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1

The Management of Water: Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the official water pollution site for Canada. In the introduction, the problem is stated with reference to pollutants of the Great Lakes over 360 chemical compounds have been identified. Many are persistent toxic chemicals - alkylated lead, benzo(a)pyrene, DDT, mercury and mirex - potentially dangerous to humans and already destructive to the aquatic ecosystems. In referring to water quality, pollutants, toxic substances, and acid rain in the aquatic environment are discussed along with long-range transport of airborne pollutants and toxic chemicals said to be the legacy of a chemical society. Efforts to control water pollution include a multi-barrier approach to protecting drinking water, stated water quality objectives and guidelines, regulations, and advice on how to be a responsible consumer. Other sections include the effects of pollution and groundwater pollution.

2

Water Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

Bowen, H. J. M.

1975-01-01

3

The Solutions Data Base Component of the Water Pollution Abatement Subsystem (WPAS) of the Pollution Abatement Management System. (PAMS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the overall concept definition for the Solutions Data Base component of the Water Pollution Abatement System (WPAS) of the Pollution Abatement Management System (PAMS), which is being developed for use by DA planners and Facility Eng...

J. T. Bandy, E. D. Smith, R. D. Webster

1981-01-01

4

Linking Air, Land, and Water Pollution for Effective Environmental Management  

EPA Science Inventory

Since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, other federal agencies, and the states have made substantial progress in improving the Nation?s air and water quality. Traditionally, the air, land, and water pollution ...

5

A management system for accidental water pollution risk in a harbour: The Barcelona case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality degradation in harbour domains can have an important negative impact from an economic, touristic and environmental point of view. In that sense, water quality management is becoming a main concern for harbour managers. In this paper, we present the research behind the initiative started in Spanish harbours to control water quality degradation due to accidental pollution. This management

Manel Grifoll; Gabriel Jordà; Manuel Espino; Javier Romo; Marcos García-Sotillo

2011-01-01

6

The Other Water Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

Barton, Kathy

1978-01-01

7

Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

Lantz, H. B., Jr.

8

Water Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... to survive. Many different pollutants can harm our rivers, streams, lakes, and oceans. The three most common ... and bacteria. Rain washes soil into streams and rivers. The soil can kill tiny animals and fish ...

9

Group 8 - Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BACKGROUND Investigate the issues of water pollution in the world. TASK - What is making the water so polluted? How bad is it? How does nature clean its own water? Who are the worst polluters? What can be done to stop so much pollution? What is the water cycle? What can be done to fix the problem? Explain all this, and 5 ...

Mecham, Mrs.

2006-11-30

10

Water Bottle Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The effect of water bottles and pollution around the world. Print off 3 copies of this form. W s First, let's learn about Water Bottle Pollution records on your w's form what you learned. Now let's learn about jaguars. Jaguars how can jaguars be harmed by water bottle pollution? Project: Create a travel brochure in Publisher using what you learned about water bottle pollution and jaguars. See ...

awl000422

2011-10-27

11

Isotopes for improved management of nitrate pollution in aqueous resources: review of surface water field studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

For water bodies where the nitrate concentrations exceed threshold values environmental agencies can propose measures to either reduce discharges and emissions of nitrate or to remediate nitrate polluted water bodies. Isotope data can support the identification of nitrate pollution sources and natural attenuation processes of nitrate. A review of surface water field studies evaluated the use of isotope data (e.g.

A. Nestler; M. Berglund; F. Accoe; S. Duta; D. Xue; P. F. Boeckx; P. Taylor

2010-01-01

12

Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

13

Storm Water Runoff Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (located on page 8 of the PDF) introduces learners to the concept of Non-point Source Pollution--what happens when rain washes garbage and other pollutants into rivers and lakes. Through this demonstration, learners observe how water systems are connected and how pollution in their own backyard can affect larger water supplies.

Museum, Chicago C.

2008-01-01

14

PROSPECTS FOR EFFECTIVE NATIONAL MANAGEMENT OF ABANDONED METAL MINE WATER POLLUTION IN THE UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article briefly outlines the estimated scale of water pollution arising from abandoned non-coal mines (particularly metal mines) in the UK (in the order of 200 km of streams and rivers affected), and provides examples of the chemical characteristics of such waters, which are principally polluted with metals such as zinc, copper and iron. Although there is a substantial body

Adam Jarvis; Adrian Fox; Emma Gozzard; Steve Hill; Will Mayes; Hugh Potter

15

Understanding enabling capacities for managing the 'wicked problem' of nonpoint source water pollution in catchments: a conceptual framework.  

PubMed

Nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution in catchments is a 'wicked' problem that threatens water quality, water security, ecosystem health and biodiversity, and thus the provision of ecosystem services that support human livelihoods and wellbeing from local to global scales. However, it is a difficult problem to manage because water catchments are linked human and natural systems that are complex, dynamic, multi-actor, and multi-scalar in nature. This in turn raises questions about understanding and influencing change across multiple levels of planning, decision-making and action. A key challenge in practice is enabling implementation of local management action, which can be influenced by a range of factors across multiple levels. This paper reviews and synthesises important 'enabling' capacities that can influence implementation of local management action, and develops a conceptual framework for understanding and analysing these in practice. Important enabling capacities identified include: history and contingency; institutional arrangements; collaboration; engagement; vision and strategy; knowledge building and brokerage; resourcing; entrepreneurship and leadership; and reflection and adaptation. Furthermore, local action is embedded within multi-scalar contexts and therefore, is highly contextual. The findings highlight the need for: (1) a systemic and integrative perspective for understanding and influencing change for managing the wicked problem of NPS water pollution; and (2) 'enabling' social and institutional arenas that support emergent and adaptive management structures, processes and innovations for addressing NPS water pollution in practice. These findings also have wider relevance to other 'wicked' natural resource management issues facing similar implementation challenges. PMID:23792915

Patterson, James J; Smith, Carl; Bellamy, Jennifer

2013-10-15

16

Water Pollution, Causes and Cures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

17

A management system for accidental water pollution risk in a harbour: The Barcelona case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water quality degradation in harbour domains can have an important negative impact from an economic, touristic and environmental point of view. In that sense, water quality management is becoming a main concern for harbour managers. In this paper, we present the research behind the initiative started in Spanish harbours to control water quality degradation due to accidental pollution. This management system is already operationally running in the Barcelona harbour (NW Mediterranean Sea). The system is based on a recent published risk assessment, which takes into account not only the different activities in the harbour and their inherent risk of accident but also the physical behaviour of harbour waters. In this methodology, a key element is to get hydrodynamic forecasts. Thus, the system is composed of a hierarchy of nested hydrodynamic models covering from the basin scale to the harbour scale and a module that computes the different parameters needed for risk assessment. Special emphasis is made on describing the steps followed for system implementation because such implementation is far from a mere technical problem. The first step is to identify the main forcing factors for the harbour hydrodynamics from both field data and numerical experiments, which has never been done before for the Barcelona harbour. Wind and shelf currents are suggested as the main forcing factors for the harbour circulation. The second step is to identify the requirements that a numerical model must fulfil in order to properly solve the Barcelona harbour's hydrodynamics. A high resolution (< 50 m) three dimensional model able to prognostically calculate temperature and salinity evolution; full air-sea coupling is needed as well. The third step is to investigate the best operational strategy. We have found that small errors in the initial density profiles are acceptable for surface current forecasts but not for deep circulation. A cold start must be avoided and a 72 h spin-up is recommended. The minimum wind forcing resolution has been determined to be 1 h. A scaling factor should be included to account for the energy contribution of the higher frequency processes. Finally, an example of its application to a real case is presented and the comparison to other harbour environmental management systems is discussed.

Grifoll, Manel; Jordà, Gabriel; Espino, Manuel; Romo, Javier; García-Sotillo, Marcos

2011-10-01

18

Eutrophication. [Water pollution  

SciTech Connect

A literature review dealing with the process of eutrophication with respect to the sources and transport of pollutants is presented. Topics include the mathematical modeling of nutrient loading, eutrophication, and aquatic ecosystems. Biological and environmental indicators of eutrophication are reviewed, and the interactions between various chemical and biological pollutants are considered. Several lake management projects are discussed. (KRM)

Medine, A.J. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder); Porcella, D.B.

1982-06-01

19

Are interactive effects of harmful algal blooms and copper pollution a concern for water quality management?  

PubMed

Toxicity of mixtures of stressors is one of the major challenges in water quality management. Yet until now risk assessment focuses almost exclusively on the effect characterization of individual stressors. An important concern is the potential interactive effects of cyanobacteria, sometimes referred to as harmful algal blooms, with chemical stressors. Here, we evaluated the response of two clones of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna to the combined effects of five cyanobacteria and copper. The latter remains the most commonly applied chemical algaecide and is also often detected in eutrophic run-offs that promote harmful algal blooms. Because the different cyanobacteria studied here have known modes of action that are similar, as well as dissimilar compared to the known modes of actions of copper, we based our assessment on two widely used reference models, i.e. the Concentration Addition (CA) model for similarly acting stressors and the Independent Action (IA) model for dissimilarly acting stressors. We highlight four major findings. First, the conclusions drawn on the interaction type (non-interaction vs. synergism or antagonism) between either of the five cyanobacteria species and copper were the same for both D. magna clones. Second, the interaction type differed between the Microcystis + copper mixture (non-interaction according to CA and synergism according to IA) and the four other cyanobacteria + copper mixtures (antagonism according to CA and non-interaction according to IA). Third, both reference models provided reasonable predictions for all observed mixture toxicities. Fourth, we consistently obtained different results with the IA reference model compared to the CA model. More specifically, mixtures of Cu and Microcystis were synergistic with IA whereas non-interaction was observed with CA, while the remaining four cyanobacteria + copper combinations all displayed non-interaction with IA and antagonism with CA. Despite the IA reference model providing a marginally better fit to the data in general, the CA reference model delivered more conservative predictions for mixture toxicity of cyanobacteria + copper in all cases compared to the IA reference model. Thus, the CA model could serve as a conservative model to account for mixture toxicity of cyanobacteria and copper in water quality management, as it gives rise to conservative predictions of mixed stressor toxicity at sub-lethal effect levels in D. magna. Finally, and in accordance with other studies of cyanobacteria + chemical mixtures, we did not detect any strong synergistic effects of copper and cyanobacteria mixtures on D. magna. Consequently, based on our study with the model freshwater zooplankton species Daphnia, interactive effects of harmful algal blooms and copper pollution appear to be of limited concern for water quality management. PMID:24821194

Hochmuth, Jennifer D; Asselman, Jana; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

2014-09-01

20

Fecal Pollution of Water.  

EPA Science Inventory

Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

21

Public Health Care Management of Water Pollution with Pharmaceuticals: Environmental Classification and Analysis of Pharmaceutical Residues in Sewage Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in surface water is an emerging problem in developed countries. If such pollution is transferred to drinking water, the resulting involuntary low-dose medication of large population groups may compromise public health. In addition, aquatic life may be compromised. The Stockholm County Council, the provider of public healthcare in the Stockholm, Sweden region, has introduced a classification

Åke Wennmalm; Bo Gunnarsson

2005-01-01

22

Water Pollution Prevention and Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is designed to help students apply the pollution prevention (P2) concept to water. It contains the needed background information about water pollution and provides guidance and activities to help students describe water uses and sources, explain why water conservation is important, and explain how pollution prevention concepts can be used to conserve water and prevent water pollution. The preceding pages of the fact sheet contain background information and the definitions necessary to implement this lesson plan.

23

COLLABORATIVE INVESTIGATIONS OF WATER QUALITY POLLUTION PATTERNS: WORKING WITH  

E-print Network

COLLABORATIVE INVESTIGATIONS OF WATER QUALITY POLLUTION PATTERNS: WORKING WITH THE KYUQUOT and Environmental Management Title of Research Project: Collaborative Investigations of Water Quality Pollution about water quality sampling and policy agenda setting. Through time and repeated interactions

24

Water management practices in rural and urban homes: a case study from Bangladesh on ingestion of polluted water.  

PubMed

Although Bangladesh has achieved remarkable success in extending the availability of hand pumped and piped water, unsafe water is still ingested. This brief study attempted to assess water management practices in rural and urban homes in Bangladesh so as to establish the routes by which unsafe water is ingested, to examine methods of collection and storage, and determine why unsafe water sources are used when unsafe supplies are available. Forty-eight rural and forty-five urban slum households were studied. Observations, interviews and water quality investigations were conducted. The results show that the respondents were aware that hand pump/tap water is safe and took care to use these safe sources for drinking purposes. However, they continued to use surface water for non-drinking activities such as bathing, washing and rinsing their mouths. Reasons were given that it was a traditional practice to bathe in surface water and was more enjoyable. One of the reasons given for not using hand pumped water to wash clothing and food was that such groundwater caused staining. Bacteriological results from such ingested water showed the quality, especially in rural areas, to be poor. Results also showed the internal surfaces of the base of storage containers to be heavily contaminated with bacteria. This showed that water that was safe when it was first drawn would became contaminated during storage. This study had a limited scope; much further research is needed to find what determines and how water becomes contaminated in containers. These factors include how to reduce contamination of water, in particular the relationship between growth of bacteria in stored water and the material from which the container is made and how to improve the overall quality of water. On the management side, studies could be conducted as to how to improve people's understanding of the use of water for domestic purposes and its safe management. PMID:9807928

Ahmed, S A; Hoque, B A; Mahmud, A

1998-09-01

25

Simulation and evaluation of pollution load reduction scenarios for water environmental management: a case study of inflow river of Taihu Lake, China.  

PubMed

In the beginning of the 21st century, the deterioration of water quality in Taihu Lake, China, has caused widespread concern. The primary source of pollution in Taihu Lake is river inflows. Effective pollution load reduction scenarios need to be implemented in these rivers in order to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake. It is important to select appropriate pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving particular goals. The aim of this study was to facilitate the selection of appropriate scenarios. The QUAL2K model for river water quality was used to simulate the effects of a range of pollution load reduction scenarios in the Wujin River, which is one of the major inflow rivers of Taihu Lake. The model was calibrated for the year 2010 and validated for the year 2011. Various pollution load reduction scenarios were assessed using an analytic hierarchy process, and increasing rates of evaluation indicators were predicted using the Delphi method. The results showed that control of pollution from the source is the optimal method for pollution prevention and control, and the method of "Treatment after Pollution" has bad environmental, social and ecological effects. The method applied in this study can assist for environmental managers to select suitable pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving various objectives. PMID:25207492

Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Zhu, Wenting; Gao, Hailong; Hu, Wei; Wang, Jinhua

2014-09-01

26

Simulation and Evaluation of Pollution Load Reduction Scenarios for Water Environmental Management: A Case Study of Inflow River of Taihu Lake, China  

PubMed Central

In the beginning of the 21st century, the deterioration of water quality in Taihu Lake, China, has caused widespread concern. The primary source of pollution in Taihu Lake is river inflows. Effective pollution load reduction scenarios need to be implemented in these rivers in order to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake. It is important to select appropriate pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving particular goals. The aim of this study was to facilitate the selection of appropriate scenarios. The QUAL2K model for river water quality was used to simulate the effects of a range of pollution load reduction scenarios in the Wujin River, which is one of the major inflow rivers of Taihu Lake. The model was calibrated for the year 2010 and validated for the year 2011. Various pollution load reduction scenarios were assessed using an analytic hierarchy process, and increasing rates of evaluation indicators were predicted using the Delphi method. The results showed that control of pollution from the source is the optimal method for pollution prevention and control, and the method of “Treatment after Pollution” has bad environmental, social and ecological effects. The method applied in this study can assist for environmental managers to select suitable pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving various objectives. PMID:25207492

Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Zhu, Wenting; Gao, Hailong; Hu, Wei; Wang, Jinhua

2014-01-01

27

Remote Sensing of Water Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

White, P. G.

1971-01-01

28

Clean Water and Oceans: Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the water pollution portal for the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). NRDC works to continue reductions in industrial water pollution while pressing for effective pollution controls on agriculture, logging and other sources previously exempt from them. They help develop and promote strong federal laws and regulations to address polluted runoff, raw sewage discharges, and factory farm wastes and to sue polluters when the Clean Water Act is violated. This site contains simple issue overviews, news, how-to guides, frequently asked questions, photo essays and more in a section called In Brief. The In Depth section offers reports, white papers, policy analyses and other materials by NRDCs lawyers, scientists and analysts.

29

Exploring Water Pollution. Part 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists over 30 outdoor science activities dealing with water formation, erosion, pollution, and other water-related topics. Provides, in addition, a selected bibliography of films, tapes, booklets and pamphlets, and filmstrips as additional reference materials. (CP)

Rillo, Thomas J.

1976-01-01

30

Municipal water pollution prevention program  

SciTech Connect

EPA believes that the most effective and equitable means of assuring viability of this infrastructure is through environmentally preferred pollution prevention approaches especially through application of Municipal Water Pollution Prevention (MWPP). These approaches may enhance worker safety, improve the usability of sludge, increase the ability for local community expansion, and reduce operation and compliance costs. State-based municipal pollution prevention programs focus attention on a series of actions to prevent pollution in advance rather than taking more expensive corrective actions. MWPP encourages resource conservation to reduce water and energy use, appropriate pricing, toxicity reductions at the source, BOD reductions, recycling, proper treatment of wastes, and beneficial uses of sludge.

Not Available

1991-03-01

31

Water Quality Monitoring and Modeling in Lake Kastoria, Using GIS. Assessment and Management of Pollution Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Kastoria, is a very fragile aquatic ecosystem, protected by several national and international conventions, situated\\u000a in the Region of Western Macedonia, Greece. A monthly monitoring program has been operated by the Municipality of Kastoria,\\u000a during the past 5 years (2002–2007). The water quality parameters monitored, are: Water Temperature (Tw), dissolved oxygen\\u000a (DO), BOD, COD, pH, water conductivity (ECw), redox potential

N. Mantzafleri; A. Psilovikos; A. Blanta

2009-01-01

32

Pollutants in Airport Runoff Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Runoff waters from airport areas constitute a serious environmental problem. It is essential to monitor levels of pollutants emitted into the environment and measure their toxicity on a continuous basis. The authors’ aim was to critically review data on pollution from aviation fuel combustion, aviation fuel spillage, the washing and cleaning of aircraft and airport service equipment, and the use

Anna Maria Sulej; ?aneta Polkowska; Jacek Namie?nik

2012-01-01

33

How Does Water Get Polluted?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a hands-on modeling of the effects of pollution on our ground and surface water. Students will observe and record their observations as pollution is placed on the ground in their model and it is rained upon.

Anderson, Deb V.

34

Landsat and water pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents data derived from satellite images predicting pollution loads after rainfall. It explains method for converting Landsat images of Eastern United States into cover maps for Baltimore/five county region.

Castruccio, P.; Fowler, T.; Loats, H., Jr.

1979-01-01

35

Water Pollution: Monitoring the Source.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an advanced biology class project involving study of the effects of organic pollution on an aquatic ecosystem from an sewage treatment plant overflow to evaluate the chemical quality and biological activity of the river water. (DS)

Wilkes, James W.

1980-01-01

36

Indicators of the Long-term Eutrophication of a Danish lake (Karlsø), and Water Pollution Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Karlsø (Karl's lake) in Denmark has been subjected to domestic and agricultural wastewater discharges for many years. The composition of water plants has changed, and the lake has been less clear. Two types of methods are used to describe this transformation. The first is a historical survey of activities in the watershed and the environmental regulation of the lake. The

Henning Schroll

37

China's water pollution by persistent organic pollutants.  

PubMed

Available data were reviewed to assess the status of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in drinking water sources and coastal waters of China. The levels of POPs in China's waters were generally at the high end of the global range. A comparison of China's regulatory limits indicated that PCBs in rivers and coastal water may pose potential human health risk. Occurrence of DDTs in some rivers of China may also pose health risk to humans using the regulatory limits of DDTs recommended by the European Union. Future monitoring of POPs in China's waters should be directed towards analytes of concern (e.g. PCBs and PCDD/Fs) and to fill data gaps for analytes (e.g. PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, and chlordane) and in watersheds/regions (e.g. West China) where data are scarce. PMID:22325437

Bao, Lian-Jun; Maruya, Keith A; Snyder, Shane A; Zeng, Eddy Y

2012-04-01

38

Pollution effects on fisheries — potential management activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Management of ocean pollution must be based on the best available scientific information, with adequate consideration of economic, social, and political realities. Unfortunately, the best available scientific information about pollution effects on fisheries is often fragmentary, and often conjectural; therefore a primary concern of management should be a critical review and assessment of available factual information about effects of pollutants on fish and shellfish stocks. A major problem in any such review and assessment is the separation of pollutant effects from the effects of all the other environmental factors that influence survival and well-being of marine animals. Data from long-term monitoring of resource abundance, and from monitoring of all determinant environmental variables, will be required for analyses that lead to resolution of the problem. Information must also be acquired about fluxes of contaminants through resource-related ecosystems, and about contaminant effects on resource species as demonstrated in field and laboratory experiments. Other possible management activities include: (1) encouragement of continued efforts to document clearly the localized and general effects of pollution on living resources; (2) continued pressure to identify and use reliable biological indicators of environmental degradation (indicators of choice at present are: unusually high levels of genetic and other anomalies in the earliest life history stages; presence of pollution-associated disease signs, particularly fin erosion and ulcers, in fish; and biochemical/physiological changes); and (3) major efforts to reduce inputs of pollutants clearly demonstrated to be harmful to living resources, from point sources as well as ocean dumping. Such pollution management activities, based on continuous efforts in stock assessment, environmental assessment, and experimental studies, can help to insure that rational decisions will be made about uses and abuses of coastal/estuarine waters.

Sindermann, C. J.

1980-03-01

39

Exploring Water Pollution. Part II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

Rillo, Thomas J.

1975-01-01

40

Water Pollution in School Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water pollution curriculum units of four environmental secondary science programs in Britain, Germany, Israel, and the United States are examined. Comparisons reveal the use of quite different approaches in central topic selection, use of the laboratory and other media, controversial issues, and teacher-student roles. (CS)

Blum, Abraham

1979-01-01

41

Water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The `Act of 76' arose out of an inquiry about `...how far the present use of rivers or running waters...for the purpose of carrying off the sewage of towns...and the refuse from industrial processes and manufacturers...can be prevented without risk to the public health or serious injury to such processes...and how far such sewage and refuse can be utilized and

Bernard B. Berger; Leonard B. Dworsky

1977-01-01

42

Combined air and water pollution control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

Wolverton, Billy C. (inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (inventor)

1990-01-01

43

How Did That Get There?: Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a group, learners consider sources of water pollution to understand where pollution starts and where it ends up. Also explored are the natural and human-made options for cleaning up our water supply. This activity encourages learners to use their powers of observation, imagination, and public speaking skills as they describe possible pollution stories and scenarios, and brainstorm pollution prevention efforts.

Illinois, University O.

2009-01-01

44

Water pollution and the public trust doctrine  

SciTech Connect

The prior appropriation system has served well in the Western US for 125 years, providing a legal regime that permits and encourages enormous economic growth of agriculture, industry and municipalities. This system, however, both in its inception and current application, fails to address or protect public interests in fisheries, recreation, environmental quality, and clean water. As a result, serious nonpoint water pollution problems are occurring throughout the West. Such pollution can be regulated either by the courts or the legislatures under the public trust doctrine, which antedates the prior appropriation system, and which protects fisheries and water quality. No one - including irrigators, industries or cities with appropriative rights - has a vested, constitutionally protected property right to degrade the quality of public waters. Some states are adopting police power regulations to control nonpoint pollution. Others are approaching the problem through the prior appropriation system itself, taking the position that beneficial use means use that does not harm the public through pollution. The public trust doctrine is not a panacea that will instantly solve all the conflicts that now surround the prior appropriation system. It should be considered, however, as a basis for setting standards as best practicable technology or best management practice.

Johnson, R.W.

1989-01-01

45

CONTROLLING POLLUTION FROM THE MANUFACTURING AND COATING OF METAL PRODUCTS. 3. WATER POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

Volume 3 addresses managers, engineers and other industry personnel responsible for resolving the water pollution problems of a manufacturing facility. It covers regulations, in-plant controls, three methods for wastewater treatment, establishment of a working relationship with a...

46

Managing our water resources  

SciTech Connect

Water is a plentiful, renewable resource if it is properly managed. The US allocates 82% of its water to agriculture, 10% to industries and utilities. American farmers are beginning to adopt water-conserving techniques long used in the world's arid regions because past profligate use and recent droughts lowered both water tables and farm productivity. Runoff and pollution are responsible for much of the waste of usable water. Because of local water shortages, there is interest in drip irrigation, setting aside more land for reservoirs, and other conservation techniques to ensure adequate supplies for industrial development and economic growth. American faith in technology has led to schemes for desalination, cloud seeding, iceberg towing, and aquifer recharging, as well as the existing system of dams. Proper management of river basins is an important step in the process. 1 figure. (DCK)

Not Available

1982-05-01

47

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT / POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Goal 8.4 Improve Environmental Systems Management (Formally Pollution Prevention and New Technology) Background The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed and evaluated tools and technologies to monitor, prevent, control, and clean-up pollution through...

48

Pollution of ground water in Europe.  

PubMed

This paper discusses pollution of ground water in 20 countries of the European region, giving for each an account of the geology and hydrogeology, water supplies, the extent and nature of ground water pollution, and the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling that pollution. For the countries not considered in the preceding article on surface water pollution, an account is also given of the superficial physical features, rainfall, population, and industries.A general discussion follows of such questions as the ways in which ground water pollution may occur, the factors mitigating or aggravating pollution, and ways of protection against pollution. The authors consider that the problem of ground water pollution in Europe may well be more serious than it would appear to be on the evidence so far obtained. PMID:13374533

BUCHAN, S; KEY, A

1956-01-01

49

A dual-inexact fuzzy stochastic model for water resources management and non-point source pollution mitigation under multiple uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, a dual-inexact fuzzy stochastic programming (DIFSP) method was developed for supporting the planning of water and farmland use management system considering the non-point source pollution mitigation under uncertainty. The random boundary interval (RBI) was incorporated into DIFSP through integrating fuzzy programming (FP) and chance-constrained programming (CCP) approaches within an interval linear programming (ILP) framework. The lower and upper bounds of RBI are continuous random variables, and the correlation exiting between the lower and upper bounds can be tackled in RBI through the joint probability distribution function. And thus the subjectivity of decision making is greatly reduced, enhancing the stability and robustness of obtained solutions. The proposed method was then applied to solve a water and farmland use planning model (WFUPM) with non-point source pollution. The generated results could provide decision makers with detailed water supply-demand schemes involving diversified water related activities under various system conditions. These useful solutions could allow more in-depth analyses of the trade-offs between human and environment, as well as those between system optimality and reliability. In addition, comparative analyses on the solutions obtained from ICCP (Interval chance-constraints programming) and DIFSP demonstrated the higher application of this developed approach for supporting the water and farmland use system planning.

Dong, C.; Tan, Q.; Huang, G.-H.; Cai, Y.-P.

2014-01-01

50

A dual-inexact fuzzy stochastic model for water resources management and non-point source pollution mitigation under multiple uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, a dual-inexact fuzzy stochastic programming (DIFSP) method was developed for supporting the planning of water and farmland use management system considering the non-point source pollution mitigation under uncertainty. The random boundary interval (RBI) was incorporated into DIFSP through integrating fuzzy linear programming (FLP) and chance-constrained programming (CCP) approaches within an interval linear programming (ILP) framework. This developed method could effectively tackle the uncertainties expressed as intervals and fuzzy sets. Moreover, the lower and upper bounds of RBI are continuous random variables, and the correlation existing between the lower and upper bounds can be tackled in RBI through the joint probability distribution function. And thus the subjectivity of decision making is greatly reduced, enhancing the stability and robustness of obtained solutions. The proposed method was then applied to solve a water and farmland use planning model (WFUPM) with non-point source pollution mitigation. The generated results could provide decision makers with detailed water supply-demand schemes involving diversified water-related activities under preferred satisfaction degrees. These useful solutions could allow more in-depth analyses of the trade-offs between humans and environment, as well as those between system optimality and reliability. In addition, comparative analyses on the solutions obtained from ICCP (Interval chance-constraints programming) and DIFSP demonstrated the higher application of this developed approach for supporting the water and farmland use system planning.

Dong, C.; Tan, Q.; Huang, G.-H.; Cai, Y.-P.

2014-05-01

51

Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

52

Natural Wetlands Mediate Nonpoint Source Water Pollution From Irrigated Pastures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-point source discharge from grazed pastures may be high in nutrients, sediment, and pathogens, three major contributors to water quality impairment in California. Intercepting pollution at its source and managing water quality within the landscape are essential to maintaining healthy downstream waters. We investigated the efficacy of flow-through wetlands interspersed throughout the agricultural landscape to reduce non-point source pollution of

K. Knox; R. A. Dahlgren; K. W. Tate

2005-01-01

53

WATER MANAGEMENT & HYDROLOGICAL SCIENCE  

E-print Network

WATER MANAGEMENT & HYDROLOGICAL SCIENCE External Review Water Management and Hydrological Science Graduate Program Self Study October 2012 #12;#12;WATER MANAGEMENTWATER MANAGEMENT & HYDROLOGICAL SCIENCE& HYDROLOGICAL SCIENCE External Review Water Management and Hydrological Science Graduate Program Self Study

54

Water Pollution. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water is one of the most polluted resources in our environment. Since everyone has the same basic need for pure water, it follows that all people should have a basic knowledge of the causes, results and solutions to the water pollution problem. This unit is designed for use with Level II and III educable mentally retarded students to present…

Topeka Public Schools, KS.

55

Total Water Management - slides  

EPA Science Inventory

Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

56

Water pollution and human health in China.  

PubMed Central

China's extraordinary economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization, coupled with inadequate investment in basic water supply and treatment infrastructure, have resulted in widespread water pollution. In China today approximately 700 million people--over half the population--consume drinking water contaminated with levels of animal and human excreta that exceed maximum permissible levels by as much as 86% in rural areas and 28% in urban areas. By the year 2000, the volume of wastewater produced could double from 1990 levels to almost 78 billion tons. These are alarming trends with potentially serious consequences for human health. This paper reviews and analyzes recent Chinese reports on public health and water resources to shed light on what recent trends imply for China's environmental risk transition. This paper has two major conclusions. First, the critical deficits in basic water supply and sewage treatment infrastructure have increased the risk of exposure to infectious and parasitic disease and to a growing volume of industrial chemicals, heavy metals, and algal toxins. Second, the lack of coordination between environmental and public health objectives, a complex and fragmented system to manage water resources, and the general treatment of water as a common property resource mean that the water quality and quantity problems observed as well as the health threats identified are likely to become more acute. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10090702

Wu, C; Maurer, C; Wang, Y; Xue, S; Davis, D L

1999-01-01

57

Water Pollution: Appearances Can Be Deceiving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expresses concern over the amounts of toxic chemical pollutants being discharged into fresh water supplies. Analyzes the role of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in establishing and enforcing water quality standards. (CP)

Raloff, Janet

1977-01-01

58

Chapter 14 Water Pollution Factory-style hog farms in  

E-print Network

Chapter 14 Water Pollution #12;Factory-style hog farms in North Carolina Each pig produces, September 1999. #12;Hogs killed by flooding #12; Water pollution Common water pollutants Treating water pollution Wastewater treatment and renovation Learning Objectives #12; Water pollution refers

Pan, Feifei

59

Water pollution abatement through forest irrigation with municipal waste water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serious pollution problems are often created by the disposal of municipal waste water into surface waters. An obvious alternative-method is diversion of these waste waters to the land. Such non-aqueous methods of disposal might eliminate or alleviate many water pollution problems and, in some cases, could even provide secondary benefits such as recharge of groundwater reservoirs, and increased production of

William E. Sopper

60

Special Topics in Water Science (Water Pollution)  

MedlinePLUS

... Basics Water Properties Water Cycle Surface Water Groundwater Water Quality Water Use Activities Photos Q&A Teachers Contact ... explore other water-science topic areas, such as water quality, urbanization and water, saline water, watersheds, runoff, and ...

61

CHOOSING OPTIMUM MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

This seminar publication is addressed to managers and supervisors who have some responsibility for their plant's pollution control measures. The information and guidance provided to these decision personnel are drawn from case histories of working plants and include laws, regulat...

62

Agricultural nitrate monitoring in a lake basin in Central Italy: a further step ahead towards an integrated nutrient management aimed at controlling water pollution.  

PubMed

Water pollution from point sources has been considerably reduced over the last few decades. Nevertheless, some water quality problems remain, which can be attributed to non-point pollution sources, and in particular to agriculture. In this paper the results of a study intended to assess the consequences, in terms of NO3 water pollution, of growing a crop, whose impact in terms of P pollution is already well known, are presented. The potential consequences, in terms of water pollution from nitrates of a BMP expressly applied to reduce P pollution are also discussed. The study site is the Lake Vico basin, Central Italy, which has suffered a shift in trophic state since the mid 1990s, caused by P compounds used for intensive cultivation of hazelnut trees. The results of the monitoring campaign described in this paper allow to assert that hazelnut tree cropping has probably caused a considerable increase in nitrate concentration in the groundwater, although not in the lake water, because of the specific hydrogeological characteristics of the basin. The main conclusion is that monitoring is essential to single out environmental characteristics peculiar of a specific area, which even the most sophisticated model would not have been able to highlight. This is why monitoring and model simulations should be integrated. PMID:19911291

Garnier, Monica; Recanatesi, Fabio; Ripa, Maria Nicoletta; Leone, Antonio

2010-11-01

63

Pollution of surface water in Europe  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses pollution of surface water in 18 European countries. For each an account is given of its physical character, population, industries, and present condition of water supplies; the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling pollution are then described, and an outline is given of current research on the difficulties peculiar to each country. A general discussion of various aspects common to the European problem of water pollution follows; standards of quality are suggested; some difficulties likely to arise in the near future are indicated, and international collaboration, primarily by the exchange of information, is recommended to check or forestall these trends. PMID:13374532

Key, A.

