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1

Managing Bacteria Pollution in Texas Waters  

E-print Network

Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 2 BACTERIA MANAGING tx H2O | pg. 3 IN TEXAS WATERS POLLUTION Managing Bacteria Pollution in Texas Waters tx H2O | pg. 4 W ith 310 water bodies in Texas failing to meetwater quality standards because... of bacteria,managing bacteria pollution is commanding the attention of water agencies, researchers and stake- holders across Texas. These water bodies are listed in the 2006 Texas Water Quality Inventory and 303(d) List for failing to meet the standards...

Wythe, Kathy

2007-01-01

2

The Management of Water: Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the official water pollution site for Canada. In the introduction, the problem is stated with reference to pollutants of the Great Lakes over 360 chemical compounds have been identified. Many are persistent toxic chemicals - alkylated lead, benzo(a)pyrene, DDT, mercury and mirex - potentially dangerous to humans and already destructive to the aquatic ecosystems. In referring to water quality, pollutants, toxic substances, and acid rain in the aquatic environment are discussed along with long-range transport of airborne pollutants and toxic chemicals said to be the legacy of a chemical society. Efforts to control water pollution include a multi-barrier approach to protecting drinking water, stated water quality objectives and guidelines, regulations, and advice on how to be a responsible consumer. Other sections include the effects of pollution and groundwater pollution.

3

Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

4

Water Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

Bowen, H. J. M.

1975-01-01

5

Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of activities is designed to help students understand water pollution and its potential effects on human and wildlife habitats. They will understand that pollutants can be divided into three groups: chemical, thermal, and biological. Learning objectives include identification of two or more pollutants in a bog, marsh, stream or other wetland area, using words and art to relate a message about pollution, and understanding that some pollutants cannot be seen.

6

Designing of water pollution control technology database platform based on general management information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced was the development and implementation for the water pollution control technology database platform based on general management information system. The technology research and application demonstration of the system were developed, covering six fields such as lake water pollution treatment and ecological restoration, improvement of environment quality of urban water, drinking water safety, new technology of physical-chemical-biology water treatment, packaged

Chunhong Shi; Nan Li; Beihai Zhou; Wenjuan Song

2010-01-01

7

Integrated planning for water quality management: The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 and Coastal Zone Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments were enacted by Congress in response to the severe water quality problems our nation has been experiencing. Section 208 of the Amendments establishes regional planning for water quality management as being necessary and provides strong incentives for states and municipalities to implement the Section's requirements. Section 208 planning is the subject of this

Allayaud

1980-01-01

8

Linking Air, Land, and Water Pollution for Effective Environmental Management  

EPA Science Inventory

Since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, other federal agencies, and the states have made substantial progress in improving the Nation?s air and water quality. Traditionally, the air, land, and water pollution ...

9

The Other Water Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

Barton, Kathy

1978-01-01

10

Integrated optimal management of ground-water pollution and withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated ground-water management model is formulated as a multivariable constrained nonlinear optimization problem. To simulate the physical and chemical processes occurring within a leaky confined aquifer system, the finite-difference forms of the flow and transport equations are embedded in the management model. The Hooke-Jeeves method, a nonlinear programming technique, in conjunction with the exterior penalty function method is used

Ashok K. Keshari; Bithin Datta

1996-01-01

11

Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

Lantz, H. B., Jr.

12

Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management  

PubMed Central

In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of CODCr NH3-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH3-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. PMID:23222206

Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

2012-01-01

13

Intensive management in grasslands causes diffuse water pollution at the farm scale.  

PubMed

Arable land use is generally assumed to be the largest contributor to agricultural diffuse pollution. This study adds to the growing evidence that conventional temperate intensively managed lowland grasslands contribute significantly to soil erosion and diffuse pollution rates. This is the first grassland study to monitor hydrological characteristics and multiple pollutant fluxes (suspended sediment [SS] and the macronutrients: total oxidized nitrogen-N [TON], total phosphorus [TP], and total carbon [TC]) at high temporal resolution (monitoring up to every 15 min) over 1 yr. Monitoring was conducted across three fields (6.5-7.5 ha) on the North Wyke Farm Platform, UK. The estimated annual erosion rates (up to 527.4 kg ha), TP losses (up to 0.9 kg ha), and TC losses (up to 179 kg ha) were similar to or exceeded the losses reported for other grassland, mixed land-use, and arable sites. Annual yields of TON (up to 3 kg ha) were less than arable land-use fluxes and earlier grassland N studies, an important result as the study site is situated within a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone. The high-resolution monitoring allowed detailed "system's functioning" understanding of hydrological processes, mobilization- transport pathways of individual pollutants, and the changes of the relative importance of diffuse pollutants through flow conditions and time. Suspended sediment and TP concentrations frequently exceeded water quality guidelines recommended by the European Freshwater Fisheries Directive (25 mg L) and the European Water Framework Directive (0.04 mg soluble reactive P L), suggesting that intensively managed grasslands pose a significant threat to receiving surface waters. Such sediment and nutrient losses from intensively managed grasslands should be acknowledged in land management guidelines and advice for future compliance with surface water quality standards. PMID:25602218

Peukert, Sabine; Griffith, Bruce A; Murray, Phillip J; Macleod, Christopher J A; Brazier, Richard E

2014-11-01

14

Water Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... to survive. Many different pollutants can harm our rivers, streams, lakes, and oceans. The three most common ... and bacteria. Rain washes soil into streams and rivers. The soil can kill tiny animals and fish ...

15

Interpolation of extensive routine water pollution monitoring datasets: methodology and discussion of implications for aquifer management.  

PubMed

A large fraction of the fresh water available for human use is stored in groundwater aquifers. Since human activities such as mining, agriculture, industry and urbanisation often result in incursion of various pollutants to groundwater, routine monitoring of water quality is an indispensable component of judicious aquifer management. Unfortunately, groundwater pollution monitoring is expensive and usually cannot cover an aquifer with the spatial resolution necessary for making adequate management decisions. Interpolation of monitoring data is thus an important tool for supplementing monitoring observations. However, interpolating routine groundwater pollution data poses a special problem due to the nature of the observations. The data from a producing aquifer usually includes many zero pollution concentration values from the clean parts of the aquifer but may span a wide range of values (up to a few orders of magnitude) in the polluted areas. This manuscript presents a methodology that can cope with such datasets and use them to produce maps that present the pollution plumes but also delineates the clean areas that are fit for production. A method for assessing the quality of mapping in a way which is suitable to the data's dynamic range of values is also presented. A local variant of inverse distance weighting is employed to interpolate the data. Inclusion zones around the interpolation points ensure that only relevant observations contribute to each interpolated concentration. Using inclusion zones improves the accuracy of the mapping but results in interpolation grid points which are not assigned a value. The inherent trade-off between the interpolation accuracy and coverage is demonstrated using both circular and elliptical inclusion zones. A leave-one-out cross testing is used to assess and compare the performance of the interpolations. The methodology is demonstrated using groundwater pollution monitoring data from the coastal aquifer along the Israeli shoreline. The implications for aquifer management are discussed. PMID:25053141

Yuval, Yuval; Rimon, Yaara; Graber, Ellen R; Furman, Alex

2014-08-01

16

Interpolation of extensive routine water pollution monitoring datasets: methodology and discussion of implications for aquifer management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large fraction of the fresh water available for human use is stored in groundwater aquifers. Since human activities such as mining, agriculture, industry and urbanization often result in incursion of various pollutants to groundwater, routine monitoring of water quality is an indispensable component of judicious aquifer management. Unfortunately, groundwater pollution monitoring is expensive and usually cannot cover an aquifer with the spatial resolution necessary for making adequate management decisions. Interpolation of monitoring data between points is thus an important tool for supplementing measured data. However, interpolating routine groundwater pollution data poses a special problem due to the nature of the observations. The data from a producing aquifer usually includes many zero pollution concentration values from the clean parts of the aquifer but may span a wide range (up to a few orders of magnitude) of values in the polluted areas. This manuscript presents a methodology that can cope with such datasets and use them to produce maps that present the pollution plumes but also delineates the clean areas that are fit for production. A method for assessing the quality of mapping in a way which is suitable to the data's dynamic range of values is also presented. Local variant of inverse distance weighting is employed to interpolate the data. Inclusion zones around the interpolation points ensure that only relevant observations contribute to each interpolated concentration. Using inclusion zones improves the accuracy of the mapping but results in interpolation grid points which are not assigned a value. That inherent trade-off between the interpolation accuracy and coverage is demonstrated using both circular and elliptical inclusion zones. A leave-one-out cross testing is used to assess and compare the performance of the interpolations. The methodology is demonstrated using groundwater pollution monitoring data from the Coastal aquifer along the Israeli shoreline.

Yuval; Rimon, Y.; Graber, E. R.; Furman, A.

2013-07-01

17

Waste load allocation for water quality management of a heavily polluted river using linear programming.  

PubMed

A waste load allocation model using linear programming has been developed for economic water quality management. A modified Qual2e model was used for water quality calculations and transfer coefficients were derived from the calculated water quality. This allocation model was applied to the heavily polluted Gyungan River, located in South Korea. For water quality management of the river, two scenarios were proposed. Scenario 1 proposed to minimise the total waste load reduction in the river basin. Scenario 2 proposed to minimise waste load reduction considering regional equity. Waste loads, which have to be reduced at each sub-basin and WWTP, were determined to meet the water quality goal of the river. Application results of the allocation model indicate that advanced treatment is required for most of the existing WWTPs in the river basin and construction of new WWTPs and capacity expansion of existing plants are necessary. Distribution characteristics of pollution sources and pollutant loads in the river basin was analysed using Arc/View GIS. PMID:15137169

Cho, J H; Ahn, K H; Chung, W J; Gwon, E M

2003-01-01

18

Group 8 - Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BACKGROUND Investigate the issues of water pollution in the world. TASK - What is making the water so polluted? How bad is it? How does nature clean its own water? Who are the worst polluters? What can be done to stop so much pollution? What is the water cycle? What can be done to fix the problem? Explain all this, and 5 ...

Mrs. Mecham

2006-11-30

19

Water Pollution-Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pollution regulations and the types and sources of water pollution common to a ``typical'' cement plant are discussed. With the exception of the problem of totally dissolved solids in ``process'' water, solutions to most of the other water pollution problems common to a cement plant have been known. A solution to the problem of totally dissolved solids in ``process''

C. H. Goller

1972-01-01

20

Water Bottle Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The effect of water bottles and pollution around the world. Print off 3 copies of this form. W s First, let's learn about Water Bottle Pollution records on your w's form what you learned. Now let's learn about jaguars. Jaguars how can jaguars be harmed by water bottle pollution? Project: Create a travel brochure in Publisher using what you learned about water bottle pollution and jaguars. See ...

awl000422

2011-10-27

21

ISONITRATE demonstration project: How isotopic monitoring can improve management of nitrate pollution in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate is one of the major pollutants of drinking water resources worldwide. Recent European directives reduced inputs from intensive agriculture, but in most places NO3 levels are approaching the potable limit of 50 mg.l-1 in groundwater. Determining the source(s) of contamination in groundwater is an important first step for improving its quality by emission control. It is with this aim that we review here the benefit of using a multi-isotope approach (d15N, d180, d11B), in addition to conventional hydrogeological analysis, to constrain the the origin of NO3 pollution in water. The isotopic composition of the dissolved nitrogen species has been used extensively to better constrain the sources and fate of nitrate in groundwater. The possibility of quantifying both origin and secondary processes affecting N concentrations by means of a single tracer appears more limited however. Nitrogen cannot be considered conservative because it is biologically modified through nitrification and denitrification reactions, both during infiltration of the water and in the groundwater body, causing isotopic fractionation that modifies the d15N signatures of the dissolved N species. Discriminating multiple NO3 sources by their N isotopic composition alone becomes impossible whenever heterogenic or autogenic denitrification occurs, thus arising the need for establishing co-migrating discriminators of NO3 sources: addition of the d180 from NO3 and of the d11B. This presentation will strongly rely on our current European Life ISONITRATE project, which aims at showing policy makers how management of nitrate pollution in water can be greatly improved by the incorporation of the multi-isotope monitoring. The pilot site is located in the Alsace region (France and border Germany), part of the Upper Rhine basin, a groundwater body considered as one of the most important drinking water reservoirs in Europe. The demonstration of the multi-isotope approach is based on 4 distinct scenarios: 1. Natural case: corresponds to the natural nitrification of the soil and represents the reference end-member. Samples with NO3 concentration levels higher than this end-member are considered as polluted. 2. Denitrification case: groundwater samples are selected along an identified denitrification gradient in the "Appenweier-Rheinau" region (Germany): the uppermost samples being contaminated by mineral fertilizers used in vineyards (but not denitrified), and the downstream sample being (almost) totally denitrified. 3. Simple case: chosen as being under the influence of a sole type of nitrate pollution source: mineral fertilisation from the "Orschwihr- Bergholtz vineyards". 4. Complex case: where nitrates correspond to a mixing of different pollution sources (mineral and organic fertilisers), located within the "Dietwiller area".

Widory, D.

2008-12-01

22

Agricultural Land Use and Best Management Practices to Control Nonpoint Water Pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, improvements in point-source depuration technologies have highlighted the problems regarding agricultural nonpoint (diffuse) sources, and this issue has become highly relevant from the environmental point of view. The considerable extension of the areas responsible for this kind of pollution, together with the scarcity of funds available to local managers, make minimizing the impacts of nonpoint sources on a whole basin a virtually impossible task. This article presents the results of a study intended to pinpoint those agricultural areas, within a basin, that contribute most to water pollution, so that operations aimed at preventing and/or reducing this kind of pollution can be focused on them. With this aim, an innovative approach is presented that integrates a field-scale management model, a simple regression model, and a geographic information system (GIS). The Lake Vico basin, where recent studies highlighted a considerable increase in the trophic state, mainly caused by phosphorus (P) compounds deriving principally from the intensive cultivation of hazelnut trees in the lake basin, was chosen as the study site. Using the management model Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems (GLEAMS), the consequences, in terms of sediment yield and phosphorus export, of hazelnut tree cultivation were estimated on different areas of the basin with and without the application of a best management practice (BMP) that consists of growing meadow under the trees. The GLEAMS results were successively extended to basin scale thanks to the application of a purposely designed regression model and of a GIS. The main conclusions can be summarized as follows: The effectiveness of the above-mentioned BMP is always greater for erosion reduction than for particulate P reduction, whatever the slope value considered; moreover, the effectiveness with reference to both particulate P and sediment yield production decreases as the slope increases. The proposed approach, being completely distributed, represents a considerable step ahead compared to the semidistributed or lumped approaches, which are traditionally employed in research into tools to support the decision-making process for land-use planning aimed at water pollution control.

Ripa, Maria Nicoletta; Leone, Antonio; Garnier, Monica; Porto, Antonio Lo

2006-08-01

23

The role of best management practices in alleviating water quality problems associated with diffuse pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the concept of best management practices for the control of diffuse pollution. It considers where they are appropriate, and how the concept of a best management practice approach differs from the conventional means of controlling pollution by regulating each point source, in relation to established environmental quality standards and available dilution.

B. D'Arcy; A. Frost

2001-01-01

24

Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

25

Storm Water Runoff Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (located on page 8 of the PDF) introduces learners to the concept of Non-point Source Pollution--what happens when rain washes garbage and other pollutants into rivers and lakes. Through this demonstration, learners observe how water systems are connected and how pollution in their own backyard can affect larger water supplies.

Chicago Children's Museum

2008-01-01

26

PROSPECTS FOR EFFECTIVE NATIONAL MANAGEMENT OF ABANDONED METAL MINE WATER POLLUTION IN THE UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article briefly outlines the estimated scale of water pollution arising from abandoned non-coal mines (particularly metal mines) in the UK (in the order of 200 km of streams and rivers affected), and provides examples of the chemical characteristics of such waters, which are principally polluted with metals such as zinc, copper and iron. Although there is a substantial body

Adam Jarvis; Adrian Fox; Emma Gozzard; Steve Hill; Will Mayes; Hugh Potter

27

Understanding enabling capacities for managing the 'wicked problem' of nonpoint source water pollution in catchments: a conceptual framework.  

PubMed

Nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution in catchments is a 'wicked' problem that threatens water quality, water security, ecosystem health and biodiversity, and thus the provision of ecosystem services that support human livelihoods and wellbeing from local to global scales. However, it is a difficult problem to manage because water catchments are linked human and natural systems that are complex, dynamic, multi-actor, and multi-scalar in nature. This in turn raises questions about understanding and influencing change across multiple levels of planning, decision-making and action. A key challenge in practice is enabling implementation of local management action, which can be influenced by a range of factors across multiple levels. This paper reviews and synthesises important 'enabling' capacities that can influence implementation of local management action, and develops a conceptual framework for understanding and analysing these in practice. Important enabling capacities identified include: history and contingency; institutional arrangements; collaboration; engagement; vision and strategy; knowledge building and brokerage; resourcing; entrepreneurship and leadership; and reflection and adaptation. Furthermore, local action is embedded within multi-scalar contexts and therefore, is highly contextual. The findings highlight the need for: (1) a systemic and integrative perspective for understanding and influencing change for managing the wicked problem of NPS water pollution; and (2) 'enabling' social and institutional arenas that support emergent and adaptive management structures, processes and innovations for addressing NPS water pollution in practice. These findings also have wider relevance to other 'wicked' natural resource management issues facing similar implementation challenges. PMID:23792915

Patterson, James J; Smith, Carl; Bellamy, Jennifer

2013-10-15

28

Water and Fertilizer Nitrogen Management to Minimize Nitrate Pollution from a Cropped Soil in Southwestern Quebec, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate-N (NO3--N) pollution of water resources is a widely recognized problem. Water and nitrogen fertilizer are the two most important factors affecting NO3--N movement to surface and groundwater. Field trials were conducted from 1998 to 2000 growing seasons to investigate the combined impacts of water table management (WTM) and N fertilization rate on NO3--N concentration in the soil profile and

Abdirashid A. Elmi; C. Madramootoo; Mohamud Egeh; C. Hamel

2004-01-01

29

Integrated analysis of water quality parameters for cost-effective faecal pollution management in river catchments.  

