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1

Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

2

Designing of water pollution control technology database platform based on general management information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced was the development and implementation for the water pollution control technology database platform based on general management information system. The technology research and application demonstration of the system were developed, covering six fields such as lake water pollution treatment and ecological restoration, improvement of environment quality of urban water, drinking water safety, new technology of physical-chemical-biology water treatment, packaged

Chunhong Shi; Nan Li; Beihai Zhou; Wenjuan Song

2010-01-01

3

Integrated planning for water quality management: The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 and Coastal Zone Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments were enacted by Congress in response to the severe water quality problems our nation has been experiencing. Section 208 of the Amendments establishes regional planning for water quality management as being necessary and provides strong incentives for states and municipalities to implement the Section's requirements. Section 208 planning is the subject of this

Allayaud

1980-01-01

4

Linking Air, Land, and Water Pollution for Effective Environmental Management  

EPA Science Inventory

Since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, other federal agencies, and the states have made substantial progress in improving the Nation?s air and water quality. Traditionally, the air, land, and water pollution ...

5

Managing water and pollutants in soil with electric currents  

SciTech Connect

The technique of dewatering soils with electrical currents (electroosmosis) has been known since World War II, and has been used since to desalinate water and to extract solvents and other toic organic chemicals from groundwater. However, some researchers feel that the technology can be extended to battle friction and pollution on agricultural land. In addition, work has been done on the lubricating effects of electroosmosis on drill bits and other equipment. This article describes recent work in the area.

Raloff, J.

1995-09-09

6

Water Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

7

Integrated optimal management of ground-water pollution and withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated ground-water management model is formulated as a multivariable constrained nonlinear optimization problem. To simulate the physical and chemical processes occurring within a leaky confined aquifer system, the finite-difference forms of the flow and transport equations are embedded in the management model. The Hooke-Jeeves method, a nonlinear programming technique, in conjunction with the exterior penalty function method is used

Ashok K. Keshari; Bithin Datta

1996-01-01

8

SCIENCE OF INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT: LINKING POLLUTANT CONTROL PRACTICES WITH WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

SCIENCE OF INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT: LINKING POLLUTANT CONTROL PRACTICES WITH WATER QUALITY M. Morrison (NRMRL), C. Nietch (NRMRL), 1. Schubauer-Berigan (NRMRL), M. Hantush (NRMRL), D. Lai (NRMRL), B. Daniel (NERL), M. Griffith (NCEA) Science Questions LTG 3. MYP Sc...

9

Storm water pollution prevention plans  

SciTech Connect

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) general permit applications for industrial storm water discharge were to have been filed by October 1992. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies are now issuing permits based on these applications. One compliance aspect of the permits is the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3). The plan must identify the facility's potential sources of storm water pollution and develop and implement best management practices (BMPs) to reduce pollutants in storm water runoff. The objectives of the NPDES storm water program are to eliminate illegal dumping and illicit connections, and to reduce pollutants in industrial storm water discharge. These regulations require industry to develop detailed facility site maps, and describe the types, amounts and locations of potential pollutants. Based on this information, industry can develop and implement best management practices to reduce pollutants in storm water runoff.

Rossmiller, R.L. (HDR Engineering, Inc., Bellevue, WA (United States))

1993-03-01

10

Simulation of water environmental capacity and pollution load reduction using QUAL2K for water environmental management.  

PubMed

In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of COD(Cr) NH(3)-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH(3)-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. PMID:23222206

Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

2012-12-01

11

Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management  

PubMed Central

In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of CODCr NH3-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH3-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making.

Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

2012-01-01

12

Isotopes for improved management of nitrate pollution in aqueous resources: review of surface water field studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For water bodies where the nitrate concentrations exceed threshold values environmental agencies can propose measures to either reduce discharges and emissions of nitrate or to remediate nitrate polluted water bodies. Isotope data can support the identification of nitrate pollution sources and natural attenuation processes of nitrate. A review of surface water field studies evaluated the use of isotope data (e.g. ?15N, ?18O and ?17O of nitrate, ?18O of water, ?11B of boron) in environmental monitoring of nitrate pollution in forested, agricultural, mixed and urban watersheds. An overview of the information available to date regarding nitrate source apportionment studies in surface waters is given with the intention to help to improve future studies. An appropriate sampling strategy and statistical approach needs to be developed by means of available data on possible nitrate sources, hydrology and land use. Also transformation, transport and mixing process should be considered since these can change the isotope composition of the original nitrate source. Nitrate isotope data interpreted in combination with hydrological and chemical data provide valuable information on the nitrate pollution sources and on the processes nitrate has undergone during its retention and transport in the watershed. This information is useful for the development of an appropriate water management policy.

Nestler, A.; Berglund, M.; Accoe, F.; Duta, S.; Xue, D.; Boeckx, P. F.; Taylor, P.

2010-12-01

13

Water Bottle Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The effect of water bottles and pollution around the world. Print off 3 copies of this form. W s First, let's learn about Water Bottle Pollution records on your w's form what you learned. Now let's learn about jaguars. Jaguars how can jaguars be harmed by water bottle pollution? Project: Create a travel brochure in Publisher using what you learned about water bottle pollution and jaguars. See ...

awl000422

2011-10-27

14

Agricultural Land Use and Best Management Practices to Control Nonpoint Water Pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, improvements in point-source depuration technologies have highlighted the problems regarding agricultural nonpoint (diffuse) sources, and this issue has become highly relevant from the environmental point of view. The considerable extension of the areas responsible for this kind of pollution, together with the scarcity of funds available to local managers, make minimizing the impacts of nonpoint sources on a whole basin a virtually impossible task. This article presents the results of a study intended to pinpoint those agricultural areas, within a basin, that contribute most to water pollution, so that operations aimed at preventing and/or reducing this kind of pollution can be focused on them. With this aim, an innovative approach is presented that integrates a field-scale management model, a simple regression model, and a geographic information system (GIS). The Lake Vico basin, where recent studies highlighted a considerable increase in the trophic state, mainly caused by phosphorus (P) compounds deriving principally from the intensive cultivation of hazelnut trees in the lake basin, was chosen as the study site. Using the management model Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems (GLEAMS), the consequences, in terms of sediment yield and phosphorus export, of hazelnut tree cultivation were estimated on different areas of the basin with and without the application of a best management practice (BMP) that consists of growing meadow under the trees. The GLEAMS results were successively extended to basin scale thanks to the application of a purposely designed regression model and of a GIS. The main conclusions can be summarized as follows: The effectiveness of the above-mentioned BMP is always greater for erosion reduction than for particulate P reduction, whatever the slope value considered; moreover, the effectiveness with reference to both particulate P and sediment yield production decreases as the slope increases. The proposed approach, being completely distributed, represents a considerable step ahead compared to the semidistributed or lumped approaches, which are traditionally employed in research into tools to support the decision-making process for land-use planning aimed at water pollution control.

Ripa, Maria Nicoletta; Leone, Antonio; Garnier, Monica; Porto, Antonio Lo

2006-08-01

15

Pollution Control and Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews, organizes, and analyzes information on waste generation and disposal for use in pollution management in New England. The contents include the following topics: (I) Solid waste management (Incineration, landfills, open burning, waste co...

1969-01-01

16

Storm Water Runoff Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (located on page 8 of the PDF) introduces learners to the concept of Non-point Source Pollution--what happens when rain washes garbage and other pollutants into rivers and lakes. Through this demonstration, learners observe how water systems are connected and how pollution in their own backyard can affect larger water supplies.

Museum, Chicago C.

2008-01-01

17

Comprehensive Water Pollution Control Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Comprehensive water pollution control planning; Columbia River basin comprehensive water pollution control project; Use and role of water pollution control plan by other federal agencies; The state's role and use of pollution control plan; Why s...

1965-01-01

18

Agricultural Land Use and Best Management Practices to Control Nonpoint Water Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, improvements in point-source depuration technologies have highlighted the problems regarding agricultural nonpoint (diffuse) sources, and this issue has become highly relevant from the environmental point of view. The considerable extension of the areas responsible for this kind of pollution, together with the scarcity of funds available to local managers, make minimizing the impacts of nonpoint sources on

Maria Nicoletta Ripa; Antonio Leone; Monica Garnier; Antonio Lo Porto

2006-01-01

19

Are interactive effects of harmful algal blooms and copper pollution a concern for water quality management?  

PubMed

Toxicity of mixtures of stressors is one of the major challenges in water quality management. Yet until now risk assessment focuses almost exclusively on the effect characterization of individual stressors. An important concern is the potential interactive effects of cyanobacteria, sometimes referred to as harmful algal blooms, with chemical stressors. Here, we evaluated the response of two clones of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna to the combined effects of five cyanobacteria and copper. The latter remains the most commonly applied chemical algaecide and is also often detected in eutrophic run-offs that promote harmful algal blooms. Because the different cyanobacteria studied here have known modes of action that are similar, as well as dissimilar compared to the known modes of actions of copper, we based our assessment on two widely used reference models, i.e. the Concentration Addition (CA) model for similarly acting stressors and the Independent Action (IA) model for dissimilarly acting stressors. We highlight four major findings. First, the conclusions drawn on the interaction type (non-interaction vs. synergism or antagonism) between either of the five cyanobacteria species and copper were the same for both D. magna clones. Second, the interaction type differed between the Microcystis + copper mixture (non-interaction according to CA and synergism according to IA) and the four other cyanobacteria + copper mixtures (antagonism according to CA and non-interaction according to IA). Third, both reference models provided reasonable predictions for all observed mixture toxicities. Fourth, we consistently obtained different results with the IA reference model compared to the CA model. More specifically, mixtures of Cu and Microcystis were synergistic with IA whereas non-interaction was observed with CA, while the remaining four cyanobacteria + copper combinations all displayed non-interaction with IA and antagonism with CA. Despite the IA reference model providing a marginally better fit to the data in general, the CA reference model delivered more conservative predictions for mixture toxicity of cyanobacteria + copper in all cases compared to the IA reference model. Thus, the CA model could serve as a conservative model to account for mixture toxicity of cyanobacteria and copper in water quality management, as it gives rise to conservative predictions of mixed stressor toxicity at sub-lethal effect levels in D. magna. Finally, and in accordance with other studies of cyanobacteria + chemical mixtures, we did not detect any strong synergistic effects of copper and cyanobacteria mixtures on D. magna. Consequently, based on our study with the model freshwater zooplankton species Daphnia, interactive effects of harmful algal blooms and copper pollution appear to be of limited concern for water quality management. PMID:24821194

Hochmuth, Jennifer D; Asselman, Jana; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

2014-09-01

20

Agricultural Land Use and Best Management Practices to Control Nonpoint Water Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, improvements in point-source depuration technologies have highlighted the problems regarding agricultural\\u000a nonpoint (diffuse) sources, and this issue has become highly relevant from the environmental point of view. The considerable\\u000a extension of the areas responsible for this kind of pollution, together with the scarcity of funds available to local managers,\\u000a make minimizing the impacts of nonpoint sources on

Maria Nicoletta Ripa; Antonio Leone; Monica Garnier; Antonio Lo Porto

2006-01-01

21

Fecal Pollution of Water.  

EPA Science Inventory

Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

22

ALGAE AND WATER POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Algae are involved in water pollution in a number of important ways. It requires a continuous monitoring and study of algae existing in waters of various quality in order to determine what controls or what changes or what uses can be instituted for the benefit of man and for cons...

23

Fecal Pollution of Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

24

Politics of water pollution control: a case study of the formation of the Canada Water Act, Part I: Comprehensive Water Resource Management; Part II: Nutrient Control  

SciTech Connect

Over the period from 1970 to 1972, the Canadian government enacted seven pieces of legislation to manage and control water resources and water quality at the national level. The purpose of these papers is to present an inside view of the formation of the Canada Water Act as it evolved from its earliest conception as a multi-purpose water development strategy in the late 1950's into a comprehensive water resource and water quality management strategy in the late 1960's and early 1970's, under the impetus of unprecedented public demand for government action to protect the environment. In the first paper (Part I), the formation of Parts I and II of the Canada Water Act which deal with Comprehensive Water Resources Management and Water Quality Management respectively are examined. The second paper (Part II) is concerned solely with the Nutrient Control provisions included under Part III of the Act. These papers provide the first public account of the political aspects of a large-scale study of the socio-political response to water pollution problems in Canada over the period from 1945 to 1972. This study, carried out under the auspices of the Canadian Ministry of State for Urban Affairs, was completed in 1974. These papers complement earlier papers on the role of environmental pressure groups (Schatzow, 1974), the mass media (Parlour and Schatzow, 1978; Parlour, 1980), environmental specialists and the development of environmental information (Parlour, 1978) which have been published since 1974; a report on the complete study was published by the author in 1977.

Parlour, J.W.

1981-01-01

25

Water Pollution Prevention and Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is designed to help students apply the pollution prevention (P2) concept to water. It contains the needed background information about water pollution and provides guidance and activities to help students describe water uses and sources, explain why water conservation is important, and explain how pollution prevention concepts can be used to conserve water and prevent water pollution. The preceding pages of the fact sheet contain background information and the definitions necessary to implement this lesson plan.

26

Water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

I am writing in reference to an article by Leonard B. Dworsky in the August issue of EOS dealing with what the author feels are the necessary steps toward an effective and credible program of water pollution control.That public expectations need to be adjusted to real world solutions can hardly be denied. The general public is all too often led

Donald F. Kostecki

1970-01-01

27

Water Pollution Control Industry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

1974-01-01

28

Ground water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment, methodologies. In-situ technologies. Aquifer restoration. Applications and case studies. Decision-making. Risk assessment. References include 225 with complete abstracts. This work covers technologies for ground water pollution control in part one and deals in depth with aquifer restoration decision-making in part two, while part three gives range of case studies and detailed abstracts of 225 references. CONTENTS: 1-Introduction. Technologies for

Canter

1985-01-01

29

Combined Water-Fertilizer Management to Minimize Non-Point Water Pollution while Achieving High Crop Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to characterize relationships between fertilizer and water management in irrigated vegetable production in California. Greenhouse trials were conducted both in hydroponic solution culture and in soil culture...

J. Letey W. M. Jarrell

1983-01-01

30

Multiple Interactive Pollutants in Water Quality Trading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient environmental management calls for the consideration of multiple pollutants, for which two main types of transferable discharge permit (TDP) program have been described: separate permits that manage each pollutant individually in separate markets, with each permit based on the quantity of the pollutant or its environmental effects, and weighted-sum permits that aggregate several pollutants as a single commodity to be traded in a single market. In this paper, we perform a mathematical analysis of TDP programs for multiple pollutants that jointly affect the environment (i.e., interactive pollutants) and demonstrate the practicality of this approach for cost-efficient maintenance of river water quality. For interactive pollutants, the relative weighting factors are functions of the water quality impacts, marginal damage function, and marginal treatment costs at optimality. We derive the optimal set of weighting factors required by this approach for important scenarios for multiple interactive pollutants and propose using an analytical elasticity of substitution function to estimate damage functions for these scenarios. We evaluate the applicability of this approach using a hypothetical example that considers two interactive pollutants. We compare the weighted-sum permit approach for interactive pollutants with individual permit systems and TDP programs for multiple additive pollutants. We conclude by discussing practical considerations and implementation issues that result from the application of weighted-sum permit programs.

Sarang, Amin; Lence, Barbara J.; Shamsai, Abolfazl

2008-10-01

31

Remote sensing of water pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

White, P. G.

1971-01-01

32

Water Pollution (Causes, Mechanisms, Solution).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show what…

Strandberg, Carl

33

Biology and Water Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

Warren, Charles E.

34

Exploring Water Pollution. Part 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists over 30 outdoor science activities dealing with water formation, erosion, pollution, and other water-related topics. Provides, in addition, a selected bibliography of films, tapes, booklets and pamphlets, and filmstrips as additional reference materials. (CP)

Rillo, Thomas J.

1976-01-01

35

Pollutants in Airport Runoff Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Runoff waters from airport areas constitute a serious environmental problem. It is essential to monitor levels of pollutants emitted into the environment and measure their toxicity on a continuous basis. The authors’ aim was to critically review data on pollution from aviation fuel combustion, aviation fuel spillage, the washing and cleaning of aircraft and airport service equipment, and the use

Anna Maria Sulej; ?aneta Polkowska; Jacek Namie?nik

2012-01-01

36

How Does Water Get Polluted?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a hands-on modeling of the effects of pollution on our ground and surface water. Students will observe and record their observations as pollution is placed on the ground in their model and it is rained upon.

Anderson, Deb V.

37

Water Pollution: Monitoring the Source.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an advanced biology class project involving study of the effects of organic pollution on an aquatic ecosystem from an sewage treatment plant overflow to evaluate the chemical quality and biological activity of the river water. (DS)

Wilkes, James W.

1980-01-01

38

Efficiency of the Biological Waste Water Treatment System in Pollution Control and Wastewater Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water, gravel, sand, rhizosphere and rhizoplane samples, were collected seasonally for over one year from treatment beds in the BIOWATSYST treatment station. Samples were, subjected to microbiological and physicochemical analyses. Results showed that the maximum counts of total viable bacteria (TVB), actinomycetes (ACTI), total coliform (TC), fecal coliforms (FC) and fecal streptococci (FS) were 11.2 x 10 6 , 37.5

A. DEWEDAR; A. ISMAIL; I. KHAFAGI; S. E. L. SHATOURY; M. TALAAT

39

An Instructional Delivery System for Manpower Management: A Report for Water Pollution Control Agencies. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains information to assist organizations and personnel responsible for the quality and quantity of operators available for water quality control efforts. The text discusses in detail the current developments in operator instructional programs. Each of the seven sections of this report deals with a specific aspect of manpower…

New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany.

40

Water Pollution Control courses offered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manhattan College will conduct the Nineteenth Summer Institute in Water Pollution Control, May 2024, 1974. Two one-week courses will be offered concurrently for advanced study in biological waste treatment and mathematical modeling of natural water systems. Enrollment, on a preregistration basis, will be limited.This continuing engineering education program is designed to enhance the competence of practicing engineers and scientists in

Anonymous

1974-01-01

41

Ground water. [Water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence that the Nation's ground water is contaminated by a variety of sources. These include unprotected industrial, municipal, and radioactive disposal sites, petroleum exploration and mining activities, agricultural operations such as insecticide spraying, high de-icing salts and others. As of March 1980, more than 8000 chemical tests have been performed on well water, with chlorinated organic solvents

Costle

1980-01-01

42

Water Pollution Scrubber Activity Simulates Pollution Control Devices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory activity caused students to think actively about water pollution. The students realized that it would be easier to keep water clean than to remove pollutants. They created a water scrubbing system allowing them to pour water in one end and have it emerge clean at the other end. (JOW)

Kennedy, Edward C., III; Waggoner, Todd C.

2003-01-01

43

Agricultural water pollution control: An interdisciplinary approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regulation and control of agricultural water pollution is unique and difficult to accomplish. Water quality standards are often proposed without adequate consideration of the overall economic impact on agricultural production. This article illustrates how economists and physical scientists can cooperate to develop appropriate control strategies for agricultural water pollution. Data provided by physical scientists and economists are used in a linear programming model to describe salt discharge as a function of water management, production levels, and an associated effluent charge. Four water management activities were chosen on the basis of different costs of production (including a parametrically varied effluent charge), water requirements, alfalfa yields, and levels of salt discharge. Results indicate that when the effluent charge is low (<0.20/metric ton salt discharged), maximum production with maximum salt discharge is most profitable. As the effluent charge is increased (0.20 0.40/metric ton salt discharged), it becomes progressively less profitable to produce alfalfa at maximum levels of pollutant discharge. When the effluent charge is >0.40/metric ton salt discharged, alfalfa production is no longer economically feasible. An important aspect of this approach is that it permits policy makers to identify explicitly the relationship between the environmental standard and the effect on agricultural production.

Miller, Watkins W.; Ching, Chauncey T. K.; Yanagida, John F.; Jakus, Paul

1985-01-01

44

Combined air and water pollution control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

Wolverton, Billy C. (inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (inventor)

1990-01-01

45

Careers in Water Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are the activities, responsibilities, and educational and training requirements of the major occupations directly concerned with water pollution control. Also provided is an overview of employment trends, salaries, and projected demand for employees. Included in the appendix is a list of colleges and universities which offer…

Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

46

Testing Water for Bacterial Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of water pollution control. It is a learning activity directed toward high school students of biology and/or ecology. A general knowledge of microbiology techniques is regarded as a prerequisite for the lesson. Behavioral objectives are given. Emphasis is placed on use of techniques and materials…

Dillner, Harry

47

How Did That Get There?: Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a group, learners consider sources of water pollution to understand where pollution starts and where it ends up. Also explored are the natural and human-made options for cleaning up our water supply. This activity encourages learners to use their powers of observation, imagination, and public speaking skills as they describe possible pollution stories and scenarios, and brainstorm pollution prevention efforts.

Illinois, University O.

2009-01-01

48

Groundwater and surface water pollution  

SciTech Connect

This book contains almost all the technical know-how that is required to clean up the water supply. It provides a survey of up-to-date technologies for remediation, as well as a step-by-step guide to pollution assessment for both ground and surface waters. In addition to focusing on causes, effects, and remedies, the book stresses reuse, recycling, and recovery of resources. The authors suggest that through total recycling wastes can become resources.

Chae, Y.S.; Hamidi, A. [eds.

2000-07-01

49

Groundwater and surface water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book contains almost all the technical know-how that is required to clean up the water supply. It provides a survey of up-to-date technologies for remediation, as well as a step-by-step guide to pollution assessment for both ground and surface waters. In addition to focusing on causes, effects, and remedies, the book stresses reuse, recycling, and recovery of resources. The

Y. S. Chae; A. Hamidi

2000-01-01

50

The Role of Tradable Permits in Water Pollution Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This working paper first introduces tradable permits as part of an overall taxonomy of economic instruments in the field of water management. In this context, three fundamentally different fields of application of tradable permits systems relating to water are presented: tradable water abstraction rights, tradable rights to water-based resources and tradable water pollution rights. Next, the authors provide literature-based empirical

R. Andreas Kraemer; Eleftheria Kampa; Eduard Interwies

2004-01-01

51

CONTROLLING POLLUTION FROM THE MANUFACTURING AND COATING OF METAL PRODUCTS. 3. WATER POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

Volume 3 addresses managers, engineers and other industry personnel responsible for resolving the water pollution problems of a manufacturing facility. It covers regulations, in-plant controls, three methods for wastewater treatment, establishment of a working relationship with a...

52

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT / POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Goal 8.4 Improve Environmental Systems Management (Formally Pollution Prevention and New Technology) Background The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed and evaluated tools and technologies to monitor, prevent, control, and clean-up pollution through...

53

Water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The `Act of 76' arose out of an inquiry about `...how far the present use of rivers or running waters...for the purpose of carrying off the sewage of towns...and the refuse from industrial processes and manufacturers...can be prevented without risk to the public health or serious injury to such processes...and how far such sewage and refuse can be utilized and

Bernard B. Berger; Leonard B. Dworsky

1977-01-01

54

TOWARD INSTREAM WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report compares two approaches to the agricultural nonpoint source pollution control problem: source control and instream water quality management (ISWQM). Source control is a strategy of controlling pollution loadings by using standards such as soil loss limits or best mana...

55

Landscape management strategies for the control of diffuse pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of diffuse pollution is one of the major issues affecting the agricultural landscape. Policies of land use management are now being implemented as a means of improving water quality. The potential success of such policies is difficult to determine owing to the complex nature of the processes controlling the transport of diffuse pollutants such as nitrate, phosphorus and

N. E. Haycock; A. D. Muscutt

1995-01-01

56

Good operating practices cut water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explains how the pipeline industry can avoid violating the Clean Water Act (PL 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act), which states that pollution of US waters from any cause other than an act of God, war or Government negligence is the responsibility of the owner or operator of the facility. Reporting pollution to the National Response Center will

1982-01-01

57

Adaptive Management, Monitoring, and the Ecological Sustainability of a Thermal-Polluted Water Ecosystem: A Case in Sw Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction of the Almaraz nuclear power plant in Spain in the 1970s posed interesting environmental problems concerning the construction of a cooling reservoir (Arrocampo reservoir) to cool the steam condensers and the consequent heating of the reservoirs water. The socio-political context forced decision makers to set up a project for the monitoring and management of the environmental impacts derived

J. F. Lavado Contador

2005-01-01

58

A dual-inexact fuzzy stochastic model for water resources management and non-point source pollution mitigation under multiple uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, a dual-inexact fuzzy stochastic programming (DIFSP) method was developed for supporting the planning of water and farmland use management system considering the non-point source pollution mitigation under uncertainty. The random boundary interval (RBI) was incorporated into DIFSP through integrating fuzzy linear programming (FLP) and chance-constrained programming (CCP) approaches within an interval linear programming (ILP) framework. This developed method could effectively tackle the uncertainties expressed as intervals and fuzzy sets. Moreover, the lower and upper bounds of RBI are continuous random variables, and the correlation existing between the lower and upper bounds can be tackled in RBI through the joint probability distribution function. And thus the subjectivity of decision making is greatly reduced, enhancing the stability and robustness of obtained solutions. The proposed method was then applied to solve a water and farmland use planning model (WFUPM) with non-point source pollution mitigation. The generated results could provide decision makers with detailed water supply-demand schemes involving diversified water-related activities under preferred satisfaction degrees. These useful solutions could allow more in-depth analyses of the trade-offs between humans and environment, as well as those between system optimality and reliability. In addition, comparative analyses on the solutions obtained from ICCP (Interval chance-constraints programming) and DIFSP demonstrated the higher application of this developed approach for supporting the water and farmland use system planning.

Dong, C.; Tan, Q.; Huang, G.-H.; Cai, Y.-P.

2014-05-01

59

Energy analysis of regional water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of water pollution control that were used to restore water quality of Oregon's Willamette River basin are reviewed. A water pollution control strategy that takes environmental, economic, and energy use impacts into consideration is proposed based on experiences in the Willamette basin. In the control strategy, site-specific data are used to devise a water quality index for the basin.

R. J. Heggen; K. J. Williamson

1979-01-01

60

A model for managing sources of groundwater pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waste disposal capacity of a groundwater system can be maximized maintaining water quality at specified locations by using a groundwater pollutant source management model that is based upon linear programing and numerical simulation. The decision variables of the management model are solute waste disposal rates at various facilities distributed over space. A concentration response matrix is used in the

Steven M. Gorelick

1982-01-01

61

Agricultural water pollution control: An interdisciplinary approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation and control of agricultural water pollution is unique and difficult to accomplish. Water quality standards are often proposed without adequate consideration of the overall economic impact on agricultural production. This article illustrates how economists and physical scientists can cooperate to develop appropriate control strategies for agricultural water pollution. Data provided by physical scientists and economists are used in a

Watkins W. Miller; Chauncey T. K. Ching; John F. Yanagida; Paul Jakus

1985-01-01

62

Total Water Management - slides  

EPA Science Inventory

Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

63

[Watershed water environment pollution models and their applications: a review].  

PubMed

Watershed water environment pollution model is the important tool for studying watershed environmental problems. Through the quantitative description of the complicated pollution processes of whole watershed system and its parts, the model can identify the main sources and migration pathways of pollutants, estimate the pollutant loadings, and evaluate their impacts on water environment, providing a basis for watershed planning and management. This paper reviewed the watershed water environment models widely applied at home and abroad, with the focuses on the models of pollutants loading (GWLF and PLOAD), water quality of received water bodies (QUAL2E and WASP), and the watershed models integrated pollutant loadings and water quality (HSPF, SWAT, AGNPS, AnnAGNPS, and SWMM), and introduced the structures, principles, and main characteristics as well as the limitations in practical applications of these models. The other models of water quality (CE-QUAL-W2, EFDC, and AQUATOX) and watershed models (GLEAMS and MIKE SHE) were also briefly introduced. Through the case analysis on the applications of single model and integrated models, the development trend and application prospect of the watershed water environment pollution models were discussed. PMID:24483100

Zhu, Yao; Liang, Zhi-Wei; Li, Wei; Yang, Yi; Yang, Mu-Yi; Mao, Wei; Xu, Han-Li; Wu, Wei-Xiang

2013-10-01

64

Assessment and management of long-term nitrate pollution of ground water in agriculture-dominated watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this paper are to document and evaluate regional long-term trends and occurrences of nitrate in the ground water of agricultural watersheds. In Whatcom County, Washington, elevated nitrate concentrations in ground water are of great concern. Whatcom County is recognized by heavy agricultural activities, especially an intensive dairy farm industry. Historical nitrate concentration data from 1990 to 2000 were compiled from different agencies and assembled into a single composite database. A geographic information system was used to assess the spatial and temporal variability of nitrogen data. The analysis was conducted for the whole area as well as for individual watersheds and for different land use classes. In addition, nitrate concentration variability with descriptive parameters such as sampling depth, ground water recharge, dissolved oxygen, and on-ground nitrogen loadings was also investigated. The analysis showed that the areas with nitrate concentrations above the maximum contaminant level are areas characterized by heavy agricultural activities. The shallow surficial aquifers of the study area were found to contain high mean nitrate concentrations when compared to non-surficial aquifers. The analysis showed that high nitrate presence corresponds to areas with both high ground water recharge and high on-ground nitrogen loadings. In addition, the nitrate concentration decreased with increasing sampling depth. In general, the trend of long-term nitrate concentration remained elevated in shallow aquifers due to the persistent on-ground nitrogen loadings produced by agriculture-related land use practices. Finally, the watersheds were prioritized for management intervention, alternatives, and data monitoring based on a number of decision variables.

Almasri, Mohammad N.; Kaluarachchi, Jagath J.

2004-08-01

65

Choosing Optimum Management Strategies for Pollution Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This seminar publication is addressed to managers and supervisors who have some responsibility for their plant's pollution control measures. The information and guidance provided to these decision personnel are drawn from case histories of working plants ...

1977-01-01

66

Bibliography of water pollution control benefits and costs. [3000 references  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computer-listed bibliography includes approximately 3000 references to environmental quality management issues. The primary selection criteria for including the sources referenced was that the citation pertains to water pollution control benefits and costs. However, numerous listings include more general environmental issues within which water quality problems are embedded. Also, much of the economic cost-benefit analysis research has been conceptually developed

S. G. Unger; D. L. Jordening

1974-01-01

67

Rural industries and water pollution in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pollution from small rural industries is a serious problem throughout China. Over half of all river sections monitored for water quality are rated as being unsafe for human contact, and this pollution is estimated to cost several per cent of GDP. While China has some of the toughest environmental protection laws in the world, the implementation of these laws

Mark Wang; Michael Webber; Brian Finlayson; Jon Barnett

2008-01-01

68

Global trends in water pollution control legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope of legislation on water pollution control is initially examined. Then, the administrative machinery responsible for implementing water pollution control programs is examined, after which the approaches taken by selected countries (Norway, India, USA, Netherlands, Mexico, and New South Wales) to deal with the problem is reviewed. There follows an analysis of the policies adopted by various countries to

G. Ozolins; S. S. Fluss; R. Helmer

1977-01-01

69

Symposium on costs of water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A National Symposium on Costs of Water Pollution Control will be held in Raleigh, North Carolina, April 67, 1972. The symposium is sponsored by the Research Triangle Universities (Duke University, North Carolina State University, and the University of North Carolina and several national societies. The program will include sessions on economic implications of national goals for water pollution control cost

Anonymous

1972-01-01

70

The Practice of Water Pollution Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water pollution techniques and practices, including data analysis, interpretation and display are described in this book intended primarily for the biologist inexperienced in this work, and for sanitary engineers, chemists, and water pollution control administrators. The characteristics of aquatic environments, their biota, and the effects of…

Mackenthun, Kenneth M.

71

Review of water pollution control in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resource shortage and pollution has seriously threatened the survival and development of developing countries. Because\\u000a of China’s specific economical and social circumstances, complete adoption of developed countries’ experience is unrealistic.\\u000a At present, China needs to develop strategies and technologies in source water pollution control and municipal environmental\\u000a remediation that embrace the country’s specific need to battle the water resource

Tingyao Gao; Hongbin Chen; Siqing Xia; Zengyan Zhou

2008-01-01

72

Some Thoughts on Water Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To set the background for stress related atherosclerosis in fish a review of what pollution does as a stress factor in the Delaware River is presented. It is pointed out that pollution, especially of industrial origin, stresses fish by causing pH changes,...

C. G. Wilber

1966-01-01

73

Development of a Master Plan for Water Pollution Control Using MCDM Techniques: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive demand for water due to a growing population, agricultural, and industrial development, along with climate change and depletion of nonrenewable resources have intensified the need for integrated water resources management and water pollution control. This paper presents different aspects of a master plan for water pollution control and the results of a case study for developing a master plan

Mohammad Karamouz; Banafsheh Zahraie; Reza Kerachian

2003-01-01

74

Pollution of surface water in Europe  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses pollution of surface water in 18 European countries. For each an account is given of its physical character, population, industries, and present condition of water supplies; the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling pollution are then described, and an outline is given of current research on the difficulties peculiar to each country. A general discussion of various aspects common to the European problem of water pollution follows; standards of quality are suggested; some difficulties likely to arise in the near future are indicated, and international collaboration, primarily by the exchange of information, is recommended to check or forestall these trends.

Key, A.

1956-01-01

75

Defining urban diffuse pollution loadings and receiving water hazard.  

PubMed

The use of unit area loading approaches to address the requirements of the US Clean Water Act (CWA) and the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) to identify and manage diffuse urban pollution sources is outlined. Issues relating to traditional volume-concentration probabilistic modelling are highlighted and the robustness of total maximum daily load (TMDL) approaches is discussed. A hazard assessment methodology for catchment scale identification of source area pollutant loadings and receiving water ecological impacts is developed based on urban land use activities. PMID:18547936

Ellis, J B; Revitt, D M

2008-01-01

76

Water Pollution Control Revolving Fund (Revised Edition).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since passage of the Illinois Environmental Protection Act and the Illinois Anti-Pollution Bond Act in 1970 and the federal Water Pollution Control Act in 1972, massive State and federal grant assistance programs have been directed towards meeting the Sta...