1956-01-01

64

Risk assessment of water pollutants.  

PubMed

The sources of toxic xenobiotics and different factors such as ecological diversity, differences in comparative anatomy, physiology and biochemistry, food chain variation, interrelationship within species and life span, etc., are considered during risk assessment of pollutants, and their impact on aquatic ecotoxicology is identified. A fugacity and multimedia compartment model is suggested, based on toxicodynamic (toxicity of the chemical) and toxicokinetic (metabolism of the chemical) considerations to predict and screen the behaviour of pollutants quantitatively in the aquatic environment. The significance of the risk analysis approach in anticipatory actions and regulation of pollution levels is discussed. PMID:24221229

Misra, V; Jaffery, F N; Viswanathan, P N

1994-01-01

65

Global Water Pollution and Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality issues are a major challenge that humanity is facing in the twenty-first century. Here, we review the main groups of aquatic contaminants, their effects on human health, and approaches to mitigate pollution of freshwater resources. Emphasis is placed on chemical pollution, particularly on inorganic and organic micropollutants including toxic metals and metalloids as well as a large variety

René P. Schwarzenbach; Thomas Egli; Thomas B. Hofstetter; Urs von Gunten; Bernhard Wehrli

66

Global Water Pollution and Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality issues are a major challenge that humanity is facing in the twenty-first century. Here, we review the main groups of aquatic contaminants, their effects on human health, and approaches to mitigate pollution of freshwater resources. Emphasis is placed on chemical pollution, particularly on inorganic and organic micropollutants including toxic metals and metalloids as well as a large variety

René P. Schwarzenbach; Thomas Egli; Thomas B. Hofstetter; Urs von Gunten; Bernhard Wehrli

2010-01-01

67

Sheep dip chemicals and water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tweed River Purification Board's objective of reducing the numbers and significance of water pollution incidents by a proactive approach based on persuasion and education is described. This has consisted of prioritising potential pollutant sources which have then been investigated in detail followed by discussion and agreement with discharges as to remedial measures. The paper describes in detail the Board's

W. A. Virtue; J. W. Clayton

1997-01-01

68

Towards achieving the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals: The imperative of reforming water pollution control and waste management laws in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nigeria is among the group of developing countries that have adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) blueprint as a veritable vehicle for poverty eradication, economic growth and sustainable development. However, the pollution of its surface water from discharges from domestic, industrial and agricultural waste degrading the quality of fresh water available to human needs and poor environmental sanitation cast serious

A. A. Adedeji; R. T. Ako

2009-01-01

69

Integrated Water Resources Management in Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peru is a country with a strategic location for water resources, however, like many other countries, it is facing water supply and demand problems due to demographic densification growth, and pollution problems due to agricultural and industrial usage. In order to address these problems, integrated water resource management approach has been introduced. It includes the coordinated development, management and policies

Laura E. Higa Eda; Weiqi Chen

2010-01-01

70

SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Based on experiments with model systems of known organic water pollutants and environmental samples, conclusions are reached concerning the best general solvent for extraction and the most appropriate methods for related manipulations. Chloroform, methylene chloride-ether mixture...

71

Optimal dynamic management of groundwater pollutant sources.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The linear programing-superposition method is presented for managing multiple sources of groundwater pollution over time. The method uses any linear solute transport simulation model to generate a unit source-concentration response matrix that is incorporated into a management model. -from Authors

Gorelick, S. M.; Remson, I.

1982-01-01

72

Assessment and management of long-term nitrate pollution of ground water in agriculture-dominated watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this paper are to document and evaluate regional long-term trends and occurrences of nitrate in the ground water of agricultural watersheds. In Whatcom County, Washington, elevated nitrate concentrations in ground water are of great concern. Whatcom County is recognized by heavy agricultural activities, especially an intensive dairy farm industry. Historical nitrate concentration data from 1990 to 2000

Mohammad N Almasri; Jagath J Kaluarachchi

2004-01-01

73

Pollution of Natural Waters 1. Redox chemistry  

E-print Network

Pollution of Natural Waters Outline: 1. Redox chemistry 2. Redox potential in aquatic systems 3. Eutrophication 4. Water treatment 1. Redox chemistry #15; Principle of equilibration of chemical system R Keq on pH since Q r often dependent on pH 2. Redox potential in natural waters #15; Can be viewed

Schofield, Jeremy

74

Water Resource Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal, published by the University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Science (IFAS) Extension, offers a selection of links to information about water management issues. There is a 'Beginner's Guide to Water Management', which provides a basic introduction to the terminology and concepts used in water management. Other links access information on management in coastal waters, the impact of climate change on water resources, the use of stormwater as an alternative supply, wastewater management, and many others.

75

International Water Management  

E-print Network

International Water Management I n s t i t u t e GUIDANCE MANUAL MANAGEMENT OF IMPACTS Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka The WorldFish Center, Penang, Malaysia 2007 #12;ii; Sophie Nguyen Khoa is jointly appointed by the WorldFish Center and the International Water Management

Lorenzen, Kai

76

POLLUTION OF WATER Blank page retained for pagination  

E-print Network

CHAPTER XX POLLUTION OF WATER #12;Blank page retained for pagination #12;ASPECTS OF WATER POLLUTION IN THE COASTAL AREA OF THE GULF OF MEXICOl Prepared in the DIVISION of WATER POLLUTION CONTROL and SHELLFISH, and Welfare Principal natural resources of the Gulf that ap- pear susceptible to damages from water pollution

77

Lab 3 GEO 465/565 Storm Water Pollution  

E-print Network

1 Lab 3 ­ GEO 465/565 Storm Water Pollution The Nation's Most Significant Water Quality Problem our rivers, lakes and coastal waters by controlling pollution from industry and sewage treatment, is that we have not done enough to stop storm water pollution, or non-point source pollution, that runs off

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

78

Management of Agricultural Pollution in China: Current Status and International Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpoint source pollution from agricultural and rural regions which are mainly from fertilization of cropland, excessive livestock and poultry breeding and undefined disposal of daily living wastes in rural areas is the leading source of water pollution in China, but they are ignored in management strategy and policy. And because that agricultural nonpoint source pollution will become one of the

Yang Yong

2010-01-01

79

Good operating practices cut water pollution  

SciTech Connect

This paper explains how the pipeline industry can avoid violating the Clean Water Act (PL 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act), which states that pollution of US waters from any cause other than an act of God, war or Government negligence is the responsibility of the owner or operator of the facility. Reporting pollution to the National Response Center will limit the maximum penalty to $5,000 Rectifiers must be kept in top operating condition, and visual inspections of the right-of-way by aerial or ground patrols must detect construction of new pipelines or other facilities. Accidental damage by third parties is the major cause of failures in pipeline systems, which can be prevented by periodic contact with landowners. Conclusion is that if a pipeline operator follows good operating and maintenance practices, his exposure to effects of the Clean Water Act will be minimal.

West, D.E.

1982-07-12

80

RADIOACTIVE FACTORS IN WATER POLLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of radionuclides into bodies of water as a result of ; nuclear reactor operations is discussed. The off-site water monitoring program ; at the Chalk River Plant of Atomic Energy of Canada is outlined. Factors ; affecting the disposal and measurement of radionuclides in water are considered. ; (P.C.H.);

1962-01-01

81

Water hyacinths for removal of phenols from polluted waters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Removal of phenol by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in static water was investigated. 2.75 g dry weight of this aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to absorb 100 mg of phenol per plant per 72 hours from distilled water, river water, and bayou water. One hectare of water hyacinth plants is shown to be potentially capable of removing 160 kg of phenol per 72 hours from waters polluted with this chemical.

Wolverton, B. C.

1975-01-01

82

Ground-Water pollution and its sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Everybody wants clean water for drinking, bathing and other domestic uses, but not everybody appreciates the fact that our\\u000a own actions are often the worst enemy in achieving that goal. Ground water is one of the most misused and misunderstood resources.\\u000a Because ground water and its movement, and consequently also its pollution, is hidden from view beneath the land surface,

A. Zaporozec

1981-01-01

83

Behavioural early warning responses to polluted water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural early warning responses to polluted surface water from an industrial effluent have been measured in two freshwater\\u000a macroinvertebrate species using the four electrode impedance conversion technique. Specimens ofGammarus pulex (L.) andHydropsycho angustipennis (Curtis) were caught from reference streams and exposed to water from above and below the factory and to reference water\\u000a for about 1 h with different kinds

Almut Gerhardt

1996-01-01

84

Community action on water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Actions to improve local water or air quality are likely to combine collective benefits with specific costs. This suggests that the variations among communities in their actions to improve water quality will involve opposition from industries bearing the specific costs. The use of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-funded matching grants for sewerage construction by large U.S. cities varies inversely with the

Judith J. Friedman

1977-01-01

85

Farm Solutions to Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this KET video from Common Ground and Cleaner Water, Tribby Vice, a Kentucky farmer, talks about the changes he has made on his farm to protect the water quality of the stream running through his property and the watershed in which he lives.

Ket

2008-09-02

86

USGS Water Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

USGS Water Management: The USGS provides maps, reports, and information to help others meet their needs to manage, develop, and protect America's water, energy, mineral, and land resources. Some of the seventeen topics included here are flood forecasting, reservoir management, water allocation and bioremediation.

2008-09-23

87

Modelling and Simulation of a Polluted Water Pumping Process  

E-print Network

Modelling and Simulation of a Polluted Water Pumping Process Chitra Alavani1 , Roland Glowinski2 concentration when a polluted water pumping ship follows a pre­assigned trajectory to remove the pollutant. We for simplicity that the density of the pollutant is smaller than the one of the sea water (so that it remains

Tradacete, Pedro

88

Pollutant dispersion modelling for Portuguese river water uses protection linked to tracer dye experimental data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical models are well known as useful tools for water management practices, directly or i ndirectly related to the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in European countries. They can be applied to solve or understand either simple water quality problems or complex water management problems of trans-boundary rivers or multiple-purpose and stratified reservoirs. Accidental spills of pollutants are

A. L. S. DUARTE; RUI A. R. BOAVENTURA

2008-01-01

89

Design an effective storm water pollution prevention plan  

SciTech Connect

A case history shows ``how`` to plan and organize a storm water pollution prevention program (SWPPP). Using easy-to-use worksheets and guidelines, hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) operators can build upon existing best management practices (i.e., housekeeping procedures, visual inspections, spill prevention programs, etc.) to meet tighter restrictions set by National Pollutant Discharge Elimination system (NPDES) permits. Especially in high rainfall areas, storm water poses an intermittent, but large volume problem. The facility`s site size is another factor that impacts the scope and cost for SWPPP. The five steps to implementing a SWPPP are: Planning and organization; Assessment; Best management practice (BMP) identification; Implementation; Evaluation and monitoring. Initially, HPI operators must identify all potential contamination sources and past spills and leak areas. Following the SWPP guidelines, operators can map out a cost-effective storm water program that meets all NPDES requirements.

Vivona, M.A. [Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-08-01

90

Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory  

E-print Network

Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan For: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Computation;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) LBNL CRTF UC Project No.912314 LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL ........................................................ 10 2.6 Identifying of Non-Storm Water Discharges

91

Lawn Water Management  

E-print Network

Water is a limited resource in Texas. This booklet explains how homeowners can establish a water management program for a home lawn that both maintains a healthy sod and also conserves water. The publication discusses soil types, grass varieties...

McAfee, James

2006-06-26

92

Handbook for state ground water managers  

SciTech Connect

;Table of Contents: Nonpoint Source Implementation; State Public Water System Supervision; State Underground Water Source Protection (Underground Injection Control); Water Pollution Control -- State and Interstate Program Support (106 Grants); Water Quality Management Planning; Agriculture in Concert with the Environment; Consolidated Pesticide Compliance Monitoring and Program Cooperative Agreements; Pollution Prevention Incentives for States; Hazardous Substance Response Trust Fund; Hazardous Waste Financial Assistance; Underground Storage Tank Program; Leaking Underground Storage Tank Trust Fund; State/EPA Data Management Financial Assistance Program; Environmental Education; and Multi-Media Assistance Agreements for Indian Tribes.

Not Available

1992-05-01

93

Hazardous waste management and pollution prevention  

SciTech Connect

The management of hazardous wastes is one of the most critical environmental issues that faces many developing countries. It is one of the areas where institutional control and treatment and disposal technology has not kept pace with economic development. This paper reviews the development of hazardous waste management methods over the past decades, and provides the information on the status and trends of hazardous waste management strategy in selected western nations. Several issues pertinent to hazardous waste management will be reviewed, including: (1) definition of hazard; (2) why are we concerned with hazardous wastes; (3) aspects of hazardous waste management system; and (4) prioritization of hazardous waste management options. Due to regulatory and economic pressure on hazardous waste management, pollution prevention has become a very important environmental strategy in many developed countries. In many developed countries, industry is increasingly considering such alternative approaches, and finding many opportunities for their cost effective implementation. This paper provides a review of the status and trends of pollution prevention in selected western nations.

Chiu, Shen-yann

1992-03-01

94

Hazardous waste management and pollution prevention  

SciTech Connect

The management of hazardous wastes is one of the most critical environmental issues that faces many developing countries. It is one of the areas where institutional control and treatment and disposal technology has not kept pace with economic development. This paper reviews the development of hazardous waste management methods over the past decades, and provides the information on the status and trends of hazardous waste management strategy in selected western nations. Several issues pertinent to hazardous waste management will be reviewed, including: (1) definition of hazard; (2) why are we concerned with hazardous wastes; (3) aspects of hazardous waste management system; and (4) prioritization of hazardous waste management options. Due to regulatory and economic pressure on hazardous waste management, pollution prevention has become a very important environmental strategy in many developed countries. In many developed countries, industry is increasingly considering such alternative approaches, and finding many opportunities for their cost effective implementation. This paper provides a review of the status and trends of pollution prevention in selected western nations.

Chiu, Shen-yann.

1992-01-01

95

Effects of Water Pollution on Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an inquiry activity that, while based on a local area (the San Francisco Bay), could be adapted to the teacher's/student's local area. Students perform an experiment in which they observe how water pollution is absorbed into plants. The site contains a teacher's guide and printable student worksheet.

96

Water Pollution, Environmental Science Curriculum Guide Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is a 40-day unit plan on water pollution developed, in part, from the National Science Foundation Environmental Science Institutes' Ninth Grade Environmental Science Curriculum Guide. This unit contains teacher lesson plans, suggested teacher and student modules, case studies, and activities to be developed by teachers…

McKenna, Harold J.

97

Magnetic separation in water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic separation as applied to waterborne contaminants is successful in reducing the solids content of a water sample and in removing the dissolved orthophosphate from the aqueous slurry. The contaminants are chemically associated with a magnetic seeding material, and subsequent removal of this seed sweeps the pollutants from the system. The advantage of this form of treatment over conventional techniques

CHRISTOPHER DE LATOUR

1973-01-01

98

Good operating practices cut water pollution  

SciTech Connect

This article advises the pipeline industry on how to comply with the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (PL 92-500), which states that pollution of US waters by any cause other than an ''Act of God,'' ''Act of War,'' or US Government negligence is the responsibility of the owner or operator of the facility. Points out that the actions of third parties do not relieve owners or operators of liability unless they are the sole cause of pollution. Emphasizes that liability can be reduced by prompt reporting of pollution to the National Response Center. Reveals that the major cause of failures in pipeline systems is accidental damage by third parties. Proposes tha the best defense against pipeline damage resulting from landowner activity is periodic contact of the landowner by the operator. Recommends aerial and ground patrols as sources of information on construction activities. Concludes that assessing a penalty against the party causing the pollution would be better than merely penalizing the pipeline operator.

West, D.E.

1982-07-12

99

Getting Research-based Information on Water and Pollutants to Those Who Need It  

E-print Network

Getting Research-based Information on Water and Pollutants to Those Who Need It By Steve Ress Becoming a one-stop shop for information on watershed management and agricultural nonpoint source pollution is a goal of the Heartland Regional Water Quality Coordination Initiative. The new initiative, developed

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

100

Water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the studies of water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. Citations examine the development, management, and protection of estuary and coastal resources. Topics include pollution sources, environmental monitoring, water chemistry, eutrophication, models, land use, government policy, and laws and regulations. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-02-01

101

Effects of water pollution on fungi of submerged organic debris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of water pollution on fungi inhabiting submerged organic debris were investigated. A total of 35 species representing 20 genera were isolated from materials collected from clean and polluted localities. Fewer fungi were obtained from the polluted localities where even common fungi such as penicillia, Curvularia and Trichoderma were less frequently encountered. Organic water pollution was seen to affect

T. K. Tan; G. Lira

1983-01-01

102

Forewarning model for water pollution risk based on Bayes theory.  

PubMed

In order to reduce the losses by water pollution, forewarning model for water pollution risk based on Bayes theory was studied. This model is built upon risk indexes in complex systems, proceeding from the whole structure and its components. In this study, the principal components analysis is used to screen out index systems. Hydrological model is employed to simulate index value according to the prediction principle. Bayes theory is adopted to obtain posterior distribution by prior distribution with sample information which can make samples' features preferably reflect and represent the totals to some extent. Forewarning level is judged on the maximum probability rule, and then local conditions for proposing management strategies that will have the effect of transforming heavy warnings to a lesser degree. This study takes Taihu Basin as an example. After forewarning model application and vertification for water pollution risk from 2000 to 2009 between the actual and simulated data, forewarning level in 2010 is given as a severe warning, which is well coincide with logistic curve. It is shown that the model is rigorous in theory with flexible method, reasonable in result with simple structure, and it has strong logic superiority and regional adaptability, providing a new way for warning water pollution risk. PMID:24194413

Zhao, Jun; Jin, Juliang; Guo, Qizhong; Chen, Yaqian; Lu, Mengxiong; Tinoco, Luis

2014-02-01

103

Receiving Water Uses, Impairments, and Sources of Stormwater Pollutants  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 2 Receiving Water Uses, Impairments, and Sources of Stormwater Pollutants "Bathing in sewage-polluted seawater carries only a negligible risk to health, even on beaches that are aesthetically) .........................................................................26 Recreation (Non-Water Contact) Uses

Pitt, Robert E.

104

Evolving water management institutions in Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mexico's water management institutions are undergoing a gradual but dramatic change that corresponds to other changes in Mexican society. Implementing these changes has led to the creation of new institutions, including river basin councils, state water commissions, aquifer management committees, and water user associations. Established institutions such as the National Water Commission have accepted new roles. Some of these changes can be considered to be superficial, but this institutional change is impressive. Successful practices can be identified. These include the transfer of the management of large irrigation districts to the users, the periodic practice of establishing a national water plan, the cautious approach to private sector participation in water supply and sanitation, and the national registry of water use. Remaining challenges include weak river basin and aquifer management organizations, overexploitation of key aquifers, polluted surface water, and the inability of water markets to facilitate intersectoral water transfers.

Hearne, Robert R.

2004-12-01

105

CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS VS. RETENTION POND BMPS: MESOCOSM STUDIES FOR IMPROVED POLLUTANT MANAGEMENT IN URBAN STORMWATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Increased urbanization has increased the amount of directly connected impervious area that results in large quantities of stormwater runoff. This runoff can contribute significant amounts of debris and pollutants to receiving waters. Urban watershed managers often incorporate b...

106

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN (RISK LEVEL 1)  

E-print Network

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN (RISK LEVEL 1) for BUILDING 90 USER TEST BED FACILITY.G., GEOLOGIST/QSD (530) 222-4339 SWPPP Preparation Date: JUNE 10, 2012 #12;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan) 222-4339 Name and Title Telephone Number #12;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan Building 90 User

Eisen, Michael

107

Market policies for control of multiple pollutants: Management issues and methods of analysis  

SciTech Connect

Transferable discharge permit (TDP) programs for managing multiple pollutants may be complicated by the interactive environmental impacts and by the joint treatment costs of the pollutants. Under such systems, pollutants may be managed as several individual commodities, or grouped together and managed as a weighted sum of the various pollutants. This thesis presents approaches for (1) evaluating the cost efficiency of TDP programs in which permits for several pollutants are traded as individual commodities, (2) estimating the cost-effective weighting factors for TDP programs in which pollutants are grouped together, and (3) determining the equilibrium distribution of financial burden among dischargers participating in TDP markets for multiple pollutants. These approaches are demonstrated for a water-quality-management program that controls BOD, phosphorus, and nitrogen discharges in a river basin. For programs that manage pollutants individually, two market scenarios, representing simultaneous and sequential TDP markets, are developed to provide high and low benchmarks for cost efficiency, respectively. The costs of these scenarios are compared with each other and with that of a uniform treatment approach. TDP programs in which pollutants are grouped together reduce the number of permit markets necessary to manage these pollutants.

Lence, B.J.

1988-01-01

108

Water Management: towards 2030  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from Agriculture21 cites the management practices and policies that will be necessary to avoid water crises in the coming three decades. There are links to information on raising water productivity, improving irrigation technology, and modernizing irrigation management. The text is available in English, French, Spanish, Arabic, and Chinese.

2003-03-01

109

Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

Rowbotham, N.

1973-01-01

110

Nutrient Bioaccumulation in Phragmites australis: Management Tool for Reduction of Pollution  

E-print Network

Nutrient Bioaccumulation in Phragmites australis: Management Tool for Reduction of Pollution by Phragmites australis in the Albujón rambla, the main drainage system that discharges into the Mar Menor Phragmites australis . Nutrients . Bioaccumulation . Mar Menor. Water pollution 1 Introduction Reed

Murcia, Universidad de

111

THE STRUCTURE OF FARMERS' PERCEPTIONS OF GROUND WATER POLLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a 1992 Georgia Farm Practices survey are used to examine the structure of farmers' perceptions of ground water pollution and their support of regulations to protect ground water. Estimates of the influence of farm and farmer characteristics on pollution perceptions and support for pollution control were computed using a multiple-indicator model. Results show that the willingness to change

Abdelmoneim H. Elnagheeb; Jeffrey L. Jordan; Vonda Humphrey

1995-01-01

112

An application of Landsat and computer technology to potential water pollution from soil erosion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Agricultural activity has been recognized as the primary source of nonpoint source water pollution. Water quality planners have needed information that is timely, accurate, easily reproducible, and relatively inexpensive to utilize to implement 'Best Management Practices' for water quality. In this paper, a case study shows how the combination of satellite data, which can give accurate land-cover/land-use information, and a computerized geographic information system, can assess nonpoint pollution at a regional scale and be cost effective.

Campbell, W. J.

1981-01-01

113

Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, & Infant Mortality in India  

E-print Network

Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, environmental regulations, and infant mortality from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental ...

Greenstone, Michael

2011-07-01

114

A Report of the Regional Monitoring Program for Water Quality in the San Francisco Estuary pollutant effects on aquatic life  

E-print Network

Program for Water Quality in the San Francisco Estuary 2011 pollutant effects on aquatic life pulse goals of Bay water quality managers is to ensure that pollutants do not interfere with the abilityA Report of the Regional Monitoring Program for Water Quality in the San Francisco Estuary

115

Watershed management: Clean water`s next act  

SciTech Connect

14 articles related to watershed management comprise this special advertising section of the Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies. Subtopics include water quality, regulations, US Environmental Protection Agency activities, analysis tools, economics, flooding and erosions, and non-point source pollutions. Articles on arid and coastal are included. Several articles describe municipal watershed programs being planned or in place.

Hite, R.W. [Metro Wastewater Reclamation District, Denver, CO (United States)

1996-09-23

116

Comment on water pollution in Lake Michigan from pollution aerosol fallout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that air pollution is a major source of some water pollution trace elements in Lake Michigan (Winchester and Nifong, 1971) is reexamined. Hazards evaluation techniques are used to assess the overall transfer efficiency of pollution from air to the lake. This efficiency was found to be at least 25%, which supports the hypothesis.

D. Skibin

1973-01-01

117

Water pollution in Lake Michigan by trace elements from pollution aerosol fallout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain trace elements which are strongly associated with air pollution sources in the Lake Michigan basin may be contributing significantly to lake water pollution by an atmospheric fallout route. In this paper a partial inventory of air pollution emissions for 30 trace elements is presented for the Chicago, Milwaukee, and northwest Indiana metropolitan areas, based on available published information. The

John W. Winchester; Gordon D. Nifong

1971-01-01

118

Purge water management system  

DOEpatents

A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

1995-01-01

119

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. ...water pollution control and air pollution control requirements...

2010-01-01

120

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

... 2014-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. ...water pollution control and air pollution control requirements...

2014-01-01

121

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. ...water pollution control and air pollution control requirements...

2011-01-01

122

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. ...water pollution control and air pollution control requirements...

2013-01-01

123

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. ...water pollution control and air pollution control requirements...

2012-01-01

124

Patrick Air Force Base Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report fulfills the requirements of the EPA General Permit for storm water discharge that facilities requiring NPDES storm water permits prepare a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP). Facilities requiring permits are those classified as ind...

F. Graziano, P. Makowski, S. Rives

1994-01-01

125

Development of an air pollution evaluation system by linking air pollution total quantity control and land use management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study considers air pollution total quantity control and land use management to establish a methodology for estimating unit emission loads of land use types. An air pollution evaluation system (APES) is developed, based on air pollution evaluation theory and procedure by linking air pollution total quantity control and land use management. The APES consists of an information management subsystem,

2001-01-01

126

The problems of water pollution: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most potentially toxic chemicals eventually find their way into waterways. The most common source of this pollution is from the air. More than 50 percent of the chemical pollution of the Great Lakes is believed to come from airborne pollutants, and the main sources of this pollution are smokestacks (energy plants, nuclear or conventional; trash-to-steam incinerators; industrial factories, chemical and

G. Lumb; A. S. Clare

1992-01-01

127

Studies Regarding the Ground Water Pollution in a Rural Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The papers presents studies regarding the pollution of the ground water, in a rural area. Samples of drinking water from 10 wells have been analyzed in order to evaluate if their quality was affected as result of farming activities. We find out that the water from some of the wells in polluted, the values of some of the quality parameters

Cornelia Muntean; Petru Negre; Mihaela Ciopec; Lavinia Lup; Ioan Ursoiu; Giannin Mosoarca; Ramona Ghiga

128

Biocomposting of distillery waste to control water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a developing country like India, distillery industries have become a major source of pollution, as 88% of its raw materials are converted into waste and discharged into the water bodies, causing water pollution. The waste water from distilleries carry appreciable organic load. The spent wash is colored, highly acidic with very offensive odor, which poses serious environmental problems. To

Ashok Kumar Ghosh; Bihari Singh; Nupur Bose; K. K. Tiwari

2003-01-01

129

Removal of Estrogenic Pollutants from Contaminated Water Using  

E-print Network

Removal of Estrogenic Pollutants from Contaminated Water Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Z I H that this material may be appropriate for treating a complex mixture of estrogenic pollutants. The feasibility of removing estrogenic compounds from environmental water by the MIP was demonstrated using lake water spiked

Chen, Wilfred

130

Rapid assessment of air, water, and land pollution sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is outlined to make a rapid across-the-board estimate of the quantities of air, water and land pollution in a given region or country. Such inventories, though not as detailed as one would eventually need, provide a first integrated view of the magnitude and quantity of pollution and can contribute to effective and comprehensive pollution control planning.

H. W. Koning

1981-01-01

131

A Decision Support System for Evaluatingquality Safety Risk Contaminated By Water Pollution in Aquaculture Pond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water pollution is becoming the major factor damaging the sustainable development of aquaculture and the quality security of aquatic product in China. This paper introduces a decision support system for evaluating and managing quality risk contaminated by water pollution. The architecture, main components and their functions, especially a series of risk evaluation methods and models are described. At present, the system is in pilot in the city of Beijing in China. The stage achievements in developing the system are summarized.

Tian, Dong; Li, Nan; Huang, Honghui; Fu, Zetian; Zhang, Xiaoshuan

132

Preventing Water Pollution Tips for Vehicle Washing and Detailing Businesses  

E-print Network

Vehicle washing and detailing practices can produce: • soaps and cleaners • oil and antifreeze • dirt and grease • metals If these pollutants reach waterways, they can cause significant water pollution problems. YOU can prevent that. Standing on the edge of a storm drain is like standing on the shore of a stream. Stormwater carries pollutants that harm aquatic life and impact swimming and fishing. According to the Washington State Department of Ecology, stormwater is the number one source of water pollution in the urban areas of Western Washington. Thousands of small spills from many of us add up to our biggest pollution problem.

Stormwater Bmps For The Automotive

133

The Current State of Water Quality and Technology Development for Water Pollution Control in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes and presents an overview of the current state of water pollution, as well as recent progress and the potential future development of water pollution control technology, in China. Although China has made significant strides in water environmental protection over the past decades, analysis reveals that water pollution in the nation is still not sufficiently controlled, with a

Jiuhui Qu; Maohong Fan

2010-01-01

134

Conference Topic: Integrated Water Resources and Coastal Areas Management National Water Information Systems: A Tool to Support Integrated Water Resources  

E-print Network

of natural disasters; and reduced water quality due to pollution from industrial, agricultural and municipalConference Topic: Integrated Water Resources and Coastal Areas Management National Water Information Systems: A Tool to Support Integrated Water Resources Management in the Caribbean Marie-Claire St

Barthelat, Francois

135

Urban Water Resources Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Urban Water Resources Management Web site is maintained by the Global Development Research Center. The center "carries out initiatives in education, research and practice, in the spheres of environment, urban, community, economy and information, and at scales that are effective." The site contains information and links to topics such as understanding the importance of water; organizations and institutions; documents and information repositories; initiatives, programs, and projects; and more.

136

Combining Watershed Variables with PCR-based Methods for Better Characterization and Management of Fecal Pollution in Small Streams  

EPA Science Inventory

Ability to distinguish between human and animal fecal pollution is important for risk assessment and watershed management, particularly in bodies of water used as sources of drinking water or for recreation. PCR-based methods were used to determine the source of fecal pollution ...

137

Factors Affecting Survival of Pollution Indicator Organisms in Estuarine Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies of the survival of pollution indicator organisms (coliforms, fecal coliforms, and enterococci) in untreated estuarine waters gave rates agreeing with those of other workers. In estuarine waters passed through a 0.45 micrometer membrane filter, col...

D. W. Cook, R. W. Hamilton

1971-01-01

138

Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

Fowler, K. E. M.

139

Loading functions for assessment of water pollution from nonpoint sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for evaluating the quantity of water pollutants generated from nonpoint sources including agriculture, silviculture, construction, mining, runoff from urban areas and rural roads, and terrestrial disposal are developed and compiled for use in water quality planning. The loading functions, plus in some instances emission values, permit calculation of nonpoint source pollutants from available data and information. Natural background was

A. D. McElroy; S. Y. Chiu; J. W. Nebgen; A. Aleti; F. W. Bennett

1976-01-01

140

Application of GIS in Water Pollutant Capacity Total Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity total control, in the field of water pollution prevent, is more effective than the traditional mandatory total control. In this article, GIS was applied into the capacity total control of water pollutant. Using the ArcSDE technology, a spatial geodatabase that included many kinds of spatial information and attribute data was built. Based on it, a spatial model system

Liang Wang; Xiutao Zhang

2009-01-01

141

33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for failure to conduct ballast water management. 151.1518... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2010-07-01

142

33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for failure to conduct ballast water management. 151.1518... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2012-07-01

143

33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for failure to conduct ballast water management. 151.1518... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2013-07-01

144

33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for failure to conduct ballast water management. 151.1518... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2011-07-01

145

Eutrophication assessment and management methodology of multiple pollution sources of a landscape lake in North China.  

PubMed

Landscape lakes in the city suffer high eutrophication risk because of their special characters and functions in the water circulation system. Using a landscape lake HMLA located in Tianjin City, North China, with a mixture of point source (PS) pollution and non-point source (NPS) pollution, we explored the methodology of Fluent and AQUATOX to simulate and predict the state of HMLA, and trophic index was used to assess the eutrophication state. Then, we use water compensation optimization and three scenarios to determine the optimal management methodology. Three scenarios include ecological restoration scenario, best management practices (BMPs) scenario, and a scenario combining both. Our results suggest that the maintenance of a healthy ecosystem with ecoremediation is necessary and the BMPs have a far-reaching effect on water reusing and NPS pollution control. This study has implications for eutrophication control and management under development for urbanization in China. PMID:23184129

Chen, Yanxi; Niu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Hongwei

2013-06-01

146

Water Pollution Control Benefits and Costs. Volume I. State of the Art Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey and assessment are presented of the state-of-art of economic analyses dealing with water pollution control benefits and costs. A conceptual basis for benefit cost analysis involving water quality management is suggested. An economic concept of a ...

S. G. Unger, M. J. Emerson, D. L. Jordening

1973-01-01

147

Nonpoint Source Pollution: Agriculture, Forestry, and Mining. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nonpoint sources of pollution have diffuse origins and are major contributors to water quality problems in both urban and rural areas. Addressed in this instructor's manual are the identification, assessment, and management of nonpoint source pollutants resulting from mining, agriculture, and forestry. The unit, part of the Working for Clean Water

Buskirk, E. Drannon, Jr.

