Basterretxea, Gotzon; Benedé, Juan L; Chisvert, Alberto; Salvador, Amparo; Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio; Blasco, Julián

2013-01-01

346

Sunscreen Products as Emerging Pollutants to Coastal Waters  

PubMed Central

A growing awareness of the risks associated with skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation over the past decades has led to increased use of sunscreen cosmetic products leading the introduction of new chemical compounds in the marine environment. Although coastal tourism and recreation are the largest and most rapidly growing activities in the world, the evaluation of sunscreen as source of chemicals to the coastal marine system has not been addressed. Concentrations of chemical UV filters included in the formulation of sunscreens, such as benzophehone 3 (BZ-3), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), TiO2 and ZnO, are detected in nearshore waters with variable concentrations along the day and mainly concentrated in the surface microlayer (i.e. 53.6–577.5 ng L-1 BZ-3; 51.4–113.4 ng L-1 4-MBC; 6.9–37.6 µg L-1 Ti; 1.0–3.3 µg L-1 Zn). The presence of these compounds in seawater suggests relevant effects on phytoplankton. Indeed, we provide evidences of the negative effect of sunblocks on the growth of the commonly found marine diatom Chaetoceros gracilis (mean EC50?=?125±71 mg L-1). Dissolution of sunscreens in seawater also releases inorganic nutrients (N, P and Si forms) that can fuel algal growth. In particular, PO43? is released by these products in notable amounts (up to 17 µmol PO43? g?1). We conservatively estimate an increase of up to 100% background PO43? concentrations (0.12 µmol L-1 over a background level of 0.06 µmol L-1) in nearshore waters during low water renewal conditions in a populated beach in Majorca island. Our results show that sunscreen products are a significant source of organic and inorganic chemicals that reach the sea with potential ecological consequences on the coastal marine ecosystem. PMID:23755233

Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Sánchez-Quiles, David; Basterretxea, Gotzon; Benedé, Juan L.; Chisvert, Alberto; Salvador, Amparo; Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio; Blasco, Julián

2013-01-01

347

Political economy of transnational water pollution: what do the LMB data (1985-2000) say?  

PubMed

On the basis of the cross-section and time-series data of the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB)--including large sections of Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam, and Cambodia, we find little evidence in support of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. Instead, our regressions support the general views that water pollution had been positively related to income level and that, as a result of the end of the Cold War era, it had been significantly reduced in the 1990s vis-à-vis the 1980s. In most circumstances, water resources were more seriously polluted in the transnational border areas than in the other areas. Specifically, the estimated coefficients on the political boundary dummies show that political influence on transnational water pollution was more significant in areas near "the international border along which the river runs" (denoted by BORDER2) than in places near "the international border across which the river runs" (denoted by BORDER1). The estimated coefficients on the ASEAN dummy present some information about the positive role of the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) membership in the reduction of transnational water pollution. Finally, the country-specific dummies are found to present conflicting information about the transnational differences of water pollution, although Thailand is found to have the least water pollution in the LMB. PMID:14986893

Guo, Rongxing; Yang, Kaizhong

2003-10-01

348

[GIS and scenario analysis aid to water pollution control planning of river basin].  

PubMed

The forward and backward algorithms for watershed water pollution control planning were summarized in this paper as well as their advantages and shortages. The spatial databases of water environmental function region, pollution sources, monitoring sections and sewer outlets were built with ARCGIS8.1 as the platform in the case study of Ganjiang valley, Jiangxi province. Based on the principles of the forward algorithm, four scenarios were designed for the watershed pollution control. Under these scenarios, ten sets of planning schemes were generated to implement cascade pollution source control. The investment costs of sewage treatment for these schemes were estimated by means of a series of cost-effective functions; with pollution source prediction, the water quality was modeled with CSTR model for each planning scheme. The modeled results of different planning schemes were visualized through GIS to aid decision-making. With the results of investment cost and water quality attainment as decision-making accords and based on the analysis of the economic endurable capacity for water pollution control in Ganjiang river basin, two optimized schemes were proposed. The research shows that GIS technology and scenario analysis can provide a good guidance to the synthesis, integrity and sustainability aspects for river basin water quality planning. PMID:15515932

Wang, Shao-ping; Cheng, Sheng-tong; Jia, Hai-feng; Ou, Zhi-dan; Tan, Bin

2004-07-01

349

Detection of chemical pollutants by passive LWIR hyperspectral imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) represent a major threat to public health and security. Their detection constitutes a real challenge to security and first responder's communities. One promising detection method is based on the passive standoff identification of chemical vapors emanating from the laboratory under surveillance. To investigate this method, the Department of National Defense and Public Safety Canada have mandated Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC) - Valcartier to develop and test passive Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) sensors for standoff detection. The initial effort was focused to address the standoff detection and identification of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) and precursors. Sensors such as the Multi-option Differential Detection and Imaging Fourier Spectrometer (MoDDIFS) and the Improved Compact ATmospheric Sounding Interferometer (iCATSI) were developed for this application. This paper describes the sensor developments and presents initial results of standoff detection and identification of TICs and precursors. The standoff sensors are based on the differential Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) radiometric technology and are able to detect, spectrally resolve and identify small leak plumes at ranges in excess of 1 km. Results from a series of trials in asymmetric threat type scenarios will be presented. These results will serve to establish the potential of the method for standoff detection of TICs precursors and surrogates.

Lavoie, Hugo; Thériault, Jean-Marc; Bouffard, François; Puckrin, Eldon; Dubé, Denis

2012-09-01

350

USING CANINES IN SOURCE DETECTION OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Dogs have been used extensively in law enforcement and military applications to detect narcotics and explosives for over thirty years. Dogs are regularly used in arson investigations to detect accelerants since they are much more accurate at discriminating between accelerants an...

351

Air pollution - Remote detection of several pollutant gases with a laser heterodyne radiometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An infrared heterodyne radiometer with a spectral resolution of 0.04 reciprocal centimeters has been used to remotely detect samples of ozone, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, and ethylene at room temperature, and samples of nitric oxide at 390 K. Each gas was observed in a background of nitrogen or oxygen at atmospheric pressure. Sensitivities to some of these gases are adequate for detection of ambient concentrations as low as a few parts per billion.

Menzies, R. T.; Shumate, M. S.

1974-01-01

352

Influence of satellite alerts on the efficiency of aircraft monitoring of maritime oil pollution in German waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For detecting accidental and illegal pollution by mineral oil, the German exclusive economic zone and surrounding waters have been monitored by aircraft operationally for more than 25 years. Aircraft surveillance uses predominantly Side-Looking-Airborne-Radar for visualization of the effect of oil to smoothen capillary waves. A set of near range sensors complements the remote sensing data available for the human operator to classify the detected features as "mineral oil", "natural phenomenon", "other substance" or "unknown" pollution. Today, as an add-on to aerial surveillance, the German Central Command of Maritime Emergencies uses the operational satellite service "CleanSeaNet" provided by the European Maritime Safety Agency: Radar satellite data is analyzed in near real time and alerts of potential pollution are sent out. Shortly after receiving the results, aircraft surveillance flights are started by the 3rd Naval Air Wing and the locations of the satellite alerts are checked. Thus, a combined system of satellite and aerial surveillance is in place. The German Federal Institute of Hydrology, BfG, has access to the data of the pollution events detected during these flights and the corresponding meta-data of flights and satellite images. In this work, a period of two years of this data is analyzed. The probability to detect pollutions is evaluated for (A) flight missions associated with satellite scenes, and (B) additional flights performed independently from satellite scenes. Thus, the influence of satellite alerts on the efficiency of aircraft monitoring is investigated. Coverage and coordination of the monitoring by aircraft and satellite are assessed and implications for the operational monitoring are discussed.

Helmke, Peer; Baschek, Björn; Hunsänger, Thomas; Kranz, Susanne

2014-10-01

353

Water pollution risk simulation and prediction in the main canal of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The middle route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (MRP) will divert water to Beijing Tuancheng Lake from Taocha in the Danjiangkou reservoir located in the Hubei province of China. The MRP is composed of a long canal and complex hydraulic structures and will transfer water in open channel areas to provide drinking water for Beijing, Shijiazhuang and other cities under extremely strict water quality requirements. A large number of vehicular accidents, occurred on the many highway bridges across the main canal would cause significant water pollution in the main canal. To ensure that water quality is maintained during the diversion process, the effects of pollutants on water quality due to sudden pollution accidents were simulated and analyzed in this paper. The MIKE11 HD module was used to calculate the hydraulic characteristics of the 42-km Xishi-to-Beijuma River channel of the MRP. Six types of hydraulic structures, including inverted siphons, gates, highway bridges, culverts and tunnels, were included in this model. Based on the hydrodynamic model, the MIKE11 AD module, which is one-dimensional advection dispersion model, was built for TP, NH3-N, CODMn and F. The validated results showed that the computed values agreed well with the measured values. In accordance with transportation data across the Dianbei Highway Bridge, the effects of traffic accidents on the bridge on water quality were analyzed. Based on simulated scenarios with three discharge rates (ranged from 12 m3/s to 17 m3/s, 40 m3/s, and 60 m3/s) and three pollution loading concentration levels (5 t, 10 t and 20 t) when trucks spill their contents (i.e., phosphate fertilizer, cyanide, oil and chromium solution) into the channel, emergency measures were proposed. Reasonable solutions to ensure the water quality with regard to the various types of pollutants were proposed, including treating polluted water, maintaining materials, and personnel reserves.

Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Cheng, Xi

2014-11-01

354

[Fish parasites as bioindicators of the pollution of bodies of water].  

PubMed

The paper presents the results of studies on the effect of wastes of the Cherepovets iron-and-steel works containing phenol, naphthaline and oil products on fish parasites of the Sheksna part of the Rybinsk water reservoir (the Volga river system). It has been shown that the number of highly sensitive ectoparasites of Abramis brama (Protozoa, Dactylogyrus monogeneans, Ergasilus sieboldi crustaceans and Caspiobdella fadejewi leeches) considerably decreases in the zone of pollution. It has been first suggested to use Diplozoon paradoxum and Caryophyllaeus laticeps, parasites of bream highly resistant to toxic effect, the number of which considerably increases in the zone of pollution, as indicators of anthropogenic pollution and ecological state of a water body. Among diplozoons there have been first discovered individuals having structural anomalies (reduction of the attachment organs, violation in the symmetry of arrangement and number of valves) that serves as evidence of mutagenic effect of toxic substances of polluted waters on morphogenesis of the parasite. PMID:1299804

Kuperman, B I

1992-01-01

355

Advanced Atmospheric Water Vapor DIAL Detection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement of atmospheric water vapor is very important for understanding the Earth's climate and water cycle. The remote sensing Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique is a powerful method to perform such measurement from aircraft and space. This thesis describes a new advanced detection system, which incorporates major improvements regarding sensitivity and size. These improvements include a low noise advanced avalanche photodiode detector, a custom analog circuit, a 14-bit digitizer, a microcontroller for on board averaging and finally a fast computer interface. This thesis describes the design and validation of this new water vapor DIAL detection system which was integrated onto a small Printed Circuit Board (PCB) with minimal weight and power consumption. Comparing its measurements to an existing DIAL system for aerosol and water vapor profiling validated the detection system.

Refaat, Tamer F.; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.; DeYoung, Russell J. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

356

Pan-European survey on the occurrence of selected polar organic persistent pollutants in ground water.  

PubMed

This study provides the first pan-European reconnaissance of the occurrence of polar organic persistent pollutants in European ground water. In total, 164 individual ground-water samples from 23 European Countries were collected and analysed (among others) for 59 selected organic compounds, comprising pharmaceuticals, antibiotics, pesticides (and their transformation products), perfluorinated acids (PFAs), benzotriazoles, hormones, alkylphenolics (endocrine disrupters), Caffeine, Diethyltoluamide (DEET), and Triclosan. The most relevant compounds in terms of frequency of detection and maximum concentrations detected were DEET (84%; 454 ng/L), Caffeine (83%; 189 ng/L), PFOA (66%; 39 ng/L), Atrazine (56%; 253 ng/L), Desethylatrazine (55%; 487 ng/L), 1H-Benzotriazole (53%; 1032 ng/L), Methylbenzotriazole (52%; 516 ng/L), Desethylterbutylazine (49%; 266 ng/L), PFOS (48%, 135 ng/L), Simazine (43%; 127 ng/L), Carbamazepine (42%; 390 ng/L), nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NPE(1)C) (42%; 11 microg/L), Bisphenol A (40%; 2.3 microg/L), PFHxS (35%; 19 ng/L), Terbutylazine (34%; 716 ng/L), Bentazone (32%; 11 microg/L), Propazine (32%; 25 ng/L), PFHpA (30%; 21 ng/L), 2,4-Dinitrophenol (29%; 122 ng/L), Diuron (29%; 279 ng/L), and Sulfamethoxazole (24%; 38 ng/L). The chemicals which were detected most frequently above the European ground water quality standard for pesticides of 0.1 microg/L were Chloridazon-desphenyl (26 samples), NPE(1)C (20), Bisphenol A (12), Benzotriazole (8), N,N'-Dimethylsulfamid (DMS) (8), Desethylatrazine (6), Nonylphenol (6), Chloridazon-methyldesphenyl (6), Methylbenzotriazole (5), Carbamazepine (4), and Bentazone (4). However, only 1.7% of all single analytical measurements (in total 8000) were above this threshold value of 0.1 microg/L; 7.3% were > than 10 ng/L. PMID:20554303

Loos, Robert; Locoro, Giovanni; Comero, Sara; Contini, Serafino; Schwesig, David; Werres, Friedrich; Balsaa, Peter; Gans, Oliver; Weiss, Stefan; Blaha, Ludek; Bolchi, Monica; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred

2010-07-01

357

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-print Network

Arkansas Water Resources Center LASER-PHOTOACOUSTIC DETECTION OF WATER POLLUTANTS PHASE I Principal. '. 18 #12;cor~PLETIONREPORT LASER-PHOTOACOUSTICDETECTIONOF WATER POLLUTANTS: PHASEI October ls 1977 their waters. Recognizing that water pollution can pose serious health hazards and unknown long term effects

Soerens, Thomas

358

Methodology for the characterization and management of nonpoint source water pollution. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research was development of a methodology for characterization and management of Nonpoint Source (NPS) water pollution. Section 319 of the 1987 Water Quality Act requires states to develop management programs for reduction of NPS pollution via Best Management Practices (BMPs). Air Force installations are expected to abide by federal, state, and local environmental regulations. Currently, the Air Force does not have a methodology to identify and quantify NPS pollution, or a succinct catalog of BMPs. Air Force installation managers need a package to assist them in meeting legislative and regulatory requirements associated with NPS pollution. Ten constituents characteristic of urban runoff were identified in the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program (NURP) and selected as those constituents of concern for modeling and sampling. Two models were used and compared with the results of a sampling and analysis program. Additionally, a compendium of BMPs was developed.... Nonpoint Source Pollution (NPS), Best Management Practices (BMPs), Water pollution, Water sampling and analysis, Stormwater runoff modeling, NPDES.