1993-01-01

77

Engineering aspects of water pollution control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of proper engineering when providing pollution control systems is emphasized. Organization of engineering projects is described in detail. Included are discussions of: (1) collection and evaluation of available data; (2) establishment of survey and test program; (3) integration and evaluation of findings; (4) establishment of pollution control and water utilization systems; and (5) specification and detailed design preparation.

R. G. Dalbke; A. J. Turk

1967-01-01

78

Special Topics in Water Science (Water Pollution)  

MedlinePLUS

... Site map Help Home Water Basics Water Properties Water Cycle Surface Water Groundwater Water Quality Water Use Activities ... saline water, watersheds, runoff, and hydrology. Investigate the water cycle (in many languages!) Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and ...

79

A model for managing sources of groundwater pollution.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The waste disposal capacity of a groundwater system can be maximized while maintaining water quality at specified locations by using a groundwater pollutant source management model that is based upon linear programing and numerical simulation. The decision variables of the management model are solute waste disposal rates at various facilities distributed over space. A concentration response matrix is used in the management model to describe transient solute transport and is developed using the US Geological Survey solute transport simulation model. The management model was applied to a complex hypothetical groundwater system. -from Author

Gorelick, S. M.

1982-01-01

80

Water Resource Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal, published by the University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Science (IFAS) Extension, offers a selection of links to information about water management issues. There is a 'Beginner's Guide to Water Management', which provides a basic introduction to the terminology and concepts used in water management. Other links access information on management in coastal waters, the impact of climate change on water resources, the use of stormwater as an alternative supply, wastewater management, and many others.

81

Belastung von Boeden und Gewaessern. (Soil and water pollution).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Findings of soil and water pollution studies were presented at a conference of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Grossfroschungseinrichtungen (AGF). The problem of soil and water pollution is past of the general subject 'analysis of environmental pollution' in envi...

1991-01-01

82

Questionable Specificity of Genetic Total Faecal Pollution Markers for Integrated Water Quality Monitoring and Source Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterisation of microbial faecal hazards in water is a fundamental aspect for target-orientated water resources management to achieve appropriate water quality for various purposes like water supply or agriculture and thus to minimize related health risks. Nowadays the management of water resources increasingly demands detailed knowledge on the extent and the origin of microbial pollution. Cultivation of standard faecal indicator

Julia Vierheilig; Georg H. Reischer; Andreas H. Farnleitner

2010-01-01

83

Good operating practices cut water pollution  

SciTech Connect

This paper explains how the pipeline industry can avoid violating the Clean Water Act (PL 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act), which states that pollution of US waters from any cause other than an act of God, war or Government negligence is the responsibility of the owner or operator of the facility. Reporting pollution to the National Response Center will limit the maximum penalty to $5,000 Rectifiers must be kept in top operating condition, and visual inspections of the right-of-way by aerial or ground patrols must detect construction of new pipelines or other facilities. Accidental damage by third parties is the major cause of failures in pipeline systems, which can be prevented by periodic contact with landowners. Conclusion is that if a pipeline operator follows good operating and maintenance practices, his exposure to effects of the Clean Water Act will be minimal.

West, D.E.

1982-07-12

84

Sensitivity Analysis for some Water Pollution Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensitivity Analysis for Some Water Pollution Problems Francois-Xavier Le Dimet1 & Tran Thu Ha2 & M. Yousuff Hussaini3 1Université de Grenoble, France, 2Vietnamese Academy of Sciences, 3 Florida State University Sensitivity analysis employs some response function and the variable with respect to which its sensitivity is evaluated. If the state of the system is retrieved through a variational data assimilation process, then the observation appears only in the Optimality System (OS). In many cases, observations have errors and it is important to estimate their impact. Therefore, sensitivity analysis has to be carried out on the OS, and in that sense sensitivity analysis is a second order property. The OS can be considered as a generalized model because it contains all the available information. This presentation proposes a method to carry out sensitivity analysis in general. The method is demonstrated with an application to water pollution problem. The model involves shallow waters equations and an equation for the pollutant concentration. These equations are discretized using a finite volume method. The response function depends on the pollutant source, and its sensitivity with respect to the source term of the pollutant is studied. Specifically, we consider: • Identification of unknown parameters, and • Identification of sources of pollution and sensitivity with respect to the sources. We also use a Singular Evolutive Interpolated Kalman Filter to study this problem. The presentation includes a comparison of the results from these two methods. .

Le Dimet, François-Xavier; Tran Thu, Ha; Hussaini, Yousuff

2014-05-01

85

Water hyacinths for removal of phenols from polluted waters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Removal of phenol by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in static water was investigated. 2.75 g dry weight of this aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to absorb 100 mg of phenol per plant per 72 hours from distilled water, river water, and bayou water. One hectare of water hyacinth plants is shown to be potentially capable of removing 160 kg of phenol per 72 hours from waters polluted with this chemical.

Wolverton, B. C.

1975-01-01

86

Water Quality Program Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although the title of my presentation is 'Water-Quality Program Management,' it would perhaps be more appropriately entitled, 'How Does District Program Management Affect the Attainment of Water-Quality Objectives.' Obviously such a topic could take days ...

G. P. Kincaid

1982-01-01

87

Hazardous waste management and pollution prevention  

SciTech Connect

The management of hazardous wastes is one of the most critical environmental issues that faces many developing countries. It is one of the areas where institutional control and treatment and disposal technology has not kept pace with economic development. This paper reviews the development of hazardous waste management methods over the past decades, and provides the information on the status and trends of hazardous waste management strategy in selected western nations. Several issues pertinent to hazardous waste management will be reviewed, including: (1) definition of hazard; (2) why are we concerned with hazardous wastes; (3) aspects of hazardous waste management system; and (4) prioritization of hazardous waste management options. Due to regulatory and economic pressure on hazardous waste management, pollution prevention has become a very important environmental strategy in many developed countries. In many developed countries, industry is increasingly considering such alternative approaches, and finding many opportunities for their cost effective implementation. This paper provides a review of the status and trends of pollution prevention in selected western nations.

Chiu, Shen-yann.

1992-01-01

88

Hazardous waste management and pollution prevention  

SciTech Connect

The management of hazardous wastes is one of the most critical environmental issues that faces many developing countries. It is one of the areas where institutional control and treatment and disposal technology has not kept pace with economic development. This paper reviews the development of hazardous waste management methods over the past decades, and provides the information on the status and trends of hazardous waste management strategy in selected western nations. Several issues pertinent to hazardous waste management will be reviewed, including: (1) definition of hazard; (2) why are we concerned with hazardous wastes; (3) aspects of hazardous waste management system; and (4) prioritization of hazardous waste management options. Due to regulatory and economic pressure on hazardous waste management, pollution prevention has become a very important environmental strategy in many developed countries. In many developed countries, industry is increasingly considering such alternative approaches, and finding many opportunities for their cost effective implementation. This paper provides a review of the status and trends of pollution prevention in selected western nations.

Chiu, Shen-yann

1992-03-01

89

E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (water pollution and control). E-mail newsletter  

SciTech Connect

Topics of discussion include the following: Pollution by municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mine wastes, radioactive contaminants; Chemistry and analysis of pollutants; Thermal pollution; Oil pollution; Control techniques and equipment; Sewage treatment; Industrial waste water pretreatment; Hydrology and limnology; Biological and ecological effects; Waste water reuse; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

NONE

1999-04-01

90

Effects of Water Pollution on Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an inquiry activity that, while based on a local area (the San Francisco Bay), could be adapted to the teacher's/student's local area. Students perform an experiment in which they observe how water pollution is absorbed into plants. The site contains a teacher's guide and printable student worksheet.

91

Mathematical modeling for water pollution control processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic and steady-state mathematical models have been developed to the extent that they can be used to evaluate, through a series of simulations, design and operation alternatives as well as control strategies for any system. This book focuses on process performance models in water pollution control. Its purpose is: to establish the current status of existing models with emphasis on

T. M. Keinath; M. P. Wanielista

1975-01-01

92

Water Pollution Control Across the Nation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewed are accomplishments, problems, and frustrations faced by individual states in meeting requirements of P.L. 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. State Environmental officials complain the new law may be a hindrance to established cleanup programs. Statistics and charts are given. (BL)

Environmental Science and Technology, 1973

1973-01-01

93

Public Information for Water Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a handbook for water pollution control personnel to guide them towards a successful public relations program. This handbook was written to incorporate the latest methods of teaching basic public information techniques to the non-professional in this area. Contents include: (1) a rationale for a public information program; (2)…

Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

94

Good operating practices cut water pollution  

SciTech Connect

This article advises the pipeline industry on how to comply with the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (PL 92-500), which states that pollution of US waters by any cause other than an ''Act of God,'' ''Act of War,'' or US Government negligence is the responsibility of the owner or operator of the facility. Points out that the actions of third parties do not relieve owners or operators of liability unless they are the sole cause of pollution. Emphasizes that liability can be reduced by prompt reporting of pollution to the National Response Center. Reveals that the major cause of failures in pipeline systems is accidental damage by third parties. Proposes tha the best defense against pipeline damage resulting from landowner activity is periodic contact of the landowner by the operator. Recommends aerial and ground patrols as sources of information on construction activities. Concludes that assessing a penalty against the party causing the pollution would be better than merely penalizing the pipeline operator.

West, D.E.

1982-07-12

95

Environmental impact analysis in water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for a wide?ranging environmental impact analysis to guide the establishment of water quality objectives and the associated effluent discharge standards is discussed. The particular problems associated with water pollution control are identified including: multiple and conflicting demands; multiple parameter objective specifications, the stochastic and time varying nature of the system; secondary and tertiary effects; and time?delay.Current environmental impact

Jeremy P. Lumbers

1985-01-01

96

The uncertainty effects of design flow on water quality management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In water quality management, pollution control strategies have been sought to accord with the assimilative capacity of water\\u000a bodies so as to preserve water quality. The waste load allocation (WLA) is a useful approach to determine the allowable loading\\u000a of pollution sources in water quality management. For any WLA, a particular water body condition is needed as a basic scenario

Chi-Feng Chen; Hwong-Wen Ma

2008-01-01

97

Total Water Management - Report  

EPA Science Inventory

There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

98

Water quality management worldwide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article analyzes water quality on a global scale. An overview of the global water supply and demand situation is presented first, including regional and country information, as well as data on selected water use patterns. The focus then shifts to a discussion of water pollution, its various causes, impact, and remedies, with emphasis on legal and administrative solutions. Water pollution control expenditures and the resultant achievements are dealt with in the final third of the article, with projections to 1995. A wide variety of published sources was dovetailed to obtain a composite picture and most likely scenario; this was supplemented with primary interviews by the author conducted in North America, Western and Eastern Europe, and Oceania at the start of the 1980s.

Gross, Andrew Charles

1986-01-01

99

Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

Rowbotham, N.

1973-01-01

100

Water pollution control in Canada: cleanup through collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent survey indicates that Canadians are willing to pay more taxes and higher prices to solve their country's air and water pollution problems. The political pollution control organization in Canada, the development of regulations for water pollution control, municipal facility construction and treatment levels, and the challenge for the Great Lakes are discussed. Environmental problems in Canada, particularly water

Feliciano

1979-01-01

101

Setting the Course for Clean Water: A Citizen's Guide to the Section 208 Water Quality Management Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a citizen's guide to the section 208 water quality management program. Section 208 refers to that section of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (the Clean Water Act) which calls for public participation in water quality management planning. Included in this guide are chapters on controlling pollution through the Clean Water

Donley, Diane L.; Albright, Catherine

102

The national recreational fishing benefits of water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented of an effort to estimate the fresh water recreational fishing benefit derived from water pollution control efforts. Methodology is potentially applicable to other subcategories. (PSB)

Clifford S. Russell; William J. Vaughan

1982-01-01

103

Lake Eutrophication - Water Pollution Causes, Effects and Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Papers presented at 'Save the Lakes Symposium' focused on lake pollution and eutrophication. The life cycle of a lake is described. Improved methods of lake management may be uncovered in fundamental studies dealing with present sources of pollution, muni...

1970-01-01

104

Sanitary landfills: Water pollution. January 1980-August 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Aug 91  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, operation, and management of sanitary landfills as related to water pollution. Topics include water pollution control, leachate analyses, site studies, environmental monitoring, and solid waste management strategies. Hazardous materials, public health, refuse disposal, and waste disposal are considered. (Contains 126 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1991-07-01

105

A Pollution Offset System for Trading NonPoint Source Water Pollution Permits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pollution from non-point sources is a global environmental concern. Economists propose tradable permit systems as a\\u000a solution, but they are difficult to implement due to the nature of non-point sources. We present a pollution offset system\\u000a for trading non-point source water pollution permits. Conventional pollution offset systems suffer from thin markets and transaction\\u000a costs. In this paper, we show

R. A. Ranga Prabodanie; John F. Raffensperger; Mark W. Milke

2010-01-01

106

Bacteriological Water Quality Methods for Determining Ruminant Fecal Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies have been completed on development of microbiological methods for detection of farm animal waste pollution of lake and river water. To differentiate ruminant fecal pollution from domestic sources, the fecal streptococcus, Streptococcus bovis, whic...

P. R. Middaugh

1975-01-01

107

Implementation of water-pollution-control measures: section 208 of the Water Pollution Control Act Amendments  

SciTech Connect

Federal water pollution abatement legislation has incorporated more localized implementation provisions in recent years, such as Section 208 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. The goal is to spur local and regional abatement efforts through cooperation by various local governmental entities. But that goal has not been met in the majority of cases because of political opposition and lack of statutory clarity. Any future attempt at localized implementation of federal mandates can profit from the experience of Section 208 and include true flexibility and opportunity for cooperation. 64 references.

Wilkins, L.P.

1980-01-01

108

Loading of water and soil by pollutants in Shelby County  

SciTech Connect

Our environment is constantly being polluted by humans and animals. Pollution is increased by modern practices, such as the use of pesticides, herbicides and other chemicals. The number of household pets in the US is increasing and they add to the pollution. In a city, such as Memphis, where production of chemical compounds is relatively high, the pollution of the environment may grow worse unless concerted efforts are made to control it. This study was undertaken to indicate the possible extent of pollution of the surface soil in and near Memphis. Runoff contributes to the pollution of the waterways and their ultimate resting sites. So, water analyses are useful indicators of pollution.

Madhavan, K. (Christian Brothers Univ., Memphis, TN (USA))

1990-10-01

109

Adaptive hierarchical grid model of water-borne pollutant dispersion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water pollution by industrial and agricultural waste is an increasingly major public health issue. It is therefore important for water engineers and managers to be able to predict accurately the local behaviour of water-borne pollutants. This paper describes the novel and efficient coupling of dynamically adaptive hierarchical grids with standard solvers of the advection-diffusion equation. Adaptive quadtree grids are able to focus on regions of interest such as pollutant fronts, while retaining economy in the total number of grid elements through selective grid refinement. Advection is treated using Lagrangian particle tracking. Diffusion is solved separately using two grid-based methods; one is by explicit finite differences, the other a diffusion-velocity approach. Results are given in two dimensions for pure diffusion of an initially Gaussian plume, advection-diffusion of the Gaussian plume in the rotating flow field of a forced vortex, and the transport of species in a rectangular channel with side wall boundary layers. Close agreement is achieved with analytical solutions of the advection-diffusion equation and simulations from a Lagrangian random walk model. An application to Sepetiba Bay, Brazil is included to demonstrate the method with complex flows and topography.

Borthwick, A. G. L.; Marchant, R. D.; Copeland, G. J. M.

110

Coastal Water Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Uses of the nation's coastal waters are increasing at a rapid pace. The acceleration of offshore oil development, proposals for deepwater ports, plans for floating power plants, increased emphasis on fisheries management have all served to highlight the i...

1977-01-01

111

Purge water management system  

DOEpatents

A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

1995-01-01

112

Purge water management system  

DOEpatents

A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

Cardoso-Neto, Joao E. (North Augusta, SC); Williams, Daniel W. (Aiken, SC)

1996-01-01

113

Management of oil pollution of natural resources in Nigeria  

SciTech Connect

Oil spillages are prominent features of petroleum exploitation in Nigeria. For instance, within the decade 1970-1980, the country experienced 18 major spills. Oil pollution adversely affects the water and soil resources of the petroleum-producing Niger Delta. There have been attempts to manage the increasing menace of oil spills, and two strategies may be identified. These are the legislative and the project implementation approaches. The first approach relies on preventative laws, while the second, more or less curative, depends on the implementation of projects for the monitoring, control, and clearance of spilled oil. There are various problems in the effective operation of both strategies, and the persistence of spills, many of them avoidable, tends to indicate lapses in the management attempts. 12 references, 4 tables.

Ikporukpo, C.O.

1985-04-01

114

Biocomposting of distillery waste to control water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a developing country like India, distillery industries have become a major source of pollution, as 88% of its raw materials are converted into waste and discharged into the water bodies, causing water pollution. The waste water from distilleries carry appreciable organic load. The spent wash is colored, highly acidic with very offensive odor, which poses serious environmental problems. To

Ashok Kumar Ghosh; Bihari Singh; Nupur Bose; K. K. Tiwari

2003-01-01

115

The study of venous channel water pollution load reduction technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, Hongqi River of WuJin River watershed (china) was selected as an example, aims to use QUAL2K water quality model simulation water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, forecasting the pollution load of the Hongqi River basin, and compared to the actual emissions of pollution load, calculated the load reduction rate for satisfying the water quality objectives. At

Ruibin Zhang; Yanyan Dou; Ping Sun; Yiyao Bai; Xin Qian

2011-01-01

116

Controlling Nonpoint-Source Water Pollution: A Citizen's Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Citizens can play an important role in helping their states develop pollution control programs and spurring effective efforts to deal with nonpoint-source pollution. This guide takes the reader step-by-step through the process that states must follow to comply with water quality legislation relevant to nonpoint-source pollution. Part I provides…

Hansen, Nancy Richardson; And Others

117

Water Quality Management in China: The Case of the Huai River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the importance of water quality management and the impacts of water pollution control and water development projects. The case study of the Huai River Basin is an example of the major challenges on water quality management that China is facing, and why water quality management will play a key role on its sustainable use and management. Three

Jun Xia; Yong-Yong Zhang; Chesheng Zhan; Ai Zhong Ye

2011-01-01

118

The Current State of Water Quality and Technology Development for Water Pollution Control in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes and presents an overview of the current state of water pollution, as well as recent progress and the potential future development of water pollution control technology, in China. Although China has made significant strides in water environmental protection over the past decades, analysis reveals that water pollution in the nation is still not sufficiently controlled, with a

Jiuhui Qu; Maohong Fan

2010-01-01

119

Eutrophication assessment and management methodology of multiple pollution sources of a landscape lake in North China.  

PubMed

Landscape lakes in the city suffer high eutrophication risk because of their special characters and functions in the water circulation system. Using a landscape lake HMLA located in Tianjin City, North China, with a mixture of point source (PS) pollution and non-point source (NPS) pollution, we explored the methodology of Fluent and AQUATOX to simulate and predict the state of HMLA, and trophic index was used to assess the eutrophication state. Then, we use water compensation optimization and three scenarios to determine the optimal management methodology. Three scenarios include ecological restoration scenario, best management practices (BMPs) scenario, and a scenario combining both. Our results suggest that the maintenance of a healthy ecosystem with ecoremediation is necessary and the BMPs have a far-reaching effect on water reusing and NPS pollution control. This study has implications for eutrophication control and management under development for urbanization in China. PMID:23184129

Chen, Yanxi; Niu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Hongwei

2013-06-01

120

Water-pollution control: guidelines for project planning and financing. World Bank technical paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication provides guidelines to managers, supervisors, and others who are involved with decisions on filling needs for water-pollution-control facilities, but who may be lacking the detailed background in engineering, economics, financial management, or other applicable specialties. Political and economic planning leaders, who must provide the financial resources and overall policies, will also find the document useful in making themselves

R. C. Palange; A. Zavala

1987-01-01

121

RESEARCH AREA -- POLLUTION PREVENTION (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The strategy of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Indoor Environment Management Branch (IEMB) is to apply IEMB's expertise in indoor air quality (i.e., source characterization, ventilation, filtration, modeling, biocontaminants, and sustainable buildings) to...

122

Areawide planning under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972: intergovernmental and land-use implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

By 1972 Congress had recognized the impossibility of controlling water pollution without some degree of land use management. Congress subsequently amended the Federal Water Pollution Control Act by adding section 208, which creates a Federal system of areawide planning. This comment analyzes the planning responsibilities that section 208 imposed upon state and metropolitan governments, the new element of Federal control

Jungman

1977-01-01

123

Research needs and priorities: water pollution control benefits and costs. Volume II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research needs and priorities involving water pollution control costs ; and benefits are specified. A series of theoretical and methodological research ; needs are presented. Water quality management is required in a dynamic setting ; and over a broad range of hydrologic and economic conditions. The common ; property resource aspects of the problem with the prevalence of externalities ;

D. L. Jordening; J. K. Allwood

1973-01-01

124

Managed Trade, Trade Liberalisation and Local Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current paper addresses the relationship between trade and endogenous pollution levels, with a focus different from the previous literature. The mechanism linking pollution and trade here is that trade policy provides the home government with a credible threat that helps motivate domestic firms to adopt cleaner technologies. This credible threat comes from the fact that the government has a

Pierre M. Regibeau; Alberto Gallegos

2004-01-01

125

Effect of Water Source Pollution on the Water Quality of Shanghai Water Supply System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the quality of water source in Shanghai, China and its water supply system. The effect of purification by traditional water treatment process and the effluent biological stability were evaluated by measuring quality parameters in the water supply system. The data showed that the main pollutants in the water source of Huangpu River were organics and ammonia. The

XIAOHUI BAI; XIAOHONG ZHANG; QUN SUN; XINZE WANG; BIN ZHU

2006-01-01

126

Pollution-control equipment (Colombia). Water-pollution-control equipment, May 1992. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

There are few manufacturers of water pollution control equipment in Colombia. Imports of water pollution equipment decreased 14 percent from US $16.3 million in 1990 to US $14.2 million in 1991. For 1992, they may fall 5 percent to US $13.5 million due to the slow performance of the economy. The close relationship with U.S. suppliers and the possible enforcement of water quality standards could influence favorably the growth of imports within the next three years. For many years, the U.S. has been the major supplier of water pollution control equipment.

Not Available

1992-05-01

127

An Innovative Partnership Approach for Environmental Management and Pollution Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A partnership between a university and a government regulatory agency sought to assist industries with pollution prevention and waste management. Economic incentives were developed to promote waste minimization. (SK)

Erten-Unal, Mujde; Aydlett, Guy M.

1997-01-01

128

Diel Variability of Water Quality in a Tropical Polluted Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective is to describe and quantify the diel variability of water quality in a tropical coastal system, Guanabara Bay, Brazil. Water samples were collected in spring and neap tide cycles over 24 h periods at three strategic sites. A pollution gradient was evident between the sampling sites. The average fecal coliform values decreased from 106 (site 3, most polluted)

Rodolfo Paranhos; André P. Pereira; Letícia M. Mayr

1998-01-01

129

Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

Fowler, K. E. M.

130

EFFECTIVENESS OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential water quality effects and economic implications of soil and water conservation practices (SWCPs) are identified. Method for estimating the effects of SWCPs on pollutant losses from croplands are presented. Mathematical simulation and linear programming models were u...

131

STORM WATER MANAGEMENT MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is a comprehensive model for analysis of quantity and quality problems associated with urban runoff. Both single-event and continuous simulation may be performed on catchments having storm sewers, combined sewers, and natural drainage, for pred...

132

Energy and Water Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Energy efficiency isn't just a good idea; it's a necessity, both for cost reasons and to meet federal regulatory requirements. First, rising energy unit costs continue to erode NASA's mission budget. NASA spent roughly $156M on facility energy in FY 2007. Although that represents less than one per cent of NASA's overall annual budget, the upward trend in energy costs concerns the agency. While NASA reduced consumption 13%, energy unit costs have risen 63%. Energy cost increases counteract the effects of energy conservation, which results in NASA buying less yet spending more. The second factor is federal energy legislation. The National Energy Conservation Policy Act, as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Executive Order (EO) 13423 (January, 2007), and the Energy Independence and Security Act (December, 2007), mandates energy/water conservation goals for all federal agencies, including NASA. There are also reporting requirements associated with this legislation. The Energy/Water Management Task was created to support NASA Headquarters Environmental Management Division (HO EMD) in meeting these requirements. With assistance from TEERM, HQ EMD compiled and submitted the NASA Annual Report to the Department of Energy FY 2007. The report contains information on how NASA is meeting federally mandated energy and water management goals. TEERM monitored input for timeliness, errors, and conformity to the new energy/water reporting guidelines and helped compile the information into the final report. TEERM also assists NASA Energy/Water Management with proposal and award calls, updates to the energy/water management database, and facilitating communication within the energy/water management community. TEERM is also supporting NASA and the Interagency Working Group (IWG) on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells. Established shortly after the President announced the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in 2003, this IWG serves as the mechanism for collaboration among the Federal agencies involved in hydrogen-related research, development, and demonstration. TEERM developed a matrix showing all Hydrogen and Fuel Cell activities from the various NASA centers to be included in the Group's extensive hydrogen research taxonomy of past, present, and future hydrogen activities of the Federal government.

Valek, Susan E.

2008-01-01

133

National Water Management Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started during the Great Depression, the National Resources Conservation Service has "provided leadership in a partnership effort to help America's private land owners and managers to conserve their soil, water, and other natural resources." One of their outreach projects includes the National Water Management Center (NWMC) website. Persons with an interest in water-related issues and resource conservation will find the site most useful, and they can use the site to learn about water resource planning, watershed assessments, water policy implementations, and other topics. On the NWMC homepage visitors can look at the right hand side of the page to learn more about their work on environmental compliance, stream restoration, and water resource partnering. Visitors won't want to miss their special "Mississippi River Basin" area. Here, they can learn about the difficult conditions facing the Basin, including the persistent low oxygen conditions which affect about 15000 square kilometers. The site also includes an "Information For" area which contains thematic resources organized specifically for engineers, watershed planners, and policy makers.

134

National Water Management Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started during the Great Depression, the National Resources Conservation Service has "provided leadership in a partnership effort to help America's private land owners and managers to conserve their soil, water, and other natural resources." One of their outreach projects includes the National Water Management Center (NWMC) website. Persons with an interest in water-related issues and resource conservation will find the site most useful, and they can use the site to learn about water resource planning, watershed assessments, water policy implementations, and other topics. On the NWMC homepage visitors can look at the right hand side of the page to learn more about their work on environmental compliance, stream restoration, and water resource partnering. Visitors won't want to miss their special "Mississippi River Basin" area. Here, they can learn about the difficult conditions facing the Basin, including the persistent low oxygen conditions which affect about 15000 square kilometers. The site also includes an "Information For" area which contains thematic resources organized specifically for engineers, watershed planners, and policy makers.

2009-09-28

135

Enforcement of Section 208 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 to control nonpoint source pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpoint source pollution (NPS) caused by agriculture, road building, and other activities is, while less visible than point source pollution, recognized as such a major contributor to water pollution that it must be brought under control. Section 208 is the only portion of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 to deal directly with the NPS problem. The

Wicker

1979-01-01

136

9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. 381.151... Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. (a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited to...

2014-01-01

137

9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. 318.14... Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. (a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited to...

2014-01-01

138

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and...et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

2010-10-01

139

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923.45...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program...established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

2010-01-01

140

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923.45...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program...established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

2009-01-01

141

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and...et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

2009-10-01

142

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2010-01-01

143

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2009-01-01

144

Environmental economics: capital expenditures for air and water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey showed that in the period 1970-76, capital expenditures by industries and utilities for air pollution abatement of stationary sources was $19.8 billion compared with $12.9 billion for water pollution control. During the 1977-85 period, capital expenditures by industries and utilities for air pollution abatement are expected to total over $36 billion, of which $6.75 billion will be for

de la Rue

1977-01-01

145

Spatially based management of agricultural phosphorus pollution from diffuse sources: the SCIMAP risk based approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollution of rivers from agricultural phosphorus is recognised as a significant global problem and is a major management challenge as it involves processes that are small in magnitude, distributed over large areas, operating at fine spatial scales and associated with certain land use types when they are well connected to the receiving waters. Whilst some of these processes have been

S. M. Reaney; L. Heathwaite; C. Buckley

2007-01-01

146

Decision making using fuzzy sets for optimal water quality management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the area of management of receiving water quality the focus has shifted away from stringent point source controls and towards a watershed scale approach. The Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) procedure is an attempt to control point and nonpoint source pollution by taking into account the assimilative capacity of the receiving water. As part of the TMDL procedure, water

Mahalakshmi Parameswaran

1999-01-01

147

Stable Isotope Mixing Models as a Tool for Tracking Sources of Water and Water Pollutants  

EPA Science Inventory

One goal of monitoring pollutants is to be able to trace the pollutant to its source. Here we review how mixing models using stable isotope information on water and water pollutants can help accomplish this goal. A number of elements exist in multiple stable (non-radioactive) i...

148

A Review of Modelling Tools for Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive in Handling Diffuse Water Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical catchment-scale model capable of simulating diffuse water pollution is necessary in sustainable environmental\\u000a management for better implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive. This paper provides critical reviews of most popular\\u000a and free models for diffuse water modelling, with detailed sources and application potential. Based upon these reviews, further\\u000a work of selecting and testing the HSPF model was

Y. S. Yang; L. Wang

2010-01-01

149

IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF FECAL POLLUTION IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of Microbial Source Tracking (MST) methods are currently used to determine the origin of fecal pollution impacting environmental waters. MST is based on the assumption that given the appropriate method and indicator organism, the source of fecal microbial pollution can ...

150

Toward an effective and credible program: Water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the public demand for water pollution control remains loud, the political response has become deafening. The responsible political leadership in both parties has avoided the temptation to engage in competitive promises. But those seeking instant solutions and those whose political response has been guided by the pressure of Earth Day have created an image about the pollution problem that

Leonard B. Dworsky

1970-01-01

151

Conflict between energy conservation and water pollution control standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential conflict in national needs for both energy conservation and water pollution control is indicated. Meeting broader obligations in reconciling these apparent differences has failed. Major contributions to energy conservation efforts needed today could be made without giving up any important pollution control goals. Hopefully, state and Federal regulatory agencies soon will recognize their obligations in this respect and

Lamb

1980-01-01

152

Pollution nitrique des eaux souterraines au Tadia (Maroc) Ground water nitrate pollution in Tadia (Morocco)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reçu le 28 avril 2000, accepté le 28 février 2002* SUMMARY In Morocco, diffuse ground water pollution by nitrates in irrigated areas has caused an increase in the risk of water quality détérioration. This has genera- ted a health risk in rural areas, since most of the rural population get their drinking water supply from the aquifer. The présent study

N. AGHZAR; H. BERDAI; A. BELLOUTI; B. SOUDI

153

Indoor Air Pollution: An Energy Management Problem?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy conservation measures have led to airtight buildings and reduced levels of ventilation resulting in indoor air pollution. Five kinds of contaminants--tobacco smoke, combustion products, microorganisms, organic compounds, and radon--are described, their hazards considered, and countermeasures outlined. (MLF)

Cousins, David M.; Kulba, John W.

1987-01-01

154

Water environmental planning and management at the watershed scale: A case study of Lake Qilu, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water environmental planning and management has become essential for guiding the water pollution control activities. Past\\u000a water pollution control activities have been site specific, with little thought on water quality standard reaching at the\\u000a watershed scale. Based on the watershed approach, a seven-step methodological framework for water environmental planning and\\u000a management was developed. The framework was applied to water environmental

Kai Huang; Huaicheng Guo; Yong Liu; Feng Zhou; Yajuan Yu; Zhen Wang

2008-01-01

155

Science in Africa: Emerging Water Management Issues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Proceedings are now online for the February 17, 1998 Symposium on Science in Africa: Emerging Water Management Issues held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The symposium focused on the "eutrophication, salinization, and pollution from industrial effluents and chemical run-off, and ecosystem concerns including exotic weed infestation, declining fish populations, habitat destruction, and loss of biodiversity." Users have access to the following sections: Table of Contents, Foreword, An Historical View of African Inland Waters, East African Species Introductions and Wetland Management: Sociopolitical Dimensions, Management of Freshwater Ecosystems in Southern Africa: Comparisons and Contradictions, Human Interactions and Water Quality in the Horn of Africa, Freshwater Ecosystems in West Africa: Problems and Overlooked Potential, and Biographical Information.

1998-01-01

156

The problems of water pollution: an overview.  

PubMed

Most potentially toxic chemicals eventually find their way into waterways. The most common source of this pollution is from the air. More than 50 percent of the chemical pollution of the Great Lakes is believed to come from airborne pollutants, and the main sources of this pollution are smokestacks (energy plants, nuclear or conventional; trash-to-steam incinerators; industrial factories, chemical and wood pulp) and road traffic exhaust. Chemicals may reach waterways directly through partially filtered or untreated sewage and waterway traffic, both industrial and pleasure; or they may be deposited into the soil and reach rivers and estuaries through leakage (PCBs on cables, landfills, and regular or low-level nuclear waste) or locally from fields (fertilizers, herbicides, phosphates, and other chemicals. PMID:1560988

Lumb, G; Clare, A S

1992-03-01

157

Alternative Policies for Controlling Nonpoint Agricultural Sources of Water Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study of policies for controlling water pollution from nonpoint agricultural sources includes a survey of existing state and Federal programs, agencies, and laws directed to the control of soil erosion. Six policies representing a variety of approach...