148

[Microbial source tracking of water fecal pollution: a review].  

PubMed

Livestock feces and domestic sewage are the one of the main factors inducing water pollution, while the identification of the pollution source is particularly important in pollution control and management. Because of this, microbial source tracking (MST) has recently been paid more and more attention by the related researchers around the world. In this paper, the research progress of two types of MST methods, their advantages and disadvantages, and existing problems in application were reviewed and discussed. It was considered that in the library- and culture-dependent MST methods, PCR genotyping based on repetitive sequences was most practicable, while in the library- and culture-independent MST methods, PCR-DGGE based on the gene of specificity in Escherichia coli had a very glaring sight. Future researches should be more focused on the library- and culture-independent MST, and the combination of library- and culture-dependent MST with library- and culture-independent MST could make the tracking results more credible. PMID:21443019

Feng, Guan-da; Deng, Ming-rong; Zhu, Hong-hui; Guo, Jun; Zhang, Xi; Zhu, Chang-xiong; Liang, Hao-liang

2010-12-01

149

Impact of land-use on water pollution in a rapidly urbanizing catchment in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many catchments in developing countries are undergoing fast urbanization which is usually characterized by population increase, economic growth as well as drastic changes of land-use from natural/rural to urban area. During the urbanization process, some catchments experience water quality deterioration due to rapid increase of pollution loads. Nonpoint source pollution resulting from storm water runoff has been recognized as one of the major causes of pollutants in many cities in developing countries. The composition of land-use for a rapidly urbanizing catchment is usually heterogeneous, and this may result in significant spatial variations of storm runoff pollution and increase the difficulties of water quality management in the catchment. The Shiyan Reservoir catchment, a typical rapidly urbanizing area in China, is chosen as the study area, and temporary monitoring sites were set at the outlets of its 6 sub-catchments to synchronously measured rainfall, runoff and water quality during 4 storm events. Three indicators, event pollutant loads per unit area (EPL), event mean concentration (EMC) and pollutant loads transported by the first 50% of runoff volume (FF50), were used to describe the runoff pollution for different pollutants (such as COD, BOD, NH3-N, TN, TP and SS) in each sub-catchment during the storm events; and the correlations between runoff pollution spatial variations and land-use patterns were tested by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The results indicated that similar spatial variation trends were found for different pollutants (EPL or EMC) in light storm events, which strongly correlate with the proportion of residential land-use; however, they have different trends in heavy storm events, which correlate with the different proportional combination of residential, industrial, agricultural and bare land-use. It is also shown that it is necessary to consider some pervious land-use types in runoff pollution monitoring or management for a rapidly urbanizing area, particularly in heavy storm.

Khu, Soon-Thiam; Qin, Huapeng

2010-05-01

150

Energy and Water Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Energy efficiency isn't just a good idea; it's a necessity, both for cost reasons and to meet federal regulatory requirements. First, rising energy unit costs continue to erode NASA's mission budget. NASA spent roughly $156M on facility energy in FY 2007. Although that represents less than one per cent of NASA's overall annual budget, the upward trend in energy costs concerns the agency. While NASA reduced consumption 13%, energy unit costs have risen 63%. Energy cost increases counteract the effects of energy conservation, which results in NASA buying less yet spending more. The second factor is federal energy legislation. The National Energy Conservation Policy Act, as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Executive Order (EO) 13423 (January, 2007), and the Energy Independence and Security Act (December, 2007), mandates energy/water conservation goals for all federal agencies, including NASA. There are also reporting requirements associated with this legislation. The Energy/Water Management Task was created to support NASA Headquarters Environmental Management Division (HO EMD) in meeting these requirements. With assistance from TEERM, HQ EMD compiled and submitted the NASA Annual Report to the Department of Energy FY 2007. The report contains information on how NASA is meeting federally mandated energy and water management goals. TEERM monitored input for timeliness, errors, and conformity to the new energy/water reporting guidelines and helped compile the information into the final report. TEERM also assists NASA Energy/Water Management with proposal and award calls, updates to the energy/water management database, and facilitating communication within the energy/water management community. TEERM is also supporting NASA and the Interagency Working Group (IWG) on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells. Established shortly after the President announced the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in 2003, this IWG serves as the mechanism for collaboration among the Federal agencies involved in hydrogen-related research, development, and demonstration. TEERM developed a matrix showing all Hydrogen and Fuel Cell activities from the various NASA centers to be included in the Group's extensive hydrogen research taxonomy of past, present, and future hydrogen activities of the Federal government.

Valek, Susan E.

2008-01-01

151

An Innovative Partnership Approach for Environmental Management and Pollution Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A partnership between a university and a government regulatory agency sought to assist industries with pollution prevention and waste management. Economic incentives were developed to promote waste minimization. (SK)

Erten-Unal, Mujde; Aydlett, Guy M.

1997-01-01

152

Seeking More Effective Management of Freshwater Pollution  

EPA Science Inventory

The atmosphere contains airborne pollutants such as mercury, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides released from automobiles, factories, and power plants. Similarly, land surfaces such as croplands, feedlots, logged forests, construction sites, and urban land surfaces may be reserv...

153

9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

... Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. 381.151... Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. (a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited to...

2014-01-01

154

9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

... Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. 318.14... Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. (a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited to...

2014-01-01

155

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

...2014-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2014-04-01

156

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2011-04-01

157

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

2011-07-01

158

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

2013-07-01

159

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2012-04-01

160

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

2012-07-01

161

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2013-04-01

162

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2010-04-01

163

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

2010-07-01

164

Mine water pollution in Scotland: nature, extent and preventative strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scotland was one of the world's first industrialised countries, and has therefore also been one of the first countries to experience wholesale post-industrial dereliction. Water pollution arising from abandoned mines, particularly abandoned coal mines, is second only to sewage as a source of freshwater pollution nation-wide, and in many coalfield catchments it is the pre-eminent source. Most of the pollution

P. L. Younger

2001-01-01

165

Integrated Water Management Options in the Nebraska Ground Water Management &  

E-print Network

Integrated Water Management Options in the Nebraska Ground Water Management & Protection Act by J. David Aiken UNL Water & Agricultural Law Specialist Nebraska statutes authorize natural resources districts (NRDs) and the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources (DNR) to regulate ground water and surface

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

166

Water quality management library. 2. edition  

SciTech Connect

A series of ten books offered in conjunction with Water Quality International, the Biennial Conference and Exposition of the International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control (IAWPRC). Volume 1, Activated Sludge Process, Design and Control, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 2, Upgrading Wastewater Treatment Plants, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 3, Toxicity Reduction, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 4, Municipal Sewage Sludge Management, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 5, Design and Retrofit of Wastewater Treatment Plants for Biological Nutrient Removal, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 6, Dynamics and Control of the Activated Sludge Process, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 7: Design of Anaerobic Processes for the Treatment of Industrial and Municipal Wastes, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 8, Groundwater Remediation, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 9, Nonpoint Pollution and Urban Stormwater Management, 1st edition, 1995: Volume 10, Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse, 1st edition, 1998.

Eckenfelder, W.W.; Malina, J.F.; Patterson, J.W. [eds.

1998-12-31

167

Stable Isotope Mixing Models as a Tool for Tracking Sources of Water and Water Pollutants  

EPA Science Inventory

One goal of monitoring pollutants is to be able to trace the pollutant to its source. Here we review how mixing models using stable isotope information on water and water pollutants can help accomplish this goal. A number of elements exist in multiple stable (non-radioactive) i...

168

Optimal Regulatory Instruments for a self - polluting firm in the presence of water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper emphasizes of profit maximizing firms that produce output (with water being an important input in the production process), and generates a negative externality like pollution in water resources. Such quality degradation in the water input affects, inevitably, the production of firm in the forthcoming period. In order to capture this, the paper envisages the existence of two types

Anandajit Goswami; Souvik Bhattacharjya; Nilanjan Ghosh

169

Water pollution control technology and strategy for river-lake systems: a case study in Gehu Lake and Taige Canal.  

PubMed

The Taoge water system is located in the upstream of Taihu Lake basin and is characterized by its multi-connected rivers and lakes. In this paper, current analyses of hydrology, hydrodynamics and water pollution of Gehu Lake and Taige Canal are presented. Several technologies are proposed for pollution prevention and control, and water environmental protection in the Taihu Lake basin. These included water pollution control integration technology for the water systems of Gehu Lake, Taige Canal and Caoqiao River. Additionally, river-lake water quality and quantity regulation technology, ecological restoration technology for polluted and degraded water bodies, and water environmental integration management and optimization strategies were also examined. The main objectives of these strategies are to: (a) improve environmental quality of relative water bodies, prevent pollutants from entering Gehu Lake and Taige Canal, and ensure that the clean water after the pre-treatment through Gehu Lake is not polluted before entering the Taihu Lake through Taige Canal; (b) stably and efficiently intercept and decrease the pollution load entering the lake through enhancing the river outlet ecological system structure function and water self-purifying capacity, and (c) designate Gehu Lake as a regulation system for water quality and water quantity in the Taoge water system and thus guarantee the improvement of the water quality of the inflow into Taihu Lake. PMID:21516445

Zhang, Yimin; Zhang, Yongchun; Gao, Yuexiang; Zhang, Houhu; Cao, Jianying; Cai, Jinbang; Kong, Xiangji

2011-07-01

170

IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF FECAL POLLUTION IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of Microbial Source Tracking (MST) methods are currently used to determine the origin of fecal pollution impacting environmental waters. MST is based on the assumption that given the appropriate method and indicator organism, the source of fecal microbial pollution can ...

171

ALTERNATIVE POLICIES FOR CONTROLLING NONPOINT AGRICULTURAL SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This study of policies for controlling water pollution from nonpoint agricultural sources includes a survey of existing state and Federal programs, agencies, and laws directed to the control of soil erosion. Six policies representing a variety of approaches to this pollution prob...

172

The allocative efficiency implications of water pollution abatement cost comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessments of the efficiency of water pollution control allocations are usually based on abatement cost comparisons. The general rule is that efficiency is improved by reallocating abatement from sources with high marginal costs to low-cost sources. The welfare-theoretic foundation of this rule is well established for situations with nonstochastic emissions. In situations with stochastic emissions, pollution control involves improving the

James S. Shortle

1990-01-01

173

publication 426-043 Urban Water-Quality Management  

E-print Network

publication 426-043 Urban Water-Quality Management Rain Garden Plants Mike Andruczyk, Extension Gilland, Extension Agent, Portsmouth A rain garden is a landscaped area specially designed to collect rainfall and storm-water runoff. The plants and soil in the rain garden clean pollutants from the water

Liskiewicz, Maciej

174

Assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote measurement of chlorophyll concentrations to determine extent of water pollution is discussed. Construction and operation of radiometer to provide measurement capability are explained. Diagram of equipment is provided.

Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

1972-01-01

175

Spatial Optimization of Best Management Practices to Attain Water Quality Targets  

E-print Network

(natural and human) that affect pollutant mobilization, and the complex pollutant pathway from sources to receiving waters. There is a need to improve prioritization of diffuse pollution controls at the watershedSpatial Optimization of Best Management Practices to Attain Water Quality Targets Erica J. Brown

Vermont, University of

176

Hydrocarbon analysis of shrimp from oil polluted waters  

E-print Network

HYDROCARBON ANALYSIS OF SHRIMP FROM OIL POLLUTED WATERS A Thesis by BERNARD JOHN DEWITT III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1982... Major Subject: Food Science and Technology HYDROCARBON ANALYSIS OF SHRIMP FROM OIL POLLUTED WATERS A Thesis BERNARD JOHN DEWITT III Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) (Head of apartment) May 1982...

DeWitt, Bernard John

2012-06-07

177

Outbreak of Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome occurred in the third week of a diarrhoea epidemic caused by water pollution in EL-Sult, Jordan. Of 30 000 people exposed to polluted water, 5000 developed diarrhoea, 74 typhoid, and 30 infectious hepatitis. Thirteen of the 16 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had been mildly affected by diarrhoea 8-24 days before the onset of peripheral neuropathy.

N A Sliman

1978-01-01

178

NATION WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ASSESSMENT MODEL - VERSION 2.1.  

EPA Science Inventory

NWPCAM brings together large amounts of environmental data and complex hydrologic and water quality modeling techniques into a system whose purpose is to estimate the water quality and economic benefits of water pollution control policies. NWPCAM began as a point source evaluati...

179

Water pollution in the USSR and other Eastern European countries*  

PubMed Central

The condition of water bodies and measures taken to prevent their pollution in the USSR, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Bulgaria and Romania are the main subjects of this paper. For each of these countries information is given on population and area, physical features, rain-fall and rivers, the distribution of population and industry, water supply and sewerage, the condition of surface and ground waters, the authorities and legislation concerned with the protection of water resources, and research on pollution. The author draws attention to the experience gained in these countries in the setting up of special State bodies to take charge of water resources and in classifying rivers according to the uses to which they are put, a factor which determines the regulations governing the discharge of effluent into them. A plea is also made for the convening of specialized international conferences on problems connected with the protection of European water resources from pollution. PMID:14465925

Litvinov, N.

1962-01-01

180

Water quality . . . potential sources of pollution  

USGS Publications Warehouse

What is water quality? To most students, water quality may suggest only "clean" water for drinking, swimming, and fishing. But to the farmer or manufacturer, water quality may have an entirely different meaning. One of the most important issues concerning the quality of water is how that water will be used. Water that is perfectly fine for irrigation might not be suitable for drinking or swimming.

Vandas, Stephen; Artwork by Farrar, Frank

1996-01-01

181

Science, Pollution, and Clean Drinking Water: Choosing Between Tap Water, Bottled Water, and Home Purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focusing on the recent explosion in the use of bottled water, this article—originally written for my NASTS conference presentation—will examine the rhetoric used by the bottled water industry and home purification system providers to affect the public’s idea of clean, pure, dirty, and polluted water. Bottlers argue that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides better regulation of bottled water

Franz Foltz

1999-01-01

182

Pollution trees: identifying similarities among complex pollutant mixtures in water and correlating them to mutagenicity.  

PubMed

There are relatively few tools available for computing and visualizing similarities among complex mixtures and in correlating the chemical composition clusters with toxicological clusters of mixtures. Using the "intersection and union ratio (IUR)" and other traditional distance matrices on contaminant profiles of 33 specific water samples, we used "pollution trees" to compare these mixtures. The "pollution trees" constructed by neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), and maximum likelihood (ML) methods allowed comparison of similarities among these samples. The mutagenicity of each sample was then mapped to the "pollution tree". The IUR-distance-based measure proved effective in comparing chemical composition and compound level differences between mixtures. We found a robust "pollution tree" containing seven major lineages with certain broad characteristics: treated municipal water samples were different from raw water samples and untreated rural drinking water samples were similar with local water sources. The IUR-distance-based tree was more highly correlated to mutagenicity than were other distance matrices, i.e., MP/ML methods, sampling group, region, or water type. IUR-distance-based "pollution trees" may become important tools for identifying similarities among real mixtures and examining chemical composition clusters in a toxicological context. PMID:22680987

Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Tian, Dajun; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Weidong; Andersen, Melvin E; Zheng, Yuxin; Sun, Xin; Jiang, Songhui; Cao, Zhaojin; He, Gengsheng; Qu, Weidong

2012-07-01

183

Irrigation management under water scarcity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of water for agricultural production in water scarcity regions requires innovative and sustainable research, and an appropriate transfer of technologies. This paper discusses some of these aspects, mainly relative to on-farm irrigation management including the use of treated wastewater and saline waters. First, the paper proposes some concepts relative to water scarcity, concerning aridity, drought, desertification and water

Luis Santos Pereira; Theib Oweis; Abdelaziz Zairi

2002-01-01

184

Decision perspectives on urban storm water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study are to develop and use a novel and simple method of analysis of the urban combined sewer and overflow problem. An aggregated method is presented which relates a few significant variables to produce a scalar that describes the severity of pollution for an urban area. Typical values of the variables are assigned, and sensitivity analysis

G. K. Young

1976-01-01

185

[Impact of water pollution risk in water transfer project based on fault tree analysis].  

PubMed

The methods to assess water pollution risk for medium water transfer are gradually being explored. The event-nature-proportion method was developed to evaluate the probability of the single event. Fault tree analysis on the basis of calculation on single event was employed to evaluate the extent of whole water pollution risk for the channel water body. The result indicates, that the risk of pollutants from towns and villages along the line of water transfer project to the channel water body is at high level with the probability of 0.373, which will increase pollution to the channel water body at the rate of 64.53 mg/L COD, 4.57 mg/L NH4(+) -N and 0.066 mg/L volatilization hydroxybenzene, respectively. The measurement of fault probability on the basis of proportion method is proved to be useful in assessing water pollution risk under much uncertainty. PMID:19927799

Liu, Jian-Chang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Li-Min; Li, Dai-Qing; Fan, Xiu-Ying; Deng, Hong-Bing

2009-09-15

186

The sources, impact and management of car park runoff pollution: a review.  

PubMed

Traffic emissions contribute significantly to the build-up of diffuse pollution loads on urban surfaces with their subsequent mobilisation and direct discharge posing problems for receiving water quality. This review focuses on the impact and mitigation of solids, metals, nutrients and organic pollutants in the runoff deriving from car parks. Variabilities in the discharged pollutant levels and in the potentials for pollutant mitigation complicate an impact assessment of car park runoff. The different available stormwater best management practices and proprietary devices are reported to be capable of reductions of between 20% and almost 100% for both suspended solids and a range of metals. This review contributes to prioritising the treatment options which can achieve the appropriate pollutant reductions whilst conforming to the site requirements of a typical car park. By applying different treatment scenarios to the runoff from a hypothetical car park, it is shown that optimal performance, in terms of ecological benefits for the receiving water, can be achieved using a treatment train incorporating permeable paving and bioretention systems. The review identifies existing research gaps and emphasises the pertinent management practices as well as design issues which are relevant to the mitigation of car park pollution. PMID:25214073

Revitt, D Michael; Lundy, Lian; Coulon, Frédéric; Fairley, Martin

2014-12-15

187

Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process  

E-print Network

Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process Abstract: The study investigates water quality pollution impacts on urbanization by analyzing temporal and spatial characteristics of different water quality parameters, and simulating economic loss of water

Yu, Qian

188

Method to determine actinide pollution in water  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for measuring small amounts, of actinide pollution in fluidic samples by use of solid state track recording devices. It comprises: containing a sample to be tested, containing small amounts of less than 3E-12 Curies per cubic centimeter of actinide pollution, in a sample cell defining an internal chamber and having means for ingress and egress and means for establishing a fluidic sample therein, the sample cell being substantially transparent to thermal neutron radiation and the internal chamber defined therein being configured to constitute a fluidic sample therein as an asymptotic fluid fission source; positioning a solid state track recorder within the internal chamber defined by the sample cell, so that the solid state track recorder has a radiation viewing window through an asymptotic thickness of a fluidic sample contained in the sample cell; capturing at least an asymptotic amount of fluidic sample in the sample cell.

Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Preston, C.C.

1992-02-11

189

Health Risk Information to Reduce Water Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A growing body of empirical studies indicate that farmers are concerned about how agricultural practices may affect health\\u000a risks and environmental quality. These studies suggest that farmers are not simply profit maximizers. Instead, they have multiple\\u000a objectives that include health and environmental concerns. As a result, their privately optimal behavior can result in less\\u000a use of polluting inputs than would

Scott M. Swinton; Nicole N. Owens; Eileen O. van Ravenswaay

190

River Pollution: Part II. Biological Methods for Assessing Water Quality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses methods used in the biological assessment of river quality and such indicators of clean and polluted waters as the Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score System, and species diversity indexes. Includes a summary of a river classification scheme based on quality criteria related to water use. (JN)

Openshaw, Peter

1984-01-01

191

Spectral reflectance and radiance characteristics of water pollutants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral reflectance characteristics of water pollutants and water bodies were compiled using the existing literature. Radiance calculations were performed at satellite altitude for selected illumination angles and atmospheric conditions. The work described in this report was limited to the reflective portion of the spectrum between 0.40 micrometer to 1.0 micrometer.

Wezernak, C. T.; Turner, R. E.; Lyzenga, D. R.

1976-01-01

192

Water Science, Management and Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new AGU book, Water:Science, Management and Policy, edited by Richard Lawford, Denise Fort, Holly Hartmann, and Susanna Eden, explores the scientific and political issues behind water use and sustainability worldwide. The book investigates critical issues facing water managers, policy makers, and scientists in the 21st century, examining specific examples of water planning and decision-making. Among the topics discussed by

Jonathan Lifland

2004-01-01

193

Water Management Technologies from Europe  

E-print Network

ppm total dissolved solids in recovered water, 1997 European Plant Wastewater: caustic wash water, 34 MT/hour water recovery with Membrane Separation... Pinch Technology" TA-1l4453, 1999 9. EPRI "Freeze Concentration in Hazardous Wastewater Management" TA-114537, 1999 10. EPRI "MTBE Concentration in Water Supplies" epreweb White Paper, 1999 II. EPRI "Plasma Technology Overview" epriweb White...

Woinsky, S. G.

194

Model of collective cooperation and reallocation of benefits related to conflicts over water pollution across regional boundaries in a Chinese river basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serious transboundary conflicts over water pollution commonly arise from the environmental management of Chinese river basins adopting the current model of proportional share of pollution reduction (MPSPR). This paper discusses problems with the current MPSPR and then proposes a new model. Based on four assumptions, including the assumption that pollutant discharge or transfer within the river basin is highly controlled

Laijun Zhao

2009-01-01

195

Temporal trend and source apportionment of water pollution in different functional zones of Qiantang River, China.  

PubMed

The increasingly serious river water pollution in developing countries poses great threat to environmental health and human welfare. The assignment of river function to specific uses, known as zoning, is a useful tool to reveal variations of water environmental adaptability to human impact. Therefore, characterizing the temporal trend and identifying responsible pollution sources in different functional zones could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river water environment. The aim of this study is to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal trends and sources of water pollution in different functional zones with a case study of the Qiantang River, China. Measurement data were obtained and pretreated for 13 variables from 41 monitoring sites in four categories of functional zones during the period 1996-2004. An exploratory approach, which combines smoothing and non-parametric statistical tests, was applied to characterize trends of four significant parameters (permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen, total cadmium and fluoride) accounting for differences among different functional zones identified by discriminant analysis. Aided by GIS, yearly pollution index (PI) for each monitoring site was further mapped to compare the within-group variations in temporal dynamics for different functional zones. Rotated principal component analysis and receptor model (absolute principle component score-multiple linear regression, APCS-MLR) revealed that potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions varied among the four functional zones. Variations of APCS values for each site of one functional zone as well as their annual average values highlighted the uncertainties associated with cross space-time effects in source apportionment. All these results reinforce the notion that the concept of zoning should be taken seriously in water pollution control. Being applicable to other rivers, the framework of management-oriented source apportionment is thus believed to have potentials to offer new insights into water management and advance the source apportionment framework as an operational basis for national and local governments. PMID:21147494

Su, Shiliang; Li, Dan; Zhang, Qi; Xiao, Rui; Huang, Fang; Wu, Jiaping

2011-02-01

196

A modeling approach to evaluate the impacts of water quality management plans implemented in a watershed in Texas  

E-print Network

of polluted water bodies, the United States * Corresponding author. Tel.: C1 2547746000; fax: C1 2547746001. E water quality standards, allocates pollution control responsibilities among pollution sourcesA modeling approach to evaluate the impacts of water quality management plans implemented

197

Water pollution in Pakistan and its impact on public health--a review.  

PubMed

Water pollution is one of the major threats to public health in Pakistan. Drinking water quality is poorly managed and monitored. Pakistan ranks at number 80 among 122 nations regarding drinking water quality. Drinking water sources, both surface and groundwater are contaminated with coliforms, toxic metals and pesticides throughout the country. Various drinking water quality parameters set by WHO are frequently violated. Human activities like improper disposal of municipal and industrial effluents and indiscriminate applications of agrochemicals in agriculture are the main factors contributing to the deterioration of water quality. Microbial and chemical pollutants are the main factors responsible exclusively or in combination for various public health problems. This review discusses a detailed layout of drinking water quality in Pakistan with special emphasis on major pollutants, sources of pollution and the consequent health problems. The data presented in this review are extracted from various studies published in national and international journals. Also reports released by the government and non-governmental organizations are included. PMID:21087795

Azizullah, Azizullah; Khattak, Muhammad Nasir Khan; Richter, Peter; Häder, Donat-Peter

2011-02-01

198

Can control of soil erosion mitigate water pollution by sediments?  

PubMed

The detrimental impact of sediment and associated pollutants on water quality is widely acknowledged, with many watercourses in the UK failing to meet the standard of 'good ecological status'. Catchment sediment budgets show that hill slope erosion processes can be significant sources of waterborne sediment, with rates of erosion likely to increase given predicted future weather patterns. However, linking on-site erosion rates with off-site impacts is complicated because of the limited data on soil erosion rates in the UK and the dynamic nature of the source-pathway-receptor continuum over space and time. Even so, soil erosion control measures are designed to reduce sediment production (source) and mobilisation/transport (pathway) on hill slopes, with consequent mitigation of pollution incidents in watercourses (receptors). The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific evidence of the effectiveness of erosion control measures used in the UK to reduce sediment loads of hill slope origin in watercourses. Although over 73 soil erosion mitigation measures have been identified from the literature, empirical data on erosion control effectiveness are limited. Baseline comparisons for the 18 measures where data do exist reveal erosion control effectiveness is highly variable over time and between study locations. Given the limitations of the evidence base in terms of geographical coverage and duration of monitoring, performance of the different measures cannot be extrapolated to other areas. This uncertainty in effectiveness has implications for implementing erosion/sediment risk reduction policies, where quantified targets are stipulated, as is the case in the EU Freshwater Fish and draft Soil Framework Directives. Also, demonstrating technical effectiveness of erosion control measures alone will not encourage uptake by land managers: quantifying the costs and benefits of adopting erosion mitigation is equally important, but these are uncertain and difficult to express in monetary terms. PMID:23815978

Rickson, R J

2014-01-15

199

Biomedical Questions on Water Pollution Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent question on acid rain toxicity motivated this informal look at SDC's WATERLIT and DIALOG'S Water Resources Abstracts. Thc same question was Iormulated for comparison on BIOSIS. The data bases were examined for ease of access to the indexing through key citations. The scope of the two water databases is discussed from the perspective of biomedical queries.

Nancy G. Bruce

1983-01-01

200

Needed: Clean Water. Problems of Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet utilizes illustrations and captions to indicate the demands currently made on our water resources and the problems associated with that demand. Current and future solutions are described with suggestions for personal conservation efforts to help provide enough clean water for everyone in the future. (CS)

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

201

MERCURY SEPARATION FROM POLLUTANT WATER USING ZEOLITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water has been examined at room temperature. Experiments have...

202

Protection of drinking water sources against modern pollutants.  

PubMed

One of the main tasks of hygiene necessitating urgent solution is the regulation, within the framework of governmental planning, of sanitary protection against modern pollutants of sources and water works supplying the human collectivities. Pollution by pesticides, surfactants, aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons, oil waste products, phenolics, radioactive isotopes etc., is requiring particular concern. Cases of penetration of these chemical substances, especially of pesticides, oil residues and other kinds of industrial waste into ground waters have been recently observed with increasing frequency. Pollution of underground waters occurred either through the storage on the surface ground or into soil of waste products containing these substances or through their discharge into the water stream. The presence of these substances in most water supply systems the lowered effectivity of water-works in the removal of these substances, continual increase in the number of industries producing these pollutants, their participation in the origin or increased incidence of some chronic diseases characterizing the development of modern society make necessary scientific substantiation and urgent solution of the problem. PMID:1168670

Zamfir, G; Nästase, V

1975-01-01

203

Water-Quality Trading: Can We Get the Price of Pollution Right?1  

E-print Network

Water-Quality Trading: Can We Get the Price of Pollution Right?1 Yoshifumi Konishi Faculty for pollution can work for air. Should they not work for water pollution too? The U.S. Environmental Protection known (Mauzerall et al., 2005). Spatial dependence is likely even more prominent for water pollution

Weiblen, George D

204

Managing Multimedia Pollution for a Multimedia World  

EPA Science Inventory

Through modest attention to the information highway we ride upon each day, we are increasingly aware of the intent, actions, and reactions of local, state and Federal governments, regional compacts, and international organizations to protect the quality of the water we drink, th...

205

Development of a water quality modeling system for river pollution index and suspended solid loading evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe Kaoping River Basin is the largest and most extensively used watershed in Taiwan. In the upper catchment, the non-point source (NPS) pollutants including suspended solid (SS) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) are two major water pollutants causing the deterioration of Kaoping River water quality. Because SS is one of the four parameters involving in the River Pollution Index (RPI) calculation, it needs to be carefully evaluated to obtain the representative water quality index. The main objective of this study was to develop a water quality modeling system to obtain representative SS and RPI values for water quality evaluation. In this study, a direct linkage between the RPI calculation and a water quality model [Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP)] has been developed. Correlation equations between Kaoping River flow rates and SS concentrations were developed using the field data collected during the high and low flows of the Kaoping River. Investigation results show that the SS concentrations were highly correlated with the flow rates. The obtained SS equation and RPI calculation package were embedded into the WASP model to improve interactive transfers of required data for water quality modeling and RPI calculation. Results indicate that SS played an important role in RPI calculation and SS was a critical factor during the RPI calculation especially for the upper catchment in the wet seasons. This was due to the fact that the soil erosion caused the increase in the SS concentrations after storms. In the wet seasons, higher river flow rates caused the discharges of NPS pollutants (NH3-N and SS) into the upper sections of the river. Results demonstrate that the integral approach could develop a direct linkage among river flow rate, water quality, and pollution index. The introduction of the integrated system showed a significant advance in water quality evaluation and river management strategy development.

Lai, Y. C.; Tu, Y. T.; Yang, C. P.; Surampalli, R. Y.; Kao, C. M.

2013-01-01

206

Pollution of drinking water with nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main sources of nitrate in man are food and drinking water. The legislature in West Germany intends to lower the permitted level of nitrate in drinking water from the present 90 mg\\/l to 50 mg\\/l in 1982. The European Community has issued a directive that recommends a level of only 25 mg\\/l, and for babies 10 mg\\/l nitrate should

B. Cabel; R. Kozicki; U. Lahl; A. Podbielshi; B. Stachel; S. Struss

1982-01-01

207

Marine Pollution Monitoring Management Group The Group Co-ordinating Sea Disposal Monitoring  

E-print Network

Marine Pollution Monitoring Management Group The Group Co-ordinating Sea Disposal Monitoring MONITORING REPORT Number 49 Marine Pollution Monitoring Management Group The Group Co-ordinating Sea Disposal ............................................................................................................................... 9 2. Sampling and analysis at sewage-sludge disposal sites

208

MANAGING EXPOSURE TO INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS IN RESIDENTIAL AND OFFICE ENVIRONMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the factors to be considered in managing indoor air pollutants in residential and office environments to reduce occupant exposures. Techniques for managing indoor air pollution sources include: source elimination, substitution, modification, and pretreatment a...

209

[Countermeasures for strict water quality management of drinking water sources: some thoughts and suggestions on implementing strict water resources management].  

PubMed

Suggestions on Carrying Out Strict Management Regulations of Water Resources were promulgated by the State Council in January, 2012. This is an important issue which has drawn public attention. I strongly support the principle and spirit of the regulations, as well as the request that governments above the county level bear the overall management responsibility. However, as to the technical route of and countermeasures for achieving strict management, several problems exist in reality. Relevant opinions and suggestions are given in this paper (the paper focuses exclusively on drinking water sources which are most in need of strict protection and management). Main opinions are as follows. (1) The sources of drinking water meeting the Class II standard in Surface Water Environment Quality Standards (GB 3838-2002) may not necessarily be unpolluted; (2) A necessary condition for protecting drinking water sources is that the effluents of enterprises' workshops discharged into the conservation zone should meet the regulation on the permitted maximum concentration of priority-I pollutants defined in the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB 8978-1996); (3) There is a strong doubt about whether Class II standard in GB 3838-2002 for priority I pollutants reflects environmental background values in water. PMID:24191587

Fu, Guo-Wei

2013-08-01

210

Water Pollution in the Durankulak Lake, Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of the wetlands as ecosystem types consists in the stable maintenance of high biodiversity in the limited space of the ecotone. For this reason the system can be relatively easily studied and managed, and a great number of plant and animal species can be easily protected. The Durankulak Lake situated in close proximity to the Black Sea is

Ivanka Dimitrov; Vihra Hainadjiev

211

Water Resources Management Legal Perspectives  

E-print Network

Water Resources Management Legal Perspectives Eyal Benvenisti Kaplan Workshop, Ma'agan 13 April of transboundary freshwater 1997 UN Convention, Article 2: (a) "Watercourse:" a system of surface waters which is required by international law." Invokes "the concept of common utilization of shared water

Einat, Aharonov

212

Water Pollution Detection by Reflectance Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement of the intensity of light reflected from various planar liquid surfaces has been performed. The results of this brief study show that the presence of a film of foreign material floating on a reference substrate is easily detected by reflectance measurement if the two liquids possess significantly different refractive indices, for example, oil (n = 1.40) and water (n = 1.33). Additional study of various optical configurations, and the building and testing of a prototype monitoring device revealed that the method is sufficiently practical for application to continuous water quality monitoring.