Praner, D.M.; Sprewell, G.M.

1992-09-01

359

Public Health Care Management of Water Pollution with Pharmaceuticals: Environmental Classification and Analysis of Pharmaceutical Residues in Sewage Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in surface water is an emerging problem in developed countries. If such pollution is transferred to drinking water, the resulting involuntary low-dose medication of large population groups may compromise public health. In addition, aquatic life may be compromised. The Stockholm County Council, the provider of public healthcare in the Stockholm, Sweden region, has introduced a classification

Åke Wennmalm; Bo Gunnarsson

2005-01-01

360

Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management  

PubMed Central

In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of CODCr NH3-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH3-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. PMID:23222206

Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

2012-01-01

361

Simulation of water environmental capacity and pollution load reduction using QUAL2K for water environmental management.  

PubMed

In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of COD(Cr) NH(3)-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH(3)-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. PMID:23222206

Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

2012-12-01

362

[Pollution history and sources of organotin compounds in aquaculture water of Tong'an Bay, Xiamen].  

PubMed

Six organotin compounds (OTs) in core sediment collected from aquaculture water of Tong'an Bay, Xiamen were detected by GC-FPD. Based on 210Pb-dating data, the pollution history (from 1931 to 2007) of OTs in this area was reconstructed and their possible sources were also discussed. The results showed that the inputs of organotin compounds in this sea area began from 1950's (0-80 cm). The vertical concentrations of OTs ranged from 3.43-69.6 ng x g(-1) (dry weight), the mean value was 15.0 ng x g(-1). Butyltins concentrations ranged from 2.51-68. 8 ng x g(-1) and the average concentration was 14.6 ng x g(-1) which accounted for 97.4% of total OTs, while phenyltins just accounted for 2.58%. It is indicated that the aquaculture waters of Tong'an Bay were mainly contaminated by butyltin compounds, inferring that they may come from the early antifouling paint of ships. The distributions of OTs concentrations and compositions may be related to the complex influence of the hydrodynamic conditions, antifouling paint leakages from ships and marine structures, and aquaculture. Compared to the other harbors and bays, the magnitude of OTs pollution in the sediment from Tong'an Bay was at the low midpoint on a global scale. Moreover, the sedimentary history showed that, vertical OTs distributions were in good agreement with the usage history of organotin compounds as antifouling paints and the changes of the major function regionalization in the surrounding area. PMID:21922809

Wang, Xin-Hong; Wu, Yu-Ling; Cai, Ya-Rong; Xie, Wei; Xu, Jiang

2011-07-01

363

Time-resolved lidar fluorosensor for sea pollution detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A contemporary time and spectral analysis of oil fluorescence is useful for the detection and the characterization of oil spills on the sea surface. Nevertheless the fluorosensor lidars, which were realized up to now, have only partial capability to perform this double analysis. The main difficulties are the high resolution required (of the order of 1 nanosecond) and the complexity of the detection system for the recording of a two-dimensional matrix of data for each laser pulse. An airborne system whose major specifications were: time range, 30 to 75 ns; time resolution, 1 ns; spectral range, 350 to 700 nm; and spectral resolution, 10 nm was designed and constructed. The designed system of a short pulse ultraviolet laser source and a streak camera based detector are described.

Ferrario, A.; Pizzolati, P. L.; Zanzottera, E.

1986-01-01

364

Measurement of dielectric properties and determination of microwave emissivity of polluted waters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dielectric properties of polluted waters are measured with a reflection-type resonant cavity at 1.43 GHz. Very small water samples in quartz tubes of known volume are placed in the center of the maximum electric field. Measurement of the resonance-frequency variation and a change of the cavity's quality factor are used to determine the dielectric properties. The microwave emissivity of the polluted water is then calculated via the Fresnel equation and applied to data reductions of microwave radiometer measurements.

Blume, H.-J. C.

1980-01-01

365

Remote measurements of water pollution with a lidar polarimeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines a dual polarization laser backscatter system as a method for remote measurements of certain water quality parameters. Analytical models for describing the backscatter from turbid water and oil on turbid water are presented and compared with experimental data. Laser backscatter field measurements from natural waterways are presented and compared with simultaneous ground observations of the water quality parameters: turbidity, suspended solids, and transmittance. The results of this study show that the analytical models appear valid and that the sensor investigated is applicable to remote measurements of these water quality parameters and oil spills on water.-

Sheives, T. C.; Rouse, J. W., Jr.; Mayo, W. T., Jr.

1974-01-01

366

Petroleum Pollutant Degradation by Surface Water Microorganisms (8 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aims and Scope   It is well known that the composition of petroleum or some of its processing products changes in the environment mostly under\\u000a the influence of microorganisms. A series of experiments was conducted in order to define the optimum conditions for an efficient\\u000a biodegradation of petroleum pollutant, or bioremediation of different segments of the environment. The aim of

Mališa P. Anti?; Branimir Jovancicevic; Miroslav M. Vrvi?; Jan Schwarzbauer

2006-01-01

367

Research needs and priorities: water pollution control benefits and costs. Volume II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research needs and priorities involving water pollution control costs ; and benefits are specified. A series of theoretical and methodological research ; needs are presented. Water quality management is required in a dynamic setting ; and over a broad range of hydrologic and economic conditions. The common ; property resource aspects of the problem with the prevalence of externalities ;

D. L. Jordening; J. K. Allwood

1973-01-01

368

Manpower and Training Needs in Water Pollution Control. Senate Document No. 49.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine trained manpower needs and training resources in the clean water field, data were gathered from interviews with state and federal agencies as well as the Water Pollution Control Federation, from prior manpower reports, and from Bureau of Census employment data. After analysis of present manpower resources and future requirements,…

Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

369

An Intelligent Decision Support System of Lake Water Pollution Control Based on Multi-agent Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapidly development of the economic, environmental problem has become one of the most prominent problems of the society. Lake water environmental problem became more and more serious, and it had seriously effect on human health and the socio-economic sustainable development. It is a key project to find a more effective way of water pollution control. An intelligent decision

Jianjun Ni; Chuanbiao Zhang; Li Ren

2009-01-01

370

We All Live Downstream. A Guide to Waste Treatment That Stops Water Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the idea that the prevention and treatment of water pollution should begin at its source, this document focuses on some methods that individuals can use in their homes and businesses to treat wastewater. Chapter one, "What Is the Water Crisis?" explains the basic concepts of the hydrologic cycle, evapotranspiration, and the quantity of…

Costner, Pat; And Others

371

Social Status Variations in Attitudes and Conceptualization Pertaining to Water Pollution and Supply.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data, secured by questionnaire from single household dwelling units in Warwick, Rhode Island, were used to ascertain differences among social status groups with respect to attitudes and conceptualization pertaining to water pollution and water supply. A social status index was used to delineate three status groups having high, middle, and low rank…

Spaulding, Irving A.

372

Laboratory simulation of spontaneous breakup of polluted water drops in the horizontal electric field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory simulation experiment to study the spontaneous breakup of distilled and polluted water drops suspended in horizontal electric field of 0, 100, 300, 500 kV m-1 has been performed in a small vertical wind tunnel. Water drops are formed from distilled water and from 100 ppm solution of ammonium sulfate and potassium nitrate. Results show that the life time of the both distilled and polluted water drops decreases with the increase in electric field. The water drops formed from both distilled and polluted water become more oblate as the electric field is increased. The results have been interpreted in terms of enhanced instability of water drops due to the changes in surface tension, viscosity, conductivity and hydro-dynamics of the water drop. Significance of the results is discussed in view of the possible modification of the drop size distribution and consequent growth of raindrops and lightning activity due to the combined effect of pollutants and electrical forces in clouds formed over big cities.

Bhalwankar, Rohini; Subramanian, Subashini; Kamra, A. K.

2014-11-01

373

Coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci as indicators of water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence and survival of coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci were studied in sewage treatment plants, heavily polluted rivers, a lake, and other drinking water sources. In all cases the fecal streptococci were generally more resistant to the natural water environment and to purification processes than the other indicator organisms and, at points distant from the original source of

Judith Cohen; Hillel I. Shuval

1973-01-01

374

Water Pollution Control Training: The Educational Role of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are the results of a study to determine the perceived needs of environmental control education programs as seen by students, instructors, deans or program directors, and field-related employers in the field of water pollution control. Data were collected utilizing three approaches: survey instruments, information from Water Quality…

Williams, Frederick D.

375

Impact of point and nonpoint source pollution on pore waters of two Chesapeake Bay tributaries.  

PubMed

Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries are contaminated by industrial and municipal point sources and agricultural nonpoint sources of pollution. The objective of this study was to compare the porewater characteristics of two Chesapeake Bay tributaries: Wicomico River (WR) contaminated by point source and Pocomoke River (PR) contaminated by both point and nonpoint sources of pollution. Four study sites (1 mile before, adjacent to, and 1 and 2 miles after the sewage treatment plant) were chosen to collect sediment samples in both the rivers. The sediment-pore waters were analyzed for toxicity using Microtox marine luminescent bacteria-Vibrio fischeri. USEPA toxicity identification evaluation tests on these pore waters confirmed that the contaminants (ammonia and heavy metals) in WR were from municipal point sources, whereas in PR the contamination (metals, pesticides, and PCBs) was from nonpoint sources (agriculture) of pollution. The toxicity (and the concentration of contaminants) decreased both upstream and downstream from the most polluted site in both the rivers. PMID:8930508

Karuppiah, M; Gupta, G

1996-10-01

376

OPTIMUM MACROBENTHIC SAMPLING PROTOCOL FOR DETECTING POLLUTION IMPACTS IN THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA BIGHT  

EPA Science Inventory

The optimum macrobenthic sampling protocol sampling unit, sieve mesh size, and sample size (n)] was determined for detecting ecologically important pollution impacts in the Southern California Bight, U.S.A. Cost, in laboratory processing time, was determined for samples obtained ...

377

Detecting industrial pollution in the atmospheres of earth-like exoplanets  

E-print Network

Detecting biomarkers, such as molecular oxygen, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biomarker for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). We estimate that for an Earth-mass planet in the habitable zone of a white dwarf, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) can be detected at earth-like concentrations with an integration time of ~1.5 hrs and 12 hrs respectively. Detecting pollutants that are produced nearly exclusively by anthropogenic activities will be significantly more challenging. Of these pollutants, we focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl3F), which will be the easiest to detect. We estimate that ~1.5 days (~3 days) of total integration time will be sufficie...

Lin, Henry W; Loeb, Abraham

2014-01-01

378

DEVELOPMENT OF A TEST-TUBE STRESS-ETHYLENE BIOASSAY FOR DETECTING PHYTOTOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary purpose of this study was to develop stress-ethylene production from plant seedlings as a simple, rapid and quantitative bioassay for detecting phytotoxic air pollutants. The developed procedure was to require only small quantities of gas for phytotoxic testing, have ...

379

Influence of diet on the performance of bovine fecal pollution detection methods and microbial population structure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background and Aims. Waterborne diseases originating from bovine fecal material are a significant public health issue. Ensuring water quality requires the use of methods that can consistently identify pollution across a broad range of management practices. One practice that is often overlooked is...

380

Effects of warm water inflows on the dispersion of pollutants in small reservoirs.  

PubMed

The effects of the warm water discharged by a nuclear power plant (NPP) into a small reservoir are studied. A case study is presented (José Cabrera NPP-Zorita Hidráulica Reservoir) with experimental data of the reservoir stratification and predicted data of the dispersion of radioactive pollutants from operative or accidental releases. The vertical and longitudinal temperature profiles, electrical conductivity and transparency of the reservoir water were measured for an annual cycle. The results indicate that the continuous warm water discharge from the NPP causes permanent and artificial reservoir stratification. The stratification is significant within 1500 m upstream and 1000 m downstream from the warm water outfall. The pollutant dispersion has been predicted by using a flow model based on N(T) perfect-mixing compartments in series with feedback. The model parameter, N(T), is calculated from the longitudinal diffusion coefficient. The prediction of pollutant dispersion by means of this model shows that the stratification slows down the vertical mixing in the whole water body, and reduces the reservoir volume that is effective for the dilution and dispersion of pollutants. This means that, in the case of a radioactive pollutant release, the reservoir radioactivity level could increase significantly. PMID:16574305

Palancar, María C; Aragón, José M; Sánchez, Fernando; Gil, Roberto

2006-11-01

381

Analysis of Nitrogen Pollution Load by Domestic Waste Water Treatment in the Tedori River Alluvial Fan Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evaluation of the environment nitrogen pollution load with regard to domestic waste water treatment on the Tedori River Alluvial Fan Areas was conducted. The literature-based water quality data collected before and after the treatment and the basic outflow pollution unit was determined for the several water treatment systems. Next these data were applied for the entire alluvial fan areas resulting in an estimated total nitrogen pollution load of as 186 ton/year. 58% of the total nitrogen pollution load was estimated to be from the private residences that were not connected to the public sewage system (connecting ratio 90.5%) which thus had relation to the pollution of groundwater and water quality in the drainage canal in the region under consideration. The nitrogen pollution load was higher in the urban area more than the rural. The rural domestic waste water system accounted for about 17.9% of the total pollution load, which carried a high probability of groundwater pollution because of seepage or percolation. The pollution load from the direct flow of the public sewage treatment water to the middle stream of the Tedori River, together with the water from small companies and untreated water from local family dwellings made up about 3-10% of total pollution.