W. D. Seitz D. M. Gardner S. K. Gove K. L. Guntermann J. R. Karr

1978-01-01

158

Assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote measurement of chlorophyll concentrations to determine extent of water pollution is discussed. Construction and operation of radiometer to provide measurement capability are explained. Diagram of equipment is provided.

Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

1972-01-01

159

Environmental Health Planning Guide. Air Pollution. Sewerage, Water, Housing. Refuse.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Today the explosive population growth and the continued concentration of people, production and services in metropolitan areas are making the environmental health problems still more complex and difficult. Polluted water and air, open refuse dumps, substa...

1973-01-01

160

A Philosophy of Water Pollution Control--Past and Present.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview of water pollution control in the U.S. is given, leading to an analysis of present policy trends. A "rational environmental program" is called for to provide economic growth and environmental quality. (MDR)

Schroeffer, George J.

1978-01-01

161

Recruitment and Employment of the Water Pollution Control Specialist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are the basic principles of personnel recruitment and employment for the water pollution control field. Attention is given to determination of staffing requirements, effective planning, labor sources, affirmative action, and staffing policies. (CS)

Sherrard, J. H.; Sherrard, F. A.

1979-01-01

162

Nutrient removal from polluted river water by using constructed wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Erh-Ren River is one of the most polluted rivers in Taiwan. Although its flow rate is relatively low, the rate is still beyond the capacity of any traditional water treatment facility. A pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) is the attempt used to purify the highly polluted river water and to collect data for the construction and operation of a full-scale

Shuh-Ren Jing; Yin-Feng Lin; Der-Yuan Lee; Tze-Wen Wang

2001-01-01

163

Energy requirements for industrial water pollution control. a perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of available information on energy requirements (ER) for industrial air and water pollution control to meet the existing U.S. Legislation (e.g., the Public Law 92-500) includes estimates of the ER by sector (industry, powerplants, and municipal wastes), by pollutant type (water, sulfur oxides, particulates, and thermal wastes), and by industry for 1977-1983, showing the relative importance of the

Serth

1978-01-01

164

Consequences of Decentralization: Environmental Impact Assessment and Water Pollution Control in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

After having been one of the most centralized states in the world for more than thirty years, in 2001 Indonesia introduced a sweeping program of decentralization with important consequences for the management of the industrial sector. This article explores whether the decentralization process has led to substantial changes in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and enforcement of water pollution law. Its

ADRIAAN BEDNER

2010-01-01

165

Landscape Modeling and Spatial Optimization of Management Practices to Restore Water Quality in the St. Albans Bay Watershed, Vermont  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffuse (non-point source) pollution from urban stormwater and agricultural runoff are among the leading causes of water pollution in the United States. Currently, most management plans that address diffuse pollution are driven by dissociated economic, political and ecological interests that are difficult to reconcile. Integrated watershed management aims to protect and improve water resources while considering economic and social concerns

Erica Gaddis; Alexey Voinov

166

New Photocatalysis for Effective Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of harmful compounds in water supplies and in the discharge of wastewater from chemical industries, power plants, and agricultural sources is a topic of global concern. The processes and technologies available at the present time for the treatment of polluted water are varied that include traditional water treatment processes such as biological, thermal and chemical treatment. All these

M. Zarei Chaleshtori; G. B. Saupe; S. Masoud

2009-01-01

167

Scientific basis of water-resource management  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains 11 reports regarding water-resource management. Topics include: long-term and large-scale problems of water management, such as groundwater contamination due to toxic and nuclear-waste disposal; nonpoint sources of pollution on our stream systems; impacts of changes in both flow and water quality on the aquatic ecosystem; the frequency, duration, and impacts of droughts including long-term trends toward desertification; long-term hydrologic budgets for assessing the adequacy of regional or national water resources; global geochemical cycles such as the fate of nitrogen and sulfur; and protection of engineered systems against hydrologic extrema. These macroscale and long-term problems, involving large investments and the health and well-being of much of the world's population, demand increasingly precise and accurate predictive statements. Individual reports are indexed separately on the energy data base.

Not Available

1982-01-01

168

Water pollution in the USSR and other Eastern European countries*  

PubMed Central

The condition of water bodies and measures taken to prevent their pollution in the USSR, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Bulgaria and Romania are the main subjects of this paper. For each of these countries information is given on population and area, physical features, rain-fall and rivers, the distribution of population and industry, water supply and sewerage, the condition of surface and ground waters, the authorities and legislation concerned with the protection of water resources, and research on pollution. The author draws attention to the experience gained in these countries in the setting up of special State bodies to take charge of water resources and in classifying rivers according to the uses to which they are put, a factor which determines the regulations governing the discharge of effluent into them. A plea is also made for the convening of specialized international conferences on problems connected with the protection of European water resources from pollution.

Litvinov, N.

1962-01-01

169

Target setting for pollutant discharge management of rivers in the Great Barrier Reef catchment area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water Quality Improvement Plans (WQIPs) are being developed for individual river basins on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) catchment associated with the GBR Water Quality Protection Plan. Within each WQIP, marine ecosystem targets are linked to end-of-river pollutant (suspended sediments, nutrients and pesticides) load targets and to farm level management practice targets. The targets are linked through quantitative models; e.g.

Jon Brodie; Stephen Lewis; Zoe Bainbridge; Alan Mitchell; Jane Waterhouse; Frederieke Kroon

2009-01-01

170

Water hyacinth as indicator of heavy metal pollution the tropics  

SciTech Connect

The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a common aquatic plant in many tropical countries. Its ability absorb nutrients and other elements from the water has made it possible to use it for water purification purposes. Eichhornia, especially stems and leaves, have been successfully used as indicators of heavy metal pollution in tropical countries. The uptake of heavy metals in this plant is stronger in the roots than in the floating shoots. Metallothionein-like compounds have been found from roots of this species after cadmium exposure. The purpose of this investigation was to study the possibilities of using roots of water hyacinth as a biological indicator of metal pollution in tropical aquatic ecosystems.

Gonzalez, H.; Otero, M. (Institute of Transport Investigations, Havana (Cuba)); Lodenius, M. (Univ. of Helsinki (Finland))

1989-12-01

171

WASTE MANAGEMENT, ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE AND POLLUTION PREVENTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Management and Environmental Compliance Group within the Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is responsible for managing all waste generated in NMT facilities from operations with, or that support, actinide processing. These operations result in the generation of a variety of waste forms, from sanitary and salvage to radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste.

James J. Balkey; Ronald E. Wieneke

2000-01-01

172

Industrial storm water pollution prevention: Effectiveness and limitations of source controls in the transportation industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial activities that are sources of pollutants in storm water runoff at typical facilities of the transportation industry are identified by site investigations at five facilities. This research then evaluates pollution prevention measures implemented to reduce those pollutants, as required by storm water regulations under the U.S. Clean Water Act. Activities that potentially generate storm water pollutants, particular to facilities

L. Donald Duke; Y. Jae Chung

1995-01-01

173

Water pollution caused by tourism development in the Lijiang Ancient Town, Yunnan Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pollution caused by tourism development not only occurs in water-scarce areas but also exists in the areas where water resource is relatively abundant. In this paper, the relationship between water pollution and tourism development in the Lijiang Ancient Town was discussed because there were no industrial or agricultural pollutant sources except the tourism pollution. Meanwhile, questionnaires survey was adopted

Baoying Ning; Yuanqing He

2011-01-01

174

Irrigation management under water scarcity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of water for agricultural production in water scarcity regions requires innovative and sustainable research, and an appropriate transfer of technologies. This paper discusses some of these aspects, mainly relative to on-farm irrigation management including the use of treated wastewater and saline waters. First, the paper proposes some concepts relative to water scarcity, concerning aridity, drought, desertification and water

Luis Santos Pereira; Theib Oweis; Abdelaziz Zairi

2002-01-01

175

33 CFR 151.1514 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Ballast water management alternatives...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management...conditions, is unable to effect a ballast water...

2009-07-01

176

Managing the international commons: Resource use and pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simultaneous management, in an international context, of free-access renewable resources and transboundary pollution, is examined in a dynamic game framework. First-best outcomes under international cooperation are determined and compared to noncooperative outcomes when countries follow linear Markov strategies. An international policy consisting of taxes on emissions and harvesting, with international redistribution of tax receipts, is used to achieve the

Anastasios Xepapadeas

1995-01-01

177

IPWM: AN INTERVAL PARAMETER WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an interval parameter water quality management (IPWM) model and its application to a case study of water pollution control planning within an agricultural system. The model allows uncertain information, presented as interval numbers, to be effectively communicated into the optimization process and resulting solutions, such that decision alternatives can be generated through interpretation of the solutions (presented

G. H. HUANG

1996-01-01

178

Sources and management of urban stormwater pollution in rural catchments, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThis paper assesses the impact and quantifies the relative contribution of stormwater runoff (diffuse pollution sources) and point pollution sources on the quality of receiving water in the urban catchment of Orange. The study results were employed to develop management strategies to control stormwater pollution at the catchment level. The Orange urban catchment has experienced moderate to high levels of pollution in terms of nutrients (P and N), suspended solids (SS), heavy metals, fecal coliforms, and, to a lesser extent, salinity (TDS). Treated sewage effluent (point source) contributed, on average, 5% SS, 29% total nitrogen (TN) and 41% total phosphorous (TP). The nutrient yield per unit area was 2-31-folds higher than those reported for other Australian urban catchments. The overall contribution of the urban sources accounted for 93% and 94% of the TP and TN mass loads, respectively. In contrast, stormwater pollution in coastal urban catchments, that have similar population and land use, is dominated by rural diffuse sources contributing 81-99% of nutrient mass loads. This striking difference is attributed largely to the position of the catchment with respect to the hydrological system. Orange urban catchment is situated at the headwater of its river system and as such rural runoff into the urban part of the catchment was limited. The coastal catchments, on the other hand, are located at the end of their river systems and thus rural inflow into the urban area is substantially higher than those in upland catchments. This comparative assessment may suggest that the relative impact, per capita , of urban stormwater pollution on the receiving water is more significant in the upland catchments than in the coastal catchments. A stormwater management plan (SMP), consisting of structural and non-structural strategies, was developed to control stormwater pollution and enhance the quality of receiving water.

Al Bakri, Dhia; Rahman, Sadequr; Bowling, Lee

179

Photochemical Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Liquid Water and Ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic snow and ice play an important role as reactive media in the environment. A variety of species are photochemically generated from snow/ice, including carbonyl compounds, alkyl halides, molecular halogens, and nitrogen oxides. However, the fate of anthropogenic organic pollutants in snow and ice is largely unknown. Volatile pollutants evaporate from lower, warmer latitudes and condense out in the higher, colder latitudes by a process known as global distillation, leading to enhanced concentrations of a variety of pollutants in polar regions. Here we present recent results of photochemical degradation studies of several important organic pollutants including aldrin, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, and 3,3',4,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl. Direct and indirect (with H2O2) pathways were studied in both liquid water and ice forms. Aldrin and 3,3',4,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl have shown the most reactivity, both degrading significantly via the direct and indirect pathway in liquid water and ice. Dieldrin has shown reactivity under both direct and indirect liquid conditions, while HCB is only reactive under indirect liquid conditions. These results indicate that ice can serve as an important reactive surface for anthropogenic organic pollutants. Snow/ice photochemistry should be included in models of pollutant fate, but further studies are necessary to determine which pollutants are most affected by ice photochemistry under typical environmental conditions.

Sprenkle, A. M.; Grannas, A. M.

2006-12-01

180

Spectral reflectance and radiance characteristics of water pollutants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral reflectance characteristics of water pollutants and water bodies were compiled using the existing literature. Radiance calculations were performed at satellite altitude for selected illumination angles and atmospheric conditions. The work described in this report was limited to the reflective portion of the spectrum between 0.40 micrometer to 1.0 micrometer.

Wezernak, C. T.; Turner, R. E.; Lyzenga, D. R.

1976-01-01

181

Water pollution control: the case for local control and accountability  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a time when substantial changes are taking place, or are proposed, in the organizational structure for preventing water pollution in Scotland, the paper makes the case for maintaining the status quo. The Scottish system relies on 10 independent river purification authorities comprising elected and appointed members, with considerable freedom to set water quality objectives and standards in light of

David W. Mackay

1993-01-01

182

Identification and Control of Pollution from Salt Water Intrusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains informational guidelines for identifying and evaluating the nature and extent of pollution from salt water intrusion. The intent of these guidelines is to provide a basic framework for assessing salt water intrusion problems and their relationship to the total hydrologic system, and to provide assistance in developing…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

183

Team Approaches for Agricultural Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpoint source water pollution, primarily from agricultural sources, is a major cause of water quality impairment. Uncertainty and asymmetric information are the key regulatory difficulties in the control of agricultural NPSP. The main target of this study is to describe a potential incentive scheme that can be applied in limited information situations. Team contracts built upon principal-agent theory are proposed.

Zou Jiliang; Yuan Yongkang

2009-01-01

184

Pollution prevention: Avoiding the need to manage wastes  

SciTech Connect

Today`s industrial processes generate many types of waste products that constitute risks to human health and the surrounding environment. While proper waste management procedures can lower this risk, prevention of the waste`s generation will eliminate the risk. For this reason, the United States has established pollution prevention as a national objective, through the passage of its Pollution Prevention Act of 1990. Pollution prevention involves a wide range of approaches, all with the same objective: to reduce or eliminate the creation of waste at its source in other words, within the process that generates it. This objective, so beneficial to the environment, also coincides with industrial economic interests. Pollution prevention measures and greater process efficiency go hand in hand, and typically result in lower operating costs as well as greatly reduced waste management expenses. The US Environmental Protection Agency defines pollution prevention as the maximum feasible reduction of all wastes generated at production sites. This objective is accomplished largely through source reduction and reuse of input materials during production.

Meltzer, M.

1993-12-01

185

Technical management techniques for identification and control of industrial safety and pollution hazards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Constructive recommendations are suggested for pollution problems from offshore energy resources industries on outer continental shelf. Technical management techniques for pollution identification and control offer possible applications to space engineering and management.

Campbell, R.; Dyer, M. K.; Hoard, E. G.; Little, D. G.; Taylor, A. C.

1972-01-01

186

MANAGING EXPOSURE TO INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS IN RESIDENTIAL AND OFFICE ENVIRONMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the factors to be considered in managing indoor air pollutants in residential and office environments to reduce occupant exposures. Techniques for managing indoor air pollution sources include: source elimination, substitution, modification, and pretreatment a...

187

Water Pollution Control: Lessons from Transnational Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is fundamental to life, as reflected in space scientists' compulsive search for signs of its presence when scrutinizing other planets for possible life forms. Fortunately for our species, more than two-thirds of our planet is covered with water, creating an environment richly conducive to life. Humans have just begun to appreciate how precious earth's water resources are and how

Robert V. Percival

1998-01-01

188

Managing Multimedia Pollution for a Multimedia World  

EPA Science Inventory

Through modest attention to the information highway we ride upon each day, we are increasingly aware of the intent, actions, and reactions of local, state and Federal governments, regional compacts, and international organizations to protect the quality of the water we drink, th...

189

Magnitude of pollution indicator organisms in rural potable water.  

PubMed Central

A total of 460 water samples were randomly drawn from the potable water supply sources of rural communities in three counties of South Carolina. About 10% of the population, not incorporated in municipalities, was sampled. The samples were tested for total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci. Significant levels of these pollution indicator organisms were detected in almost all the water supplies. Total coliforms were the most common, and only 7.5% of the water supplies were uncontaminated. E. coli, considered a reliable indicator of recent and dangerous pollution, was observed in 43% of the water supplies. Statistical analyses indicated that the bacterial populations, especially E. coli, were associated with the supply source depth and its distance from the septic tank. Total coliform counts were also weakly correlated to the pH of the water.

Sandhu, S S; Warren, W J; Nelson, P

1979-01-01

190

Implications of Metal Load Randomness for Mine Water Pollution Abatement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial and temporal variability of pollution transport from point and diffuse mine water sources (e.g. mine wastes, abandoned mine voids, contaminated groundwater) in catchments imply uncertainty in mine water pollution loads at important compliance boundaries (CB) and in cost-efficient abatement solutions for handling these loads. We use a stochastic description of total pollution loading from different possible mine water sources and quantify the effect of random load variance on minimum abatement costs for various targeted zinc load reductions to the Dal River, Sweden. Consideration of randomness in mine water pollution loads implies that, under certain conditions, compliance costs may be lower for higher than for lower load reduction targets, for the same load coefficient of variation and required probability to reach targeted load reductions. In addition, we illustrate that total costs in the cost-efficient abatement solutions converge with increasing zinc load reduction targets. Cost-efficient abatement solutions and costs are therefore more sensitive to uncertainty in pollution loading at lower than at higher compliance targets. For the example case of the Dal River Basin, we also show that the generally increasing abatement costs with increasing load variance and desired probability to reach targeted load reductions is only step-wise continuous, because cost-efficient abatement requires both continuous (e.g. constructed wetlands) and discrete (e.g. soil covers) abatement measures.

Baresel, C.; Destouni, G.

2004-12-01

191

A Comparison of Erosion and Water Pollution Control Strategies for an Agricultural Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness and efficiency of two erosion control strategies and one water pollution control (riparian) strategy are compared for Idaho's Tom Beall watershed. Erosion control strategies maximize annualized net returns per hectare on each field and restrict field erosion rates to no more than 11.2 or 16.8 tons per hectare. The riparian strategy uses good vegetative cover on all fields adjacent to the creek and in noncropland areas and the resource management system that maximizes annualized net returns per hectare on remaining fields. The Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution model is used to simulate the levels and concentrations of sediment, nitrogen, phosphorus, and chemical oxygen demand at the outlet of the watershed. Erosion control strategies generate less total erosion and water pollution but are less efficient than the riparian strategy. The riparian strategy is less equitable for farmers than the erosion control strategies.

Prato, Tony; Shi, Hongqi

1990-02-01

192

DETERMINATION OF OCTANOL/WATER DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENTS, WATER SOLUBILITIES, AND SEDIMENT/WATER PARTITION COEFFICIENTS FOR HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Octanol/water distribution coefficients, water solubilities, and sediment/water partition coefficients are basic to any assessment of transport or dispersion of organic pollutants. In addition, these determinations are prerequisites for many chemical or biological process studies...

193

MERCURY SEPARATION FROM POLLUTANT WATER USING ZEOLITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water has been examined at room temperature. Experiments have...

194

Changes in the marine pollution management system in response to the Amorgos oil spill in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The Marine Pollution Control Act (MPCA) of Taiwan was promulgated on November 1, 2000, with the specific aim of controlling marine pollution, safeguarding public health, and promoting the sustainable use of marine resources. In addition to land-based pollution, oil spills are one of the most significant threats to the local marine environment largely on account of the some 30,000 tankers which pass through Taiwan's coastal waters each year. In January 2001, two months after the enactment of this newly-introduced law, a Greek merchant vessel, the Amorgos ran aground in the vicinity of a national park on the southern tip of Taiwan, causing a serious oil spill and leading to considerable changes with regard to the marine pollution management system. The incident brought to the forefront many serious problems, such as a lack of experience, expertise as well as equipment required to respond to such disasters, as well as the ambiguous, unclear jurisdiction among related agencies. Thus, this paper reviews the incident of the Amorgos spill, identifies the major issues and lessons learned, and proposes several recommendations in an effort for Taiwan to further improve its marine pollution management system. PMID:16291204

Chiau, Wen-Yen

2005-01-01

195

Water pollution control in river basin by interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective programming  

SciTech Connect

The potential conflict between protection of water quality and economic development by different uses of land within river basins is a common problem in regional planning. Many studies have applied multiobjective decision analysis under uncertainty to problems of this kind. This paper presents the interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming (IFIMOMIP) model to evaluate optimal strategies of wastewater treatment levels within a river system by considering the uncertainties in decision analysis. The interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming approach is illustrated in a case study for the evaluation of optimal wastewater treatment strategies for water pollution control in a river basin. In particular, it demonstrates how different types of uncertainty in a water pollution control system can be quantified and combined through the use of interval numbers and membership functions. The results indicate that such an approach is useful for handling system complexity and generating more flexible policies for water quality management in river basins.

Chang, N.B.; Chen, H.W. [National Cheng-Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Shaw, D.G.; Yang, C.H. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Economics

1997-12-01

196

Clean Water. National Estuarine Pollution Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the proceedings of the public meeting held at Wilmington, Delaware, June 27, 1968 and written statements concerning tidal waters of the Delaware coast and the Delaware River Estuary.

1968-01-01

197

VOLATILIZATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS FROM WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The volatilization of organic environmental contaminants from water bodies to the atmosphere was investigated. The general aim was to elucidate the factors that control the volatilization process and develop predictive methods for calculating volatilization rates for various comp...

198

Institutional instruments for water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the articulation of policies in the interface between economic production and water quality. One problem\\u000a is the introduction, at this production-ecologic interface, of unwanted water-borne residuals by firms and municipalities.\\u000a The policy objective is to absorb the social cost of environmental degradation into the production function within the two\\u000a constraints of efficiency in the allocation of

A. P. Grima

1981-01-01

199

Water pollution control by aquatic vegetation of treatment wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplying polluted river water to nature reserves in The Netherlands often leads to eutrophication of the reserve. The eutrophication can be caused directly by the high nutrient input (external eutrophication) or indirectly by altering nutrient availability due to changes in nutrient desorption or mineralization. This paper investigates the potential of a ditch system that is tested for its potential to

Arthur F. M. Meuleman; Boudewijn Beltman; Robbert A. Scheffer

2004-01-01

200

How is water pollution related to economy and human health?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study are not only to examine the rel ationship between water pollution and economy but also to test the interrelations hips between them and human health. This study applies global data over nearly twenty-five years. In addition, a dynamic model and several changes in the spe cification have been applied for the reason of robustness and

Yi-Jung WANG

201

Analysis considerations relating to water pollution emergency incidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planning for high impact very low probability events is very difficult. This is particularly true when dealing with the analysis arising from potable water emergency pollution incidents. The main issues are: how to rapidly detect when significant contamination has occurred; to identify the cause or convincingly prove a negative in the absence of contamination and finally maintain an efficient and

K. Clive Thompson; Peter Benke

2005-01-01

202

Introduction to Instrumental Analysis of Water Pollutants. Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course is designed for those requiring an introduction to instruments commonly used in water pollution analyses. Examples are: pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen meters, spectrophotometers, turbidimeters, carbon analyzer, and gas chromatographs. Students should have a basic knowledge of analytical chemistry. (CO)

Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

203

Water Pollution, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed are the reasons why present mechanisms for the control of water purity are inadequate. The control of waterborne epidemics is discussed to illustrate a problem which has been solved, then degradation of the environment is presented as an unsolved problem. Case histories are given of pollution and attempts at control in rivers, lakes,…

Berg, George G.

204

Cost-Benefit Analysis and Water Pollution Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The editors and 17 other authors probe the state of the art of cost-benefit analysis as related to water pollution. They survey the existing literature on costs and benefits, discuss the difficulties of measuring both costs and benefits, and suggest measu...

E. P. Seskin H. M. Peskin

1975-01-01

205

Water Pollution Problems of Lake Michigan and Tributaries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A conference was held in the matter of pollution of the waters of Lake Michigan and its trinbutary basin (Illinois-Indiana-Michigan-Wisconsin). The report prepared for the information of the conference and other interested parties, and for use by the conf...

1968-01-01

206

The Role of Monitoring in Controlling Water Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of trends in the national water pollution control effort and to describe the role of monitoring in that effort, particularly in relation to the responsibilities of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). I hope the paper will serve as a useful framework for the more specific discussions of monitoring technology to follow.

Hirsch, Allan

1971-01-01

207

Retrofit conserves energy at a water pollution control facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major retrofit of process structures and incorporation of additional mechanical equipment was undertaken to replace the existing chemical phosphorus removal process with a biological phosphorus removal process. The new process will reduce energy use up to 81% and lime use up to 86% at the Amherst, New York water pollution control facility.

A. S. Haimes; J. Dedyo

1980-01-01

208

Annual literature review. Water pollution by oil spillage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The various sources that potentially could release large quantities of persistent oil into bodies of water and their potential magnitudes and probabilities include the following: (1) oil tankers and other ships; (2) offshore production; (3) natural seepage; and (4) industrial waste. Moss stated that there was general agreement that the most significant source of oil which pollutes the sea has

Walkup

1971-01-01

209

Solidification\\/Stabilization of Power Plants Wastes Potential Water Pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intensive firing of coal in power plants can harm the environment. The problems are caused by the emission of solid particles, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, as well as by pollution of the surrounding waters and the degradation of the land due to the disposition of the solid wastes: fly ash, bottom ash

Aleksandra Kosti?-Pulek; Svetlana Popov

210

Sustainability in water resources management: changes in meaning and perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

The meaning of sustainability in water resources management has changed through the time. Initially, meeting water demand\\u000a was the dominant concern. While later quality issues became more important followed by wider water reuse, today sustainability\\u000a must include a whole range of aspects (e.g., energy, pollution, persistent chemicals) on various spatial and time scales.\\u000a New approaches to define sustainability metrics are

Slawomir W. Hermanowicz

2008-01-01

211

Water Pollution Detection by Reflectance Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement of the intensity of light reflected from various planar liquid surfaces has been performed. The results of this brief study show that the presence of a film of foreign material floating on a reference substrate is easily detected by reflectance measurement if the two liquids possess significantly different refractive indices, for example, oil (n = 1.40) and water (n = 1.33). Additional study of various optical configurations, and the building and testing of a prototype monitoring device revealed that the method is sufficiently practical for application to continuous water quality monitoring.

Goolsby, A. D.

1971-01-01

212

Water quality management and sustainability: the experience of Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project (LVEMP)??Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human health and development are threatened in many parts of the world either from lack of water or poor water quality. Human development has partially contributed to water quality deterioration. In Tanzania, for instance, rapid population growth that caused expansion of agricultural activities, livestock keeping, deforestation, biomass burning and human settlement have exerted pressures within the Lake Victoria Basin. These developments have led to land degradation and increased levels of pollution mainly from non-point sources. The Governments of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda initiated the program of Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project, (LVEMP), in 1994 to rehabilitate the Lake Ecosystem through restoration and conservation of biodiversity in the lake as well as within the catchment. This paper presents the five years (1997-2002) experience of LVEMP in Tanzania on the issues of water quality; focusing on water pollution, water quality monitoring and LVEMP strategies to accomplish water quality management in the Lake Zone (Kagera, Mara and Mwanza regions). The findings show that non-point source pollution from agricultural practices; as well as unplanned urban settlements contribute more to siltation and eutrophication of the of Lake Victoria than that from point source pollution. Recommendations for water quality management and sustainability are presented.

Machiwa, Praxeda K.

213

Water Resources Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water resources have been one of the most important areas of World Bank lending during the past three decades. Through its support for sector work and investments in irrigation, water supply, sanitation, flood control, and hydropower, the Bank has contrib...

K. W. Easter G. Feder G. Le Moigne A. M. Duda E. Forsyth

1993-01-01

214

NPS Water Quality Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service, part of the Department of Interior website, looks at issues concerning water quality, policies and objectives, water quality standards, monitoring and the NPS's cooperation with other agencies.

2008-09-23

215

Mine water pollution in Scotland: nature, extent and preventative strategies.  

PubMed

Scotland was one of the world's first industrialised countries, and has therefore also been one of the first countries to experience wholesale post-industrial dereliction. Water pollution arising from abandoned mines, particularly abandoned coal mines, is second only to sewage as a source of freshwater pollution nation-wide, and in many coalfield catchments it is the pre-eminent source. Most of the pollution is due to net-alkaline ferruginous waters emerging from deep mines. Scrutiny of records from 80 deep mine discharges reveals that iron concentrations in these waters are only likely to exceed 20 mg/l, and the pH to be below 6.5, where the discharge emerges within 0.5 km of the outcrop of the shallowest mined seam. The bulk of mature near-outcrop mine water discharges in Scotland have < 50 mg/l total Fe, and concentrations > 100 mg/l are only likely where a marine bed lies within 25 m of the worked seam. Where the nearest marine bed is more than 80 m above or below the seam, then the total iron will be less than 4 mg/l, and in most cases less than 1 mg/l. Net-acidic mine waters are far more rare than net-alkaline waters in Scotland, and are most commonly associated with unreclaimed spoil heaps (bings). Both net-alkaline and net-acidic discharges have detrimental effects on the hydrochemistry and biological integrity of receiving waters. Scotland has recently pioneered the use of pre-emptive pump-and-treat solutions to prevent mine water pollution, and has also experienced the successful introduction of passive treatment technology for both abandoned and active workings. PMID:11227275

Younger, P L

2001-01-29

216

Ferrioxalate-mediated photodegradation of organic pollutants in contaminated water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UV-visible photolysis of ferrioxalate in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (the UV-vis\\/ferrioxalate\\/H2O2 process) is investigated for the treatment of contaminated groundwater and industrial wastewater. This process generates the hydroxyl radical, which is a strong oxidant and reacts rapidly with most organic compounds present in solution. Tap water spiked with various organic pollutants, a process water containing chlorobenzene, a tank-bottom

Ali Safarzadeh-Amiri; James R. Bolton; Stephen R. Cater

1997-01-01

217

Acrylamide encephaloneuropathy due to well water pollution.  

PubMed Central

All five members of a family developed subacutely mental confusion and/or truncal ataxia. Symptoms and signs of polyneuropathy were seen later. The well water in the patients' home contained 400 ppm acrylamide. The present cases are unique in that they are cases of acrylamide poisoning induced by oral intake and percutaneous penetration, and that central nervous system symptoms were prominent.

Igisu, H; Goto, I; Kawamura, Y; Kato, M; Izumi, K

1975-01-01

218

Reducing the cost of water-pollution control under the Clean Water Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present water-pollution-regulation system focuses on treatment by the individual and ignores the aggregate cost of pollution control. Economists have proposed three methods to create pollution-control systems that cost less than the present one: effluent charges, marketable effluent permits, and private ownership of the waterway. Of these methods, only the marketable permit system has any potential for use within the

Rothfelder

1982-01-01

219

A simulation of water pollution model parameter estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parameter estimation procedure for a water pollution transport model is elaborated. A two-dimensional instantaneous-release shear-diffusion model serves as representative of a simple transport process. Pollution concentration levels are arrived at via modeling of a remote-sensing system. The remote-sensed data are simulated by adding Gaussian noise to the concentration level values generated via the transport model. Model parameters are estimated from the simulated data using a least-squares batch processor. Resolution, sensor array size, and number and location of sensor readings can be found from the accuracies of the parameter estimates.

Kibler, J. F.

1976-01-01

220

Self-propelled micromotors for cleaning polluted water.  

PubMed

We describe the use of catalytically self-propelled microjets (dubbed micromotors) for degrading organic pollutants in water via the Fenton oxidation process. The tubular micromotors are composed of rolled-up functional nanomembranes consisting of Fe/Pt bilayers. The micromotors contain double functionality within their architecture, i.e., the inner Pt for the self-propulsion and the outer Fe for the in situ generation of ferrous ions boosting the remediation of contaminated water.The degradation of organic pollutants takes place in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which acts as a reagent for the Fenton reaction and as main fuel to propel the micromotors. Factors influencing the efficiency of the Fenton oxidation process, including thickness of the Fe layer, pH, and concentration of hydrogen peroxide, are investigated. The ability of these catalytically self-propelled micromotors to improve intermixing in liquids results in the removal of organic pollutants ca. 12 times faster than when the Fenton oxidation process is carried out without catalytically active micromotors. The enhanced reaction-diffusion provided by micromotors has been theoretically modeled. The synergy between the internal and external functionalities of the micromotors, without the need of further functionalization, results into an enhanced degradation of nonbiodegradable and dangerous organic pollutants at small-scale environments and holds considerable promise for the remediation of contaminated water. PMID:24180623

Soler, Lluís; Magdanz, Veronika; Fomin, Vladimir M; Sanchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G

2013-11-26

221

Self-Propelled Micromotors for Cleaning Polluted Water  

PubMed Central

We describe the use of catalytically self-propelled microjets (dubbed micromotors) for degrading organic pollutants in water via the Fenton oxidation process. The tubular micromotors are composed of rolled-up functional nanomembranes consisting of Fe/Pt bilayers. The micromotors contain double functionality within their architecture, i.e., the inner Pt for the self-propulsion and the outer Fe for the in situ generation of ferrous ions boosting the remediation of contaminated water.The degradation of organic pollutants takes place in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which acts as a reagent for the Fenton reaction and as main fuel to propel the micromotors. Factors influencing the efficiency of the Fenton oxidation process, including thickness of the Fe layer, pH, and concentration of hydrogen peroxide, are investigated. The ability of these catalytically self-propelled micromotors to improve intermixing in liquids results in the removal of organic pollutants ca. 12 times faster than when the Fenton oxidation process is carried out without catalytically active micromotors. The enhanced reaction–diffusion provided by micromotors has been theoretically modeled. The synergy between the internal and external functionalities of the micromotors, without the need of further functionalization, results into an enhanced degradation of nonbiodegradable and dangerous organic pollutants at small-scale environments and holds considerable promise for the remediation of contaminated water.

2013-01-01

222

MANAGING WATER TEMPERATURE TMDLS UNDER ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL UNCERTAINTY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an empirical model for analyzing the economics of information acquisition and adaptive watershed management. An empirical application drawn from the Total Maximum Daily Load standard implemented to control in-stream water temperature pollution for the Navarro River watershed, located in northern California provides the basis for this inquiry.