PubMed

In many parts of the world, microbial contamination of surface waters used for drinking, recreation, and shellfishery remains a pervasive risk to human health, especially in Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDC). However, the capacity to provide effective management strategies to break the waterborne route to human infection is often thwarted by our inability to identify the source of microbial contamination. Microbial Source Tracking (MST) has potential to improve water quality management in complex river catchments that are either routinely, or intermittently contaminated by faecal material from one or more sources, by attributing faecal loads to their human or non-human sources, and thereby supporting more rational approaches to microbial risk assessment. The River Ouse catchment in southeast England (U.K.) was used as a model with which to investigate the integration and application of a novel and simple MST approach to monitor microbial water quality over one calendar year, thereby encompassing a range of meteorological conditions. A key objective of the work was to develop simple low-cost protocols that could be easily replicated. Bacteriophages (viruses) capable of infecting a human specific strain of Bacteroides GB-124, and their correlation with presumptive Escherichia coli, were used to distinguish sources of faecal pollution. The results reported here suggest that in this river catchment the principal source of faecal pollution in most instances was non-human in origin. During storm events, presumptive E. coli and presumptive intestinal enterococci levels were 1.1-1.2 logs higher than during dry weather conditions, and levels of the faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) were closely associated with increased turbidity levels (presumptive E. coli and turbidity, r = 0.43). Spatio-temporal variation in microbial water quality parameters was accounted for by three principal components (67.6%). Cluster Analysis, reduced the fourteen monitoring sites to six representative 'sentinel' sites. The correlation coefficient between presumptive E. coli and phages of Bacteroides GB-124 was very small (r = 0.05) whilst that between turbidity and suspended solids was high (r = 0.62). Variations in climate, animal and anthropogenic interferences were all, either directly or indirectly, related to faecal contamination. The findings show the importance of meteorological conditions, such as storm events, on microbial water quality, and suggest that any future increases in the frequency of storm events (associated with climate change) are likely to result in a greater incidence of FIO/pathogen loads. This low-cost approach could help to predict spatio-temporal 'hotspots' of elevated waterborne disease risk. The work also represents an important step towards integrating novel MST tools into river catchment modelling. PMID:21324505

Nnane, Daniel Ekane; Ebdon, James Edward; Taylor, Huw David

2011-03-01

30

Water Pollution, Causes and Cures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

31

Eutrophication. [Water pollution  

SciTech Connect

A literature review dealing with the process of eutrophication with respect to the sources and transport of pollutants is presented. Topics include the mathematical modeling of nutrient loading, eutrophication, and aquatic ecosystems. Biological and environmental indicators of eutrophication are reviewed, and the interactions between various chemical and biological pollutants are considered. Several lake management projects are discussed. (KRM)

Medine, A.J. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder); Porcella, D.B.

1982-06-01

32

Chemical pollution assessment and prioritisation model for the Upper and Middle Vaal water management areas of South Africa.  

PubMed

A chemical pollution assessment and prioritisation model was developed for the Upper and Middle Vaal water management areas of South Africa in order to provide a simple and practical Pollution Index to assist with mitigation and rehabilitation activities. Historical data for 2003 to 2008 from 21 river sites were cubic-interpolated to daily values. Nine parameters were considered for this purpose, that is, ammonium, chloride, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, fluoride, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate. Parameter selection was based on sub-catchment pollution characteristics and availability of a consistent data range, against a harmonised guideline which provided five classes. Classes 1, 2, 3 and 4 used ideal catchment background values for Vaal Dam, Vaal Barrage, Blesbokspruit/Suikerbosrant and Klip Rivers, respectively. Class 5 represented values which fell above those for Klip River. The Pollution Index, as provided by the model, identified pollution prioritisation monitoring points on Rietspruit-W:K2, Natalspruit:K12, Blesbokspruit:B1, Rietspruit-L:R1/R2, Taaibosspruit:T1 and Leeuspruit:L1. Pre-classification indicated that pollution sources were domestic, industrial and mine effluent. It was concluded that rehabilitation and mitigation measures should prioritise points with high classes. Ability of the model to perform simple scenario building and analysis was considered to be an effective tool for acid mine drainage pollution assessment. PMID:25473990

Dzwairo, B; Otieno, F A O

2014-12-01

33

ALGAE AND WATER POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Algae are involved in water pollution in a number of important ways. It requires a continuous monitoring and study of algae existing in waters of various quality in order to determine what controls or what changes or what uses can be instituted for the benefit of man and for cons...

34

Fecal Pollution of Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

35

Fecal Pollution of Water.  

EPA Science Inventory

Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

36

COLLABORATIVE INVESTIGATIONS OF WATER QUALITY POLLUTION PATTERNS: WORKING WITH  

E-print Network

COLLABORATIVE INVESTIGATIONS OF WATER QUALITY POLLUTION PATTERNS: WORKING WITH THE KYUQUOT and Environmental Management Title of Research Project: Collaborative Investigations of Water Quality Pollution about water quality sampling and policy agenda setting. Through time and repeated interactions

37

Water Pollution Prevention and Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is designed to help students apply the pollution prevention (P2) concept to water. It contains the needed background information about water pollution and provides guidance and activities to help students describe water uses and sources, explain why water conservation is important, and explain how pollution prevention concepts can be used to conserve water and prevent water pollution. The preceding pages of the fact sheet contain background information and the definitions necessary to implement this lesson plan.

38

Pitting the polluted against the flooded: water resource management in Tigre, Buenos Aires  

Microsoft Academic Search

People residing on the banks of the lower stretches of the Reconquista and Luján rivers, as well as in the first section of islands in the Tigre delta bordering Greater Buenos Aires, are affected by the water-management operations carried out in the Reconquista. This paper presents the findings of a study to analyze the perception and actual risk of water

Francisco Suárez; Ruben J Lombardo

2004-01-01

39

Future water quality monitoring - Adapting tools to deal with mixtures of pollutants in water resource management.  

PubMed

Environmental quality monitoring of water resources is challenged with providing the basis for safeguarding the environment against adverse biological effects of anthropogenic chemical contamination from diffuse and point sources. While current regulatory efforts focus on monitoring and assessing a few legacy chemicals, many more anthropogenic chemicals can be detected simultaneously in our aquatic resources. However, exposure to chemical mixtures does not necessarily translate into adverse biological effects nor clearly shows whether mitigation measures are needed. Thus, the question which mixtures are present and which have associated combined effects becomes central for defining adequate monitoring and assessment strategies. Here we describe the vision of the international, EU-funded project SOLUTIONS, where three routes are explored to link the occurrence of chemical mixtures at specific sites to the assessment of adverse biological combination effects. First of all, multi-residue target and non-target screening techniques covering a broader range of anticipated chemicals co-occurring in the environment are being developed. By improving sensitivity and detection limits for known bioactive compounds of concern, new analytical chemistry data for multiple components can be obtained and used to characterise priority mixtures. This information on chemical occurrence will be used to predict mixture toxicity and to derive combined effect estimates suitable for advancing environmental quality standards. Secondly, bioanalytical tools will be explored to provide aggregate bioactivity measures integrating all components that produce common (adverse) outcomes even for mixtures of varying compositions. The ambition is to provide comprehensive arrays of effect-based tools and trait-based field observations that link multiple chemical exposures to various environmental protection goals more directly and to provide improved in situ observations for impact assessment of mixtures. Thirdly, effect-directed analysis (EDA) will be applied to identify major drivers of mixture toxicity. Refinements of EDA include the use of statistical approaches with monitoring information for guidance of experimental EDA studies. These three approaches will be explored using case studies at the Danube and Rhine river basins as well as rivers of the Iberian Peninsula. The synthesis of findings will be organised to provide guidance for future solution-oriented environmental monitoring and explore more systematic ways to assess mixture exposures and combination effects in future water quality monitoring. PMID:25644849

Altenburger, Rolf; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Antczak, Philipp; Backhaus, Thomas; Barceló, Damià; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Brion, Francois; Busch, Wibke; Chipman, Kevin; de Alda, Miren López; de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela; Escher, Beate I; Falciani, Francesco; Faust, Michael; Focks, Andreas; Hilscherova, Klara; Hollender, Juliane; Hollert, Henner; Jäger, Felix; Jahnke, Annika; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Krauss, Martin; Lemkine, Gregory F; Munthe, John; Neumann, Steffen; Schymanski, Emma L; Scrimshaw, Mark; Segner, Helmut; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Smedes, Foppe; Kughathas, Subramaniam; Teodorovic, Ivana; Tindall, Andrew J; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Walz, Karl-Heinz; Williams, Tim D; Van den Brink, Paul J; van Gils, Jos; Vrana, Branislav; Zhang, Xiaowei; Brack, Werner

2015-04-15

40

Water Pollution Control Industry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

1974-01-01

41

Water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

I am writing in reference to an article by Leonard B. Dworsky in the August issue of EOS dealing with what the author feels are the necessary steps toward an effective and credible program of water pollution control.That public expectations need to be adjusted to real world solutions can hardly be denied. The general public is all too often led

Donald F. Kostecki

1970-01-01

42

Ground water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment, methodologies. In-situ technologies. Aquifer restoration. Applications and case studies. Decision-making. Risk assessment. References include 225 with complete abstracts. This work covers technologies for ground water pollution control in part one and deals in depth with aquifer restoration decision-making in part two, while part three gives range of case studies and detailed abstracts of 225 references. CONTENTS: 1-Introduction. Technologies for

Canter

1985-01-01

43

The SOLUTIONS project: challenges and responses for present and future emerging pollutants in land and water resources management.  

PubMed

SOLUTIONS (2013 to 2018) is a European Union Seventh Framework Programme Project (EU-FP7). The project aims to deliver a conceptual framework to support the evidence-based development of environmental policies with regard to water quality. SOLUTIONS will develop the tools for the identification, prioritisation and assessment of those water contaminants that may pose a risk to ecosystems and human health. To this end, a new generation of chemical and effect-based monitoring tools is developed and integrated with a full set of exposure, effect and risk assessment models. SOLUTIONS attempts to address legacy, present and future contamination by integrating monitoring and modelling based approaches with scenarios on future developments in society, economy and technology and thus in contamination. The project follows a solutions-oriented approach by addressing major problems of water and chemicals management and by assessing abatement options. SOLUTIONS takes advantage of the access to the infrastructure necessary to investigate the large basins of the Danube and Rhine as well as relevant Mediterranean basins as case studies, and puts major efforts on stakeholder dialogue and support. Particularly, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) Common Implementation Strategy (CIS) working groups, International River Commissions, and water works associations are directly supported with consistent guidance for the early detection, identification, prioritisation, and abatement of chemicals in the water cycle. SOLUTIONS will give a specific emphasis on concepts and tools for the impact and risk assessment of complex mixtures of emerging pollutants, their metabolites and transformation products. Analytical and effect-based screening tools will be applied together with ecological assessment tools for the identification of toxicants and their impacts. The SOLUTIONS approach is expected to provide transparent and evidence-based candidates or River Basin Specific Pollutants in the case study basins and to assist future review of priority pollutants under the WFD as well as potential abatement options. PMID:24951181

Brack, Werner; Altenburger, Rolf; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Krauss, Martin; López Herráez, David; van Gils, Jos; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Munthe, John; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; van Wezel, Annemarie; Schriks, Merijn; Hollender, Juliane; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Mekenyan, Ovanes; Dimitrov, Saby; Bunke, Dirk; Cousins, Ian; Posthuma, Leo; van den Brink, Paul J; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià; Faust, Michael; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Scrimshaw, Mark; Ignatova, Svetlana; Engelen, Guy; Massmann, Gudrun; Lemkine, Gregory; Teodorovic, Ivana; Walz, Karl-Heinz; Dulio, Valeria; Jonker, Michiel T O; Jäger, Felix; Chipman, Kevin; Falciani, Francesco; Liska, Igor; Rooke, David; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hollert, Henner; Vrana, Branislav; Hilscherova, Klara; Kramer, Kees; Neumann, Steffen; Hammerbacher, Ruth; Backhaus, Thomas; Mack, Juliane; Segner, Helmut; Escher, Beate; de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela

2015-01-15

44

Simulation and Evaluation of Pollution Load Reduction Scenarios for Water Environmental Management: A Case Study of Inflow River of Taihu Lake, China  

PubMed Central

In the beginning of the 21st century, the deterioration of water quality in Taihu Lake, China, has caused widespread concern. The primary source of pollution in Taihu Lake is river inflows. Effective pollution load reduction scenarios need to be implemented in these rivers in order to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake. It is important to select appropriate pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving particular goals. The aim of this study was to facilitate the selection of appropriate scenarios. The QUAL2K model for river water quality was used to simulate the effects of a range of pollution load reduction scenarios in the Wujin River, which is one of the major inflow rivers of Taihu Lake. The model was calibrated for the year 2010 and validated for the year 2011. Various pollution load reduction scenarios were assessed using an analytic hierarchy process, and increasing rates of evaluation indicators were predicted using the Delphi method. The results showed that control of pollution from the source is the optimal method for pollution prevention and control, and the method of “Treatment after Pollution” has bad environmental, social and ecological effects. The method applied in this study can assist for environmental managers to select suitable pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving various objectives. PMID:25207492

Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Zhu, Wenting; Gao, Hailong; Hu, Wei; Wang, Jinhua

2014-01-01

45

Remote Sensing of Water Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

White, P. G.

1971-01-01

46

Clean Water and Oceans: Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the water pollution portal for the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). NRDC works to continue reductions in industrial water pollution while pressing for effective pollution controls on agriculture, logging and other sources previously exempt from them. They help develop and promote strong federal laws and regulations to address polluted runoff, raw sewage discharges, and factory farm wastes and to sue polluters when the Clean Water Act is violated. This site contains simple issue overviews, news, how-to guides, frequently asked questions, photo essays and more in a section called In Brief. The In Depth section offers reports, white papers, policy analyses and other materials by NRDCs lawyers, scientists and analysts.

47

Exploring Water Pollution. Part 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists over 30 outdoor science activities dealing with water formation, erosion, pollution, and other water-related topics. Provides, in addition, a selected bibliography of films, tapes, booklets and pamphlets, and filmstrips as additional reference materials. (CP)

Rillo, Thomas J.

1976-01-01

48

Biology and Water Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

Warren, Charles E.

49

Review: Pharmacological Pollution in Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been an increasing awareness among environmental scientists in recent years of the presence and potential impacts of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (“PPCPs”) in environmental compartments including surface water, groundwater, soil, bed sediment, and in tissue. This work highlights some of the research developments over approximately the last decade regarding pharmacological pollution in water including pollution characterization, analytical

Samuel Kaplan

2012-01-01

50

Lessons for community-based management approaches to mine water pollution problems: a comparative study of four cases in northeast England  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the role of community-based management (CBM) in dealing with the problem of mine water pollution (MWP) in four ex-pit sites in northeast England. The outcomes of CBM can be divided into two categories: ecological (environmental improvement) and social (community improvement). The ecological outcomes range from problem recognition to investigation and remediation; the social outcomes range from community

Lindsay Palmer; Tim Gray; Derek Bell

2010-01-01

51

How Does Water Get Polluted?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a hands-on modeling of the effects of pollution on our ground and surface water. Students will observe and record their observations as pollution is placed on the ground in their model and it is rained upon.

Deb Verdoorn Anderson

52

Pollutants in airport runoff waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Runoff waters from airport areas constitute a serious environmental problem. It is essential to monitor levels of pollutants emitted into the environment and measure their toxicity on a continuous basis.The aim of this paper is to critically review data on pollution from aviation fuel combustion, aviation fuel spillage, the washing and cleaning of aircraft and airport service equipment, the use

Anna Maria Sulej; ?aneta Polkowska; Jacek Namie?nik

2011-01-01

53

Landsat and water pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents data derived from satellite images predicting pollution loads after rainfall. It explains method for converting Landsat images of Eastern United States into cover maps for Baltimore/five county region.

Castruccio, P.; Fowler, T.; Loats, H., Jr.

1979-01-01

54

Water Pollution: Monitoring the Source.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an advanced biology class project involving study of the effects of organic pollution on an aquatic ecosystem from an sewage treatment plant overflow to evaluate the chemical quality and biological activity of the river water. (DS)

Wilkes, James W.

1980-01-01

55

An Instructional Delivery System for Manpower Management: A Report for Water Pollution Control Agencies. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains information to assist organizations and personnel responsible for the quality and quantity of operators available for water quality control efforts. The text discusses in detail the current developments in operator instructional programs. Each of the seven sections of this report deals with a specific aspect of manpower…

New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany.

56

Pollution effects on fisheries — potential management activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Management of ocean pollution must be based on the best available scientific information, with adequate consideration of economic, social, and political realities. Unfortunately, the best available scientific information about pollution effects on fisheries is often fragmentary, and often conjectural; therefore a primary concern of management should be a critical review and assessment of available factual information about effects of pollutants on fish and shellfish stocks. A major problem in any such review and assessment is the separation of pollutant effects from the effects of all the other environmental factors that influence survival and well-being of marine animals. Data from long-term monitoring of resource abundance, and from monitoring of all determinant environmental variables, will be required for analyses that lead to resolution of the problem. Information must also be acquired about fluxes of contaminants through resource-related ecosystems, and about contaminant effects on resource species as demonstrated in field and laboratory experiments. Other possible management activities include: (1) encouragement of continued efforts to document clearly the localized and general effects of pollution on living resources; (2) continued pressure to identify and use reliable biological indicators of environmental degradation (indicators of choice at present are: unusually high levels of genetic and other anomalies in the earliest life history stages; presence of pollution-associated disease signs, particularly fin erosion and ulcers, in fish; and biochemical/physiological changes); and (3) major efforts to reduce inputs of pollutants clearly demonstrated to be harmful to living resources, from point sources as well as ocean dumping. Such pollution management activities, based on continuous efforts in stock assessment, environmental assessment, and experimental studies, can help to insure that rational decisions will be made about uses and abuses of coastal/estuarine waters.

Sindermann, C. J.

1980-03-01

57

Water Pollution Control courses offered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manhattan College will conduct the Nineteenth Summer Institute in Water Pollution Control, May 2024, 1974. Two one-week courses will be offered concurrently for advanced study in biological waste treatment and mathematical modeling of natural water systems. Enrollment, on a preregistration basis, will be limited.This continuing engineering education program is designed to enhance the competence of practicing engineers and scientists in

Anonymous

1974-01-01

58

Ground water. [Water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence that the Nation's ground water is contaminated by a variety of sources. These include unprotected industrial, municipal, and radioactive disposal sites, petroleum exploration and mining activities, agricultural operations such as insecticide spraying, high de-icing salts and others. As of March 1980, more than 8000 chemical tests have been performed on well water, with chlorinated organic solvents

Costle

1980-01-01

59

Water Pollution Scrubber Activity Simulates Pollution Control Devices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory activity caused students to think actively about water pollution. The students realized that it would be easier to keep water clean than to remove pollutants. They created a water scrubbing system allowing them to pour water in one end and have it emerge clean at the other end. (JOW)

Kennedy, Edward C., III; Waggoner, Todd C.

2003-01-01

60

Agricultural water pollution control: An interdisciplinary approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regulation and control of agricultural water pollution is unique and difficult to accomplish. Water quality standards are often proposed without adequate consideration of the overall economic impact on agricultural production. This article illustrates how economists and physical scientists can cooperate to develop appropriate control strategies for agricultural water pollution. Data provided by physical scientists and economists are used in a linear programming model to describe salt discharge as a function of water management, production levels, and an associated effluent charge. Four water management activities were chosen on the basis of different costs of production (including a parametrically varied effluent charge), water requirements, alfalfa yields, and levels of salt discharge. Results indicate that when the effluent charge is low (<0.20/metric ton salt discharged), maximum production with maximum salt discharge is most profitable. As the effluent charge is increased (0.20 0.40/metric ton salt discharged), it becomes progressively less profitable to produce alfalfa at maximum levels of pollutant discharge. When the effluent charge is >0.40/metric ton salt discharged, alfalfa production is no longer economically feasible. An important aspect of this approach is that it permits policy makers to identify explicitly the relationship between the environmental standard and the effect on agricultural production.