Maruyama, Toshisuke; Noto, Fumikazu; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Tsuchihara, Takeo; Tanaka, Tadashi

382

Permits and effluent charges in the water pollution control policies of France, West Germany, and the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the water pollution control policies of these countries and their effects on emitters are analyzed. In the Netherlands, local water control boards levy pollution charges on both direct and indirect emitters. The charges are based upon measured emissions and actual treatment costs and they vary among the boards. Discharges into surface waters are by permission only. West

Jan C. Bongaerts; Andreas Kraemer

1989-01-01

383

A Report of the Regional Monitoring Program for Water Quality in the San Francisco Estuary pollutant effects on aquatic life  

E-print Network

Program for Water Quality in the San Francisco Estuary 2011 pollutant effects on aquatic life pulse goals of Bay water quality managers is to ensure that pollutants do not interfere with the abilityA Report of the Regional Monitoring Program for Water Quality in the San Francisco Estuary

384

Detecting oxidized contaminants in water using sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

For the rapid and reliable detection of oxidized contaminants (i.e., nitrite, nitrate, perchlorate, dichromate) in water, a novel toxicity detection methodology based on sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) has been developed. The methodology exploits the ability of SOB to oxidize elemental sulfur to sulfuric acid in the presence of oxygen. The reaction results in an increase in electrical conductivity (EC) and a decrease in pH. When oxidized contaminants were added to the system, the effluent EC decreased and the pH increased due to the inhibition of the SOB. We found that the system can detect these contaminants in the 5-50 ppb range (in the case of NO(3)(-), 10 ppm was detected), which is lower than many whole-cell biosensors to date. At low pH, the oxidized contaminants are mostly in their acid or nonpolar, protonated form which act as uncouplers and make the SOB biosensor more sensitive than other whole-cell biosensors which operate at higher pH values where the contaminants exist as dissociated anions. The SOB biosensor can detect toxicity on the order of minutes to hours which can serve as an early warning so as to not pollute the environment and affect public health. PMID:21417357

Van Ginkel, Steven W; Hassan, Sedky H A; Ok, Yong Sik; Yang, Jae E; Kim, Yong-Seong; Oh, Sang-Eun

2011-04-15

385

Chemical sensors for the detection of organic pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vapor detection has been realized by the shift of the whole surface plasmon resonance (SPR) curve under dynamic state of adsorption as well as by measuring SPR reflectivity signal at a fixed angle of incidence. Selective, fast and reversible adsorption of the vapor molecules has been observed. The increase of both film thickness and refractive index of spun films during adsorption are found to correspond to the calixarenes behavior and may be explained by capturing of guest molecules in the film matrix, followed by their condensation. A model of the vapor registration system has been established and we also report in this paper on the extent of the selectivity, thus leading to the establishment of a sensor array.

Hassan, Aseel K.; Molina, Maria V.; Ray, Asim K.; Nabok, Alexei V.; Ghassemlooy, Zabih F.; Yates, Robert B.; Saatchi, Reza

1999-07-01

386

Colorimetric detection of uranium in water  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are methods, materials and systems that can be used to determine qualitatively or quantitatively the level of uranium contamination in water samples. Beneficially, disclosed systems are relatively simple and cost-effective. For example, disclosed systems can be utilized by consumers having little or no training in chemical analysis techniques. Methods generally include a concentration step and a complexation step. Uranium concentration can be carried out according to an extraction chromatographic process and complexation can chemically bind uranium with a detectable substance such that the formed substance is visually detectable. Methods can detect uranium contamination down to levels even below the MCL as established by the EPA.

DeVol, Timothy A. (Clemson, SC); Hixon, Amy E. (Piedmont, SC); DiPrete, David P. (Evans, GA)

2012-03-13

387

Ammonia pollution characteristics of centralized drinking water sources in China.  

PubMed

The characteristics of ammonia in drinking water sources in China were evaluated during 2005-2009. The spatial distribution and seasonal changes of ammonia in different types of drinking water sources of 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities were investigated. The levels of ammonia in drinking water sources follow the order of river > lake/reservoir > groundwater. The levels of ammonia concentration in river sources gradually decreased from 2005 to 2008, while no obvious change was observed in the lakes/reservoirs and groundwater drinking water sources. The proportion of the type of drinking water sources is different in different regions. In river drinking water sources, the ammonia level was varied in different regions and changed seasonally. The highest value and wide range of annual ammonia was found in South East region, while the lowest value was found in Southwest region. In lake/reservoir drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were not varied obviously in different regions. In underground drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were varied obviously in different regions due to the geological permeability and the natural features of regions. In the drinking water sources with higher ammonia levels, there are enterprises and wastewater drainages in the protected areas of the drinking water sources. PMID:23520842

Fu, Qing; Zheng, Binghui; Zhao, Xingru; Wang, Lijing; Liu, Changming

2012-01-01

388

Airborne optical detection of oil on water.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne measurements were made over controlled oil-spill test sites to evaluate various techniques, utilizing reflected sunlight, for detecting oil on water. The results of these measurements show that (1) maximum contrast between oil and water is in the UV and red portions of the spectrum; (2) minimum contrast is in the blue-green; (3) differential polarization appears to be a very promising technique; (4) no characteristic absorption bands, which would permit one oil to be distinguished from another, were discovered in the spectral regions measured; (5) sky conditions greatly influence the contrast between oil and water; and (6) highest contrast was achieved under overcast sky conditions.

Millard, J. P.; Arvesen, J. C.

1972-01-01

389

Assessment of susceptibility to pollution in littoral waters using the concept of recovery time.  

PubMed

Susceptibility to pollution can be related to the flushing capacity of aquatic systems. Transport time scales constitute a useful tool for representing the water exchange and transport processes. A new transport time scale, recovery time, and a methodology to estimate it by means of numerical models is hereby developed. Recovery time, calculated in Gijon, Santander and Tarragona harbours, is significantly related to physical, chemical and biological water quality indicators. Susceptibility, assessed through recovery time values, provides spatial patterns of expected flushing capacity, being sensitive to physical and hydrodynamic characteristics. The developed method is appropriate to estimate recovery time and assess susceptibility against pollution in littoral waters having great potential to be applied to different disciplines. Recovery time could be used in littoral waters as a surrogate of water quality indicators, to establish efficient monitoring programs, to define and characterize modified water bodies or to improve the design of marine infrastructures. PMID:24576391

Gómez, Aina G; Juanes, José A; Ondiviela, Bárbara; Revilla, José A

2014-04-15

390

Invertebrate community responses to emerging water pollutants in Iberian river basins.  

PubMed

Chemical pollution is one of the greatest threats to freshwater ecosystems, especially in Mediterranean watersheds, characterized by periodical low flows that may exacerbate chemical exposure. Different groups of emerging pollutants have been detected in these basins during the last decade. This study aims to identify the relationships between the presence and levels of prioritary and emerging pollutants (pesticides, pharmaceutical active compounds-PhACs, Endocrine Disrupting Compounds EDCs and Perfluorinated Compounds-PFCs) and the invertebrate community in four Mediterranean basins: the Ebro, the Llobregat, the Júcar and the Guadalquivir. Structural (species composition and density) and functional (catalase activity of the tricopteran Hydropsyche exocellata and the feeding activity of the cladoceran Daphnia magna) variables were analyzed to determine which of the pollutants would greatly influence invertebrate responses. EDCs and conductivity, followed by PhACs, were the most important variables explaining the invertebrate density changes in the studied basins, showing a gradient of urban and industrial pollutions. Despite this general pattern observed in the four studied basins - impoverishment of species diversity and abundance change with pollution - some basins maintained certain differences. In the case of the Llobregat River, analgesics and anti-inflammatories were the significant pollutants explaining the invertebrate community distribution. In the Júcar River, fungicides were the main group of pollutants that were determining the structure of the invertebrate community. Functional biomarkers tended to decrease downstream in the four basins. Two groups of pollutants appeared to be significant predictors of the catalase activity in the model: EDCs and PhACs. This study provides evidence that the information given by functional biomarkers may complement the results found for the structural community descriptors, and allowed us to detect two emerging contaminant groups that are mainly affecting the invertebrate community in these basins. PMID:25042416

De Castro-Català, N; Muñoz, I; Armendáriz, L; Campos, B; Barceló, D; López-Doval, J; Pérez, S; Petrovic, M; Picó, Y; Riera, J L

2015-01-15

391

Polluted and turbid water masses in Osaka Bay and its vicinity revealed with ERTS-A imageries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ERTS-1 took very valuable MSS imageries of Osaka Bay and its vicinity on October 24, 1972. In the MSS-4 and MSS-5 imageries a complex grey pattern of water masses can be seen. Though some of grey colored patterns seen in black and white prints of the MSS-4 and MSS-5 imageries are easily identified from their shapes as cloud covers or polluted water masses characterized by their color tone in longer wavelengths in the visible region, any correct distribution pattern of polluted or turbid water masses can be hardly detected separately from thin cloud covers in a quick look analysis. In the present investigation, a simple photographic technique was applied using the fact that reflected sun light from cloud including smog and inclined water surfaces of wave have a certain component in the near infrared region, that MSS-7, whereas the light scattered from fine materials suspended in the sea water has nearly no component sensible in MSS-4 and MSS-5 channels.

Watanabe, K.

1973-01-01

392

The SOLUTIONS project: Challenges and responses for present and future emerging pollutants in land and water resources management.  

PubMed

SOLUTIONS (2013 to 2018) is a European Union Seventh Framework Programme Project (EU-FP7). The project aims to deliver a conceptual framework to support the evidence-based development of environmental policies with regard to water quality. SOLUTIONS will develop the tools for the identification, prioritisation and assessment of those water contaminants that may pose a risk to ecosystems and human health. To this end, a new generation of chemical and effect-based monitoring tools is developed and integrated with a full set of exposure, effect and risk assessment models. SOLUTIONS attempts to address legacy, present and future contamination by integrating monitoring and modelling based approaches with scenarios on future developments in society, economy and technology and thus in contamination. The project follows a solutions-oriented approach by addressing major problems of water and chemicals management and by assessing abatement options. SOLUTIONS takes advantage of the access to the infrastructure necessary to investigate the large basins of the Danube and Rhine as well as relevant Mediterranean basins as case studies, and puts major efforts on stakeholder dialogue and support. Particularly, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) Common Implementation Strategy (CIS) working groups, International River Commissions, and water works associations are directly supported with consistent guidance for the early detection, identification, prioritisation, and abatement of chemicals in the water cycle. SOLUTIONS will give a specific emphasis on concepts and tools for the impact and risk assessment of complex mixtures of emerging pollutants, their metabolites and transformation products. Analytical and effect-based screening tools will be applied together with ecological assessment tools for the identification of toxicants and their impacts. The SOLUTIONS approach is expected to provide transparent and evidence-based candidates or River Basin Specific Pollutants in the case study basins and to assist future review of priority pollutants under the WFD as well as potential abatement options. PMID:24951181

Brack, Werner; Altenburger, Rolf; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Krauss, Martin; López Herráez, David; van Gils, Jos; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Munthe, John; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; van Wezel, Annemarie; Schriks, Merijn; Hollender, Juliane; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Mekenyan, Ovanes; Dimitrov, Saby; Bunke, Dirk; Cousins, Ian; Posthuma, Leo; van den Brink, Paul J; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià; Faust, Michael; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Scrimshaw, Mark; Ignatova, Svetlana; Engelen, Guy; Massmann, Gudrun; Lemkine, Gregory; Teodorovic, Ivana; Walz, Karl-Heinz; Dulio, Valeria; Jonker, Michiel T O; Jäger, Felix; Chipman, Kevin; Falciani, Francesco; Liska, Igor; Rooke, David; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hollert, Henner; Vrana, Branislav; Hilscherova, Klara; Kramer, Kees; Neumann, Steffen; Hammerbacher, Ruth; Backhaus, Thomas; Mack, Juliane; Segner, Helmut; Escher, Beate; de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela

2015-01-15

393

[Detection of legionellae in thermal water].  

PubMed

Water samples taken from hot water springs, from the water distribution system and from various places of consumption of thermal water were collected in an Austrian spa. 56.5% of the samples contained Legionella; serogroups 1, 3 and 5 of Legionella pneumophila were most frequently identified. The large number of positive Legionella samples indicates a potential risk of infection to patients, especially those undergoing inhalation treatment with thermal water, or those using a whirlpool or taking a shower. In those inhalators actually in use, no Legionella could be detected. Thus they are no source of infection when they are maintained and serviced properly. Thermal disinfection and service checks at regular intervals are suggested for the contaminated systems. PMID:1554406

Schaffler-Dullnig, K; Reinthaler, F F; Marth, E

1992-02-01

394

Detecting leachate plumes and groundwater pollution at Ruseifa municipal landfill utilizing VLF-EM method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Very Low Frequency-Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) survey was carried out in two sites of domestic waste of old and recent landfills. The landfill structures lie on a major highly fractured limestone aquifer of shallow groundwater less than 30 m, which is considered as the main source of fresh water in Amman-Zarqa region. A total of 18 VLF-EM profiles were conducted with length ranges between 250 and 1500 m. Hydrochemical and biochemical analysis of water samples, taken from wells in the region, has also been conducted. The integrated results of previous DC resistivity method of the same study area and the outcomes of the 2-D tipper inversion of VLF-EM data proved the efficiency of this method in locating shallow and deep leachate plume with resistivity less than 20 ? m, and enabling the mapping of anomalous bodies and their extensions down to 40 m depth. The sign of groundwater contamination was noticed in many surrounding wells resulting in the high number of fecal coliform bacteria and total coliform bacteria and the increase in inorganic parameters such as chloride (Cl). The pollution of groundwater wells in the landfill area is attributed to the leachate bodies which flow through the upper part of Wadi Es Sir (A7) or Amman-Wadi Es Sir Aquifer (B2/A7). Furthermore, several structural features were detected and the direction of local groundwater movement has been determined. The structural features have been found to have critical effects on the flowing of leachate plume towards north-northeast and west-southwest of the potable aquifer in the area.

Al-Tarazi, E.; Abu Rajab, J.; Al-Naqa, A.; El-Waheidi, M.

2008-09-01

395

Precipitation and the transfer of water, nutrients and pollutants in tree canopies.  

PubMed

The functioning of a forest community depends upon the routes, rates and transformations of material flowing through it. The canopy's interaction with precipitation can result in the interception of rainfall and the scavenging of water from clouds and fog. But this movement of water through the canopy also mediates the transfer of mineral nutrients and the deposition of some atmospheric pollutants. The past decade has seen the development of increasingly complex models of transfer processes in the canopy and new methodologies for studying them. One impulse for these advances has been the need to understand not only the movement of water, nutrients and pollutants but also their reciprocal effects. Another has been the need to evaluate the nature of pollutant-induced effects with respect to the costs and effectiveness of possible remedies. PMID:21235934

McCune, D C; Boyce, R L

1992-01-01

396

Criminal sanctions applicable to Federal water pollution control measures. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

Overkill or not enough: Two decades ago, Congress realized that a system of civil remedies alone, devoid of any lasting punitive consequences, was inadequate to insure compliance with environmental protection statutes. Other than the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, which was designed to protect navigation, Federal criminal sanctions were not applicable to water pollution offenses. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, more commonly known as the Clean Water Act (CWA), was twenty-four years old before Federal criminal enforcement of its provisions was allowed. But since the early 1970's, the criminal provisions of the CWA have been strengthened, the United States Department of Justice has beefed up its environmental enforcement efforts, and environmental polluters have been prosecuted. This Federal effort is now approaching overkill.

Thompson, J.C.