Richard E. Howitt; Jonathan D. Kaplan; Michael L. Johnson; Joshua H. Viers

2004-01-01

223

Nitrogen Pollution in the Northeastern United States: Sources, Effects, and Management Options  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about nitrogen pollution in the northeastern United States. The northeastern United States receives elevated inputs of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) largely from net imports of food and atmospheric deposition, with lesser inputs from fertilizer, net feed imports, and N fixation associated with leguminous crops. Ecological consequences of elevated N inputs to the Northeast include tropospheric ozone formation, ozone damage to plants, the alteration of forest N cycles, acidification of surface waters, and eutrophication in coastal waters. We used two models, PnET-BGC and WATERSN, to evaluate management strategies for reducing N inputs to forests and estuaries, respectively. Calculations with PnET-BGC suggest that aggressive reductions in N emissions alone will not result in marked improvements in the acidbase status of forest streams. WATERSN calculations showed that management scenarios targeting removal of N by wastewater treatment produce larger reductions in estuarine N loading than scenarios involving reductions in agricultural inputs or atmospheric emissions. Because N pollution involves multiple sources, management strategies targeting all major pollution sources will result in the greatest ecological benefits.

CHARLES T. DRISCOLL, DAVID WHITALL, JOHN ABER, ELIZABETH BOYER, MARK CASTRO, CHRISTOPHER CRONAN, CHRISTINE L. GOODALE, PETER GROFFMAN, CHARLES HOPKINSON, KATHLEEN LAMBERT, GREGORY LAWRENCE, and SCOTT OLLINGER (;)

2003-04-01

224

The 2002 Water Law: its impacts on river basin management in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern river basin management techniques are gaining popularity in China to effectively manage increasingly vulnerable water resources. China has several large river basins, with a variety of resource conditions and development challenges. River basins in China are facing aggravated water pollution, and development and management issues. In dealing with these issues, and in line with the evolution of modern concepts

Dajun Shen

225

Water Pollution Problems and Improvement Needs Lake Ontario and St. Lawrence River Basins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes the water pollution problems of the United States water of Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River and their tributaries. It identifies the causes of these problems or sources of pollution, discusses the improvements needed, and pres...

1968-01-01

226

Proceedings of University Seminar on Pollution and Water Resources. Volume IV: 1970-71.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Water problems of the mining industry in the U.S.; Contrasts and convergence in engineering and economic approaches to water development and pollution control; Pollution of the Rhine River and environmental protection problems in the Ruhr areas;...

G. J. Halasi-Kun

1971-01-01

227

The Allocative Efficiency Implications of Water Pollution Abatement Cost Comparisons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessments of the efficiency of water pollution control allocations are usually based on abatement cost comparisons. The general rule is that efficiency is improved by reallocating abatement from sources with high marginal costs to low-cost sources. The welfare-theoretic foundation of this rule is well established for situations with nonstochastic emissions. In situations with stochastic emissions, pollution control involves improving the distribution of emissions. Nevertheless, efficiency analyses involving stochastic emissions usually sidestep formal consideration of the stochastic element by measuring pollution control and control costs with respect to changes in long-term average flows. An economic model of stochastic emissions is used to demonstrate that this approach can give misleading results. An alternative procedure is briefly discussed.

Shortle, James S.

1990-05-01

228

A neural network approach to multiobjective optimization for water quality management in a river basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new neural network-based multiobjective optimization of water quality management for water pollution control and river basin planning is presented. Past research on water quality management problems has shown that traditional multiobjective decision making does not provide an adequate solution since it depends directly on the decision maker's (DM's) preferences, which may not be clearly defined. In order to overcome

Ching-Gung Wen; Chih-Sheng Lee

1998-01-01

229

Experimental infrared measurements for hydrocarbon pollutant determination in subterranean waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subterranean waters are often polluted by industrial and anthropic effluents that are drained in subsoil. To prevent and control pollution, legislations of different developed countries require an online monitoring measurement, especially for detecting organic solvents (chlorinated and unchlorinated ones). Online measurements include both real-time and no real-time measurements. In general, it is difficult to implement real-time measurements in stricto sensu for online acquisitions on aqueous effluents since they need to be processed by a modeling. This research presents an experimental measurement system based on infrared (IR) spectroscopy for aqueous effluents containing hydrocarbons and capable of displaying excellent values of pollutant concentrations even in instable conditions; the system is able to detect pollutants either in laminar or turbulent flow. The results show the possibility of avoiding the use of ``Pitot tube'' that is employed to create a stagnation point in order to convert kinetic energy into potential one. This conversion allows the transformation of a turbulent flow in a laminar flow making easy measurement of pollutants included in an aqueous effluent. Obviously, ``Pitot tube'' is also used for other fluid effluents. The obtained results have been compared with those produced by means of sophisticated IR instrumentation for laboratory applications.

Lay-Ekuakille, A.; Palamara, I.; Caratelli, D.; Morabito, F. C.

2013-01-01

230

Water-sediment flow models for river reaches sediment related pollution control.  

PubMed

Hybrid water-sediment flow models for river reaches have been for predicting sediment and sediment related pollutions in water courses. The models are developed by combining sediment rating model and the Muskingum model applicable for a reach. The models incorporate sediment concentration and water discharge variables for a river reach; allow defining downstream sediment rating curve in terms of upstream water discharges. The model is useful in generating sediment concentration graph for a station having no water discharge records. The hybrid models provide forecasting forms that can be used to forecast downstream sediment concentration/water discharges 2kx time unit ahead. The forecasting models are useful for applications in real time namely, in the real time management of sediment related pollution in water courses and in issuing flood warning. Integration of sediment rating model and the Muskingum model increases model parameters and nonlinearity requiring efficient estimation technique for parameter identification. To identify parameters in the hybrid models genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique can be used. The new model relies on the Muskingum model, obey continuity requirement and the parameters can be used in the Muskingum model with water discharges to estimate/predict downstream water discharge values. The proposed model formulations are demonstrated for simulating and forecasting sediment concentration and water discharges in the Mississippi River Basin, USA. Model parameters are estimated using non-dominated sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II). Model results show satisfactory model performances. PMID:24749192

Sil, Briti Sundar; Choudhury, Parthasarathi

2012-07-01

231

Investigating water pollution of the Dareh Morad Beik River in the Hamadan District, Iran.  

PubMed

Water-related hazards, such as drought, floods, erosion, and various kinds of pollution, should be factored into any integrated approach to water-resource management. This research attempt has been made to assess the process of water pollution in the Dareh Morad Beik (DMB) River, whose length is about 18 km and whose average flow rate is 250 L/s. The quality of river water, including chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate, fecal coliform, and total coliform, were all measured and evaluated at three different sampling stations within different months of the year. The information was gathered by conducting experiments and through field visits, as well as by library study. The results of this research showed that, from a microbiological point of view, the water of the DMB was polluted during the year. Based on the results obtained it was determined that the amount of COD and BOD at station 1 was negligible. Also the influx of qantas waters from Hamadan City into the DMB has caused dilution of COD, BOD, and nitrate of that river at station 3. PMID:18991905

Khoram, Mahdi Reyahi; Nafea, Minoo

2008-10-01

232

Technology for Water Treatment (National Water Management)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

1992-01-01

233

Transjurisdictional Water Pollution Disputes and Measures of Resolution: Examples from the Yellow River Basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transjurisdictional water pollution problems are increasing in number and are becoming a significant governance problem in China. A large number of transjurisdictional water pollution disputes that have far-reaching social effects are occurring between provinces and are also frequent between municipalities, counties, towns, and villages. In this paper, several transjurisdictional water pollution cases in China, particularly in the Yellow River Basin,

Xuejun WANG; Edwin D. Ongley

2004-01-01

234

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...and Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The...requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

2014-01-01

235

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section 2543... Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants...7401 et seq. ) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

2013-10-01

236

Investigating the effects of point source and nonpoint source pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang) in South China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Understanding the physical processes of point source (PS) and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is critical to evaluate river water quality and identify major pollutant sources in a watershed. In this study, we used the physically-based hydrological/water quality model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool, to investigate the influence of PS and NPS pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang in Chinese) in southern China. Our results indicate that NPS pollution was the dominant contribution (>94%) to nutrient loads except for mineral phosphorus (50%). A comprehensive Water Quality Index (WQI) computed using eight key water quality variables demonstrates that water quality is better upstream than downstream despite the higher level of ammonium nitrogen found in upstream waters. Also, the temporal (seasonal) and spatial distributions of nutrient loads clearly indicate the critical time period (from late dry season to early wet season) and pollution source areas within the basin (middle and downstream agricultural lands), which resource managers can use to accomplish substantial reduction of NPS pollutant loadings. Overall, this study helps our understanding of the relationship between human activities and pollutant loads and further contributes to decision support for local watershed managers to protect water quality in this region. In particular, the methods presented such as integrating WQI with watershed modeling and identifying the critical time period and pollutions source areas can be valuable for other researchers worldwide.

Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

2013-01-01

237

Science, technology and policy for Water Pollution Control at the Watershed Scale: Current issues and future challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is a critical resource, and the shortage of freshwater resources worldwide will only become more critical as the world population increases and climate changes. The management of water resources provides a myriad of challenges, and, in light of advances in science, technology and policy making, now requires an integrated approach to be successful. Eutrophication and algal blooms are one of the most common and serious threats to the safety and security of water resources; however, despite advances in science and policy, the socio-economic consequences of the impact of such events on systems are still not well known. The economic cost of managing water quality issues is enormous, and can only benefit from the development of more integrated water management strategies. Research into areas related to water resources, such as management, policy, non-point source pollutants, wastewater, nutrients and water quality has increased significantly over the past 20 years, and will continue to increase as stakeholders and managers strive to develop more environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable water resource management plans. This perspective paper also presents a summary of a selection of research that formed part of the deliberations of the International Symposium on Science, Technology and Policy for Water Pollution Control at the Watershed Scale, held in April 2009.

Ghadouani, Anas; Coggins, Liah X.

238

Photocatalytic membrane reactors for water treatment from organic pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of research in the field of development and application of photocatalytic membrane reactors for water treatment\\u000a from organic pollutants has been analyzed. The main types of these reactors and the construction techniques and properties\\u000a of catalytically active membranes were discussed. The combination of photocatalysis and the membrane methods was shown to\\u000a facilitate the effective removal of different

V. M. Kochkodan; E. A. Rolya; V. V. Goncharuk

2009-01-01

239

Effects of long term irrigation with polluted water and sludge amendment on some soil enzyme activities  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of wastewater sludge-fly ash mixtures on urease, dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and beta-glucosidase activities in soils. In order to evaluate the probable effects of previous soil management practices (irrigation with polluted water) on soil enzymes, two different soil samples which were similar in physical properties, but different in irrigation practice were used. The application of wastewater sludges supplemented with varying doses of fly ash increased potential enzyme activities for a short period of time (3 months) in comparison to unamended soils. However, the activity levels generally showed a decreasing trend with increasing ash ratios indicating the inhibitory effect of fly ash. The urease and dehydrogenase activities were particularly lower in soils irrigated from a polluted stream, indicating the negative effects of the previous soil management on soil microbial activity.

Topac, F.O.; Baskaya, H.S.; Alkan, U.; Katkat, A.V. [Uludag University, Bursa (Turkey)

2008-01-15

240

Underground coal mining methods to abate water pollution: a state of the art literature review. Water pollution control research series  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report reviews published information concerning the abatement of harmful drainage from underground coal mines. Although much has been written on mine water management, very little literature is available on the specific area of preventing the formation of acid water. The references used in this report include mining engineering and hydrology studies and spans the period of time when water

L. W. Wilson; N. J. Matthews; J. L. Stump

1970-01-01

241

Managing nonpoint source pollution in western Washington: landowner learning methods and motivations.  

PubMed

States, territories, and tribes identify nonpoint source pollution as responsible for more than half of the Nation's existing and threatened water quality impairments, making it the principal remaining cause of water quality problems across the United States. Combinations of education, technical and financial assistance, and regulatory measures are used to inform landowners about nonpoint source pollution issues, and to stimulate the use of best management practices. A mail survey of non-commercial riparian landowners investigated how they learn about best management practices, the efficacy of different educational techniques, and what motivates them to implement land management activities. Landowners experience a variety of educational techniques, and rank those that include direct personal contact as more effective than brochures, advertisements, radio, internet, or television. The most important motivations for implementing best management practices were linked with elements of a personal stewardship ethic, accountability, personal commitment, and feasibility. Nonpoint source education and social marketing campaigns should include direct interpersonal contacts, and appeal to landowner motivations of caring, responsibility, and personal commitment. PMID:19067035

Ryan, Clare M

2009-06-01

242

SRF (State Water Pollution Control Revolving Fund): initial guidance for state revolving funds  

SciTech Connect

The document represents the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) approach to implementation of Title VI of the Clean Water Act (CWA), until interim final regulations on selected provisions in the guidance are issued. The release of the document marks a significant step in the transition of the responsibility for financing, constructing, and managing municipal wastewater-treatment facilities from the Federal government to States and localities. It will assist EPA Regions in their review of proposed State Water Pollution Control Revolving Fund (SRF) programs and provide States with initial guidance on applying for Capitalization Grants.

Not Available

1988-01-01

243

Roofing as a source of nonpoint water pollution.  

PubMed

Sixteen wooden structures with two roofs each were installed to study runoff quality for four commonly used roofing materials (wood shingle, composition shingle, painted aluminum, and galvanized iron) at Nacogdoches, Texas. Each roof, either facing NW or SE, was 1.22 m wide x 3.66 m long with a 25.8% roof slope. Thus, there were 32 alternatively arranged roofs, consisting of four roof types x two aspects x four replicates, in the study. Runoff from the roofs was collected through galvanized gutters, downspouts, and splitters. The roof runoff was compared to rainwater collected by a wet/dry acid rain collector for the concentrations of eight water quality variables, i.e. Cu(2+), Mn(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Mg(2+), Al(3+), EC and pH. Based on 31 storms collected between October 1997 and December 1998, the results showed: (1) concentrations of pH, Cu, and Zn in rainwater already exceed the EPA freshwater quality standards even without pollutant inputs from roofs, (2) Zn and Cu, the two most serious pollutants in roof runoff, exceeded the EPA national freshwater water quality standards in virtually 100% and more than 60% of the samples, respectively, (3) pH, EC, and Zn were the only three variables significantly affected by roofing materials, (4) differences in Zn concentrations were significant among all roof types and between all roof runoff and rainwater samples, (5) although there were no differences in Cu concentrations among all roof types and between roof runoff and rainwater, all means and medians of runoff and rainwater exceeded the national water quality standards, (6) water quality from wood shingles was the worst among the roof types studied, and (7) although SE is the most frequent and NW the least frequent direction for incoming storms, only EC, Mg, Mn, and Zn in wood shingle runoff from the SE were significantly higher than those from the NW; the two aspects affected no other elements in runoff from the other three roof types. Also, Zn concentrations from new wood-shingle roofs were significantly higher than those from aged roofs of a previous study. The study demonstrated that roofs could be a serious source of nonpoint water pollution. Since Zn is the most serious water pollutant and wood shingle is the worst of the four roof types, using less compounds and materials associated with Zn along with good care and maintenance of roofs are critical in reducing Zn pollution in roof runoff. PMID:15531389

Chang, Mingteh; McBroom, Matthew W; Scott Beasley, R

2004-12-01

244

Spatial and temporal variability of surface water pollution in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.  

PubMed

Surface water pollution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (MD) could threaten human, animal and ecosystem health given the fact that this water source is intensively used for drinking, irrigation and domestic services. We therefore determined the levels of pollution by organic pollutants, salts, metals and microbial indicators by (bi)monthly monitoring of canals between November 2011 and July 2012 at 32 sampling locations, representing fresh and saline/brackish environments. The results were compared with national water quality guidelines, between the studied regions and with water quality data from main waterways. Key factors explaining the observed levels of pollution in surface water were identified through principal component analysis (PCA). Temporal variations due to tidal regime and seasonality were also assessed. Based on regression models, the spatial variability of five water quality parameters was visualized using GIS based maps. Results indicate that pH (max. 8.6), turbidity (max. 461 FTU), maximum concentrations of ammonium (14.7 mg L(-1)), arsenic (44.1 ?g L(-1)), barium (157.5 ?g L(-1)), chromium (84.7 ?g L(-1)), mercury (45.5 ?g L(-1)), manganese (1659.7 ?g L(-1)), aluminum (14.5 mg L(-1)), iron (17.0 mg L(-1)) and the number of Escherichia coli (87,000 CFU 100 mL(-1)) and total coliforms (2,500,000 CFU 100 mL(-1)) in canals exceed the thresholds set by Vietnamese quality guidelines for drinking and domestic purposes. The PCA showed that i) urbanization; ii) metal leaching from soils; iii) aquaculture; and iv) tidal regime explain 85% of the variance of surface water quality attributes. Significant differences in water quality were found due to daily tidal regime and as a result of seasonality. Surface water quality maps for dissolved oxygen, ammonium, ortho-phosphate, manganese and total coliforms were developed to highlight hot-spot areas of pollution. The results of this study can assist policy makers in developing water management strategies and drinking water companies in selecting optimum water extraction locations. PMID:24747257

Wilbers, Gert-Jan; Becker, Mathias; Nga, La Thi; Sebesvari, Zita; Renaud, Fabrice G

2014-07-01

245

Managing water quality of River Yamuna in NCR Delhi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River Yamuna is a typical example of degraded lotic ecosystem which has been turns into a sewage drain in Delhi National capital region due to anthropogenic pressure and aggravating pollution load. Delhi is alone responsible for 79% of the entire pollution load in the said river. The drain discharges exerting a massive BOD load of hundreds of tons per day into the river. The pollutants could not get diluted as the river has very little or no flow in non-monsoon months due to lack of indigenous water. Water quality index reveal that before entering Delhi, river water has the medium water quality, gets severely polluted in Delhi, shows very bad water quality which continues till Agra Canal. Improper location of STPs and mismatch between the available treatment capacities of STPs with the actual sewage generation results muddle up of “approx” 60% untreated wastewater into the River Yamuna. Implementation of sustainable management plan with already available facilities, proper sewerage planning and maintaining the minimum ecological flow will control the pollution in River Yamuna.

Upadhyay, Rahul; Dasgupta, Niladri; Hasan, Aziz; Upadhyay, S. K.

246

System engineering for water pollution control at the watershed level in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present water pollution situation at watershed level in China has been systematically analyzed. The causes of water pollution\\u000a are attributed to the extensive economic developmental pattern, poor wastewater treatment, and a lack of nonpoint pollution\\u000a control. The problems of water pollution control at watershed level include a lack of thought and approach, developmental\\u000a delay in the environmental standard system,

Wei Meng

2009-01-01

247

Total Water Management: A Watershed Based Approach  

EPA Science Inventory

In this urbanizing world, municipal water managers need to develop planning and management frameworks to meet challenges such as limiting fresh water supplies, degrading receiving waters, increasing regulatory requirements, flooding, aging infrastructure, rising utility (energy) ...

248

Questionable Specificity of Genetic Total Faecal Pollution Markers for Integrated Water Quality Monitoring and Source Tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterisation of microbial faecal hazards in water is a fundamental aspect for target-orientated water resources management to achieve appropriate water quality for various purposes like water supply or agriculture and thus to minimize related health risks. Nowadays the management of water resources increasingly demands detailed knowledge on the extent and the origin of microbial pollution. Cultivation of standard faecal indicator bacteria, which has been used for over a century to test the microbiological water quality, cannot sufficiently meet these challenges. The abundant intestinal bacterial populations are very promising alternative targets for modern faecal indication systems. Numerous assays for the detection of genetic markers targeting source-specific populations of the phylum Bacteroidetes have been developed in recent years. In some cases markers for total faecal pollution were also proposed in order to relate source-specific marker concentrations to general faecal pollution levels. However, microbial populations in intestinal and non-intestinal systems exhibit a dazzling array of diversity and molecular analysis of microbial faecal pollution has been based on a fragmentary puzzle of very limited sequence information. The aim of this study was to test the available qPCR-based methods detecting genetic Bacteroidetes markers for total faecal pollution in terms of their value and specificity as indicators of faecal pollution. We applied the AllBac (Layton et al., 2006) the BacUni (Kildare et al., 2007) and the Bacteroidetes (Dick and Field, 2004) assays on soil DNA samples. Samples were collected in well characterised karst spring catchments in Austria's Eastern Calcareous Alps. They were at various levels of altitude between 800 and 1800 meters above sea level and from several different habitats (woodland, alpine pastures, krummholz). In addition we tried to choose sampling sites representing a presumptive gradient of faecal pollution levels. For example sites with obvious faecal influence (e.g. right next to a cowpat) were included as well as more pristine sites without faecal influence from large animals (e.g. fenced areas). Surprisingly, results from investigations with the AllBac assay showed concentrations of the total faecal marker in soil in the range of 106 to 109 Marker Equivalents per g of soil, which is equal or only slightly lower than the concentrations of this particular marker in faeces or raw sewage. Preliminary results from the other tested assays seem to confirm that the targeted markers are also highly abundant in soils. In addition, the markers were present in comparable concentrations in soils from pristine locations as well as in soils under the potential influence of faeces giving a strong indication that these methods also target non-intestinal, autochthonous soil populations. In contrast, source-specific markers (ruminant-specific BacR and human-specific BacH, Reischer et al., 2007, 2006) could only be detected in 30 to 50% of the soil samples at concentrations close to the detection limit, which is at least four orders of magnitude lower than in faecal samples of the respective target sources, ruminant animals and humans. The achieved results call the applicability of the proposed qPCR-based assays for total faecal pollution into question. In fact the assays do not seem to be specific for intestinal Bacteroidetes populations at all and the respective marker concentration levels in pristine soils negate their applicability in the investigated areas. This study also emphasizes the need to test the specificity and sensitivity of qPCR-based assays for total faecal pollution on the local level and especially against non-intestinal environmental samples, which might contribute to marker levels in the aquatic compartment. In conclusion there is a strong demand for marker-based detection techniques for total faecal pollution in water quality monitoring and risk assessment but currently none of the tested assays seems to meet the methodical requirements.

Vierheilig, Julia; Reischer, Georg H.; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

2010-05-01

249

Rapid Quantitative Method for Salmonella Detection in Polluted Waters  

PubMed Central

A procedure has been developed for the enumeration of salmonellae in polluted waters using several modifications of existing techniques. Confirmation of salmonellae is achieved within 48 hr. This procedure includes selective enrichment in m-Tetrathionate Broth (22 ± 1 hr), plating on Brilliant Green Sulfa Agar (20 ± 1 hr), and confirmation by flagellar (H) agglutination of the growth in a mannosecontaining medium (6 ± 1 hr). An incubation temperature of 41.5 C was used throughout this procedure. Dilution to extinction techniques (most probable number) were employed to enumerate salmonellae. Large sample volumes were concentrated through the use of membrane filters. This technique proved to be rapid and reliable for the enumeration of salmonellae in water, waste water, and waste-water sludges.

Cheng, Chu Ming; Boyle, William C.; Goepfert, J. M.

1971-01-01

250

[Water pollution and health risks at Yaoundé, Cameroon].  

PubMed

The aim of this article consists of developing an ecosystemic approach to collect information about groundwater pollution in order to determine its origin and infer the health risks in Mingoa's watershed through the study of 12 spontaneous settlements. From an environmental point of view, family interviews and direct observations allowed us to inventory springs, wells and latrines, and to collect information. So, we have selected, on the basis of predefined criteria, 21 wells and springs for physico-chemical and bacteriological laboratory analyses. Two hundred children aged less than 5 years were subjected to KOAP examination. A number of 1224 latrines were inventoried, for an average use of 15 people per latrine, producing 913.3 kg/year of excreta. Most of 91% of people use these latrines. The superficial aquifers, connected to the wells and springs, present high values of nitrogen, phosphorous pollutant and fecal contamination indicators (coliforms and fecal streptococcus), which make water inappropriate to human consumption. PCA analysis establishes that water pollution comes mainly from traditional pit latrines. The overall prevalence of diarrhea and parasite infestation was important (=40%). The presence of cysts of Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris limbricoides, and Entamoeba coli confirms this high prevalence and testify to very approximate hygiene and environment conditions. PMID:23916209

Youmbi, Jean Ghislain Tabué; Feumba, Roger; Njitat, Valérie Tsama; de Marsily, Ghislain; Ekodeck, Georges Emmanuel

2013-01-01

251

An air and water pollution prevention primer for small businesses  

SciTech Connect

Pollution prevention is one of the few areas in which environmental goals and economic interests clearly coincide. Benefits include reduced costs, liabilities and regulatory burdens, and an improved environment. Minimizing the quantity and toxicity of waste also reduces the need for waste treatment operations. Because economics is one of the factors weighed when adopting pollution prevent technologies, economic analysis based on equipment's payback period is important to determine whether a system should be adopted and, if so, what equipment should be selected. Many air pollution control methods, wastewater treatment systems and sludge dewatering processes can be used for materials recovery and water reuse. Factors to consider when selecting a waste treatment system include legal limitations or effluent criteria imposed for public protection, social limitations imposed by the community in which the pollution source is or will be located, and economic limitations. The latter two factors are critical for small businesses, which typically are located in or near metropolitan areas, and often have limited financial resources. Another factor to consider is whether a waste treatment system can be designed to accommodate future expansion or operational modifications. Although small businesses tend to prefer traditional, proven environmental technologies, some new technologies can be adopted easily to reduce waste generation and costs. In addition, several relatively simple and inexpensive practices have proven successful in eliminating or minimizing wastes. These include: improving housekeeping practices; segregating wastes; changing materials purchasing and inventory control procedures; substituting less toxic materials; recycling and reusing wastes; reducing wastewater flows; changing production methods or modifying production processes; and training employees in pollution prevention.

Huang, C.S. (Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States))

1995-03-01

252

Fish Robots for Water Pollution Monitoring Using Ubiquitous Sensor Networks with Sonar Localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method is proposed to build an autonomous water pollution monitoring map by fish robots using ubiquitous sensor networks with sonar localization. Autonomous fish robots are introduced instead of fixed data logging stations to track pollutant sources as well as monitoring. Autonomous tracking is one of important functions in mobile underwater vehicles which monitor water pollution indices. When fish

Daejung Shin; Seung You Na; Jin Young Kim; Seong-Joon Baek

2007-01-01

253

ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL POLICIES. 1. A NATIONAL NETWORK MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to study the national implications of federal water pollution control policies, the authors developed a water pollution network model. The model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lake...

254

Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 1. A national network model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the national implications of federal water pollution control policies, the authors developed a water pollution network model. This model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and bays. While the geographical scope of the model and existing data availability required

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin; G. K. Young

1981-01-01

255

Industrial effluent quality, pollution monitoring and environmental management.  

PubMed

Royal Commission Environmental Control Department (RC-ECD) at Yanbu industrial city in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has established a well-defined monitoring program to control the pollution from industrial effluents. The quality of effluent from each facility is monitored round the clock. Different strategic measures have been taken by the RC-ECD to implement the zero discharge policy of RC. Industries are required to pre-treat the effluent to conform pretreatment standards before discharging to central biological treatment plant. Industries are not allowed to discharge any treated or untreated effluent in open channels. After treatment, reclaimed water must have to comply with direct discharge standards before discharge to the sea. Data of industrial wastewater collected from five major industries and central industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP) is summarized in this report. During 5-year period, 3,705 samples were collected and analyzed for 43,436 parameters. There were 1,377 violations from pretreatment standards from all the industries. Overall violation percentage was 3.17%. Maximum violations were recorded from one of the petrochemical plants. The results show no significant pollution due to heavy metals. Almost all heavy metals were within RC pretreatment standards. High COD and TOC indicates that major pollution was due to hydrocarbons. Typical compounds identified by GC-MS were branched alkanes, branched alkenes, aliphatic ketones, substituted thiophenes, substituted phenols, aromatics and aromatic alcohols. Quality of treated water was also in compliance with RC direct discharge standards. In order to achieve the zero discharge goal, further studies and measures are in progress. PMID:18228156

Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S; Hammad, Waleed S

2008-12-01

256

Natural Wetlands Mediate Non-point Source Water Pollution From Irrigated Pastures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-point source discharge from grazed pastures may be high in nutrients, sediment, and pathogens, three major contributors to water quality impairment in California. Intercepting pollution at its source and managing water quality within the landscape are essential to maintaining healthy downstream waters. We investigated the efficacy of flow-through wetlands interspersed throughout the agricultural landscape to reduce non-point source pollution of tailwater from cattle-grazed, irrigated pastures in the Sierra Nevada Foothills of California. Wetlands are known to positively impact water quality through ecological processes such as filtration, sedimentation, microbial transformations and plant uptake of nutrients. Influent and effluent water of small (0.25 ha), natural wetlands located downstream from flood irrigated pastures was analyzed for Escherichia coli, NO3-N, total N, total suspended solids (TSS), total P, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) throughout two summer irrigation seasons (June to October). We compared reductions of sediment, nutrients and E. coli provided by a healthy, non-degraded wetland with reductions from flow through a channelized, degraded wetland. Large reductions in E. coli (>75%) and TSS (>50%) were observed in water exiting the healthy wetland while nutrient and DOC (~ 20%) concentrations were less affected by flow through the wetland. The channelized wetland provided smaller reductions in all constituents than did the non-degraded wetland. Results from this study demonstrate that small flow-through wetlands can improve water quality through the attenuation of E. coli and suspended sediments, and to a lesser degree DOC and nutrients.

Knox, K.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Tate, K. W.

2005-12-01

257

Assessing the effectiveness of regulatory controls on farm pollution using chemical and biological indices of water quality and pollution statistics.  

PubMed

Water quality was measured in 42 streams in the Colebrooke and Upper Bann catchments in Northern Ireland over the period 1990-1998. Despite ongoing pollution control measures, biological water quality, as determined by the invertebrate average score per taxon (ASPT) index, did not improve and there was no appreciable decline in recorded farm pollution incidents. However, the lack of decline in pollution incidents could reflect changes in detection policy, as a greater proportion of incidents were recorded from less polluting discharges such as farm-yard runoff. In contrast, there was an improvement during 1997 and 1998 in annual chemical water quality classification based on exceedence values (90th percentiles) for dissolved oxygen, ammonium and BOD concentrations. In 1998, 11.9% of streams were severely polluted compared to 26.2% in 1990, while the proportion classed as of salmonid water quality, increased from 40.5% in 1990 to 59.6% in 1998. Although water quality in 1996 did not improve relative to 1990 values, there was a notable increasing trend from 1990 in the numbers of samples taken during the summer which had good water quality with low ammonium (<0.6mgN l(-1)) and high dissolved oxygen (> 70% sat). The trend for samples with low BOD (<4 mgl(-1)) was more erratic, but an improvement was apparent from 1994. These improvements in chemical water quality suggest that point-source farm pollution declined after 1990. The fact that this was not reflected in stream biology may reflect the limited time scale for biological recovery. An important factor preventing biological recovery may be the high pollution capacity of manures and silage effluent, so that even reduced numbers of farm pollution incidents can severely perturb stream ecosystems. The intractable nature of farm pollution suggests that there is a need to consider an interactive approach to problem resolution involving both farmers and regulators. PMID:11471701

Foy, R H; Lennox, S D; Smith, R V

2001-08-01

258

Correlation of tetrachloroethylene in blood and in drinking water: A case of well water pollution  

SciTech Connect

Tetrachloroethylene has been widely used for the cleaning of cloth for many years. Currently, this chemical together with trichloroethylene (TRI) appears to be the most prevailing pollutant of ground water in various countries including Japan. While the biological monitoring of TETRA exposure is popular in occupational health, TETRA was seldom analyzed in the subjects exposed through the general environment. In the present report, a case of water pollution with TETRA is described in which up to 5 {mu}g/L TETRA was detected in the blood of the inhabitants in a area where well water was contaminated with TETRA.

Kido, Kazuhiro; Shiratori, Takehiko; Watanabe, Takao; Nakatsuka, Haruo; Ohashi, Mariko; Ikeda, Masayuki (Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan))

1989-09-01

259

Illinois Water Quality Management Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Illinois Water Quality Management (WQM) Plan is to consolidate and streamline portions of approved State and Areawide WQM plans in order to facilitate their usage in the operations of all designated WQM Agencies. The WQM Plan represents...

J. Pendowski

1983-01-01

260

New regulations to minimize water impairment from animals rely on management practices.  

PubMed

Water pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) led to revised federal regulations in the United States. The regulations provide for the greater management of potential sources of agricultural contamination and impose additional financial costs on producers. Along with a duty to secure a permit, significant changes address coverage of pollutants, separation of production and land application areas, effluent limitation guidelines, and differentiating agricultural storm water discharges from other discharges. The revised provisions require more producers to secure National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits and mandate that large CAFOs develop technology-based effluent discharge limitations involving best management practices. Medium- and small-sized CAFOs need to adopt technology-based effluent discharge requirements employing best professional judgment. For farms raising animals that are not CAFOs, voluntary management practices may be employed to intercept pollutants before they enter waterbodies. Additional educational efforts promoting the implementation of further management practices that address the agricultural impairment of water resources may be needed. PMID:15031014

Centner, Terence J

2004-06-01

261

Water infiltration control to achieve mine water pollution control. A feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study determined the feasibility of conducting a full-scale demonstration to document the effectiveness of land reclamation at mined-out areas in establishing surface water infiltration control to prevent acid mine water pollution. The study site was the Dents Run Watershed, Monongalia County, West Virginia. Investigative measures included: investigation of each mine area and opening; a detailed description of each site;

F. J. Zaval; J. D. Robins

1973-01-01

262

UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN REMOVAL OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange, adsorption and acid catalysis properties. Different inorganic and organic pollutants have been removed from water at room temperature using various zeolites. Synthetic zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove inorganic pollutants...