Miller, Watkins W.; Ching, Chauncey T. K.; Yanagida, John F.; Jakus, Paul

1985-01-01

61

ILLINOIS GROUND WATER POLLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there are now ample good quality ground water supplies in Illinois, that may not be so in the future. Widespread contamination of aquifers may occur soon unless stringent precautionary measures are employed.

William H. Walker

1969-01-01

62

Behaviours and attitudes in the management of nonpoint source pollution: Ping River Basin, Thailand   

E-print Network

Agricultural nonpoint source pollution is recognised as a major cause of water pollution. The characteristics of nonpoint source pollution suggest that an efficient approach should focus on a source control and hence land-use management. Recently...

Bumbudsanpharoke, Wimolpat

2010-01-01

63

The Role of Tradable Permits in Water Pollution Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This working paper first introduces tradable permits as part of an overall taxonomy of economic instruments in the field of water management. In this context, three fundamentally different fields of application of tradable permits systems relating to water are presented: tradable water abstraction rights, tradable rights to water-based resources and tradable water pollution rights. Next, the authors provide literature-based empirical

R. Andreas Kraemer; Eleftheria Kampa; Eduard Interwies

2004-01-01

64

Water Pollution in School Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water pollution curriculum units of four environmental secondary science programs in Britain, Germany, Israel, and the United States are examined. Comparisons reveal the use of quite different approaches in central topic selection, use of the laboratory and other media, controversial issues, and teacher-student roles. (CS)

Blum, Abraham

1979-01-01

65

Exploring Water Pollution. Part II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

Rillo, Thomas J.

1975-01-01

66

Careers in Water Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are the activities, responsibilities, and educational and training requirements of the major occupations directly concerned with water pollution control. Also provided is an overview of employment trends, salaries, and projected demand for employees. Included in the appendix is a list of colleges and universities which offer…

Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

67

Testing Water for Bacterial Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of water pollution control. It is a learning activity directed toward high school students of biology and/or ecology. A general knowledge of microbiology techniques is regarded as a prerequisite for the lesson. Behavioral objectives are given. Emphasis is placed on use of techniques and materials…

Dillner, Harry

68

Groundwater and surface water pollution  

SciTech Connect

This book contains almost all the technical know-how that is required to clean up the water supply. It provides a survey of up-to-date technologies for remediation, as well as a step-by-step guide to pollution assessment for both ground and surface waters. In addition to focusing on causes, effects, and remedies, the book stresses reuse, recycling, and recovery of resources. The authors suggest that through total recycling wastes can become resources.

Chae, Y.S.; Hamidi, A. [eds.

2000-07-01

69

Combined air and water pollution control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

Wolverton, Billy C. (inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (inventor)

1990-01-01

70

How Did That Get There?: Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a group, learners consider sources of water pollution to understand where pollution starts and where it ends up. Also explored are the natural and human-made options for cleaning up our water supply. This activity encourages learners to use their powers of observation, imagination, and public speaking skills as they describe possible pollution stories and scenarios, and brainstorm pollution prevention efforts.

University of Illinois

2009-01-01

71

Recommendations to National Water Commission: Pollution Abatement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A NWC panel evaluated the problems and recommended a plan for nationwide abatement of water pollution during a 10-yr period. Its proposal is based upon a facilities-planning effort to identify the most economical solutions, a federal construction-grant program to end in 10 yr, and placing management of public systems on a utility basis with self-financing after the 10-yr period— at

Dwight F. Metzler

1972-01-01

72

CONTROLLING POLLUTION FROM THE MANUFACTURING AND COATING OF METAL PRODUCTS. 3. WATER POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

Volume 3 addresses managers, engineers and other industry personnel responsible for resolving the water pollution problems of a manufacturing facility. It covers regulations, in-plant controls, three methods for wastewater treatment, establishment of a working relationship with a...

73

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT / POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Goal 8.4 Improve Environmental Systems Management (Formally Pollution Prevention and New Technology) Background The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed and evaluated tools and technologies to monitor, prevent, control, and clean-up pollution through...

74

Pollution of ground water in Europe  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses pollution of ground water in 20 countries of the European region, giving for each an account of the geology and hydrogeology, water supplies, the extent and nature of ground water pollution, and the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling that pollution. For the countries not considered in the preceding article on surface water pollution, an account is also given of the superficial physical features, rainfall, population, and industries. A general discussion follows of such questions as the ways in which ground water pollution may occur, the factors mitigating or aggravating pollution, and ways of protection against pollution. The authors consider that the problem of ground water pollution in Europe may well be more serious than it would appear to be on the evidence so far obtained. PMID:13374533

Buchan, S.; Key, A.

1956-01-01

75

Agricultural nitrate monitoring in a lake basin in Central Italy: a further step ahead towards an integrated nutrient management aimed at controlling water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pollution from point sources has been considerably reduced over the last few decades. Nevertheless, some water quality\\u000a problems remain, which can be attributed to non-point pollution sources, and in particular to agriculture. In this paper the\\u000a results of a study intended to assess the consequences, in terms of NO3 water pollution, of growing a crop, whose impact in terms

Monica Garnier; Fabio Recanatesi; Maria Nicoletta Ripa; Antonio Leone

2010-01-01

76

Illinois water quality management plan  

SciTech Connect

The report describes the purpose of the plan to consolidate and streamline portions of approved state and areawide water quality management (WQM) plans in order to facilitate their usage in the operations of all designated WQM agencies. The report identifies both point and nonpoint pollution sources, reviews policies and regulations already in place and makes recommendations for pollution prevention and control. Information on the plan's management structure is also included.

Not Available

1992-12-01

77

Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

78

Pollution and the protection of water quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book reports on research and development in the study of pollution and methodologies to protect water quality, with emphasis on arid countries. Topics covered include overview of the effects of pollution on natural and human environments; water cycle and groundwater resources in arid countries; salinization; standards and technologies for waste water treatment; uses of recycled water; solid waste disposal;

Risebrough

1986-01-01

79

Energy analysis of regional water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of water pollution control that were used to restore water quality of Oregon's Willamette River basin are reviewed. A water pollution control strategy that takes environmental, economic, and energy use impacts into consideration is proposed based on experiences in the Willamette basin. In the control strategy, site-specific data are used to devise a water quality index for the basin.

R. J. Heggen; K. J. Williamson

1979-01-01

80

Salmonella pollution of surface waters.  

PubMed Central

Surface waters in 14 selected sites were examined for the presence of salmonella using modified Moore's swabs. The sites included an upland impounding reservoir, 3 rivers and 10 streams within Lancashire and Cheshire, selected because of their accessibility to farm livestock. Salmonellas were isolated from 22 out of the 57 swabs examined representing 10 sites. The probable source of pollution was shown to be sewage or farm effluent and an examination of sites over a wider area may be expected to produce similar results. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to the epidemiology of salmonella infections and the possible disinfection of effluent discharges. PMID:731019

Smith, P. J.; Jones, F.; Watson, D. C.

1978-01-01

81

Water Science, Management and Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new AGU book, Water:Science, Management and Policy, edited by Richard Lawford, Denise Fort, Holly Hartmann, and Susanna Eden, explores the scientific and political issues behind water use and sustainability worldwide. The book investigates critical issues facing water managers, policy makers, and scientists in the 21st century, examining specific examples of water planning and decision-making. Among the topics discussed by the authors are the current state of water engineering, sharing resources across state and international borders, and the best methods for managing the resource with the future impact of climate change and additional pollution.

Lifland, Jonathan

2004-02-01

82

Total Water Management - slides  

EPA Science Inventory

Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

83

Upstream water resource management to address downstream pollution concerns: A policy framework with application to the Nakdong River basin in South Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An empirical framework for assisting with water quality management is proposed that relies on open-source hydrologic data. Such data are measured periodically at fixed water stations and commonly available in time-series form. To fully exploit the data, we suggest that observations from multiple stations should be combined into a single long-panel data set, and an econometric model developed to estimate upstream management effects on downstream water quality. Selection of the model's functional form and explanatory variables would be informed by rating curves, and idiosyncrasies across and within stations handled in an error term by testing contemporary correlation, serial correlation, and heteroskedasticity. Our proposed approach is illustrated with an application to the Nakdong River basin in South Korea. Three alternative policies to achieve downstream BOD level targets are evaluated: upstream water treatment, greater dam discharge, and development of a new water source. Upstream water treatment directly cuts off incoming pollutants, thereby presenting the smallest variation in its downstream effects on BOD levels. Treatment is advantageous when reliability of water quality is a primary concern. Dam discharge is a flexible tool, and may be used strategically during a low-flow season. We consider development of a new water corridor from an extant dam as our third policy option. This turns out to be the most cost-effective way for securing lower BOD levels in the downstream target city. Even though we consider a relatively simple watershed to illustrate the usefulness of our approach, it can be adapted easily to analyze more complex upstream-downstream issues.

Yoon, Taeyeon; Rhodes, Charles; Shah, Farhed A.

2015-02-01

84

Water Pollution. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water is one of the most polluted resources in our environment. Since everyone has the same basic need for pure water, it follows that all people should have a basic knowledge of the causes, results and solutions to the water pollution problem. This unit is designed for use with Level II and III educable mentally retarded students to present…

Topeka Public Schools, KS.

85

Agricultural water pollution control: An interdisciplinary approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation and control of agricultural water pollution is unique and difficult to accomplish. Water quality standards are often proposed without adequate consideration of the overall economic impact on agricultural production. This article illustrates how economists and physical scientists can cooperate to develop appropriate control strategies for agricultural water pollution. Data provided by physical scientists and economists are used in a

Watkins W. Miller; Chauncey T. K. Ching; John F. Yanagida; Paul Jakus

1985-01-01

86

Water pollution and human health in China.  

PubMed Central

China's extraordinary economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization, coupled with inadequate investment in basic water supply and treatment infrastructure, have resulted in widespread water pollution. In China today approximately 700 million people--over half the population--consume drinking water contaminated with levels of animal and human excreta that exceed maximum permissible levels by as much as 86% in rural areas and 28% in urban areas. By the year 2000, the volume of wastewater produced could double from 1990 levels to almost 78 billion tons. These are alarming trends with potentially serious consequences for human health. This paper reviews and analyzes recent Chinese reports on public health and water resources to shed light on what recent trends imply for China's environmental risk transition. This paper has two major conclusions. First, the critical deficits in basic water supply and sewage treatment infrastructure have increased the risk of exposure to infectious and parasitic disease and to a growing volume of industrial chemicals, heavy metals, and algal toxins. Second, the lack of coordination between environmental and public health objectives, a complex and fragmented system to manage water resources, and the general treatment of water as a common property resource mean that the water quality and quantity problems observed as well as the health threats identified are likely to become more acute. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10090702

Wu, C; Maurer, C; Wang, Y; Xue, S; Davis, D L

1999-01-01

87

Bibliography of water pollution control benefits and costs. [3000 references  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computer-listed bibliography includes approximately 3000 references to environmental quality management issues. The primary selection criteria for including the sources referenced was that the citation pertains to water pollution control benefits and costs. However, numerous listings include more general environmental issues within which water quality problems are embedded. Also, much of the economic cost-benefit analysis research has been conceptually developed

S. G. Unger; D. L. Jordening

1974-01-01

88

Water pollution treatability: a molecular engineering approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimated effluent limits for priority nonpesticide organic pollutants, such as phenol and carbon tetrachloride, were developed from the physical-chemical properties (molecular weight, boiling point, and water solubility) and the biochemical oxidizability of these pollutants. These properties were used to develop a separate treatment model (or system) for each pollutant from the following unit treatment processes: steam- or air-stripping; oil\\/water separation;

Strier

1980-01-01

89

Global trends in water pollution control legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope of legislation on water pollution control is initially examined. Then, the administrative machinery responsible for implementing water pollution control programs is examined, after which the approaches taken by selected countries (Norway, India, USA, Netherlands, Mexico, and New South Wales) to deal with the problem is reviewed. There follows an analysis of the policies adopted by various countries to

G. Ozolins; S. S. Fluss; R. Helmer

1977-01-01

90

The Practice of Water Pollution Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water pollution techniques and practices, including data analysis, interpretation and display are described in this book intended primarily for the biologist inexperienced in this work, and for sanitary engineers, chemists, and water pollution control administrators. The characteristics of aquatic environments, their biota, and the effects of…

Mackenthun, Kenneth M.

91

Symposium on costs of water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A National Symposium on Costs of Water Pollution Control will be held in Raleigh, North Carolina, April 67, 1972. The symposium is sponsored by the Research Triangle Universities (Duke University, North Carolina State University, and the University of North Carolina and several national societies. The program will include sessions on economic implications of national goals for water pollution control cost

Anonymous

1972-01-01

92

Rural industries and water pollution in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pollution from small rural industries is a serious problem throughout China. Over half of all river sections monitored for water quality are rated as being unsafe for human contact, and this pollution is estimated to cost several per cent of GDP. While China has some of the toughest environmental protection laws in the world, the implementation of these laws

Mark Wang; Michael Webber; Brian Finlayson; Jon Barnett

2008-01-01

93

Magnetic separation in water pollution control - II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic separation in water purification uses a magnetically susceptible seeding material as a substrate for pollutant removal. The chemical bond between the seed and pollutant is normally achieved by the action of a chemical coagulant. There are cases, however, in which an additive is not necessary, as in the removal of algal cells from sea water. Under the proper chemical

Christopher de Latour; Henry Kolm

1975-01-01

94

Water Conservation and Nonpoint Source Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains science activities that are designed to make learning and demonstrating nonpoint source pollution concepts exciting and fun. These activities can either be used alone or with an existing water resources education curricula. Activities include: Water Tasting, Acting Out the Hydrologic Cycle, Concentration of Chemical Pollutants

Farrell-Poe, Kitt

95

Special Topics in Water Science (Water Pollution)  

MedlinePLUS

... Basics Water Properties Water Cycle Surface Water Groundwater Water Quality Water Use Activities Photos Q&A Teachers Contact ... explore other water-science topic areas, such as water quality, urbanization and water, saline water, watersheds, runoff, and ...

96

CHOOSING OPTIMUM MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

This seminar publication is addressed to managers and supervisors who have some responsibility for their plant's pollution control measures. The information and guidance provided to these decision personnel are drawn from case histories of working plants and include laws, regulat...

97

Review of water pollution control in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resource shortage and pollution has seriously threatened the survival and development of developing countries. Because\\u000a of China’s specific economical and social circumstances, complete adoption of developed countries’ experience is unrealistic.\\u000a At present, China needs to develop strategies and technologies in source water pollution control and municipal environmental\\u000a remediation that embrace the country’s specific need to battle the water resource

Tingyao Gao; Hongbin Chen; Siqing Xia; Zengyan Zhou

2008-01-01

98

Development of a Master Plan for Water Pollution Control Using MCDM Techniques: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive demand for water due to a growing population, agricultural, and industrial development, along with climate change and depletion of nonrenewable resources have intensified the need for integrated water resources management and water pollution control. This paper presents different aspects of a master plan for water pollution control and the results of a case study for developing a master plan

Mohammad Karamouz; Banafsheh Zahraie; Reza Kerachian

2003-01-01

99

Pollution of surface water in Europe  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses pollution of surface water in 18 European countries. For each an account is given of its physical character, population, industries, and present condition of water supplies; the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling pollution are then described, and an outline is given of current research on the difficulties peculiar to each country. A general discussion of various aspects common to the European problem of water pollution follows; standards of quality are suggested; some difficulties likely to arise in the near future are indicated, and international collaboration, primarily by the exchange of information, is recommended to check or forestall these trends. PMID:13374532

Key, A.

1956-01-01

100

Sheep dip chemicals and water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tweed River Purification Board's objective of reducing the numbers and significance of water pollution incidents by a proactive approach based on persuasion and education is described. This has consisted of prioritising potential pollutant sources which have then been investigated in detail followed by discussion and agreement with discharges as to remedial measures. The paper describes in detail the Board's

W. A. Virtue; J. W. Clayton

1997-01-01

101

Engineering aspects of water pollution control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of proper engineering when providing pollution control systems is emphasized. Organization of engineering projects is described in detail. Included are discussions of: (1) collection and evaluation of available data; (2) establishment of survey and test program; (3) integration and evaluation of findings; (4) establishment of pollution control and water utilization systems; and (5) specification and detailed design preparation.

R. G. Dalbke; A. J. Turk

1967-01-01

102

Towards achieving the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals: The imperative of reforming water pollution control and waste management laws in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nigeria is among the group of developing countries that have adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) blueprint as a veritable vehicle for poverty eradication, economic growth and sustainable development. However, the pollution of its surface water from discharges from domestic, industrial and agricultural waste degrading the quality of fresh water available to human needs and poor environmental sanitation cast serious

A. A. Adedeji; R. T. Ako

2009-01-01

103

Control of Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution by Natural Wetland Management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reduction of nonpoint source pollutants, principally sediment and nutrients moving from cultivated fields to surface waters, is a major challenge. Remnants of once-extensive natural wetlands occur across the agricultural landscape, and some workers have suggested that these areas might be managed t...

104

SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Based on experiments with model systems of known organic water pollutants and environmental samples, conclusions are reached concerning the best general solvent for extraction and the most appropriate methods for related manipulations. Chloroform, methylene chloride-ether mixture...

105

Water Resource Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal, published by the University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Science (IFAS) Extension, offers a selection of links to information about water management issues. There is a 'Beginner's Guide to Water Management', which provides a basic introduction to the terminology and concepts used in water management. Other links access information on management in coastal waters, the impact of climate change on water resources, the use of stormwater as an alternative supply, wastewater management, and many others.

106

Optimal dynamic management of groundwater pollutant sources.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The linear programing-superposition method is presented for managing multiple sources of groundwater pollution over time. The method uses any linear solute transport simulation model to generate a unit source-concentration response matrix that is incorporated into a management model. -from Authors

Gorelick, S.M.; Remson, I.

1982-01-01

107

A model for managing sources of groundwater pollution.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The waste disposal capacity of a groundwater system can be maximized while maintaining water quality at specified locations by using a groundwater pollutant source management model that is based upon linear programing and numerical simulation. The decision variables of the management model are solute waste disposal rates at various facilities distributed over space. A concentration response matrix is used in the management model to describe transient solute transport and is developed using the US Geological Survey solute transport simulation model. The management model was applied to a complex hypothetical groundwater system. -from Author

Gorelick, S.M.

1982-01-01

108

Water hyacinths for removal of phenols from polluted waters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Removal of phenol by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in static water was investigated. 2.75 g dry weight of this aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to absorb 100 mg of phenol per plant per 72 hours from distilled water, river water, and bayou water. One hectare of water hyacinth plants is shown to be potentially capable of removing 160 kg of phenol per 72 hours from waters polluted with this chemical.

Wolverton, B. C.

1975-01-01

109

Urbanization, Water Pollution, and Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewed in this report is a study concerned with water pollution as it relates to urbanization within the Regional Plan Association's set of 21 contiguous New York, New Jersey and Connecticut counties centered upon the numerous bay and estuarial reaches of the Port of New York and New Jersey. With a time frame covering a decade of water quality…

Carey, George W.; And Others

110

Marine pollution and management of shores; Pollutions marines et amenagement des rivages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fourteen chapters of the book are presented in three sections ; entitled description of marine pollution, oceanographic techniques in marine ; pollution studies, and prevention of marine pollution and management of shores. ; The first section discusses thermal, bacterial, radioactive, chemical and organic ; pollution. In the chapter on thermal pollution, emphasis is placed on the ; effects of

M. Aubert; J. Aubert

1973-01-01

111

USGS Water Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

USGS Water Management: The USGS provides maps, reports, and information to help others meet their needs to manage, develop, and protect America's water, energy, mineral, and land resources. Some of the seventeen topics included here are flood forecasting, reservoir management, water allocation and bioremediation.