Goolsby, A. D.

1971-01-01

213

Acrylamide encephaloneuropathy due to well water pollution.  

PubMed Central

All five members of a family developed subacutely mental confusion and/or truncal ataxia. Symptoms and signs of polyneuropathy were seen later. The well water in the patients' home contained 400 ppm acrylamide. The present cases are unique in that they are cases of acrylamide poisoning induced by oral intake and percutaneous penetration, and that central nervous system symptoms were prominent. PMID:168322

Igisu, H; Goto, I; Kawamura, Y; Kato, M; Izumi, K

1975-01-01

214

Acrylamide encephaloneuropathy due to well water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

All five members of a family developed subacutely mental confusion and\\/or truncal ataxia. Symptoms and signs of polyneuropathy were seen later. The well water in the patients' home contained 400 ppm acrylamide. The present cases are unique in that they are cases of acrylamide poisoning induced by oral intake and percutaneous penetration, and that central nervous system symptoms were prominent.

H Igisu; I Goto; Y Kawamura; M Kato; K Izumi

1975-01-01

215

Applied research reduces air pollution from platforms in offshore California waters  

SciTech Connect

The monumental task of reducing air pollutants generated from offshore oil and gas platforms while preserving safety and production safeguards is difficult. Recently, a group of scientists have pioneered the smokeless oil spill burn concept using Enhanced Burning Additives (EBA), while the Minerals Management Service (MMS) entered the 89th year of monitoring the safe operational practices under air pollutant reducing measures such as water injected turbine generators and the use of new fuels on platforms along the Californian Pacific coast. This paper presents the conclusions of this trial period of selecting the right, technically feasible concepts.

Konczvald, A.; Shackell, G.C.

1996-12-31

216

Water Pollution, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed are the reasons why present mechanisms for the control of water purity are inadequate. The control of waterborne epidemics is discussed to illustrate a problem which has been solved, then degradation of the environment is presented as an unsolved problem. Case histories are given of pollution and attempts at control in rivers, lakes,…

Berg, George G.

217

Inactive and abandoned underground mines. Water pollution prevention and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground mining operations across the United States produce a number of environmental problems. The foremost of these environmental concerns is acid discharges from inactive and abandoned underground mines that deteriorate streams, lakes and impoundments. Waters affected by mine drainage are altered both chemically and physically. This report discusses in Part I the chemistry and geographic extent of mine drainage pollution

R. L. Scott; R. M. Hays

1975-01-01

218

Water pollution control by aquatic vegetation of treatment wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplying polluted river water to nature reserves in The Netherlands often leads to eutrophication of the reserve. The eutrophication can be caused directly by the high nutrient input (external eutrophication) or indirectly by altering nutrient availability due to changes in nutrient desorption or mineralization. This paper investigates the potential of a ditch system that is tested for its potential to

Arthur F. M. Meuleman; Boudewijn Beltman; Robbert A. Scheffer

2004-01-01

219

ISOLATION OF ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS BY XAD RESINS AND CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

The recovery efficiencies of XAD resins -2, -4, -7, and -8 and of resin mixtures were measured using distilled water samples containing 13 organic pollutants. An equal-weight mixture of XAD-4 and XAD-8 was most efficient. XAD-2 and XAD-4/8 were further tested and found effective ...

220

Introduction to Instrumental Analysis of Water Pollutants. Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course is designed for those requiring an introduction to instruments commonly used in water pollution analyses. Examples are: pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen meters, spectrophotometers, turbidimeters, carbon analyzer, and gas chromatographs. Students should have a basic knowledge of analytical chemistry. (CO)

Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

221

Optical multiple-analyte immunosensor for water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype of a portable optical immunosensor (called river analyser) has been developed. It can be applied for the monitoring of surface water quality. Antibodies carrying a fluorescent label are used for the specific recognition of pollutants, such as frequently applied pesticides. The transduction principle is based on total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF). The outstanding advantage of the river analyser

Claudia Barzen; Andreas Brecht; Guenter Gauglitz

2002-01-01

222

Storm water pollution in the urban environment of Genoa, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpoint pollution resulting from urban surface runoff is recognized as one of the major causes of quality deterioration in the receiving water bodies. In order to investigate the first flush phenomenon connected to different types of urban surfaces, two monitoring systems have been installed in the experimental catchment of Villa Cambiaso, University of Genoa (Italy), to sample separately roof and

I. Gnecco; C. Berretta; L. G. Lanza; P. La Barbera

2005-01-01

223

Water pollution and habitat degradation in the Gulf of Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gulf of Thailand has been a major marine resource for Thai people for a long time. However, recent industrialization and community development have exerted considerable stress on the marine environments and provoked habitat degradation. The following pollution problems in the Gulf have been prioritized and are discussed in details: (1) Untreated municipal and industrial waste water are considered to

Voravit Cheevaporn; Piamsak Menasveta

2003-01-01

224

Solidification\\/Stabilization of Power Plants Wastes Potential Water Pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intensive firing of coal in power plants can harm the environment. The problems are caused by the emission of solid particles, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, as well as by pollution of the surrounding waters and the degradation of the land due to the disposition of the solid wastes: fly ash, bottom ash

Aleksandra Kosti?-Pulek; Svetlana Popov

225

Outsource water/wastewater management  

SciTech Connect

For some operating facilities, outsourcing water/wastewater management offers an economical way to receive and use high-quality water and maintain effluent treatment services. As high-volume water users, hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) companies daily use, consume and discard large quantities of water and wastewater. To remain competitive and to reduce daily operating costs, HPI companies have farmed out services. Water management is a possible plant function that can be administrated by a third party. Outsourcing the utilities area allows operators to focus and allocate resources on their core profit-generating products. It is an opportunity to try new technologies without risking capital. Before signing the contract, facilities should carefully scrutinize the benefits--financial, environmental, etc.--and actual costs from outsourcing their water management.

Tedesco, J.A. [BetzDearborn Water Management Group, Horsham, PA (United States); Cichon, E.J. [Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., Wakefield, MA (United States)

1997-08-01

226

Managing Bacteria Pollution in Texas Waters  

E-print Network

conditions in Texas. The task force report examined bacterial source tracking (BST), an emerging assessment tool that uses DNA fingerprinting and antibiotic resistance typing methods to differentiate between wildlife, pets, livestock or human sources... application. The combination of two DNA fingerprinting tech- niques or a DNA fingerprinting and an antibiotic resistance typing method appeared to be the most suitable, accurate and economical for future library- based BST studies, Di Giovanni said...

Wythe, Kathy

2007-01-01

227

Diffuse Surface Water Pollution: Driving Factors for Different Geoclimatic Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantification of point and non-point losses of Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) to surface waters is currently a major\\u000a issue for the implementation of Environmental Directives, such as the Water Framework Directive in Europe. However, the drivers\\u000a behind nutrient pollution are location specific and are affected by regional hydroclimatic and geomorphological characteristics.\\u000a In this study the river basin model

Yiannis Panagopoulos; Christos Makropoulos; Maria Mimikou

228

Awakening Seed Pond Water ChemistryAwakening Seed Pond Water Chemistry Our Question: Is our pond polluted?Our Question: Is our pond polluted?  

E-print Network

Awakening Seed Pond Water ChemistryAwakening Seed Pond Water Chemistry Our Question: Is our pond polluted?Our Question: Is our pond polluted? Our InvestigationOur Investigation We discussed what kinds of pollutants we should look for. We narrowed down the aspects of pond chemistry that we would investigate

Hall, Sharon J.

229

Copyright 2005 Water Environment Federation. Water Environment Research, Volume 77, Number 6 FATE OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS  

E-print Network

if the water table is 61 cm below soil surface. A linear relationship was observed between nitrate and ammoniumCopyright © 2005 Water Environment Federation. Water Environment Research, Volume 77, Number 6 2576 2004 on the fate of environmental pollutants in soils, surface water and groundwaters. Studies related

Rockne, Karl J.

230

Development and application of a water pollution emergency response system for the Three Gorges Reservoir in the Yangtze River, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many watercraft and production accidents in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) of the Yangtze River in China every year. Accidents threaten the water quality of the 1085 km2 surface area of the TGRA and millions of local people if oil and chemical leakage were to occur. A water pollution management system for emergency response (WPMS_ER) was therefore

Qiang He; Shujuan Peng; Jun Zhai; Haiwen Xiao

2011-01-01

231

Water Management Best Practices  

E-print Network

The Very Boring Topic of Water Conservation H. W. (Bill) Hoffman, P.E. H. W. (Bill) Hoffman & Associations, LLC 512-294-7193 billhoffmantx@earthlink.net ?Water is the oil of the 21st century.? Andrew Liveris, Chief... 15 Watt Light The Very Boring Topic of Water Conservation H. W. (Bill) Hoffman, P.E. H. W. (Bill) Hoffman & Associations, LLC 512-294-7193 billhoffmantx@earthlink.net ...

Hoffman, W.

2011-01-01

232

A simulation of water pollution model parameter estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parameter estimation procedure for a water pollution transport model is elaborated. A two-dimensional instantaneous-release shear-diffusion model serves as representative of a simple transport process. Pollution concentration levels are arrived at via modeling of a remote-sensing system. The remote-sensed data are simulated by adding Gaussian noise to the concentration level values generated via the transport model. Model parameters are estimated from the simulated data using a least-squares batch processor. Resolution, sensor array size, and number and location of sensor readings can be found from the accuracies of the parameter estimates.

Kibler, J. F.

1976-01-01

233

Changes in the marine pollution management system in response to the Amorgos oil spill in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The Marine Pollution Control Act (MPCA) of Taiwan was promulgated on November 1, 2000, with the specific aim of controlling marine pollution, safeguarding public health, and promoting the sustainable use of marine resources. In addition to land-based pollution, oil spills are one of the most significant threats to the local marine environment largely on account of the some 30,000 tankers which pass through Taiwan's coastal waters each year. In January 2001, two months after the enactment of this newly-introduced law, a Greek merchant vessel, the Amorgos ran aground in the vicinity of a national park on the southern tip of Taiwan, causing a serious oil spill and leading to considerable changes with regard to the marine pollution management system. The incident brought to the forefront many serious problems, such as a lack of experience, expertise as well as equipment required to respond to such disasters, as well as the ambiguous, unclear jurisdiction among related agencies. Thus, this paper reviews the incident of the Amorgos spill, identifies the major issues and lessons learned, and proposes several recommendations in an effort for Taiwan to further improve its marine pollution management system. PMID:16291204

Chiau, Wen-Yen

2005-01-01

234

Improving Forecasts for Water Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in seasonal to interannual hydroclimate predictions provide an opportunity for developing a proactive approach toward water management. This motivated a recent AGU Chapman Conference (see program details at http://chapman.agu.org/watermanagement/). Approximately 85 participants from the United States, Oceania, Asia, Europe, and South America presented and discussed the current state of successes, challenges, and opportunities in seasonal to interannual hydroclimate forecasts and water management, and a number of key messages emerged.

Arumugam, Sankar; Wood, Andy; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Schaake, John

2014-01-01

235

[Research of early-warning method for regional groundwater pollution based on risk management].  

PubMed

Groundwater is the main source of water supply in China, and China's overall situation of groundwater pollution is not optimistic at present. Groundwater pollution risk evaluation and early-warning are the effective measures to prevent groundwater pollution. At present, research of groundwater early-warning method at home and abroad is still at the exploratory stage, and the sophisticated technology has not been developed for reference. This paper briefly described the data and technological demand of the early-warning method in different scales, and the main factors influencing the early-warning results of groundwater pollution were classified as protection performance of geological medium, characteristics of pollution sources, groundwater dynamics and groundwater value. Then the main early-warning indexes of groundwater pollution were screened to establish the early-warning model of regional or watershed scale by the index overlay method. At last, the established early-warning model was used in Baotou plain, and the different early-warning grades were zoned by the model. The research results could provide scientific support for the local management department to protect the groundwater resources. PMID:25338359

Bai, Li-Ping; Wang, Ye-Yao; Guo, Yong-Li; Zhou, You-Ya; Liu, Li; Yan, Zeng-Guang; Li, Fa-Sheng

2014-08-01

236

Spatial distribution and source apportionment of water pollution in different administrative zones of Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, China.  

PubMed

Water quality degradation in river systems has caused great concerns all over the world. Identifying the spatial distribution and sources of water pollutants is the very first step for efficient water quality management. A set of water samples collected bimonthly at 12 monitoring sites in 2009 and 2010 were analyzed to determine the spatial distribution of critical parameters and to apportion the sources of pollutants in Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, near the East China Sea. The 12 monitoring sites were divided into three administrative zones of urban, suburban, and rural zones considering differences in land use and population density. Multivariate statistical methods [one-way analysis of variance, principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) methods] were used to investigate the spatial distribution of water quality and to apportion the pollution sources. Results showed that most water quality parameters had no significant difference between the urban and suburban zones, whereas these two zones showed worse water quality than the rural zone. Based on PCA and APCS-MLR analysis, urban domestic sewage and commercial/service pollution, suburban domestic sewage along with fluorine point source pollution, and agricultural nonpoint source pollution with rural domestic sewage pollution were identified to the main pollution sources in urban, suburban, and rural zones, respectively. Understanding the water pollution characteristics of different administrative zones could put insights into effective water management policy-making especially in the area across various administrative zones. PMID:23404042

Yang, Liping; Mei, Kun; Liu, Xingmei; Wu, Laosheng; Zhang, Minghua; Xu, Jianming; Wang, Fan

2013-08-01

237

Development of the sediment and water quality management strategies for the Salt-water River, Taiwan.  

PubMed

The Salt-water River watershed is one of the major river watersheds in the Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Water quality and sediment investigation results show that the river water contained high concentrations of organics and ammonia-nitrogen, and sediments contained high concentrations of heavy metals and organic contaminants. The main pollution sources were municipal and industrial wastewaters. Results from the enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) analyses imply that the sediments can be characterized as heavily polluted in regard to Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cu. The water quality analysis simulation program (WASP) model was applied for water quality evaluation and carrying capacity calculation. Modeling results show that the daily pollutant inputs were much higher than the calculated carrying capacity (1050 kg day(-1) for biochemical oxygen demand and 420 kg day(-1) for ammonia-nitrogen). The proposed watershed management strategies included river water dilution, intercepting sewer system construction and sediment dredging. PMID:21392809

Lin, C E; Chen, C T; Kao, C M; Hong, A; Wu, C Y

2011-01-01

238

Ecotoxicological assessment of water pollution in Sariyar Dam Lake, Turkey.  

PubMed

Given the effects of environmental pollution and different biotic factors on some important biochemical markers, as enzymes, two fish species inhabiting the Sariyar Dam Lake, Turkey have been investigated. Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, glutathion S-transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and alanine and aspartate amino transferase activities have been measured in liver samples of Cyprinus carpio and Capoeta tinca. Also, brain acetylcholinesterase and carboxylesterase activities have been measured for the same samples. Selected enzymes confirmed that Sariyar basin is polluted by urban wastes and agricultural and industrial activities for many years. Organochlorine (OC) pesticide residues, caused by intensive agricultural activities, have also been observed in water, sediment samples, and adipose tissues of carp. Monitored results showed that SDL was polluted by different kinds of OC compounds such as DDT and its derivatives which are accumulated in adipose tissues of carp. Highest accumulation was found for beta-BHC in carp. The changes of enzyme activities in this study may be related to environmental pollution, while enzyme activity variations could be attributed to variable pollutants and variable concentrations of these pollutants. The results highlighted the potential convenience of these biomarkers to be used as components of environmental monitoring program in risk assessment studies in SDL. Since a seasonal variation in selected enzyme activities was found, the possible implications of such variability in the use of these enzymes as environmental biomarkers are also discussed. Hepatic cytosolic EROD did not show any significance according to the pollution factors in the lake which may be attributed to relatively less contamination by organic compounds such as PAH products. PMID:17582495

Ozmen, Murat; Ayas, Zafer; Güngördü, Abbas; Ekmekci, Guler F; Yerli, Sedat

2008-05-01

239

The Impact of Water Pollution Abatement on Competition and Pricing in the Alabama Textile Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to access the impact of water pollution abatement on competition and pricing in the Alabama textile industry, three questions were answered. (1) How much is water pollution abatement costing the textile industry. (2) How is the intermediate consu...

A. C. Rucks

1973-01-01

240

Experimental infrared measurements for hydrocarbon pollutant determination in subterranean waters.  

PubMed

Subterranean waters are often polluted by industrial and anthropic effluents that are drained in subsoil. To prevent and control pollution, legislations of different developed countries require an online monitoring measurement, especially for detecting organic solvents (chlorinated and unchlorinated ones). Online measurements include both real-time and no real-time measurements. In general, it is difficult to implement real-time measurements in stricto sensu for online acquisitions on aqueous effluents since they need to be processed by a modeling. This research presents an experimental measurement system based on infrared (IR) spectroscopy for aqueous effluents containing hydrocarbons and capable of displaying excellent values of pollutant concentrations even in instable conditions; the system is able to detect pollutants either in laminar or turbulent flow. The results show the possibility of avoiding the use of "Pitot tube" that is employed to create a stagnation point in order to convert kinetic energy into potential one. This conversion allows the transformation of a turbulent flow in a laminar flow making easy measurement of pollutants included in an aqueous effluent. Obviously, "Pitot tube" is also used for other fluid effluents. The obtained results have been compared with those produced by means of sophisticated IR instrumentation for laboratory applications. PMID:23387691

Lay-Ekuakille, A; Palamara, I; Caratelli, D; Morabito, F C

2013-01-01

241

SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse  

E-print Network

SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse #12;' Our Mission The SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse aims to advance the science and technology of sustainable water management through fundamental and applied research. Our Vision To be Australia's leading research centre for water reuse

Li, Jiuyong "John"

242

Water management in Windhoek, Namibia.  

PubMed

For decades, the city of Windhoek in Namibia succeeded in stretching their limited potable water resources through strict water management, latterly including wastewater reclamation and direct potable reuse. An integrated approach was followed and proper policies were put in place. This was followed up with appropriate legislation, education, policing and technical and financial measures with the result that extreme water shortages were overcome even in times of severe droughts. PMID:17305169

Lahnsteiner, J; Lempert, G

2007-01-01

243

Water-sediment flow models for river reaches sediment related pollution control.  

PubMed

Hybrid water-sediment flow models for river reaches have been for predicting sediment and sediment related pollutions in water courses. The models are developed by combining sediment rating model and the Muskingum model applicable for a reach. The models incorporate sediment concentration and water discharge variables for a river reach; allow defining downstream sediment rating curve in terms of upstream water discharges. The model is useful in generating sediment concentration graph for a station having no water discharge records. The hybrid models provide forecasting forms that can be used to forecast downstream sediment concentration/water discharges 2kx time unit ahead. The forecasting models are useful for applications in real time namely, in the real time management of sediment related pollution in water courses and in issuing flood warning. Integration of sediment rating model and the Muskingum model increases model parameters and nonlinearity requiring efficient estimation technique for parameter identification. To identify parameters in the hybrid models genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique can be used. The new model relies on the Muskingum model, obey continuity requirement and the parameters can be used in the Muskingum model with water discharges to estimate/predict downstream water discharge values. The proposed model formulations are demonstrated for simulating and forecasting sediment concentration and water discharges in the Mississippi River Basin, USA. Model parameters are estimated using non-dominated sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II). Model results show satisfactory model performances. PMID:24749192

Sil, Briti Sundar; Choudhury, Parthasarathi

2012-07-01

244

Intelligent memory manager: Reducing cache pollution due to memory management functions  

E-print Network

Intelligent memory manager: Reducing cache pollution due to memory management functions Mehran Rezaei *, Krishna M. Kavi University of North Texas, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, P behind and consequently memory la- tency will become even more pronounced. He, Ste- phen Chou, claims

Kavi, Krishna

245

Water quality assessment by pollution-index method in the coastal waters of Hebei Province in western Bohai Sea, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources of pollution discharges and water quality samples at 27 stations in 2006 in the coastal waters of Hebei Province, western Bohai Sea, have been analyzed in this study. Pollutant loads from industrial sewages have shown stronger impact on the water environment than those from the general sewages. Analysis indicates that pollution of COD is mainly resulted from land-based point

Shuguang Liu; Sha Lou; Cuiping Kuang; Wenrui Huang; Wujun Chen; Jianle Zhang; Guihui Zhong

2011-01-01

246

A time-series forecasting approach based on KPCA-LSSVM for lake water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time-series forecasting of lake water pollution is a very important and difficult issue of any lake water pollution control system. The time-series data of lake water pollution are huge, high-dimensional and nonlinear, so the information mining of it is difficult. To realize the data mining and forecasting for time-series data of lake water pollution efficiently, an improved prediction model

Jianjun Ni; Huawei Ma; Li Ren

2012-01-01

247

Investigating water pollution of the Dareh Morad Beik River in the Hamadan District, Iran.  

PubMed

Water-related hazards, such as drought, floods, erosion, and various kinds of pollution, should be factored into any integrated approach to water-resource management. This research attempt has been made to assess the process of water pollution in the Dareh Morad Beik (DMB) River, whose length is about 18 km and whose average flow rate is 250 L/s. The quality of river water, including chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate, fecal coliform, and total coliform, were all measured and evaluated at three different sampling stations within different months of the year. The information was gathered by conducting experiments and through field visits, as well as by library study. The results of this research showed that, from a microbiological point of view, the water of the DMB was polluted during the year. Based on the results obtained it was determined that the amount of COD and BOD at station 1 was negligible. Also the influx of qantas waters from Hamadan City into the DMB has caused dilution of COD, BOD, and nitrate of that river at station 3. PMID:18991905

Khoram, Mahdi Reyahi; Nafea, Minoo

2008-10-01

248

Nitrogen Pollution in the Northeastern United States: Sources, Effects, and Management Options  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about nitrogen pollution in the northeastern United States. The northeastern United States receives elevated inputs of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) largely from net imports of food and atmospheric deposition, with lesser inputs from fertilizer, net feed imports, and N fixation associated with leguminous crops. Ecological consequences of elevated N inputs to the Northeast include tropospheric ozone formation, ozone damage to plants, the alteration of forest N cycles, acidification of surface waters, and eutrophication in coastal waters. We used two models, PnET-BGC and WATERSN, to evaluate management strategies for reducing N inputs to forests and estuaries, respectively. Calculations with PnET-BGC suggest that aggressive reductions in N emissions alone will not result in marked improvements in the acidbase status of forest streams. WATERSN calculations showed that management scenarios targeting removal of N by wastewater treatment produce larger reductions in estuarine N loading than scenarios involving reductions in agricultural inputs or atmospheric emissions. Because N pollution involves multiple sources, management strategies targeting all major pollution sources will result in the greatest ecological benefits.

CHARLES T. DRISCOLL, DAVID WHITALL, JOHN ABER, ELIZABETH BOYER, MARK CASTRO, CHRISTOPHER CRONAN, CHRISTINE L. GOODALE, PETER GROFFMAN, CHARLES HOPKINSON, KATHLEEN LAMBERT, GREGORY LAWRENCE, and SCOTT OLLINGER (;)

2003-04-01

249

Finite-Volume-Particle Methods for Models of Transport of Pollutant in Shallow Water  

E-print Network

Finite-Volume-Particle Methods for Models of Transport of Pollutant in Shallow Water Alina Chertock of shallow water equations and the pollutant propagation is described by a transport equation. The idea and the pollution computations: the shallow water equations are numerically integrated using a #12;nite- volume

Kurganov, Alexander

250

Estimation of pollution by fire extinguishing water D. Calogine, S. Duplantier  

E-print Network

Estimation of pollution by fire extinguishing water D. Calogine, S. Duplantier INERIS, Accidentai by combustion and consequently the water will be loaded with pollutants such as HCI and HCN. The project O2FEU of pollution for soil and subsoil. The project consists in studying the fate of run-off waters in environment

Boyer, Edmond

251

Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual to tidal periods  

E-print Network

Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual to tidal periods. G. Monismith (2004), Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual the relationship between water temperature and fecal pollution in the surf zone at Huntington and Newport Beach

Winant, Clinton D.

252

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN BUILDING B51 AND BEVATRON DEMOLITION PROJECT  

E-print Network

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN FOR: BUILDING B51 AND BEVATRON DEMOLITION PROJECT PROJECT NO;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) Building B51 and Bevatron Demolition Project Lawrence............................................................................................300-3 300.4 Project Schedule/Water Pollution Control Schedule

253

Regulating Nonpoint Source Water Pollution in a Federal Government: Four Case Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without effective regulation, nonpoint source water pollution is likely to increase as growth continues across the globe. This paper explores the history of and policy, legal and regulatory options for addressing nonpoint source water pollution in countries with a federal government. The legal mechanisms for controlling nonpoint sources of water pollution at the national and state level in four countries

Susan Graham; Adam Schempp; Jessica Troell

2011-01-01

254

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. ...2543.86 Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. ...pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S...the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as...

2013-10-01

255

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section...Special Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002...

2012-01-01

256

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section...Special Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002...

2014-01-01

257

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. ...2543.86 Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. ...pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S...the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as...

2012-10-01

258

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section...Special Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002...

2011-01-01

259

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. ...2543.86 Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. ...pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S...the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as...

2011-10-01

260

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section...Special Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002...

2013-01-01

261

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. ...2543.86 Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. ...pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S...the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as...

2010-10-01

262

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section...Special Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002...

2010-01-01

263

Investigating the effects of point source and nonpoint source pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang) in South China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Understanding the physical processes of point source (PS) and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is critical to evaluate river water quality and identify major pollutant sources in a watershed. In this study, we used the physically-based hydrological/water quality model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool, to investigate the influence of PS and NPS pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang in Chinese) in southern China. Our results indicate that NPS pollution was the dominant contribution (>94%) to nutrient loads except for mineral phosphorus (50%). A comprehensive Water Quality Index (WQI) computed using eight key water quality variables demonstrates that water quality is better upstream than downstream despite the higher level of ammonium nitrogen found in upstream waters. Also, the temporal (seasonal) and spatial distributions of nutrient loads clearly indicate the critical time period (from late dry season to early wet season) and pollution source areas within the basin (middle and downstream agricultural lands), which resource managers can use to accomplish substantial reduction of NPS pollutant loadings. Overall, this study helps our understanding of the relationship between human activities and pollutant loads and further contributes to decision support for local watershed managers to protect water quality in this region. In particular, the methods presented such as integrating WQI with watershed modeling and identifying the critical time period and pollutions source areas can be valuable for other researchers worldwide.

Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

2013-01-01

264

Storm water management for industrial activities at U.S. Army installations  

SciTech Connect

Storm water management has become increasingly important in guaranteeing water quality. In the United States, the Industrial Storm Water Regulations of the Clean Water Act have promulgated many state and federal regulations and require plans which have a goal of improving the quality of the nation`s waters by controlling nonpoint or diffuse sources of pollution, the last major water pollutants left in the country. The U.S. Army has been proactively involved in a program of controlling and mitigating industrial sources of pollution through an active storm water runoff pollution prevention program. Pollution prevention is meant in the broadest sense in this paper rather than a program to replace hazardous materials with less hazardous materials in processes. The Army had a centrally coordinated comprehensive program with many facets contributing to an overall Army storm water management program with an ultimate goal of getting the components of the regulations implemented. The U.S. Army in cooperation with other agencies, has developed a program to train responsible storm water coordinators and other individuals at the various types of installations on how to meet the requirements of the legislation. Training sessions were conducted which addressed the types of permits necessary, applicable regulations (highly variable between states), and development of storm water pollution prevention plans to minimize impact on water quality from storm water runoff. A model Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan was developed and used on a contract basis for hundreds of Army installations.

Scholze, R.J.; Josephson, P.A.

1996-05-01

265

Effects of long term irrigation with polluted water and sludge amendment on some soil enzyme activities  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of wastewater sludge-fly ash mixtures on urease, dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and beta-glucosidase activities in soils. In order to evaluate the probable effects of previous soil management practices (irrigation with polluted water) on soil enzymes, two different soil samples which were similar in physical properties, but different in irrigation practice were used. The application of wastewater sludges supplemented with varying doses of fly ash increased potential enzyme activities for a short period of time (3 months) in comparison to unamended soils. However, the activity levels generally showed a decreasing trend with increasing ash ratios indicating the inhibitory effect of fly ash. The urease and dehydrogenase activities were particularly lower in soils irrigated from a polluted stream, indicating the negative effects of the previous soil management on soil microbial activity.

Topac, F.O.; Baskaya, H.S.; Alkan, U.; Katkat, A.V. [Uludag University, Bursa (Turkey)

2008-01-15

266

Spatial and temporal variability of surface water pollution in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.  

PubMed

Surface water pollution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (MD) could threaten human, animal and ecosystem health given the fact that this water source is intensively used for drinking, irrigation and domestic services. We therefore determined the levels of pollution by organic pollutants, salts, metals and microbial indicators by (bi)monthly monitoring of canals between November 2011 and July 2012 at 32 sampling locations, representing fresh and saline/brackish environments. The results were compared with national water quality guidelines, between the studied regions and with water quality data from main waterways. Key factors explaining the observed levels of pollution in surface water were identified through principal component analysis (PCA). Temporal variations due to tidal regime and seasonality were also assessed. Based on regression models, the spatial variability of five water quality parameters was visualized using GIS based maps. Results indicate that pH (max. 8.6), turbidity (max. 461 FTU), maximum concentrations of ammonium (14.7 mg L(-1)), arsenic (44.1 ?g L(-1)), barium (157.5 ?g L(-1)), chromium (84.7 ?g L(-1)), mercury (45.5 ?g L(-1)), manganese (1659.7 ?g L(-1)), aluminum (14.5 mg L(-1)), iron (17.0 mg L(-1)) and the number of Escherichia coli (87,000 CFU 100 mL(-1)) and total coliforms (2,500,000 CFU 100 mL(-1)) in canals exceed the thresholds set by Vietnamese quality guidelines for drinking and domestic purposes. The PCA showed that i) urbanization; ii) metal leaching from soils; iii) aquaculture; and iv) tidal regime explain 85% of the variance of surface water quality attributes. Significant differences in water quality were found due to daily tidal regime and as a result of seasonality. Surface water quality maps for dissolved oxygen, ammonium, ortho-phosphate, manganese and total coliforms were developed to highlight hot-spot areas of pollution. The results of this study can assist policy makers in developing water management strategies and drinking water companies in selecting optimum water extraction locations. PMID:24747257

Wilbers, Gert-Jan; Becker, Mathias; Nga, La Thi; Sebesvari, Zita; Renaud, Fabrice G

2014-07-01

267

Precipitation suppression by anthropogenic air pollution: major loss of water resources where we need them most  

E-print Network

Precipitation suppression by anthropogenic air pollution: major loss of water resources where we inferences of air pollution suppressing precipitation lead us to investigate historical climate records precipitation, decreases with time in the polluted regions and remains unchanged where no pollution sources were

Daniel, Rosenfeld

268

Total Water Management: A Watershed Based Approach  

EPA Science Inventory

In this urbanizing world, municipal water managers need to develop planning and management frameworks to meet challenges such as limiting fresh water supplies, degrading receiving waters, increasing regulatory requirements, flooding, aging infrastructure, rising utility (energy) ...

269

Managing water quality of River Yamuna in NCR Delhi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River Yamuna is a typical example of degraded lotic ecosystem which has been turns into a sewage drain in Delhi National capital region due to anthropogenic pressure and aggravating pollution load. Delhi is alone responsible for 79% of the entire pollution load in the said river. The drain discharges exerting a massive BOD load of hundreds of tons per day into the river. The pollutants could not get diluted as the river has very little or no flow in non-monsoon months due to lack of indigenous water. Water quality index reveal that before entering Delhi, river water has the medium water quality, gets severely polluted in Delhi, shows very bad water quality which continues till Agra Canal. Improper location of STPs and mismatch between the available treatment capacities of STPs with the actual sewage generation results muddle up of “approx” 60% untreated wastewater into the River Yamuna. Implementation of sustainable management plan with already available facilities, proper sewerage planning and maintaining the minimum ecological flow will control the pollution in River Yamuna.

Upadhyay, Rahul; Dasgupta, Niladri; Hasan, Aziz; Upadhyay, S. K.

270

[Water pollution and health risks at Yaoundé, Cameroon].  