263

New regulations to minimize water impairment from animals rely on management practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) led to revised federal regulations in the United States. The regulations provide for the greater management of potential sources of agricultural contamination and impose additional financial costs on producers. Along with a duty to secure a permit, significant changes address coverage of pollutants, separation of production and land application areas, effluent limitation

Terence J Centner

2004-01-01

264

A hydro-economic modelling framework for optimal management of groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryA hydro-economic modelling framework is developed for determining optimal management of groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture. A holistic optimization model determines the spatial and temporal fertilizer application rate that maximizes the net benefits in agriculture constrained by the quality requirements in groundwater at various control sites. Since emissions (nitrogen loading rates) are what can be controlled, but the concentrations are the policy targets, we need to relate both. Agronomic simulations are used to obtain the nitrate leached, while numerical groundwater flow and solute transport simulation models were used to develop unit source solutions that were assembled into a pollutant concentration response matrix. The integration of the response matrix in the constraints of the management model allows simulating by superposition the evolution of groundwater nitrate concentration over time at different points of interest throughout the aquifer resulting from multiple pollutant sources distributed over time and space. In this way, the modelling framework relates the fertilizer loads with the nitrate concentration at the control sites. The benefits in agriculture were determined through crop prices and crop production functions. This research aims to contribute to the ongoing policy process in the Europe Union (the Water Framework Directive) providing a tool for analyzing the opportunity cost of measures for reducing nitrogen loadings and assessing their effectiveness for maintaining groundwater nitrate concentration within the target levels. The management model was applied to a hypothetical groundwater system. Optimal solutions of fertilizer use to problems with different initial conditions, planning horizons, and recovery times were determined. The illustrative example shows the importance of the location of the pollution sources in relation to the control sites, and how both the selected planning horizon and the target recovery time can strongly influence the limitation of fertilizer use and the economic opportunity cost for meeting the environmental standards. There is clearly a trade-off between the time horizon to reach the standards (recovery time) and the economic losses from nitrogen use reductions.

Peña-Haro, Salvador; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Sahuquillo, Andrés

2009-06-01

265

Draft Guidelines for State and Areawide Water Quality Management Program Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document discusses the draft guidelines formulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist the states in establishing a management program to integrate water quality and other resource management decisions. These guidelines are pfovided so that the long range goals of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

266

Total Water Management, the New Paradigm for Urban Water Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current resource management practices put different stresses on local water resources and urban infrastructure. Total Water Manag...

267

A novel water pollution monitoring approach based on 3s technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Use of 3S techniques can provide a firm foundation for the dynamic monitoring and forecasting of water pollution and cause effective control of water environment, as it has no limit to space-time and region and can provide a timely, accurate and fast access to water pollution monitoring, so it will be a great revolution in utilization of water resources.

Tian Jinghuan; Wang Yi

2010-01-01

268

Feasibility of using the MIRADS data management system for a state air pollution agency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MIRADS is a generalized data management system. The feasibility of using MIRADS by the State of Alabama Air Pollution Control Commission is explored. The State's enforcement management system and the emission inventory system were implemented into MIRADS.

Schroer, B. J.

1975-01-01

269

BTX removal from polluted water through bioleaching processes.  

PubMed

In this study, benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) removal from contaminated water by physical, chemical, and biological processes was studied. Results showed that air sparging in polluted water can reduce monoaromatic compounds from 140,000 to about 5 microg/l in only 1 h process with a gassing rate of 0.33 VVM. This method cannot be considered as a green technology as pollutants are only transferred from the liquid phase to the gas phase The ultimate objective of this research was thus to evaluate the efficiency of a strategy involving BTX adsorption by granular-activated charcoal (GAC) and subsequent regeneration of this support by a bioleaching process. Analysis of such processes requires the building of analytical tools able to accurately determine the contents of the contaminants in samples containing biomass to make possible the calculation of reliable material balances. Current investigation showed that BTX are readily trapped by GAC particles with low further release in the liquid medium whereas they remain at least partially available for in situ biodegradation. BTX adsorption onto the GAC was shown to reach maximum solute retention close to 350, 250, and 150 (as mg/g GAC) for xylenes, toluene, and benzene, respectively. This approach, which could afford efficient biological active carbon regeneration, is very promising for the removal of BTX compounds from water without any further environment damage. PMID:18427740

Farhadian, Mehrdad; Duchez, David; Vachelard, Cédric; Larroche, Christian

2008-12-01

270

Environmental management intentions: an empirical investigation of Argentina's polluting firms.  

PubMed

This paper builds on past behavioural research which explicitly recognises that 'actions' are preceded by 'intentions' which are in turn determined by individual mindsets, locus of control, principles of governances and context factors. More concretely, it presents a model that investigates the extent to which environmental behavioural intentions are explained by i) managers' core values, basic assumptions, and beliefs, ii) individual and socio-cognitive frames, iii) principles of governance, and iv) context factors. Context factors include obstacles and drivers of greener behaviours, market pressures, and firm demographics. The resulting theoretical framework is tested empirically through regression analyses that use data gathered from a survey of 536 Argentinean firms in polluting industries. The model performs well, explaining approximately 50% of the variations in the (pro) environmental behaviour of firms. Policy implications are briefly discussed. PMID:20110148

Vazquez Brust, Diego Alfonso; Liston-Heyes, Catherine

2010-05-01

271

Uses of epidemiologic information in pollution episode management  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiologic information and analysis are essential for the process of health risk assessment and management in pollution episodes. Recognition of causal associations between exposure and disease requires an understanding of the nature of data upon which such associations are based and of the limitations that affect such data. Data concerned with disease detection are often affected by long and variable latencies, clinical nonspecificity, low frequencies (small population sizes), and reporting biases. Data concerned with measuring exposures must take into account pathway uncertainties, probable low dose levels, inability to develop dose-response information, and the frequent necessity to rely on indirect surrogates for dose estimation. Where such difficulties can be overcome, epidemiologic analysis can be decisive in identifying causal relationships. More often, data limitations require more limited conclusions. Case studies from New York, Michigan, South Carolina, and Massachusetts illustrate the impact of these principles on the process of health risk assessment.

Health, C.W. Jr.

1988-03-01

272

Water hyacinths for removal of cadmium and nickel from polluted waters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Removal of cadmium and nickel from static water systems utilizing water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) was investigated. This aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to rapidly remove heavy metals from aqueous systems by root absorption and concentration. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to absorb and concentrate up to 0.67 mg of cadmium and 0.50 mg of nickel per gram of dry plant material when exposed for a 24-hour period to waters polluted with from 0.578 to 2.00 ppm of these toxic metals. It is found that one hectare of water hyacinths has the potential of removing 300 g of cadmium or nickel from 240,000 liters of water polluted with these metals during a 24-hour period.

Wolverton, B. C.

1975-01-01

273

Spreadsheet WATERSHED modeling for nonpoint-source pollution management in a Wisconsin basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although several sophisticated nonpoint pollution models exist, few are available that are easy to use, cover a variety of conditions, and integrate a wide range of information to allow managers and planners to assess different control strategies. Here, a straightforward pollutant input accounting approach is presented in the form of an existing model (WATERSHED) that has been adapted to run on modern electronic spreadsheets. As an application, WATERSHED is used to assess options to improve the quality of highly eutrophic Delavan Lake in Wisconsin. WATERSHED is flexible in that several techniques, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation or unit-area loadings, can be used to estimate nonpoint-source inputs. Once the model parameters are determined (and calibrated, if possible), the spreadsheet features can be used to conduct a sensitivity analysis of management options. In the case of Delavan Lake, it was concluded that, although some nonpoint controls were cost-effective, the overall reduction in phosphorus would be insufficient to measurably improve water quality.A straightforward pollutant input accounting approach is presented in the form of an existing model (WATERSHED) that has been adapted to run on modern electronic spreadsheets. As an application, WATERSHED is used to assess options to improve the quality of highly eutrophic Delavan Lake in Wisconsin. WATERSHED is flexible in that several techniques, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation or unit-area loadings, can be used to estimate nonpoint-source inputs. Once the model parameters are determined (and calibrated, if possible), the spreadsheet features can be used to conduct a sensitivity analysis of management options. In the case of Delavan Lake, it was concluded that, although some nonpoint controls were cost-effective, the overall reduction in phosphorus would be insufficient to measurably improve water quality.

Walker, J. F.; Pickard, S. A.; Sonzogni, W. C.

1989-01-01

274

Using molecular-scale tracers to investigate transport of agricultural pollutants in soil and water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the use of molecular-scale tracers to investigate the transport of potential pollutants due to the application of slurry to soil. The molecular-scale approach allows us to separate the pollutants which are moved to water bodies through sediment-bound and dissolved transport pathways. Slurry is applied to agricultural land to as a soil-improver across a wide-range of topographic and climatic regimes, hence a set of experiments were designed to assess the effect of changing slope gradient and rainfall intensity on the transport of pollutants. The experiments were carried out using University of Bristol's TRACE (Test Rig for Advancing Connectivity Experiments) facility. The facility includes a dual axis soil slope (6 x 2.5 x 0.3 m3) and 6-nozzle rainfall simulator, which enables the manipulation of the slope to simulate different slope gradient and rainfall scenarios. Cattle slurry was applied to the top 1 metre strip of the experimental soil slope followed by four rainfall simulations, where the gradient (5° & 10°) and the rainfall intensity (60 & 120 mm hr-1) were co-varied. Leachate was sampled from different flow pathways (surface, subsurface and percolated) via multiple outlets on the slope throughout the experiments and soil cores were taken from the slope after each experiment. Novel tracers were used to trace the pollutants in both dissolved and sediment-bound forms. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to trace dissolved slurry-derived material via water flow pathways, as the slurry was found to have a distinct signature compared with the soil. The fluorescence signatures of the leachates were compared with those of many organic compounds in order to characterise the origin of the signal. This allowed the assessment of the longevity of the signal in the environment to establish if it could be used as a robust long-term tracer of slurry material in water or if would be subject to transform processes through time. 5-?stanols, organic compounds unique to ruminant faeces, were used to trace the transport of sediment-bound pollutants from the slurry which could be transported into water bodies via erosion processes. The results showed that contributions of potential pollutants from the surface and subsurface flow pathways and from the eroded sediment differ according to slope gradient and rainfall intensity. Therefore, as the contribution of each of these pathways changes in response to rainfall and slope gradient, the pollution risk also changes accordingly, as different organic compounds are mobilised at varying rates. Rapid hydrological response to rainfall results in erosion and surface transport of sediment-bound and dissolved pollutants, creating an immediate contamination threat. However, conditions resulting in a slower hydrological response and the predominance of flow percolation over surface runoff results in higher rates of dissolved pollutant transport through the soil layers which risks contamination of subsurface and deeper ground-water systems. These experiments provide insight into the pathways and timing of contaminant transport with potential implications for understanding contamination risk from the transfer of slurry from land to water bodies. Understanding this threat is critical at a time when pressure is on to develop land-management strategies to reduce pollution alongside maintaining food security.

Lloyd, C.; Michaelides, K.; Chadwick, D.; Dungait, J.; Evershed, R. P.

2012-12-01

275

Industrial waste-water management practices in Air Force Logistics Command. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

The selection of a model plant was based upon criteria established by a review of current literature. The criteria were permit compliance, plant performance, and the adoption of pollution prevention as a corporate environmental philosophy. In this study, private sector firms were examined to identify the best industrial wastewater management practices using a Total Quality Management (TQM) tool called benchmarking. The data gathering process consisted of a survey of water pollution control organizations, and a survey of benchmark candidates. The purpose of surveying water pollution control organizations was to objectively identify possible benchmark candidates. A questionnaire was then used to gather technical data on each benchmark candidate's performance.

Smith, P.J.

1991-09-01

276

Got Milk? Got Water? Innovative Approach to Evaluating Groundwater Nitrate Nonpoint Source Pollution from Animal Farming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The California dairy industry produces 20% of US milk and is the largest animal industry in the state. Many of the dairy facilities are located in low-relief valleys and basins with vulnerable groundwater resources. The continued influx of dairies into California's Central Valley has raised critical questions regarding their environmental performance, in particular with respect to groundwater quality impacts. While animal farming systems are considered among the leading sources of groundwater nitrate,little is known about the actual impact of dairy farming practices on groundwater quality in the extensive alluvial aquifers underlying the Central Valley. With our work we attempt to characterize and assess shallow groundwater underneath dairies in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region and to discern the impact from various individual sources and management practices within dairies. An extensive shallow groundwater monitoring network was installed on five representative dairy operations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley, California. The monitoring network spans all dairy management units: manure water lagoons, corrals, storage areas, and manure treated forage fields under various management practices. We recently also surveyed production well water quality. Water quality is found to be highly variable, both in time and space. We propose that a meaningful interpretation of these (nonpoint source pollution) data is only possible by explicitly considering the various scales affiliated with groundwater measurement, pollution source management, regulatory control, and beneficial use. Using statistical analysis and innovative modeling tools, we provide an interpretation of the observed data that is meaningful at the field scale (the scale unit of management decisions), the farm scale (considered to be a regulatory and planning unit), and the regional scale (considered to be a planning unit).

Harter, T.; Vanderschans, M.; Leijnse, A.; Meyer, R. D.; Mathews, M. C.

2002-12-01

277

Development of a multiobjective optimization tool for the selection and placement of best management practices for nonpoint source pollution control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Best management practices (BMPs) are effective in reducing the transport of agricultural nonpoint source pollutants to receiving water bodies. However, selection of BMPs for placement in a watershed requires optimization of the available resources to obtain maximum possible pollution reduction. In this study, an optimization methodology is developed to select and place BMPs in a watershed to provide solutions that are both economically and ecologically effective. This novel approach develops and utilizes a BMP tool, a database that stores the pollution reduction and cost information of different BMPs under consideration. The BMP tool replaces the dynamic linkage of the distributed parameter watershed model during optimization and therefore reduces the computation time considerably. Total pollutant load from the watershed, and net cost increase from the baseline, were the two objective functions minimized during the optimization process. The optimization model, consisting of a multiobjective genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) in combination with a watershed simulation tool (Soil Water and Assessment Tool (SWAT)), was developed and tested for nonpoint source pollution control in the L'Anguille River watershed located in eastern Arkansas. The optimized solutions provided a trade-off between the two objective functions for sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen reduction. The results indicated that buffer strips were very effective in controlling the nonpoint source pollutants from leaving the croplands. The optimized BMP plans resulted in potential reductions of 33%, 32%, and 13% in sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen loads, respectively, from the watershed.

Maringanti, Chetan; Chaubey, Indrajeet; Popp, Jennie

2009-06-01

278

[Effect of changing into slippers on the pollution situation in the nuclear medicine management district].  

PubMed

Changing into slippers when entering the nuclear medicine management district prevented pollution expansion. Accidents involving patients falling occurred in university facilities. It was thought that changing slippers was the cause. The pollution situation was measured in three facilities by using the smear method and the direct technique to examine the effect of changing slippers. The current state was measured. After pollution prevention guidance was continuously done, pollution expansion was measured; three weeks of measurements were compared. Pollution was detected in the first period of weeks at a frequency of 19 times. For the latter period, it was detected 6 times. Half the pollution was in the restroom. Pollution was reduced by doing pollution prevention guidance for the restroom. Patients' falls occur even if they change slippers. Falling accidents can be decreased. PMID:22277821

Miyashita, Makoto; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Akiyama, Masayuki; Takase, Tadashi; Kato, Kyoichi; Nitta, Masaru; Nakazawa, Yasuo

2012-01-01

279

Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) pollution prevention program implementation plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan documents the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program. The subject implementation plan has been updated to reflect the Fiscal Year (FY) 1997 contract structure in which Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) is the management and integration contractor. The P2/WMin Program scope includes FDH as the principal PHMC contractor, and B&W Hanford Company (BWHC), Duke Engineering & Services Hanford, Inc. (DESH), Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation, (LMHC), Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC), Rust Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. (RFSH), and DynCorp Tri-Cities Services, Inc. (DYN) as PHMC contractors, as well as subcontracting enterprise companies, such as Fluor Daniel Northwest, Inc. (FDNW), Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. (LMSI), and Rust Federal Services Northwest (RFS), which provide engineering, operation, construction, maintenance, and computer services for the Hanford Site. The P2/WMin Program scope also includes all other subcontractor-affiliated enterprise companies, such as B&W Protec, Inc. (BWP), DE&S Northwest, Inc. (DESNW), and SGN Eurisys Services Corp. (SESC).

Place, B.G., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-12-31

280

REMOVAL OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS FROM SUBCRITICAL WATER WITH ACTIVATED CARBON  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has demonstrated that controlling the temperature (and to a lesser extent, the pressure) of water can dramatically change its ability to extract organics and inorganics from matrices ranging from soils and sediments to waste sludges and coal. The dielectric constant of water can be changed from about 80 (a very polar solvent) to <5 (similar to a nonpolar organic solvent) by controlling the temperature (from ambient to about 400 C) and pressure (from about 5 to 350 bar). The EERC has shown that hazardous organic pollutants such as pesticides, PACS (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) can be completely removed from soils, sludges, and sediments at temperatures (250 C) and pressures (<50 atm) that are much milder than typically used for supercritical water processes (temperature >374 C, pressure >221 atm). In addition, the process has been demonstrated to be particularly effective for samples containing very high levels of contaminants (e.g., part per thousand). Current projects include demonstrating the subcritical water remediation process at the pilot scale using an 8-liter system constructed under separate funding during 1997. To date, subcritical water has been shown to be an effective extraction fluid for removing a variety of organic pollutants from soils and sludges contaminated with fossil fuel products and waste products, including PACS from soil (e.g., town gas sites), refining catalysts, and petroleum tank bottom sludges; PCBs from soil and sediments; toxic gasoline components (e.g., benzene) from soil and waste sludge; and phenols from petroleum refinery sludges. The obvious need to clean the wastewater from subcritical water processes led to preliminary experiments with activated carbon placed in line after the extractor. Initial experiments were performed before and after cooling the extractant water (e.g., with water at 200 C and with water cooled to 25 C). Surprisingly, the ability of activated carbon to remove organics from the water is better at a high temperature than at room temperature. These initial results are opposite to those expected from chromatographic theory, since the solubility of the organics is about 100,000-fold higher in the hot water than in ambient water. At present, the physicochemical mechanism accounting for these results is unknown; however, it is possible that the lower surface tension and lower viscosity of subcritical water (compared to water at ambient conditions) greatly increases the available area of the carbon by several orders of magnitude. Regardless of the mechanism involved, the optimal use of activated carbon to clean the wastewater generated from subcritical water remediation will depend on obtaining a better understanding of the controlling parameters. While these investigations focused on the cleanup of wastewater generated from subcritical water remediation, the results also apply to cleanup of any wastewater contaminated with nonpolar and moderately polar organics such as wastewaters from coal and petroleum processing.

Steven B. Hawthorne; Arnaud J. Lagadec

1999-08-01

281

Research on ground water pollution by leacheate of waste dump of open pit coal mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of investigation and research on the pollution source and pollution pathway of Yujiagou area, by the ground water\\u000a quality analysis and the leaching and soaking experiments of the gangue, reliable data were obtained. The experiment results\\u000a prove that these inorganic salt elements are easily dissolved by the water. The main pollution factors in the ground water\\u000a are

Zhi-bin Liu; Hong-kun Yan; Zhao-jun Wang

2008-01-01

282

Ground-water pollution from natural gas and oil production in New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas is produced throughout the central and W. part of New York State; whereas, oil production has been limited mainly to Allegheny and Cattaraugus counties. Oil production, and particularly secondary recovery by the water-flooding method, has resulted in pollution of ground- and surface-water supplies with oil and salt water. Pollution from active oil fields has been caused by separator

Crain

1970-01-01

283

Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Surface water data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report summarizes the surface water sampling program at the Amoco Refinery at Yorktown, Virginia. This was undertaken as a part of the joint project between Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency to review pollution prevention alternatives at a petroleum refinery. The surface water data provides a snapshot of surface water pollutant generation and discharge from the

Baloo

1991-01-01

284

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section 4.66b Customs...66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any Customs officer has...being or has been deposited in navigable waters or any tributary of any...

2014-04-01

285

Pollutants in our water: Effects on human health and the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery has concerns about the effects of our environment on human health. In this review we evaluate waterborne biologic organisms, microorganisms, and other disease-causing agents that might pollute our drinking water. Next, we evaluate chemical toxins that might pollute our drinking water. Then we examine our drinking water and wastewater treatment systems. Finally,

JULIUS N. HICKS

1998-01-01

286

The River Basin Model: Computer Output. Water Pollution Control Research Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research report is part of the Water Pollution Control Research Series which describes the results and progress in the control and abatement of pollution in our nation's waters. The River Basin Model described is a computer-assisted decision-making tool in which a number of computer programs simulate major processes related to water use that…

Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

287

Cost and Pollutant Removal of StormWater Treatment Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six storm-water best management practices BMPs for treating urban rainwater runoff were evaluated for cost and effective- ness in removing suspended sediments and total phosphorus. Construction and annual operating and maintenance O and M cost data were collected and analyzed for dry extended detention basins, wet basins, sand filters, constructed wetlands, bioretention filters, and infiltration trenches using literature that reported

Peter T. Weiss; John S. Gulliver; Andrew J. Erickson

2007-01-01

288

Operation and Maintenance of Water Pollution Control Facilities: A WPCF White Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are the recommendations of the Water Pollution Control Federation for operation and maintenance consideration during the planning design, construction, and operation of wastewater treatment facilities. (CS)

Hill, William R.; And Others

1979-01-01

289

Water management by early people in the Yucatan, Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Yucatan Peninsula is a coastal plain underlain by permeable limestone and receives abundant rainfall. Such hydrogeologic conditions should provide major supplies of water; however, factors of climate and hydrogeology have combined to form a hydrologic system with chemical boundaries that limits the amount of fresh water available. Management of water resources has long had a major influence on the cultural and economic development of the Yucatan. The Mayan culture of the northern Yucatan developed on extensive use of groundwater. The religion was water oriented and the Mayan priests prayed to Chac, the water god, for assistance in water management, primarily to decrease the severity of droughts. The Spaniards arrived in 1517 and augmented the supply by digging wells, which remained the common practice for more than 300 years. Many wells now have been abandoned because of serious problems of pollution. A historical perspective of a paper such as this provides insight into the attitudes concerning water of early people and perhaps provides insight into current attitudes concerning water. Hydrogeologists possess the expertise to generate relevant information required by water managers to arrive at management programs to achieve sustainable development. ?? 1995 Springer-Verlag.

Back, W.

1995-01-01

290

Water management by early people in the Yucatan, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yucatan Peninsula is a coastal plain underlain by permeable limestone and receives abundant rainfall. Such hydrogeologic conditions should provide major supplies of water; however, factors of climate and hydrogeology have combined to form a hydrologic system with chemical boundaries that limits the amount of fresh water available. Management of water resources has long had a major influence on the cultural and economic development of the Yucatan. The Mayan culture of the northern Yucatan developed on extensive use of groundwater. The religion was water oriented and the Mayan priests prayed to Chac, the water god, for assistance in water management, primarily to decrease the severity of droughts. The Spaniards arrived in 1517 and augmented the supply by digging wells, which remained the common practice for more than 300 years. Many wells now have been abandoned because of serious problems of pollution. A historical perspective of a paper such as this provides insight into the attitudes concerning water of early people and perhaps provides insight into current attitudes concerning water. Hydrogeologists possess the expertise to generate relevant information required by water managers to arrive at management programs to achieve sustainable development.

Back, W.

1995-06-01

291

Water quality management in the Kaoping River watershed, Taiwan.  

PubMed

The Kaoping River basin is the largest and the most intensively used river basin in Taiwan. It is 171 km long and drains a catchment of more than 3,250 km2. Based on the current water quality analysis, the Kaoping River is heavily polluted. Concern about the deteriorating condition of the river led the Government of Taiwan to amend the relevant legislation and strengthen the enforcement of the discharge regulations to effectively manage the river and control the pollution. Investigation results demonstrate that both point and non-point source pollutants are now the causes of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nutrients, and pathogens in the river. The main water pollution sources are livestock wastewater from hog farms, municipal wastewater, industrial wastewater, non-point source (NPS) pollutants from agricultural areas, and leachate from riverbank landfills. The current daily BOD, NH3-N, and TP loadings to Kaoping River are 74,700, 39,400, and 5,100 kg, respectively. However, the calculated BOD, NH3-N, and TP carrying capacities are 27,700, 4,200, and 600 kg per day. To protect public health and improve the river water quality, a comprehensive management and construction strategy is proposed. The proposed strategy includes the following measures to meet the calculated river carrying capacity: (1) a hog ban in the entire Kaoping River basin, (2) sewer system construction to achieve 30% of connection in the basin within 10 years, (3) removal of 10 riverbank landfills, and (4) enforcement of the industrial wastewater discharge standards. After the implementation of the proposed measures, the water quality should be significantly improved and the BOD and nutrient loadings can be reduced to below the calculated carrying capacities. PMID:12793682

Kao, C M; Chen, K F; Liao, Y L; Chen, C W

2003-01-01

292

Contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and relevant management in China.  

PubMed

The status of typical persistent organic pollutant (POP) contamination in many media (e.g., farm produce, soil, human milk, water, and sediments) was surveyed and China's relevant countermeasures for controlling POPs were analyzed in this paper. The results showed that the proportion of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) to all kinds of pesticides has descended significantly since 1983 when the OCPs were forbidden from being used. The spatial distribution characteristic of pesticide application in the whole country was as follows: southeast>central>northwest. The pesticide residues in food with high fat and high protein content were more than that in foodstuffs. The residual concentration in soil in the whole country was as follows: south>central>north. Furthermore, in vegetable fields, the residual concentration was higher than that in crop fields. As for human milk, the retained amount tended to decrease. In the recent two decades, although the reduction was 81.5%, it was still higher than that in some developed European and American countries. The rank of the residual concentrations of OCPs in different media was: human milk>animal foodstuff>soil>vegetable food>water and sediment. The initial relevant POP management in China can be traced back to 1982 when the Ordinance of Pesticide Management was enacted. Now, environmental control of POPs in China is close to the international level. The legal management system of POPs can be divided into four facets, including 3 regulations, 6 ordinances, and 20 standards. However, on the whole, most of the existing regulations do not refer to POPs directly. Only some clauses mention POPs and lack pertinent, explicit statements on POP pollution and control. Legislation is urgently needed for more effective environmental management to enhance POP control. PMID:15982740

Tieyu, Wang; Yonglong, Lu; Hong, Zhang; Yajuan, Shi

2005-08-01

293

Effective management for acidic pollution in the canal network of the Mekong Delta of Vietnam: A modeling approach.  

PubMed

Acidic pollution can cause severe environmental consequences annually in coastal areas overlain with acid sulfate soils (ASS). A water quality model was used as an analytical tool for exploring the effects of water management options and other interventions on acidic pollution and salinity in Bac Lieu, a coastal province of the Mekong Delta. Fifty eight percent of the provincial area is covered by ASS, and more than three-fourths (approximately 175,000 ha) are used for brackish-water shrimp culture. Simulations of acid water propagation in the canal network indicate that the combination of opening the two main sluices along the East Sea of the study area at high tide for one day every week in May and June and widening the canals that connect these sluices to the West Sea allows for adequate saline water intake and minimizes the acidic pollution in the study area. On the other hand, canal dredging in the freshwater ASS area should be done properly as it can create severe acidic pollution. PMID:24726961

Phong, Ngo Dang; Hoanh, Chu Thai; Tuong, To Phuc; Malano, Hector

2014-07-01

294

WATER INFILTRATION CONTROL TO ACHIEVE MINE WATER POLLUTION CONTROL: THE DENTS RUN WATERSHED DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of surface mined land reclamation measures in establishing surface water infiltratin control to prevent or reduce pollution from acid mine drainage. The Dents Run watershed, located in Monongalia County, West Virgin...

295

Spatially based management of agricultural phosphorus pollution from diffuse sources: the SCIMAP risk based approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollution of rivers from agricultural phosphorus is recognised as a significant global problem and is a major management challenge as it involves processes that are small in magnitude, distributed over large areas, operating at fine spatial scales and associated with certain land use types when they are well connected to the receiving waters. Whilst some of these processes have been addressed in terms of water quality forecasting models and field measurements, we lack effective tools to prioritise where action should be taken to remediate the diffuse pollution problem. From a management perspective, the required information is on 'what to do where' rather than absolute values. This change in focus opens up the problem to be considered in a probabilistic / relative framework rather than concentrating on absolute values. The SCIMAP risk management framework is based on the critical source area concept whereby a risk and a connection are required to generate a problem. Treatments of both surface and subsurface hydrological connectivity have been developed. The approach is based on the philosophy that for a point to be considered connected there needs to be a continuous flow path to the receiving water. This information is calculated by simulating the possible flow paths from the source cell to the receiving water and recording the required catchment wetness to allow flow along that route. This algorithm gives information on the ease at which each point in the landscape can export risk along surface and subsurface pathways to the receiving waters. To understand the annual dynamics of the locational diffuse P risk, a temporal risk framework has been developed. This risk framework accounts for land management activies within the agricultural calendar. These events include the application of fertiliser, the P additions from livestock and the offtake of P in crops. Changes to these risks can be made to investigate management options. The SCIMAP risk mapping framework has been applied to 12 catchments in England as part of the DEFRA / Environment Agency's Catchment Sensitive Farming programme. Result from these catchments will be presented.

Reaney, S. M.; Heathwaite, L.; Lane, S. N.; Buckley, C.

2007-12-01

296

75 FR 58023 - Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Analysis of Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act; Analysis and Sampling Procedures...Analysis of Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act; Analysis and Sampling Procedures...methods (test procedures) for use in Clean Water Act programs. The changes include...

2010-09-23

297

77 FR 29757 - Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Analysis of Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act; Analysis and Sampling Procedures...Analysis of Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act; Analysis and Sampling Procedures...for analysis and sampling under the Clean Water Act. EPA proposed these changes for...

2012-05-18

298

75 FR 7627 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Notice is hereby given that on February 16...the pre-treatment requirements of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act), 40 CFR part 403...

2010-02-22

299

Spectroscopic analyses of pollutants in water, sediment and fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water ways in Egypt is suffering from continual discharge without adequate treatment especially in the Delta and greater Cairo area. Accordingly water, sediments and catfishes were collected from El Mouheet El Youmna drain in Giza. Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn were determined furthermore the molecular structure of sediment and catfish were conducted with FTIR spectroscopy. Although studied metals were lower in water, higher values are recorded in sediment and catfish samples. FTIR shows possible interaction among metals and organic structures mainly proteins. The bioaccumulation of Pb and Cd proportion was significantly increased in the liver tissues of catfish. A correlation coefficient among sediment and fish liver metals accumulation exist. This infers that the waste assimilation capacity for the drain is high, a phenomena that could be ascribed to dilution, sedimentation and continual water exchange. Furthermore, the genotoxicity affect in catfish genomic corroborates the genus diagnostic markers which attributed to long pollution. This is an indication that agriculture and industrial wastes discharged into the drain has badly a significant effect on the ecological balance.

Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh.; Ibrahim, Hanan S.; Ammar, Nabila S.; Ibrahim, Medhat

2012-11-01

300

Spectroscopic analyses of pollutants in water, sediment and fish.  

PubMed

Water ways in Egypt is suffering from continual discharge without adequate treatment especially in the Delta and greater Cairo area. Accordingly water, sediments and catfishes were collected from El Mouheet El Youmna drain in Giza. Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn were determined furthermore the molecular structure of sediment and catfish were conducted with FTIR spectroscopy. Although studied metals were lower in water, higher values are recorded in sediment and catfish samples. FTIR shows possible interaction among metals and organic structures mainly proteins. The bioaccumulation of Pb and Cd proportion was significantly increased in the liver tissues of catfish. A correlation coefficient among sediment and fish liver metals accumulation exist. This infers that the waste assimilation capacity for the drain is high, a phenomena that could be ascribed to dilution, sedimentation and continual water exchange. Furthermore, the genotoxicity affect in catfish genomic corroborates the genus diagnostic markers which attributed to long pollution. This is an indication that agriculture and industrial wastes discharged into the drain has badly a significant effect on the ecological balance. PMID:22898112

Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh; Ibrahim, Hanan S; Ammar, Nabila S; Ibrahim, Medhat

2012-11-01

301

Integrated water management: emerging issues and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the projected global population increases will take place in Third World Countries that already suffer from water, food, and health problems. Increasingly, agricultural water management must be coordinated with, and integrated into, the overall water management of the region. Sustainability, public health, and environmental protection are key factors. More storage of water behind dams and especially in aquifers

Herman Bouwer

2000-01-01

302

Linking Near Real-Time Water Quality Measurements to Fecal Coliforms and Trace Organic Pollutants in Urban Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic pollutants, including pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, and estrogens are detected in urban water bodies. Effective examination of dilute organic and microbial pollutant loading rates within surface waters is currently prohibitively expensive and labor intensive. Effort is being placed on the development of improved monitoring methodologies to more accurately assess surface water quality and evaluate the effectiveness of water quality management practices. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008 a "real-time" wireless network equipped with high frequency fundamental water quality parameter sensors measured turbidity, conductivity, pH, depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen and nitrate above and below stormwater inputs at two urban stream locations. At each location one liter grab samples were concurrently collected by ISCO automatic samplers at two hour intervals for 24 hour durations during three dry periods and five rain events. Grab samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms, atrazine (agricultural herbicide), prometon (residential herbicide) and caffeine (wastewater indicator). Surrogate relationships between easy-to-measure water quality parameters and difficult-to-measure pollutants were developed, subsequently facilitating monitoring of these pollutants without the development of new, and likely costly, technologies. Additionally, comparisons were made between traditional grab sampling techniques and the "real-time" monitoring to assess the accuracy of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) calculations.

Henjum, M.; Wennen, C.; Hondzo, M.; Hozalski, R. M.; Novak, P. J.; Arnold, W. A.

2009-05-01

303

'Water Systems' Coordination Plan and Development Program. Phase I. 'Water' Supply 'Systems', Waste 'Water' Pollution Control 'Systems' and Surface 'Water' Drainage 'Systems'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is the first in a series of three reports treating with the water supply, wastewater pollution control and surface water drainage problems of the 3-county area around Memphis, Tennessee: DeSoto County, Mississippi, Crittenden County, Arkansas; ...