112

Ground water microbiology and pollution control  

SciTech Connect

The importance of our ground water resources and their susceptibility to contamination from anthropogenic inputs have only recently come to be appreciated. However, studies have now established the existence of an indigenous microbial community in the ground water environment that is capable of degrading many of these contaminants. By understanding how to control the factors that limit biodegradation in the subsurface, it is often possible to stimulate this natural process to remediate polluted ground water.

Westray, M.S.; Brown, R.A.; Norris, R.D.

1985-01-01

113

Behavioural early warning responses to polluted water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural early warning responses to polluted surface water from an industrial effluent have been measured in two freshwater\\u000a macroinvertebrate species using the four electrode impedance conversion technique. Specimens ofGammarus pulex (L.) andHydropsycho angustipennis (Curtis) were caught from reference streams and exposed to water from above and below the factory and to reference water\\u000a for about 1 h with different kinds

Almut Gerhardt

1996-01-01

114

Modelling and Simulation of a Polluted Water Pumping Process  

E-print Network

Modelling and Simulation of a Polluted Water Pumping Process Chitra Alavani1 , Roland Glowinski2 concentration when a polluted water pumping ship follows a pre­assigned trajectory to remove the pollutant. We for simplicity that the density of the pollutant is smaller than the one of the sea water (so that it remains

Tradacete, Pedro

115

Farm Solutions to Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this KET video from Common Ground and Cleaner Water, Tribby Vice, a Kentucky farmer, talks about the changes he has made on his farm to protect the water quality of the stream running through his property and the watershed in which he lives.

2008-08-15

116

Lawn Water Management  

E-print Network

Water is a limited resource in Texas. This booklet explains how homeowners can establish a water management program for a home lawn that both maintains a healthy sod and also conserves water. The publication discusses soil types, grass varieties...

McAfee, James

2006-06-26

117

Spatial variation and source apportionment of water pollution in Qiantang River (China) using statistical techniques.  

PubMed

Understanding the spatial distribution and apportioning the sources of water pollution are important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this work, we considered data for 13 water quality variables collected during the year 2004 at 46 monitoring sites along the Qiantang River (China). Fuzzy comprehensive analysis categorized the data into three major pollution zones (low, moderate, and high) based on national quality standards for surface waters, China. Most sites classified as "low pollution zones" (LP) occurred in the main river channel, whereas those classified as "moderate and high pollution zones" (MP and HP, respectively) occurred in the tributaries. Factor analysis identified two potential pollution sources that explained 67% of the total variance in LP, two potential pollution sources that explained 73% of the total variance in MP, and three potential pollution sources that explained 80% of the total variance in HP. UNMIX was used to estimate contributions from identified pollution sources to each water quality variable and each monitoring site. Most water quality variables were influenced primarily by pollution due to industrial wastewater, agricultural activities and urban runoff. In LP, non-point source pollution such as agricultural runoff and urban runoff dominated; in MP and HP, mixed source pollution dominated. The pollution in the small tributaries was more serious than that in the main channel. These results provide information for developing better pollution control strategies for the Qiantang River. PMID:19944441

Huang, Fang; Wang, Xiaoquan; Lou, Liping; Zhou, Zhiqing; Wu, Jiaping

2010-03-01

118

Water quality in sustainable water management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pollution is a serious problem as almost 70% of India's surface water resources and a growing number of its groundwater reserves have been contaminated by biological, organic and inorganic pollutants. Pollu - tion of surface and groundwater resources occurs through point and diffuse sources. Examples of point source pollution are effluents from industries and from sewage-treatment plants. Typical examples

Sudhakar M. Rao; P. Mamatha

119

E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (water pollution and control). E-mail newsletter  

SciTech Connect

Topics of discussion include the following: Pollution by municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mine wastes, radioactive contaminants; Chemistry and analysis of pollutants; Thermal pollution; Oil pollution; Control techniques and equipment; Sewage treatment; Industrial waste water pretreatment; Hydrology and limnology; Biological and ecological effects; Waste water reuse; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

NONE

1999-04-01

120

Getting Research-based Information on Water and Pollutants to Those Who Need It  

E-print Network

Getting Research-based Information on Water and Pollutants to Those Who Need It By Steve Ress Becoming a one-stop shop for information on watershed management and agricultural nonpoint source pollution is a goal of the Heartland Regional Water Quality Coordination Initiative. The new initiative, developed

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

121

Water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the studies of water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. Citations examine the development, management, and protection of estuary and coastal resources. Topics include pollution sources, environmental monitoring, water chemistry, eutrophication, models, land use, government policy, and laws and regulations. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-02-01

122

Application of GIS network analysis in water pollution control of Huaihe River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huaihe River Basin is a unique region in China with high densities in both population and water projects (dams and floodgates) and is also subject to the most serious water pollution. It is a complicated water system, with a large number of tributaries, many inter-provincial rivers, and highly artificial river water control. Management of water projects regulating of river network

Yan Jiang

2011-01-01

123

Water Pollution, Environmental Science Curriculum Guide Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is a 40-day unit plan on water pollution developed, in part, from the National Science Foundation Environmental Science Institutes' Ninth Grade Environmental Science Curriculum Guide. This unit contains teacher lesson plans, suggested teacher and student modules, case studies, and activities to be developed by teachers…

McKenna, Harold J.

124

Magnetic separation in water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic separation as applied to waterborne contaminants is successful in reducing the solids content of a water sample and in removing the dissolved orthophosphate from the aqueous slurry. The contaminants are chemically associated with a magnetic seeding material, and subsequent removal of this seed sweeps the pollutants from the system. The advantage of this form of treatment over conventional techniques

CHRISTOPHER DE LATOUR

1973-01-01

125

Water Pollution Control Across the Nation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewed are accomplishments, problems, and frustrations faced by individual states in meeting requirements of P.L. 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. State Environmental officials complain the new law may be a hindrance to established cleanup programs. Statistics and charts are given. (BL)

Environmental Science and Technology, 1973

1973-01-01

126

Mathematical modeling for water pollution control processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic and steady-state mathematical models have been developed to the extent that they can be used to evaluate, through a series of simulations, design and operation alternatives as well as control strategies for any system. This book focuses on process performance models in water pollution control. Its purpose is: to establish the current status of existing models with emphasis on

T. M. Keinath; M. P. Wanielista

1975-01-01

127

Public Information for Water Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a handbook for water pollution control personnel to guide them towards a successful public relations program. This handbook was written to incorporate the latest methods of teaching basic public information techniques to the non-professional in this area. Contents include: (1) a rationale for a public information program; (2)…

Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

128

Inefficient remediation of ground-water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of trying to remove ground-water pollution by pumping and treating are pointed out. Various Superfund sites are discussed briefly. It is pointed out that many chemicals have been discarded in an undocumented manner, and their place in the groundwater is not known. Results of a remedial program to remove perchloroethylene at a concentration of 6132 parts per billion

P. Abelson

1990-01-01

129

Effects of Water Pollution on Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an inquiry activity that, while based on a local area (the San Francisco Bay), could be adapted to the teacher's/student's local area. Students perform an experiment in which they observe how water pollution is absorbed into plants. The site contains a teacher's guide and printable student worksheet.

130

Environmental impact analysis in water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for a wide?ranging environmental impact analysis to guide the establishment of water quality objectives and the associated effluent discharge standards is discussed. The particular problems associated with water pollution control are identified including: multiple and conflicting demands; multiple parameter objective specifications, the stochastic and time varying nature of the system; secondary and tertiary effects; and time?delay.Current environmental impact

Jeremy P. Lumbers

1985-01-01

131

Autonomous Water Pollution Source Tracking System Using Fish Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce water pollution source tracking system which a fish robot searches the source of water pollution or something else. To simulate and verify the possibility of water pollution source tracking system, we made small water pool (2.4*2.4m) which a fish robot pursues infrared. The model of water pollution consists of color map, LED emitting infrared and phototransistor sensing the

Daejung Shin; Seung Y. Na; Jin Y. Kim; Seong-Joon Baek; MinGyu Song; Aaron Park

132

Total Water Management - Report  

EPA Science Inventory

There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

133

Managing storm water at airports  

SciTech Connect

Airports are active facilities with numerous on-going operations at their sites. The following operations may adversely affect the water quality of nearby aquatic environments: De-icing runways; de-icing taxiways; de-icing and anti-icing aircraft; aircraft maintenance; and salt de-icer application. Until the amendments to the Clean Water Act of 1972, referred to as the Water Quality Act of 1987, were passed by Congress, the majority of storm water discharges in the US were unregulated. The Water Quality Act of 1987 was promulgated as an effort to manage the pollution resulting from storm water runoff. Many industrial facilities, especially airports, were faced with complex problems in attempting to comply with these new federal regulations. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for airports with more than 50,000 flight operations per year require periodic monitoring of receiving waters and storm sewer outfalls. The federal government has given states jurisdiction in issuing NPDES permits for storm water discharges. States may require composite or grab samples.

Halm, M.J.

1996-09-01

134

Forewarning model for water pollution risk based on Bayes theory.  

PubMed

In order to reduce the losses by water pollution, forewarning model for water pollution risk based on Bayes theory was studied. This model is built upon risk indexes in complex systems, proceeding from the whole structure and its components. In this study, the principal components analysis is used to screen out index systems. Hydrological model is employed to simulate index value according to the prediction principle. Bayes theory is adopted to obtain posterior distribution by prior distribution with sample information which can make samples' features preferably reflect and represent the totals to some extent. Forewarning level is judged on the maximum probability rule, and then local conditions for proposing management strategies that will have the effect of transforming heavy warnings to a lesser degree. This study takes Taihu Basin as an example. After forewarning model application and vertification for water pollution risk from 2000 to 2009 between the actual and simulated data, forewarning level in 2010 is given as a severe warning, which is well coincide with logistic curve. It is shown that the model is rigorous in theory with flexible method, reasonable in result with simple structure, and it has strong logic superiority and regional adaptability, providing a new way for warning water pollution risk. PMID:24194413

Zhao, Jun; Jin, Juliang; Guo, Qizhong; Chen, Yaqian; Lu, Mengxiong; Tinoco, Luis

2014-02-01

135

Impacts of soil and water pollution on food safety and health risks in China.  

PubMed

Environmental pollution and food safety are two of the most important issues of our time. Soil and water pollution, in particular, have historically impacted on food safety which represents an important threat to human health. Nowhere has that situation been more complex and challenging than in China, where a combination of pollution and an increasing food safety risk have affected a large part of the population. Water scarcity, pesticide over-application, and chemical pollutants are considered to be the most important factors impacting on food safety in China. Inadequate quantity and quality of surface water resources in China have led to the long-term use of waste-water irrigation to fulfill the water requirements for agricultural production. In some regions this has caused serious agricultural land and food pollution, especially for heavy metals. It is important, therefore, that issues threatening food safety such as combined pesticide residues and heavy metal pollution are addressed to reduce risks to human health. The increasing negative effects on food safety from water and soil pollution have put more people at risk of carcinogenic diseases, potentially contributing to 'cancer villages' which appear to correlate strongly with the main food producing areas. Currently in China, food safety policies are not integrated with soil and water pollution management policies. Here, a comprehensive map of both soil and water pollution threats to food safety in China is presented and integrated policies addressing soil and water pollution for achieving food safety are suggested to provide a holistic approach. PMID:25603422

Lu, Yonglong; Song, Shuai; Wang, Ruoshi; Liu, Zhaoyang; Meng, Jing; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Li, Hong; Luo, Wei; Wang, Tieyu

2015-04-01

136

CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS VS. RETENTION POND BMPS: MESOCOSM STUDIES FOR IMPROVED POLLUTANT MANAGEMENT IN URBAN STORMWATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Increased urbanization has increased the amount of directly connected impervious area that results in large quantities of stormwater runoff. This runoff can contribute significant amounts of debris and pollutants to receiving waters. Urban watershed managers often incorporate b...

137

MANAGEMENT OF DIFFUSE POLLUTION IN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS: LESSONS FROM THE MINNESOTA RIVER BASIN. (R825290)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract The Minnesota River (Minnesota, USA) receives large non-point source pollutant loads. Complex interactions between agricultural, state agency, environmental groups, and issues of scale make watershed management difficult. Subdividing the basin's 12 major water...

138

Receiving Water Uses, Impairments, and Sources of Stormwater Pollutants  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 2 Receiving Water Uses, Impairments, and Sources of Stormwater Pollutants "Bathing in sewage-polluted seawater carries only a negligible risk to health, even on beaches that are aesthetically) .........................................................................26 Recreation (Non-Water Contact) Uses

Pitt, Robert E.

139

POLLUTION OF WATER Blank page retained for pagination  

E-print Network

IN THE COASTAL AREA OF THE GULF OF MEXICOl Prepared in the DIVISION of WATER POLLUTION CONTROL and SHELLFISH was given by State water pollution control agcncies and shell· sh Sanitation agencies in the preparation

140

Water quality management worldwide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article analyzes water quality on a global scale. An overview of the global water supply and demand situation is presented first, including regional and country information, as well as data on selected water use patterns. The focus then shifts to a discussion of water pollution, its various causes, impact, and remedies, with emphasis on legal and administrative solutions. Water pollution control expenditures and the resultant achievements are dealt with in the final third of the article, with projections to 1995. A wide variety of published sources was dovetailed to obtain a composite picture and most likely scenario; this was supplemented with primary interviews by the author conducted in North America, Western and Eastern Europe, and Oceania at the start of the 1980s.

Gross, Andrew Charles

1986-01-01

141

Water footprint as a tool for integrated water resources management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a context where water resources are unevenly distributed and, in some regions precipitation and drought conditions are increasing, enhanced water management is a major challenge to final consumers, businesses, water resource users, water managers and policymakers in general. By linking a large range of sectors and issues, virtual water trade and water footprint analyses provide an appropriate framework to find potential solutions and contribute to a better management of water resources. The water footprint is an indicator of freshwater use that looks not only at direct water use of a consumer or producer, but also at the indirect water use. The water footprint of a product is the volume of freshwater used to produce the product, measured over the full supply chain. It is a multi-dimensional indicator, showing water consumption volumes by source and polluted volumes by type of pollution; all components of a total water footprint are specified geographically and temporally. The water footprint breaks down into three components: the blue (volume of freshwater evaporated from surface or groundwater systems), green (water volume evaporated from rainwater stored in the soil as soil moisture) and grey water footprint (the volume of polluted water associated with the production of goods and services). Closely linked to the concept of water footprint is that of virtual water trade, which represents the amount of water embedded in traded products. Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. Virtual water trade between nations and even continents could thus be used as an instrument to improve global water use efficiency and to achieve water security in water-poor regions of the world. The virtual water trade together with the water footprint concept could thus provide an appropriate framework to support more optimal water management practices by informing production and trade decisions and the development and adoption of water efficient technology. In order to move towards better water governance however a further integration of water-related concerns into water-related sectoral policies is paramount. This will require a concerted effort by all stakeholders, the willingness to adopt a total resource view where water is seen as a key, cross-sectoral input for development and growth, a mix of technical approaches, and the courage to undertake and fund water sector reforms. We are convinced that the water footprint analysis can provide a sufficiently robust fact base for meaningful stakeholder dialogue and action towards solutions.

Aldaya, Maite; Hoekstra, Arjen

2010-05-01

142

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN (RISK LEVEL 1)  

E-print Network

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN (RISK LEVEL 1) for BUILDING 90 USER TEST BED FACILITY.G., GEOLOGIST/QSD (530) 222-4339 SWPPP Preparation Date: JUNE 10, 2012 #12;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan) 222-4339 Name and Title Telephone Number #12;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan Building 90 User

Eisen, Michael

143

Water pollution control in Canada: cleanup through collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent survey indicates that Canadians are willing to pay more taxes and higher prices to solve their country's air and water pollution problems. The political pollution control organization in Canada, the development of regulations for water pollution control, municipal facility construction and treatment levels, and the challenge for the Great Lakes are discussed. Environmental problems in Canada, particularly water

Feliciano

1979-01-01

144

Implications of Metal Load Randomness for Mine Water Pollution Abatement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial and temporal variability of pollution transport from point and diffuse mine water sources (e.g. mine wastes, abandoned mine voids, contaminated groundwater) in catchments imply uncertainty in mine water pollution loads at important compliance boundaries (CB) and in cost-efficient abatement solutions for handling these loads. We use a stochastic description of total pollution loading from different possible mine water sources

C. Baresel; G. Destouni

2004-01-01

145

Setting the Course for Clean Water: A Citizen's Guide to the Section 208 Water Quality Management Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a citizen's guide to the section 208 water quality management program. Section 208 refers to that section of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (the Clean Water Act) which calls for public participation in water quality management planning. Included in this guide are chapters on controlling pollution through the Clean Water

Donley, Diane L.; Albright, Catherine

146

Ship'S Ballast Water And Marine Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of invasive marine species into new environments by ships' ballast water attached to ships' hulls and via\\u000a other vectors has been identified as one of the four greatest threats to the world's oceans. The other three are land-based\\u000a sources of marine pollution, over exploitation of living marine resources and physical alteration\\/destruction of marine habitat.\\u000a Ballast is any material

T. Satir

147

The national recreational fishing benefits of water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented of an effort to estimate the fresh water recreational fishing benefit derived from water pollution control efforts. Methodology is potentially applicable to other subcategories. (PSB)

Clifford S. Russell; William J. Vaughan

1982-01-01

148

Water Management: towards 2030  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from Agriculture21 cites the management practices and policies that will be necessary to avoid water crises in the coming three decades. There are links to information on raising water productivity, improving irrigation technology, and modernizing irrigation management. The text is available in English, French, Spanish, Arabic, and Chinese.

149

Regional Water Management: Adapting to Uncertain Water  

E-print Network

Regional Water Management: Adapting to Uncertain Water Supply and Demand Jim Schneider, Ph · How Nebraska manages water · Dealing with uncertain water supplies: adaptive management #12;Regional · Identify the basin goals and concerns · Assess the water supply and water demands · Develop

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

150

Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

Rowbotham, N.

1973-01-01

151

Sanitary landfills: Water pollution. January 1980-August 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Aug 91  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, operation, and management of sanitary landfills as related to water pollution. Topics include water pollution control, leachate analyses, site studies, environmental monitoring, and solid waste management strategies. Hazardous materials, public health, refuse disposal, and waste disposal are considered. (Contains 126 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1991-07-01

152

An application of Landsat and computer technology to potential water pollution from soil erosion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Agricultural activity has been recognized as the primary source of nonpoint source water pollution. Water quality planners have needed information that is timely, accurate, easily reproducible, and relatively inexpensive to utilize to implement 'Best Management Practices' for water quality. In this paper, a case study shows how the combination of satellite data, which can give accurate land-cover/land-use information, and a computerized geographic information system, can assess nonpoint pollution at a regional scale and be cost effective.