PubMed

The aim of this article consists of developing an ecosystemic approach to collect information about groundwater pollution in order to determine its origin and infer the health risks in Mingoa's watershed through the study of 12 spontaneous settlements. From an environmental point of view, family interviews and direct observations allowed us to inventory springs, wells and latrines, and to collect information. So, we have selected, on the basis of predefined criteria, 21 wells and springs for physico-chemical and bacteriological laboratory analyses. Two hundred children aged less than 5 years were subjected to KOAP examination. A number of 1224 latrines were inventoried, for an average use of 15 people per latrine, producing 913.3 kg/year of excreta. Most of 91% of people use these latrines. The superficial aquifers, connected to the wells and springs, present high values of nitrogen, phosphorous pollutant and fecal contamination indicators (coliforms and fecal streptococcus), which make water inappropriate to human consumption. PCA analysis establishes that water pollution comes mainly from traditional pit latrines. The overall prevalence of diarrhea and parasite infestation was important (=40%). The presence of cysts of Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris limbricoides, and Entamoeba coli confirms this high prevalence and testify to very approximate hygiene and environment conditions. PMID:23916209

Youmbi, Jean Ghislain Tabué; Feumba, Roger; Njitat, Valérie Tsama; de Marsily, Ghislain; Ekodeck, Georges Emmanuel

2013-01-01

271

An air and water pollution prevention primer for small businesses  

SciTech Connect

Pollution prevention is one of the few areas in which environmental goals and economic interests clearly coincide. Benefits include reduced costs, liabilities and regulatory burdens, and an improved environment. Minimizing the quantity and toxicity of waste also reduces the need for waste treatment operations. Because economics is one of the factors weighed when adopting pollution prevent technologies, economic analysis based on equipment's payback period is important to determine whether a system should be adopted and, if so, what equipment should be selected. Many air pollution control methods, wastewater treatment systems and sludge dewatering processes can be used for materials recovery and water reuse. Factors to consider when selecting a waste treatment system include legal limitations or effluent criteria imposed for public protection, social limitations imposed by the community in which the pollution source is or will be located, and economic limitations. The latter two factors are critical for small businesses, which typically are located in or near metropolitan areas, and often have limited financial resources. Another factor to consider is whether a waste treatment system can be designed to accommodate future expansion or operational modifications. Although small businesses tend to prefer traditional, proven environmental technologies, some new technologies can be adopted easily to reduce waste generation and costs. In addition, several relatively simple and inexpensive practices have proven successful in eliminating or minimizing wastes. These include: improving housekeeping practices; segregating wastes; changing materials purchasing and inventory control procedures; substituting less toxic materials; recycling and reusing wastes; reducing wastewater flows; changing production methods or modifying production processes; and training employees in pollution prevention.

Huang, C.S. (Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States))

1995-03-01

272

SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse  

E-print Network

SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse #12;2 The SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse was established in 2004 as a joint venture between the South Australian Water Corporation and the University of South Australia (UniSA), adding significant expertise to the water research capability in South

Li, Jiuyong "John"

273

Questionable Specificity of Genetic Total Faecal Pollution Markers for Integrated Water Quality Monitoring and Source Tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterisation of microbial faecal hazards in water is a fundamental aspect for target-orientated water resources management to achieve appropriate water quality for various purposes like water supply or agriculture and thus to minimize related health risks. Nowadays the management of water resources increasingly demands detailed knowledge on the extent and the origin of microbial pollution. Cultivation of standard faecal indicator bacteria, which has been used for over a century to test the microbiological water quality, cannot sufficiently meet these challenges. The abundant intestinal bacterial populations are very promising alternative targets for modern faecal indication systems. Numerous assays for the detection of genetic markers targeting source-specific populations of the phylum Bacteroidetes have been developed in recent years. In some cases markers for total faecal pollution were also proposed in order to relate source-specific marker concentrations to general faecal pollution levels. However, microbial populations in intestinal and non-intestinal systems exhibit a dazzling array of diversity and molecular analysis of microbial faecal pollution has been based on a fragmentary puzzle of very limited sequence information. The aim of this study was to test the available qPCR-based methods detecting genetic Bacteroidetes markers for total faecal pollution in terms of their value and specificity as indicators of faecal pollution. We applied the AllBac (Layton et al., 2006) the BacUni (Kildare et al., 2007) and the Bacteroidetes (Dick and Field, 2004) assays on soil DNA samples. Samples were collected in well characterised karst spring catchments in Austria's Eastern Calcareous Alps. They were at various levels of altitude between 800 and 1800 meters above sea level and from several different habitats (woodland, alpine pastures, krummholz). In addition we tried to choose sampling sites representing a presumptive gradient of faecal pollution levels. For example sites with obvious faecal influence (e.g. right next to a cowpat) were included as well as more pristine sites without faecal influence from large animals (e.g. fenced areas). Surprisingly, results from investigations with the AllBac assay showed concentrations of the total faecal marker in soil in the range of 106 to 109 Marker Equivalents per g of soil, which is equal or only slightly lower than the concentrations of this particular marker in faeces or raw sewage. Preliminary results from the other tested assays seem to confirm that the targeted markers are also highly abundant in soils. In addition, the markers were present in comparable concentrations in soils from pristine locations as well as in soils under the potential influence of faeces giving a strong indication that these methods also target non-intestinal, autochthonous soil populations. In contrast, source-specific markers (ruminant-specific BacR and human-specific BacH, Reischer et al., 2007, 2006) could only be detected in 30 to 50% of the soil samples at concentrations close to the detection limit, which is at least four orders of magnitude lower than in faecal samples of the respective target sources, ruminant animals and humans. The achieved results call the applicability of the proposed qPCR-based assays for total faecal pollution into question. In fact the assays do not seem to be specific for intestinal Bacteroidetes populations at all and the respective marker concentration levels in pristine soils negate their applicability in the investigated areas. This study also emphasizes the need to test the specificity and sensitivity of qPCR-based assays for total faecal pollution on the local level and especially against non-intestinal environmental samples, which might contribute to marker levels in the aquatic compartment. In conclusion there is a strong demand for marker-based detection techniques for total faecal pollution in water quality monitoring and risk assessment but currently none of the tested assays seems to meet the methodical requirements.

Vierheilig, Julia; Reischer, Georg H.; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

2010-05-01

274

Managing nonpoint source pollution in western Washington: landowner learning methods and motivations.  

PubMed

States, territories, and tribes identify nonpoint source pollution as responsible for more than half of the Nation's existing and threatened water quality impairments, making it the principal remaining cause of water quality problems across the United States. Combinations of education, technical and financial assistance, and regulatory measures are used to inform landowners about nonpoint source pollution issues, and to stimulate the use of best management practices. A mail survey of non-commercial riparian landowners investigated how they learn about best management practices, the efficacy of different educational techniques, and what motivates them to implement land management activities. Landowners experience a variety of educational techniques, and rank those that include direct personal contact as more effective than brochures, advertisements, radio, internet, or television. The most important motivations for implementing best management practices were linked with elements of a personal stewardship ethic, accountability, personal commitment, and feasibility. Nonpoint source education and social marketing campaigns should include direct interpersonal contacts, and appeal to landowner motivations of caring, responsibility, and personal commitment. PMID:19067035

Ryan, Clare M

2009-06-01

275

Managing Nonpoint Source Pollution in Western Washington: Landowner Learning Methods and Motivations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

States, territories, and tribes identify nonpoint source pollution as responsible for more than half of the Nation’s existing and threatened water quality impairments, making it the principal remaining cause of water quality problems across the United States. Combinations of education, technical and financial assistance, and regulatory measures are used to inform landowners about nonpoint source pollution issues, and to stimulate the use of best management practices. A mail survey of non-commercial riparian landowners investigated how they learn about best management practices, the efficacy of different educational techniques, and what motivates them to implement land management activities. Landowners experience a variety of educational techniques, and rank those that include direct personal contact as more effective than brochures, advertisements, radio, internet, or television. The most important motivations for implementing best management practices were linked with elements of a personal stewardship ethic, accountability, personal commitment, and feasibility. Nonpoint source education and social marketing campaigns should include direct interpersonal contacts, and appeal to landowner motivations of caring, responsibility, and personal commitment.

Ryan, Clare M.

2009-06-01

276

Pollution: A Selected Bibliography of U.S. Government Publications on Air, Water, and Land Pollution 1965-1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials on environmental pollution published by the various offices of the federal government are presented in this select bibliography. Limited in scope to publications on air, water, and land pollution, the document is designed to serve teachers and researchers working in the field of environmental problems who wish reference to public…

Kiraldi, Louis, Comp.; Burk, Janet L., Comp.

277

In Hot Water: Thermoelectric Power and Thermal Pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of surface water for thermoelectric power plant cooling significantly impacts river water temperatures, posing risks to aquatic ecosystems. In addition, surface water temperatures in summer can exceed limits for power plant compliance with thermal effluent limitations, jeopardizing energy security during periods of peak power demand. For example, Brown's Ferry Nuclear Plant in Alabama curtailed power production by 50% for over 40 days in July-August of 2010 when river temperatures exceeded 90°F. Future increases in surface water temperatures due to climate change may further endanger energy security. This study examines summer intake and outflow water temperature data reported by power plants during peak production months across the United States to determine the impact of thermoelectric power plants on surface water temperatures in the summer. Initial results indicate that U.S. coal plants (n= 625) raised water temperatures by an average of 17°F (± 12°F) and discharged cooling water with median peak temperatures of 100°F (± 13°F) in the summer of 2005, the last year when this data was reliably reported. Further analysis will extend the time period of this study from 2000-2005 and expand the scope to various energy sources and cooling technologies. In addition, we explore regional variation to assess the relative threat that thermal pollution poses to energy security across the U.S.

Madden, N. T.

2010-12-01

278

Limitations of HSPF in Simulating Sub-Urban Pollutant Runoff Into Receiving Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program - Fortran) model is a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency endorsed mechanistic model for simulating the water quality impact of storm triggered point and non-point source loading. Although HSPF simulates both impervious and pervious hydrologic components of watershed runoff, the model cannot represent important urban transport mechanisms that route pollutants to receiving waters, including storm sewer runoff, spatially variable watertable triggered runoff, and basin-interior trapping of pollutants in vegetative filters and detention basins. These limitations, when revealed in modeling runoff in NYC's sub-urbanized Croton drinking water supply area, were overcome by loosely coupling HSPF with three other runoff models, Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), Hydrologic-Simulation Program - Fortran (HSPF), Program for Predicting Polluted Particle Passage through Pits, Puddles and Ponds (P8), and Topographic-based Land Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (TOPLATS). Combined, these four models simulate the following transport pathways of concern: 1) impervious processes of catch basin and storm sewer hydraulics, 2) pervious processes of infiltration, surface runoff, sub-surface storm flow, watertable dynamics, and 3) reach and reservoir processes of runoff routing and storm runoff detention. In addition to providing process simulation for investigators, the coupling of these models ultimately enables selection of more appropriate parameter values for a separate set of HSPF model runs that lump the dynamics revealed in the companion models.

Endreny, T. A.; Hassett, J. M.

2001-05-01

279

Biological monitoring of ambient water quality: the case for using bivalves as sentinel organisms for monitoring petroleum pollution in coastal waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concepts of lipid/water equilibration to explain bio-concentration of hydrocarbons were tested in situ and seem to hold for petroleum mixtures commonly encountered in coastal waters. Kbef in bivalve lipids was constant at approximately 2×10 5 when concentrations were between 1 and 400 ?g l -1. These and related studies on the factors controlling body burden in bivalves were used to formulate a strategy for monitoring levels of chronic oil pollution necessary for water quality management.

Burns, Kathryn A.; Smith, Jonathan L.

1981-10-01

280

A Study of Surface Water and Groundwater Pollution in Ibb City, Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to determine the land use impact on water pollution at three different sites i.e Al- Sahool, Mitm and Al-Sayyadah valleys around Ibb city, Yemen. Besides determining the status of water pollution, this study also aims to recognize the sources of pollution and the results will be used to identify the relationship between the impact of

Esmail Al Sabahi; Abdul Rahim S

281

ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL POLICIES. 1. A NATIONAL NETWORK MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to study the national implications of federal water pollution control policies, the authors developed a water pollution network model. The model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lake...

282

Assessing the well water pollution problem by nitrates in the small scale farming systems of the Niayes region, Senegal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human activities exert many pressures on the quality of groundwater, and advanced assessment programmes are needed to design sustainable water management strategies. To contribute to this challenge, the nitrate pollution problem of groundwater wells in the small scale farming systems of the Niayes region in Senegal is assessed and explained in terms of well characteristics and land use properties. A

M. Sall; M. Vanclooster

2009-01-01

283

Climate change impacts on water resources planning and management: scientific challenges and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planning and management of water resources has always been a difficult problem, since water resources are highly sensitive to the nonlinear nature of hydrologic processes and their complex feedback mechanisms. Population explosion and its many associated effects (e.g. urbanization, water pollution, deforestation) have already caused enormous stress on the world's fresh water resources, especially in the developing world. According to

A. Sharma

2009-01-01

284

Spatial and temporal pollutant budget analyses toward the total maximum daily loads management for the Yeongsan watershed in Korea.  

PubMed

This paper delivers two issues: water quality in the Yeongsan (YS) watershed which is one of the major watersheds in Korea and new watershed management plans with respect to the total maximum daily loads (TMDL) management. Field studies were conducted to estimate the pollutant loads according to the spatial and temporal distribution based on the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentration and the volumetric flow rate (VFR) data from YS watershed. The results of both spatial and temporal analyses show the main pollutant source was originated from the city of Gwangju and the pollutant load from the city to YS watershed was the most out of five cities during this study period. Concerning YS reservoir located downstream of YS watershed, it also shows the worst water quality in the entire watershed during the study period. These results collectively demonstrate that the city of Gwangju is a main region which generates numerous point and non-point pollutant sources and eventually the pollutants are accumulated in YS reservoir. Based on the results, we suggest two different management plans for YS watershed. One is the flow-control approach that is to increase the amount of dam discharge in order to guarantee the river management flow for the midstream region. The other is the mass-control approach that is to dredge the contaminated sediments in YS reservoir for removing pollutants chronically accumulated in the sediment. Simulations for the former and the latter provide the pollution mitigation rate in the watershed up to 6 and 8% for BOD5, respectively. The methodology proposed here for TMDL management can be applied to a wide range of watersheds in Korea. PMID:17305161

Ki, S J; Lee, Y G; Kim, S W; Lee, Y J; Kim, J H

2007-01-01

285

Total Water Management, the New Paradigm for Urban Water Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current resource management practices put different stresses on local water resources and urban infrastructure. Total Water Manag...

286

40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water. 129.6 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS TOXIC POLLUTANT EFFLUENT STANDARDS Toxic Pollutant Effluent Standards and Prohibitions...

2010-07-01

287

Water demand management and agricultural water use efficiency in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faced with limited water supply and increasing water demands, how to deal with the serious conflict between the agricultural and ecological sector has become one big challenge in the Zhangye Irrigation District in the Heihe River Basin in Northwest China. Managing agricultural water demand and increasing agricultural water use efficiency are considered the main policy options to ease the water use conflict. In this paper we explore some practical water demand management measures and their impact on increasing water use efficiency. For this purpose, we conducted a field survey in the Zhangye Irrigation Districts in July 2009, covering 40 villages, 160 households and 95 surface and groundwater managers. Survey results show that from 2001 to 2008, collectively managed villages have been substituted by Water User Associations (WUAs). By 2008, 98 percent of villages were managed WUAs. In addition to this institutional change, Zhangye irrigation District also adopted several other measures, including water pricing policy, water tickets and water rights. Quantitative analysis show that among all these demand management measures, changing management institution, implementing water pricing and water rights policies have played significant role in increasing agricultural water use efficiency. How to extend the experiences and lessons on water demand management from Heihe River Basin to other regions is another challenge policy makers are facing. Key words Water demand management measures; agricultural water use efficiency; institutional change, water pricing, water rights, water tickets

Wang, Jinxia; van den Boom, Bart; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Yumin

2010-05-01

288

WATER MANAGEMENTWATER MANAGEMENT & HYDROLOGICAL SCIENCE& HYDROLOGICAL SCIENCE  

E-print Network

.2.3 WMHS Program Goals 7.3 Learning Outcomes 7.3.1 Outcomes for the Master of Water Management Degree 7WATER MANAGEMENTWATER MANAGEMENT & HYDROLOGICAL SCIENCE& HYDROLOGICAL SCIENCE External Review Water.2.1 Master of Water Management (non-thesis) 4.2.2 Master of Science 4.2.3 Doctoral Degree 4.3 Designated

289

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF WATER SOURCES  

E-print Network

in a manual way. The expert compares measured concentrations of pollutants in the water with the reference) that would monitor water quality and suggest measures that need to be taken in case of pollution harmful effects of water pollutants. Drinking water is, by definition [4], water in its prime state

Bohanec, Marko

290

Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, and Infant Mortality in India  

E-print Network

Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, environmental regulations, and infant mortality from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental ...

Greenstone, Michael

291

Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, and Infant Mortality in India  

E-print Network

Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, and environmental regulations from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental regulations. ...

Greenstone, Michael

2011-07-01

292

UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN REMOVAL OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange, adsorption and acid catalysis properties. Different inorganic and organic pollutants have been removed from water at room temperature using various zeolites. Synthetic zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove inorganic pollutants...

293

Application of locally available materials for the treatment of organic polluted water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several types of water treatment technologies including adsorption are now being used to treat polluted water. In this paper the removal of phenol by adsorption will be discussed. Activated carbons are successfully applied for purification of potable water and the removal of organic pollutants in wastwater. This paper is concerned with a low cost approach to treating waste water that

M. R. Salim; F. Othman; J. Patterson; T. Hardy

294

New Photocatalysis for Effective Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of harmful compounds in water supplies and in the discharge of wastewater from chemical industries, power plants, and agricultural sources is a topic of global concern. The processes and technologies available at the present time for the treatment of polluted water are varied that include traditional water treatment processes such as biological, thermal and chemical treatment. All these water treatment processes, have limitations of their own and none is cost effective. Advanced oxidation processes have been proposed as an alternative for the treatment of this kind of wastewater. Heterogeneous photocatalysis has recently emerged as an efficient method for purifying water. TiO2 has generally been demonstrated to be the most active semiconductor material for decontamination water. One significant factor is the cost of separation TiO2, which is generally a powder having a very small particle size from the water after treatment by either sedimentation or ultrafiltration. The new photocatalyst, HTiNbO5, has been tested to determine whether its photocatalytic efficiency is good enough for use in photocatalytic water purification since it has high surface area and relatively large particle size. The larger particle sizes of the porous materials facilitate catalyst removal from a solution, after purification has taken place. It can be separated from water easily than TiO2, a significant technical improvement that might eliminate the tedious final filtration necessary with a slurry. These materials are characterized and tested as water decontamination photocatalysts. The new catalyst exhibited excellent catalytic activity, but with a strong pH dependence on the photo efficiency. These results suggest that elimination of the ion exchange character of the catalyst may greatly improve its performance at various pHs. This new research proposes to study the effects of a topotactic dehydration reaction on these new porous material catalysts.

Zarei Chaleshtori, M.; Saupe, G. B.; Masoud, S.

2009-12-01

295

awareness and pollution prevention  

E-print Network

..............................................5 Storm Water Pollution Prevention.....................5 Sanitary Sewer System ManagementHazard awareness and pollution prevention for contractors and visitors at UCSD #12;Hazard Awareness and Pollution Prevention For Contractors and Visitors at UC San Diego This booklet was developed by UC San Diego

Tsien, Roger Y.

296

Water resource management problems in Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water supply is an important contextual theme in programme of planned economic development. Using the Romanian example it is shown how increasingly heavy demands for water call for a more sophisticated approach to planning in each drainage basin, with measures to increase water storages and reduce pollution. Such activity can also bring important benefits for navigation, flood control and hydroelectricity

D. Turnock

1979-01-01

297

Multicriteria methodological approach to manage urban air pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managing urban air pollution necessitates a feasible and efficient abatement strategy which is characterised as a defined set of specific control measures. In practice, hard budget constraints are present in any decision-making process and therefore available alternatives need to be hierarchised in a fast but still reliable manner. Moreover, realistic strategies require adequate information on the available control measures, taking also into account the area's special characteristics. The selection of the most applicable bundle of measures rests in achieving stakeholders' consensus, while taking into consideration mutually conflicting views and criteria. A preliminary qualitative comparison of alternative control measures would be most handy for decision-makers, forming the grounds for an in-depth analysis of the most promising ones. This paper presents an easy-to-follow multicriteria methodological approach in order to include and synthesise multi-disciplinary knowledge from various stakeholders so as to result into a priority list of abatement options, achieve consensus and secure the adoption of the resulting optimal solution. The approach relies on the active involvement of public authorities and local stakeholders in order to incorporate their environmental, economic and social preferences. The methodological scheme is implemented for the case of Thessaloniki, Greece, an area considered among the most polluted cities within Europe, especially with respect to airborne particles. Intense police control, natural gas penetration in buildings and metro construction equally result into the most "promising" alternatives in order to control air pollution in the GTA. The three optimal alternatives belong to different thematic areas, namely road transport, thermal heating and infrastructure. Thus, it is obvious that efforts should spread throughout all thematic areas. Natural gas penetration in industrial units, intense monitoring of environmental standards and regular maintenance of heavy oil burners are ranked as 4th, 5th and 6th optimal alternatives, respectively.

Vlachokostas, Ch.; Achillas, Ch.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Banias, G.

2011-08-01

298

A hydro-economic modelling framework for optimal management of groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryA hydro-economic modelling framework is developed for determining optimal management of groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture. A holistic optimization model determines the spatial and temporal fertilizer application rate that maximizes the net benefits in agriculture constrained by the quality requirements in groundwater at various control sites. Since emissions (nitrogen loading rates) are what can be controlled, but the concentrations are the policy targets, we need to relate both. Agronomic simulations are used to obtain the nitrate leached, while numerical groundwater flow and solute transport simulation models were used to develop unit source solutions that were assembled into a pollutant concentration response matrix. The integration of the response matrix in the constraints of the management model allows simulating by superposition the evolution of groundwater nitrate concentration over time at different points of interest throughout the aquifer resulting from multiple pollutant sources distributed over time and space. In this way, the modelling framework relates the fertilizer loads with the nitrate concentration at the control sites. The benefits in agriculture were determined through crop prices and crop production functions. This research aims to contribute to the ongoing policy process in the Europe Union (the Water Framework Directive) providing a tool for analyzing the opportunity cost of measures for reducing nitrogen loadings and assessing their effectiveness for maintaining groundwater nitrate concentration within the target levels. The management model was applied to a hypothetical groundwater system. Optimal solutions of fertilizer use to problems with different initial conditions, planning horizons, and recovery times were determined. The illustrative example shows the importance of the location of the pollution sources in relation to the control sites, and how both the selected planning horizon and the target recovery time can strongly influence the limitation of fertilizer use and the economic opportunity cost for meeting the environmental standards. There is clearly a trade-off between the time horizon to reach the standards (recovery time) and the economic losses from nitrogen use reductions.

Peña-Haro, Salvador; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Sahuquillo, Andrés

2009-06-01

299

REMOVAL OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS FROM SUBCRITICAL WATER WITH ACTIVATED CARBON  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has demonstrated that controlling the temperature (and to a lesser extent, the pressure) of water can dramatically change its ability to extract organics and inorganics from matrices ranging from soils and sediments to waste sludges and coal. The dielectric constant of water can be changed from about 80 (a very polar solvent) to <5 (similar to a nonpolar organic solvent) by controlling the temperature (from ambient to about 400 C) and pressure (from about 5 to 350 bar). The EERC has shown that hazardous organic pollutants such as pesticides, PACS (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) can be completely removed from soils, sludges, and sediments at temperatures (250 C) and pressures (<50 atm) that are much milder than typically used for supercritical water processes (temperature >374 C, pressure >221 atm). In addition, the process has been demonstrated to be particularly effective for samples containing very high levels of contaminants (e.g., part per thousand). Current projects include demonstrating the subcritical water remediation process at the pilot scale using an 8-liter system constructed under separate funding during 1997. To date, subcritical water has been shown to be an effective extraction fluid for removing a variety of organic pollutants from soils and sludges contaminated with fossil fuel products and waste products, including PACS from soil (e.g., town gas sites), refining catalysts, and petroleum tank bottom sludges; PCBs from soil and sediments; toxic gasoline components (e.g., benzene) from soil and waste sludge; and phenols from petroleum refinery sludges. The obvious need to clean the wastewater from subcritical water processes led to preliminary experiments with activated carbon placed in line after the extractor. Initial experiments were performed before and after cooling the extractant water (e.g., with water at 200 C and with water cooled to 25 C). Surprisingly, the ability of activated carbon to remove organics from the water is better at a high temperature than at room temperature. These initial results are opposite to those expected from chromatographic theory, since the solubility of the organics is about 100,000-fold higher in the hot water than in ambient water. At present, the physicochemical mechanism accounting for these results is unknown; however, it is possible that the lower surface tension and lower viscosity of subcritical water (compared to water at ambient conditions) greatly increases the available area of the carbon by several orders of magnitude. Regardless of the mechanism involved, the optimal use of activated carbon to clean the wastewater generated from subcritical water remediation will depend on obtaining a better understanding of the controlling parameters. While these investigations focused on the cleanup of wastewater generated from subcritical water remediation, the results also apply to cleanup of any wastewater contaminated with nonpolar and moderately polar organics such as wastewaters from coal and petroleum processing.

Steven B. Hawthorne; Arnaud J. Lagadec

1999-08-01

300

The development of policy approaches for reducing nitrogen pollution to coastal waters of the USA.  

PubMed

Two-thirds of the coastal rivers and bays in the United States are degraded from nutrient pollution, and nitrogen inputs these waters continue to increase. The nitrogen comes from a variety of sources, including runoff from agricultural fields, concentrated animal feeding operations, atmospheric deposition from fossil fuel combustion, and sewage and septic wastes. Technical solutions for nitrogen pollution exist at reasonable cost. That most of these solutions have not yet been implemented to any significant extent across the United States suggests that new policy approaches are necessary. The best solution may involve a combination of voluntary and mandatory approaches, applying different approaches to different sources of nitrogen pollution. A watershed-based approach that relies heavily on voluntary mechanisms (such as crop-yield insurance to reduce over-fertilization) is likely to be the most effective for some sources of nitrogen (such as runoff from agricultural fields), while a uniform national regulatory approach may be better for others (such as NO(x) emissions from fossil fuel combustion). Implementation of management strategies should be carefully coupled to monitoring programs to assess the effectiveness of these strategies. While both nitrogen and phosphorus are important to control, the focus should be on nitrogen management, in part because nitrogen is more generally the causal agent of coastal eutrophication. Also, while nitrogen-control practices tend to also reduce phosphorus pollution, phosphorus-control practices often have little effect on nitrogen. Although current scientific and technical knowledge is sufficient to begin to make substantial progress toward solving coastal nitrogen pollution, progress will be made more quickly and more cost effectively with increased investment in appropriate scientific research. PMID:20549435

Howarth, Robert W

2005-09-01

301

The development of policy approaches for reducing nitrogen pollution to coastal waters of the USA.  

PubMed

Two-thirds of the coastal rivers and bays in the United States are degraded from nutrient pollution, and nitrogen inputs these waters continue to increase. The nitrogen comes from a variety of sources, including runoff from agricultural fields, concentrated animal feeding operations, atmospheric deposition from fossil fuel combustion, and sewage and septic wastes. Technical solutions for nitrogen pollution exist at reasonable cost. That most of these solutions have not yet been implemented to any significant extent across the United States suggests that new policy approaches are necessary. The best solution may involve a combination of voluntary and mandatory approaches, applying different approaches to different sources of nitrogen pollution. A watershed-based approach that relies heavily on voluntary mechanisms (such as crop-yield insurance to reduce over-fertilization) is likely to be the most effective for some sources of nitrogen (such as runoff from agricultural fields), while a uniform national regulatory approach may be better for others (such as NOx emissions from fossil fuel combustion). Implementation of management strategies should be carefully coupled to monitoring programs to assess the effectiveness of these strategies. While both nitrogen and phosphorus are important to control, the focus should be on nitrogen management, in part because nitrogen is more generally the causal agent of coastal eutrophication. Also, while nitrogen-control practices tend to also reduce phosphorus pollution, phosphorus-control practices often have little effect on nitrogen. Although current scientific and technical knowledge is sufficient to begin to make substantial progress toward solving coastal nitrogen pollution, progress will be made more quickly and more cost effectively with increased investment in appropriate scientific research. PMID:16512202

Howarth, Robert W

2005-12-01

302

Recommendations on methods for the detection and control of biological pollution in marine coastal waters.  

PubMed

Adverse effects of invasive alien species (IAS), or biological pollution, is an increasing problem in marine coastal waters, which remains high on the environmental management agenda. All maritime countries need to assess the size of this problem and consider effective mechanisms to prevent introductions, and if necessary and where possible to monitor, contain, control or eradicate the introduced impacting organisms. Despite this, and in contrast to more enclosed water bodies, the openness of marine systems indicates that once species are in an area then eradication is usually impossible. Most institutions in countries are aware of the problem and have sufficient governance in place for management. However, there is still a general lack of commitment and concerted action plans are needed to address this problem. This paper provides recommendations resulting from an international workshop based upon a large amount of experience relating to the assessment and control of biopollution. PMID:21889171

Olenin, Sergej; Elliott, Michael; Bysveen, Ingrid; Culverhouse, Phil F; Daunys, Darius; Dubelaar, George B J; Gollasch, Stephan; Goulletquer, Philippe; Jelmert, Anders; Kantor, Yuri; Mézeth, Kjersti Bringsvor; Minchin, Dan; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Olenina, Irina; Vandekerkhove, Jochen

2011-12-01

303

Using molecular-scale tracers to investigate transport of agricultural pollutants in soil and water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the use of molecular-scale tracers to investigate the transport of potential pollutants due to the application of slurry to soil. The molecular-scale approach allows us to separate the pollutants which are moved to water bodies through sediment-bound and dissolved transport pathways. Slurry is applied to agricultural land to as a soil-improver across a wide-range of topographic and climatic regimes, hence a set of experiments were designed to assess the effect of changing slope gradient and rainfall intensity on the transport of pollutants. The experiments were carried out using University of Bristol's TRACE (Test Rig for Advancing Connectivity Experiments) facility. The facility includes a dual axis soil slope (6 x 2.5 x 0.3 m3) and 6-nozzle rainfall simulator, which enables the manipulation of the slope to simulate different slope gradient and rainfall scenarios. Cattle slurry was applied to the top 1 metre strip of the experimental soil slope followed by four rainfall simulations, where the gradient (5° & 10°) and the rainfall intensity (60 & 120 mm hr-1) were co-varied. Leachate was sampled from different flow pathways (surface, subsurface and percolated) via multiple outlets on the slope throughout the experiments and soil cores were taken from the slope after each experiment. Novel tracers were used to trace the pollutants in both dissolved and sediment-bound forms. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to trace dissolved slurry-derived material via water flow pathways, as the slurry was found to have a distinct signature compared with the soil. The fluorescence signatures of the leachates were compared with those of many organic compounds in order to characterise the origin of the signal. This allowed the assessment of the longevity of the signal in the environment to establish if it could be used as a robust long-term tracer of slurry material in water or if would be subject to transform processes through time. 5-?stanols, organic compounds unique to ruminant faeces, were used to trace the transport of sediment-bound pollutants from the slurry which could be transported into water bodies via erosion processes. The results showed that contributions of potential pollutants from the surface and subsurface flow pathways and from the eroded sediment differ according to slope gradient and rainfall intensity. Therefore, as the contribution of each of these pathways changes in response to rainfall and slope gradient, the pollution risk also changes accordingly, as different organic compounds are mobilised at varying rates. Rapid hydrological response to rainfall results in erosion and surface transport of sediment-bound and dissolved pollutants, creating an immediate contamination threat. However, conditions resulting in a slower hydrological response and the predominance of flow percolation over surface runoff results in higher rates of dissolved pollutant transport through the soil layers which risks contamination of subsurface and deeper ground-water systems. These experiments provide insight into the pathways and timing of contaminant transport with potential implications for understanding contamination risk from the transfer of slurry from land to water bodies. Understanding this threat is critical at a time when pressure is on to develop land-management strategies to reduce pollution alongside maintaining food security.

Lloyd, C.; Michaelides, K.; Chadwick, D.; Dungait, J.; Evershed, R. P.

2012-12-01

304

9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...rendered adulterated by the water shall be condemned. (b) After the polluted water has receded from an...personnel. An adequate supply of hot water under pressure is essential...effective. After cleaning a solution of sodium...

2013-01-01

305

9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...rendered adulterated by the water shall be condemned. (b) After the polluted water has receded from an...personnel. An adequate supply of hot water under pressure is essential...effective. After cleaning a solution of sodium...

2012-01-01

306

9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...rendered adulterated by the water shall be condemned. (b) After the polluted water has receded from an...personnel. An adequate supply of hot water under pressure is essential...effective. After cleaning a solution of sodium...

2011-01-01

307

9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...rendered adulterated by the water shall be condemned. (b) After the polluted water has receded from...personnel. An adequate supply of hot water under pressure is essential...After cleaning, a solution of sodium...

2011-01-01

308

9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...rendered adulterated by the water shall be condemned. (b) After the polluted water has receded from...personnel. An adequate supply of hot water under pressure is essential...After cleaning, a solution of sodium...

2012-01-01

309

9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...rendered adulterated by the water shall be condemned. (b) After the polluted water has receded from...personnel. An adequate supply of hot water under pressure is essential...After cleaning, a solution of sodium...

2013-01-01

310

Selection and placement of best management practices used to reduce water quality degradation in Lincoln Lake watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increased loss of agricultural nutrients is a growing concern for water quality in Arkansas. Several studies have shown that best management practices (BMPs) are effective in controlling water pollution. However, those affected with water quality issues need water management plans that take into consideration BMPs selection, placement, and affordability. This study used a nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). This

Hector German Rodriguez; Jennie Popp; Chetan Maringanti; Indrajeet Chaubey

2011-01-01

311

An novel identification method of the environmental risk sources for surface water pollution accidents in chemical industrial parks.  