1991-09-30

397

Extraction of organic pollutants from environmental solids with sub- and supercritical water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-polarity organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) typically have very low solubilities (e.g., ppb) in water at ambient conditions because of water's high polarity (dielectric constant, [epsilon] = 80). However, the dielectric constant can be drastically lowered by raising the temperature of the water under moderate pressure with dramatic increases (e.g., to percent levels) in the solubility of

Steven B. Hawthorne; Yu. Yang; David J. Miller

1994-01-01

398

Silica coated magnetite nanoparticles for removal of heavy metal ions from polluted waters  

E-print Network

Magnetic removal of Hg2+ and other heavy metal ions like Cd2+, Pb2+ etc. using silica coated magnetite particles from polluted waters is a current topic of active research to provide efficient water recycling and long term high quality water. The technique used to study the bonding characteristics of such kind of nanoparticles with the heavy metal ions is a very sensitive hyperfine specroscopy technique called the perturbed angular correlation technique (PAC).

Dash, Monika

2013-01-01

399

Detection of Cyanotoxins During Potable Water Treatment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2007, the U.S. EPA listed three cyanobacterial toxins on the CCL3 containment priority list for potable drinking waters. This paper describes all methodologies used for detection of these toxins, and assesses each on a cost/benefit basis. Methodologies for microcystin, cylindrospermopsin, and a...

400

Simple Microwave Method for Detecting Water Holdup  

E-print Network

, resistance and capacitance measurements, which are often incapable of providing accurate concentration) transmission measurements are also used to detect sand, water and gas levels within multiphase flow-phase liquid and observe their complex electrical properties. Since electromagnetic scattering is governed

Iqbal, Sheikh Sharif

401

Underground coal mining methods to abate water pollution: a state of the art literature review. Water pollution control research series  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report reviews published information concerning the abatement of harmful drainage from underground coal mines. Although much has been written on mine water management, very little literature is available on the specific area of preventing the formation of acid water. The references used in this report include mining engineering and hydrology studies and spans the period of time when water

L. W. Wilson; N. J. Matthews; J. L. Stump

1970-01-01

402

Case study on rehabilitation of a polluted urban water body in Yangtze River Basin.  

PubMed

In the past three decades, the fast development of economy and urbanization has caused increasingly severe pollutions of urban water bodies in China. Consequently, eutrophication and deterioration of aquatic ecosystem, which is especially significant for aquatic vegetation, inevitably became a pervasive problem across the Yangtze River Basin. To rehabilitate the degraded urban water bodies, vegetation replanting is an important issue to improve water quality and to rehabilitate ecosystem. As a case study, a representative polluted urban river, Nanfeihe River, in Hefei City, Anhui Province, was chosen to be a rehabilitation target. In October 2009 and May 2010, 13 species of indigenous and prevalent macrophytes, including seven species emergent, one species floating leaved, and five species submersed macrophytes, were planted along the bank slopes and in the river. Through 1.5 years' replanting practice, the water quality and biodiversity of the river had been improved. The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) declined by 46.0, 39.5, and 60.4 %, respectively. The species of macrophytes increased from 14 to 60, and the biodiversity of phytoplankton rose significantly in the river (p<0.05). The biomasses of zooplankton and benthos were also improved after the vegetation replanting. The study confirmed that vegetation replanting could alleviate the increasing water pollution and rehabilitate the degraded aquatic ecosystem. The case study would be an example for polluted urban waters restoration in the middle-downstream area of Yangtze River Base. PMID:23247519

Wu, Juan; Cheng, Shuiping; Li, Zhu; Guo, Weijie; Zhong, Fei; Yin, Daqiang

2013-10-01

403

Investigation of water pollution in the Yalvac basin into Egirdir Lake, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to understand the effects of pollution of anthropogenic origin on water quality in Yalvac Basin, part of the Egirdir Lake catchment. Surface discharge from the basin to the lake is 63 m3/year and underground discharge is 114 m3/year. Possible water pollution is categorized into domestic, industrial and agricultural origin. Domestic and industrial wastewaters, including effluents from leather tanneries are discharged, without being purified, into Yalvac Stream, which flows into Egirdir Lake directly or via the drainage canal. Surface waters flowing into the lake are used in winter for irrigation of agricultural areas. In agricultural areas natural and synthetic fertilizers and pesticides are used extensively. Lake Egirdir is used as a source of drinking water. Sampling sites were established for surface and underground waters, taking into account the known point sources of pollution. These sites were sampled in May and October of 2002, and analysed chemically. Cr3+ and Pb2+ concentrations exceed standard limits, meaning that pollution caused by effluent from the tanneries is adversely affecting the water quality in the lake.

Soyaslan, I. Iskender; Karagüzel, Remzi

2008-09-01

404

NBC detection in air and water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Participating in a Navy STTR project to develop a system capable of the 'real-time' detection and quanitification of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) warfare agents, and of related industrial chemicals including NBC agent synthesis by-products in water and in air immediately above the water's surface. This project uses JPL's Soft Ionization Membrane (SIM) technology which totally ionizes molecules without fragmentation (a process that can markedly improve the sensitivity and specificity of molecule compostition identification), and JPL's Rotating Field Mass Spectrometer (RFMS) technology which has large enough dynamic mass range to enable detection of nuclear materials as well as biological and chemical agents. This Navy project integrates these JPL Environmental Monitoring UnitS (REMUS) an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). It is anticipated that the REMUS AUV will be capable of 'real-time' detection and quantification of NBC warefare agents.

Hartley, Frank T.; Smith, Steven J.; McMurtry, Gary M.

2003-01-01

405

Water-enabled visual detection of DNA.  

PubMed

A water-enabled visual detection strategy has been developed for the sequence-specific identification of target DNA. The conceptual basis of the assay scheme, water condensation, is environmentally friendly and chemical transformation-free, thus offering significant assay advantages over conventional diagnostic systems. This label-free strategy operates on a target-driven generation of a hydrophilic structure and alteration of surface wettability and, consequently, transition of morphological state of and light propagation mode in the surface-condensed water. The chip array detection system, implemented herein with the ligase chain reaction-rolling circle amplification protocol, has allowed the achievement of high sensitivity (600 copies), high selectivity (single-base discrimination specificity), and multiplexed analysis capability. PMID:24144169

Liu, Yonghui; Yao, Huaxin; Zhu, Jin

2013-11-01

406

GROUND-WATER POLLUTION PROBLEMS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

An evaluation of principal sources of ground-water contamination has been carried out in seven southeastern States--Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia. Natural ground-water quality is good to excellent, except for the presence of ...

407

WATER CONSERVATION AND POLLUTION CONTROL IN COAL CONVERSION PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to determine water consumption and environmental impacts of coal conversion processes in Western states. Part 1 gives brief descriptions and process water requirements for nine conversion processes. Detailed designs and analyses are given for t...

408

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: PRIORITIZATION OF STATIONARY WATER POLLUTION SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives priority lists to aid in selecting specific sources of water effluents for detailed assessment. It describes the general water prioritization model, explains its implementation, and gives a detailed example of its use. It describes hazard factors that were develo...

409

Protozoal pollution of surface water sources in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.  

PubMed

Water samples were collected different water sources and different districts of Dakahlia G., from September 2005 to August 2006, were investigated for pathogenic protozoa. Water specimens were examined by concentration technique followed by modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) and Truant auramine-rhodamine (AR) stains for Giardia sp. cysts, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts, and other protozoa species. In the 1st survey, 94/480 (19.6%) water samples had protozoa. Prevalence rates were in summer 38/120 (31.6%), autumn 27/ 120 (22.5%), spring 20/ 120 (16.6%) and lastly winter 9/120 (7.5%). Protozoa were less common in treated potable water tanks 15/120 (12.5%), followed by River Nile (Demiatta branch) 22/120 (18.3%) and sub-branch Bahr-El-Saghear 24/120 (20%). The highest prevalence was in water of the main local draining 33/120 (27.5%). In the 2nd survey, 840 potable water samples from seven districts were examined. Prevalence in descending order was C. parvum (3.1%), G. intestinalis (2.1%), E. histolytica (1%), Blastocystis homi-nis (1%), Iodamoeba sp, (0.5%), Isospora belli (0.47%), E. coli (0.36%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (0.24%), and Chilomastix mesnilli (0.12%). Data suggested that C. parvum and G. intestinalis were the commonest disease-agent. The implementation of preventive measures to protect water system from protozoa contamination was given. PMID:17580568

Elshazly, Attef M; Elsheikha, Hany M; Soltan, Doaa M; Mohammad, Khairy A; Morsy, Tosson A

2007-04-01

410

Air and water pollution control: a benefit-cost assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freeman attempts to assess the net benefits associated with environmental programs dealing with air and water quality. He concludes that stationary controls have been justified, but that mobile sources and water controls, as presently designed and implemented, have had costs greater than benefits to society. The reviewer notes that the book is more than just a compendium of mechanistic, technical

A. Myrick Freeman III

1982-01-01

411

Detecting air pollution stress in southern California vegetation using Landsat Thematic Mapper band data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and aircraft-borne Thematic Mapper simulator (TMS) data were collected over two areas of natural vegetation in southern California exposed to gradients of pollutant dose, particularly in photochemical oxidants: the coastal sage scrub of the Santa Monica Mountains in the Los Angeles basin, and the yellow pine forests in the southern Sierra Nevada. In both situations, natural variations in canopy closure, with subsequent exposure of understory elements (e.g.,rock or soil, chaparral, grasses, and herbs), were sufficient to cause changes in spectral variation that could obscure differences due to visible foliar injury symptoms observed in the field. TM or TMS data are therefore more likely to be successful in distinguishing pollution injury from background variation when homogeneous communities with closed canopies are subjected to more severe pollution-induced structural and/or compositional change. The present study helps to define the threshold level of vegetative injury detectable by TM data.

Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

1988-01-01

412

Rapid assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll content.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Present techniques of airborne chlorophyll measurement are discussed as an approach to water pollution assessment. The differential radiometer, the chlorophyll correlation radiometer, and an infrared radiometer for water temperature measurements are described as the key components of the equipment. Also covered are flight missions carried out to evaluate the capability of the chlorophyll correlation radiometer in measuring the chlorophyll content in water bodies with widely different levels of nutrients, such as fresh-water lakes of high and low eutrophic levels, marine waters of high and low productivity, and an estuary with a high sediment content. The feasibility and usefulness of these techniques are indicated.

Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

1971-01-01

413

Methods for detecting change in hydrochemical time series in response to targeted pollutant mitigation in river catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting changes in catchment hydrochemistry driven by targeted pollutant mitigation is high on the scientific agenda, following the introduction of the European Union Water Framework Directive. Previous research has shown that understanding natural variability in hydrochemistry time series is vital if changes due to mitigation are to be detected. In order for change to be detected in a statistically robust manner, the data analysis methods need careful consideration. Previous work has shown that erroneous results have often been obtained when statistical analyses have been carried out despite the associated test assumptions not being met. This paper discusses the principal data issues which must be considered when analysing hydrochemical datasets, including non-normality and non-stationarity. A range of statistical techniques is discussed which could be used to detect gradual or abrupt changes in hydrochemistry, including parametric, non-parametric and signal decomposition methods. The statistical power of these techniques as well as their suitability for identifying change is discussed. Using the uniquely detailed hydrochemical datasets generated under the Demonstration Test Catchments programme in England, the efficacy and robustness of change detection methods for hydrochemical data series is assessed. A conceptual framework for choosing a change detection method is proposed, based on this analysis, in order to raise awareness of the types of questions a researcher should consider in order to perform robust statistical analyses, for informing river catchment management and policy support decisions.

Lloyd, C. E. M.; Freer, J. E.; Collins, A. L.; Johnes, P. J.; Jones, J. I.

2014-06-01

414

BIOTRANSFORMATION OF SELECTED ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN GROUND WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Widespread contamination of ground water by a variety of synthetic organic compounds has created a need for information about the biotransformation of these contaminants in aquifers and associated regions of the unsaturated subsurface. Uncontaminated samples of the subsurface wer...

415

Generation of Novel Bacterial Regulatory Proteins That Detect Priority Pollutant Phenols  

PubMed Central

The genetic systems of bacteria that have the ability to use organic pollutants as carbon and energy sources can be adapted to create bacterial biosensors for the detection of industrial pollution. The creation of bacterial biosensors is hampered by a lack of information about the genetic systems that control production of bacterial enzymes that metabolize pollutants. We have attempted to overcome this problem through modification of DmpR, a regulatory protein for the phenol degradation pathway of Pseudomonas sp. strain CF600. The phenol detection capacity of DmpR was altered by using mutagenic PCR targeted to the DmpR sensor domain. DmpR mutants were identified that both increased sensitivity to the phenolic effectors of wild-type DmpR and increased the range of molecules detected. The phenol detection characteristics of seven DmpR mutants were demonstrated through their ability to activate transcription of a lacZ reporter gene. Effectors of the DmpR derivatives included phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, 2-nitrophenol, and 4-nitrophenol. PMID:10618218

Wise, Arlene A.; Kuske, Cheryl R.

2000-01-01

416

Water Pollution: Organic Compounds in the Charles River, Boston  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major lipophilic organic compounds present in water collected during November and December 1971 from the Charles River Basin (Boston) are as follows: normal alkanes (C15 to C31), alkyl naphthalenes, alkyl anthracenes or phenanthrenes, pyrene, fluoranthene, dibutyl phthalate, and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. The concentration of the naphthalenes (determined by liquid chromatography) correlates with the effective storm-water runoff content of the river.

Ronald A. Hites; K. Biemann

1972-01-01

417

Hypothesis-Driven Approach for the Identification of Fecal Pollution Sources in Water Resources  

PubMed Central

Water resource management must strive to link catchment information with water quality monitoring. The present study attempted this for the field of microbial fecal source tracking (MST). A fecal pollution source profile based on catchment data (e.g., prevalence of fecal sources) was used to formulate a hypothesis about the dominant sources of pollution in an Austrian mountainous karst spring catchment. This allowed a statistical definition of methodical requirements necessary for an informed choice of MST methods. The hypothesis was tested in a 17-month investigation of spring water quality. The study followed a nested sampling design in order to cover the hydrological and pollution dynamics of the spring and to assess effects such as differential persistence between parameters. Genetic markers for the potential fecal sources as well as microbiological, hydrological, and chemo?physical parameters were measured. The hypothesis that ruminant animals were the dominant sources of fecal pollution in the catchment was clearly confirmed. It was also shown that the concentration of ruminant markers in feces was equally distributed in different ruminant source groups. The developed approach provides a tool for careful decision-making in MST study design and might be applied on various types of catchments and pollution situations. PMID:21466151

2011-01-01

418

DETECTION OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN TREATED DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The occurrence of viruses in conventionally treated drinking water derived from a heavily polluted source was evaluated by collecting and analyzing 38 large volume (65 to 756 liter) samples of water from a 9m3/sec (205 mgd) water treatment plant. Samples of raw, clarified, filter...

419

[Analysis of fluorescence spectrum of petroleum-polluted water].  