Campbell, W. J.

1981-01-01

153

Drainage water management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This article introduces a series of papers that report results of field studies to determine the effectiveness of drainage water management (DWM) on conserving drainage water and reducing losses of nitrogen (N) to surface waters. The series is focused on the performance of the DWM (also called contr...

154

Water Management in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water has become an issue of national security for most countries of the world, Singapore being one of them because of its dependence on imports of water from Malaysia. In order to reduce its dependence on external sources, this city–state has developed and implemented extremely efficient demand and supply management practices. In addition to imports of water and land reclamation,

Cecilia Tortajada

2006-01-01

155

Sources and Patterns of Pollutant Washoff in Urban Storm Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban storm water typically conveys a broad spectrum of pollutants that may pose ecologic and human health concerns to downstream receiving waters. Traditional storm water monitoring programs have focused on evaluation of peak flows and mean concentrations, often derived from composite samples, for a limited set of constituents. As the regulatory and management focus on storm water increases, there is an increasing need to understand the sources and temporal patterns of washoff and loading for a broad suite of pollutants. This study investigated washoff of bacteria, metals, nutrients, and organic pollutants from 24 homogenous land use sites and 10 in-river (mass emission) sites in the greater Los Angeles area. Multiple discrete samples were collected over the duration of each storm in order to generate time vs. concentration (i.e. pollutograph) curves. In addition, storms with differing rainfall intensities and antecedent dry periods were sampled to better understand seasonal patterns in washoff. Results show that pollutant runoff generally exhibits intra and inter storm variability. A "seasonal flush" was observed for some pollutants, generally related to the amount of accumulated annual rainfall. For example, PAH mass loading during early season storms was 4-7 times higher than during comparably sized late season storms. For most constituents, concentrations peaked prior to peak flows. Peak PAH concentrations in the Los Angeles River averaged 3,000 ng/L and the peak occurred approximately 5 hours prior to the peak flow. The ability to attribute pollutants to specific land use types varied by constituent. For some constituents, such as zinc and lead, concentrations varied by land-use type: Washoff form industrial land uses had mean zinc concentrations between 2.5 and 5 times higher than other developed land uses. For others, such as PAHs concentrations were similar between land uses, suggesting a consistent regional source. The increased understanding of spatial and temporal patterns of storm water runoff may aid in the development of more refined dynamic models, improved monitoring, and may be used to guide development of management practices.

Stein, E. D.; Schiff, K.; Ackerman, D.; Tiefenthaler, L.

2005-05-01

156

A Pollution Offset System for Trading NonPoint Source Water Pollution Permits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pollution from non-point sources is a global environmental concern. Economists propose tradable permit systems as a\\u000a solution, but they are difficult to implement due to the nature of non-point sources. We present a pollution offset system\\u000a for trading non-point source water pollution permits. Conventional pollution offset systems suffer from thin markets and transaction\\u000a costs. In this paper, we show

R. A. Ranga Prabodanie; John F. Raffensperger; Mark W. Milke

2010-01-01

157

Use of solar energy for disinfection of polluted water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polluted water is causing serious health problems especially in the rural areas of Pakistan. People have limited access to safe water supply and many diseases like diarrhea and gastrointestinal diseases are transmitted by consumption of polluted water. We have investigated the potential of using solar energy to pasteurize water. Low cost indigenously available materials have been utilized to design and

Y. Jamil; M. R. Ahmad; K. Ali; A. Habeeb; M. Hassan

158

Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, & Infant Mortality in India  

E-print Network

Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, environmental regulations, and infant mortality from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental ...

Greenstone, Michael

2011-07-01

159

Removal of Estrogenic Pollutants from Contaminated Water Using  

E-print Network

Removal of Estrogenic Pollutants from Contaminated Water Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Z I H concern regarding estro- genic pollutants. Many municipal wastewater treatment plants can reduce wastewater treatment plants (22-25). However

Chen, Wilfred

160

Management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China: current status and challenges.  

PubMed

Water quality in China shows an overall trend of deterioration in recent years. Nonpoint source pollution from agricultural and rural regions is the leading source of water pollution. The agricultural nonpoint source pollutants are mainly from fertilization of cropland, excessive livestock and poultry breeding and undefined disposal of daily living wastes in rural areas. Agricultural nonpoint sources contribute the main source of pollution to most watersheds in China, but they are ignored in management strategy and policy. Due to the lack of full understanding of water pollution control and management and the lack of perfect water quality standard systems and practical legislative regulations, agricultural nonpoint source pollution will become one of the biggest challenges to the sustainable development of rural areas and to society as a whole. The system for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control in China should include an appropriate legislation and policy framework, financing mechanisms, monitoring system, and technical guidelines and standards. The management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution requires multidisciplinary approaches that will involve a range of government departments, institutions and the public. PMID:16594318

Wang, Xiaoyan

2006-01-01

161

[Mineral oil drinking water pollution accident in Slavonski Brod, Croatia].  

PubMed

On 21 September 2008, heavy oil penetrated the drinking water supply in Slavonski Brod, Croatia. The accident was caused by the damage of heat exchange units in hot water supply. The system was polluted until the beginning of November, when the pipeline was treated with BIS O 2700 detergent and rinsed with water. Meanwhile, water samples were taken for chemical analysis using spectrometric and titrimetric methods and for microbiological analysis using membrane filtration and total plate count. Mineral oils were determined with infrared spectroscopy. Of the 192 samples taken for mineral oil analysis, 55 were above the maximally allowed concentration (MAC). Five samples were taken for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene analysis (BTEX), but none was above MAC. Epidemiologists conducted a survey about health symptoms among the residents affected by the accident. Thirty-six complained of symptoms such as diarrhoea, stomach cramps, vomiting, rash, eye burning, chills, and gastric disorders.This is the first reported case of drinking water pollution with mineral oil in Slavonski Brod and the accident has raised a number of issues, starting from poor water supply maintenance to glitches in the management of emergencies such as this. PMID:22202469

Medverec Kneževi?, Zvonimira; Nadih, Martina; Josipovi?, Renata; Grgi?, Ivanka; Cvitkovi?, Ante

2011-12-01

162

A Report of the Regional Monitoring Program for Water Quality in the San Francisco Estuary pollutant effects on aquatic life  

E-print Network

Program for Water Quality in the San Francisco Estuary 2011 pollutant effects on aquatic life pulse goals of Bay water quality managers is to ensure that pollutants do not interfere with the abilityA Report of the Regional Monitoring Program for Water Quality in the San Francisco Estuary

163

Loading of water and soil by pollutants in Shelby County  

SciTech Connect

Our environment is constantly being polluted by humans and animals. Pollution is increased by modern practices, such as the use of pesticides, herbicides and other chemicals. The number of household pets in the US is increasing and they add to the pollution. In a city, such as Memphis, where production of chemical compounds is relatively high, the pollution of the environment may grow worse unless concerted efforts are made to control it. This study was undertaken to indicate the possible extent of pollution of the surface soil in and near Memphis. Runoff contributes to the pollution of the waterways and their ultimate resting sites. So, water analyses are useful indicators of pollution.

Madhavan, K. (Christian Brothers Univ., Memphis, TN (USA))

1990-10-01

164

Watershed management: Clean water`s next act  

SciTech Connect

14 articles related to watershed management comprise this special advertising section of the Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies. Subtopics include water quality, regulations, US Environmental Protection Agency activities, analysis tools, economics, flooding and erosions, and non-point source pollutions. Articles on arid and coastal are included. Several articles describe municipal watershed programs being planned or in place.

Hite, R.W. [Metro Wastewater Reclamation District, Denver, CO (United States)

1996-09-23

165

Purge water management system  

DOEpatents

A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

Cardoso-Neto, Joao E. (North Augusta, SC); Williams, Daniel W. (Aiken, SC)

1996-01-01

166

Purge water management system  

DOEpatents

A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

1995-01-01

167

Water pollution in Lake Michigan by trace elements from pollution aerosol fallout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain trace elements which are strongly associated with air pollution sources in the Lake Michigan basin may be contributing significantly to lake water pollution by an atmospheric fallout route. In this paper a partial inventory of air pollution emissions for 30 trace elements is presented for the Chicago, Milwaukee, and northwest Indiana metropolitan areas, based on available published information. The

John W. Winchester; Gordon D. Nifong

1971-01-01

168

Biosensor Networks for Monitoring Water Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved water quality monitoring techniques based on biosensor, optical, microfluidic and information technologies are leading to radical changes in our ability to perceive, understand and manage the aquatic environment. There is a need for real-time environmental monitoring systems to implement and verify compliance with health and environmental legislation. To do this it is necessary to monitor a many different chemicals

David G. Rickerby; Andreas N. Skouloudis

2011-01-01

169

Conference Topic: Integrated Water Resources and Coastal Areas Management National Water Information Systems: A Tool to Support Integrated Water Resources  

E-print Network

of natural disasters; and reduced water quality due to pollution from industrial, agricultural and municipalConference Topic: Integrated Water Resources and Coastal Areas Management National Water Information Systems: A Tool to Support Integrated Water Resources Management in the Caribbean Marie-Claire St

Barthelat, Francois

170

Distributional Assumptions in Chance-Constrained Programming Models of Stochastic Water Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the water management literature both the normal and log-normal distribution are commonly used to model stochastic water\\u000a pollution. The normality assumption is usually motivated by the central limit theorem, while the log-normality assumption\\u000a is often motivated by the need to avoid the possibility of negative pollution loads. We utilize the truncated normal distribution\\u000a as an alternative to these distributions.

Mitesh Kataria; Katarina Elofsson; Berit Hasler

2010-01-01

171

Controlling Nonpoint-Source Water Pollution: A Citizen's Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Citizens can play an important role in helping their states develop pollution control programs and spurring effective efforts to deal with nonpoint-source pollution. This guide takes the reader step-by-step through the process that states must follow to comply with water quality legislation relevant to nonpoint-source pollution. Part I provides…

Hansen, Nancy Richardson; And Others

172

The Current State of Water Quality and Technology Development for Water Pollution Control in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes and presents an overview of the current state of water pollution, as well as recent progress and the potential future development of water pollution control technology, in China. Although China has made significant strides in water environmental protection over the past decades, analysis reveals that water pollution in the nation is still not sufficiently controlled, with a

Jiuhui Qu; Maohong Fan

2010-01-01

173

Water-pollution control: guidelines for project planning and financing. World Bank technical paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication provides guidelines to managers, supervisors, and others who are involved with decisions on filling needs for water-pollution-control facilities, but who may be lacking the detailed background in engineering, economics, financial management, or other applicable specialties. Political and economic planning leaders, who must provide the financial resources and overall policies, will also find the document useful in making themselves

R. C. Palange; A. Zavala

1987-01-01

174

33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...for failure to conduct ballast water management. 151.1518... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2014-07-01

175

33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for failure to conduct ballast water management. 151.1518... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2012-07-01

176

33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for failure to conduct ballast water management. 151.1518... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2013-07-01

177

33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for failure to conduct ballast water management. 151.1518... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2010-07-01

178

33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for failure to conduct ballast water management. 151.1518... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2011-07-01

179

Combining Watershed Variables with PCR-based Methods for Better Characterization and Management of Fecal Pollution in Small Streams  

EPA Science Inventory

Ability to distinguish between human and animal fecal pollution is important for risk assessment and watershed management, particularly in bodies of water used as sources of drinking water or for recreation. PCR-based methods were used to determine the source of fecal pollution ...

180

Water pollution effects of metals on fresh water fish. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning laboratory and field studies regarding effects of metals on fresh water fish. Topics include toxicity effects on fish species, bioaccumulation, fish physiology, acidification and detoxification, aquatic ecosystems, and water quality management. Environmental monitoring systems and pollution effects on food chains are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-06-01

181

Urban Water Resources Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Urban Water Resources Management Web site is maintained by the Global Development Research Center. The center "carries out initiatives in education, research and practice, in the spheres of environment, urban, community, economy and information, and at scales that are effective." The site contains information and links to topics such as understanding the importance of water; organizations and institutions; documents and information repositories; initiatives, programs, and projects; and more.

182

Nonpoint Source Pollution: Agriculture, Forestry, and Mining. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nonpoint sources of pollution have diffuse origins and are major contributors to water quality problems in both urban and rural areas. Addressed in this instructor's manual are the identification, assessment, and management of nonpoint source pollutants resulting from mining, agriculture, and forestry. The unit, part of the Working for Clean Water

Buskirk, E. Drannon, Jr.

183

Areawide planning under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972: intergovernmental and land-use implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

By 1972 Congress had recognized the impossibility of controlling water pollution without some degree of land use management. Congress subsequently amended the Federal Water Pollution Control Act by adding section 208, which creates a Federal system of areawide planning. This comment analyzes the planning responsibilities that section 208 imposed upon state and metropolitan governments, the new element of Federal control

Jungman

1977-01-01

184

Research needs and priorities: water pollution control benefits and costs. Volume II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research needs and priorities involving water pollution control costs ; and benefits are specified. A series of theoretical and methodological research ; needs are presented. Water quality management is required in a dynamic setting ; and over a broad range of hydrologic and economic conditions. The common ; property resource aspects of the problem with the prevalence of externalities ;

D. L. Jordening; J. K. Allwood

1973-01-01

185

EFFECTIVENESS OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential water quality effects and economic implications of soil and water conservation practices (SWCPs) are identified. Method for estimating the effects of SWCPs on pollutant losses from croplands are presented. Mathematical simulation and linear programming models were u...

186

WATER MARKETS AND DECENTRALIZED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its importance and the perceived inability of private sector sources to meet water demands, many countries have depended on the public sector to provide water services for their populations. Yet this has resulted in many inefficient public water projects and in inadequate supplies of good quality and reliable water. Decentralization of water management, including the use of water

K. William Easter; Robert R. Hearne

1994-01-01

187

Loading functions for assessment of water pollution from nonpoint sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for evaluating the quantity of water pollutants generated from nonpoint sources including agriculture, silviculture, construction, mining, runoff from urban areas and rural roads, and terrestrial disposal are developed and compiled for use in water quality planning. The loading functions, plus in some instances emission values, permit calculation of nonpoint source pollutants from available data and information. Natural background was

A. D. McElroy; S. Y. Chiu; J. W. Nebgen; A. Aleti; F. W. Bennett

1976-01-01

188

Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

Fowler, K. E. M.

189

Pollution-control equipment (Colombia). Water-pollution-control equipment, May 1992. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

There are few manufacturers of water pollution control equipment in Colombia. Imports of water pollution equipment decreased 14 percent from US $16.3 million in 1990 to US $14.2 million in 1991. For 1992, they may fall 5 percent to US $13.5 million due to the slow performance of the economy. The close relationship with U.S. suppliers and the possible enforcement of water quality standards could influence favorably the growth of imports within the next three years. For many years, the U.S. has been the major supplier of water pollution control equipment.

Not Available

1992-05-01

190

STORM WATER MANAGEMENT MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is a comprehensive model for analysis of quantity and quality problems associated with urban runoff. Both single-event and continuous simulation may be performed on catchments having storm sewers, combined sewers, and natural drainage, for pred...

191

Energy and Water Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Energy efficiency isn't just a good idea; it's a necessity, both for cost reasons and to meet federal regulatory requirements. First, rising energy unit costs continue to erode NASA's mission budget. NASA spent roughly $156M on facility energy in FY 2007. Although that represents less than one per cent of NASA's overall annual budget, the upward trend in energy costs concerns the agency. While NASA reduced consumption 13%, energy unit costs have risen 63%. Energy cost increases counteract the effects of energy conservation, which results in NASA buying less yet spending more. The second factor is federal energy legislation. The National Energy Conservation Policy Act, as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Executive Order (EO) 13423 (January, 2007), and the Energy Independence and Security Act (December, 2007), mandates energy/water conservation goals for all federal agencies, including NASA. There are also reporting requirements associated with this legislation. The Energy/Water Management Task was created to support NASA Headquarters Environmental Management Division (HO EMD) in meeting these requirements. With assistance from TEERM, HQ EMD compiled and submitted the NASA Annual Report to the Department of Energy FY 2007. The report contains information on how NASA is meeting federally mandated energy and water management goals. TEERM monitored input for timeliness, errors, and conformity to the new energy/water reporting guidelines and helped compile the information into the final report. TEERM also assists NASA Energy/Water Management with proposal and award calls, updates to the energy/water management database, and facilitating communication within the energy/water management community. TEERM is also supporting NASA and the Interagency Working Group (IWG) on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells. Established shortly after the President announced the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in 2003, this IWG serves as the mechanism for collaboration among the Federal agencies involved in hydrogen-related research, development, and demonstration. TEERM developed a matrix showing all Hydrogen and Fuel Cell activities from the various NASA centers to be included in the Group's extensive hydrogen research taxonomy of past, present, and future hydrogen activities of the Federal government.

Valek, Susan E.

2008-01-01

192

National Water Management Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started during the Great Depression, the National Resources Conservation Service has "provided leadership in a partnership effort to help America's private land owners and managers to conserve their soil, water, and other natural resources." One of their outreach projects includes the National Water Management Center (NWMC) website. Persons with an interest in water-related issues and resource conservation will find the site most useful, and they can use the site to learn about water resource planning, watershed assessments, water policy implementations, and other topics. On the NWMC homepage visitors can look at the right hand side of the page to learn more about their work on environmental compliance, stream restoration, and water resource partnering. Visitors won't want to miss their special "Mississippi River Basin" area. Here, they can learn about the difficult conditions facing the Basin, including the persistent low oxygen conditions which affect about 15000 square kilometers. The site also includes an "Information For" area which contains thematic resources organized specifically for engineers, watershed planners, and policy makers.

193

An Integrated Risk Management Model for Source Water Protection Areas  

PubMed Central

Watersheds are recognized as the most effective management unit for the protection of water resources. For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans. The aim of this article is to establish a risk assessment model that provides basic information for identifying critical pollutants and areas at high risk for degraded water quality. In this study, a quantitative risk model that uses hazard quotients for each water quality parameter was combined with a qualitative risk model that uses the relative risk level of potential pollution events in order to characterize the current condition and potential risk of watersheds providing drinking water. In a case study of Taipei Source Water Area in northern Taiwan, total coliforms and total phosphorus were the top two pollutants of concern. Intensive tea-growing and recreational activities around the riparian zone may contribute the greatest pollution to the watershed. Our risk assessment tool may be enhanced by developing, recording, and updating information on pollution sources in the water supply watersheds. Moreover, management authorities could use the resultant information to create watershed risk management plans. PMID:23202770

Chiueh, Pei-Te; Shang, Wei-Ting; Lo, Shang-Lien

2012-01-01

194

Assessment of Water Quality and Identification of Polluted Risky Regions Based on Field Observations & GIS in the Honghe River Watershed, China.  