1972-01-01

304

Remote sensing in the mixing zone. [water pollution in Wisconsin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characteristics of dispersion and diffusion as the mechanisms by which pollutants are transported in natural river courses were studied with the view of providing additional data for the establishment of water quality guidelines and effluent outfall design protocols. Work has been divided into four basic categories which are directed at the basic goal of developing relationships which will permit the estimation of the nature and extent of the mixing zone as a function of those variables which characterize the outfall structure, the effluent, and the river, as well as climatological conditions. The four basic categories of effort are: (1) the development of mathematical models; (2) laboratory studies of physical models; (3) field surveys involving ground and aerial sensing; and (4) correlation between aerial photographic imagery and mixing zone characteristics.

Villemonte, J. R.; Hoopes, J. A.; Wu, D. S.; Lillesand, T. M.

1973-01-01

305

Adapting an ambient monitoring program to the challenge of managing emerging pollutants in the San Francisco Estuary.  

PubMed

While over seven million organic and inorganic compounds that have been indexed by the American Chemical Society's Chemical Abstracts Service in their CAS Registry are commercially available, most pollution monitoring programs focus only on those chemical stressors for which regulatory benchmarks exist, and have been traditionally considered responsible for the most significant human and environmental health risks. Until the late 1990s, the San Francisco Estuary Regional Monitoring Program was no exception in that regard. After a thorough external review, the monitoring program responded to the need for developing a pro-active surveillance approach for emerging pollutants in recognition of the fact that the potential for the growing list of widely used chemical compounds to alter the integrity of water is high. We describe (1) the scientific and analytical bases underlying a new surveillance monitoring approach; (2) summarize approaches used and results obtained from a forensic retrospective; (3) present the growing data set on emerging pollutants from surveillance monitoring and related efforts in the San Francisco Bay Area to characterize newly targeted compounds in wastewater streams, sediment, storm water runoff, and biota; and (4) suggest next steps in monitoring program development and applied research that could move beyond traditional approaches of pollutant characterization. Based on the forensic analysis of archived chromatograms and chemical and toxicological properties of candidate compounds, we quantified a variety of synthetic organic compounds which had previously not been targeted for analysis. Flame retardant compounds, pesticides and insecticide synergists, insect repellents, pharmaceuticals, personal care product ingredients, plasticizers, non-ionic surfactants, and other manufacturing ingredients were detected in water, sediment, and/or biological tissue samples. Several of these compounds, especially polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants, exhibited concentrations of environmental concern. We also describe environmental management challenges associated with emerging pollutants and how pro-active surveillance monitoring might assist in implementing a more holistic approach to pollution prevention and control before emerging pollutants become a burden on future generations. PMID:17336284

Hoenicke, Rainer; Oros, Daniel R; Oram, John J; Taberski, Karen M

2007-09-01

306

Protamine precipitation of two reovirus particle types from polluted waters.  

PubMed

Two forms of virus particle are released from reovirus-infected cell cultures, infectious reovirus and potentially infectious reovirus (PIV). PIV particle forms have a complete outer coat and are not infectious until the outer coat is altered or removed. The PIV concentration in polluted waters, however, has not been determined. Protamine sulfate precipitation, using 0.25% fetal bovine serum and 0.005% protamine sulfate for the first precipitation of the sample and 0.0025% for the second, was employed to concentrate infectious reovirus and PIV from water and sewage. Infectious reovirus and PIV particles were concentrated over 500-fold from river water inoculated with virus, and virus recoveries of between 80 and 100% were achieved. Virus precipitates stored at -20 degrees C as a protamine-virus concentrate showed a 5% loss of PIV after 14 days. Virus preparations were assayed, before and after treatment, with 200 micrograms of chymotrypsin per ml, using a fluorescent-antibody procedure. Protamine sulfate precipitation and fluorescent-antibody detection are effective ways to recover and assay reoviruses present in raw sewage. PMID:7138002

Adams, D J; Ridinger, D N; Spendlove, R S; Barnett, B B

1982-09-01

307

Natural Disasters and Surface and Subsurface Water Pollution Risk Assessment for Some Regions of Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, some hydrological specifications of Georgian water resources are presented. The river Rioni's possible\\u000a pollution by oil in a period of flooding is studied by numerical modelling. Some results of the investigation of pollution\\u000a of Georgia's largest river, the River Kura, are also given. With the purpose of studying subsurface water pollution by oil\\u000a in case of

T. Davitashvili

308

Method Study of Water Quality Control in Polluted Hun-Tai River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the pollutant origin, category and generating mechanism, the paper gives the calculation method of pollutants discharged into Hun-Tai River from point and non-point source aspects. With water resources network-node graph, calculating element water supply and demand balance data and rainfall-runoff, related amount of pollution has been forecasted in the future year (year 2020, 2030). By comprehensively consideration the

Yi-cheng Fu; Chuan-jiang Wei; Lun Miao; Zhi-zhang Wang

2011-01-01

309

Analysis of national water-pollution-control policies. 1. A national network model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the national implications of federal water-pollution-control policies, the authors developed a water-pollution-network model. This model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and bays. While the geographical scope of the model and existing data availability required make many simplifying assumptions,

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin; G. K. Young

1981-01-01

310

Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 1. A national network model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study the national implications of federal water pollution control policies, the authors developed a water pollution network model. This model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and bays. While the geographical scope of the model and existing data availability required making many simplifying assumptions, the model permits comprehensive analyses that are not possible with existing techniques.

Gianessi, Leonard P.; Peskin, Henry M.; Young, G. K.

1981-08-01

311

GIS-based source identification and apportionment of diffuse water pollution: perfluorinated compound pollution in the Tokyo Bay basin.  

PubMed

To efficiently reduce perfluorinated compound (PFC) pollution, it is important to have an understanding of PFC sources and their contribution to the pollution. In this study, source identification of diffuse water pollution by PFCs was conducted using a GIS-based approach. Major components of the source identification were collection of the monitoring data and preparation of the corresponding geographic information that was extracted from a constructed GIS database. The spatially distributed pollution factors were then explored by multiple linear regression analysis, after which they were visually expressed using GIS. Among the 35 PFC homologues measured in a survey of the Tokyo Bay basin, 18 homologues were analyzed. Pollution by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was explained well by the percentage of arterial traffic area in the basin, and the 84% variance of the measured PFOS concentration was explained by two geographic variables, arterial traffic area and population. Source apportionment between point and nonpoint sources was conducted based on the results of the analysis. The contribution of PFOS from nonpoint sources was comparable to that from point sources in several major rivers flowing into Tokyo Bay. Source identification and apportionment using the GIS-based approach was shown to be effective, especially for ubiquitous types of pollution, such as PFC pollution. PMID:21885084

Zushi, Yasuyuki; Masunaga, Shigeki

2011-11-01

312

Mathematical Models for Water Quality for the Hudson-Champlain and Metropolitan Coastal Water Pollution Control Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water discharges from urban population centers, industries, rural runoff, and storm overflows carry significant quantities of nutrients, organic and inorganic pollution to our waterways. Programs to control water quality invariably require large capital a...

1968-01-01

313

75 FR 43554 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (“Clean Water...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (``Clean Water Act'') Notice is hereby given that on July 21, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree in...

2010-07-26

314

Concept of an innovative water management system with decentralized water reclamation and cascading material-cycle for agricultural areas.  

PubMed

Unlike in urban areas where intensive water reclamation systems are available, development of decentralized technologies and systems is required for water use to be sustainable in agricultural areas. To overcome various water quality issues in those areas, a research project entitled 'Development of an innovative water management system with decentralized water reclamation and cascading material-cycle for agricultural areas under the consideration of climate change' was launched in 2009. This paper introduces the concept of this research and provides detailed information on each of its research areas: (1) development of a diffuse agricultural pollution control technology using catch crops; (2) development of a decentralized differentiable treatment system for livestock and human excreta; and (3) development of a cascading material-cycle system for water pollution control and value-added production. The author also emphasizes that the innovative water management system for agricultural areas should incorporate a strategy for the voluntary collection of bio-resources. PMID:22828292

Fujiwara, T

2012-01-01

315

A wind tunnel investigation of the distortion of polluted water drops in the horizontal electric fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distortion of the water drops freely suspended in a vertical wind tunnel is investigated when these drops are polluted with sulphate\\/nitrate salt and are also subjected to the horizontal electric fields. Results show that although the drops' average shape is not significantly affected, the magnitudes of drop oscillations decrease when these are formed from the water polluted with sulphate\\/nitrate salt.

Rohini V. Bhalwankar; A. K. Kamra

2009-01-01

316

Laser-enhanced photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants from water using ZnO semiconductor catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater contaminated with organic pollutants creates serious environmental problems. Laser induced photocatalysis has been investigated for removal of organic pollutant like phenol from water. The important mechanism for degradation of phenol by UV laser irradiation is redox reactions triggered by semiconductor catalyst in presence of water. In this study the potential of a ZnO semiconductor catalyst has been explored as

Mohammed A. Gondal; Mohammad N. Sayeed

2007-01-01

317

The study of PAC-coagulation sedimentation-UF process for treating micro-polluted water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process of powdered activated carbon?ƒ PAC?? - coagulation sedimentation - Ultrafiltration?ƒ UF ?? was used to investigate the effect of removing organic matter in micro- polluted water. The results showed that the PAC-coagulation sedimentation - UF combined process could remove effectively dissolved organic matter in micro-polluted water. After pre- dosing 15mg \\/ L PAC, the whole removal of CODMn,

Tao Lin; Liang Li; Wei Chen

2011-01-01

318

A USER'S GUIDE TO IPX, THE IN-PLACE POLLUTANT EXPORT WATER QUALITY MODELLING SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The in-place pollutant export water quality modeling system (IPX) framework was designed to address the transport and fate of pollutants in rivers and streams while retaining the flexibility needed to analyze a variety of water quality problems. This manual describes IPX and is d...

319

WATER POLLUTION CAUSED BY INACTIVE ORE AND MINERAL MINES - A NATIONAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report identifies the scope and magnitude of water pollution from inactive ore and mineral mines. Data collected from Federal, State, and local agencies indicates water pollution from acids, heavy metals, and sedimentation occurs at over 100 locations and affects over 1200 ki...

320

Water pollution control: assessing the impacts and costs of environmental standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book addresses one of the key policy changes enacted into law by the Congress in 1972, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, that of requiring certain categories of industries and municipalities to meet pollution-discharge standards based on specific technology objectives regardless of the prior conditions or desired uses of the water. The procedures used to address

R. A. Luken; E. H. Pechan

1977-01-01

321

Feasibility study: Fuel cell cogeneration in a water pollution control facility, volume 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual design study was conducted to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of a cogeneration fuel cell power plant operating in a large water pollution control facility. In this particular application, the fuel cell power plant would use methane rich digester gas from the water pollution control facility as a fuel feedstock to provide electrical and thermal energy. Several

J. H. Hirschenhofer; D. B. Baillieul; L. M. Barton; R. J. Brumberg; C. E. Hannan; H. H. Fiedler; M. G. Kile; M. G. Klett; G. A. Malone; H. P. Milliron

1980-01-01

322

Federal environmental litigation in 1976: the Federal Water Pollution Control Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 forms a vital part of EPA's national battle against pollution. The general objective of the act, to ''restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters,'' will hopefully be achieved through the completion of specific goals set and carried out by EPA and the federal government. The application

K. M. Hunciker; V. Pagano

1976-01-01

323

Political crisis and the politics of water pollution control in the 1970s  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigates the sociopolitical context and formation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1977 in light of the theory of the relative autonomy of the state. Data on state legitimacy and political crisis are derived from previous studies on public trust in government and business and the

Tsoukalas

1991-01-01

324

Comprehensive Water Supply, Sewerage, Solid Waste and Air Pollution Control Plans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Part One of this study, which included an inventory of Palm Beach County's water resources, water supply systems, sewerage systems, solid wastes systems, and air pollution control systems, and the legal and administrative aspects of each, was completed an...

D. B. Smith W. R. Sabis D. H. Scott

1970-01-01

325

The influence of light and air on the purification of polluted water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study was made between the organic polluted water from the river Lieve (Ghent, Belgium), and the same water treated in the laboratory aquaria, with light and atmospheric air at a constant temperature.

WILLEM H. O. DE SMET; Frans M. J. C. Evens

1970-01-01

326

9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...condemned. (b) After the polluted water has receded from an official...the equipment therein, shall, under the supervision of an inspector...personnel. An adequate supply of hot water under pressure is essential to make such...

2009-01-01

327

9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...condemned. (b) After the polluted water has receded from an official...the equipment therein, shall, under the supervision of an inspector...personnel. An adequate supply of hot water under pressure is essential to make such...

2010-01-01

328

9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...condemned. (b) After the polluted water has receded from an official...the equipment therein, shall, under the supervision of an inspector...personnel. An adequate supply of hot water under pressure is essential to make such...

2009-01-01

329

9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...condemned. (b) After the polluted water has receded from an official...the equipment therein, shall, under the supervision of an inspector...personnel. An adequate supply of hot water under pressure is essential to make such...

2010-01-01

330

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

Such projects must also be for the further purpose of developing preliminary plans for providing such safe water and such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in the State of...

2013-07-01

331

Issues in Ecology, Issue 03: Non Point Pollution of Surface Waters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report addresses pollution of aquatic ecosystems that originate from multiple unidentified sources or non point sources. Non point sources of phosphorus and nitrogen are of concern as they cause eutrophication or excessive enrichment of surface waters. Effects and remediation strategies are discussed. Non point sources, such as agricultural, urban and atmospheric ones are discussed. Management techniques to reduce excess nutrient transport across landscapes and into bodies of water are explained. The report discusses the need to establish controversial Thresholds of unacceptable soil contamination. Issues in Ecology is an ongoing series of reports designed to present major ecological issues in an easy-to-read manner. This Issue summarizes the consensus of a panel of scientific experts based on the information that was current and available at the time of its publication in 1998.

Smith, Val

2010-02-16

332

POINTS-OF-CONTACT (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

Results of research conducted by the Indoor Environment Management Branch (IEMB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, can provide practical methods that architects, design engineers, builders, manufacturers, suppliers and the gen...

333

Water Management Strategies against Water Shortage in the Alps (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the European Alps water has been perceived as ubiquitous and not the subject of management. Climate change and anthropogenic pressures have changed demand and supply relations rapidly and over the last 10 years, water problems have increasingly become apparent over temporal and spatial hotspots. Stakeholders in the Alpine Space have been confronted with water management problems in agriculture, tourism

C. de Jong

2009-01-01

334

Prevention of water pollution by waste waters of the petrochemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine the problems of reception of waste waters of petrochemistry for biological treatment, improvement and introduction of new methods of toxicological control permitting active intervention, and management of the process of arrival of waste waters for biological treatment. In the investigations, they used activated sludge of the first stage of biological treatment of waste waters of a petrochemical

L. I. Gyunter; I. F. Shatalaev

1987-01-01

335

MODELING WATER QUALITY AND THE EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURAL BMPS (BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES) IN THE IOWA RIVER BASIN  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper describes a demonstration application of comprehensive hydrology and water quality modeling on a large river basin to evaluate the effects of agricultural nonpoint pollution and proposed best management practices (BMPs). The model application combines detailed simulati...

336

A Review of the Federal Clean Water Act and the Maryland Water Quality Improvement Act: The Rationale For Developing a Water And Nutrient Management Planning Process For Container Nursery And Green house  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly enforced provisions of the Federal Clean Water Act of 1972 and new state laws like the Maryland Water Quality Improvement Act of 1998 are forcing agriculture to develop effective procedures to show that they are not polluting our nation's water resources. Formulating a water and nutrient management process for nursery and greenhouse operations that takes both water and nutrient

John D. Lea-Cox; David S. Ross

337

Fuzzy Optimization Model for Water Quality Management of a River System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuzzy waste-load allocation model, FWLAM, is developed for water quality management of a river system using fuzzy multiple-objective optimization. An important feature of this model is its capability to incorporate the aspirations and conflicting objectives of the pollution control agency and dischargers. The vague- ness associated with specifying the water quality criteria and fraction removal levels is modeled in

K. Sasikumar; Vijay K. Minocha; P. P. Mujumdar

1998-01-01

338

Water quality management of rooftop rainwater harvesting systems.  

PubMed

The ancient technique of harvesting rainwater falling on rooftops, which had been forgotten after the advent of large-scale centralized water resource systems like dam-based reservoirs, has staged a global comeback in the post-modern era. It is expected that in the near future all dwellings everywhere will be equipped to harvest and use rainwater. Such widespread use of rooftop rainwater harvesting makes it very important that the water quality aspects associated with it are clearly understood and managed. The present paper addresses the related issues. The pathways by which pollutants can enter in a rainwater harvest have been traced and the strategies to manage the water quality, at pre-harvest as well as post-harvest stages, have been discussed. PMID:21117427

Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

2009-10-01

339

Managing Change toward Adaptive Water Management through Social Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. The management,of water resources is currently undergoing a paradigm shift toward a more integrated and participatory management,style. This paper highlights the need to fully take into account the complexity of the systems to be managed,and to give more attention to uncertainties. Achieving this requires adaptive management,approaches that can more generally be defined as systematic strategies for improving management,policies and

Claudia Pahl-wostl; Jan Sendzimir; Paul Jeffrey; Jeroen Aerts; Ger Berkamp; Katharine Cross

340

Deposition of air pollutants to the great waters. First report to Congress  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Great Waters program is to evaluate the atmospheric deposition of air pollutants to the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, Chesapeake Bay, and coastal waters. The report to Congress is to include information on the contribution of atmospheric deposition to pollutant loadings, the environmental or public health effects of such pollution, the source or sources of such pollution, and a description of any regulatory revisions under applicable Federal laws that may be necessary to assure protection of human health and the environment. The scientific information currently available is summarized in this report, and recommended actions are described.

Not Available

1994-05-01

341

Removal of some heavy metals from polluted water by water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water hyacinth(Eichhornia crassipes.(Mart.) Solms) grows abunduntly throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world (PENFOUND & EARLE 1948), and is also widely distributed in the southwest regions in Japan(UEKl et ai.1976). Recently, this plant has received attention because of its potential for removal of pollutants when utilized as a biological filtration system(WOLVERTON ~t al. 1978). There are many reports

S. Muramoto; Y. Oki

1983-01-01

342

Membrane bioreactor for the drinking water treatment of polluted surface water supplies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory membrane bioreactor (MBR) using a submerged polyethylene hollow-fibre membrane module with a pore size of 0.4?m and a total surface area of 0.2m2 was used for treating a raw water supply slightly polluted by domestic sewage. The feeding influent had a total organic carbon (TOC) level of 3–5mg\\/L and an ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration of 3–4mg\\/L. The MBR

Xiao-yan Li; Hiu Ping Chu

2003-01-01

343

Economic resilience through "One-Water" management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Disruption of water availability leads to food scarcity and loss of economic opportunity. Development of effective water-resource policies and management strategies could provide resiliance to local economies in the face of water disruptions such as drought, flood, and climate change. To accomplish this, a detailed understanding of human water use and natural water resource availability is needed. A hydrologic model is a computer software system that simulates the movement and use of water in a geographic area. It takes into account all components of the water cycle--“One Water”--and helps estimate water budgets for groundwater, surface water, and landscape features. The U.S. Geological Survey MODFLOW One-Water Integrated Hydrologic Model (MODFLOWOWHM) software and scientific methods can provide water managers and political leaders with hydrologic information they need to help ensure water security and economic resilience.

Hanson, Randall T.; Schmid, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

344

Evaluation of pollutant loads from stormwater BMPs to receiving water using load frequency curves with uncertainty analysis.  

PubMed

This study examined pollutant loads released to receiving water from a typical urban watershed in the Los Angeles (LA) Basin of California by applying a best management practice (BMP) performance model that includes uncertainty. This BMP performance model uses the k-C model and incorporates uncertainty analysis and the first-order second-moment (FOSM) method to assess the effectiveness of BMPs for removing stormwater pollutants. Uncertainties were considered for the influent event mean concentration (EMC) and the aerial removal rate constant of the k-C model. The storage treatment overflow and runoff model (STORM) was used to simulate the flow volume from watershed, the bypass flow volume and the flow volume that passes through the BMP. Detention basins and total suspended solids (TSS) were chosen as representatives of stormwater BMP and pollutant, respectively. This paper applies load frequency curves (LFCs), which replace the exceedance percentage with an exceedance frequency as an alternative to load duration curves (LDCs), to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs. An evaluation method based on uncertainty analysis is suggested because it applies a water quality standard exceedance based on frequency and magnitude. As a result, the incorporation of uncertainty in the estimates of pollutant loads can assist stormwater managers in determining the degree of total daily maximum load (TMDL) compliance that could be expected from a given BMP in a watershed. PMID:22578429

Park, Daeryong; Roesner, Larry A

2012-12-15

345

LINEAR MODELS FOR MANAGING SOURCES OF GROUNDWATER POLLUTION.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mathematical models for the problem of maintaining a specified groundwater quality while permitting solute waste disposal at various facilities distributed over space are discussed. The pollutants are assumed to be chemically inert and their concentrations in the groundwater are governed by linear equations for advection and diffusion. The aim is to determine a disposal policy which maximises the total amount of pollutants released during a fixed time T while meeting the condition that the concentration everywhere is below prescribed levels.

Gorelick, Steven, M.; Gustafson, Sven-Ake

1984-01-01

346

Effects of urban stormwater-management strategies on stream-water quantity and quality  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urbanization results in elevated stormwater runoff, greater and more intense streamflow, and increased delivery of pollutants to local streams and downstream aquatic systems such as the Chesapeake Bay. Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) are used to mitigate these effects of urban land use by retaining large volumes of stormwater runoff (water quantity) and removing pollutants in the runoff (water quality). Current USGS research aims to understand how the spatial pattern and connectivity of stormwater BMPs affect water quantity and water quality in urban areas.

Loperfido, J. V.; Hogan, Dianna M.

2012-01-01

347

Pollution of the Black Sea coastal waters: Sources, present-day level, annual variability  

SciTech Connect

Results of regular (for the last 10 years) observations at marine and coastal hydrometeorological posts are analyzed. These are observations of volumes and concentrations of pollutants entering the sea with the flow of the Danube and Dnieper rivers and wastewaters of coastal industrial enterprises, as a result of oil spills caused by ship accidents, pipeline damage, and sea shipping. An integral criterion used to estimate the overall specific anthropogenic load of pollutants in the coastal zone is calculated. The pollutants were compared with regard to their overall specific load, taking into account the percentage of each of them. A water pollution index is calculated for 19 regions of the sea; water quality is evaluated for three types of pollutants and oxygen content. Pollution structure is revealed, physical and dynamic causes of its changes are investigated.

Fashchuk, D.Ya.; Shaporenko, S.I. [Institute of Geography, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-05-01

348

40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 ...PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management (WQM) plans. WQM plans...

2009-07-01

349

Effects of Sulfur Compounds and Other Air Pollutants on Soil and Ground Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with biological and chemical effects of air pollution (in particular, acidic and acidifying compounds and heavy metals) on soils, which are not intensively managed. The points covered will include: - Important physical and chemical prope...

B. Nihlgaard, G. Tyler, I. Nilsson

1984-01-01

350

Application of enteric viruses for fecal pollution source tracking in environmental waters  

EPA Science Inventory

Microbial source tracking (MST) tools are used to identify sources of fecal pollution for accurately assessing public health risk and implementing best management practices (BMPs). This review focuses on the potential of enteric viruses for MST applications. Following host infect...

351

Sources of water pollution and evolution of water quality in the Wuwei basin of Shiyang river, Northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on surveys and chemical analyses, we performed a case study of the surface water and groundwater quality in the Wuwei basin, in order to understand the sources of water pollution and the evolution of water quality in Shiyang river. Concentrations of major chemical elements in the surface water were related to the distance downstream from the source of the

Jinzhu Ma; Zhenyu Ding; Guoxiao Wei; Hua Zhao; Tianming Huang

2009-01-01

352

23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are included in...

2010-04-01

353

Modelling mitigation options to reduce diffuse nitrogen water pollution from agriculture.  

PubMed

Agriculture is responsible for large scale water quality degradation and is estimated to contribute around 55% of the nitrogen entering the European Seas. The key policy instrument for protecting inland, transitional and coastal water resources is the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Reducing nutrient losses from agriculture is crucial to the successful implementation of the WFD. There are several mitigation measures that can be implemented to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural areas to surface and ground waters. For the selection of appropriate measures, models are useful for quantifying the expected impacts and the associated costs. In this article we review some of the models used in Europe to assess the effectiveness of nitrogen mitigation measures, ranging from fertilizer management to the construction of riparian areas and wetlands. We highlight how the complexity of models is correlated with the type of scenarios that can be tested, with conceptual models mostly used to evaluate the impact of reduced fertilizer application, and the physically-based models used to evaluate the timing and location of mitigation options and the response times. We underline the importance of considering the lag time between the implementation of measures and effects on water quality. Models can be effective tools for targeting mitigation measures (identifying critical areas and timing), for evaluating their cost effectiveness, for taking into consideration pollution swapping and considering potential trade-offs in contrasting environmental objectives. Models are also useful for involving stakeholders during the development of catchments mitigation plans, increasing their acceptability. PMID:23998504

Bouraoui, Fayçal; Grizzetti, Bruna

2014-01-15

354

Water resource management planning guide for Savannah River Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Water Resource Management Planning Guide provides an outline for the development of a Savannah River Plant Water Resource Management Plan (WRMP) to protect, manage, and monitor the site's water resources. The management plan is based on three principle elements: (1) protection of the water quality, (2) management of the water quantity, and (3) monitoring of the water quality and

J. E. Hubbard; D. E. Stephenson; J. L. Steele; D. E. Gordon

1988-01-01

355

Tourism Development and Water Pollution: Case Study in Lijiang Ancient Town  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tourism development results in water pollution not only in water-scarce areas, but also in areas with relatively abundant water resources, such as Lijiang Ancient Town (LAT). In this article, LAT is described for its use of the freshwater resource, on account of its attractive landscaping. Tourism here has grown rapidly in recent years and at the same time the water

Ning Baoying; He Yuanqing

2007-01-01

356

Method of and device for detecting oil pollutions on water surfaces  

DOEpatents

Detection of oil pollution on water surfaces includes providing echo signals obtained from optical radiation of a clean water area at two wavelengths, optically radiating an investigated water area at two wavelengths and obtaining echo signals from the optical radiation of the investigated water area at the two wavelengths, comparing the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the investigated area at two wavelengths with the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the clean water area, and based on the comparison, determining presence or absence of oil pollution in the investigated water area.

Belov, Michael Leonidovich (Moscow, RU); Gorodnichev, Victor Aleksandrovich (Moscow, RU); Kozintsev, Valentin Ivanovich (Moscow, RU); Smimova, Olga Alekseevna (Moscow, RU); Fedotov, Yurii Victorovich (Moscow, RU); Khroustaleva, Anastasiva Michailovnan (Moscow, RU)

2008-08-26

357

Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 2. Agricultural sediment control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of a national water network model permits an analysis of the likely affects of agricultural sediment control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier assessments concluded that agriculture-related pollution problems are widespread and ubiquitous, this analysis concludes that it is probably more efficient to focus sediment-related pollution control policies on about one third of the nation's agricultural regions.

Gianessi, Leonard P.; Peskin, Henry M.

1981-08-01

358

Water pollutant fingerprinting tracks recent industrial transfer from coastal to inland China: A case study  

PubMed Central

In recent years, China’s developed regions have transferred industries to undeveloped regions. Large numbers of unlicensed or unregistered enterprises are widespread in these undeveloped regions and they are subject to minimal regulation. Current methods for tracing industrial transfers in these areas, based on enterprise registration information or economic surveys, do not work. We have developed an analytical framework combining water fingerprinting and evolutionary analysis to trace the pollution transfer features between water sources. We collected samples in Eastern China (industrial export) and Central China (industrial acceptance) separately from two water systems. Based on the water pollutant fingerprints and evolutionary trees, we traced the pollution transfer associated with industrial transfer between the two areas. The results are consistent with four episodes of industrial transfers over the past decade. Our results also show likely types of the transferred industries - electronics, plastics, and biomedicines - that contribute to the water pollution transfer.

Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Tian, Dajun; Jiang, Songhui; Andersen, Melvin E.; He, Genhsjeng; Crabbe, M. James C.; Zheng, Yuxin; Zhong, Yang; Qu, Weidong

2013-01-01

359

Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2013, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

Carter, Layne; Brown, Christopher; Orozco, Nicole

2014-01-01

360

Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2011, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

Carter, Layne; Wilson, Laura Labuda; Orozco, Nicole

2012-01-01

361

Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2012, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

Carter, Layne; Tobias, Barry; Orozco, Nicole

2012-01-01

362

WQM: A Water Quality Management Simulation Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Description of WQM, a simulation game designed to introduce students to the water quality management function, emphasizes the decision-making process involved in various facets of business. The simulation model is described, computer support is explained, and issues in water resource management are discussed. (13 references) (LRW)

Sharda, Ramesh; And Others

1988-01-01

363

An evaluation of free water surface wetlands as tertiary sewage water treatment of micro-pollutants.  

PubMed

Increased attention is currently directed towards potential negative effects of pharmaceuticals and other micro-pollutants discharged into the aquatic environment via municipal sewage water. A number of additional treatment technologies, such as ozonation, have therefore been suggested as promising tools for improving the removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in existing Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs). Constructed wetlands are also capable of removing a variety of micro-pollutants, including some pharmaceuticals, and could hence be a resource efficient complement to more advanced treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was therefore to increase the knowledge base concerning the potential use of constructed wetlands as a treatment step to reduce emissions of organic micro-pollutants from municipal sewage effluents. Under cold winter conditions, incoming and outgoing waters from four Swedish free water surface wetlands, operated as final treatment steps of sewage effluent from municipal STPs, were sampled and analyzed for levels of a set of 92 pharmaceuticals and 22 inorganic components as well as assessed using subchronic ecotoxicity tests with a macro-alga and a crustacean. Sixty-five pharmaceuticals were detected in the range from 1 ng L(-1) to 7.6 ?g L(-1) in incoming and outgoing waters from the four investigated wetlands. Although the sampling design used in the present study lacks the robustness of volume proportional to 24h composite samples, the average estimated removal rates ranged from 42% to 52%, which correlates to previous published values. The effects observed in the ecotoxicity tests with the macro-alga (EC(50)s in the range of 7.5-46%) and the crustacean (LOECs in the range of 11.25-90%) could not be assigned to either pharmaceutical residues or metals, but in general showed that these treatment facilities release water with a relatively low toxic potential, comparable to water that has been treated with advanced tertiary treatments. From the present study it can be concluded that constructed wetlands may provide a complementary sewage treatment option, especially where other treatment is lacking today. To fully remove micro-pollutants from sewage effluent, however, other more advanced treatment technologies are likely needed. PMID:22192709

Breitholtz, Magnus; Näslund, Maria; Stråe, Daniel; Borg, Hans; Grabic, Roman; Fick, Jerker

2012-04-01

364

ANALYSIS OF EXTRACTABLE PRIORITY POLLUTANTS IN WATER BY GC/MS  

EPA Science Inventory

Following the June 1976 Consent Decree (NRDC et al. vs. EPA), there has been a continuously increasing demand for the analysis of water samples for the 129 priority pollutants. The protocol originally designed for the analysis of the priority pollutants that are extractable into ...

365

Waste water treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment of industrial pollutants. The use and effectiveness of biological treatments and carbon additives are examined. References also discuss problems and recommendations for the removal of mercury and its compounds, fertilizers, and pesticides from polluted waste water. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-05-01

366

Use of CV and TPP-montmorillonite for the removal of priority pollutants from water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term “priority pollutants” is used to define chemicals hazardous to aquatic life or human health. Thus, it is essential to remove such pollutants from water and try to reduce their impact. Clay minerals might be helpful in the removal of hazardous chemicals, due to impressive adsorption properties. Natural clay minerals adsorb cations and non-charged hydrophilic compounds, but almost do

Giora Rytwo; Ynon Kohavi; Ilan Botnick; Yotam Gonen

2007-01-01

367

Identification of Critical Nonpoint Pollution Source Areas Using Geographic Information Systems and Water Quality Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated approach coupling water quality computer simulation modeling with a geographic information system (GIS) was used to delineate critical areas of nonpoint source (NPS) pollution at the watershed level. Two simplified pollutant export models were integrated with the Virginia Geographic Information System (VIrGIS) to estimate soil erosion, sediment yield, and phosphorus (1\\\\') loading from the Nomini Creek watershed located

Saied Mostaghimi; V. O. Shanholtz

1992-01-01

368

Agricultural nonpoint source water pollution policy: The case of California's Central Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpoint sources of pollution, primarily from agricultural sources, are a major cause of water quality impairment. Yet policies to address this issue remain underexplored in the literature. This article first reviews the agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution policy literature and categorizes its major findings. The North American literature, in particular, rarely analyses NPS policies already in force, and pays even

Brian M. Dowd; Marc Los Huertos

2008-01-01

369

Water tank studies of atmospheric boundary layer structure and air pollution transport in upslope flow systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heated mountain slopes sometimes vent air pollutants out of the boundary layer over the slope top and at other times trap pollutants in closed circulations. Field, numerical, and water tank studies of fair weather atmospheric conditions over complex terrain have shown more complicated vertical distributions of temperature, moisture, and aerosols than over horizontal terrain. To study these phenomena, we analyze

C. Reuten; D. G. Steyn; S. E. Allen

2007-01-01

370

Recovery and reuse of chromium from chrome tanning waste water aiming towards zero discharge of pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leather industry faces very challenging task because of the regulations enforced by the various pollution control bodies to maintain the discharged norms of the chemical in the treated water. The pollution due to the use of chromium and other chemicals in the leather industry is critically analyzed for the harmful effects. Many studies have been undertaken to optimize the

J. Kanagaraj; N. K. Chandra Babu; A. B. Mandal

2008-01-01

371

State-of-art review: water pollution control benefits and costs. Volume I  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey and assessment are presented of the state-of-art of economic ; analyses dealing with water pollution control benefits and costs. The ; investigation includes the extension of traditional benefit cost analysis into ; the area of pollution control. Implications for planning and research plus some ; directions of needed study are also developed. A conceptual basis for benefit ;

S. G. Unger; M. J. Emerson; D. L. Jordening

1973-01-01

372

Experimental study of effectiveness of nonpoint source water pollution control group contract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this experimental study was to test an effectiveness of a group contract designed to control nonpoint source water pollution from farms' runoff (Pushkarskaya 2003). In particular, the regulator pays for pollution reduction credits earned by the group of the farmers, who voluntary enter the contract, and is concerned only with the total level of the abatement achieved,

Helen N. Pushkarskaya; Hal Arkes; Jason Pieratt; Ibrahim Bamba

2005-01-01

373

An information Grid-based model for sharing water pollution control and prevention technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though water pollution control and prevention technologies have made a great progress, most polluting enterprises even have never heard of them, not to mention use them. So we design an technologies sharing model based on information Grid, and focus our discussion on the process of searching and invoking the wanted technologies with mobile agents.