PubMed

In four ratio experiments, natural waters, sampled from the mountain reservoir and the sea water around Dalian city, were mixed with the sewage from petroleum refinery and petroleum exploitation plants. The fluorescence spectra of water samples containing only chromophoric dissolved organic matters(CDOM), samples containing only petroleum, and samples containing a mixture of petroleum and CDOM were analyzed, respectively. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a basis for determining the contribution of petroleum substances and CDOM to the total absorption coefficient of the petroleum-contaminated water by using fluorescence technique. The results showed that firstly, CDOM in seawater had three main fluorescence peaks at Ex: 225-230 nm/Em: 320-330 nm, Ex: 280 nm/Em: 340 nm and Ex: 225-240 nm/Em: 430-470 nm, respectively, and these may arise from the oceanic chlorophyll. CDOM in natural reservoir water had two main fluorescence peaks at EX: 240- 260 nm/Em: 420-450 nm and Ex: 310~350 nm/Em: 420--440 nm, respectively, and these may arise from the terrestrial sources; secondly, the water samples containing only petroleum extracted with n-hexane had one to three fluorescence spectral peaksat Ex: 220-240 nm/Em: 320-340 nm, Ex: 270-290 nm/Em: 310-340 nm and Ex: 220-235 nm/Em: 280-310 nm, respectively, caused by their hydrocarbon component; finally, the water samples containing both petroleum and CDOM showed a very strong fluorescence peak at Ex: 230-250 nm/Em: 320-370 nm, caused by the combined effect of CDOM and petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:25532346

Huang, Miao-Fen; Song, Qing-Jun; Xing, Xu-Feng; Jian, Wei-Jun; Liu, Yuan; Zhao, Zu-Long

2014-09-01

420

Rapid detection of bacteria in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rapid detection of bacteria in water is essential for a timely response. This applies primarily to drinking water, be it bottled water or water from a public supply system, but is equally important for the analysis of water from swimming pools and beaches, and ballast water from oceangoing ships discharging into coastal or inland waters of the US. There are several methods available today for a rapid test including PCR based methods, flow cytometry, and electro chemiluminescence, to name a few. All of the above methods work, but are complicated and/or require expensive equipment and highly trained analysts in a laboratory. The method described here is based on lysing the bacteria after capture on a membrane filter, and measuring the ATP in a luminometer after the addition of luciferin/luciferase. This bioluminescence test can be done onsite, in less than 5 minutes, with equipment that fits onto a clipboard. It is a fast screening test that indicates if there is enough biologically active material in the same to pose a threat to the consumer. If this is the case, an additional step using immunomagnetic separation may be used to identify the responsible organisms. Tests have been done with E. coli 0157:H7, pseudomonas, and logionella. These tests take about 30 minutes each, and allow a quick determination of bacterial threats in a field situation.

Deininger, Rolf A.; Lee, Ji Y.

2002-06-01

421

Managing Beach Amenities to Reduce Exposure to Coastal Hazards: Storm Water Pollution  

E-print Network

Despite posted warnings and educational campaigns warning about the health risks associated with storm water pollution, swimmers continue to swim in coastal areas polluted by storm water run-off. This study uses a simple spatial model of beach visitation to show how beach amenities and storm drains influence the way in which beach goers choose to locate themselves at beaches in Santa Monica Bay, California. The estimated models indicate that passive means of preventing exposure to marine pollution (e.g. posted signs) could be made significantly more effective if combined with the active management of other beach amenities. Similar methods also could be used to reduce risks to swimmers from other hazards including riptides and boat traffic.

Linwood Pendleton

422

Concentrations of mercury in tissues of striped dolphins suggest decline of pollution in Mediterranean open waters.  

PubMed

The Mediterranean is a semi-enclosed sea subject to high mercury (Hg) pollution from both natural and anthropogenic sources. With the objective of discerning temporal changes in marine Hg pollution in the oceanic waters of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, we analysed liver and kidney from striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) collected during 2007-2009 and compared them with previous results from a similar sample from 1990-1993. The effect of body length and sex on tissue Hg concentrations was investigated to ensure an unbiased comparison between the periods. The Hg concentrations did not show significant sex-related differences in any tissue or period but were correlated positively with body length. Using body length as a covariate, Hg concentrations in liver and kidney were higher in 1990-1993 than in 2007-2009. This result suggests that measures to reduce emissions in Western European countries have been effective in reducing mercury pollution in Mediterranean open waters. PMID:24461428

Borrell, A; Aguilar, A; Tornero, V; Drago, M

2014-07-01

423

A Comparison of Erosion and Water Pollution Control Strategies for an Agricultural Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness and efficiency of two erosion control strategies and one water pollution control (riparian) strategy are compared for Idaho's Tom Beall watershed. Erosion control strategies maximize annualized net returns per hectare on each field and restrict field erosion rates to no more than 11.2 or 16.8 tons per hectare. The riparian strategy uses good vegetative cover on all fields adjacent to the creek and in noncropland areas and the resource management system that maximizes annualized net returns per hectare on remaining fields. The Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution model is used to simulate the levels and concentrations of sediment, nitrogen, phosphorus, and chemical oxygen demand at the outlet of the watershed. Erosion control strategies generate less total erosion and water pollution but are less efficient than the riparian strategy. The riparian strategy is less equitable for farmers than the erosion control strategies.

Prato, Tony; Shi, Hongqi

1990-02-01

424

Water pollution: Pesticides in Aquatic environments. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the physicochemical and biochemical dynamics of pesticides in aquatic environments. The effects of organophosphorus, organochlorine, and arsenical pesticides on marine, surface, and groundwater ecosystems are discussed. Topics include biological fate and transformation of pesticides in waters, sources of release and transport of pesticides, bioaccumulation and metabolism of pesticides by aquatic organisms, ecological concentration and degradability of pesticides in model ecosystems, and marine ecology. Guidelines for pesticide registration and pesticide effluents are also referenced. (Contains a minimum of 205 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-01-01

425

Ecotoxic impact of suspended solids collected from polluted surface waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scope and background  Earlier studies showed that artificially contaminated particulate matter could be responsible for acute effects in water fleas\\u000a and fish. Physical\\/chemical measurements on suspended solids and river water collected in the field showed that these samples\\u000a were often contaminated with mixtures of toxic molecules.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The present pilot study was started to investigate the possible ecotoxic impact of suspended solids

Reinhilde Weltens; Hilda Witters; Philippe Corbisier

2001-01-01

426

Health risks from large-scale water pollution: Current trends and implications for improving drinking water quality in the lower Amu Darya drainage basin, Uzbekistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safe drinking water is a primary prerequisite to human health, well being and development. Yet, there are roughly one billion people around the world that lack access to safe drinking water supply. Health risk assessments are effective for evaluating the suitability of using various water sources as drinking water supply. Additionally, knowledge of pollutant transport processes on relatively large scales is needed to identify effective management strategies for improving water resources of poor quality. The lower Amu Darya drainage basin close to the Aral Sea in Uzbekistan suffers from physical water scarcity and poor water quality. This is mainly due to the intensive agriculture production in the region, which requires extensive freshwater withdrawals and use of fertilizers and pesticides. In addition, recurrent droughts in the region affect the surface water availability. On average 20% of the population in rural areas in Uzbekistan lack access to improved drinking water sources, and the situation is even more severe in the lower Amu Darya basin. In this study, we consider health risks related to water-borne contaminants by dividing measured substance concentrations with health-risk based guideline values from the World Health Organisation (WHO). In particular, we analyse novel results of water quality measurements performed in 2007 and 2008 in the Mejdurechye Reservoir (located in the downstream part of the Amu Darya river basin). We furthermore identify large-scale trends by comparing the Mejdurechye results to reported water quality results from a considerable stretch of the Amu Darya river basin, including drainage water, river water and groundwater. The results show that concentrations of cadmium and nitrite exceed the WHO health-risk based guideline values in Mejdurechye Reservoir. Furthermore, concentrations of the since long ago banned and highly toxic pesticides dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) were detected in the reservoir water for the first time in a decade. However, a relatively pronounced temporal variability in concentrations was observed for many of the substances, implying that the reservoir could contain low-risk waters temporarily. Health risk factors related to lead and chromium concentrations in groundwater were up to 200 times higher than for river water. The identified major divergence in health risk between groundwater and surface water illuminates the risk of using groundwater for drinking water supply during recurrent surface water deficits in the study area. However, the severe water scarcity and lack of financial resources in the region makes the choices of alternative water supply sources limited. Due to the presence of multiple contaminants, it appears reasonable that the aggregated toxicity of contaminant mixtures should be in focus in surface and groundwater water monitoring and management in the region. Key words: Aral Sea, Drinking water, Groundwater, Health Risk, Surface Water

Törnqvist, Rebecka; Jarsjö, Jerker

2010-05-01

427

Requiring pollutant discharge permits for pesticide applications that deposit residues in surface waters.  

PubMed

Agricultural producers and public health authorities apply pesticides to control pests that damage crops and carry diseases. Due to the toxic nature of most pesticides, they are regulated by governments. Regulatory provisions require pesticides to be registered and restrictions operate to safeguard human health and the environment. Yet pesticides used near surface waters pose dangers to non-target species and drinking water supplies leading some governments to regulate discharges of pesticides under pollution discharge permits. The dual registration and discharge permitting provisions are burdensome. In the United States, agricultural interest groups are advancing new legislation that would exempt pesticide residues from water permitting requirements. An analysis of the dangers posed by pesticide residues in drinking water leads to a conclusion that both pesticide registration and pollutant discharge permitting provisions are needed to protect human health and aquatic species. PMID:24814945

Centner, Terence; Eberhart, Nicholas

2014-05-01

428

Requiring Pollutant Discharge Permits for Pesticide Applications that Deposit Residues in Surface Waters  

PubMed Central

Agricultural producers and public health authorities apply pesticides to control pests that damage crops and carry diseases. Due to the toxic nature of most pesticides, they are regulated by governments. Regulatory provisions require pesticides to be registered and restrictions operate to safeguard human health and the environment. Yet pesticides used near surface waters pose dangers to non-target species and drinking water supplies leading some governments to regulate discharges of pesticides under pollution discharge permits. The dual registration and discharge permitting provisions are burdensome. In the United States, agricultural interest groups are advancing new legislation that would exempt pesticide residues from water permitting requirements. An analysis of the dangers posed by pesticide residues in drinking water leads to a conclusion that both pesticide registration and pollutant discharge permitting provisions are needed to protect human health and aquatic species. PMID:24814945

Centner, Terence; Eberhart, Nicholas

2014-01-01

429

Water pollution control in river basin by interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective programming  

SciTech Connect

The potential conflict between protection of water quality and economic development by different uses of land within river basins is a common problem in regional planning. Many studies have applied multiobjective decision analysis under uncertainty to problems of this kind. This paper presents the interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming (IFIMOMIP) model to evaluate optimal strategies of wastewater treatment levels within a river system by considering the uncertainties in decision analysis. The interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming approach is illustrated in a case study for the evaluation of optimal wastewater treatment strategies for water pollution control in a river basin. In particular, it demonstrates how different types of uncertainty in a water pollution control system can be quantified and combined through the use of interval numbers and membership functions. The results indicate that such an approach is useful for handling system complexity and generating more flexible policies for water quality management in river basins.

Chang, N.B.; Chen, H.W. [National Cheng-Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Shaw, D.G.; Yang, C.H. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Economics

1997-12-01

430

A review of Central European methods for the biological estimation of water pollution levels*  

PubMed Central

With the increasing amount and variety of pollution of surface and other waters in the modern world, there is an increasing need for simple, rapid and reliable methods for assessing the degree of purity or contamination of water. Partly for historical reasons, chemical methods have been used more widely than biological ones, although the latter possess certain advantages not shared by the former. Much important work on the biological assessment of water pollution has been done in Central Europe, and the author of this paper reviews the more significant of the modern methods evolved there. Some are ecological, some physiological; and certain of them merit consideration as standardizable procedures, applicable over a wider range of waters than those for which they were developed. To this end it will be necessary to conduct carefully controlled field trials under varying climatic and other conditions. PMID:14058231

Bick, Hartmut

1963-01-01

431

LEAF PHOTOSYNTHETIC AND WATER RELATIONS RESPONSES FOR "VALENCIA" ORANGE TREES EXPOSED TO OXIDANT AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Leaf responses were measured to test a hypothesis that reduced photosynthetic capacity and/or altered water relations were associated with reductions in yield for "Valencia" orange trees exposed to ambient oxidant air pollution. xposures were continuous for four years to three le...

432

Water Quality and Pollution. Environmental Studies. 4 Color Transparencies, Reproducibles & Teaching Guide. Grade 3, 4, 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The world is faced with a variety of environmental problems. No country has escaped pollution and resource depletion. Basic ecological principles are often ignored and sometimes this contributes to ecological disasters. This volume is designed to provide basic information about the quality of the earth's water resources. The visual aids,…

Ortleb, Edward P.; And Others

433

A Bi-Enzymatic Whole-Cell Algal Biosensor for Monitoring Waste Water Pollutants  

E-print Network

A Bi-Enzymatic Whole-Cell Algal Biosensor for Monitoring Waste Water Pollutants Claude Durrieu,1 Ce and the pellets were resuspended in phosphate-free emse-00519273,version1-12Oct2010 #12;medium to starve the algal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

434

Impacts of full secondary treatment at the joint water pollution control plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In September 1979, the Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County applied for a 301(h) waiver for modification of secondary treatment requirements for the Joint Water Pollution Control Plant. As specified by Environmental Protection Agency regulations, the waiver evaluated the environmental impacts associated with implementation of partial secondary treatment as compared to elimination of the wastewater discharge entirely. This paper presents

R. Miele

1985-01-01

435

The value of incorporating bioindicators in economic approaches to water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioindicators provide better information about environmental quality than chemical and physical measures alone. This paper addresses how this information can improve the efficiency of water pollution control policy. We model bioindicators as a means of resolving uncertainty about the relationship of human activities and environmental effects. Two economic policy models are developed to formalize efficiency gains that result from biological

Andrew G. Keeler; Donna McLemore

1996-01-01

436

Incidence of water pollution control costs: partial vs. general equilibrium computations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of two computations of the distributional effects of a fully implemented federal water pollution control policy, one based on an extreme partial equilibrium method and one on a computable general equilibrium model, finds some differences that show the importance of the general equilibrium computations. The application, however, only demonstrates the feasibility of the approach and illustrates the importance

JAMES S. SHORTLE; KEITH D. WILLETT

1986-01-01

437

A study on volatile organic sulfide causes of odors at Philadelphia's Northeast Water Pollution Control Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile organic sulfide (VOS) causes of odors were studied at Philadelphia's Northeast Water Pollution Control Plant between September 11 and November 25, 2003. Results showed that dimethyl sulfide (DMS) dominated the VOS pool whenever VOS concentration rose above the background level (<50?g\\/L). Methanethiol was generally less than 10% of VOS and it was mainly found at sites with limited or

Xianhao Cheng; Earl Peterkin; Gary A. Burlingame

2005-01-01

438

Water-pollution control: guidelines for project planning and financing. World Bank technical paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication provides guidelines to managers, supervisors, and others who are involved with decisions on filling needs for water-pollution-control facilities, but who may be lacking the detailed background in engineering, economics, financial management, or other applicable specialties. Political and economic planning leaders, who must provide the financial resources and overall policies, will also find the document useful in making themselves

R. C. Palange; A. Zavala

1987-01-01

439

Industry sector analysis, Indonesia: Water pollution control equipment. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The market survey covers the water pollution control equipment market in Indonesia. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Indonesian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

Bhinekawati, R.