PubMed

Water quality assessment at the watershed scale requires not only an investigation of water pollution and the recognition of main pollution factors, but also the identification of polluted risky regions resulted in polluted surrounding river sections. To realize this objective, we collected water samplings from 67 sampling sites in the Honghe River watershed of China with Grid GIS method to analyze six parameters including dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). Single factor pollution index and comprehensive pollution index were adopted to explore main water pollutants and evaluate water quality pollution level. Based on two evaluate methods, Geo-statistical analysis and Geographical Information System (GIS) were used to visualize the spatial pollution characteristics and identifying potential polluted risky regions. The results indicated that the general water quality in the watershed has been exposed to various pollutants, in which TP, NO2-N and TN were the main pollutants and seriously exceeded the standard of Category III. The zones of TP, TN, DO, NO2-N and NH3-N pollution covered 99.07%, 62.22%, 59.72%, 37.34% and 13.82% of the watershed respectively, and they were from medium to serious polluted. 83.27% of the watershed in total was polluted by comprehensive pollutants. These conclusions may provide useful and effective information for watershed water pollution control and management. PMID:25768942

Yan, Chang-An; Zhang, Wanchang; Zhang, Zhijie; Liu, Yuanmin; Deng, Cai; Nie, Ning

2015-01-01

195

Assessment of Water Quality and Identification of Polluted Risky Regions Based on Field Observations & GIS in the Honghe River Watershed, China  

PubMed Central

Water quality assessment at the watershed scale requires not only an investigation of water pollution and the recognition of main pollution factors, but also the identification of polluted risky regions resulted in polluted surrounding river sections. To realize this objective, we collected water samplings from 67 sampling sites in the Honghe River watershed of China with Grid GIS method to analyze six parameters including dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). Single factor pollution index and comprehensive pollution index were adopted to explore main water pollutants and evaluate water quality pollution level. Based on two evaluate methods, Geo-statistical analysis and Geographical Information System (GIS) were used to visualize the spatial pollution characteristics and identifying potential polluted risky regions. The results indicated that the general water quality in the watershed has been exposed to various pollutants, in which TP, NO2-N and TN were the main pollutants and seriously exceeded the standard of Category III. The zones of TP, TN, DO, NO2-N and NH3-N pollution covered 99.07%, 62.22%, 59.72%, 37.34% and 13.82% of the watershed respectively, and they were from medium to serious polluted. 83.27% of the watershed in total was polluted by comprehensive pollutants. These conclusions may provide useful and effective information for watershed water pollution control and management. PMID:25768942

Yan, Chang-An; Zhang, Wanchang; Zhang, Zhijie; Liu, Yuanmin; Deng, Cai; Nie, Ning

2015-01-01

196

An Innovative Partnership Approach for Environmental Management and Pollution Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A partnership between a university and a government regulatory agency sought to assist industries with pollution prevention and waste management. Economic incentives were developed to promote waste minimization. (SK)

Erten-Unal, Mujde; Aydlett, Guy M.

1997-01-01

197

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2013-04-01

198

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2014-04-01

199

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2011-04-01

200

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

2014-07-01

201

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The...requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

2013-01-01

202

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2012-04-01

203

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

2011-07-01

204

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2013-01-01

205

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

2013-07-01

206

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts...et seq. ) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

2014-10-01

207

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2010-04-01

208

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

2010-07-01

209

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The...requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

2014-01-01

210

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts...et seq. ) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

2013-10-01

211

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

2012-07-01

212

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2014-01-01

213

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2010-01-01

214

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and...et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

2012-10-01

215

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923.45...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program...established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

2010-01-01

216

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2012-01-01

217

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and...et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

2010-10-01

218

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923.45...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program...established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

2011-01-01

219

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923.45...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program...established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

2012-01-01

220

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and...et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

2011-10-01

221

Enforcement of Section 208 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 to control nonpoint source pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpoint source pollution (NPS) caused by agriculture, road building, and other activities is, while less visible than point source pollution, recognized as such a major contributor to water pollution that it must be brought under control. Section 208 is the only portion of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 to deal directly with the NPS problem. The

Wicker

1979-01-01

222

Integrated Water Management Options in the Nebraska Ground Water Management &  

E-print Network

Integrated Water Management Options in the Nebraska Ground Water Management & Protection Act by J. David Aiken UNL Water & Agricultural Law Specialist Nebraska statutes authorize natural resources districts (NRDs) and the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources (DNR) to regulate ground water and surface

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

223

Mine water pollution in Scotland: nature, extent and preventative strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scotland was one of the world's first industrialised countries, and has therefore also been one of the first countries to experience wholesale post-industrial dereliction. Water pollution arising from abandoned mines, particularly abandoned coal mines, is second only to sewage as a source of freshwater pollution nation-wide, and in many coalfield catchments it is the pre-eminent source. Most of the pollution

P. L. Younger

2001-01-01

224

Environmental economics: capital expenditures for air and water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey showed that in the period 1970-76, capital expenditures by industries and utilities for air pollution abatement of stationary sources was $19.8 billion compared with $12.9 billion for water pollution control. During the 1977-85 period, capital expenditures by industries and utilities for air pollution abatement are expected to total over $36 billion, of which $6.75 billion will be for

de la Rue

1977-01-01

225

A Review of Modelling Tools for Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive in Handling Diffuse Water Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical catchment-scale model capable of simulating diffuse water pollution is necessary in sustainable environmental\\u000a management for better implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive. This paper provides critical reviews of most popular\\u000a and free models for diffuse water modelling, with detailed sources and application potential. Based upon these reviews, further\\u000a work of selecting and testing the HSPF model was

Y. S. Yang; L. Wang

2010-01-01

226

Stable Isotope Mixing Models as a Tool for Tracking Sources of Water and Water Pollutants  

EPA Science Inventory

One goal of monitoring pollutants is to be able to trace the pollutant to its source. Here we review how mixing models using stable isotope information on water and water pollutants can help accomplish this goal. A number of elements exist in multiple stable (non-radioactive) i...

227

IMPROVED POLLUTANT MANAGEMENT IN URBAN STORMWATER BMPS  

EPA Science Inventory

Increased urbanization has resulted in a larger percentage of impervious areas that produce large quantities of stormwater runoff and contribute significant amounts of debris and pollutants (e.g., litter, oils, heavy metals, sediments, nutrients, organic matter, and microorganism...

228

Seeking More Effective Management of Freshwater Pollution  

EPA Science Inventory

The atmosphere contains airborne pollutants such as mercury, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides released from automobiles, factories, and power plants. Similarly, land surfaces such as croplands, feedlots, logged forests, construction sites, and urban land surfaces may be reserv...

229

Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation Division of Water Pollution Control  

E-print Network

Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation Division of Water Pollution Control):_________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Submit Application to: **Department of Environment and Conservation Division of Water Pollution Control

Gray, Matthew

230

Urban streets functionality as a tool for urban pollution management.  

PubMed

Pollution derived from traffic can be considered one of the major problems of modern cities. Although considerable efforts have been devoted to gathering information about pollution and its control, little attention has been paid to the analysis of relationships between pollution distribution and town planning. The existence of these relationships would enable better prediction and prevention of pollution through town planning. In this work, an analysis of one pollutant derived from traffic (urban noise) in 27 cities is presented. Non-parametric tests and ROC analyses were employed, using the equivalent sound level (L(eq)) values as the dependent variable. For the characterization of the pollutant, an alternative concept to accessibility is analyzed: the concept of functionality. Results of statistical inferential analysis showed the existence of significant differences between the sound levels of the different category results, confirming that noise is stratified in the studied cities and that the five categories proposed based in the concept of functionality highlight this noise stratification. Moreover, high sensitivity and low non-specificity were obtained by using ROC analysis. Results of this analysis also showed an overall average value of prediction capacity close to 90%. Therefore, because the proposed categories highlight the noise stratification of the studied pollutant in all the towns studied, the functionality concept can be considered an interesting tool for urban planning and for designing pollution prevention policies. Finally, as traffic is a source of other urban pollutants, the concept of functionality may be a new concept for wide environmental pollution management. PMID:23747560

Rey Gozalo, Guillermo; Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel; Gómez Escobar, Valentín

2013-09-01

231

IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF FECAL POLLUTION IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of Microbial Source Tracking (MST) methods are currently used to determine the origin of fecal pollution impacting environmental waters. MST is based on the assumption that given the appropriate method and indicator organism, the source of fecal microbial pollution can ...

232

The allocative efficiency implications of water pollution abatement cost comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessments of the efficiency of water pollution control allocations are usually based on abatement cost comparisons. The general rule is that efficiency is improved by reallocating abatement from sources with high marginal costs to low-cost sources. The welfare-theoretic foundation of this rule is well established for situations with nonstochastic emissions. In situations with stochastic emissions, pollution control involves improving the

James S. Shortle

1990-01-01

233

ALTERNATIVE POLICIES FOR CONTROLLING NONPOINT AGRICULTURAL SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This study of policies for controlling water pollution from nonpoint agricultural sources includes a survey of existing state and Federal programs, agencies, and laws directed to the control of soil erosion. Six policies representing a variety of approaches to this pollution prob...

234

Toward an effective and credible program: Water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the public demand for water pollution control remains loud, the political response has become deafening. The responsible political leadership in both parties has avoided the temptation to engage in competitive promises. But those seeking instant solutions and those whose political response has been guided by the pressure of Earth Day have created an image about the pollution problem that

Leonard B. Dworsky

1970-01-01

235

Conflict between energy conservation and water pollution control standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential conflict in national needs for both energy conservation and water pollution control is indicated. Meeting broader obligations in reconciling these apparent differences has failed. Major contributions to energy conservation efforts needed today could be made without giving up any important pollution control goals. Hopefully, state and Federal regulatory agencies soon will recognize their obligations in this respect and

Lamb

1980-01-01

236

Water pollution in Ukraine: the search for possible solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Ukraine, average and maximum concentrations of certain pollutants in inland water bodies are unacceptably high, while the number of heavy pollution accidents (one?out effluent discharges capable of causing health hazards) is increasing. Meanwhile, the transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy is associated with severe economic downturn and a marked industrial decline. However, no comprehensive analyses

Nikolai Nazarov; Hadrian F. Cook; Graham Woodgate

2004-01-01

237

Simulation of the dynamics of air and water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation of the dynamics of air and water pollution rests firmly on the diffusion equation, which in simplest form is known as Fick's second law. The problem of dispersion of solutes and suspensoids is much older than the pollution crisis, and in fact the development of the first useful solutions of the diffusion equation came in response to a need

Laurence W. Ross

1971-01-01

238

Management of an Abandoned River Channel Wetland for Mitigation of Nonpoint Source Pollution  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reduction of nonpoint source pollutants, principally sediment and nutrients moving from cultivated fields to surface waters, is a major challenge. Remnants of once-extensive natural wetlands occur across the agricultural landscape, and some workers have suggested that these areas might be managed t...

239

Mechanism of radiation purification of polluted water and wastewater.  

PubMed

The paper summarizes the results of the studies on radiation purification of polluted water and wastewater conducted in the author's laboratory in cooperation with other institutions. The removal of heavy metals (cadmium, lead, chromium and mercury) from water and wastewater, the purification of wastewater from surfactant and petroleum products, molasses distillery slops, municipal wastewater in the aerosol flow, river water from colored natural organic pollutants, wastewater of dyeing complex and paper mill, the decomposition of some dyes, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine-containing organic compounds, formic acid, etc. were investigated in detail. As a rule, electron-beam treatment in combination with ordinary methods (biological, coagulation, adsorption, flotation, etc.) was used. The main attention is paid to the mechanism of purification of the studied systems. The role of redox reactions of primary products of water radiolysis and secondary short-lived species formed from pollutants, formation of precipitates capturing the pollutants etc. is discussed. PMID:11695450

Pikaev, A K

2001-01-01

240

Assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote measurement of chlorophyll concentrations to determine extent of water pollution is discussed. Construction and operation of radiometer to provide measurement capability are explained. Diagram of equipment is provided.

Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

1972-01-01

241

Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen  

E-print Network

information, we are confident that: (1) nonpoint pollution of surface waters with P and N could be reduced by reducing surplus nutrient flows in agricultural systems and processes, reducing agricultural and urban runoff by diverse methods, and reducing N...

Carpenter, S. R.; Caraco, N. F.; Correll, D. L.; Howarth, R. W.; Sharpley, A. N.; Smith, Val H.

1998-08-01

242

NONPOINT POLLUTION OF SURFACE WATERS WITH PHOSPHORUS AND NITROGEN  

E-print Network

to downstream aquatic ecosystems, and which can also volatilize to the atmosphere, redepositing elsewhere and eventually reaching aquatic ecosystems. If current practices continue, nonpoint pollution of surface waters is virtually certain to increase...

Carpenter, Stephen R.; Caraco, Nina F. M.; Correll, David L.; Howarth, Robert W.; Sharpley, Andrew N.; Smith, Val H.

1998-01-01

243

Recruitment and Employment of the Water Pollution Control Specialist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are the basic principles of personnel recruitment and employment for the water pollution control field. Attention is given to determination of staffing requirements, effective planning, labor sources, affirmative action, and staffing policies. (CS)

Sherrard, J. H.; Sherrard, F. A.

1979-01-01

244

A Philosophy of Water Pollution Control--Past and Present.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview of water pollution control in the U.S. is given, leading to an analysis of present policy trends. A "rational environmental program" is called for to provide economic growth and environmental quality. (MDR)

Schroeffer, George J.

1978-01-01

245

Outbreak of Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome occurred in the third week of a diarrhoea epidemic caused by water pollution in EL-Sult, Jordan. Of 30 000 people exposed to polluted water, 5000 developed diarrhoea, 74 typhoid, and 30 infectious hepatitis. Thirteen of the 16 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had been mildly affected by diarrhoea 8-24 days before the onset of peripheral neuropathy.

N A Sliman

1978-01-01

246

Energy requirements for industrial water pollution control. a perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of available information on energy requirements (ER) for industrial air and water pollution control to meet the existing U.S. Legislation (e.g., the Public Law 92-500) includes estimates of the ER by sector (industry, powerplants, and municipal wastes), by pollutant type (water, sulfur oxides, particulates, and thermal wastes), and by industry for 1977-1983, showing the relative importance of the

Serth

1978-01-01

247

Consequences of Decentralization: Environmental Impact Assessment and Water Pollution Control in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

After having been one of the most centralized states in the world for more than thirty years, in 2001 Indonesia introduced a sweeping program of decentralization with important consequences for the management of the industrial sector. This article explores whether the decentralization process has led to substantial changes in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and enforcement of water pollution law. Its

ADRIAAN BEDNER

2010-01-01

248

ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS FOR NONPOINT SOURCE WATER POLLUTION: OPTIONS FOR THE SWAN-CANNING RIVER SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of nonpoint source water pollution presents an immense challenge to economists and policy makers alike. A complex array of physical, economic, political and institutional barriers lie between theoretically appealing textbook prescriptions and their transition into successful real-world solutions. Underlying beliefs about property rights, interest group politics and the transaction costs associated with designing and implementing successful measures have

Simon Gordon

2003-01-01

249

Water pollution in the USSR and other Eastern European countries*  

PubMed Central

The condition of water bodies and measures taken to prevent their pollution in the USSR, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Bulgaria and Romania are the main subjects of this paper. For each of these countries information is given on population and area, physical features, rain-fall and rivers, the distribution of population and industry, water supply and sewerage, the condition of surface and ground waters, the authorities and legislation concerned with the protection of water resources, and research on pollution. The author draws attention to the experience gained in these countries in the setting up of special State bodies to take charge of water resources and in classifying rivers according to the uses to which they are put, a factor which determines the regulations governing the discharge of effluent into them. A plea is also made for the convening of specialized international conferences on problems connected with the protection of European water resources from pollution. PMID:14465925

Litvinov, N.

1962-01-01

250

Development and application of a water pollution emergency response system for the Three Gorges Reservoir in the Yangtze River, China.  

PubMed

There are many watercraft and production accidents in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) of the Yangtze River in China every year. Accidents threaten the water quality of the 1085 km2 surface area of the TGRA and millions of local people if oil and chemical leakage were to occur. A water pollution management system for emergency response (WPMS_ER) was therefore designed for the management of pollution in this area. An integrated geographic information system (GIS)-based water pollution management information system for the TGRA, called WPMS_ER_TGRA, was developed in this study. ArcGIS engine was used as the system development platform, and Visual Basic as the programming language. The models for hydraulic and water quality simulation and the generation of body-fitted coordinates were developed and programmed as a dynamically linked library file using Visual Basic, and they can be launched by other computer programs. Subsequently, the GIS-based information system was applied to the emergency water pollution management of a shipwreck releasing 10 tons of phenol into the Yangtze River during two hours. The results showed that WPMS_ER_TGRA can assist with emergency water pollution management and simulate the transfer and diffusion of accidental pollutants in the river. Furthermore, it can quickly identify the affected area and how it will change over time within a few minutes of an accident occurring. PMID:21793401

He, Qiang; Peng, Shujuan; Zhai, Jun; Xiao, Haiwen

2011-01-01

251

Water quality . . . potential sources of pollution  

USGS Publications Warehouse

What is water quality? To most students, water quality may suggest only "clean" water for drinking, swimming, and fishing. But to the farmer or manufacturer, water quality may have an entirely different meaning. One of the most important issues concerning the quality of water is how that water will be used. Water that is perfectly fine for irrigation might not be suitable for drinking or swimming.

Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank, (artist)

1996-01-01

252

Science, Pollution, and Clean Drinking Water: Choosing Between Tap Water, Bottled Water, and Home Purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focusing on the recent explosion in the use of bottled water, this article—originally written for my NASTS conference presentation—will examine the rhetoric used by the bottled water industry and home purification system providers to affect the public’s idea of clean, pure, dirty, and polluted water. Bottlers argue that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides better regulation of bottled water

Franz Foltz

1999-01-01

253

Indoor Air Pollution: An Energy Management Problem?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy conservation measures have led to airtight buildings and reduced levels of ventilation resulting in indoor air pollution. Five kinds of contaminants--tobacco smoke, combustion products, microorganisms, organic compounds, and radon--are described, their hazards considered, and countermeasures outlined. (MLF)

Cousins, David M.; Kulba, John W.

1987-01-01

254

Irrigation management under water scarcity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of water for agricultural production in water scarcity regions requires innovative and sustainable research, and an appropriate transfer of technologies. This paper discusses some of these aspects, mainly relative to on-farm irrigation management including the use of treated wastewater and saline waters. First, the paper proposes some concepts relative to water scarcity, concerning aridity, drought, desertification and water

Luis Santos Pereira; Theib Oweis; Abdelaziz Zairi

2002-01-01

255

Environmental factors influencing isolation of enteroviruses from polluted surface waters.  

PubMed

The influence of water quality upon the concentration of virus on location was assessed in field studies conducted in the Houston ship channel, Galveston Bay, and Houston waste treatment plants. Clarification of polluted surface waters was accomplished with minimal loss of virus. Virus from clarified sewage effluents and saline waters was then adsorbed and concentrated on textile and membrane filter surfaces. Direct measurements of virus from large volumes of polluted surface waters under existing field conditions were then made using the virus concentrator equipment. PMID:4364463

Metcalf, T G; Wallis, C; Melnick, J L

1974-05-01

256

Water management tools for Mississippi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our goal is to equip crop producers in the Southeast with tools to improve crop production and management including: • Knowledge of crop and soil water relations • Irrigation scheduling tools for better water management, and • Economic benefits of water conservation technologies Crop performance can...