PubMed

The chemical industry is a major source of various pollution accidents. Improving the management level of risk sources for pollution accidents has become an urgent demand for most industrialized countries. In pollution accidents, the released chemicals harm the receptors to some extent depending on their sensitivity or susceptibility. Therefore, identifying the potential risk sources from such a large number of chemical enterprises has become pressingly urgent. Based on the simulation of the whole accident process, a novel and expandable identification method for risk sources causing water pollution accidents is presented. The newly developed approach, by analyzing and stimulating the whole process of a pollution accident between sources and receptors, can be applied to identify risk sources, especially on the nationwide scale. Three major types of losses, such as social, economic and ecological losses, were normalized, analyzed and used for overall consequence modeling. A specific case study area, located in a chemical industry park (CIP) along the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province, China, was selected to test the potential of the identification method. The results showed that there were four risk sources for pollution accidents in this CIP. Aniline leakage in the HS Chemical Plant would lead to the most serious impact on the surrounding water environment. This potential accident would severely damage the ecosystem up to 3.8 km downstream of Yangtze River, and lead to pollution over a distance stretching to 73.7 km downstream. The proposed method is easily extended to the nationwide identification of potential risk sources. PMID:24218858

Peng, Jianfeng; Song, Yonghui; Yuan, Peng; Xiao, Shuhu; Han, Lu

2013-07-01

312

The impact of agricultural Best Management Practices on water quality in a North German lowland catchment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on water quality degradation caused by point and diffuse source pollution plays an important role in protecting the\\u000a environment sustainably. Implementation of Best Management Practices (BMPs) is a conventional approach for controlling and\\u000a mitigating pollution from diffuse sources. The objectives of this study were to assess the long-term impact of point and diffuse\\u000a source pollution on sediment and nutrient

Q. D. Lam; B. Schmalz; N. Fohrer

313

Blautia and Prevotella sequences distinguish human and animal fecal pollution in Brazil surface waters.  

PubMed

Untreated sewage discharges and limited agricultural manure management practices contribute to fecal pollution in rural Brazilian waterways. Most microbial source tracking studies have focused on Bacteroidales, and few have tested host-specific indicators in underdeveloped regions. Sequencing of sewage and human and animal feces with Illumina HiSeq revealed Prevotellaceae as the most abundant family in humans, with Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae also comprising a large proportion of the microbiome. These same families were also dominant in animals. Bacteroides, the genus containing the most commonly utilized human-specific marker in the United States was present in very low abundance. We used oligotyping to identify Prevotella and Blautia sequences that can distinguish human fecal contamination. Thirty-five of 61 Blautia oligotypes and 13 of 108 Prevotella oligotypes in humans were host-specific or highly abundant (i.e. host-preferred) compared to pig, dog, horse and cow sources. Certain human Prevotella and Blautia oligotypes increased more than an order of magnitude along a polluted river transect in rural Brazil, but traditional fecal indicator levels followed a steady or even decreasing trend. While both Prevotella and Blautia oligotypes distinguished human and animal fecal pollution in Brazil surface waters, Blautia appears to contain more discriminatory and globally applicable markers for tracking sources of fecal pollution. PMID:25360571

Koskey, Amber M; Fisher, Jenny C; Eren, A Murat; Ponce-Terashima, Rafael; Reis, Mitermayer G; Blanton, Ronald E; McLellan, Sandra L

2014-12-01

314

Spreadsheet WATERSHED modeling for nonpoint-source pollution management in a Wisconsin basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although several sophisticated nonpoint pollution models exist, few are available that are easy to use, cover a variety of conditions, and integrate a wide range of information to allow managers and planners to assess different control strategies. Here, a straightforward pollutant input accounting approach is presented in the form of an existing model (WATERSHED) that has been adapted to run on modern electronic spreadsheets. As an application, WATERSHED is used to assess options to improve the quality of highly eutrophic Delavan Lake in Wisconsin. WATERSHED is flexible in that several techniques, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation or unit-area loadings, can be used to estimate nonpoint-source inputs. Once the model parameters are determined (and calibrated, if possible), the spreadsheet features can be used to conduct a sensitivity analysis of management options. In the case of Delavan Lake, it was concluded that, although some nonpoint controls were cost-effective, the overall reduction in phosphorus would be insufficient to measurably improve water quality.A straightforward pollutant input accounting approach is presented in the form of an existing model (WATERSHED) that has been adapted to run on modern electronic spreadsheets. As an application, WATERSHED is used to assess options to improve the quality of highly eutrophic Delavan Lake in Wisconsin. WATERSHED is flexible in that several techniques, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation or unit-area loadings, can be used to estimate nonpoint-source inputs. Once the model parameters are determined (and calibrated, if possible), the spreadsheet features can be used to conduct a sensitivity analysis of management options. In the case of Delavan Lake, it was concluded that, although some nonpoint controls were cost-effective, the overall reduction in phosphorus would be insufficient to measurably improve water quality.

Walker, J. F.; Pickard, S. A.; Sonzogni, W. C.

1989-01-01

315

Analysis on the Lake Water Pollution Components Based on Normal Quality Monitoring Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Take Hongze Lake of Jiangsu Province, China, as a Case, the components of lake water pollution were analyzed, based on the regular water quality monitoring data of 10 sampling points from 1990 to 2002 and the spatial data. By factor analysis and spatio-temporary correlation analysis etc, the spatio- temporary simulations to main lake water pollution components, including eutrophication, were carried

Bo Li

2009-01-01

316

DEVELOPMENTS AT FOURTEENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WATER POLLUTION RESEARCH - BRIGHTON, ENGLAND, JULY 17-22, 1988  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this report is to provide a mechanism whereby current water research developments from around the world as reported at the 14th International Conference on Water Pollution Research of the International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control can be high...

317

Relaxation Approximations to Shallow Water and Pollutant Transport Department of Sciences, Division of Mathematics,  

E-print Network

1 Relaxation Approximations to Shallow Water and Pollutant Transport Equations A.I. Delis solution of shallow water flows and the transport and diffusion of pollutant in such flows. By first can be considered as an alternative to classical finite difference methods. Keywords--Shallow water

Katsaounis, Theodoros D.

318

Rapid effects of diverse toxic water pollutants on chlorophyll a fluorescence: Variable responses  

E-print Network

Rapid effects of diverse toxic water pollutants on chlorophyll a fluorescence: Variable responses 2012 Available online xxx Keywords: Chlorophyll a fluorescence Algae Toxin Rapid response Photosystem Chlorophyte Chrysophyte Water quality Toxic water pollutant Toxicity assessment a b s t r a c t Chlorophyll

Berges, John A.

319

Pollution Prevention and New Industrial Estates  

E-print Network

and Guidance Surface Water Management Project Examples #12;2 POLLUTION WITHIN INDUSTRIAL ESTATES Sources Poor ....CHRONIC POLLUTION Impact on the Water Environment Traditional gravity surface water drainage system discharging to watercourse ­ point source Source #12;5 Impact on the Water Environment ·Pollution from food

Heal, Kate

320

Spectroscopic analyses of pollutants in water, sediment and fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water ways in Egypt is suffering from continual discharge without adequate treatment especially in the Delta and greater Cairo area. Accordingly water, sediments and catfishes were collected from El Mouheet El Youmna drain in Giza. Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn were determined furthermore the molecular structure of sediment and catfish were conducted with FTIR spectroscopy. Although studied metals were lower in water, higher values are recorded in sediment and catfish samples. FTIR shows possible interaction among metals and organic structures mainly proteins. The bioaccumulation of Pb and Cd proportion was significantly increased in the liver tissues of catfish. A correlation coefficient among sediment and fish liver metals accumulation exist. This infers that the waste assimilation capacity for the drain is high, a phenomena that could be ascribed to dilution, sedimentation and continual water exchange. Furthermore, the genotoxicity affect in catfish genomic corroborates the genus diagnostic markers which attributed to long pollution. This is an indication that agriculture and industrial wastes discharged into the drain has badly a significant effect on the ecological balance.

Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh.; Ibrahim, Hanan S.; Ammar, Nabila S.; Ibrahim, Medhat

2012-11-01

321

Controlling agricultural nonpoint water pollution: costs of implementing the Maryland Water Quality Improvement Act of 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Maryland Water Quality Improvement Act of 1998 (WQIA) seeks to create environmental and other benefits to the Chesapeake Bay through reductions in nonpoint source nutrient pollution. This paper analyzes the economic impacts of the WQIA on agricultural users of nutrients (commercial fertilizers or animal manures) and on poultry growers in the state of Maryland. The net economic impacts to

Doug Parker

2000-01-01

322

WATER INFILTRATION CONTROL TO ACHIEVE MINE WATER POLLUTION CONTROL: THE DENTS RUN WATERSHED DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of surface mined land reclamation measures in establishing surface water infiltratin control to prevent or reduce pollution from acid mine drainage. The Dents Run watershed, located in Monongalia County, West Virgin...

323

The extent of chronic marine oil pollution in southeastern Newfoundland waters assessed through beached  

E-print Network

The extent of chronic marine oil pollution in southeastern Newfoundland waters assessed through bird surveys conducted between 1984 and 1999 indicate that chronic oil pollution along the southeast: Oil pollution; Seabirds; North Atlantic; Beached bird surveys; Murre hunt; Ship traffic; Oil

Jones, Ian L.

324

Water Management at UBC Okanagan Part 2: Water Features  

E-print Network

Water Management at UBC Okanagan Part 2: Water Features UBC Okanagan 2007 Angele Clarke A SEEDS and Objectives 2 Methods 3 The Symbolic and Cultural Values of Water 3 Landscape Aesthetics Relationship to Water 5 UBC-Okanagan Campus Landscape and Water Features 8 Water Features and the Built Environment Campus

325

Confronting limitations: New solutions required for urban water management in Kunming City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite continuous investment and various efforts to control pollution, urban water environments are worsening in large parts of the developing world. In order to reveal potential constraints and limitations of current practices of urban water management and to stimulate proactive intervention, we conducted a material flow analysis of the urban water system in Kunming City. The results demonstrate that the

Dong-Bin Huang; Hans-Peter Bader; Ruth Scheidegger; Roland Schertenleib; Willi Gujer

2007-01-01

326

Effective Watershed Management for Surface Water Supplies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintaining the best possible water quality is the goal of every surface water source protection program. Watershed management can play an important role in maintaining or enhancing water quality for both filtered and unfiltered systems. The AWWA Research Foundation recently published a study on effective watershed management for surface water supplies. This article presents results of this investigation, which was

Richard W. Robbins; Joseph L. Glicker; Douglas M. Bloem; Bruce M. Niss

1991-01-01

327

A modeling approach to evaluate the impacts of water quality management plans implemented in a watershed in Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several best management practices (BMPs) have been implemented through Water Quality Management Plans (WQMPs) in the West Fork Watershed of Trinity River Basin in Texas, USA, where nonpoint source pollution is a serious concern. Major sources of pollution are sediment erosion and nutrients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of implementation of WQMPs on nonpoint

C. Santhi; R. Srinivasan; J. G. Arnold; J. R. Williams

2006-01-01

328

Remote sensing in the mixing zone. [water pollution in Wisconsin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characteristics of dispersion and diffusion as the mechanisms by which pollutants are transported in natural river courses were studied with the view of providing additional data for the establishment of water quality guidelines and effluent outfall design protocols. Work has been divided into four basic categories which are directed at the basic goal of developing relationships which will permit the estimation of the nature and extent of the mixing zone as a function of those variables which characterize the outfall structure, the effluent, and the river, as well as climatological conditions. The four basic categories of effort are: (1) the development of mathematical models; (2) laboratory studies of physical models; (3) field surveys involving ground and aerial sensing; and (4) correlation between aerial photographic imagery and mixing zone characteristics.

Villemonte, J. R.; Hoopes, J. A.; Wu, D. S.; Lillesand, T. M.

1973-01-01

329

Microbial pollution of water in Golbasi lake in Adiyaman, Turkey.  

PubMed

An experiment was designed to examine microbiology of water samples of Gölbasi lake and to assess the occurence of multiple antibiotic resistances in Escherichia coli from them. Total aerobic bacteria number in the lake was determined as 20x10(3) cfu ml(-1) and fecal coliforms were determined >1100 MPN/100 ml. Collected water samples from four geographically dispersed stations were screened for the E. coli and assessed for their resistance to twelve different antibiotics, which are commonly encountered in the lake. Of the total 13 E. coli isolates, 0% were susceptible to all antibiotics. All of isolates were found resistant to Penicillin (P) (100%). Among the twelve antibiotics tested, four patterns of antibiotic resistance were obtained and all of them were multiple antibiotic resistance with the number of antibiotics ranging from 2 to 5. Three isolates had beta-lactamase detected by iodometric slide test. The results indicated that persistent use of antibiotics against human diseases and other life forms may pollute the lake water and their impact on developing antibiotic resistant E. coli may be a serious threat in both health and environment. PMID:20112860

Toroglu, Emin; Toroglu, Sevil

2009-01-01

330

Linking Near Real-Time Water Quality Measurements to Fecal Coliforms and Trace Organic Pollutants in Urban Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic pollutants, including pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, and estrogens are detected in urban water bodies. Effective examination of dilute organic and microbial pollutant loading rates within surface waters is currently prohibitively expensive and labor intensive. Effort is being placed on the development of improved monitoring methodologies to more accurately assess surface water quality and evaluate the effectiveness of water quality management practices. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008 a "real-time" wireless network equipped with high frequency fundamental water quality parameter sensors measured turbidity, conductivity, pH, depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen and nitrate above and below stormwater inputs at two urban stream locations. At each location one liter grab samples were concurrently collected by ISCO automatic samplers at two hour intervals for 24 hour durations during three dry periods and five rain events. Grab samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms, atrazine (agricultural herbicide), prometon (residential herbicide) and caffeine (wastewater indicator). Surrogate relationships between easy-to-measure water quality parameters and difficult-to-measure pollutants were developed, subsequently facilitating monitoring of these pollutants without the development of new, and likely costly, technologies. Additionally, comparisons were made between traditional grab sampling techniques and the "real-time" monitoring to assess the accuracy of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) calculations.

Henjum, M.; Wennen, C.; Hondzo, M.; Hozalski, R. M.; Novak, P. J.; Arnold, W. A.

2009-05-01

331

Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid  

PubMed Central

Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P?=?0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l?1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l?1 (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

Van Dijk, Tessa C.; Van Staalduinen, Marja A.; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

2013-01-01

332

Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.  

PubMed

Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1). For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1) (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

Van Dijk, Tessa C; Van Staalduinen, Marja A; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P

2013-01-01

333

Real-time management of an urban groundwater well field threatened by pollution.  

PubMed

We present an optimal real-time control approach for the management of drinking water well fields. The methodology is applied to the Hardhof field in the city of Zurich, Switzerland, which is threatened by diffuse pollution. The risk of attracting pollutants is higher if the pumping rate is increased and can be reduced by increasing artificial recharge (AR) or by adaptive allocation of the AR. The method was first tested in offline simulations with a three-dimensional finite element variably saturated subsurface flow model for the period January 2004-August 2005. The simulations revealed that (1) optimal control results were more effective than the historical control results and (2) the spatial distribution of AR should be different from the historical one. Next, the methodology was extended to a real-time control method based on the Ensemble Kalman Filter method, using 87 online groundwater head measurements, and tested at the site. The real-time control of the well field resulted in a decrease of the electrical conductivity of the water at critical measurement points which indicates a reduced inflow of water originating from contaminated sites. It can be concluded that the simulation and the application confirm the feasibility of the real-time control concept. PMID:20695465

Bauser, Gero; Franssen, Harrie-Jan Hendricks; Kaiser, Hans-Peter; Kuhlmann, Ulrich; Stauffer, Fritz; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

2010-09-01

334

Contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and relevant management in China.  

PubMed

The status of typical persistent organic pollutant (POP) contamination in many media (e.g., farm produce, soil, human milk, water, and sediments) was surveyed and China's relevant countermeasures for controlling POPs were analyzed in this paper. The results showed that the proportion of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) to all kinds of pesticides has descended significantly since 1983 when the OCPs were forbidden from being used. The spatial distribution characteristic of pesticide application in the whole country was as follows: southeast>central>northwest. The pesticide residues in food with high fat and high protein content were more than that in foodstuffs. The residual concentration in soil in the whole country was as follows: south>central>north. Furthermore, in vegetable fields, the residual concentration was higher than that in crop fields. As for human milk, the retained amount tended to decrease. In the recent two decades, although the reduction was 81.5%, it was still higher than that in some developed European and American countries. The rank of the residual concentrations of OCPs in different media was: human milk>animal foodstuff>soil>vegetable food>water and sediment. The initial relevant POP management in China can be traced back to 1982 when the Ordinance of Pesticide Management was enacted. Now, environmental control of POPs in China is close to the international level. The legal management system of POPs can be divided into four facets, including 3 regulations, 6 ordinances, and 20 standards. However, on the whole, most of the existing regulations do not refer to POPs directly. Only some clauses mention POPs and lack pertinent, explicit statements on POP pollution and control. Legislation is urgently needed for more effective environmental management to enhance POP control. PMID:15982740

Tieyu, Wang; Yonglong, Lu; Hong, Zhang; Yajuan, Shi

2005-08-01

335

Microbial and nutrient pollution of coastal bathing waters in Mauritius.  

PubMed

The coastal pollution problem in Mauritius is exacerbated by the hydrogeology of the volcanic substratum. Bacterial contamination of bathing waters and nutrients, water temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen (DO) were monitored at three different spatial and temporal scales along the coastline of Mauritius during 1997-1998. Standard techniques for water sample collection and analysis set by the American Public Health Association [APHA. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 19th ed. Washington, DC: APHA, 1995.] were used at: (a) 16 sites around the island over a period of 7 months; (b) 12 stations along a recreational beach over an 18-month period; and (c) at an underground freshwater seepage point over 1 day. Total coliform (TC), faecal coliform (FC), and faecal streptococci (FS) contamination reported during all surveys varied randomly (e.g., with maximum densities in the ranges of 346-2020 TC, 130-2000 FC, and 180-1040 FS at one site) and at times exceeded the established EEC and Environment Protection Agency (EPA) standards for bathing water (e.g., in >90% of samples) to qualify for beach closure. Computed FC:FS ratios were used to pinpoint human faecal matter as the main source of contamination. Nitrate, phosphate, and silicate concentrations in seepage water were high (3600-9485, 38-105, and 9950-24,775 microg l(-1), respectively) and a cause for concern when compared with levels (5-845, 5-72, and 35-6570 microg l(-1), respectively) in cleaner lagoon water samples. Statistical analysis showed significant correlations (for TC and NO3: r=.75, P<.02; for TC and PO4: r=.779, P<.02; for TC and SiO4: r=.731, P<.05; for FC and NO3: r=.773, P<.02; for FC and SiO4: r=.727, P<.05; for FS and SiO4: r=.801 P<.01) between microbial densities and nutrients recorded, confirming the pathogen-contaminated water to be highly eutrophic. There is an urgency for Mauritius to properly address the issue of sewage treatment and wastewater discharge to safeguard its coastal environment, public health, and tourism expansion. PMID:11868664

Daby, D; Turner, J; Jago, C

2002-02-01

336

Citizens' guides to ocean and coastal law: Guide to laws regulating coastal water pollution  

SciTech Connect

The pamphlet is intended to help citizens, like those participating in water quality monitoring programs, who want to understand the complex nature of state, federal, and local laws that apply to the chief sources of coastal water pollution: point source pollution--pollution discharged from pipes which require state and federal permits; and nonpoint source pollution--generally unregulated runoff from agricultural operations and urban land uses, timber harvesting (silviculture), and construction activities. The pamphlet explains the legal standards and penalties established by coastal water quality laws so that citizens can better participate in the implementation and enforcement of these laws.

Not Available

1993-01-01

337

Water resource management: an Indian perspective.  

PubMed

Water is precious natural resource for sustaining life and environment. Effective and sustainable management of water resources is vital for ensuring sustainable development. In view of the vital importance of water for human and animal life, for maintaining ecological balance and for economic and developmental activities of all kinds, and considering its increasing scarcity, the planning and management of water resource and its optimal, economical and equitable use has become a matter of the utmost urgency. Management of water resources in India is of paramount importance to sustain one billion plus population. Water management is a composite area with linkage to various sectors of Indian economy including the agricultural, industrial, domestic and household, power, environment, fisheries and transportation sector. The water resources management practices should be based on increasing the water supply and managing the water demand under the stressed water availability conditions. For maintaining the quality of freshwater, water quality management strategies are required to be evolved and implemented. Decision support systems are required to be developed for planning and management of the water resources project. There is interplay of various factors that govern access and utilization of water resources and in light of the increasing demand for water it becomes important to look for holistic and people-centered approaches for water management. Clearly, drinking water is too fundamental and serious an issue to be left to one institution alone. It needs the combined initiative and action of all, if at all we are serious in socioeconomic development. Safe drinking water can be assured, provided we set our mind to address it. The present article deals with the review of various options for sustainable water resource management in India. PMID:25151722

Khadse, G K; Labhasetwar, P K; Wate, S R

2012-10-01

338

Analysis of national water-pollution-control policies. 1. A national network model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the national implications of federal water-pollution-control policies, the authors developed a water-pollution-network model. This model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and bays. While the geographical scope of the model and existing data availability required make many simplifying assumptions,

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin; G. K. Young

1981-01-01

339

Management of forests with water conservation function  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 44% of the Czech forests serve soil and water conservation objectives that should be taken into account in managing these lands. In three case studies presented, the additional costs to land management for soil and water protection were compared to the cost of remedial engineering measures that would have to be taken to counteract the effects of timber-only management

V. PERINA

340

Trading pollution for water quality : assessing the effects of market-based instruments in three basins  

E-print Network

Since its passage in 1972, the majority of pollution reduction under the federal Clean Water Act has resulted from technology-based limits imposed on point source dischargers. However, most U.S. water bodies are unmonitored ...

Wallace, Katherine Hay

2007-01-01

341

Effect of metal pollution on the water quality in Taihu Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals Cu, Zn, Cr, and others were carried though Liangxi River and Xiaomei River from Wuxi City and Huzhou City into Taihu Lake. Pollution of heavy metals in the water and sediments and chemical forms of Cu, Ph, Zn, Cd, Hg, Cr in the surface sediments were analysed to predict the effect of the pollution on water quality in

Weili Yang; Liensheng Yang; Jianxun Zheng

1996-01-01

342

WATER POLLUTION CAUSED BY INACTIVE ORE AND MINERAL MINES - A NATIONAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report identifies the scope and magnitude of water pollution from inactive ore and mineral mines. Data collected from Federal, State, and local agencies indicates water pollution from acids, heavy metals, and sedimentation occurs at over 100 locations and affects over 1200 ki...

343

The fate of stormwater-associated bacteria in constructed wetland and water pollution control pond systems.  

PubMed

The performances of a constructed wetland and a water pollution control pond were compared in terms of their abilities to reduce stormwater bacterial loads to recreational waters. Concentrations of thermotolerant coliforms, enterococci and heterotrophic bacteria were determined in inflow and outflow samples collected from each system over a 6-month period. Bacterial removal was significantly less effective in the water pollution control pond than in the constructed wetland. This was attributed to the inability of the pond system to retain the fine clay particles (< 2 microm) to which the bacteria were predominantly adsorbed. Sediment microcosm survival studies showed that the persistence of thermotolerant coliforms was greater in the pond sediments than in the wetland sediments, and that predation was a major factor influencing bacterial survival. The key to greater bacterial longevity in the pond sediments appeared to be the adsorption of bacteria to fine particles, which protected them from predators. These observations may significantly affect the choice of treatment system for effective stormwater management. PMID:10971769

Davies, C M; Bavor, H J

2000-08-01

344

Adapting California's Water Management to Climate Change  

E-print Network

4 High Stream and Reservoir Temperatures 5 Increased Water Demands 5 Increased Flood Flows Water Transfer Mechanisms 20 Changing Reservoir Operation Policy 21 New Policies for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta 21 New Surface Storage Investments 22 Flood Management 22 Water Quality Management 24

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

345

Assessing the pollution potential of non-point mine wastes on surface water using a geo-spatial modeling approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abandoned mine lands (or inactive and abandoned mines) have received increasing concerns because they may cause severe environmental and public health problems. Most of previous studies to characterize mine waste pollution potential were focused on screening-level investigations. The issues related to pollution potential of mine waste were poorly addressed from the perspective of non-point source pollution, and few efforts have been made to study the effect of spatial characteristics of mine wastes on water quality using spatial technology such as GIS, remote sensing and spatial modeling. This research develops a geo-spatial approach to assessing mine waste pollution on surface water, which integrates GIS, remote sensing and watershed modeling techniques in order to effectively address the effects of spatial characteristics of pollutants. The study area is Tri-State Mining District which is located in the conjunction of Missouri, Kansas and Okalahoma. This district was the most important lead and zinc mining area in U.S. The historic mining left behind a huge area of mine wastes. Satellite remote sensing data (Landsat MSS and TM) were acquired, processed and classified in a decadal interval to generate land use/land cover (LULC) data for the entire district. Watersheds within the district were delineated by using USGS DEM data and a newly-developed GIS tool. Water quality indicators were selected and relevant water quality data between 1970 and 2002 was retrieved from USGS and USEPA databases. With the classified LULC data as a data source, landscape metrics (composition and spatial configuration indices) for each water quality station in mine waste-located watersheds were calculated. Statistical analyses were performed to quantify the relationship between landscape and surface water quality and to evaluate the impacts of landscape characteristics on surface water quality. Related GIS data layers were then created and a cell-based watershed modeling was conducted. The study shows that mine waste area in the district decreased evidently over last three decades. Landscape characteristics could account for as much as 77% of the variation of surface water quality. The proportion indices of LULC types were shown to be more important than spatial configuration indices in characterizing surface water quality. The modeling results characterized the pollution potential and detected the pollution severity in the watersheds within the study area. The results of this research would help develop management strategies and prioritize future remediation to reduce pollution potential.

Xiao, Huaguo

346

Economic measurement of benefits of water-pollution abatement in an irrigated river basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addressed the problem of measuring the economic benefits of water-pollution abatement in a multiple-use river setting. The primary objective of this study was to develop a multiple-parameter analytical procedure for estimating benefits of water-pollution abatement. An analytical model consisting of a water-quality submodel and an economic submodel was specified. The water-quality index functions, and an aggregation rule. The

Gutema

1982-01-01

347

A trading-ratio system for trading water pollution discharge permits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fact that water flows to the lowest level uni-directionally is a very specific and useful property of water. By utilizing this property, we design a trading-ratio system (TRS) of tradable discharge permits for water pollution control. Such a trading-ratio system has three main characteristics: (1) the zonal effluent cap is set by taking into account the water pollutant loads

Ming-Feng Hung; Daigee Shaw

2005-01-01

348

Water Source Pollution and Disease Diagnosis in a Nigerian Rural Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Samples from five water sources (spring, borehole, pond, stream, and well) in rural Nigerian communities were tested. Results include source reliabilities in terms of water quality and quantity, pollution effects upon water quality, epidemiological effects related to water quantity and waste disposal, and impact of water quality improvement upon…

Sangodoyin, A. Y.

1991-01-01

349

A Nonparametric Instrumental Variable Approach to Estimating the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollutants at the Global Level  

E-print Network

for Water Pollutants at the Global Level Krishna P. Paudel1 , C.-Y. Cynthia Lin2 , Mahesh Pandit the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollutants at the Global Level Abstract We examine the relationship between income and water pollutants using country- level global water quality data over the period 1980

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

350

A Nonparametric Instrumental Variable Approach to Estimating the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollutants at the Global Level1  

E-print Network

for Water Pollutants at the Global Level1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lin,2 Krishna P. Paudel, Mahesh Pandit for Water Pollutants at the Global Level Abstract We examine the relationship between income and water pollutants using country- level global water quality data over the period 1980 to 2012. We include civil

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

351

Protecting Water Resources and Managing Stormwater  

E-print Network

Protecting Water Resources and Managing Stormwater A BiRd'S EyE ViEW foR NEW HAMPSHiRE Co, endorsement or recommendation. Protecting Water Resources and Managing Stormwater: A Birds Eye View For New Cover Photos: Photos.com #12;PRotECtiNG WAtER RESouRCES ANd MANAGiNG StoRMWAtER iN NEW HAMPSHiRE 1 TABl

New Hampshire, University of

352

Role of water in urban planning and management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of people in urban areas intensify water problems such as flooding and pollution, but these deleterious effects on water resources can be minimized or corrected by comprehensive planning and management. Such planning of the water resources of an urban area must be based on adequate hydrologic data. Through the use of a matrix, urban water problems can be evaluated and availability of data assessed. The Washington-Baltimore metropolitan area is used as a case study. The completed matrix provides both a means for developing a meaningful dialogue between the hydrologist and the urban planner and a method for developing a work plan to insure consideration of water-resources data in urban planning.

Schneider, William Joseph; Rickert, David A.; Spieker, Andrew Maute.

1973-01-01

353

Evaluation of seasonal scale first flush pollutant loading and implications for urban runoff management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated how the occurrence and magnitude of first flush events in stormwater may influence the effective management of urban runoff pollution. To facilitate the understanding of the first flush phenomenon on a seasonal scale, the City of San Jose, CA carried out an investigation between May 1997 and April 2000 to characterize concentrations of pollutants in local waterbodies

Jeffrey Soller; Julie Stephenson; Kendra Olivieri; James Downing; Adam W. Olivieri

2005-01-01

354

Managing Change toward Adaptive Water Management through Social Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. The management,of water resources is currently undergoing a paradigm shift toward a more integrated and participatory management,style. This paper highlights the need to fully take into account the complexity of the systems to be managed,and to give more attention to uncertainties. Achieving this requires adaptive management,approaches that can more generally be defined as systematic strategies for improving management,policies and

Claudia Pahl-wostl; Jan Sendzimir; Paul Jeffrey; Jeroen Aerts; Ger Berkamp; Katharine Cross

355

Deposition of air pollutants to the great waters. First report to Congress  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Great Waters program is to evaluate the atmospheric deposition of air pollutants to the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, Chesapeake Bay, and coastal waters. The report to Congress is to include information on the contribution of atmospheric deposition to pollutant loadings, the environmental or public health effects of such pollution, the source or sources of such pollution, and a description of any regulatory revisions under applicable Federal laws that may be necessary to assure protection of human health and the environment. The scientific information currently available is summarized in this report, and recommended actions are described.

Not Available

1994-05-01

356

Sustainable Water Management & Satellite Remote Sensing  

EPA Science Inventory

Eutrophication assessment frameworks such as the Australian National Water Quality Management Strategy, Oslo Paris (OSPAR) Commission Common Procedure, Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Union, Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) from the European Commission, ...

357

Citizen's guide to coastal water resource management  

SciTech Connect

Contents include: taking the initiative; water-quality standards; Coastal Area Management Act; dredge-and-fill permits under Section 404; sediment and erosion control; other environmental laws; nonregulatory ways to help protect water resources.

Kennedy, J.; Miller, T.

1988-01-01

358

The legal framework to manage chemical pollution in India and the lesson from the Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs).  

PubMed

India's rapid agro-economic growth has resulted into many environmental issues, especially related to chemical pollution. Environmental management and control of toxic chemicals have gained significant attention from policy makers, researchers, and enterprises in India. The present study reviews the policy and legal and non-regulatory schemes set in place in this country during the last decades to manage chemical risk and compares them with those in developed nations. India has a large and fragmented body of regulation to control and manage chemical pollution which appears to be ineffective in protecting environment and human health. The example of POPs contamination in India is proposed to support such a theory. Overlapping of jurisdictions and retrospectively approached environmental policy and risk management currently adopted in India are out of date and excluding Indian economy from the process of building and participating into new, environmentally-sustainable market spaces for chemical products. To address these issues, the introduction of a new integrated and scientifically-informed regulation and management scheme is recommended. Such scheme should acknowledge the principle of risk management rather than the current one based on risk acceptance. To this end, India should take advantage of the experience of recently introduced chemical management regulation in some developed nations. PMID:24907609

Sharma, Brij Mohan; Bharat, Girija K; Tayal, Shresth; Nizzetto, Luca; Larssen, Thorjørn

2014-08-15

359

Water quality management of rooftop rainwater harvesting systems.  

PubMed

The ancient technique of harvesting rainwater falling on rooftops, which had been forgotten after the advent of large-scale centralized water resource systems like dam-based reservoirs, has staged a global comeback in the post-modern era. It is expected that in the near future all dwellings everywhere will be equipped to harvest and use rainwater. Such widespread use of rooftop rainwater harvesting makes it very important that the water quality aspects associated with it are clearly understood and managed. The present paper addresses the related issues. The pathways by which pollutants can enter in a rainwater harvest have been traced and the strategies to manage the water quality, at pre-harvest as well as post-harvest stages, have been discussed. PMID:21117427

Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

2009-10-01

360

Paying for Pollution: Water Quality and Effluent Charges. Proceedings from a Conference (Chicago, Illinois, May 19, 1977).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication gives the proceedings from a 1977 conference sponsored by the Conservation Foundation. Participants discuss the appropriate means to control water pollution, emphasizing the use of effluent charges as economic incentive for polluters to clean up their waters. (MA)

Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC.

361

MODELING WATER QUALITY AND THE EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURAL BMPS (BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES) IN THE IOWA RIVER BASIN  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper describes a demonstration application of comprehensive hydrology and water quality modeling on a large river basin to evaluate the effects of agricultural nonpoint pollution and proposed best management practices (BMPs). The model application combines detailed simulati...