1992-10-21

440

Industry sector analysis, Indonesia: Water pollution control equipment. Export trade information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The market survey covers the water pollution control equipment market in Indonesia. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Indonesian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

Bhinekawati

1992-01-01

441

A comparison of erosion and water pollution control strategies for an agricultural watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness and efficiency of two erosion control strategies and one water pollution control (riparian) strategy are compared for Idaho's Tom Beall watershed. Erosion control strategies maximize annualized net returns per hectare on each field and restrict field erosion rates to no more than 11.2 or 16.8 tons per hectare. The riparian strategy uses good vegetative cover on all fields

Tony Prato; Hongqi Shi

1990-01-01

442

Research on Decision Support System of Water Pollution Control Based on Immune Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method of decision support system (DSS) is put forward, and the theory of immune arithmetic and agent is applied in the scopes. Based on immune agent, a decision support system of urban river water pollution control based on immune agent is proposed. The system includes apperceive agent, control agent and response agent, which solves the problem that DSS

Bo-ping Zhang; Guo-xi Wu; Shi-yu Shang

2008-01-01

443

Consequences of Decentralization: Environmental Impact Assessment and Water Pollution Control in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

After having been one of the most centralized states in the world for more than thirty years, in 2001 Indonesia introduced a sweeping program of decentralization with important consequences for the management of the industrial sector. This article explores whether the decentralization process has led to substantial changes in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and enforcement of water pollution law. Its

ADRIAAN BEDNER

2010-01-01

444

Post Evaluation of Water Pollution Control Planning for Huai River Basin in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post evaluation methodology for river basin water pollution control planning has been applied to Huai River Basin plan (2001-2005). It consists of assessment on plan enforcement results and enforcement process. The former is conducted through the multi-criteria comprehensive evaluation method based on an indicator system. And the latter is to assess the impact of natural endowment, plan preparation assumptions, policy

Siyu Zeng; Mi Tian; Jing Li; Jining Chen

2008-01-01

445

Review of the literature of 1966 on wastewater and water pollution control. Part 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1966 literature on wastewater and water pollution control for a number of industrial plants is reviewed. This article is divided into discussions for each industrial application covered. One such discussion is on petroleum processing waste. This reveals that Standard Oil Co. of Ohio has begun a $1 million program to modernize wastewater treating facilities at its Toledo, Ohio, refinery.

C. M. Weiss; R. S. Engelbrecht

1967-01-01

446

Energy conservation at the West Dover, Vermont, Water Pollution Control facility. Special report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy audit was conducted at the West Dover, Vermont, water pollution control facility. The audit revealed that aeration, not pumping to the land treatment site, was the largest energy consumer. As a result of the audit, five Energy Conservation Opportunities (EOC) were evaluated. Three of the ECOs were recommended for implementation; these could result in annual savings of more

C. J. Martel; B. C. Sargent; W. Bronson

1982-01-01

447

Laws of the United States Relating to Water Pollution Control and Environmental Quality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This compilation of Federal legislation contains copies of twelve Public Laws, four Executive Orders, and five International Conventions relevant to water pollution control. It also contains two Public Laws and two Executive Orders pertaining to environmental quality. There is a brief introduction summarizing the provisions of each Act. (AL)

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Public Works.

448

Development of a CFD Model for Secondary Final Settling Tanks in Water Pollution Control Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess performance and evaluate alternatives to improve efficiency of the New York City the Wards Island Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) FSTs at peak loads, a 3D CFD model has been developed. Fluent was utilized as the base platform, where sub-models of the Suspended Solids (SS), settling characteristics, density currents and SS flocculation were incorporated. This was supplemented by

Minwei Gong; Savvas Xanthos; Krish Ramalingam; John Fillos

2007-01-01

449

Action for Environmental Quality. Standards and Enforcement for Air and Water Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for setting and enforcing environmental quality standards for the nation. With the Clean Air Act of 1970 (P.L. 91-604) and the Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (P.L. 92-500), the first truly nationwide control programs were established. This booklet is designed to inform the public…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

450

Application of Genetic Algorithm in the Optimization of Water Pollution Control Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic Algorithm (Genetic Algorithm Chine write for the GA) is a kind of hunting Algorithm bionic global optimization imitating the Darwinian biological evolution theories, is advancing front of complex nonlinear science and artificial intelligence science. In the basic of introducing the GA basic principle and optimization Algorithm, this text leads the GA into the domain of the water pollution control

Rui-Ming Zhao; Dong-Ping Qian

2007-01-01

451

SEAGULLS POLLUTION AT HOUT BAY AND ITS IMPACT ON MICROBIOLOGICAL WATER QUALITY OF THE LAGOON  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cape Metropolitan Coastal Water Quality Annual Report of 2000 reported Hout Bay as one of the polluted beaches on the Atlantic coastline, Cape Town, South Africa. Faecal coliforms levels exceeded the guideline limits of less than 100 cfu per ml and less 2 000 cfu per ml in 80 percent and 95 percent of samples collected in one year

Mjikisile Vulindlu; Adiel Fortune

452

Nano?adsorbents for the removal of metallic pollutants from water and wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the variety of adsorbents available for the removal of heavy and toxic metals, activated carbon has been the most popular. A number of minerals, clays and waste materials have been regularly used for the removal of metallic pollutants from water and industrial effluents. Recently there has been emphasis on the application of nanoparticles and nanostructured materials as efficient and

Y. C. Sharma; V. Srivastava; V. K. Singh; S. N. Kaul; C. H. Weng

2009-01-01

453

A Guide to the Common Diatoms at Water Pollution Surveillance System Stations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a taxonomic reference for the identification of diatoms. The taxonomic information included consists of a generic key to the common genera of diatoms, a section illustrating 164 diatom species representing 43 common genera found at the Water Pollution

Weber, Cornelius I.

454

Training Course on Water Pollution. Red Sea & Gulf of Aden Programme (PERSGA).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a training course on water pollution developed by the staff of the National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt. This course, which is organized by the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO), is intended for Junior Bachelor of Science (B.S.) graduates from various Arab countries. The duration of the…

Arab Organization for Education and Science, Cairo (Egypt).

455

UTILITY OF SYNTHETIC ZEOLITES IN REMOVAL OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange and adsorption properties. Different inorganic and organic pollutants have been removed from water at room temperature using various zeolites. Synthetic zeolites like ZSM-5, Ferrierite, Beta and Faujasite Y have been used to remove i...

456

Modeling of power generation pollutant emissions based on locational marginal prices for sustainable water delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of a model that links electric power consumption and the resulting pollutant emissions. The model is applied to the particular application of water transmission to a large urban region. The model uses the locational marginal price (LMP) at any bus in the system to determine the generating unit type that is \\

Timothy H Carter; Caisheng Wang; Stephen S. Miller; Shawn P. McElmurry; Carol J. Miller; Ian A. Hutt

2011-01-01

457

Other water pollution. [Nonpoint sources, primarily agricultural sediment and urban runoff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only half the water pollutants are estimated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to originate at point sources, while the other half result from diverse nonpoint sources that are hard to identify and hard to control. Nonpoint sources are primarily one of eight types of runoff, with the major volume attributed to agricultural sediment and urban runoff. Urban stormwater runoff

1978-01-01

458

EQUILIBRIUM DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENTS FOR EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC PRIORITY POLLUTANTS FROM WATER - II  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is the second of a series of two reports dealing with the removal of certain of the organic EPA Priority Pollutants from water by means of solvent extraction. The principal focus of the project has been measurement of equilibrium distribution coefficients (equivalent ...

459

Water Research 36 (2002) 32273236 A risk assessment of pollution: induction of atrazine tolerance  

E-print Network

Water Research 36 (2002) 3227­3236 A risk assessment of pollution: induction of atrazine tolerance Abstract We investigated the validity and sensitivity of assessments of the induction of atrazine tolerance contaminated by photosystem II herbicides. Atrazine inhibits the photosynthetic process, and so the rise in in

Jacquet, Stéphan

460

Evaluation of pollutant loadings in the runoff waters from a major rural highway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of pavement runoff water from a 275-m motorway section has been studied for 1 year, during which approximately 50 rain events have been sampled. Two different types of pollution have been revealed. One type can be defined as chronic and includes suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, total hydrocarbons, zinc and lead. The second type can be considered to

M. Legret; C. Pagotto

1999-01-01

461

A Comparison of Erosion and Water Pollution Control Strategies for an Agricultural Watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness and efficiency of two erosion control strategies and one water pollution control (riparian) strategy are compared for Idaho's Tom Beall watershed. Erosion control strategies maximize annualized net returns per hectare on each field and restrict field erosion rates to no more than 11.2 or 16.8 tons per hectare. The riparian strategy uses good vegetative cover on all fields

Tony Prato; Hongqi Shi

1990-01-01

462

Cost and Pollutant Removal of StormWater Treatment Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six storm-water best management practices BMPs for treating urban rainwater runoff were evaluated for cost and effective- ness in removing suspended sediments and total phosphorus. Construction and annual operating and maintenance O and M cost data were collected and analyzed for dry extended detention basins, wet basins, sand filters, constructed wetlands, bioretention filters, and infiltration trenches using literature that reported

Peter T. Weiss; John S. Gulliver; Andrew J. Erickson

2007-01-01

463

State revolving fund: Final report to Congress. Financial status and operations of water pollution control revolving funds  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report to Congress. The SRF final report addresses the financial status and operations of water pollution control revolving funds established by the States under Title VI of the Clean Water Act (CWA).

Not Available

1991-10-01

464

Nonpoint Source Pollution: Agriculture, Forestry, and Mining. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nonpoint sources of pollution have diffuse origins and are major contributors to water quality problems in both urban and rural areas. Addressed in this instructor's manual are the identification, assessment, and management of nonpoint source pollutants resulting from mining, agriculture, and forestry. The unit, part of the Working for Clean Water

Buskirk, E. Drannon, Jr.

465

40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

(b) Effluent limitations established pursuant to this section shall be calculated on the basis of the amount of section 307(a) toxic pollutant(s) present in the water after any water supply treatment steps have been performed by or for the owner or...

2011-07-01

466

Areawide planning under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972: intergovernmental and land-use implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

By 1972 Congress had recognized the impossibility of controlling water pollution without some degree of land use management. Congress subsequently amended the Federal Water Pollution Control Act by adding section 208, which creates a Federal system of areawide planning. This comment analyzes the planning responsibilities that section 208 imposed upon state and metropolitan governments, the new element of Federal control

Jungman

1977-01-01

467

Sanitary landfills: Water pollution. January 1980-August 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Aug 91  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, operation, and management of sanitary landfills as related to water pollution. Topics include water pollution control, leachate analyses, site studies, environmental monitoring, and solid waste management strategies. Hazardous materials, public health, refuse disposal, and waste disposal are considered. (Contains 126 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1991-07-01

468

Tracking Non-point Fecal Pollution in the Guadalupe River: Distinguishing Urban and Rural Influences upon Water Quality  

E-print Network

, Assistant Professor University of Houston - Victoria Non-point fecal pollution is a problem in water bodiesTracking Non-point Fecal Pollution in the Guadalupe River: Distinguishing Urban and Rural Influences upon Water Quality Matthew Boyett University of Houston - Victoria boyettmr@uhv.edu Dmitri Sobolev

469

Spatial Cluster Detection of Air Pollution Exposure Inequities across the United States  

PubMed Central

Air quality is known to be a key factor in affecting the wellbeing and quality of life of the general populous and there is a large body of knowledge indicating that certain underrepresented groups may be overexposed to air pollution. Therefore, a more precise understanding of air pollution exposure as a driving cause of health disparities between and among ethnic and racial groups is necessary. Utilizing 52,613 urban census tracts across the United States, this study investigates age, racial, educational attainment and income differences in exposure to benzene pollution in 1999 as a case. The study examines spatial clustering patterns of these inequities using logistic regression modeling and spatial autocorrelation methods such as the Global Moran's I index and the Anselin Local Moran's I index. Results show that the age groups of 0 to 14 and those over 60 years old, individuals with less than 12 years of education, racial minorities including Blacks, American Indians, Asians, some other races, and those with low income were exposed to higher levels of benzene pollution in some census tracts. Clustering analyses stratified by age, education, and race revealed a clear case of disparities in spatial distribution of exposure to benzene pollution across the entire United States. For example, people aged less than 4 years from the western south and the Pacific coastal areas exhibit statistically significant clusters. The findings confirmed that there are geographical-location based disproportionate pattern of exposures to benzene air pollution by various socio-demographic factors across the United States and this type of disproportionate exposure pattern can be effectively detected by a spatial autocorrelation based cluster analysis method. It is suggested that there is a clear and present need for programs and services that will reduce inequities and ultimately improve environmental conditions for all underrepresented groups in the United States. PMID:24647354

Zou, Bin; Peng, Fen; Wan, Neng; Mamady, Keita; Wilson, Gaines J.