257

The sources, impact and management of car park runoff pollution: a review.  

PubMed

Traffic emissions contribute significantly to the build-up of diffuse pollution loads on urban surfaces with their subsequent mobilisation and direct discharge posing problems for receiving water quality. This review focuses on the impact and mitigation of solids, metals, nutrients and organic pollutants in the runoff deriving from car parks. Variabilities in the discharged pollutant levels and in the potentials for pollutant mitigation complicate an impact assessment of car park runoff. The different available stormwater best management practices and proprietary devices are reported to be capable of reductions of between 20% and almost 100% for both suspended solids and a range of metals. This review contributes to prioritising the treatment options which can achieve the appropriate pollutant reductions whilst conforming to the site requirements of a typical car park. By applying different treatment scenarios to the runoff from a hypothetical car park, it is shown that optimal performance, in terms of ecological benefits for the receiving water, can be achieved using a treatment train incorporating permeable paving and bioretention systems. The review identifies existing research gaps and emphasises the pertinent management practices as well as design issues which are relevant to the mitigation of car park pollution. PMID:25214073

Revitt, D Michael; Lundy, Lian; Coulon, Frédéric; Fairley, Martin

2014-12-15

258

Water pollution caused by tourism development in the Lijiang Ancient Town, Yunnan Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pollution caused by tourism development not only occurs in water-scarce areas but also exists in the areas where water resource is relatively abundant. In this paper, the relationship between water pollution and tourism development in the Lijiang Ancient Town was discussed because there were no industrial or agricultural pollutant sources except the tourism pollution. Meanwhile, questionnaires survey was adopted

Baoying Ning; Yuanqing He

2011-01-01

259

Role of water reuse for enhancing integrated water management in Europe and Mediterranean countries.  

PubMed

Recycling water is an important aspect of water resource and environment management policies, ensuring reliable alternative water resources, reducing environmental pollution and achieving a more sustainable form of development. This paper focuses on wastewater reuse as a strategy for integrated water management. Key economic, financial, regulatory, social and technical factors that help to make water reuse projects successful are reviewed. Selected examples from Northern and Western Europe and arid and semi-arid Mediterranean regions illustrate the contribution of wastewater reuse to integrated management of water resources. PMID:11436789

Lazarova, V; Levine, B; Sack, J; Cirelli, G; Jeffrey, P; Muntau, H; Salgot, M; Brissaud, F

2001-01-01

260

Knowledge-Based System for River Water Quality Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aim at demonstrating the use of knowledge-based system to assess the water quality of the river and identify the potential sources as well as recommending the remedial measures to be taken to minimize the river pollution. A prototype of the expert system for managing water quality was developed under the Microsoft Visual Basic environment. The prototype of the

Pauziah Hanum Abdul Ghani; Mohd Kamil Yusoff; Latifah Abd

261

IPWM: AN INTERVAL PARAMETER WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an interval parameter water quality management (IPWM) model and its application to a case study of water pollution control planning within an agricultural system. The model allows uncertain information, presented as interval numbers, to be effectively communicated into the optimization process and resulting solutions, such that decision alternatives can be generated through interpretation of the solutions (presented

G. H. HUANG

1996-01-01

262

Center for Water Resources Research Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

in assessing the susceptibility of surface water supplies to pollution from current and future activities, Hydrology, Models Descriptors: Drinking Water, Source Water, Pollution Sources, Watershed Management Supply Descriptors: Drinking water, source water, pollution sources, watershed management Primary PI

263

Model of collective cooperation and reallocation of benefits related to conflicts over water pollution across regional boundaries in a Chinese river basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serious transboundary conflicts over water pollution commonly arise from the environmental management of Chinese river basins adopting the current model of proportional share of pollution reduction (MPSPR). This paper discusses problems with the current MPSPR and then proposes a new model. Based on four assumptions, including the assumption that pollutant discharge or transfer within the river basin is highly controlled

Laijun Zhao

2009-01-01

264

Rivers water quality monitoring modeling and simulation of pollutants propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid environmental changes as well as potential risks for the human health call for water quality continuous surveillance and on-line decision making. Information and communication technologies can be valuable in these areas. In this paper we present an intelligent system for water quality assessment. Some models used for pollutants propagation, the system architecture, the functional description, the distributed acquisition subsystems

I. Stoian; G. Ungureanu; M. Mircea; Z. Moldovan; M. V. Cristea; A. Imre

2008-01-01

265

Identification and Control of Pollution from Salt Water Intrusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains informational guidelines for identifying and evaluating the nature and extent of pollution from salt water intrusion. The intent of these guidelines is to provide a basic framework for assessing salt water intrusion problems and their relationship to the total hydrologic system, and to provide assistance in developing…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

266

Team Approaches for Agricultural Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpoint source water pollution, primarily from agricultural sources, is a major cause of water quality impairment. Uncertainty and asymmetric information are the key regulatory difficulties in the control of agricultural NPSP. The main target of this study is to describe a potential incentive scheme that can be applied in limited information situations. Team contracts built upon principal-agent theory are proposed.

Zou Jiliang; Yuan Yongkang

2009-01-01

267

Water pollution control: the case for local control and accountability  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a time when substantial changes are taking place, or are proposed, in the organizational structure for preventing water pollution in Scotland, the paper makes the case for maintaining the status quo. The Scottish system relies on 10 independent river purification authorities comprising elected and appointed members, with considerable freedom to set water quality objectives and standards in light of

David W. Mackay

1993-01-01

268

River Pollution: Part II. Biological Methods for Assessing Water Quality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses methods used in the biological assessment of river quality and such indicators of clean and polluted waters as the Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score System, and species diversity indexes. Includes a summary of a river classification scheme based on quality criteria related to water use. (JN)

Openshaw, Peter

1984-01-01

269

WASTE MANAGEMENT, ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE AND POLLUTION PREVENTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Management and Environmental Compliance Group within the Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is responsible for managing all waste generated in NMT facilities from operations with, or that support, actinide processing. These operations result in the generation of a variety of waste forms, from sanitary and salvage to radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste.

James J. Balkey; Ronald E. Wieneke

2000-01-01

270

A modeling approach to evaluate the impacts of water quality management plans implemented in a watershed in Texas  

E-print Network

of polluted water bodies, the United States * Corresponding author. Tel.: C1 2547746000; fax: C1 2547746001. E water quality standards, allocates pollution control responsibilities among pollution sourcesA modeling approach to evaluate the impacts of water quality management plans implemented

271

Temporal trend and source apportionment of water pollution in different functional zones of Qiantang River, China.  

PubMed

The increasingly serious river water pollution in developing countries poses great threat to environmental health and human welfare. The assignment of river function to specific uses, known as zoning, is a useful tool to reveal variations of water environmental adaptability to human impact. Therefore, characterizing the temporal trend and identifying responsible pollution sources in different functional zones could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river water environment. The aim of this study is to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal trends and sources of water pollution in different functional zones with a case study of the Qiantang River, China. Measurement data were obtained and pretreated for 13 variables from 41 monitoring sites in four categories of functional zones during the period 1996-2004. An exploratory approach, which combines smoothing and non-parametric statistical tests, was applied to characterize trends of four significant parameters (permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen, total cadmium and fluoride) accounting for differences among different functional zones identified by discriminant analysis. Aided by GIS, yearly pollution index (PI) for each monitoring site was further mapped to compare the within-group variations in temporal dynamics for different functional zones. Rotated principal component analysis and receptor model (absolute principle component score-multiple linear regression, APCS-MLR) revealed that potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions varied among the four functional zones. Variations of APCS values for each site of one functional zone as well as their annual average values highlighted the uncertainties associated with cross space-time effects in source apportionment. All these results reinforce the notion that the concept of zoning should be taken seriously in water pollution control. Being applicable to other rivers, the framework of management-oriented source apportionment is thus believed to have potentials to offer new insights into water management and advance the source apportionment framework as an operational basis for national and local governments. PMID:21147494

Su, Shiliang; Li, Dan; Zhang, Qi; Xiao, Rui; Huang, Fang; Wu, Jiaping

2011-02-01

272

Photochemical Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Liquid Water and Ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic snow and ice play an important role as reactive media in the environment. A variety of species are photochemically generated from snow/ice, including carbonyl compounds, alkyl halides, molecular halogens, and nitrogen oxides. However, the fate of anthropogenic organic pollutants in snow and ice is largely unknown. Volatile pollutants evaporate from lower, warmer latitudes and condense out in the higher, colder latitudes by a process known as global distillation, leading to enhanced concentrations of a variety of pollutants in polar regions. Here we present recent results of photochemical degradation studies of several important organic pollutants including aldrin, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, and 3,3',4,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl. Direct and indirect (with H2O2) pathways were studied in both liquid water and ice forms. Aldrin and 3,3',4,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl have shown the most reactivity, both degrading significantly via the direct and indirect pathway in liquid water and ice. Dieldrin has shown reactivity under both direct and indirect liquid conditions, while HCB is only reactive under indirect liquid conditions. These results indicate that ice can serve as an important reactive surface for anthropogenic organic pollutants. Snow/ice photochemistry should be included in models of pollutant fate, but further studies are necessary to determine which pollutants are most affected by ice photochemistry under typical environmental conditions.

Sprenkle, A. M.; Grannas, A. M.

2006-12-01

273

Pollution of Natural Waters 1. Redox chemistry  

E-print Network

on pH since Q r often dependent on pH 2. Redox potential in natural waters #15; Can be viewed concentration drops rapidly #15; Partitioning of lakes: euphotic and \\deep water" zones { Stabilized by thermal

Schofield, Jeremy

274

On the scope and management of pesticide pollution of Swedish groundwater resources: The Scanian example.  

PubMed

Twenty-three south-Swedish public supply wells were studied to assess pesticide pollution of regional groundwater resources. Relations between pesticide occurrence, hydrogeology, and land use were analyzed using Kohonen's Self-Organizing Maps approach. Pesticides are demonstrated to be substantially present in regional groundwater, with detections in 18 wells. Concentrations above the drinking water threshold are confirmed for nine wells. Observations indicate considerable urban influence, and lagged effects of past, less restricted use. Modern, oxic waters from shallow, unconfined, unconsolidated or fracture-type bedrock aquifers appear particularly vulnerable. Least affected waters appear primarily associated with deeper wells, anoxic conditions, and more confined sediment aquifers lacking urban influence. Comprehensive, standardized monitoring of pesticides in groundwater need to be implemented nationwide to enable sound assessments of pollution status and trends, and to develop sound groundwater management plans in accordance with the Water Framework Directive. Further, existing water protection areas and associated regulations need to be reassessed. PMID:25168463

Åkesson, Maria; Sparrenbom, Charlotte J; Dahlqvist, Peter; Fraser, Stephen J

2015-04-01

275

Pollution prevention for industrial water/wastewater facilities  

SciTech Connect

In the world of environmental engineering, a popular phrase is pollution prevention. Real pollution prevention requires implementation of real projects. This presentation addresses the subject of converting environmental liabilities into opportunities in the areas of water and wastewater treatment. The authors cite three specific examples of real projects, two of which are for the steel industry and the third from the automobile manufacturing industry. All of these projects have common traits: they all represent real pollution prevention and they all entail real quantifiable net savings contrasted with the status quo. They also tend to be motivated both by economics and by environmental compliance.

Duckett, E.J.

1999-07-01

276

Influence on shallow ground water by nitrogen in polluted river  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of the research is to discuss the influence on ground water by NH4-N in polluted river and river bed. In the lab-scale experiment three kinds of natural sand were chosen as infiltration medium,\\u000a and polluted rivers were simulated by domestic sewage, after 10-month sand column test it was found that NH4-N came to adsorption saturation on the

Zhi-ping Li; Lian-hai Cao; Xiao-gang Chen; Zhao-li Shen; Zuo-shen Zhong

2008-01-01

277

Water Pollution Control: Lessons from Transnational Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is fundamental to life, as reflected in space scientists' compulsive search for signs of its presence when scrutinizing other planets for possible life forms. Fortunately for our species, more than two-thirds of our planet is covered with water, creating an environment richly conducive to life. Humans have just begun to appreciate how precious earth's water resources are and how

Robert V. Percival

1998-01-01

278

Magnitude of pollution indicator organisms in rural potable water.  

PubMed

A total of 460 water samples were randomly drawn from the potable water supply sources of rural communities in three counties of South Carolina. About 10% of the population, not incorporated in municipalities, was sampled. The samples were tested for total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci. Significant levels of these pollution indicator organisms were detected in almost all the water supplies. Total coliforms were the most common, and only 7.5% of the water supplies were uncontaminated. E. coli, considered a reliable indicator of recent and dangerous pollution, was observed in 43% of the water supplies. Statistical analyses indicated that the bacterial populations, especially E. coli, were associated with the supply source depth and its distance from the septic tank. Total coliform counts were also weakly correlated to the pH of the water. PMID:36849

Sandhu, S S; Warren, W J; Nelson, P

1979-04-01

279

Managing & protecting our water resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of factors have an impact on the quantity and quality of freshwater, particularly global population growth and economic development. In the U.S., the electric utility industry is a large consumer of water resources. Understanding the factors which affect water resource management is important for sustainable development as well as ecosystem management. The effects of past and anticipated legislation

S. Peck

1996-01-01

280

Can control of soil erosion mitigate water pollution by sediments?  

PubMed

The detrimental impact of sediment and associated pollutants on water quality is widely acknowledged, with many watercourses in the UK failing to meet the standard of 'good ecological status'. Catchment sediment budgets show that hill slope erosion processes can be significant sources of waterborne sediment, with rates of erosion likely to increase given predicted future weather patterns. However, linking on-site erosion rates with off-site impacts is complicated because of the limited data on soil erosion rates in the UK and the dynamic nature of the source-pathway-receptor continuum over space and time. Even so, soil erosion control measures are designed to reduce sediment production (source) and mobilisation/transport (pathway) on hill slopes, with consequent mitigation of pollution incidents in watercourses (receptors). The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific evidence of the effectiveness of erosion control measures used in the UK to reduce sediment loads of hill slope origin in watercourses. Although over 73 soil erosion mitigation measures have been identified from the literature, empirical data on erosion control effectiveness are limited. Baseline comparisons for the 18 measures where data do exist reveal erosion control effectiveness is highly variable over time and between study locations. Given the limitations of the evidence base in terms of geographical coverage and duration of monitoring, performance of the different measures cannot be extrapolated to other areas. This uncertainty in effectiveness has implications for implementing erosion/sediment risk reduction policies, where quantified targets are stipulated, as is the case in the EU Freshwater Fish and draft Soil Framework Directives. Also, demonstrating technical effectiveness of erosion control measures alone will not encourage uptake by land managers: quantifying the costs and benefits of adopting erosion mitigation is equally important, but these are uncertain and difficult to express in monetary terms. PMID:23815978

Rickson, R J

2014-01-15

281

Water-Quality Trading: Can We Get the Price of Pollution Right?1  

E-print Network

Water-Quality Trading: Can We Get the Price of Pollution Right?1 Yoshifumi Konishi Faculty for pollution can work for air. Should they not work for water pollution too? The U.S. Environmental Protection known (Mauzerall et al., 2005). Spatial dependence is likely even more prominent for water pollution

Weiblen, George D

282

MERCURY SEPARATION FROM POLLUTANT WATER USING ZEOLITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water has been examined at room temperature. Experiments have...

283

Needed: Clean Water. Problems of Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet utilizes illustrations and captions to indicate the demands currently made on our water resources and the problems associated with that demand. Current and future solutions are described with suggestions for personal conservation efforts to help provide enough clean water for everyone in the future. (CS)

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

284

Policy and Advice for Promoting Pollution Prevention and Cure of Water Environment in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1980s, Chinese water environment has got worse and worse, and water pollution extended from local pollution to total watershed pollution. From the Ninth Five-Year Plan, the government recognized the seriousness of water pollution, and put the core of the prevention and cure of water pollution in Three Rivers and Three Lakes, e.i. Huaihe River, Haihe River, Liaohe River,

Liu Muxing

2010-01-01

285

Pollution prevention: Avoiding the need to manage wastes  

SciTech Connect

Today`s industrial processes generate many types of waste products that constitute risks to human health and the surrounding environment. While proper waste management procedures can lower this risk, prevention of the waste`s generation will eliminate the risk. For this reason, the United States has established pollution prevention as a national objective, through the passage of its Pollution Prevention Act of 1990. Pollution prevention involves a wide range of approaches, all with the same objective: to reduce or eliminate the creation of waste at its source in other words, within the process that generates it. This objective, so beneficial to the environment, also coincides with industrial economic interests. Pollution prevention measures and greater process efficiency go hand in hand, and typically result in lower operating costs as well as greatly reduced waste management expenses. The US Environmental Protection Agency defines pollution prevention as the maximum feasible reduction of all wastes generated at production sites. This objective is accomplished largely through source reduction and reuse of input materials during production.

Meltzer, M.

1993-12-01

286

A Comparison of Erosion and Water Pollution Control Strategies for an Agricultural Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness and efficiency of two erosion control strategies and one water pollution control (riparian) strategy are compared for Idaho's Tom Beall watershed. Erosion control strategies maximize annualized net returns per hectare on each field and restrict field erosion rates to no more than 11.2 or 16.8 tons per hectare. The riparian strategy uses good vegetative cover on all fields adjacent to the creek and in noncropland areas and the resource management system that maximizes annualized net returns per hectare on remaining fields. The Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution model is used to simulate the levels and concentrations of sediment, nitrogen, phosphorus, and chemical oxygen demand at the outlet of the watershed. Erosion control strategies generate less total erosion and water pollution but are less efficient than the riparian strategy. The riparian strategy is less equitable for farmers than the erosion control strategies.

Prato, Tony; Shi, Hongqi

1990-02-01

287

Southwest Florida Water Management District  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Southwest Florida Water Management District is to manage the water and water-related resources within its boundaries. Central to the mission is maintaining the balance between the water needs of current and future users while protecting and maintaining the natural systems that provide the District with its existing and future water supply. The website includes an Information and Education page, which offers activities, newsletters, virtual field trips, and other resources for K-12 students and teachers. Also provided on the site are various datasets, brochures, publications, reports, textual references and links.

288

MANAGING EXPOSURE TO INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS IN RESIDENTIAL AND OFFICE ENVIRONMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the factors to be considered in managing indoor air pollutants in residential and office environments to reduce occupant exposures. Techniques for managing indoor air pollution sources include: source elimination, substitution, modification, and pretreatment a...

289

Water management under drought conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low rainfall over the past few years highlighted the need for a systematic and comprehensive approach for the proper and effective management of the water resources of the island of Cyprus. It is evident that due to population, agriculture and industry growth the demand for water has increased significantly and since traditional water sources cannot meet the demand, the production

C. N. Charalambous

2001-01-01

290

[Water pollution, self-purification and restoration possibilities].  