362

Efficient Management of Water in Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter the authors argue that the major problem in water resources around the world is water management rather than\\u000a water availability. We identify several sources of distortion and several avenues to increase the productivities of water.\\u000a First, subsidization of water or energy available for irrigation leads to underinvestment in modern irrigation technologies.\\u000a These technologies could increase the water

David Zilberman; Ujjayant Chakravorty; Farhed Shah

363

Nutrient Management Module No. 12 Water Quality  

E-print Network

Nutrient Management Module No. 12 Water Quality Considerations and Regulations by Susan Mc about water quality considerations and regulations. This module covers Rocky Mountain CCA Nutrient, the reader should: 1.Recognize nutrient impacts on different water bodies 2.Understand common water quality

Lawrence, Rick L.

364

Sources of water pollution and evolution of water quality in the Wuwei basin of Shiyang river, Northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on surveys and chemical analyses, we performed a case study of the surface water and groundwater quality in the Wuwei basin, in order to understand the sources of water pollution and the evolution of water quality in Shiyang river. Concentrations of major chemical elements in the surface water were related to the distance downstream from the source of the

Jinzhu Ma; Zhenyu Ding; Guoxiao Wei; Hua Zhao; Tianming Huang

2009-01-01

365

Managing Grazing for Water Quality Integrating research and management  

E-print Network

04/08/2011 1 Managing Grazing for Water Quality Integrating research and management Ken Tate 8, 2011 · Heavy grazing - excessive soil compaction, riparian degradation, reduced filtration, heavy fecal loading. Some Risk Factors · Livestock allowed frequent contact with surface water. · Grazing

Tate, Kenneth

366

Fungal pollution of indoor environments and its management.  

PubMed

Indoor environments play important roles in human health. The health hazards posed by polluted indoor environments include allergy, infections and toxicity. Life style changes have resulted in a shift from open air environments to air tight, energy efficient, environments, in which people spend a substantial portion of their time. Most indoor air pollution comes from the hazardous non biological agents and biological agents. Fungi are ubiquitous in distribution and are a serious threat to public health in indoor environments. In this communication, we have reviewed the current status on biotic indoor air pollution, role of fungi as biological contaminants and their impact on human health. PMID:23961203

Haleem Khan, A A; Mohan Karuppayil, S

2012-10-01

367

Water pollution and water quality in Massachusetts' coastal zone: A municipal official's primer  

SciTech Connect

Conservation commissions, boards of selectmen and other municipal agencies are the first line of defense against a multitude of assaults on water quality in the rapidly developing Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Maintaining a community's water quality is a daunting task, faced, in many cases, by volunteers whose primary qualification is a devotion to their town or city and a willingness to spend a large part of their 'leisure' time working to improve and protect their community. This manual is a reference guide to problems, causes, solutions, experts and bibliographic references in the field of water pollution and water quality. With overviews of the main issues and suggestions for coping mechanisms, as well as listings of pertinent legislation and responsible government agencies, the manual should be a time saver for both experienced and novice decision-makers. It will not answer every question in detail, but will serve as a starting point for the seeker.

Hall-Arber, M.

1992-01-01

368

An air and water pollution prevention primer for small businesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollution prevention is one of the few areas in which environmental goals and economic interests clearly coincide. Benefits include reduced costs, liabilities and regulatory burdens, and an improved environment. Minimizing the quantity and toxicity of waste also reduces the need for waste treatment operations. Because economics is one of the factors weighed when adopting pollution prevent technologies, economic analysis based

1995-01-01

369

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN BELARUS: PURIFICATION EFFICIENCY AND SURFACE WATER POLLUTION RISK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Official statistics were used for an investigation of wastewater disposal structure, for a study of characteristics of pollutants\\u000a in urban sewage and estimation of anthropogenic (pollutant) load on receiving waters. The capacities of town sewage plants\\u000a and efficiency of wastewater refinement are examined. It is shown that wastewater discharged without adequate treatment into\\u000a surface waters has affected water bodies that

OLGA KADATSKAYA

370

Research on status analysis of surface water environment and pollution control in Jiaozuo city  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation and study show that the surface water pollution of Jiaozuo city is serious, the river water quality is V or above V. The total sewage export loads are 13130.42 tons every year, export loads of the main pollutants CODCr are 32846.15 tons, and the NH3-N are 3591.37 tons every year. In this research, the water quality requirements of each

Yongle Li; Zhanping Zhang; Jiangfeng Wang

2011-01-01

371

Pollution of the Black Sea coastal waters: Sources, present-day level, annual variability  

SciTech Connect

Results of regular (for the last 10 years) observations at marine and coastal hydrometeorological posts are analyzed. These are observations of volumes and concentrations of pollutants entering the sea with the flow of the Danube and Dnieper rivers and wastewaters of coastal industrial enterprises, as a result of oil spills caused by ship accidents, pipeline damage, and sea shipping. An integral criterion used to estimate the overall specific anthropogenic load of pollutants in the coastal zone is calculated. The pollutants were compared with regard to their overall specific load, taking into account the percentage of each of them. A water pollution index is calculated for 19 regions of the sea; water quality is evaluated for three types of pollutants and oxygen content. Pollution structure is revealed, physical and dynamic causes of its changes are investigated.

Fashchuk, D.Ya.; Shaporenko, S.I. [Institute of Geography, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-05-01

372

Observed Increase of TTL Temperature and Water Vapor in Polluted Couds over Asia  

SciTech Connect

Aerosols can affect cloud particle size and lifetime, which impacts precipitation, radiation and climate. Previous studies1-4 suggested that reduced ice cloud particle size and fall speed due to the influence of aerosols may increase evaporation of ice crystals and/or cloud radiative heating in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), leading to higher water vapor abundance in air entering the stratosphere. Observational substantiation of such processes is still lacking. Here, we analyze new observations from multiple NASA satellites to show the imprint of pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. We focus our analysis on the highly-polluted South and East Asia region during boreal summer. We find that "polluted" ice clouds have smaller ice effective radius than "clean" clouds. In the TTL, the polluted clouds are associated with warmer temperature and higher specific humidity than the clean clouds. The water vapor difference between the polluted and clean clouds cannot be explained by other meteorological factors, such as updraft and detrainment strength. Therefore, the observed higher water vapor entry value into the stratosphere in the polluted clouds than in the clean clouds is likely a manifestation of aerosol pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. Given the radiative and chemical importance of stratospheric water vapor, the increasing emission of aerosols over Asia may have profound impacts on stratospheric chemistry and global energy balance and water cycle.

Su, Hui; Jiang, Jonathan; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, J.; Read, William G.; Massie, Steven T.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Colarco, Peter; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Santee, Michelle L.

2011-06-01

373

Cotton production and water quality: Economic and environmental effects of pollution prevention. Agricultural economic report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton production, compared with other crops, is less likely to cause erosion-induced water-quality problems because cotton acreage is not the major source of erosion in most regions. For cotton production, the most widespread potential damages to water quality are nitrates from fertilizer polluting ground water and pesticides contaminating surface water. This damage could be reduced by restricting chemical and fertilizer

S. R. Crutchfield; M. O. Ribaudo; L. T. Hansen; R. Quiroga

1992-01-01

374

VERIFICATION TESTING OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is the basis for quality assurance for the Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center (APCT Center) operated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It describes the policies, organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, and qualit...

375

An evaluation of free water surface wetlands as tertiary sewage water treatment of micro-pollutants.  

PubMed

Increased attention is currently directed towards potential negative effects of pharmaceuticals and other micro-pollutants discharged into the aquatic environment via municipal sewage water. A number of additional treatment technologies, such as ozonation, have therefore been suggested as promising tools for improving the removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in existing Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs). Constructed wetlands are also capable of removing a variety of micro-pollutants, including some pharmaceuticals, and could hence be a resource efficient complement to more advanced treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was therefore to increase the knowledge base concerning the potential use of constructed wetlands as a treatment step to reduce emissions of organic micro-pollutants from municipal sewage effluents. Under cold winter conditions, incoming and outgoing waters from four Swedish free water surface wetlands, operated as final treatment steps of sewage effluent from municipal STPs, were sampled and analyzed for levels of a set of 92 pharmaceuticals and 22 inorganic components as well as assessed using subchronic ecotoxicity tests with a macro-alga and a crustacean. Sixty-five pharmaceuticals were detected in the range from 1 ng L(-1) to 7.6 ?g L(-1) in incoming and outgoing waters from the four investigated wetlands. Although the sampling design used in the present study lacks the robustness of volume proportional to 24h composite samples, the average estimated removal rates ranged from 42% to 52%, which correlates to previous published values. The effects observed in the ecotoxicity tests with the macro-alga (EC(50)s in the range of 7.5-46%) and the crustacean (LOECs in the range of 11.25-90%) could not be assigned to either pharmaceutical residues or metals, but in general showed that these treatment facilities release water with a relatively low toxic potential, comparable to water that has been treated with advanced tertiary treatments. From the present study it can be concluded that constructed wetlands may provide a complementary sewage treatment option, especially where other treatment is lacking today. To fully remove micro-pollutants from sewage effluent, however, other more advanced treatment technologies are likely needed. PMID:22192709

Breitholtz, Magnus; Näslund, Maria; Stråe, Daniel; Borg, Hans; Grabic, Roman; Fick, Jerker

2012-04-01

376

Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: Progresses and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental pollution affects the quality of pedosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Great efforts\\u000a have been made in the last two decades to reduce pollution sources and remedy the polluted soil and water resources. Phytoremediation,\\u000a being more cost-effective and fewer side effects than physical and chemical approaches, has gained increasing popularity in\\u000a both academic and practical circles. More than 400

Mohammad Iqbal Lone; Zhen-li He; Peter J. Stoffella; Xiao-e Yang

2008-01-01

377

Uniqueness for an ill-posed reaction-dispersion model. Application to organic pollution in stream-waters  

E-print Network

Uniqueness for an ill-posed reaction-dispersion model. Application to organic pollution in stream-waters waters. The sources we consider are point-wise and simulate stationary or moving pollution sources to measure the pollution extent due to organic agents and then to evaluate the water characteristics. Another

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

378

40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.  

...presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water. 129.6 Section 129.6 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS TOXIC POLLUTANT EFFLUENT STANDARDS...presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water. (a) Upon the request of...

2014-07-01

379

23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633...Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are...

2012-04-01

380

23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633...Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are...

2013-04-01

381

23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633...Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are...

2011-04-01

382

23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633...Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are...

2010-04-01

383

23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

...Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633...Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are...

2014-04-01

384

[Analysis of pollution levels of 16 antibiotics in the river water of Daliao River water system].  

PubMed

The detection of the pollution level of antibiotics in Daliao River system is a meaningful work. Sixteen antibiotics (6 sulfonamides, 5 fluoroquinolones, 3 tetracyclines and 2 chloramphenicols) were simultaneously quantified with solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In the SPE procedure, methanol and 2% (v/v) ammonia/methanol were used as the elution solvents in sequence to reduce the elution volume and improve the recovery. The results showed that this method have good sensitivity and enrichment effect for the target antibiotics in aqueous water, the recoveries ranged from 69.5% to 122.6%, the detection limits ranged from 0.05 ng/L to 0.32 ng/L. Thirteen antibiotics were found in the river water of Daliao River water system. Sulfa antibiotics were widely distributed, in which sulfamethoxazole was detected in all the sampling sites. The concentration of fluoroquinolones was relatively high in some sampling sites. The highest detection concentration of enoxacin was 41.3 ng/L. The frequencies and concentrations of tetracyclines and chloramphenicols were lower. In the upper reaches of the river, the concentrations of the 4 types of antibiotics appeared lower, but around the large cities such as Shenyang City, Benxi City, Liaoyang City, the concentrations showed higher levels. The study indicated that the Daliao River water system suffered from the pollution of antibiotics to a certain extent. PMID:23256376

Yang, Changqing; Wang, Longxing; Hou, Xiaohong; Chen, Jiping

2012-08-01

385

Application of enteric viruses for fecal pollution source tracking in environmental waters  

EPA Science Inventory

Microbial source tracking (MST) tools are used to identify sources of fecal pollution for accurately assessing public health risk and implementing best management practices (BMPs). This review focuses on the potential of enteric viruses for MST applications. Following host infect...

386

Water Resource Planning and Management using Motivated Machine JANUSZ STARZYK  

E-print Network

1 Water Resource Planning and Management using Motivated Machine Learning JANUSZ STARZYK School uses of water resources. Motivated machine learning, presented in this paper, supports intelligent learning water management decisions is presented. Keywords: multi-objective analysis; water management

Starzyk, Janusz A.

387

Sources of water pollution and evolution of water quality in the Wuwei basin of Shiyang river, Northwest China.  

PubMed

Based on surveys and chemical analyses, we performed a case study of the surface water and groundwater quality in the Wuwei basin, in order to understand the sources of water pollution and the evolution of water quality in Shiyang river. Concentrations of major chemical elements in the surface water were related to the distance downstream from the source of the river, with surface water in the upstream reaches of good quality, but the river from Wuwei city to the Hongya reservoir was seriously polluted, with a synthetic pollution index of 25. Groundwater quality was generally good in the piedmont with dominant bicarbonate and calcium ions, but salinity was high and nitrate pollution occurs in the northern part of the basin. Mineralization of the groundwater has changed rapidly during the past 20 years. There are 23 wastewater outlets that discharge a total of 22.4 x 10(6)m(3)y(-1) into the river from Wuwei city, which, combined with a reduction of inflow water, were found to be the major causes of water pollution. Development of fisheries in the Hongya reservoir since 2000 has also contributed to the pollution. The consumption of water must be decreased until it reaches the sustainable level permitted by the available resources in the whole basin, and discharge of wastes must also be drastically reduced. PMID:18586380

Ma, Jinzhu; Ding, Zhenyu; Wei, Guoxiao; Zhao, Hua; Huang, Tianming

2009-02-01

388

WQM: A Water Quality Management Simulation Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Description of WQM, a simulation game designed to introduce students to the water quality management function, emphasizes the decision-making process involved in various facets of business. The simulation model is described, computer support is explained, and issues in water resource management are discussed. (13 references) (LRW)

Sharda, Ramesh; And Others

1988-01-01

389

An Operation Strategy for Drainage Water Management  

E-print Network

An Operation Strategy for Drainage Water Management Major Professor: Dr. Laura Bowling Srinivasulu · Objectives · Model Calibration and Validation · Results · Conclusions #12;Subsurface Drainage in the Midwest., 2001). Drainage water management may reduce nitrate load from tile drainage systems. #12;· About 50

Cherkauer, Keith

390

Water pollutant fingerprinting tracks recent industrial transfer from coastal to inland China: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, China's developed regions have transferred industries to undeveloped regions. Large numbers of unlicensed or unregistered enterprises are widespread in these undeveloped regions and they are subject to minimal regulation. Current methods for tracing industrial transfers in these areas, based on enterprise registration information or economic surveys, do not work. We have developed an analytical framework combining water fingerprinting and evolutionary analysis to trace the pollution transfer features between water sources. We collected samples in Eastern China (industrial export) and Central China (industrial acceptance) separately from two water systems. Based on the water pollutant fingerprints and evolutionary trees, we traced the pollution transfer associated with industrial transfer between the two areas. The results are consistent with four episodes of industrial transfers over the past decade. Our results also show likely types of the transferred industries - electronics, plastics, and biomedicines - that contribute to the water pollution transfer.

Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Tian, Dajun; Jiang, Songhui; Andersen, Melvin E.; He, Genhsjeng; Crabbe, M. James C.; Zheng, Yuxin; Zhong, Yang; Qu, Weidong

2013-01-01

391

Pricing of Water Resources With Depletable Externality: The Effects of Pollution Charges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With an abstraction of a real-world situation, the paper views water resources as a depletable capital asset which yields a stream of services such as water supply and the assimilation of pollution discharge. The concept of the concave or convex water resource depletion function is then introduced and applied to a general two-sector, three-factor model. The main theoretical contribution is to prove that when the water resource depletion function is a concave rather than a convex function of pollution, it is more likely that gross regional income will increase with a higher pollution charge policy. The concavity of the function is meant to imply that with an increase in pollution released, the ability of supplying water at a certain minimum quality level diminishes faster and faster. A numerical example is also provided.

Kitabatake, Yoshifusa

1990-04-01

392

Social learning and water resources management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural resources management in general, and water resources management in particular, are currently undergoing a major paradigm shift. Management practices have largely been developed and implemented by experts using technical means based on designing systems that can be predicted and controlled. In recent years, stakeholder involvement has gained increasing importance. Collaborative governance is considered to be more appropriate for integrated

C. Pahl-Wostl; M. Craps; A. R. P. J. Dewulf; E. Mostert; D. Tabara; T. Taillieu

2007-01-01

393

Social Learning and Water Resources Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural resources management in general, and water resources management in particular, are currently undergoing a major paradigm shift. Management practices have largely been developed and implemented by experts using technical means based on designing systems that can be predicted and controlled. In recent years, stakeholder involvement has gained increasing importance. Collaborative governance is considered to be more appropriate for integrated

C. Pahl-Wostl; M. Craps; A. Dewulf; E. Mostert; D. Tabara; T. Taillieu

2007-01-01

394

The Temporal Dimension of Land Pollution: Another Perspective on Applying the Breaking the Logjam Principles to Waste Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike air and water pollution, pollution from dangerous solid and liquid wastes on land remains a relatively concentrated, active hazard for long periods of time. Uncontrolled, land pollution moves through the environment slowly and often without significant diminution of toxicity. Persistence, in fact, is often regarded as the defining quality of dangerous land pollutants. Hazardous and nuclear waste regulation is

John S. Applegate

2008-01-01

395

Field Studies for Key Stage 4 on Mine Water Pollution: A University and Museum Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how a university and a museum have worked together to create a "How science works" workshop entitled "What's in our water?" The workshop teaches students about the continuing pollution from a disused coal mine, how the pollution is cleaned up using a state-of-the-art treatment works and how…

Hopwood, Jeremy D.; Berry, Stuart D.; Ambrose, Jayne L.

2013-01-01

396

Coal mine water pollution legal and regulatory issues: a survey. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Illinois Mine Related Pollution Task Force is a joint activity of the Illinois Coal Association and the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. The Task Force's activities are coordinated by the Illinois Institute of Natural Resources. The Task Force decided that the achievement of their goal would be furthered by surveying rules and regulations governing mine related water pollution in other

1978-01-01

397

Oil Palm Biomass–Based Adsorbents for the Removal of Water Pollutants—A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a review on the role of oil palm biomass (trunks, fronds, leaves, empty fruit bunches, shells, etc.) as adsorbents in the removal of water pollutants such as acid and basic dyes, heavy metals, phenolic compounds, various gaseous pollutants, and so on. Numerous studies on adsorption properties of various low-cost adsorbents, such as agricultural wastes and its based

TANWEER AHMAD; MOHD RAFATULLAH; ARNIZA GHAZALI; OTHMAN SULAIMAN; ROKIAH HASHIM

2011-01-01

398

Water Pollution from Urban Stormwater Runoff in the Brunette River Watershed, B.C.  

E-print Network

Water Pollution from Urban Stormwater Runoff in the Brunette River Watershed, B.C. DOE FRAP 1998. The Fraser River Action Plan (FRAP) also provided funding as part of their research and pollution abatement runoff and the different reaches of the streams was directly related to traffic density and land cover

399

An Instructors Guide to Water Pollution. Test Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems, No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of several study guides on contemporary problems produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science with support of the National Science Foundation. This study guide on water pollution includes the following units: (1) Overview of World Pollution; (2) History, Definition, Criteria; (3) Ecosystem Theory; (4) Biological…

Kidd, David E.

400

Diversity as a measure of benthic macroinvertebrate community response to water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assumption that water pollution causes a depression in the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates as measured by the Shannon index and similar diversity indices is questioned. An interpretation of the community response of benthic macroinvertebrates to pollution in the Millers River, Massachusetts is developed from species presence-absence and abundance data in conjunction with published information on the species' environmental tolerances

Paul J. Godfrey

1978-01-01

401

Water pollution abatement by Chinese industry: cost estimates and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factory-level data are used to estimate water pollution abatement costs for Chinese industry. Joint abatement cost functions are utilized which relate total costs to treatment volume and the simultaneous effect of reductions in suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand and other pollutants. Tests of alternative functional forms suggest that a very simple (constant elasticity) model fits the data

Susmita Dasgupta; Mainul Huq; David Wheeler; Chonghua Zhang

2001-01-01

402

Forecasting the effects of polluting discharges on natural waters—II  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief account is given of the present state of development of methods for forecasting the effects of pollution on estuaries and coastal waters. In the case of vertically homogeneous estuaries the concentration of given pollutants at a chosen state of tide and given freshwater flow can be determined by means of a one?dimensional steady?state mathematical model in which use

A. L. Downing

1971-01-01

403

Raman Scattering of Water and Photoluminescence of Pollutants Arising from Solid-Water Interaction  

E-print Network

Systematic Raman experiments performed on water and water-ethanol samples, stored in different containers (fused silica, polypropylene, soda-lime glass type III) for several hours, have shown that the luminescence contribution to the Raman signal fluctuations is directly related to the container composition. Intensity fluctuations as large as 98%, have been observed in the spectral regions corresponding to the both water intramolecular and intermolecular vibrations, despite the fact that the wavenumbers of the modes remained unchanged. We undoubtedly attribute these fluctuations to a luminescence phenomenon on the basis of : i) the absence of such effect in the anti-Stokes domain, ii) its dependence on the excitation laser wavelength, iii) other relevant photoluminescence experiments. This luminescence is attributed to pollutants at ultra-low concentration coming from the different containers.

Vallée, P; Ghomi, M; Jouanne, M; Vall\\'{e}e, Philippe; Lafait, Jacques; Ghomi, Mahmoud; Jouanne, Michel

2003-01-01

404

Best Management Practices Water Quality  

E-print Network

of the material applied: Water solubility is Low Low Water solubility is High High Soil adsorption is High LowLand Treatment Practices for Water QualityQuality Conservation Buffers ­ Alley Cropping ­ Contour Buffer stripsLand Treatment Practices for Water QualityQuality Conservation Buffers ­ Alley Cropping ­ Contour Buffer strips

Mukhtar, Saqib

405

Decentralized demand management for water distribution  

E-print Network

Demand Models 24 5 Pump Characteristics for the Bryan Distribution System 32 6 Node Failures at Demand Levels 37 7 Examples of Redistributed Water Demand and Potential Savings 8 Combining of Original and Ultimate Demand Curves for Controllers 1... and sewer rates to more closely reflect the costs of providing these services also constitutes a form of demand management. Water demand management has become increasingly important as the development of water supplies has not kept pace with population...

Zabolio, Dow Joseph

2012-06-07

406

THE USE OF WETLANDS FOR WATER POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

Wetlands such as marshes, swamps and artificial wetlands, have been shown to remove selected pollutants from urban stormwater runoff and treated municipal wastewaters. Wetlands have produced reduction in BOD, pathogens, and some hydrocarbons, and excel in nitrogen removal. They h...

407

Application of Ion Exchange Technique to Decontamination of Polluted Water Generated by Fukushima Nuclear Disaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By the Fukushima nuclear disaster, large amounts of water and sea water polluted mainly with radioactive Cs were generated and the environment around the nuclear site was contaminated by the fallout from the nuclear site. The coagulation settling process using ferric ferrocyanide and an inorganic coagulant and the adsorption process using ferric ferrocyanide granulated by silica binder were applied to the treatment of polluted water. In the coagulation settling process, Cs was removed completely from polluted water and sea water (DF?104). In the adsorption process, the recovery of trace Cs (10 ppb) in sea water, which was not suitable for the use of zeolite, was attained successfully. Finally, the recovery of Cs from sewage sludge was tested by a combined process with the hydrothermal process using subcritical water and the coagulation settling process using ferric ferrocyanide. 96% of radioactive Cs was recovered successfully from sewage sludge with the radioactivity of 10,000 Bq/kg.

Takeshita, Kenji; Ogata, Takeshi

408

Natural water purification and water management by artificial groundwater recharge  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, several regions suffer from water scarcity and contamination. The infiltration and subsurface storage of rain and river water can reduce water stress. Artificial groundwater recharge, possibly combined with bank filtration, plant purification and/or the use of subsurface dams and artificial aquifers, is especially advantageous in areas where layers of gravel and sand exist below the earth’s surface. Artificial infiltration of surface water into the uppermost aquifer has qualitative and quantitative advantages. The contamination of infiltrated river water will be reduced by natural attenuation. Clay minerals, iron hydroxide and humic matter as well as microorganisms located in the subsurface have high decontamination capacities. By this, a final water treatment, if necessary, becomes much easier and cheaper. The quantitative effect concerns the seasonally changing river discharge that influences the possibility of water extraction for drinking water purposes. Such changes can be equalised by seasonally adapted infiltration/extraction of water in/out of the aquifer according to the river discharge and the water need. This method enables a continuous water supply over the whole year. Generally, artificially recharged groundwater is better protected against pollution than surface water, and the delimitation of water protection zones makes it even more save. PMID:18357624

Balke, Klaus-Dieter; Zhu, Yan

2008-01-01

409

Water quality management plan for Cherokee Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

The management plan provides an assessment of Cherokee Reservoir's current water quality, identifies those factors which affect reservoir water quality, and develops recommendations aimed at restoring or maintaining water quality at levels sufficient to support diverse beneficial uses. 20 references, 8 figures, 15 tables. (ACR)

Not Available

1984-01-01

410

Millennial water management paradigms: making IWRM work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last year of the twentieth century witnessed an unprecedented level of international discourse involving the world's water users, managers and policy makers. They engaged in intense consultative activities. They reviewed the global water predicament and identified ways to secure regional water environments and the societies and economies which depend on them. The preparatory process produced numerous reports for the

Tony Allan

411

Water Availability and Management of Water Resources  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the most pressing national and global issues is the availability of freshwater due to global climate change, energy scarcity issues and the increase in world population and accompanying economic growth. Estimates of water supplies and flows through the world's hydrologic c...

412

Managing agricultural phosphorus for water quality protection: principles for progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The eutrophication of aquatic systems due to diffuse pollution of agricultural phosphorus (P) is a local, even regional, water\\u000a quality problem that can be found world-wide.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Scope  Sustainable management of P requires prudent tempering of agronomic practices, recognizing that additional steps are often\\u000a required to reduce the downstream impacts of most production systems.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Conclusions  Strategies to mitigate diffuse losses of P must

Peter J. A. Kleinman; Andrew N. Sharpley; Richard W. McDowell; Don N. Flaten; Anthony R. Buda; Liang Tao; Lars Bergstrom; Qing Zhu

413

National monitoring of land surface water pollution and perspectives of its development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present-day status of the national monitoring of the land surface water pollution is estimated; the key areas of its development\\u000a and their scientific coverage by the methods and methodologies are under consideration.

A. M. Nikanorov

2010-01-01

414

Setting Up a Special Collection on Water Pollution in a University Library  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The establishment of a special collection within the university library, the complexities of identifying and collecting reports in the environmental area, locating agencies concerned with water pollution, and recording the location of other local collections of data are described. (Author)

Friedlander, Janet

1974-01-01

415

Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the Dutch large rivers, canals and lakes are controlled by the Dutch water authorities. The main reasons concern safety, navigation and fresh water supply. Historically the separate water bodies have been controlled locally. For optimizating management of these water systems an integrated approach was required. Presented is a platform which integrates data from all control objects for monitoring and control purposes. The Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems (IWP) is an implementation of Delft-FEWS which supports operational control of water systems and actively gives advice. One of the main characteristics of IWP is that is real-time collects, transforms and presents different types of data, which all add to the operational water management. Next to that, hydrodynamic models and intelligent decision support tools are added to support the water managers during their daily control activities. An important advantage of IWP is that it uses the Delft-FEWS framework, therefore processes like central data collection, transformations, data processing and presentation are simply configured. At all control locations the same information is readily available. The operational water management itself gains from this information, but it can also contribute to cost efficiency (no unnecessary pumping), better use of available storage and advise during (water polution) calamities.

van Loenen, A.; van Dijk, M.; van Verseveld, W.; Berger, H.

2012-04-01

416

Artificial recharge of groundwater and its role in water management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper summarizes and discusses the various aspects and methods of artificial recharge with particular emphasis on its uses and potential role in water management in the Arabian Gulf region. Artificial recharge occurs when man's activities cause more water to enter an aquifer, either under pumping or non-pumping conditions, than otherwise would enter the aquifer. Use of artificial recharge can be a practical means of dealing with problems of overdraft of groundwater. Methods of artificial recharge may be grouped under two broad types: (a) water spreading techniques, and (b) well-injection techniques. Successful use of artificial recharge requires a thorough knowledge of the physical and chemical characteristics of the aquifier system, and extensive onsite experimentation and tailoring of the artificial-recharge technique to fit the local or areal conditions. In general, water spreading techniques are less expensive than well injection and large quantities of water can be handled. Water spreading can also result in significant improvement in quality of recharge waters during infiltration and movement through the unsaturated zone and the receiving aquifer. In comparison, well-injection techniques are often used for emplacement of fresh recharge water into saline aquifer zones to form a manageable lens of fresher water, which may later be partially withdrawn for use or continue to be maintained as a barrier against salt-water encroachment. A major advantage in use of groundwater is its availability, on demand to wells, from a natural storage reservoir that is relatively safe from pollution and from damage by sabotage or other hostile action. However, fresh groundwater occurs only in limited quantities in most of the Arabian Gulf region; also, it is heavily overdrafted in many areas, and receives very little natural recharge. Good use could be made of artificial recharge by well injection in replenishing and managing aquifers in strategic locations if sources of freshwater could be made available for the artificial-recharge operations. ?? 1989.

Kimrey, J. O.

1989-01-01

417

Paradox of nutrient removal in coupled socioeconomic and ecological dynamics for lake water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study coupled socioeconomical and ecological dynamics for lake water pollution. Players choose between cooperative (but\\u000a costly) option and economical option, and their decision is affected by the fraction of cooperators in the community and by\\u000a the importance of water pollution problem. When an opportunity for choice arrives, players take the option with the higher\\u000a utility (best response dynamics). This

Yoh Iwasa; Yukari Suzuki-Ohno; Hiroyuki Yokomizo

2010-01-01

418

Investigation of water pollution in the Yalvac basin into Egirdir Lake, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to understand the effects of pollution of anthropogenic origin on water quality in Yalvac Basin,\\u000a part of the Egirdir Lake catchment. Surface discharge from the basin to the lake is 63 m3\\/year and underground discharge is 114 m3\\/year. Possible water pollution is categorized into domestic, industrial and agricultural origin. Domestic and industrial\\u000a wastewaters, including effluents from

I. Iskender Soyaslan; Remzi Karagüzel

2008-01-01

419

Pollution Status of Surface Water Resources in Arid Region of Rajasthan (india)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present investigation deals with the evaluation of DO, BOD and COD of six surface water resources of Bikaner district which fall in arid region of Rajasthan - a part of Great Indian Desert, to determine pollution status. Water sample analysed for two years 2008-2009 showed these parameters beyond the limit of standard prescribed by WHO. These parameters also showed great seasonal fluctuation, indicating the degree of organic pollution more during summer season and least during winter season.

Kachhawa, Chanchal

420

Organic-solvent water pollution and low birth weight in Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study explored the association between a measure of water pollution caused by benzene or chlorinated solvents and the incidence of low birth weights for white residents of Michigan counties. A positive relationship between water pollution by these contaminants and the per cent of low-weight births (less than 2,500 grams, or about 5.5 pounds) resulted despite controls for the

K. M. Witkowski; N. E. Johnson

2009-01-01

421

Organic?solvent water pollution and low birth weight in Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study explored the association between a measure of water pollution caused by benzene or chlorinated solvents and the incidence of low birth weights for white residents of Michigan counties. A positive relationship between water pollution by these contaminants and the per cent of low?weight births (< 2,500 grams, or about 5.5 pounds) resulted despite controls for the incidence

Kristine M. Witkowski; Nan E. Johnson

1992-01-01

422

Assessment of Groundwater and Surface Water Pollution at Mitm Area, Ibb City, Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater and surface water samples were collected from Mitm area to study the possible impact of wastewater treatment percolation into the groundwater and surface water. The objective of the study is to assess the groundwater and surface water pollution due to wastewater treatment at Mitm area of Ibb city, in the Republic of Yemen. The concentrations of various physiochemical parameters

Fares Alshaebi; Fadhl Al Nozail

2009-01-01

423

Analysis of national water-pollution-control policies. 2. Agricultural sediment control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national water network model is used to analyze the likely effects of agricultural sediment-control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier assessments concluded that

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin

1981-01-01

424

A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume II - Appendices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of water pollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…

Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

425

NATIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ASSESSMENT MODEL, VERSION 2.0 (NWPCAM 2.0)  

EPA Science Inventory

NWPCAM 2.0 is a national-level water quality modeling system that can be used to simulate the water quality changes and economic benefits that result from various pollution control policies. It builds and significantly improves on an earlier model the Clean Water Act Effects Mode...

426

URBAN WET-WEATHER FLOW POLLUTION MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the challenges in protecting urban watersheds lies in effectively controlling the contaminants in both overland runoff and sewerage system overflows during wet-weather events. Abatement of wet-weather flow (WWF) pollution can be implemented at the source by land managemen...