2014-01-01

470

Organic pollutants and ambient severity for the drinking water source of western Taihu Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of the organic compounds found in western Taihu Lake and evaluation of the ambient severity (AS) of the water\\u000a using multimedia environmental goals (MEG) was conducted. The comet assay and the antioxidant enzyme approach were used to\\u000a test the potential toxicity of water samples on the microalgae Euglena gracilis. Total concentrations of 25 organic pollutants in samples from two

Xiangyu Gao; Xiaorong Shi; Yibin Cui; Mei Li; Rongfei Zhang; Xin Qian; Yue Jiang

2011-01-01

471

The Distribution of the Costs of Federal Water Pollution Control Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex problem of assigning dollar-costs to Federal programs is approached by comparing the distributional costs of implementing the Clean Water Act of 1972 with those of the Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, which are found to be more equitable. The study is limited to short-term tax and price burdens and neglects both the long-term costs and the

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin

1980-01-01

472

Total energy concept at the joint water pollution control plant. [Carson, CA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed total-energy facilities at the Joint Water Pollution Control Plant (Carson, Calif.) are designed to maximize electrical power production to meet significant increases in demands resulting from secondary treatment, and to minimize dependence on public utilities for natural gas and water by reusing waste heat and plant effluent. The generator prime-mover selection process includes analyses of reciprocating engines, simple-cycle

G. M. Adams; J. D. Eppich; W. E. Garrison; J. C. Gratteau

1980-01-01

473

Water solubility enhancement of some organic pollutants and pesticides by dissolved humic and fulvic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water solubility enhancements by dissolved humic and fulvic acids from soil and aquatic origins and by synthetic organic polymers have been determined for selected organic pollutants and pesticides (p,p'-DDT,2,4,5,2',5'-PCB, 2,4,4'-PCB, 1,2,3,-trichlorobenzene, and lindane). Significant solubility enhancements of relatively water-insoluble solutes by dissolved organic matter (DOM) of soil and aquatic origins may be described in terms of a partition-like interaction of

Cary T. Chiou; Ronald L. Malcolm; Terry I. Brinton; Daniel E. Kile

1986-01-01

474

Interpolation of extensive routine water pollution monitoring datasets: methodology and discussion of implications for aquifer management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large fraction of the fresh water available for human use is stored in groundwater aquifers. Since human activities such as mining, agriculture, industry and urbanization often result in incursion of various pollutants to groundwater, routine monitoring of water quality is an indispensable component of judicious aquifer management. Unfortunately, groundwater pollution monitoring is expensive and usually cannot cover an aquifer with the spatial resolution necessary for making adequate management decisions. Interpolation of monitoring data between points is thus an important tool for supplementing measured data. However, interpolating routine groundwater pollution data poses a special problem due to the nature of the observations. The data from a producing aquifer usually includes many zero pollution concentration values from the clean parts of the aquifer but may span a wide range (up to a few orders of magnitude) of values in the polluted areas. This manuscript presents a methodology that can cope with such datasets and use them to produce maps that present the pollution plumes but also delineates the clean areas that are fit for production. A method for assessing the quality of mapping in a way which is suitable to the data's dynamic range of values is also presented. Local variant of inverse distance weighting is employed to interpolate the data. Inclusion zones around the interpolation points ensure that only relevant observations contribute to each interpolated concentration. Using inclusion zones improves the accuracy of the mapping but results in interpolation grid points which are not assigned a value. That inherent trade-off between the interpolation accuracy and coverage is demonstrated using both circular and elliptical inclusion zones. A leave-one-out cross testing is used to assess and compare the performance of the interpolations. The methodology is demonstrated using groundwater pollution monitoring data from the Coastal aquifer along the Israeli shoreline.

Yuval; Rimon, Y.; Graber, E. R.; Furman, A.

2013-07-01

475

Pulsed electrical discharges in water for removal of organic pollutants: a comparative study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the efficiency of different types of pulsed electrical discharges for the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater has been determined. Three discharge types, either in the water volume or in close proximity to the water surface are studied. The production of hydrogen peroxide in pure water, and the degradation of two typical pollutants (4-chlorophenol and 4-nitrophenol) is measured together with the amount of electrical energy dissipated in discharges. It is shown that the energy yield for the degradation of organic pollutants, expressed in terms of degraded moles per Joule, strongly depends on the discharge type. The highest efficiency is obtained with pulsed corona discharges in humid air above the water surface. A lower efficiency is found with spark discharges in water, and the less efficient process is constituted by streamer discharges in water. The influence of ferrous ions added to solutions is also very different according to the discharge type. This helps to get a better understanding of the degradation processes involved with the different discharge types.

Dang, T. H.; Denat, A.; Lesaint, O.; Teissedre, G.

2009-08-01

476

Remote sensing applied to environmental pollution detection and management. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of remote sensing techniques and equipment to study air and water pollution. Topics include the use of aerial photographs, radar, and spaceborne photography to study oil spills, ocean dumping sites, plume dispersions, and pollution problems in estuaries. Data interpretation and processing techniques are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

477

Manpower Requirements for Pollution Control and Water Resources in Indiana and a Related Pollution Control Technology Curriculum. Manpower Report 69-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify the trained manpower needed to cope with Indiana's mounting problems in air and water pollution control, liquid and solid waste disposal, and water supply and resources. This report contains data concerning the present employment, current job opportunities, and projected manpower needs for related…

Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Office of Manpower Studies.

478

Green analytical determination of emerging pollutants in environmental waters using excitation-emission photoinduced fluorescence data and multivariate calibration.  

PubMed

An eco-friendly strategy for the simultaneous quantification of three emerging pharmaceutical contaminants is presented. The proposed analytical method, which involves photochemically induced fluorescence matrix data combined with second-order chemometric analysis, was used for the determination of carbamazepine, ofloxacin and piroxicam in water samples of different complexity without the need of chromatographic separation. Excitation-emission photoinduced fluorescence matrices were obtained after UV irradiation, and processed with second-order algorithms. Only one of the tested algorithms was able to overcome the strong spectral overlapping among the studied pollutants and allowed their successful quantitation in very interferent media. The method sensitivity in superficial and underground water samples was enhanced by a simple solid-phase extraction with C18 membranes, which was successful for the extraction/preconcentration of the pollutants at trace levels. Detection limits in preconcentrated (1:125) real water samples ranged from 0.04 to 0.3ngmL(-1). Relative prediction errors around 10% were achieved. The proposed strategy is significantly simpler and greener than liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods, without compromising the analytical quality of the results. PMID:25618660

Hurtado-Sánchez, María Del Carmen; Lozano, Valeria A; Rodríguez-Cáceres, María Isabel; Durán-Merás, Isabel; Escandar, Graciela M

2015-03-01

479

Luminescence Sensors Applied to Water Analysis of Organic Pollutants—An Update  

PubMed Central

The development of chemical sensors for environmental analysis based on fluorescence, phosphorescence and chemiluminescence signals continues to be a dynamic topic within the sensor field. This review covers the fundamentals of this type of sensors, and an update on recent works devoted to quantifying organic pollutants in environmental waters, focusing on advances since about 2005. Among the wide variety of these contaminants, special attention has been paid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, explosives and emerging organic pollutants. The potential of coupling optical sensors with multivariate calibration methods in order to improve the selectivity is also discussed. PMID:22247654

Ibañez, Gabriela A.; Escandar, Graciela M.

2011-01-01

480

Chapter Five Passive Treatment of Polluted Mine Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As contaminated mine waters flow into and through receiving systems (streams, rivers, wetlands and lakes), their toxic characteristics\\u000a commonly decrease. Many studies (e.g. Tuttle et al., 1969, Wieder and Lang 1982; Huntsman 1978; Stark et al., 1990; Herlihy and Mills 1985) have shown that this amelioration in quality occurs as a result of:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a  \\u000a \\u000a natural chemical and biological reactions and

Paul L. Younger; Steven A. Banwart; Robert S. Hedin

481

Toxicity bioassays: Water pollution effects on aquatic animals and plants. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning toxicity bioassay studies of water pollution effects on reproduction, growth, and mortality of aquatic fauna and flora. Industrial and agricultural water pollutants such as heavy metals, chemicals, pesticides, and herbicides are evaluated and tested. Standard fish and algal assays are used to determine effects of potential toxicants. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01

482

Toxicity bioassays: Water-pollution effects on aquatic animals and plants. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning toxicity bioassay studies of water pollution effects on reproduction, growth, and mortality of aquatic fauna and flora. Industrial and agricultural water pollutants such as heavy metals, chemicals, pesticides, and herbicides are evaluated and tested. Standard fish and algal assays are used to determine effects of potential toxicants. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-08-01

483

Political crisis and the politics of water pollution control in the 1970s  

SciTech Connect

This research investigates the sociopolitical context and formation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1977 in light of the theory of the relative autonomy of the state. Data on state legitimacy and political crisis are derived from previous studies on public trust in government and business and the National Opinion Research Center's General Social Surveys series. Data on class influence and class political power are derived from the testimony of witnesses at the US Senate hearings. Major findings note that the Act of 1972 was proposed and passed during a period of severe crisis in the public's trust in government and business. The federal government responded to that crisis, in part, through the enactment of a water pollution control policy that featured public participation and strict national water quality standards. The formation of the 1972 act is found to be independent of direct class influences. The Amendments of 1977 extended industrial compliance deadlines for meeting the national water quality standards and weakened the implementation of provisions that encouraged public participation.

Tsoukalas, T.H.

1991-01-01

484

Spectral changes in conifers subjected to air pollution and water stress: Experimental studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The roles of leaf anatomy, moisture and pigment content, and number of leaf layers on spectral reflectance in healthy, pollution-stressed, and water-stressed conifer needles were examined experimentally. Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) and giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron gigantea) were exposed to ozone and acid mist treatments in fumigation chambers; red pine (Pinus resinosa) needles were artificially dried. Infrared reflectance from stacked needles rose with free water loss. In an air-drying experiment, cell volume reductions induced by loss of turgor caused near-infrared reflectance (TM band 4) to drop after most free water was lost. Under acid mist fumigation, stunting of tissue development similarly reduced band 4 reflectance. Both artificial drying and pollutant fumigation caused a blue shift of the red edge of spectral reflectance curves in conifers, attributable to chlorophyll denaturation. Thematic mapper band ratio 4/3 fell and 5/4 rose with increasing pollution stress on artificial drying. Loss of water by air-drying, freeze-drying, or oven-drying enhanced spectral features, due in part to greater scattering and reduced water absorption. Grinding of the leaf tissue further enhanced the spectral features by increasing reflecting surfaces and path length. In a leaf-stacking experiment, an asymptote in visible and infrared reflectance was reached at 7-8 needle layers of red pine.

Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

1988-01-01

485

Intensive management in grasslands causes diffuse water pollution at the farm scale.  

PubMed

Arable land use is generally assumed to be the largest contributor to agricultural diffuse pollution. This study adds to the growing evidence that conventional temperate intensively managed lowland grasslands contribute significantly to soil erosion and diffuse pollution rates. This is the first grassland study to monitor hydrological characteristics and multiple pollutant fluxes (suspended sediment [SS] and the macronutrients: total oxidized nitrogen-N [TON], total phosphorus [TP], and total carbon [TC]) at high temporal resolution (monitoring up to every 15 min) over 1 yr. Monitoring was conducted across three fields (6.5-7.5 ha) on the North Wyke Farm Platform, UK. The estimated annual erosion rates (up to 527.4 kg ha), TP losses (up to 0.9 kg ha), and TC losses (up to 179 kg ha) were similar to or exceeded the losses reported for other grassland, mixed land-use, and arable sites. Annual yields of TON (up to 3 kg ha) were less than arable land-use fluxes and earlier grassland N studies, an important result as the study site is situated within a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone. The high-resolution monitoring allowed detailed "system's functioning" understanding of hydrological processes, mobilization- transport pathways of individual pollutants, and the changes of the relative importance of diffuse pollutants through flow conditions and time. Suspended sediment and TP concentrations frequently exceeded water quality guidelines recommended by the European Freshwater Fisheries Directive (25 mg L) and the European Water Framework Directive (0.04 mg soluble reactive P L), suggesting that intensively managed grasslands pose a significant threat to receiving surface waters. Such sediment and nutrient losses from intensively managed grasslands should be acknowledged in land management guidelines and advice for future compliance with surface water quality standards. PMID:25602218

Peukert, Sabine; Griffith, Bruce A; Murray, Phillip J; Macleod, Christopher J A; Brazier, Richard E

2014-11-01

486

Room temperature detection of chemical pollutants by SnO II-based optical fiber sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade a huge number of SnO II-based gas sensors have been proposed for environmental monitoring, automotive applications, air conditioning in houses, airplane and aircrafts. However, most of the proposed sensors work at very high temperatures in order to reach high sensitivities. Here, a SnO II-based optical fiber sensor is proposed for the room temperature detection of chemical pollutants in air. Particles layers composed by tin dioxide grains, with wavelength and subwavelength dimensions, resulted very promising because they are able to significantly modify the optical near field profile emerging from the film surface due to local enhancements of the evanescent wave contribute, and thus to improve the sensitivity to surface effects induced by the analyte interaction. The room temperature sensing performances of SnO II-based particles layers towards environmental pollutants have been investigated by the exposure to different concentrations of toluene and xylene vapors as well as gaseous ammonia. They have also been compared with the performances obtained with other optical fiber sensors in the same configuration, but coated with different sensitive materials, such as Single-Walled carbon nanotubes. The preliminary results obtained evidenced the surprising capability of the SnO II-based optical sensor to detect chemical pollutants at ppm level in air at room temperature. Finally, preliminary results on the effects of the processing parameters and post processing thermal annealing on film morphology and optical near field are presented.

Consales, M.; Pisco, M.; Pilla, P.; Cutolo, A.; Buosicolo, A.; Viter, R.; Smyntyna, V.; Giordano, M.; Cusano, A.

2007-05-01

487

Evaluation of Immunomagnetic Separation for the Detection of Salmonella in Surface Waters by Polymerase Chain Reaction  

PubMed Central

Salmonella spp. is associated with fecal pollution and capable of surviving for long periods in aquatic environments. Instead of the traditional, time-consuming biochemical detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows rapid identification of Salmonella directly concentrated from water samples. However, prevalence of Salmonella may be underestimated because of the vulnerability of PCR to various environmental chemicals like humic acid, compounded by the fact that various DNA polymerases have different susceptibility to humic acid. Because immunomagnetic separation (IMS) theoretically could isolate Salmonella from other microbes and facilitate removal of aquatic PCR inhibitors of different sizes, this study aims to compare the efficiency of conventional PCR combined with immunomagnetic separation (IMS) for Salmonella detection within a moderately polluted watershed. In our study, the positive rate was increased from 17.6% to 47% with nearly ten-fold improvement in the detection limit. These results suggest the sensitivity of Salmonella detection could be enhanced by IMS, particularly in low quality surface waters. Due to its effects on clearance of aquatic pollutants, IMS may be suitable for most DNA polymerases for Salmonella detection. PMID:25243887

Hsu, Chao-Yu; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Chang, Tien-Yu; Hsu, Tsui-Kang; Shen, Shu-Min; Chiu, Yi-Chou; Wang, Hung-Jen; Ji, Wen-Tsai; Fan, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Jyh-Larng

2014-01-01

488

Remote sensing applied to numerical modelling. [water resources pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress and remaining difficulties in the construction of predictive mathematical models of large bodies of water as ecosystems are reviewed. Surface temperature is at present the only variable than can be measured accurately and reliably by remote sensing techniques, but satellite infrared data are of sufficient resolution for macro-scale modeling of oceans and large lakes, and airborne radiometers are useful in meso-scale analysis (of lakes, bays, and thermal plumes). Finite-element and finite-difference techniques applied to the solution of relevant coupled time-dependent nonlinear partial differential equations are compared, and the specific problem of the Biscayne Bay and environs ecosystem is tackled in a finite-differences treatment using the rigid-lid model and a rigid-line grid system.