Wang Minghu; Gao Zhenji; Xu Chunlian; Huang Haiming

2010-01-01

374

Implementation of intergovernmental regulatory programs: Section 402 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops and tests a theoretical framework for the study of the process by which intergovernmental regulatory policies are implemented. The framework is applied to the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program of the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. The general question addressed is why some states have the authority to implement intergovernmental regulatory

Wassenberg

1985-01-01

375

Making Water Pollution a Problem in the Classroom Through Computer Assisted Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternative means for dealing with water pollution control are presented for students and teachers. One computer oriented program is described in terms of teaching wastewater treatment and pollution concepts to middle and secondary school students. Suggestions are given to help teachers use a computer simulation program in their classrooms.…

Flowers, John D.

376

Role of rural solid waste management in non-point source pollution control of Dianchi Lake catchments, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, with control of the main municipal and industrial point pollution sources and implementation of cleaning\\u000a for some inner pollution sources in the water body, the discharge of point source pollution decreased gradually, while non-point\\u000a source pollution has become increasingly distressing in Dianchi Lake catchments. As one of the major targets in non-point\\u000a source pollution control, an integrated

Wenjing Lu; Hongtao Wang

2008-01-01

377

Application of Ion Exchange Technique to Decontamination of Polluted Water Generated by Fukushima Nuclear Disaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By the Fukushima nuclear disaster, large amounts of water and sea water polluted mainly with radioactive Cs were generated and the environment around the nuclear site was contaminated by the fallout from the nuclear site. The coagulation settling process using ferric ferrocyanide and an inorganic coagulant and the adsorption process using ferric ferrocyanide granulated by silica binder were applied to the treatment of polluted water. In the coagulation settling process, Cs was removed completely from polluted water and sea water (DF?104). In the adsorption process, the recovery of trace Cs (10 ppb) in sea water, which was not suitable for the use of zeolite, was attained successfully. Finally, the recovery of Cs from sewage sludge was tested by a combined process with the hydrothermal process using subcritical water and the coagulation settling process using ferric ferrocyanide. 96% of radioactive Cs was recovered successfully from sewage sludge with the radioactivity of 10,000 Bq/kg.

Takeshita, Kenji; Ogata, Takeshi

378

URBAN WET-WEATHER FLOW POLLUTION MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the challenges in protecting urban watersheds lies in effectively controlling the contaminants in both overland runoff and sewerage system overflows during wet-weather events. Abatement of wet-weather flow (WWF) pollution can be implemented at the source by land managemen...

379

A model for ecological assessment to pesticide pollution management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying the relational analysis in the Grey System Theory and Method, the comprehensive evaluation on five pesticide pollution controlling techniques in the vegetable production has been made and a comprehensive profit (cp–comprehensive cost (cc) evaluation system (composed of 15 comprehensive cost indices and 14 comprehensive profit indices) has been established, with a index optimization matrix of comprehensive cost indices and

Jiexian Jiang; Nianfeng Wan

2009-01-01

380

Pollution Concentrations in Runoff Water from Refuse Piles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the processes of removal, refinement and disposal of raw materials, large quantities of waste products become exposed to weathering forces. Subsequent percolation, flushing, and oxidation results in the pollution of waterways, low-lying farmlands and u...

J. A. Guin

1977-01-01

381

Removal of Hydrocarbon Pollutants from Water by 'Prototheca zopfii'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bioaccumulation of Kepone and some other chemical pollutants from aquatic sources was greatly enhanced by passage through a fixed-bed column containing the immobilized alga Prototheca zopfii. The living algae, immobilized in agar beads, removed the trace-...

R. S. Pore

1980-01-01

382

THE USE OF WETLANDS FOR WATER POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

Wetlands such as marshes, swamps and artificial wetlands, have been shown to remove selected pollutants from urban stormwater runoff and treated municipal wastewaters. Wetlands have produced reduction in BOD, pathogens, and some hydrocarbons, and excel in nitrogen removal. They h...

383

Analysis of River Water Quality and its influencing factors for the Effective Management of Water Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Japan, remarkable improvements in water quality have been observed over recent years because of regulations imposed on industrial wastewater and development of sewerage system. However, pollution loads from agricultural lands are still high and coverage ratio of sewerage system is still low in small and medium cities. In present context, nonpoint source pollution such as runoff from unsewered developments, urban and agricultural runoffs could be main water quality impacting factors. Further, atmospheric nitrogen (N) is the complex nonpoint source than can seriously affect river water environment. This study was undertaken to spatially investigate the present status of river water quality of Hadano Basin located in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Water quality of six rivers was investigated and its relationship with nonpoint pollution sources was analyzed. This study, with inclusion of ground water circulation and atmospheric N, can be effectively employed for water quality management of other watersheds also, both with and without influence of ground water circulation. Hence, as a research area of this study, it is significant in terms of water quality management. Total nitrogen (TN) was found consistently higher in urbanized basins indicating that atmospheric N might be influencing TN of river water. Ground water circulation influenced both water quality and quantity. In downstream basins of Muro and Kuzuha rivers, Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phosphorus (TP) were diluted by ground water inflow. In Mizunashi River and the upstream of Kuzuha River, surface water infiltrated to the subsurface due to higher river bed permeability. Influencing factors considered in the analysis were unsewered population, agricultural land, urban area, forest and atmospheric N. COD and TP showed good correlation with unsewered population and agricultural land. While TN had good correlation with atmospheric N deposition. Multiple regression analysis between water quality pollution loads and influencing factors resulted that unsewered population had higher impact on river water quality. For TN, atmospheric N deposition was taking effect. Continuous development of sewerage system and its expansion along with the pace of urbanization could be the pragmatic option to maintain river water quality in Hadano basin. However, influence of agricultural loads and atmospheric N on water quality cannot be denied for the proper water quality management of Hadano basin. It was found that if the proportion of sewered population could be increased from 72% to 86%, corresponding loads of COD and TP could be decreased by about 41% and 45% respectively. As per the development trend of sewerage system in Hadano basin for last 10 years, unsewered population could be reduced to its half by 2014, provided that the expansion of sewerage system continues at same rate. Regarding TN, its proper control is complicated as atmospheric N is propagated to regional and sometimes to global extent. Further study on the relationship between TN and atmospheric N deposition should be conducted for the proper management of TN in the river water.

Shrestha, G.; Sadohara, S.; Yoshida, S.; Yuichi, S.

2011-12-01

384

Electrocoagulation-Microfiltration for Drinking Water Treatment: A Case Study with the Typical Micro-Polluted Source Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of slightly-polluted surface water by Electrocoagulation-Microfiltration (EC-MF) was studied. The factors influences on removal efficiencies of TOC, NH3-N and oil, such as current density, electrolytic time and pH value had been investigated. Based on the optimize experiments on the single factor, Xuzhou section of Beijing-Hangzhou Canal water was cleaned by EC-MF. The results showed that the above pollutants decreased

Feng Qiyan; Lu Ping; Li Xiangdong; Meng Qingjun; Sun Yue

2009-01-01

385

OVERALL MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FOR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM SMALL WATER POOLS UNDER SIMULATED INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Small chamber tests were conducted to experimentally determine the overall mass transfer coefficient for pollutant emissions from still water under simulated indoor-residential or occupational-environmental conditions. Fourteen tests were conducted in small environmental chambers...

386

Use of Macro and Microphytes for Water Pollution Control: A Practical Demonstration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Different biological systems, most frequently used in water pollution control, are reviewed. Photosynthetic bacteria and microalgae have been considered both for their theoretical potentiality and the possibility of practical applications. Among the macro...

P. Marzetti F. Pacciaroni A. Severi

1981-01-01

387

Corrosion of underground water pipes due to acidification by air pollution - Damage frequency analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this investigation is to study how the corrosion of underground water pipes is influenced by acidification generated due to anthropogenic air pollution and the subsequent precipitation which affects the chemical properties of soil and the g...

E. Levlin

1991-01-01

388

76 FR 43230 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System-Cooling Water Intake Structures at Existing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and 125 [EPA-HQ-OW-2008-0667, FRL-9441-8] RIN 2040-AE95 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System--Cooling Water Intake Structures at Existing Facilities and Phase I Facilities AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)....

2011-07-20

389

Valorization of solid waste products from olive oil industry as potential adsorbents for water pollution control--a review.  

PubMed

The global olive oil production for 2010 is estimated to be 2,881,500 metric tons. The European Union countries produce 78.5% of the total olive oil, which stands for an average production of 2,136,000 tons. The worldwide consumption of olive oil increased of 78% between 1990 and 2010. The increase in olive oil production implies a proportional increase in olive mill wastes. As a consequence of such increasing trend, olive mills are facing severe environmental problems due to lack of feasible and/or cost-effective solutions to olive-mill waste management. Therefore, immediate attention is required to find a proper way of management to deal with olive mill waste materials in order to minimize environmental pollution and associated health risks. One of the interesting uses of solid wastes generated from olive mills is to convert them as inexpensive adsorbents for water pollution control. In this review paper, an extensive list of adsorbents (prepared by utilizing different types of olive mill solid waste materials) from vast literature has been compiled, and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants removal are presented. Different physicochemical methods that have been used to convert olive mill solid wastes into efficient adsorbents have also been discussed. Characterization of olive-based adsorbents and adsorption mechanisms of various aquatic pollutants on these developed olive-based adsorbents have also been discussed in detail. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed, and suggestions for future research are proposed. PMID:24068561

Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Hogland, William; Marques, Marcia; Paraskeva, Christakis A; Papadakis, Vagelis G; Sillanpää, Mika

2014-01-01

390

Spatial dynamics of water management in irrigated agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irrigated agriculture provides 40% of worldwide food supplies but uses large amounts of scarce freshwater and contributes to environmental degradation. At the very core of this problem lie decisions made by irrigators subject to biophysical relations. This research develops a microeconomic model of irrigation management taking into account the dynamics of plant growth over the season, spatial variability in infiltration of applied irrigation water, and fundamental principles from subsurface hydrology. The analysis shows that spatial variability in water infiltration common to traditional irrigation systems increases both applied irrigation water and deep percolation flows by very substantial amounts compared to uniform infiltration. The analysis demonstrates that efficient irrigation management can significantly reduce both applied water and deep percolation at relatively low costs, at least up to a certain level. A long-run analysis of optimal irrigation systems including capital costs indicates that traditional furrow systems are economically efficient over a wide range of water prices and deep percolation costs. Overall, the results indicate that optimal irrigation management can achieve significant resource conservation and pollution control with low loss in agricultural net benefits and without land retirement, investment in capital-intensive systems, or crop switching.

Muralidharan, Daya; Knapp, Keith C.

2009-05-01

391

Cure for the nation`s water pollution problem: Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses federal and state implementation of the water quality-based strategy. It focuses on the development and implementation of water quality standards-based limitations (namely, total maximum daily loads or TMDLs) under section 303(d). It addresses the impact of such limitations on entities and activities that generate water pollution.

McCune, J.F.

1998-08-31

392

Agricultural water management and poverty linkages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is critically important to the livelihoods of more than 1 billion people living on less than $1 a day, particularly for the 850 million rural poor primarily engaged in agriculture. In many developing countries, water is a major factor constraining agricultural output, and income of the world's rural poor. Improved agricultural water management can contribute to poverty reduction through

Regassa E. Namara; Munir A. Hanjra; Gina E. Castillo; Helle Munk Ravnborg; Lawrence Smith; Barbara Van Koppen

2010-01-01

393

Nigerian Water Resources and Their Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nigeria had no real water resources development management programme until 1976 when twelve River Basin Development Authorities (RBDA) were established and charged with functions that covered all the facets in the resources development, utilisation and conservation. Her immense natural water resources are evident in annual heavy rainfall, numerous large rivers and great ground water reserves. Many government agencies and mining

G. U. Ojiako

1985-01-01

394

STORM WATER MANAGEMENT MODEL (SWMM) MODERNIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Water Supply and Water Resources Division in partnership with the consulting firm of CDM to redevelop and modernize the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). In the initial phase of this project EPA rewrote SWMM's computational engine usi...

395

Baseline metals pollution profile of tropical estuaries and coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca.  

PubMed

The status report on metal pollution in tropical estuaries and coastal waters is important to understand potential environmental health hazards. Detailed baseline measurements were made on physicochemical parameters (pH, temperature, redox potential, electrical conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solid), major ions (Na, Ca, Mg, K, HCO3, Cl, SO4 and NO3) and metals concentrations ((27)Al, (75)As, (138)Ba, (9)Be, (111)Cd, (59)Co, (63)Cu, (52)Cr, (57)Fe, (55)Mn, (60)Ni, (208)Pb, (80)Se, (66)Zn) at estuaries and coastal waters along the Straits of Malacca. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to reveal potential pollution sources. Seven principal components were extracted with relation to pollution contribution from minerals-related parameters, natural and anthropogenic sources. The output from this study will generate a profound understanding on the metal pollution status and pollution risk of the estuaries and coastal system. PMID:23809293

Looi, Ley Juen; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Wan Johari, Wan Lutfi; Md Yusoff, Fatimah; Hashim, Zailina

2013-09-15

396

The Impact of Economic Development on Water Pollution: Trends and Policy Actions in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the impact of development activities on water pollution in Malaysia. Hence, the main objective of this\\u000a paper is not just to examine the trends of development-induced water pollution around the region of the country but to know\\u000a where the problems are and the policy measures taken by the government. It evaluates the probable causative relationship between\\u000a problems

Suleyman A. Muyibi; Abdul Raufu Ambali; Garoot Suleiman Eissa

2008-01-01

397

Investigation of water pollution in the Yalvac basin into Egirdir Lake, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to understand the effects of pollution of anthropogenic origin on water quality in Yalvac Basin,\\u000a part of the Egirdir Lake catchment. Surface discharge from the basin to the lake is 63 m3\\/year and underground discharge is 114 m3\\/year. Possible water pollution is categorized into domestic, industrial and agricultural origin. Domestic and industrial\\u000a wastewaters, including effluents from

I. Iskender Soyaslan; Remzi Karagüzel

2008-01-01

398

Paradox of nutrient removal in coupled socioeconomic and ecological dynamics for lake water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study coupled socioeconomical and ecological dynamics for lake water pollution. Players choose between cooperative (but\\u000a costly) option and economical option, and their decision is affected by the fraction of cooperators in the community and by\\u000a the importance of water pollution problem. When an opportunity for choice arrives, players take the option with the higher\\u000a utility (best response dynamics). This

Yoh Iwasa; Yukari Suzuki-Ohno; Hiroyuki Yokomizo

2010-01-01

399

Pollution Status of Surface Water Resources in Arid Region of Rajasthan (india)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present investigation deals with the evaluation of DO, BOD and COD of six surface water resources of Bikaner district which fall in arid region of Rajasthan - a part of Great Indian Desert, to determine pollution status. Water sample analysed for two years 2008-2009 showed these parameters beyond the limit of standard prescribed by WHO. These parameters also showed great seasonal fluctuation, indicating the degree of organic pollution more during summer season and least during winter season.

Kachhawa, Chanchal

400

Industry sector analysis Canada: Water pollution control equipment and instrumentation. Export trade information  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. suppliers of water pollution control equipment are in a prime position to benefit from Canadian industries' needs to modernize equipment in order to comply with tough, new legislation to control water pollution. In selling to the Canadian market, U.S. suppliers clearly benefit from the advantages of advanced technical know-how, proximity to the market, and reduced tariffs under the U.S.-Canada

T. Bryan; S. Lee

1992-01-01

401

Natural water purification and water management by artificial groundwater recharge  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, several regions suffer from water scarcity and contamination. The infiltration and subsurface storage of rain and river water can reduce water stress. Artificial groundwater recharge, possibly combined with bank filtration, plant purification and/or the use of subsurface dams and artificial aquifers, is especially advantageous in areas where layers of gravel and sand exist below the earth’s surface. Artificial infiltration of surface water into the uppermost aquifer has qualitative and quantitative advantages. The contamination of infiltrated river water will be reduced by natural attenuation. Clay minerals, iron hydroxide and humic matter as well as microorganisms located in the subsurface have high decontamination capacities. By this, a final water treatment, if necessary, becomes much easier and cheaper. The quantitative effect concerns the seasonally changing river discharge that influences the possibility of water extraction for drinking water purposes. Such changes can be equalised by seasonally adapted infiltration/extraction of water in/out of the aquifer according to the river discharge and the water need. This method enables a continuous water supply over the whole year. Generally, artificially recharged groundwater is better protected against pollution than surface water, and the delimitation of water protection zones makes it even more save.

Balke, Klaus-Dieter; Zhu, Yan

2008-01-01

402

Geospatial Investigation into Groundwater Pollution and Water Quality Supported by Satellite Data: A Case Study from the Evros River (Eastern Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managing water resources, in terms of both quality and quantity, in transboundary rivers is a difficult and challenging task that requires efficient cross-border cooperation and transparency. Groundwater pollution risk assessment and mapping techniques over the full catchment area are important tools that could be used as part of these water resource management efforts, to estimate pollution pressures and optimize land planning processes. The Evros river catchment is the second largest river in Eastern Europe and sustains a population of 3.6 million people in three different countries (Bulgaria, Turkey and Greece). This study provides detailed information on the main pollution sources and pressures in the Evros catchment and, for the first time, applies, assesses and evaluates a groundwater pollution risk mapping technique using satellite observations (Landsat NDVI) and an extensive dataset of field measurements covering different seasons and multiple years. We found that approximately 40 % of the Greek part of the Evros catchment is characterized as of high and very high pollution risk, while 14 % of the study area is classified as of moderate risk. Both the modeled and measured water quality status of the river showed large spatiotemporal variations consistent with the strong anthropogenic pressures in this system, especially on the northern and central segments of the catchment. The pollutants identified illustrate inputs of agrochemicals and urban wastes in the river. High correlation coefficients ( R between 0.79 and 0.85) were found between estimated pollution risks and measured concentrations of those chemical parameters that are mainly attributed to anthropogenic activities rather than in situ biogeochemical processes. The pollution risk method described here could be used elsewhere as a decision support tool for mitigating the impact of hazardous human activities and improving management of groundwater resources.

Elias, Dimitriou; Angeliki, Mentzafou; Vasiliki, Markogianni; Maria, Tzortziou; Christina, Zeri

2014-06-01

403

Water hyacinth as indicator of heavy metal pollution in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a common aquatic plant in many tropical countries. Its ability absorb nutrients and other elements from the water has made it possible to use it for water purification purposes. Eichhornia, especially stems and leaves, have been successfully used as indicators of heavy metal pollution in tropical countries. The uptake of heavy metals in this

Humberto Gonzalez; Martin Lodenius; Mirta Otero

1989-01-01

404

Water quality along the sone river polluted by the orient Paper Mill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in water quality along the Sone River, which is polluted by effluents from the Orient Paper Mills (OPM), Amlai, M.P., India were studied in the present work. The water samples from fifteen stations, covering a distance of about 216 km along the river course were subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis to determine similarity relations with respect to seven water

R. K. Srivastava; W. S. Fargo; V. S. Sai; K. C. Mathur

1988-01-01

405

Efficacy of New Formulations of the Microbial Larvicide Bacillus sphaericus against Polluted Water Mosquitoes in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new water dispersible granular (WDG) formulations of the microbial control agent Bacillus sphaericus (strain 2362) were extensively evaluated in polluted waters against Culex quinquefasciatus in Thailand. The studies were carried out in stagnant as well as flowing waters during August 1997 to July 1998. The trail period covered both rainy and dry seasons. The two WDG formulations of B.

Mir S. Mulla; Tianyun Su; Usavadee Thavara; Apiwat Tawatsin; Wichai Kong-ngamsuk; Prakong Phan-Urai

406

NATIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ASSESSMENT MODEL, VERSION 2.0 (NWPCAM 2.0)  

EPA Science Inventory

NWPCAM 2.0 is a national-level water quality modeling system that can be used to simulate the water quality changes and economic benefits that result from various pollution control policies. It builds and significantly improves on an earlier model the Clean Water Act Effects Mode...

407

Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 2. Agricultural sediment control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of a national water network model permits an analysis of the likely affects of agricultural sediment control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin

1981-01-01

408

The effect of water pollution control regulations on the cost of production of electric power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of water pollution control regulations, such as those outlined in 1972 FWPCA Amendments, on production costs in the electric utility industry are examined. The use of water by electric utilities, and the impact that water regulations will have on those uses are discussed. The production process of electric utilities is discussed, and a cost function from a cross-section

T. A. Deyak; A. N. Link

1979-01-01

409

Analysis of national water-pollution-control policies. 2. Agricultural sediment control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national water network model is used to analyze the likely effects of agricultural sediment-control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier assessments concluded that

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin

1981-01-01

410

Urban runoff pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the construction of wastewater treatment plants combined sewer overflows have become an increasingly important limitation to the quality of the surrounding surface waters. Over the years urban water resources have often been so modified by anthropogenic activity that water quality management requires an integrated approach both at an evaluation and an investment level. Effects of acute pollutants, such as

M. Grum

2001-01-01

411

The effects of air and water pollution controls on solid waste generation, 1971--1985. Executive summary. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of air and water pollution controls on solid waste ; generation were evaluated. The solid wastes from pollution control were ; identified for individual industrial sectors by their original air or water ; pollutant constituents, and the treatment process applied. The wastes were ; categorized by type and by location (rural or urban). Total solid wastes from ;

1974-01-01

412

Contaminant Loading in Drainage and Fresh Water Used for Wetland Management at Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Throughout the western United States, studies have identified various detrimental effects of contaminants to aquatic biota\\u000a from the use of agricultural drainage water for management of arid wetlands. However, little is known about the relative contributions\\u000a of contaminant loading from pollutants dissolved in water compared with those carried by drifting material (e.g., detritus) associated with drainage water. Consequently, we

K. M. Kilbride; F. L. Paveglio; W. G. Henry

1998-01-01

413

Commentary: Is the Air Pollution Health Research Community Prepared to Support a Multipollutant Air Quality Management Framework?  

EPA Science Inventory

Ambient air pollution is always encountered as a complex mixture, but past regulatory and research strategies largely focused on single pollutants, pollutant classes, and sources one-at-a-time. There is a trend toward managing air quality in a progressively ?multipollutant? manne...

414

A coupled stochastic inverse-management framework for dealing with nonpoint agriculture pollution under groundwater parameter uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stochastic hydro-economic modeling for groundwater nitrate pollution control.We determine management strategies against nitrate pollution under uncertainty.We derive fertilizer standards to reduce nitrate pollution while maximizing benefits.We increase the reliability of polices for meeting the groundwater quality targets.It can help stakeholders in the decision-making process under uncertainty.

Llopis-Albert, Carlos; Palacios-Marqués, Daniel; Merigó, José M.

2014-04-01

415

Adaptive management for mitigating Cryptosporidium risk in source water: A case study in an agricultural catchment in South Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-borne pathogens such as Cryptosporidium pose a significant human health risk and catchments provide the first critical pollution ‘barrier’ in mitigating risk in drinking water supply. In this paper we apply an adaptive management framework to mitigating Cryptosporidium risk in source water using a case study of the Myponga catchment in South Australia. Firstly, we evaluated the effectiveness of past

Brett A. Bryan; John Kandulu; Daniel A. Deere; Monique White; Jacqueline Frizenschaf; Neville D. Crossman

2009-01-01

416

Water Availability and Management of Water Resources  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the most pressing national and global issues is the availability of freshwater due to global climate change, energy scarcity issues and the increase in world population and accompanying economic growth. Estimates of water supplies and flows through the world's hydrologic c...

417

Marine pollution  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

Albaiges, J. (Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo, CSIC, Barcelona (ES))

1989-01-01

418

"Upstream Thinking": the catchment management approach of a water provider  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human activities have large impacts on water quality and provision. Water companies throughout the UK are faced with the consequences of poor land management and need to find appropriate solutions to decreasing water quality. This is particularly true in the South West of England, where 93% of the drinking water is sourced from rivers and reservoirs: large areas of drained peatlands (i.e. Exmoor and Dartmoor National Parks) are responsible for a significant input of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) discolouring the water, whilst poorly managed farming activities can lead to diffuse pollution. Alongside the direct environmental implications, poor water quality is partly increasing water treatment costs and will drive significant future investment in additional water treatment, with further repercussions on customers. This highlights the need for water companies throughout the UK, and further afield, to be more involved in catchment management. "Upstream Thinking" is South West Water's (SWW) approach to catchment management, where working with stakeholders to improve water quality upstream aims to avoid increasingly costly solutions downstream. This approach has led the company to invest in two major areas of work: (1) The Farmland programme where problematic farm management practices and potential solutions are identified, typically 40% of the required investment is then offered in exchange for a legal undertaking to maintain the new farm assets in good condition for 25 years; (2) The Mires programme which involves heavy investment in peatland restoration through the blocking of open ditches in order to improve water storage and quality in the long term. From these two projects, it has been clear that stakeholder involvement of groups such as local farmers, the Westcountry Rivers Trust, the Exmoor National Park Authority, the Environment Agency, Natural England and the Exmoor Society is essential, first because it draws in catchment improvement expertise which is not directly held within the company, and second because it shows how local communities and groups are considered and valued by the company. Monitoring changes and providing a solid scientific base is also undertaken to prove the concept and justify any investment. The work carried out so far has highlighted that SWW's collaborative approach to catchment management is changing the relationship between private water suppliers in the UK and stakeholders or groups having an impact on water quality. This results in a progressive move from a situation where the polluter has to pay, to rewarding providers of clean water instead. The value of ecosystem payments of this kind is being discussed with the appropriate authorities (i.e. Natural England, and the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs) so that it can form part of ensuring sustainable water supplies in future, with all the environmental and ecological benefits of clear raw waters in rivers, lakes and streams.

Grand-Clement, E.; Ross, M.; Smith, D.; Anderson, K.; Luscombe, D.; Le Feuvre, N.; Brazier, R. E.

2012-04-01

419

Storm water pollution prevention plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. An NPDES permit was issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and was effective on July 1, 1995. The permit requires that a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3) be developed by December 28, 1995, and be fully implemented by July 1, 1996; this plan has been developed to fulfill that requirement. The outfalls and monitoring points described in this plan contain storm water discharges associated with industrial activities as defined in the NPDES regulations. For storm water discharges associated with industrial activity, including storm water discharges associated with construction activity, that are not specifically monitored or limited in this permit, Y-12 Plant personnel will meet conditions of the General Storm Water Rule 1200-4-10. This document presents the programs and physical controls that are in place to achieve the following objectives: ensure compliance with Section 1200-4-10-.04(5) of the TDEC Water Quality Control Regulations and Part 4 of the Y-12 Plant NPDES Permit (TN0002968); provide operating personnel with guidance relevant to storm water pollution prevention and control requirements for their facility and/or project; and prevent or reduce pollutant discharge to the environment, in accordance with the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Tennessee Water Quality Control Act.

NONE

1995-09-01

420

NONPOTABLE WATER REUSE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES  

EPA Science Inventory

Globally, the need for water reuse is increasing due to rising water demands and finite water resources. In addition, certain regulations and policies, such as zero discharge initiatives or limited new dam construction, may indirectly contribute to the need for reuse. Also, with ...

421

NONPOTABLE WATER REUSE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES  

EPA Science Inventory

Globally, the need for water reuse is increasing due to rising water demands and finite water resources. In addition, certain regulations and policies, such as zero discharge initiatives or limited new dam construction, may indirectly contribute to the need for reuse. With growin...

422

Water management on semiconductor surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wafer direct bonding technique is very sensitive to water adsorbed on surfaces just before bonding; hence it is a useful way to characterize the impact of the trapped water and subsequently the wafer drying efficiency. We have focused this work on the water behavior at the bonding interface depending on the nature of the surface but also depending on

Y. Le Tiec; C. Ventosa; N. Rochat; F. Fournel; H. Moriceau; L. Clavelier; F. Rieutord; J. Butterbaugh; I. Radu

423

[Fish parasites as bioindicators of the pollution of bodies of water].  

PubMed

The paper presents the results of studies on the effect of wastes of the Cherepovets iron-and-steel works containing phenol, naphthaline and oil products on fish parasites of the Sheksna part of the Rybinsk water reservoir (the Volga river system). It has been shown that the number of highly sensitive ectoparasites of Abramis brama (Protozoa, Dactylogyrus monogeneans, Ergasilus sieboldi crustaceans and Caspiobdella fadejewi leeches) considerably decreases in the zone of pollution. It has been first suggested to use Diplozoon paradoxum and Caryophyllaeus laticeps, parasites of bream highly resistant to toxic effect, the number of which considerably increases in the zone of pollution, as indicators of anthropogenic pollution and ecological state of a water body. Among diplozoons there have been first discovered individuals having structural anomalies (reduction of the attachment organs, violation in the symmetry of arrangement and number of valves) that serves as evidence of mutagenic effect of toxic substances of polluted waters on morphogenesis of the parasite. PMID:1299804

Kuperman, B I

1992-01-01

424

Water Resources, Development and Management Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world's food production depends on the availability of water, a precious but finite resource. Users can learn about the need for more efficient usage of water for irrigation, and about the activities of the Water Resources Development and Management Service, which is concerned with sustainable use and conservation of water in agriculture. Links to other sites related to irrigation practices and food production are also provided.

2004-05-10

425

Water Resources, Development and Management Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world\\'s food production depends on the availability of water, a precious but finite resource. Users can learn about the need for more efficient usage of water for irrigation, and about the activities of the Water Resources Development and Management Service, which is concerned with sustainable use and conservation of water in agriculture. Links to other sites related to irrigation practices and food production are also provided.

2007-02-10

426

WASTE AND WATER MANAGEMENT FOR CONVENTIONAL COAL COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT REPORT - 1979; VOLUME II. WATER MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report, the second of five volumes, describes water management for conventional combustion sources and assesses the current status of various studies and programs in water management and trends in water recycle/reuse. A coal-fired boiler produces both chemical and thermal pol...

427

Deposition of Air Pollutants to the Great Waters, Third Report to Congress, June 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on June 8 2000, this report is the third in a series from the Environmental protection Agency (EPA) "to Congress on atmospheric deposition of pollution to the Great Waters, which include the Great Lakes, Chesapeake Bay and several other major U.S. water bodies." This report focuses on fifteen "pollutants of concern," offering updated scientific information about these pollutants and the Great Waters and discussing programs implemented by the EPA, states, tribes, and others to address them. It also describes "recent advancements in scientific research and tools used to improve our understanding of atmospheric deposition to the Great Waters." Background information and an executive summary are offered in HTML format, while the full text is provided by chapter in .pdf format. The previous two reports may be accessed from the Great Waters Program homepage.

2000-01-01

428

Improving nitrogen and irrigation water use efficiency through adaptive management: A case study using annual ryegrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen is often poorly managed in irrigated agro-ecosystems. Accumulation and leaching of N can occur due to excessive fertiliser N, high soil inorganic N carryover between seasons, rapid mineralisation in spring and poor irrigation scheduling. This can reduce forage yield, quality and N-use efficiency, and lead to pollution of soil and water resources. Experiments were conducted to test whether adaptive

Melake K. Fessehazion; Richard J. Stirzaker; John G. Annandale; Colin S. Everson

2011-01-01

429

Value of information for water quality management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is now much interest in comprehensive watershed-based approaches to water quality protection. While there is much to be said in favor of such an approach, it is also clear that implementation requires information that is often lacking. Given that information acquisition is costly, decisions are required about the types and amounts of information that should be sought. We examine the expected value of different types of information for price and quantity instruments for agricultural nitrogen pollution control in the Susquehanna River Basin. We also compare the ex ante economic efficiency of price and quantity instruments. The analysis explicitly accounts for public sector uncertainty about the benefits and costs of pollution reductions, with economic efficiency measured as the expected benefits less the expected costs of pollution reductions. We find optimized price controls to outperform optimized quantity controls under a range of possible information structures. For both instruments, information collection improves policy performance, with information about the benefits of pollution reductions having the greatest impact. The performance of the quantity instrument is more sensitive to information than is the price instrument. In consequence, the value of information to reduce benefit and cost uncertainty is greater for the quantity control.

Borisova, Tatiana; Shortle, James; Horan, Richard D.; Abler, David

2005-06-01

430

Ecotoxicological assessment of water pollution in Sariyar Dam Lake, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the effects of environmental pollution and different biotic factors on some important biochemical markers, as enzymes, two fish species inhabiting the Sariyar Dam Lake, Turkey have been investigated. Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, glutathion S-transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and alanine and aspartate amino transferase activities have been measured in liver samples of Cyprinus carpio and Capoeta tinca. Also, brain

Murat Ozmen; Zafer Ayas; Abbas Güngördü; Guler F. Ekmekci; Sedat Yerli

2008-01-01

431

Electro-Osmosis in Ground-Water Pollution Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The finite element method was employed to investigate the feasibility of using electro-osmosis as a tool in groundwater pollution control in soils of low hydraulic conductivity. Two types of groundwater flow problems were considered. The first of these de...