427

Chapter 25 Managing Air Pollution Impacted Forests of California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel treatments (prescribed fire and mechanical removal) on public lands in California are critical for reducing fuel accumulation and wildfire frequency and severity and protecting private property located in the wildland–urban interface. Treatments are especially needed in forests impacted by air pollution and subject to climate change. High ambient ozone (O3) concentration and elevated nitrogen (N) deposition weakens and predisposes

Michael J. Arbaugh; Trent Procter; Annie Esperanza

2008-01-01

428

INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR AREAWIDE WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT PLANNING  

E-print Network

, it is returned to the Potomac in the form of treated wastewater and then passes to Chesapeake Bay IN THE WASHINGTON, D.C. REGION UNDER THE FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ACT AMENDMENTS OF 1972 By Harvey Lieber as a follow-up to my book, Federalism and Clean Waters: The 1972Water Pollution Control Act, which had

District of Columbia, University of the

429

Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico.  

PubMed

The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn-bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha?¹week?¹ for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the main metabolite ethylenethiourea was near the detection limit. Surface and subsurface water was highly polluted with ethylenethiourea, the main metabolite of Mancozeb (22.5 and 4.3 ?g L?¹, respectively), but not with manganese. In deep ground water, no ethylenethiourea was detected. The level of pollution in the region presents a worrisome risk for aquatic life and for human health. PMID:20734023

Geissen, Violette; Ramos, Franzisco Que; de J Bastidas-Bastidas, Pedro; Díaz-González, Gilberto; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo; Huerta-Lwanga, Esperanza; Ruiz-Suárez, Luz E

2010-10-01

430

Analysis of water spectral features of petroleum pollution and estimate models from remote sensing data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petroleum pollution is a key indicator to monitor and assess water environment in petroleum fields. Five sessions of field work were made in Liaohe River in Panjin city, Liaoning province of China in 2006 and 2007. Field water spectra and concurrent water samples for laboratory measurements of chlorophyll, petroleum pollution, and suspended material were collected. An important feature of water spectra influenced by petroleum pollution was found to show that there are three peaks and two troughs in spectral curves. The peaks are at 570-590, 680-710, and 810-830nm, while troughs are at 650-680 and 740-760nm. The field spectra were used as to correspond to Landsat TM bands to establish estimate models of petroleum pollution concentration. The models were applied to the Landsat/ TM image on 11th Oct 2006 to obtain the distribution image of petroleum pollution. The accuracy is up to 80% for petroleum pollution estimation with the validation of reserved samples. The result shows that the estimate models from remotely sensing data provide an effective means to obtain rapidly and low-cost the distribution of petroleum pollution concentration in the study area.

Huang, Miao-fen; Yu, Wu-yi; Zhang, Yi-min; Shen, Jin-li; Qi, Xiao-ping

2008-11-01

431

Investigation of priorities in water quality management based on correlations and variations.  

PubMed

The development of water quality assessment strategies investigating spatial and temporal changes caused by natural and anthropogenic phenomena is an important tool in management practices. This paper used cluster analysis, water quality index method, sensitivity analysis and canonical correlation analysis to investigate priorities in pollution control activities. Data sets representing 22 surface water quality parameters were subject to analysis. Results revealed that organic pollution was serious threat for overall water quality in the region. Besides, oil and grease, lead and mercury were the critical variables violating the standard. In contrast to inorganic variables, organic and physical-inorganic chemical parameters were influenced by variations in physical conditions (discharge, temperature). This study showed that information produced based on the variations and correlations in water quality data sets can be helpful to investigate priorities in water management activities. Moreover statistical techniques and index methods are useful tools in data - information transformation process. PMID:23422063

Boyac?o?lu, Hülya; Gündogdu, Vildan; Boyac?o?lu, Hayal

2013-04-15

432

Integrated water resources management: Concepts and issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the describing the historical developments that led the development of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM), the paper defines this important concept. It subsequently deals with the thorny issue of water security as well as water conflict, after which the major issues over which thus far no consensus has been achieved are briefly reviewed. The paper concludes with an analysis of the role of the IAHS International Commission on Water Resources Systems (ICWRS) in promoting IWRM.

Savenije, H. H. G.; Van der Zaag, P.

433

Water Resources, Development and Management Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world's food production depends on the availability of water, a precious but finite resource. Users can learn about the need for more efficient usage of water for irrigation, and about the activities of the Water Resources Development and Management Service, which is concerned with sustainable use and conservation of water in agriculture. Links to other sites related to irrigation practices and food production are also provided.

2004-05-10

434

Towards transition management of European water resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global change fundamentally changes the nature of water-related problems. We will illustrate this by showing how perceptions\\u000a of the water-problems in the Netherlands have shifted in the past four decades. The nature of water-related problems changed\\u000a from a technical problem to a so-called ‘persistent’ problem, characterized by plurality, uncertainty and complexity. Although\\u000a integrated water resource management (IWRM) has been advocated

Rutger van der Brugge; Jan Rotmans

2007-01-01

435

Water Resources, Development and Management Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world\\'s food production depends on the availability of water, a precious but finite resource. Users can learn about the need for more efficient usage of water for irrigation, and about the activities of the Water Resources Development and Management Service, which is concerned with sustainable use and conservation of water in agriculture. Links to other sites related to irrigation practices and food production are also provided.

2007-02-10

436

Water pollution risk simulation and prediction in the main canal of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The middle route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (MRP) will divert water to Beijing Tuancheng Lake from Taocha in the Danjiangkou reservoir located in the Hubei province of China. The MRP is composed of a long canal and complex hydraulic structures and will transfer water in open channel areas to provide drinking water for Beijing, Shijiazhuang and other cities under extremely strict water quality requirements. A large number of vehicular accidents, occurred on the many highway bridges across the main canal would cause significant water pollution in the main canal. To ensure that water quality is maintained during the diversion process, the effects of pollutants on water quality due to sudden pollution accidents were simulated and analyzed in this paper. The MIKE11 HD module was used to calculate the hydraulic characteristics of the 42-km Xishi-to-Beijuma River channel of the MRP. Six types of hydraulic structures, including inverted siphons, gates, highway bridges, culverts and tunnels, were included in this model. Based on the hydrodynamic model, the MIKE11 AD module, which is one-dimensional advection dispersion model, was built for TP, NH3-N, CODMn and F. The validated results showed that the computed values agreed well with the measured values. In accordance with transportation data across the Dianbei Highway Bridge, the effects of traffic accidents on the bridge on water quality were analyzed. Based on simulated scenarios with three discharge rates (ranged from 12 m3/s to 17 m3/s, 40 m3/s, and 60 m3/s) and three pollution loading concentration levels (5 t, 10 t and 20 t) when trucks spill their contents (i.e., phosphate fertilizer, cyanide, oil and chromium solution) into the channel, emergency measures were proposed. Reasonable solutions to ensure the water quality with regard to the various types of pollutants were proposed, including treating polluted water, maintaining materials, and personnel reserves.

Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Cheng, Xi

2014-11-01

437

http://www.jstor.org Lake Tahoe: The Future of a National Asset. Land Use, Water, and Pollution  

E-print Network

http://www.jstor.org Lake Tahoe: The Future of a National Asset. Land Use, Water, and Pollution: THE FUTURE OF A NATIONAL ASSET- LAND USE, WATER, AND POLLUTION In Roughing It, Mark Twain wrote of Lake Tahoe needs of lake and downstreamusers; and pollution must be controlled to preserve health and aesthetic

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

438

Nutrient sources in a Mediterranean catchment and their improvement for water quality management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in land-use or management strategies may affect water outflow, sediment and nutrients loads. Thus, there is an increasing demand for quantitative information at the catchment scale that would help decision makers or planners to take appropriate decisions. The characterisation of water status, the description of pollution sources impact, the establishment of monitoring programs and the implementation of river basin management plans require an analysis of the current basin status and estimates of the relative significance of the different sources of pollution. Particularly, in this study the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT2000) model was considered since it is an integrated hydrological model that simulates both the qualitative as well as quantitative terms of hydrological balances. It is a spatially distributed hydrological model that operates on a daily time step at catchment scale developed by the Agricultural Research Service at the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Its purpose is to simulate water sediment and chemical yields on large river basins and possible impacts of land use, climate changes and watershed management. Integrated hydrological models are, nowadays, needed to support the implementation of integrated water management plans and to comply with the current requirements of the European Water Directive. Actually, they can help in evaluating current water resources, identify pollution sources, evaluate alternative management policies. More specifically, the analysis has been applied to the Oreto catchment (77 Km2), an agricultural and urbanised catchment located in Sicily (Italy). Residential, commercial, farm and industrial settlements cover almost the entire area. The climate is Mediterranean with hot dry summer and rainy winter season. The hydrological response of this basin is dominated by long dry seasons and following wetting-up periods, during which even large inputs of rainfall may produce little or no response at the basin outlet. Regarding the inventory of point and non-point pollutants sources, the river receives a number of point source pollutants from small villages and some outskirts of Palermo, most of them untreated, and non point source pollutants from agricultural cropland and zoo-technical farms. In particular, the Oreto river receives untreated wastewater and stormwater from Altofonte (8200 inhabitants) and Pioppo (2500 inhabitants) . The model was first calibrated using meteorological, flow and water quality data collected at various stations through-out the catchment, in order to predict water and nutrient concentrations at the catchment outlet and then was used to evaluate the potential impact of various management strategies on surface water quality. The results demonstrates that point and non-point polluting sources have to be contiguously analysed because they concur to the definition of river water quality both during wet and dry periods.

Candela, Angela; Viviani, Gaspare

2010-05-01

439

Validity of mutagenic activity as an indicator of river water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  To investigate if mutagenicity could be expressed by known water pollution indicators, we determined the mutagenic activity\\u000a of blue rayon extracts from sampled river water with the Ames test utilizing new strains of bacteria, and compared the results\\u000a with those of known indicators of water pollution.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Water samples were collected by the blue rayon adsorption method at sixteen sites in

H. Tsukatani; Y. Tanaka; N. Sera; N. Shimizu; S. Kitamori; N. Inoue

2003-01-01

440

Mass fluxes of organic pollutants between groundwater, streambed sediments and surface water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rivers and groundwater are commonly hydraulically connected and thus also pollutants migrate between one and the other. Particularly in small lowland streams, pollutant transport by discharging groundwater can deteriorate the surface water quality. Moreover, in urban and industrial areas streambed sediments are often polluted with a variety of organic and inorganic substances. For planning measures to improve surface water quality or to mitigate pollutant migration, it is an essential prerequisite to understand pollutant pathways and mass fluxes between the stream, the streambed sediment and the connected aquifer. We present methodological approaches and results of a study conducted at a small man-made stream located in the industrial area of Bitterfeld-Wolfen, Germany. This site is characterized by a diffuse groundwater contamination with a variety of aliphatic and aromatic organic substances. The underlying approach of this study was to quantify the mass fluxes between the aquifer, the streambed and the stream by combining high-resolution with integral monitoring approaches. Magnitudes and pattern of water fluxes were obtained by mapping streambed temperatures. The method was applied to a reach of 280 m in length. The mass fluxes from the aquifer towards the stream were estimated by combining the water fluxes with representative, average pollutant concentrations. The concentrations were obtained from an integral pumping test with four simultaneously pumped wells operated for the period of five days. For monochlorobenzene (MCB), the main groundwater pollutant at the site, the resulting average mass flux from the aquifer towards the stream was estimated to 724 µg/m²/d. Mass flux calculations with average aqueous concentrations of MCB in the streambed were found to be higher than those originating from the aquifer. Consequently, the streambed sediments represent a secondary pollutant source for the surface water. Pollutant concentrations in the streambed were lower at locations with high groundwater discharge and vice versa. Hence, the spatial heterogeneity of water fluxes must be considered when mass fluxes between surface water and streambed sediments are assessed. River restoration could improve the structural state of rivers and may thus result in an enhanced biodegradation of organic pollutants in the streambed. However, before any physical measure is applied a profound knowledge of pollutant concentration and pathways is required in order to avoid mobilization of sediment-bound pollutants.

Schirmer, Mario; Kalbus, Edda; Schmidt, Christian

2010-05-01

441

40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35.2102...Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality management planning. Before...project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan being...

2012-07-01

442

40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35.2102...Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality management planning. Before...project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan being...

2011-07-01

443

40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35.2102...Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality management planning. Before...project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan being...

2013-07-01

444

40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35.2023...Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality management planning. (a...grants to the States to carry out water quality management planning...

2012-07-01

445

40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35.2023...Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality management planning. (a...grants to the States to carry out water quality management planning...

2013-07-01

446

40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35.2023...Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality management planning. (a...grants to the States to carry out water quality management planning...

2011-07-01

447

40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35.2102 Section 35...35.2102 Water quality management planning. Before grant assistance...Included in any water quality management plan being implemented...

2010-07-01

448

[Fish parasites as bioindicators of the pollution of bodies of water].  

PubMed

The paper presents the results of studies on the effect of wastes of the Cherepovets iron-and-steel works containing phenol, naphthaline and oil products on fish parasites of the Sheksna part of the Rybinsk water reservoir (the Volga river system). It has been shown that the number of highly sensitive ectoparasites of Abramis brama (Protozoa, Dactylogyrus monogeneans, Ergasilus sieboldi crustaceans and Caspiobdella fadejewi leeches) considerably decreases in the zone of pollution. It has been first suggested to use Diplozoon paradoxum and Caryophyllaeus laticeps, parasites of bream highly resistant to toxic effect, the number of which considerably increases in the zone of pollution, as indicators of anthropogenic pollution and ecological state of a water body. Among diplozoons there have been first discovered individuals having structural anomalies (reduction of the attachment organs, violation in the symmetry of arrangement and number of valves) that serves as evidence of mutagenic effect of toxic substances of polluted waters on morphogenesis of the parasite. PMID:1299804

Kuperman, B I

1992-01-01

449

Optimal Land-Use Management for Surface Source Water Protection Under Uncertainty: A Case Study of Songhuaba Watershed (Southwestern China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water supply to Chinese cities is increasingly degrading from pollution due to watershed activities. Consequently, water\\u000a source protection requires urgent action using optimal land-use management efforts. An inexact linear programming model for\\u000a optimal land-use management of surface water source area was developed. The model was proposed to balance the economic benefits\\u000a of land-use development and water source protection. The

Yong Liu; Yajuan Yu; Huaicheng Guo; Pingjian Yang

2009-01-01

450

Geospatial Investigation into Groundwater Pollution and Water Quality Supported by Satellite Data: A Case Study from the Evros River (Eastern Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managing water resources, in terms of both quality and quantity, in transboundary rivers is a difficult and challenging task that requires efficient cross-border cooperation and transparency. Groundwater pollution risk assessment and mapping techniques over the full catchment area are important tools that could be used as part of these water resource management efforts, to estimate pollution pressures and optimize land planning processes. The Evros river catchment is the second largest river in Eastern Europe and sustains a population of 3.6 million people in three different countries (Bulgaria, Turkey and Greece). This study provides detailed information on the main pollution sources and pressures in the Evros catchment and, for the first time, applies, assesses and evaluates a groundwater pollution risk mapping technique using satellite observations (Landsat NDVI) and an extensive dataset of field measurements covering different seasons and multiple years. We found that approximately 40 % of the Greek part of the Evros catchment is characterized as of high and very high pollution risk, while 14 % of the study area is classified as of moderate risk. Both the modeled and measured water quality status of the river showed large spatiotemporal variations consistent with the strong anthropogenic pressures in this system, especially on the northern and central segments of the catchment. The pollutants identified illustrate inputs of agrochemicals and urban wastes in the river. High correlation coefficients ( R between 0.79 and 0.85) were found between estimated pollution risks and measured concentrations of those chemical parameters that are mainly attributed to anthropogenic activities rather than in situ biogeochemical processes. The pollution risk method described here could be used elsewhere as a decision support tool for mitigating the impact of hazardous human activities and improving management of groundwater resources.

Elias, Dimitriou; Angeliki, Mentzafou; Vasiliki, Markogianni; Maria, Tzortziou; Christina, Zeri

2014-06-01

451

Managing the water quality of the Kafue River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most vital surface water bodies in developing countries are under serious threat of degradation resulting from constant discharge of polluted effluents stemming from industrial, agricultural, mining and domestic/sewage activities. The most affected river systems are those traversing cities and towns in urban areas. The Kafue River in Zambia is one such river system that is threatened with serious degradation and probable loss of biodiversity. Kafue River cuts across the country in a North-South direction, stretches for about 1576 km before draining into the Zambezi River. It covers an area of 152,000 km 2 and generates a mean annual runoff of 350 m 3/s which represents about 12% of the Zambezi’s mean annual runoff at the confluence [Water Resources Development and Vector-borne Diseases in Zambia: Report of a National Seminar held at Kafue Gorge, Zambia, WHO, Geneva, 1995]. The area coverage of the Kafue River Basin (KRB) is approximately 20% of Zambia’s land area (743,000 km 2) and approximately 17% of the Zambezi Basin [Water Resources Use in the Zambezi Basin: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Kasane, Botswana, IUCN, 1993]. More than half of Zambia’s population live in the KRB, of which about 65% are in urban while 35% are in rural areas. Over the years, however, the Kafue River has been receiving all sorts of pollutant and effluents from all sectors of economical development in Zambia that include mining, industrial and agricultural. The continuous discharge of pollutants into the Kafue river has led to the deterioration of the river water quality. The consequences have been heightened eutrophic conditions, increased heavy metal concentration in the river sediments and aquatic life, increased suspended solids, etc. leading to proliferation of Salvinia molesta in some sections of the river, decreased fish catch and fish size and objectionable taste of the Kafue River water. Fishermen along the Chanyanya-Kafue Gorge stretch of the Kafue River have complained about the alleged loss of taste and the decrease in both the fish catch and size in these areas of the Kafue River. The communities along the same stretch have also complained about the objectionable taste of the river water [Report of the Proceedings of the First Multi-sectoral Workshop on the Effects of Environmental Pollution and Degradation on the Kafue River Basin (KRB) on the Community in the Kafue Town Area, AREZ, 2001]. This paper reviews the water quality of the Kafue River resulting from anthropogenic activities and proposes the framework for the sustainable management of river water quality.

Kambole, Michael Sankwe

452

WASTE AND WATER MANAGEMENT FOR CONVENTIONAL COAL COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT REPORT - 1979; VOLUME II. WATER MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report, the second of five volumes, describes water management for conventional combustion sources and assesses the current status of various studies and programs in water management and trends in water recycle/reuse. A coal-fired boiler produces both chemical and thermal pol...

453

Water Waste Management and Mercury Trading: An Optimization Approach  

E-print Network

for Uncertain Systems: Tools for Optimization & Management (CUSTOM), Westmont, IL 60559, USA c on a watershed level mercury pollution reduction case study. The results, indicating significant cost reductions or better environmental performance with respect to pollution management at a lower overall cost. Since

Hazen, Gordon

454

The use of tracers in water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the use of environmental and artificial tracers the control of pollution and its behaviour in the environment. Some of the applications and development trends in this field are outlined emphasizing the role of the tracers in predicting the effects of planned systems. The advances in measuring extremely small quantities of radioactive isotopes such as the use of accelerators and

G. V. Evans

1982-01-01

455

Pollution concentrations in runoff water from refuse piles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the processes of removal, refinement and disposal of raw materials, large quantities of waste products become exposed to weathering forces. Subsequent percolation, flushing, and oxidation results in the pollution of waterways, low-lying farmlands and underground aquifers with acidity, alkalinity, hardness, heavy metals, and undesirable organic materials such as tannin and lignin. The need for methodology for estimating the chemical

Guin

1977-01-01

456

Predicting indoor pollutant concentrations, and applications to air quality management  

SciTech Connect

Because most people spend more than 90% of their time indoors, predicting exposure to airborne pollutants requires models that incorporate the effect of buildings. Buildings affect the exposure of their occupants in a number of ways, both by design (for example, filters in ventilation systems remove particles) and incidentally (for example, sorption on walls can reduce peak concentrations, but prolong exposure to semivolatile organic compounds). Furthermore, building materials and occupant activities can generate pollutants. Indoor air quality depends not only on outdoor air quality, but also on the design, maintenance, and use of the building. For example, ''sick building'' symptoms such as respiratory problems and headaches have been related to the presence of air-conditioning systems, to carpeting, to low ventilation rates, and to high occupant density (1). The physical processes of interest apply even in simple structures such as homes. Indoor air quality models simulate the processes, such as ventilation and filtration, that control pollutant concentrations in a building. Section 2 describes the modeling approach, and the important transport processes in buildings. Because advection usually dominates among the transport processes, Sections 3 and 4 describe methods for predicting airflows. The concluding section summarizes the application of these models.

Lorenzetti, David M.

2002-10-01

457

Deposition of Air Pollutants to the Great Waters, Third Report to Congress, June 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on June 8 2000, this report is the third in a series from the Environmental protection Agency (EPA) "to Congress on atmospheric deposition of pollution to the Great Waters, which include the Great Lakes, Chesapeake Bay and several other major U.S. water bodies." This report focuses on fifteen "pollutants of concern," offering updated scientific information about these pollutants and the Great Waters and discussing programs implemented by the EPA, states, tribes, and others to address them. It also describes "recent advancements in scientific research and tools used to improve our understanding of atmospheric deposition to the Great Waters." Background information and an executive summary are offered in HTML format, while the full text is provided by chapter in .pdf format. The previous two reports may be accessed from the Great Waters Program homepage.

2000-01-01

458

Moving towards Total Water Management  

EPA Science Inventory

The presentation will discuss the following topics: Stormwater Best Management Practice (BMP) Placement (SUSTAIN); Sanitary Sewer Overflow Toolbox (SSOAP); BMP and Low Impact Development (LID) Performance; Green/Grey Infrastructure for Stormwater; Combined Sewers and Reuse; Infra...

459

Water demand management in Kuwait  

E-print Network

Kuwait is an arid country located in the Middle East, with limited access to water resources. Yet water demand per capita is much higher than in other countries in the world, estimated to be around 450 L/capita/day. There ...

Milutinovic, Milan, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01

460

Water management in the Roman world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate variability can have extreme impacts on societies in regions that are water-limited for agriculture. A society's ability to manage its water resources in such environments is critical to its long-term viability. Water management can involve improving agricultural yields through in-situ irrigation or redistributing water resources through trade in food. Here, we explore how such water management strategies affected the resilience of the Roman Empire to climate variability in the water-limited region of the Mediterranean. Using the large-scale hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB and estimates of landcover based on the Historical Database of the Global Environment (HYDE) we generate potential agricultural yield maps under variable climate. HYDE maps of population density in conjunction with potential yield estimates are used to develop maps of agricultural surplus and deficit. The surplus and deficit regions are abstracted to nodes on a water redistribution network based on the Stanford Geospatial Network Model of the Roman World (ORBIS). This demand-driven, water redistribution network allows us to quantitatively explore how water management strategies such as irrigation and food trade improved the resilience of the Roman Empire to climate variability.

Dermody, Brian J.; van Beek, Rens L. P. H.; Meeks, Elijah; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; Scheidel, Walter; Wassen, Martin J.; van der Velde, Ype; Dekker, Stefan C.

2014-05-01

461

Influence of river water pollution on the groundwater in TongGuan gold mine area, Shaanxi province  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining history has already a long time in TongGuan gold mine area, and what discarding residue and the waste water at will have caused the river water severe pollution. However the groundwater isn't polluted. This paper found out the mining area river water quality present condition by means of collecting some river water samples. On this foundation from analyzing the

Gang Qiao; Youning Xu; Fang He; Jianghua Zhang; Aning Zhao

2011-01-01

462

Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use  

SciTech Connect

Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

2007-10-31

463

Health damage due to water pollution in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of the drinking water borne epidemics in Hungary has decreased recently, but the hazard is not over. The number of epidemics caused by water in swimming pools and spas, however, has not decreased. From 1975-1993, approximately 7500 persons (mainly children) became ill due to contaminated swimming pool water. Recrea­ tional waters of lakes and streams have not caused

ELONA STRAUB

464

Managing the microbiological risks of drinking water.  

PubMed

The microbiological contamination of drinking water supplies can have serious health consequences for consumers, and this has been dramatically illustrated in recent years by two disease outbreaks in Canada. In this paper, some factors that can influence the microbiological quality of drinking water and its management are examined. Frameworks have been proposed that help to clarify the main elements of health risk assessment and risk management, and, in accordance with these, risks can be logically characterized, evaluated and controlled. A protocol has been developed for microbiological risk assessment and a risk management framework now guides the development of Canada's national guidelines for drinking-water quality. Monitoring of indicator organisms and the application of adequate water treatment are the primary means recommended in the Canadian guidelines to safeguard health from the presence of water-borne pathogens. Understanding the biological characteristics of microbial pathogens is necessary for assessing their impact on community health and appraising the rationale behind drinking-water testing methods and their limitations. Improvements in health surveillance, monitoring, and risk characterization and application of concepts such as multiple barriers (source-to-tap) and total quality management should contribute to better management of the microbiological quality of drinking water. PMID:15371204

Krewski, Daniel; Balbus, John; Butler-Jones, David; Haas, Charles; Isaac-Renton, Judith; Roberts, Kenneth; Sinclair, Martha

465

Water Management in A PEMFC: Water Transport Mechanism and Material  

E-print Network

Water Management in A PEMFC: Water Transport Mechanism and Material Degradation in Gas Diffusion of a proton exchange mem- brane (PEM) sandwiched between two catalyst layers (CLs), two porous gas diffusion electrode hinder the performance and lead to an accelerated degradation of the fuel cell

Kandlikar, Satish

466

The impact of land management in agricultural catchments on groundwater pollution levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural activity results in water pollution from nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. Increased concentrations of nitrogen compounds pose a threat to animal and human health. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of agriculture in a catchment basin on the level of groundwater pollution from biogenic compounds. Spatial analysis of the land cover was conducted using a GIS and was based on data from the Corine Land Cover databases.

Matysik, Magdalena

2014-10-01

467

The ground water recharge and pollution potential of dry wells in Pima County, Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes a study to estimate the potential for dry-well drainage of urban runoff to recharge and pollute ground water in Tucson, Arizona. The authors selected three candidate dry wells for study. At each site they collected samples of runoff, dry-well sediment, vadose-zone sediment, perched ground water, and ground water. Water content data from vadose-zone samples suggest that dry-well

L. G. Wilson; M. D. Osborn; K. L. Olson; S. M. Maida; L. T. Katz

2009-01-01

468

Greywater reuse: towards sustainable water management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to assess the role of greywater reuse in sustainable water management in arid regions. Moreover, it intends to document the experience of greywater reuse in Jordan. Greywater (GW) is the water collected separately from sewage flow that originates from clothes washers, bathtubs, showers and sinks, but does not include wastewater from kitchen sinks, dishwashers,

Odeh R. Al-Jayyousi

2003-01-01

469

Adapting California's water management to climate change  

E-print Network

that can limit vulnerability to changing conditions. Water supply managers have begun using underground change, needed reforms include forward-looking reservoir operation planning and floodplain mapping, less array of activities, ranging from supply planning and delivery, to water quality protection for humans

Pasternack, Gregory B.

470

Troubled waters: managing our vital resources.  

PubMed

Presented are articles from Global Issues, an electronic journal of the US Information Agency that focuses on managing the water resources of the world. The three main articles are as follows: 1) ¿The Quiet Revolution to Restore Our Aquatic Ecosystems¿, 2) ¿Charting a New Course to Save America's Waters¿, and 3) ¿Freshwater: Will the World's Future Needs be Met?¿ The journal also presents commentaries on the age-old water shortage in the Middle East; solutions to water waste on the farm and in cities; managing water scarcity in the driest region of the US; and a new approach to environmental management in the Bermejo River in Argentina and Bolivia. Furthermore, this issue contains statistics on water usage and supplies and a report that examines proposals for policies that could set the world on a better course for water management. Lastly, this issue provides a bibliography of books, documents, and articles on freshwater issues as well as a list of Internet sites offering further information on water quality, supplies, and conservation. PMID:12290381

1999-03-01

471

Health risks of pollutants in the surface water sources of the centralized drinking water supply in Zhengzhou, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the potential adverse effects caused by pollutants in the surface water sources of drinking water in Zhengzhou, concentrations of 10 elements were measured and their health risks assessed. The results show that only some concentrations of iron, manganese and fluorine are higher than the corresponding environmental quality standards. Risk assessments indicate that risk quotients (all values with carcinogenic

Qingli Cheng; Hui Wu; Wenlin Wang; Yanjü Wu; Hongli Li; Xifeng Zhang

2012-01-01

472

Immediate Water Pollution Control Needs for the Interstate and Intrastate Waters of the Hudson-Mohawk Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews the water pollution problem in the Hudson-Mohawk Region, which is defined to include the waters in the Mohawk River Basin east of, and including Rome, New York and the Hudson River Basin north of the Bear Mountain Bridge at the Orange a...

1967-01-01

473

METRO-APEX Volume 8.1: Water Quality Manager's Manual. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The water Quality Manager's Manual is one of a set of twenty-one manuals used in METRO-APEX 1974, a computerized college and professional level, computer-supported, role-play, simulation exercise of a community with "normal" problems. Stress is placed on environmental quality considerations. APEX 1974 is an expansion of APEX--Air Pollution

University of Southern California, Los Angeles. COMEX Research Project.

474

Remote measurements of water pollution with a lidar polarimeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines a dual polarization laser backscatter system as a method for remote measurements of certain water quality parameters. Analytical models for describing the backscatter from turbid water and oil on turbid water are presented and compared with experimental data. Laser backscatter field measurements from natural waterways are presented and compared with simultaneous ground observations of the water quality parameters: turbidity, suspended solids, and transmittance. The results of this study show that the analytical models appear valid and that the sensor investigated is applicable to remote measurements of these water quality parameters and oil spills on water.-

Sheives, T. C.; Rouse, J. W., Jr.; Mayo, W. T., Jr.

1974-01-01

475

Urban water infrastructure asset management - a structured approach in four water utilities.  

PubMed

Water services are a strategic sector of large social and economic relevance. It is therefore essential that they are managed rationally and efficiently. Advanced water supply and wastewater infrastructure asset management (IAM) is key in achieving adequate levels of service in the future, particularly with regard to reliable and high quality drinking water supply, prevention of urban flooding, efficient use of natural resources and prevention of pollution. This paper presents a methodology for supporting the development of urban water IAM, developed during the AWARE-P project as well as an appraisal of its implementation in four water utilities. Both water supply and wastewater systems were considered. Due to the different contexts and features of the utilities, the main concerns vary from case to case; some problems essentially are related to performance, others to risk. Cost is a common deciding factor. The paper describes the procedure applied, focusing on the diversity of drivers, constraints, benefits and outcomes. It also points out the main challenges and the results obtained through the implementation of a structured procedure for supporting urban water IAM. PMID:23109589

Cardoso, M A; Silva, M Santos; Coelho, S T; Almeida, M C; Covas, D I C

2012-01-01

476

Impact of point and nonpoint source pollution on pore waters of two Chesapeake Bay tributaries.  

PubMed

Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries are contaminated by industrial and municipal point sources and agricultural nonpoint sources of pollution. The objective of this study was to compare the porewater characteristics of two Chesapeake Bay tributaries: Wicomico River (WR) contaminated by point source and Pocomoke River (PR) contaminated by both point and nonpoint sources of pollution. Four study sites (1 mile before, adjacent to, and 1 and 2 miles after the sewage treatment plant) were chosen to collect sediment samples in both the rivers. The sediment-pore waters were analyzed for toxicity using Microtox marine luminescent bacteria-Vibrio fischeri. USEPA toxicity identification evaluation tests on these pore waters confirmed that the contaminants (ammonia and heavy metals) in WR were from municipal point sources, whereas in PR the contamination (metals, pesticides, and PCBs) was from nonpoint sources (agriculture) of pollution. The toxicity (and the concentration of contaminants) decreased both upstream and downstream from the most polluted site in both the rivers. PMID:8930508

Karuppiah, M; Gupta, G

1996-10-01

477

An Intelligent Decision Support System of Lake Water Pollution Control Based on Multi-agent Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapidly development of the economic, environmental problem has become one of the most prominent problems of the society. Lake water environmental problem became more and more serious, and it had seriously effect on human health and the socio-economic sustainable development. It is a key project to find a more effective way of water pollution control. An intelligent decision

Jianjun Ni; Chuanbiao Zhang; Li Ren

2009-01-01

478

Nutrient removal in constructed microcosm wetlands for treating polluted river water in northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

River water pollution is increasingly widespread in northern China and can lead to problems with the drinking water for the residents if not properly treated. Constructed wetlands are a promising solution and have become increasingly popular in China. In this study the nutrient removal and plant uptake in constructed microcosm wetlands vegetated with Typha orientalis, Phragmites australis, Scirpus validus and

Haiming Wu; Jian Zhang; Peizhi Li; Jinyong Zhang; Huijun Xie; Bo Zhang

2011-01-01

479

Vascular plants for water pollution control and renewable sources of energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular aquatic plants have demonstrated their ability to remove pollutants from domestic and chemical wastewaters. Plants such as the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweed (Lemna sp., Spirodela sp., and Wolffia sp.), and cattail (Typha sp.) thrive in nutrient-rich waters and produce tremendous quantities of biomass under favorable climatic conditions. This method of wastewater treatment is currently being used exclusively at

B. C. Wolverton; R. C. McDonald

1980-01-01

480

New Paradigm for Sizing Riparian Buffers to Reduce Risks of Polluted Storm Water: Practical Synthesis  

E-print Network

New Paradigm for Sizing Riparian Buffers to Reduce Risks of Polluted Storm Water: Practical. Easton5 ; Rebecca D. Marjerison6 ; Asha N. Sharma7 ; and Stephen B. Shaw8 Abstract: Riparian buffers are commonly promoted to protect stream water quality. A common conceptual assumption is that buffers

Walter, M.Todd