Sengupta, S.; Lee, S. S.; Veziroglu, T. N.; Bland, R.

1975-01-01

489

[Characteristics of aerosol water-soluble inorganic ions in three types air-pollution incidents of Nanjing City].  

PubMed

In order to compare aerosol water-soluble inorganic species in different air-pollution periods, samples of PM10, PM2.1, PM1.1 and the main water-soluble ions (NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, K+, NO2(-), F(-), NO3(-), Cl(-), SO4(2-)) were measured, which were from 3 air-pollution incidents (continued pollution in October 16-30 of 2009, sandstorm pollution in April 27-30 of 2010, and crop burning pollution in June 14 of 2010. The results show that aerosol pollution of 3 periods is serious. The lowest PM2.1/PM10 is only 0.27, which is from sandstorm pollution period, while the largest is 0. 7 from crop burning pollution period. In continued pollution periods, NO3(-) and SO4(2-) are the dominant ions, and the total anions account for an average of 18.62%, 32.92% and 33.53% of PM10, PM2.1 and PM1.1. Total water-soluble ions only account for 13.36%, 23.72% and 28.54% of PM10, PM2.1 and PM1.1 due to the insoluble species is increased in sandstorm pollution period. The mass concentration of Ca2+ in sandstorm pollution period is higher than the other two pollution periods, and which is mainly in coarse particles with diameter larger than 1 microm. All the ten water-soluble ions are much higher in crop burning pollution especially K+ which is the tracer from crop burning. The peak mass concentrations of NO3(-), SO4(2-) and NH4+ are in 0.43-0.65 microm. PMID:22946180

Zhang, Qiu-Chen; Zhu, Bin; Su, Ji-Feng; Wang, Hong-Lei

2012-06-01

490

Determination of phenol pollutants in water at trace levels: Extraction by a reversible graphitized carbon black cartridge  

SciTech Connect

A method for determining the 11 phenols designated as priority pollutants by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as the parts-per-trillion level in water sampled from the environment is described. Drinking (2 L), ground (1.5 L), and river (0.5 L) water samples are preconstructed by passing them through a 1 g graphitized carbon black (GCB) reversible cartridge at a flow rate of approximately 70 mL/min. After the GCB cartridge is washed with 1.5 mL methanol to eliminate water, the cartridge is reversed and then back-flushed with an acidic CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}-CH{sub 3}OH mixture for eluting phenols. After partial solvent removal, the sample is subjected to reversed-phase liquid chromatography with UV detection by either a conventional or a diode-array detector. Recoveries of phenols added to 2 L of drinking water at levels between 0.05 and 4 {mu}g/L were higher than 90%. Compared with an octadecyl bonded silica (C{sub 18}) cartridge, the GCB cartridge had a far better extraction efficiency for the more highly water-soluble phenols. The extent to which the presence of fulvic acids in water affected the recovery of the phenols considered was investigated. 36 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Di Corcia, A.; Marchese, S.; Samperi, R. [Universita La Sapienza, Roma (Italy)] [and others

1994-03-01

491

Detection of Water Ice on Nereid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the detection of the 1.5 and 2.0 ?m absorption bands of water ice in the near-infrared reflection spectrum of Neptune's distant irregular satellite Nereid. The spectrum and albedo of Nereid appear intermediate between those of the Uranian satellites Umbriel and Oberon, suggesting a surface composed of a combination of water ice frost and a dark and spectrally neutral material. In contrast, the surface of Nereid appears dissimilar to those of the outer solar system minor planets Chiron, Pholus, and 1997 CU26. The spectrum thus provides support for the hypothesis that Nereid is a regular satellite formed in a circumplanetary environment rather than a captured object.

Brown, Michael E.; Koresko, Christopher D.; Blake, Geoffrey A.

1998-12-01

492

Detection of water ice on Nereid.  

PubMed

We report the detection of the 1.5 and 2.0 micrometers absorption bands of water ice in the near-infrared reflection spectrum of Neptune's distant irregular satellite Nereid. The spectrum and albedo of Nereid appear intermediate between those of the Uranian satellites Umbriel and Oberon, suggesting a surface composed of a combination of water ice frost and a dark and spectrally neutral material. In contrast, the surface of Nereid appears dissimilar to those of the outer solar system minor planets Chiron, Pholus, and 1997 CU26. The spectrum thus provides support for the hypothesis that Nereid is a regular satellite formed in a circumplanetary environment rather than a captured object. PMID:11542819

Brown, M E; Koresko, C D; Blake, G A

1998-12-01

493

[Pilot-scale study on riparian mixed plant zones treating polluted river water].  

PubMed

The polluted river water is treated with pilot-scale riparian zones of no aquatic plant, Vetiveria zizanioides + submerged plants, and weed+ Typha angustifolia L. + Phragmites communis. It is shown that the vegetation water zones are better than the no vegetation water zone and Vetiveria zizanioides + submerged plants zone is the best in improving water quality. The average removals of the Vetiveria zizanioides + submerged plant zone is 43.5% COD, 71.1% ammonia and 69.3% total phosphorus respectively. The dissolved oxygen (DO) and temperature of effluents from the three water zones are also investigated. It shows that DO of effluent from the vegetation zones are more stable than that of effluent from the no vegetation zone, and the temperature of the effluent from the vegetation zones are lower than that from the no vegetation zones. The submerged plants have special role in water quality improvement, and should be studied further. PMID:16767981

Li, Rui-hua; Guan, Yun-tao; He, Miao; Hu, Hong-yin; Jiang, Zhan-peng

2006-04-01

494

Assessment of pollution of bottom sediments of water sources of Kuban low plain, Russia  

SciTech Connect

The levels of pollution of bottom sediments (BS) of various water sources (water reservoirs, rivers, rice irrigation system, the Asov and the Black sea bays) of Kuban low plain in Krasnodar region, Russia have been assessed. The content of various pollutants, both widespreading (DDT and its metabolites (DDD, DDE), PCBs, benz(a)pyrenes) and localizing (3,4-dicholaniline (DChA), the main metabolite of herbicide propanide used in rice production) has been analyzed. It has been found chromato-mass spectrometrically that the total content of DDT and its metabolites in BS of various water sources was deviated in limits of 4--41 mkg/kg being on 1--2 order less in comparison with industrial originated pollutants -- PCBs whose content was 51--1,978 mkg/kg and predominantly consisted of tetra-, penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls (> 90%). Benz(a)pyrenes as typical carcinogenic compounds have been founded in limits of 2--16 mkg/kg. The main interest during the monitoring has been connected with an assessment of distribution of propanide and its metabolite DChA in BS of irrigation channels -- Asov sea bay system. It is well known that DChA can be immobilized and conserved long-term in soil. During pre-harvested water removal from rice fields, the runoff of fine dispersed soil particles with sorbed pesticide residues, the transportation by drainage waters and final sedimentation take place. It has been determined that the content of immobilized DChA in BS mas 1,700--3,400 mkg/kg with transit pattern of DChA accumulation in drainage net: the relative part of this metabolite in BS of irrigation channels was 31 % and in BS of the Asov sea bay 69%. The results obtained testify on the presence of heavy pollution by PCBs and DChA in the irrigated agrolandscapes of Kuban low plain.

Galiulin, R.; Bashkin, V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Puschino (Russian Federation). Inst. Soil Science and Photosynthesis

1995-12-31

495

[Estimation and allocation of water environmental capacity in nonpoint source polluted river].  

PubMed

Based on the investigation of the application and emission quantities (QAE) of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) for nonpoint sources in river catchment' s area, included fertilizer applications, livestock and living pollutants emissions, the quantities of TN and TP entered the river were computed by means of export coefficient model in Changle River, southeast China. Self-purification capacities of TN and TP in the reach were also estimated in terms of input-output balance analysis method. According to the provisions of water function planning in the river, the water environment residual capacity (WERC) or the demand for reducing the application and emission (DRAE) of nitrogen and phosphorus in the corresponding catchment were monthly estimated, and WERC and DRAE were respectively allocated among the pollution sources. Results indicated that about 28.8% of TN loads and 51.2% of TP loads could be self-purified respectively in the reach, i. e., purification of 775.9 t a(-1) for TN and 30.9 t a(-1) for TP. Seasonal variations of the self-purification for the pollutants not only resulted from riverine hydrological and ecological conditions, but also affected by the pollution loading. According to the demand of the water quality protection in the reach, about 1581.0 t a(-1) QAE of TN had to reduce in Changle catchment. The maximum demand for the reducing QAE of TN was the fertilizer application (1047.4 t a(-1)), and the highest ratio for the reducing QAE of TN was livestock-poultry breeding (32.4%). There was about 2335.7 t a(-1) WERC for TP in the reach. The largest DRAE of nitrogen was during mid-water season and the least WERC of TP was during higher-water season. PMID:17891945

Chen, Ding-jiang; Lü, Jun; Jin, Shu-quan; Shen, Ye-na

2007-07-01

496

Water pollution control technology and strategy for river–lake systems: a case study in Gehu Lake and Taige Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Taoge water system is located in the upstream of Taihu Lake basin and is characterized by its multi-connected rivers and\\u000a lakes. In this paper, current analyses of hydrology, hydrodynamics and water pollution of Gehu Lake and Taige Canal are presented.\\u000a Several technologies are proposed for pollution prevention and control, and water environmental protection in the Taihu Lake\\u000a basin. These

Yimin Zhang; Yongchun Zhang; Yuexiang Gao; Houhu Zhang; Jianying Cao; Jinbang Cai; Xiangji Kong

2011-01-01

497

Application of the polarization Raman Mie lidar system to monitor the particulate matter and water vapor in the aerosol pollution and haze episodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To monitor the temporal and spatial characteristics of particulate matter and water vapor in the aerosol pollution and haze episodes, the polarization Raman Mie lidar system has been developed. The lidar system includes four detection channels and it can measure the extinction coefficient and depolarization ratio of particulate matter as well as water vapor mixing ratio. The extinction coefficient indicates the visibility of atmosphere and it associates with the concentration of particulate matter. The depolarization ratio demonstrates the nonsphericity of particulate matter and is useful to distinguish the dust and pollution aerosol. The water vapor mixing ratio denotes the content of water vapor in the air and it is an important factor to influence of the hygroscopic growth on the pollution aerosol. The lidar system can operate in the automatic and continuous modes through a window on the roof of the observation room regards of the weather, and it takes continuous measurement from 20 November 2013 to 6 February 2014 over Hefei, China. During the experiment, the typical results of particulate matter measured with lidar in clear air, aerosol pollution and haze, and dust episodes are analyzed and given. The lidar observations are also compared with the air quality data and the meteorological data on the ground.

Xie, Chenbo; Zhao, Ming; Shang, Zhen; Wang, Bangxin; Zhong, Zhiqing; Liu, Dong; Wang, Yingjian

2014-11-01

498

Embedded ICT technology on sprayers in order to reduce water pollution; the Aware project de Rudnicki V., Ruelle B. , Douchin M., Bellon Maurel V.  

E-print Network

Embedded ICT technology on sprayers in order to reduce water pollution; the Aware project results. Abstract: Various routes exist to reduce water pollution due to pesticide spray drift: decision aid systems by pesticide pollution. In 2004, the contamination levels are significant: 49% of ground water samples were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

499

Detection of enteric viruses in Hungarian surface waters: first steps towards environmental surveillance.  

PubMed

Waterborne viruses infect the human population through the consumption of contaminated drinking water and by direct contact with polluted surface water during recreational activity. Although water related viral outbreaks are a major public health concern, virus detection is not a part of the water quality monitoring scheme, mainly due to the absence of routine analysis methods. In the present study, we implemented various approaches for water concentration and virus detection, and tested on Hungarian surface water samples. Eighty samples were collected from 16 sites in Hungary. Samples were concentrated by glass wool and membrane filtration. Human adenoviruses were detected by conventional and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods in 56% (45/80) of the samples; viral titers ranged from 8.60 × 10(1) to 3.91 × 10(4) genome copies per liter. Noroviruses and enteroviruses were detected in 30% (24/80) and 13% (10/80) of samples, respectively, by reverse transcription-PCR assays. Results indicate a high prevalence of viral human pathogens in surface waters, suggesting the necessity of a detailed survey focusing on the quality of natural bathing waters and drinking water sources. PMID:24334851

Kern, Anita; Kadar, Mihaly; Szomor, Katalin; Berencsi, György; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Vargha, Marta

2013-12-01

500

ISONITRATE demonstration project: How isotopic monitoring can improve management of nitrate pollution in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate is one of the major pollutants of drinking water resources worldwide. Recent European directives reduced inputs from intensive agriculture, but in most places NO3 levels are approaching the potable limit of 50 mg.l-1 in groundwater. Determining the source(s) of contamination in groundwater is an important first step for improving its quality by emission control. It is with this aim that we review here the benefit of using a multi-isotope approach (d15N, d180, d11B), in addition to conventional hydrogeological analysis, to constrain the the origin of NO3 pollution in water. The isotopic composition of the dissolved nitrogen species has been used extensively to better constrain the sources and fate of nitrate in groundwater. The possibility of quantifying both origin and secondary processes affecting N concentrations by means of a single tracer appears more limited however. Nitrogen cannot be considered conservative because it is biologically modified through nitrification and denitrification reactions, both during infiltration of the water and in the groundwater body, causing isotopic fractionation that modifies the d15N signatures of the dissolved N species. Discriminating multiple NO3 sources by their N isotopic composition alone becomes impossible whenever heterogenic or autogenic denitrification occurs, thus arising the need for establishing co-migrating discriminators of NO3 sources: addition of the d180 from NO3 and of the d11B. This presentation will strongly rely on our current European Life ISONITRATE project, which aims at showing policy makers how management of nitrate pollution in water can be greatly improved by the incorporation of the multi-isotope monitoring. The pilot site is located in the Alsace region (France and border Germany), part of the Upper Rhine basin, a groundwater body considered as one of the most important drinking water reservoirs in Europe. The demonstration of the multi-isotope approach is based on 4 distinct scenarios: 1. Natural case: corresponds to the natural nitrification of the soil and represents the reference end-member. Samples with NO3 concentration levels higher than this end-member are considered as polluted. 2. Denitrification case: groundwater samples are selected along an identified denitrification gradient in the "Appenweier-Rheinau" region (Germany): the uppermost samples being contaminated by mineral fertilizers used in vineyards (but not denitrified), and the downstream sample being (almost) totally denitrified. 3. Simple case: chosen as being under the influence of a sole type of nitrate pollution source: mineral fertilisation from the "Orschwihr- Bergholtz vineyards". 4. Complex case: where nitrates correspond to a mixing of different pollution sources (mineral and organic fertilisers), located within the "Dietwiller area".

Widory, D.

2008-12-01