J. C. Bruch

1976-01-01

432

Water management in the Roman world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate variability can have extreme impacts on societies in regions that are water-limited for agriculture. A society's ability to manage its water resources in such environments is critical to its long-term viability. Water management can involve improving agricultural yields through in-situ irrigation or redistributing water resources through trade in food. Here, we explore how such water management strategies affected the resilience of the Roman Empire to climate variability in the water-limited region of the Mediterranean. Using the large-scale hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB and estimates of landcover based on the Historical Database of the Global Environment (HYDE) we generate potential agricultural yield maps under variable climate. HYDE maps of population density in conjunction with potential yield estimates are used to develop maps of agricultural surplus and deficit. The surplus and deficit regions are abstracted to nodes on a water redistribution network based on the Stanford Geospatial Network Model of the Roman World (ORBIS). This demand-driven, water redistribution network allows us to quantitatively explore how water management strategies such as irrigation and food trade improved the resilience of the Roman Empire to climate variability.

Dermody, Brian J.; van Beek, Rens L. P. H.; Meeks, Elijah; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; Scheidel, Walter; Wassen, Martin J.; van der Velde, Ype; Dekker, Stefan C.

2014-05-01

433

Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use  

SciTech Connect

Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

2007-10-31

434

Virtual water management in the Roman world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change can have extreme societal impacts particularly in regions that are water-limited for agriculture. A society's ability to manage its water resources in such environments is critical to its long-term viability. Water management can involve improving agricultural yields through in-situ irrigation or the redistribution of virtual water resources through trade in food. Here, we explore how such water management strategies improve societal resilience by examining virtual water management during the Roman Empire in the water-limited region of the Mediterranean. Climate was prescribed based on previously published reconstructions which show that during the Roman Empire when the Central Mediterranean was wetter, the West and Southeastern Mediterranean became drier and vice-versa. Evidence indicates that these shifts in the climatic seesaw may have occurred relatively rapidly. Using the Global hydrological model PCR GLOBWB and estimates of landcover based on the HYDE dataset we generate potential agricultural yield maps under two extremes of this climatic seesaw. HYDE estimates of population in conjunction with potential yield estimates are used to identify regions of Mediterranean with a yield surplus or deficit. The surplus and deficit regions form nodes on a virtual water redistribution network with transport costs taken from the Stanford Geospatial Network Model of the Roman World (ORBIS). Our demand-driven, virtual water redistribution network allows us to quantitatively explore the importance of water management strategies such as irrigation and food trade for the Romans. By examining virtual water transport cost anomalies between climate scenarios our analysis highlights regions of the Mediterranean that were most vulnerable to climate change during the Roman Period.

Dermody, B.; Van Beek, L. P.; Meeks, E.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Bierkens, M. F.; Scheidel, W.; Wassen, M. J.; Van der Velde, Y.; Dekker, S. C.

2013-12-01

435

Report on the Immediate Water Pollution Control Needs for the Interstate and Intrastate Waters of the New Jersey Coastal Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews the water pollution problem in the New Jersey Coastal Region, which extends from Sandy Hook to Cape May and includes those streams draining eastward to the Atlantic Ocean, the various bays and harbors, and the immediate Coastal waters. ...

1967-01-01

436

Water Budgets: Foundations for Effective Water-Resources and Environmental Management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTRODUCTION Water budgets provide a means for evaluating availability and sustainability of a water supply. A water budget simply states that the rate of change in water stored in an area, such as a watershed, is balanced by the rate at which water flows into and out of the area. An understanding of water budgets and underlying hydrologic processes provides a foundation for effective water-resource and environmental planning and management. Observed changes in water budgets of an area over time can be used to assess the effects of climate variability and human activities on water resources. Comparison of water budgets from different areas allows the effects of factors such as geology, soils, vegetation, and land use on the hydrologic cycle to be quantified. Human activities affect the natural hydrologic cycle in many ways. Modifications of the land to accommodate agriculture, such as installation of drainage and irrigation systems, alter infiltration, runoff, evaporation, and plant transpiration rates. Buildings, roads, and parking lots in urban areas tend to increase runoff and decrease infiltration. Dams reduce flooding in many areas. Water budgets provide a basis for assessing how a natural or human-induced change in one part of the hydrologic cycle may affect other aspects of the cycle. This report provides an overview and qualitative description of water budgets as foundations for effective water-resources and environmental management of freshwater hydrologic systems. Perhaps of most interest to the hydrologic community, the concepts presented are also relevant to the fields of agriculture, atmospheric studies, meteorology, climatology, ecology, limnology, mining, water supply, flood control, reservoir management, wetland studies, pollution control, and other areas of science, society, and industry. The first part of the report describes water storage and movement in the atmosphere, on land surface, and in the subsurface, as well as water exchange among these compartments. Our ability to measure these phenomena and inherent uncertainties in measurement techniques also are discussed. The latter part of the report presents a number of case studies that illustrate how water-budget studies are conducted, documents how human activities affect water budgets, and describes how water budgets are used to address water and environmental issues.

Healy, Richard W.; Winter, Thomas C.; LaBaugh, James W.; Franke, O. Lehn

2007-01-01

437

Proceedings of University Seminar on Pollution and Water Resources. Volume IX: 1975-1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Federal saline water conversion program (1976); Salinity management and the development of the Colorado River Basin; Plan nacional hidraulico (Mexican national water plan-1973); The unanswered challenge: Planning to meet the total water resource...

G. J. Halasi-Kun K. Widmer

1978-01-01

438

Radioactive pollution of the waters of the baltic sea during 1986  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented from an investigation of radioactive pollution of the waters of the Baltic Sea during 1986. Inhomogeneities in the pollution of this area of water, due to varying density of atmospheric radioactive fallout, are detected. It is found that among the radionuclides entering the surface of the Baltic Sea in 1986 as a result of atmospheric transport, the main one in terms of radiation dose is cesium-137. Comparisons are made of the level of cesium-137 content in the waters of the Baltic Sea in 1986 and in preceding years. It is noted that even in the most polluted regions of the sea the cesium-137 content was 500 times less than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) in the USSR for drinking water. The first results of the determination of plutonium-239 and 240 in the Baltic Sea are presented.

Lazarev, L.N.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Gavrilov, V.M.; Gritchenko, Z.G.; Ivanova, L.M.; Orlova, T.E.; Tishkova, N.A.

1989-01-01

439

Control of aquatic weeds through pollutant reduction and weed utilization: a weed management approach in the lower Kafue River of Zambia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aquatic weed situation in the Kafue River in Zambia continues to be a major challenge to the sustainable utilization of the water resources of the river. The general methods for managing the weeds, especially the water hyacinth, include use of bio-agents, chemicals, mechanical and physical approaches. These have had very little impact. This paper reports on a project that is investigating weed management strategies which involve use of cleaner production (CP) approach and the utilization of the weed for economic purposes. In addition, the ecological implications of these methods are being assessed. Effluent assessments indicated that apart from nitrates and phosphates, other effluent parameters met the Environmental Council of Zambia standards. Results further show that all the 24 areas surveyed for CP have uncontrolled socio-economic activities which generate both point and non-point sources of pollution that enter the water bodies. To minimize pollution, efforts include devising policy and technical strategies with the involvement of the affected riparian community. Production of mushroom by the communities using the water hyacinth substrate has been demonstrated. Up to 2.1 kg of mushroom was harvested from a single flush over a period of 4-5 weeks. Vegetables grown on soils treated with water hyacinth manure performed better than those grown using commercial fertiliser. The economics of the production are however, yet to be confirmed. If weed usage is proven economically and ecologically viable, the riverine community is envisaged to play a big role in aquatic weed management. High numbers of invertebrates known to be sensitive to pollution have been recorded in the weed-infested Kafue River implying that the water is of “good” quality for these aquatic invertebrates. This observed quality of water may be due to water hyacinth playing a role by sieving pollutants from the river.

Sinkala, Thomson; Mwase, Enala T.; Mwala, Mick

440

INDOOR AIR QUALITY MODELING (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Indoor Environment Management Branch of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has developed an indoor air quality (IAQ) model for analyzing the impact of sources, sinks, ventilation, and air cleaners on indoor air quality. Early ...

441

Water Quality Status and Trends in Minnesota - Indices for Water Supply and Ground Water Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The status of water quality in Minnesota was examined in relation to the chemical data available on public water supplies based upon sample analyses by the Minnesota Department of Health, reported in 1971 and upgraded in 1972. Information presented includ...

C. P. Straub V. M. Goppers A. DuChene

1976-01-01

442

Storm water management in an urban catchment: effects of source control and real-time management of sewer systems on receiving water quality.  

PubMed

For the examination of the effects of different storm water management strategies in an urban catchment area on receiving water quality, an integrated simulation of the sewer system, wastewater treatment plant and receiving water is carried out. In the sewer system real-time control measures are implemented. As examples of source control measures the reduction of wastewater and the reduction of the amount of impervious surfaces producing storm water discharges are examined. The surface runoff calculation and the simulation of the sewer system and the WWTP are based on a MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation environment. The impact of the measures on the receiving water is simulated using AQUASIM. It can be shown that the examined storm water management measures, especially the source control measures, can reduce the combined sewer overflow volume and the pollutant discharge load considerably. All examined measures also have positive effects on the receiving water quality. Moreover, the reduction of impervious surfaces avoids combined sewer overflow activities, and in consequence prevents pollutants from discharging into the receiving water after small rainfall events. However, the receiving water quality improvement may not be seen as important enough to avoid acute receiving water effects in general. PMID:12380970

Frehmann, T; Nafo, I; Niemann, A; Geiger, W F

2002-01-01

443

Delocalized organic pollutant destruction through a self-sustaining supercritical water oxidation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a recent development aiming at the destruction of organic pollutants present with low concentrations in waste waters. The present paper focuses on the process simulation of SCWO with emphasis on the proper modelling of supercritical thermodynamic conditions and on the possibility to make the SCWO process self-sufficient from the energetic viewpoint. Self-sufficiency may be of

E. D. Lavric; H. Weyten; J. De Ruyck; V. Ple?u; V. Lavric

2005-01-01

444

Social Status Variations in Attitudes and Conceptualization Pertaining to Water Pollution and Supply.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data, secured by questionnaire from single household dwelling units in Warwick, Rhode Island, were used to ascertain differences among social status groups with respect to attitudes and conceptualization pertaining to water pollution and water supply. A social status index was used to delineate three status groups having high, middle, and low rank…

Spaulding, Irving A.

445

A Proposed Shipboard Continuous Oil Pollution Control Process for Bilge Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A continuous gravitational process to separate oil pollutant from ships' bilge water using simple and compact equipment is proposed. The principle of the process is discussed. For an oil-water mixture of known concentration and density, the location of th...

T. S. Yu

1969-01-01

446

Water Pollution Control Training: The Educational Role of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are the results of a study to determine the perceived needs of environmental control education programs as seen by students, instructors, deans or program directors, and field-related employers in the field of water pollution control. Data were collected utilizing three approaches: survey instruments, information from Water Quality…

Williams, Frederick D.

447

An Intelligent Decision Support System of Lake Water Pollution Control Based on Multi-agent Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapidly development of the economic, environmental problem has become one of the most prominent problems of the society. Lake water environmental problem became more and more serious, and it had seriously effect on human health and the socio-economic sustainable development. It is a key project to find a more effective way of water pollution control. An intelligent decision

Jianjun Ni; Chuanbiao Zhang; Li Ren

2009-01-01

448

Manpower and Training Needs in Water Pollution Control. Senate Document No. 49.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine trained manpower needs and training resources in the clean water field, data were gathered from interviews with state and federal agencies as well as the Water Pollution Control Federation, from prior manpower reports, and from Bureau of Census employment data. After analysis of present manpower resources and future requirements,…

Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

449

Seasonal effect on ammonia nitrogen removal by constructed wetlands treating polluted river water in southern Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) system, combining a free water surface wetland and a subsurface wetland in series, was used to purify highly polluted river water. The concentrations of constituents varied seasonally. The effects of season-dependent parameters, such as temperature, mass loading rate and inflow salinity, on the removal of ammonia nitrogen (AN) in the wetland system were examined at

Shuh-Ren Jing; Ying-Feng Lin

2004-01-01

450

Water Management and Estuarine Nurseries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Agricultural runoff and water quality in coastal areas; Response of Rose Bay to freshwater inputs; Effects of freshwater discharges into primary nursery areas for juvenile fish and shellfish: Criteria for their protection.

W. Gilliam J. Miller L. Pietrafesa W. Skaggs

1985-01-01

451

System and method for removing pollutants from water  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A system and method for removing pollutants from wastewater. The system includes a constructed wetland cell in which the filtered wastewater is flowed generally vertically. The flow of wastewater is unsaturated through the wetland cell to aerate the wastewater. The wastewater may be further aerated by a blower or injector. The treated wastewater from the wetland cell is blended with untreated wastewater, then either recirculated through the wetland cell or conveyed to a disposal system.

2003-11-25

452

Pollution of water during underground coal gasification of hard coal and lignite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater pollution is considered the most serious potential environmental risk related to the underground coal gasification technology (UCG). A variety of hazardous water-born contaminants have been identified during different UCG operations conducted so far, and in some locations long-term groundwater contaminations were observed. Characteristic organic UCG-related pollutions are mostly the phenols, benzene with its derivatives, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heterocycles.

Krzysztof Kapusta; Krzysztof Sta?czyk

2011-01-01

453

Do Plants Overcomply with Water Pollution Regulations? The Role of Discharge Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses previously unexploited data to examine polluters' compliance with point-source water pollution regulations, a line of inquiry motivated by widespread apparent overcompliance. We use a nationwide panel of monthly plant-level effluent concentrations from 1991-1999. These monthly data allow us to observe month-to-month variability in discharges and therefore to test hypotheses not previously examined. We find that plants that

Sushenjit Bandyopadhyay; John Horowitz

2006-01-01

454

Influence on Shallow Ground Water by Heavy Metal in Polluted River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of the research is to study the influence on shallow ground water by heavy metal in polluted river. In the lab-scale experiment polluted rivers were simulated by domestic sewage, and three kinds of natural sand were chosen as infiltration medium, it was found that Cr(VI) penetrated on the 13th day and then had a removal ratio of

Li Zhi ping; Chen Xiao gang; Shen Zhao li; Zhong Zuo xin

2010-01-01

455

40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pollutant in the intake water. 129.6 Section...of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS TOXIC...operator's intake water will not be removed...systems whose design capacity and operation...

2010-07-01

456

40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pollutant in the intake water. 129.6 Section...of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS TOXIC...operator's intake water will not be removed...systems whose design capacity and operation...

2009-07-01

457

AOIPS water resources data management system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A geocoded data management system applicable for hydrological applications was designed to demonstrate the utility of the Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System (AOIPS) for hydrological applications. Within that context, the geocoded hydrology data management system was designed to take advantage of the interactive capability of the AOIPS hardware. Portions of the Water Resource Data Management System which best demonstrate the interactive nature of the hydrology data management system were implemented on the AOIPS. A hydrological case study was prepared using all data supplied for the Bear River watershed located in northwest Utah, southeast Idaho, and western Wyoming.

Merritt, E. S.; Shotwell, R. L.; Place, M. C.; Belknap, N. J.

1976-01-01

458

Bassett Creek Water Management Commission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This case study is one in a series of case studies describing applications of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR). The case study is part of a Corps program to encourage its managers to develop and utilize new ways of resolving disputes. These case studi...

L. E. Susskind E. Babaitt D. Hoffer

1992-01-01

459

Application of advanced characterization techniques to assess DOM treatability of micro-polluted and un-polluted drinking source waters in China.  

PubMed

China has a very complex water supply system which relies on many rivers and lakes. As the population and economic development increases, water quality is greatly impacted by anthropogenic processes. This seriously affects the character of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) and imposes operational challenges to the water treatment facilities in terms of process optimization. The aim of this investigation was to compare selected drinking water sources (raw) with different DOM character, and the respective treated waters after coagulation, using simple organic characterization techniques to obtain a better understanding of the impact of source water quality on water treatment. Results from the analyses of selected water samples showed that the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of polluted waters is generally higher than that of un-polluted waters, but the specific UV absorbance value has the opposite trend. After resolving the high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) peak components of source waters using peak fitting, the twelve waters studied can be divided into two main groups (micro-polluted and un-polluted) by using cluster analysis. The DOM removal efficiency (treatability) of these waters has been compared using four coagulants. For water sources allocated to the un-polluted group, traditional coagulants (Al(2)(SO(4))(3) and FeCl(3)) achieved better removal. High performance poly aluminum chloride, a new type of composite coagulant, performed very well and more efficiently for polluted waters. After peak fitting the HPSEC chromatogram of each of the treated waters, average removal efficiency of the profiles can be calculated and these correspond well with DOC and UV removal. This provides a convenient tool to assess coagulation removal and coagulant selection. PMID:20692013

Wang, Dongsheng; Xing, Linan; Xie, Jiankun; Chow, Christopher W K; Xu, Zhizhen; Zhao, Yanmei; Drikas, Mary

2010-09-01

460

Effects of warm water inflows on the dispersion of pollutants in small reservoirs.  

PubMed

The effects of the warm water discharged by a nuclear power plant (NPP) into a small reservoir are studied. A case study is presented (José Cabrera NPP-Zorita Hidráulica Reservoir) with experimental data of the reservoir stratification and predicted data of the dispersion of radioactive pollutants from operative or accidental releases. The vertical and longitudinal temperature profiles, electrical conductivity and transparency of the reservoir water were measured for an annual cycle. The results indicate that the continuous warm water discharge from the NPP causes permanent and artificial reservoir stratification. The stratification is significant within 1500 m upstream and 1000 m downstream from the warm water outfall. The pollutant dispersion has been predicted by using a flow model based on N(T) perfect-mixing compartments in series with feedback. The model parameter, N(T), is calculated from the longitudinal diffusion coefficient. The prediction of pollutant dispersion by means of this model shows that the stratification slows down the vertical mixing in the whole water body, and reduces the reservoir volume that is effective for the dilution and dispersion of pollutants. This means that, in the case of a radioactive pollutant release, the reservoir radioactivity level could increase significantly. PMID:16574305

Palancar, María C; Aragón, José M; Sánchez, Fernando; Gil, Roberto

2006-11-01

461

Groundwater pollution: Are we monitoring appropriate parameters?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater pollution is a worldwide phenomenon with potentially disastrous consequences. Prevention of pollution is the ideal approach. However, in practice groundwater quality monitoring is the main tool for timely detection of pollutants and protection of groundwater resources. Monitoring groundwater quality is a specialised task for a hydrogeologist and a water quality monitoring expert. Although general prescriptions for waste management facilities

Gideon Tredoux; Lisa Cavé; Pannie Engelbrecht

2004-01-01

462

Remote measurements of water pollution with a lidar polarimeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines a dual polarization laser backscatter system as a method for remote measurements of certain water quality parameters. Analytical models for describing the backscatter from turbid water and oil on turbid water are presented and compared with experimental data. Laser backscatter field measurements from natural waterways are presented and compared with simultaneous ground observations of the water quality parameters: turbidity, suspended solids, and transmittance. The results of this study show that the analytical models appear valid and that the sensor investigated is applicable to remote measurements of these water quality parameters and oil spills on water.-

Sheives, T. C.; Rouse, J. W., Jr.; Mayo, W. T., Jr.

1974-01-01

463

National Management Measures to Control Nonpoint Source Pollution from Forestry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Nations aquatic resources are among its most valuable assets. Although environmental protection programs in the United States have successfully improved water quality during the past 25 years, many challenges remain. Significant strides have been made...

2005-01-01

464

National Management Measures to Control Nonpoint Source Pollution from Hydromodification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Nations aquatic resources are among its most valuable assets. Although environmental protection programs in the United States have improved water quality during the past 35 years, many challenges remain. Significant strides have been made in reducing ...

2007-01-01

465

Exploring the effectiveness of sustainable water management structures in the Upper Pungwe river basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study endeavoured to assess the effectiveness of stakeholder structures and their participation in sustainable water resources management in the Upper Pungwe river basin shared by Zimbabwe and Mozambique. The study sought to assess the level and effectiveness of stakeholder, gender and the vulnerable groups representation in sustainable water resources management as well as the whole stakeholder participation process. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative methods for data collection and analysis. Sampling data was obtained from 15 stakeholder representatives (councillors) constituting Pungwe Subcatchment Council, 30 water users ranging from small scale to large scale users and professionals in water resources management. Two different questionnaires and three structured interviews were administered during the study. Water permit database, financial reports and other source documents were also analysed. The study established that the sustainability and effectiveness of stakeholder structures and their participation in water resources management is being compromised by lack of stakeholder awareness. Water utilisation is very high in the subcatchment (99%) while women participation is still low (20%). The study therefore recommends the use of quotas for the participation of women in stakeholder structures. Stakeholder structures are encouraged to intensify stakeholder awareness on issues of river protection, efficient water use and pollution control. Further research is recommended to be carried out on the effectiveness of stakeholder structures in combating water pollution and enhancing river protection.

Nyikadzino, B.; Chibisa, P.; Makurira, H.

466

Water Management Strategies against Water Shortage in the Alps (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the European Alps water has been perceived as ubiquitous and not the subject of management. Climate change and anthropogenic pressures have changed demand and supply relations rapidly and over the last 10 years, water problems have increasingly become apparent over temporal and spatial hotspots. Stakeholders in the Alpine Space have been confronted with water management problems in agriculture, tourism and hydropower to such an extent that they approached scientists to create solution strategies based on adaptation and mitigation. In this context, Alp-Water-Scarce, a European project on Water Management Strategies against Water Scarcity in the Alps was funded by the Alpine Space programme as part of the "European Territorial Cooperation" scheme. It has 17 project partners from Austria Switzerland, France, Italy and Slovenia from local governments, provinces, federal institutes and offices, universities, regional agencies, alpine societies, geological surveys, and chambers of agriculture and forestry. The Lead Partner is the Mountain Institute in Savoy, Rhone-Alpes, France. The main challenges of this project are to create local Early Warning Systems against Water Scarcity in the Alps. This system is based on strengthening existing long-term monitoring and modeling and creating new measuring networks in those countries where they do not yet exist. It is anchored strongly and actively within a Stakeholder Interaction Forum linked across comparative and contrasting regions across the Alps. The Early Warning System is based on the linkage and improvement of field monitoring and assemblage of qualitative and quantitative data derived both from natural water reservoirs as well as from anthropogenic water use in 28 selected pilot regions selected in France, Italy, Austria, Slovenia and Switzerland. The objectives are to improve water management at the short term (annual scale) and long term (using future scenarios) based on modelling and application of climate change and anthropogenic scenarios. Innovative measures of mitigation and adaptation should predict and prevent future water shortages.

de Jong, C.

2009-12-01

467

Will urban expansion lead to an increase in future water pollution loads?-a preliminary investigation of the Haihe River Basin in northeastern China.  

PubMed

Urban expansion is a major driving force changing regional hydrology and nonpoint source pollution. The Haihe River Basin, the political, economic, and cultural center of northeastern China, has undergone rapid urbanization in recent decades. To investigate the consequences of future urban sprawl on nonpoint source water pollutant emissions in the river basin, the urban sprawl in 2030 was estimated, and the annual runoff and nonpoint source pollution in the Haihe River basin were simulated. The Integrated Model of Non-Point Sources Pollution Processes (IMPULSE) was used to simulate the effects of urban sprawl on nonpoint source pollution emissions. The outcomes indicated that the urban expansion through 2030 increased the nonpoint source total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) emissions by 8.08, 0.14, and 149.57 kg/km(2), respectively. Compared to 2008, the total nonpoint emissions rose by 15.33, 0.57, and 12.39 %, respectively. Twelve percent of the 25 cities in the basin would increase by more than 50 % in nonpoint source TN and COD emissions in 2030. In particular, the nonpoint source TN emissions in Xinxiang, Jiaozuo, and Puyang would rise by 73.31, 67.25, and 58.61 %, and the nonpoint source COD emissions in these cities would rise by 74.02, 51.99, and 53.27 %, respectively. The point source pollution emissions in 2008 and 2030 were also estimated to explore the effects of urban sprawl on total water pollution loads. Urban sprawl through 2030 would bring significant structural changes of total TN, TP, and COD emissions for each city in the area. The results of this study could provide insights into the effects of urbanization in the study area and the methods could help to recognize the role that future urban sprawl plays in the total water pollution loads in the water quality management process. PMID:24532209

Dong, Yang; Liu, Yi; Chen, Jining

2014-06-01

468

Permits and effluent charges in the water pollution control policies of France, West Germany, and the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the water pollution control policies of these countries and their effects on emitters are analyzed. In the Netherlands, local water control boards levy pollution charges on both direct and indirect emitters. The charges are based upon measured emissions and actual treatment costs and they vary among the boards. Discharges into surface waters are by permission only. West

Jan C. Bongaerts; Andreas Kraemer

1989-01-01

469

Enhanced treatment of polluted surface water from Yellow river (China) with biooxidation as pretreatment: Pilot scale studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yellow River in China is being polluted with artifi cial pollution, which brings great chal- lenges to drinking water treatment plants (DWTP) along the Yellow River. The conventional treatment processes could not ensure satisfactory quality of drinking water, and innovative processes are crucial for the achievement of the newly issued drinking water standard (GB5749- 2006). The DWTP in Zhengzhou

S. Xiangyang; ABSTR A C T

470

Enhanced treatment of polluted surface water from Yellow river (China) with biooxidation as pretreatment: Pilot scale studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yellow River in China is being polluted with artificial pollution, which brings great challenges to drinking water treatment plants (DWTP) along the Yellow River. The conventional treatment processes could not ensure satisfactory quality of drinking water, and innovative processes are crucial for the achievement of the newly issued drinking water standard (GB5749- 2006). The DWTP in Zhengzhou City takes

Xiangyang Song

2009-01-01

471

Recovery, Separation, and Identification of Phenolic Compounds From Polluted Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A four-year research program was completed wherein the rivers and ground waters of New Jersey were sampled and tested for phenolic compounds. These chemicals originate in industrial manufacturing processes and are discharged into rivers and ground waters ...

S. D. Faust H. Stutz O. M. Aly P. W. Anderson

1971-01-01

472

Carcinogenic Nitrosamines and Their Precursors in Fresh and Polluted Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of methods was developed and tested for the analysis of nitrosamines that might be present in natural waters. Initially, the recovery of added nitrosamines in distilled water was quite poor. In sewage amended with nitrosamines, recovery of dimeth...

M. Alexander

1976-01-01

473

Intrusion of radioactive industrially polluted water from North Sea into central Baltic Sea  

SciTech Connect

The problem of penetration of radioactive industrially polluted water into the central Baltic Sea was studied. The content of Cs-134 as determined in water near the bottom of deep water trenches along the path traveled by North Sea water entering the Baltic. Samples were taken at 5 locations, with Cs-134 concentrated from samples of several thousands of liters. It was found that radioactive pollution caused by the entry of water from the North Sea extends through the system of deep water depressions into the Baltic as far as the Gotland trench. The greatest degree of contamination is found in the Arkona depression adjacent to the straits. The concentration of Cs-134 in the Gdansk trench is one-half as great and in the Gotland trench one-third as great as in the Arkona depression. Radioactive contamination in the Baltic is attributed to discharge of radioactive wastes by plants at Windscale.

Vakulovskiy, S.M.; Nikitin, A.I.

1985-02-01

474

Assessment of susceptibility to pollution in littoral waters using the concept of recovery time.  

PubMed

Susceptibility to pollution can be related to the flushing capacity of aquatic systems. Transport time scales constitute a useful tool for representing the water exchange and transport processes. A new transport time scale, recovery time, and a methodology to estimate it by means of numerical models is hereby developed. Recovery time, calculated in Gijon, Santander and Tarragona harbours, is significantly related to physical, chemical and biological water quality indicators. Susceptibility, assessed through recovery time values, provides spatial patterns of expected flushing capacity, being sensitive to physical and hydrodynamic characteristics. The developed method is appropriate to estimate recovery time and assess susceptibility against pollution in littoral waters having great potential to be applied to different disciplines. Recovery time could be used in littoral waters as a surrogate of water quality indicators, to establish efficient monitoring programs, to define and characterize modified water bodies or to improve the design of marine infrastructures. PMID:24576391

Gómez, Aina G; Juanes, José A; Ondiviela, Bárbara; Revilla, José A

2014-04-15

475

Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: Progresses and perspectives*  

PubMed Central

Environmental pollution affects the quality of pedosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Great efforts have been made in the last two decades to reduce pollution sources and remedy the polluted soil and water resources. Phytoremediation, being more cost-effective and fewer side effects than physical and chemical approaches, has gained increasing popularity in both academic and practical circles. More than 400 plant species have been identified to have potential for soil and water remediation. Among them, Thlaspi, Brassica, Sedum alfredii H., and Arabidopsis species have been mostly studied. It is also expected that recent advances in biotechnology will play a promising role in the development of new hyperaccumulators by transferring metal hyperaccumulating genes from low biomass wild species to the higher biomass producing cultivated species in the times to come. This paper attempted to provide a brief review on recent progresses in research and practical applications of phytoremediation for soil and water resources.

Lone, Mohammad Iqbal; He, Zhen-li; Stoffella, Peter J.; Yang, Xiao-e

2008-01-01

476

Criminal sanctions applicable to Federal water pollution control measures. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

Overkill or not enough: Two decades ago, Congress realized that a system of civil remedies alone, devoid of any lasting punitive consequences, was inadequate to insure compliance with environmental protection statutes. Other than the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, which was designed to protect navigation, Federal criminal sanctions were not applicable to water pollution offenses. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, more commonly known as the Clean Water Act (CWA), was twenty-four years old before Federal criminal enforcement of its provisions was allowed. But since the early 1970's, the criminal provisions of the CWA have been strengthened, the United States Department of Justice has beefed up its environmental enforcement efforts, and environmental polluters have been prosecuted. This Federal effort is now approaching overkill.

Thompson, J.C.

1991-09-30

477

Illinois drainage water management demonstration project  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Due to naturally high water tables and flat topography, there are approximately 4 million ha (10 million ac) of farmland artificially drained with subsurface (tile) systems in Illinois. Subsurface drainage is practiced to insure trafficable field conditions for farm equipment and to reduce crop stress from excess water within the root zone. Although drainage is essential for economic crop production, there have been some significant environmental costs. Tile drainage systems tend to intercept nutrient (nitrate) rich soil-water and shunt it to surface water. Data from numerous monitoring studies have shown that a significant amount of the total nitrate load in Illinois is being delivered to surface water from tile drainage systems. In Illinois, these drainage systems are typically installed without control mechanisms and allow the soil to drain whenever the water table is above the elevation of the tile outlet. An assessment of water quality in the tile drained areas of Illinois showed that approximately 50 percent of the nitrate load was being delivered through the tile systems during the fallow period when there was no production need for drainage to occur. In 1998, a demonstration project to introduce drainage water management to producers in Illinois was initiated by NRCS4 An initial aspect of the project was to identify producers that were willing to manage their drainage system to create a raised water table during the fallow (November-March) period. Financial assistance from two federal programs was used to assist producers in retrofitting the existing drainage systems with control structures. Growers were also provided guidance on the management of the structures for both water quality and production benefits. Some of the retrofitted systems were monitored to determine the effect of the practice on water quality. This paper provides background on the water quality impacts of tile drainage in Illinois, the status of the demonstration project, preliminary monitoring results, and other observations.

Pitts, D. J.; Cooke, R.; Terrio, P. J.

2004-01-01

478

Sensitive Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Detection of Nitroaromatic Pollutants in Water.  

PubMed

The increasing and urgent demand for clean water requires new approaches for identifying possible contaminants. In the present study, polymer substrates with embedded silver nanoparticles are employed to reveal the presence of traces of nitroaromatic compounds in water on the basis of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect. These platforms provide an easy and sensitive method of detecting of low concentrations of these organic pollutants in contaminated water. PMID:25014844

Wang, Menghan; De Vivo, Benedetto; Lu, Wanjun; Muniz-Miranda, Maurizio

2014-07-01

479

Case study on rehabilitation of a polluted urban water body in Yangtze River Basin.  

PubMed

In the past three decades, the fast development of economy and urbanization has caused increasingly severe pollutions of urban water bodies in China. Consequently, eutrophication and deterioration of aquatic ecosystem, which is especially significant for aquatic vegetation, inevitably became a pervasive problem across the Yangtze River Basin. To rehabilitate the degraded urban water bodies, vegetation replanting is an important issue to improve water quality and to rehabilitate ecosystem. As a case study, a representative polluted urban river, Nanfeihe River, in Hefei City, Anhui Province, was chosen to be a rehabilitation target. In October 2009 and May 2010, 13 species of indigenous and prevalent macrophytes, including seven species emergent, one species floating leaved, and five species submersed macrophytes, were planted along the bank slopes and in the river. Through 1.5 years' replanting practice, the water quality and biodiversity of the river had been improved. The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) declined by 46.0, 39.5, and 60.4 %, respectively. The species of macrophytes increased from 14 to 60, and the biodiversity of phytoplankton rose significantly in the river (p<0.05). The biomasses of zooplankton and benthos were also improved after the vegetation replanting. The study confirmed that vegetation replanting could alleviate the increasing water pollution and rehabilitate the degraded aquatic ecosystem. The case study would be an example for polluted urban waters restoration in the middle-downstream area of Yangtze River Base. PMID:23247519

Wu, Juan; Cheng, Shuiping; Li, Zhu; Guo, Weijie; Zhong, Fei; Yin, Daqiang

2013-10-01

480

Risk assessment of organic pesticides pollution in surface water of Hangzhou.  

PubMed

Advances in research on pollution of organic pesticides (OPs) in surface water, pollution survey and risk assessments of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and organophosphorus pestic