PubMed

Organic pollution is still the most important anthropogenic stress factor influencing the usability of ground and surface water as drinking water for cattle. Organic pollution is decomposed in several distinct heterotrophic processes that cause oxygen deficit, and finally end in the production of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide or methane. Even after the oxygen balance being restored higher nutrient concentrations (eutrophication) will remain. Eutrophication itself often leads to secondary pollution processes that adversely affect oxygen availability. Toxins may be generated by certain bluegreen bacteria growing under highly eutrophic conditions. Due to the concentrations of organic substances bacterial growth is forced, sometimes including faecal indicators and pathogenic species originating from the effluents of most of the communal sewage treatment works. Another kind of man made pollution concerns certain toxic substances. Disregarding the effects of accidental spills, the industrial production and use of pesticides in agriculture as well as other industrial chemicals or heavy metals may cause concentrations beyond acceptable limits. The use of surface water for cattle may become a problem for this reason. Accidental spills must be reckoned with as well, so the technical equipment for providing alternative sources of drinking water in emergencies must be available. Whereas the use of groundwater is normally not affected by toxic substance or pathogenic bacteria, high concentrations of iron, humic acids or salination may affect the suitability of water for cattle. PMID:11036788

Herbst, V

2000-08-01

291

VOLATILIZATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS FROM WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The volatilization of organic environmental contaminants from water bodies to the atmosphere was investigated. The general aim was to elucidate the factors that control the volatilization process and develop predictive methods for calculating volatilization rates for various comp...

292

Enhancement of integrated water management and water reuse in Europe and the Middle East  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal wastewater reuse, reclamation and recycling are essential to the development of sound water and environment management policies. In arid and semi-arid regions, wastewater reuse is a vital component of their development ensuring alternative water resources, sustainability, reduction of the environmental pollution and health protection. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the role of wastewater

V. Lazarova; G. Cirelli; P. Jeffrey; M. Salgot; N. Icekson; F. Brissaud

293

Pollution of drinking water with nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main sources of nitrate in man are food and drinking water. The legislature in West Germany intends to lower the permitted level of nitrate in drinking water from the present 90 mg\\/l to 50 mg\\/l in 1982. The European Community has issued a directive that recommends a level of only 25 mg\\/l, and for babies 10 mg\\/l nitrate should

B. Cabel; R. Kozicki; U. Lahl; A. Podbielshi; B. Stachel; S. Struss

1982-01-01

294

Institutional instruments for water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the articulation of policies in the interface between economic production and water quality. One problem\\u000a is the introduction, at this production-ecologic interface, of unwanted water-borne residuals by firms and municipalities.\\u000a The policy objective is to absorb the social cost of environmental degradation into the production function within the two\\u000a constraints of efficiency in the allocation of

A. P. Grima

1981-01-01

295

Managing Multimedia Pollution for a Multimedia World  

EPA Science Inventory

Through modest attention to the information highway we ride upon each day, we are increasingly aware of the intent, actions, and reactions of local, state and Federal governments, regional compacts, and international organizations to protect the quality of the water we drink, th...

296

Indoor pollution and burning practices in wood stove management.  

PubMed

This study evaluates effects of good burning practice and correct installation and management of wood heaters on indoor air pollution in an Italian rural area. The same study attests the role of education in mitigating wood smoke pollution. In August 2007 and winters of 2007 and 2008, in a little mountain village of Liguria Apennines (Italy), indoor and outdoor benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) concentrations were measured in nine wood-heated houses. During the first sampling, several mistakes in heating plant installations and management were found in all houses. Indoor BTEX concentrations increased during use of wood burning. Low toluene/benzene ratios were in agreement with wood smoke as main indoor and outdoor pollution source. Other BTEX sources were identified as the indoor use ofsolvents andpaints and incense burning. Results obtained during 2007 were presented and discussed with homeowners. Following this preventive intervention, in the second winter sampling all indoor BTEX concentrations decreased, in spite of the colder outdoor air temperatures. Information provided to families has induced the adoption of effective good practices in stoves and fire management. These results highlight the importance ofeducation, supported by reliable data on air pollution, as an effective method to reduce wood smoke exposures. PMID:25509552

Piccardo, M T; Cipolla, M; Stella, A; Ceppi, M; Bruzzone, M; Izzotti, A; Valerio, F

2014-11-01

297

Water pollution control in river basin by interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective programming  

SciTech Connect

The potential conflict between protection of water quality and economic development by different uses of land within river basins is a common problem in regional planning. Many studies have applied multiobjective decision analysis under uncertainty to problems of this kind. This paper presents the interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming (IFIMOMIP) model to evaluate optimal strategies of wastewater treatment levels within a river system by considering the uncertainties in decision analysis. The interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming approach is illustrated in a case study for the evaluation of optimal wastewater treatment strategies for water pollution control in a river basin. In particular, it demonstrates how different types of uncertainty in a water pollution control system can be quantified and combined through the use of interval numbers and membership functions. The results indicate that such an approach is useful for handling system complexity and generating more flexible policies for water quality management in river basins.

Chang, N.B.; Chen, H.W. [National Cheng-Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Shaw, D.G.; Yang, C.H. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Economics

1997-12-01

298

Water Pollution Detection by Reflectance Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement of the intensity of light reflected from various planar liquid surfaces has been performed. The results of this brief study show that the presence of a film of foreign material floating on a reference substrate is easily detected by reflectance measurement if the two liquids possess significantly different refractive indices, for example, oil (n = 1.40) and water (n = 1.33). Additional study of various optical configurations, and the building and testing of a prototype monitoring device revealed that the method is sufficiently practical for application to continuous water quality monitoring.

Goolsby, A. D.

1971-01-01

299

Outsource water/wastewater management  

SciTech Connect

For some operating facilities, outsourcing water/wastewater management offers an economical way to receive and use high-quality water and maintain effluent treatment services. As high-volume water users, hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) companies daily use, consume and discard large quantities of water and wastewater. To remain competitive and to reduce daily operating costs, HPI companies have farmed out services. Water management is a possible plant function that can be administrated by a third party. Outsourcing the utilities area allows operators to focus and allocate resources on their core profit-generating products. It is an opportunity to try new technologies without risking capital. Before signing the contract, facilities should carefully scrutinize the benefits--financial, environmental, etc.--and actual costs from outsourcing their water management.

Tedesco, J.A. [BetzDearborn Water Management Group, Horsham, PA (United States); Cichon, E.J. [Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., Wakefield, MA (United States)

1997-08-01

300

Storm water pollution in the urban environment of Genoa, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpoint pollution resulting from urban surface runoff is recognized as one of the major causes of quality deterioration in the receiving water bodies. In order to investigate the first flush phenomenon connected to different types of urban surfaces, two monitoring systems have been installed in the experimental catchment of Villa Cambiaso, University of Genoa (Italy), to sample separately roof and

I. Gnecco; C. Berretta; L. G. Lanza; P. La Barbera

2005-01-01

301

Optical multiple-analyte immunosensor for water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype of a portable optical immunosensor (called river analyser) has been developed. It can be applied for the monitoring of surface water quality. Antibodies carrying a fluorescent label are used for the specific recognition of pollutants, such as frequently applied pesticides. The transduction principle is based on total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF). The outstanding advantage of the river analyser

Claudia Barzen; Andreas Brecht; Guenter Gauglitz

2002-01-01

302

Water pollution and habitat degradation in the Gulf of Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gulf of Thailand has been a major marine resource for Thai people for a long time. However, recent industrialization and community development have exerted considerable stress on the marine environments and provoked habitat degradation. The following pollution problems in the Gulf have been prioritized and are discussed in details: (1) Untreated municipal and industrial waste water are considered to

Voravit Cheevaporn; Piamsak Menasveta

2003-01-01

303

Xenobiotics removal from polluted water by a multifunctional constructed wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal efficiencies on xenobiotics from polluted water in a twin-shaped constructed wetland consisting of a vertical flow chamber with the crop plant Colocasia esculenta L. Schott and a reverse vertical flow one with Ischaemum aristatum var. glaucum Honda, were assessed by chemical analysis and bioassays. After a four-month period of application, removal efficiencies of the applied pesticides parathion and omethoate

Shuiping Cheng; Željka Vidakovic-Cifrek; Wolfgang Grosse; Friedhelm Karrenbrock

2002-01-01

304

Retrofit conserves energy at a water pollution control facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major retrofit of process structures and incorporation of additional mechanical equipment was undertaken to replace the existing chemical phosphorus removal process with a biological phosphorus removal process. The new process will reduce energy use up to 81% and lime use up to 86% at the Amherst, New York water pollution control facility.

A. S. Haimes; J. Dedyo

1980-01-01

305

The Role of Monitoring in Controlling Water Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of trends in the national water pollution control effort and to describe the role of monitoring in that effort, particularly in relation to the responsibilities of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). I hope the paper will serve as a useful framework for the more specific discussions of monitoring technology to follow.

Hirsch, Allan

1971-01-01

306

Water pollution control by aquatic vegetation of treatment wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplying polluted river water to nature reserves in The Netherlands often leads to eutrophication of the reserve. The eutrophication can be caused directly by the high nutrient input (external eutrophication) or indirectly by altering nutrient availability due to changes in nutrient desorption or mineralization. This paper investigates the potential of a ditch system that is tested for its potential to

Arthur F. M. Meuleman; Boudewijn Beltman; Robbert A. Scheffer

2004-01-01

307

Hazard analysis in toxic materials evaluation for water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion showed that there are several shortcomings in the Water Quality Criteria Documents issued for the 65 toxic pollutants for which the EPA must issue effluent limitations and guidelines, new source performance standards, and pretreatment standards. The basic problem is that these draft criteria documents are based primarily on data generated for numerous other purposes. In the generation of

J. Cairns; A. W. Maki

1979-01-01

308

Urban water pollution, communities and the State in Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southeast Asian cities are confronted with a range of environmental challenges with few success stories. State-driven and top-down solutions have been unsuccessful while communities struggle with developing and implementing alternative strategies which are both affordable and relevant. As a result water pollution is becoming a more serious social and political flashpoint. In part this has been because current and past

Donovan Storey

309

Systems approach to water-pollution abatement for small business  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pollution abatement costs are relatively high for small, isolated industrial plants. The authorities in Germany's Ruhr Valley have adopted a system wherein each discharger participates in economies of scale throughout the valley. The feasibility of a similar plan for the Kanawha River of West Virginia was studied using a separable programming computer model which produced optimal solutions under appropriate

A. H. Jr

1978-01-01

310

NPS Water Quality Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service, part of the Department of Interior website, looks at issues concerning water quality, policies and objectives, water quality standards, monitoring and the NPS's cooperation with other agencies.

311

Awakening Seed Pond Water ChemistryAwakening Seed Pond Water Chemistry Our Question: Is our pond polluted?Our Question: Is our pond polluted?  

E-print Network

Awakening Seed Pond Water ChemistryAwakening Seed Pond Water Chemistry Our Question: Is our pond polluted?Our Question: Is our pond polluted? Our InvestigationOur Investigation We discussed what kinds of pollutants we should look for. We narrowed down the aspects of pond chemistry that we would investigate

Hall, Sharon J.

312

Acrylamide encephaloneuropathy due to well water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

All five members of a family developed subacutely mental confusion and\\/or truncal ataxia. Symptoms and signs of polyneuropathy were seen later. The well water in the patients' home contained 400 ppm acrylamide. The present cases are unique in that they are cases of acrylamide poisoning induced by oral intake and percutaneous penetration, and that central nervous system symptoms were prominent.

H Igisu; I Goto; Y Kawamura; M Kato; K Izumi

1975-01-01

313

Ferrioxalate-mediated photodegradation of organic pollutants in contaminated water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UV-visible photolysis of ferrioxalate in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (the UV-vis\\/ferrioxalate\\/H2O2 process) is investigated for the treatment of contaminated groundwater and industrial wastewater. This process generates the hydroxyl radical, which is a strong oxidant and reacts rapidly with most organic compounds present in solution. Tap water spiked with various organic pollutants, a process water containing chlorobenzene, a tank-bottom

Ali Safarzadeh-Amiri; James R. Bolton; Stephen R. Cater

1997-01-01

314

Faecal pollution of surface waters in Jakarta.  

PubMed

Profuse numbers of Enterobacteriaceae were found in samples of surface waters from the Ciliwung River and adjoining canals which criss-cross metropolitan Jakarta and are used widely for domestic purposes by the poorer sections of its population. 15 of the 20 specimens gres E. coli, Klebsiella were isolated from seven and Citrobacter from four. Using enrichment culture procedures, Salmonella sp. were grown from 10 (48%) of 21 water samples examined, and 12 (63%) of aquatic sediments collected at the same sites. Altogether 14 serotypes and 37 Salmonella isolations were recorded. This high degree of faecal contamination of the environment is a major cause of the immense problem of gastro-intestinal infections in that city and probably in many similar cities in developing countries in the tropics. PMID:473327

Gracey, M; Ostergaard, P; Adnan, S W; Iveson, J B

1979-01-01

315

Reducing the cost of water-pollution control under the Clean Water Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present water-pollution-regulation system focuses on treatment by the individual and ignores the aggregate cost of pollution control. Economists have proposed three methods to create pollution-control systems that cost less than the present one: effluent charges, marketable effluent permits, and private ownership of the waterway. Of these methods, only the marketable permit system has any potential for use within the

Rothfelder

1982-01-01

316

Peterson Air Force base storm water pollution prevention plan. Final report, October 1993-April 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report fulfills the requirements of the EPA General Permit for storm water discharge that facilities requiring NPDES storm water permits prepare a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP). Facilities requiring permits are those classified as industrial under one of eleven categories as defined in 40 CFR I 22.26(b)(14)-(O)-(xi). EPA has ruled that military bases are subject to storm water regulations based on secondary activities such as hazardous waste storage (category iv), installation Restoration Program (IRP) sites (category v), aircraft maintenance/refueling (category viii), and waste water treatment (category ix). The relevant activity at Peterson AFB that makes the base industrial under the NPDES program is the aircraft maintenance/refueling that takes place there. The purpose of the SWPPP is to (1) identify potential sources of pollution which may reasonably be expected to affect the quality of storm water discharge associated with industrial activity from the facility; (2) implement best management practices (BMPs) to minimize storm water pollution; and (3) assure compliance with all terms and conditions of the Permit.

Rives, S.; Makowski, P.; Graziano, F.

1994-09-01

317

Improving Forecasts for Water Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in seasonal to interannual hydroclimate predictions provide an opportunity for developing a proactive approach toward water management. This motivated a recent AGU Chapman Conference (see program details at http://chapman.agu.org/watermanagement/). Approximately 85 participants from the United States, Oceania, Asia, Europe, and South America presented and discussed the current state of successes, challenges, and opportunities in seasonal to interannual hydroclimate forecasts and water management, and a number of key messages emerged.

Arumugam, Sankar; Wood, Andy; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Schaake, John

2014-01-01

318

A simulation of water pollution model parameter estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parameter estimation procedure for a water pollution transport model is elaborated. A two-dimensional instantaneous-release shear-diffusion model serves as representative of a simple transport process. Pollution concentration levels are arrived at via modeling of a remote-sensing system. The remote-sensed data are simulated by adding Gaussian noise to the concentration level values generated via the transport model. Model parameters are estimated from the simulated data using a least-squares batch processor. Resolution, sensor array size, and number and location of sensor readings can be found from the accuracies of the parameter estimates.

Kibler, J. F.

1976-01-01

319

Self-propelled micromotors for cleaning polluted water.  

PubMed

We describe the use of catalytically self-propelled microjets (dubbed micromotors) for degrading organic pollutants in water via the Fenton oxidation process. The tubular micromotors are composed of rolled-up functional nanomembranes consisting of Fe/Pt bilayers. The micromotors contain double functionality within their architecture, i.e., the inner Pt for the self-propulsion and the outer Fe for the in situ generation of ferrous ions boosting the remediation of contaminated water.The degradation of organic pollutants takes place in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which acts as a reagent for the Fenton reaction and as main fuel to propel the micromotors. Factors influencing the efficiency of the Fenton oxidation process, including thickness of the Fe layer, pH, and concentration of hydrogen peroxide, are investigated. The ability of these catalytically self-propelled micromotors to improve intermixing in liquids results in the removal of organic pollutants ca. 12 times faster than when the Fenton oxidation process is carried out without catalytically active micromotors. The enhanced reaction-diffusion provided by micromotors has been theoretically modeled. The synergy between the internal and external functionalities of the micromotors, without the need of further functionalization, results into an enhanced degradation of nonbiodegradable and dangerous organic pollutants at small-scale environments and holds considerable promise for the remediation of contaminated water. PMID:24180623

Soler, Lluís; Magdanz, Veronika; Fomin, Vladimir M; Sanchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G

2013-11-26

320

Self-Propelled Micromotors for Cleaning Polluted Water  

PubMed Central

We describe the use of catalytically self-propelled microjets (dubbed micromotors) for degrading organic pollutants in water via the Fenton oxidation process. The tubular micromotors are composed of rolled-up functional nanomembranes consisting of Fe/Pt bilayers. The micromotors contain double functionality within their architecture, i.e., the inner Pt for the self-propulsion and the outer Fe for the in situ generation of ferrous ions boosting the remediation of contaminated water.The degradation of organic pollutants takes place in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which acts as a reagent for the Fenton reaction and as main fuel to propel the micromotors. Factors influencing the efficiency of the Fenton oxidation process, including thickness of the Fe layer, pH, and concentration of hydrogen peroxide, are investigated. The ability of these catalytically self-propelled micromotors to improve intermixing in liquids results in the removal of organic pollutants ca. 12 times faster than when the Fenton oxidation process is carried out without catalytically active micromotors. The enhanced reaction–diffusion provided by micromotors has been theoretically modeled. The synergy between the internal and external functionalities of the micromotors, without the need of further functionalization, results into an enhanced degradation of nonbiodegradable and dangerous organic pollutants at small-scale environments and holds considerable promise for the remediation of contaminated water. PMID:24180623

2013-01-01

321

A Proposed Decision Support System for River Water Quality Management in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing concern for river water pollution in India is witnessing several initiatives from nodal agencies in terms of water pollution control. In a similar context, a need for a supportive platform is envisaged that takes care of management perspectives, feasible for Indian conditions. In this paper the most generic DSS has been proposed that caters to the requirement of

Rabbar Babbar; D. S. Arya; Himanshu Joshi

2009-01-01

322

SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse  

E-print Network

SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse #12;' Our Mission The SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse aims to advance the science and technology of sustainable water management through fundamental and applied research. Our Vision To be Australia's leading research centre for water reuse

Li, Jiuyong "John"

323

The 2002 Water Law: its impacts on river basin management in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern river basin management techniques are gaining popularity in China to effectively manage increasingly vulnerable water resources. China has several large river basins, with a variety of resource conditions and development challenges. River basins in China are facing aggravated water pollution, and development and management issues. In dealing with these issues, and in line with the evolution of modern concepts

Dajun Shen

324

Technology for Water Treatment (National Water Management)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

1992-01-01

325

Managing agricultural phosphorus for water quality protection: principles for progress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The eutrophication of aquatic systems due to diffuse pollution of agricultural phosphorus (P) is a local, even regional, water quality problem that can be found world-wide. Sustainable management of P requires prudent tempering of agronomic practices, recognizing that additional steps are often requ...

326

Water-sediment flow models for river reaches sediment related pollution control.  

PubMed

Hybrid water-sediment flow models for river reaches have been for predicting sediment and sediment related pollutions in water courses. The models are developed by combining sediment rating model and the Muskingum model applicable for a reach. The models incorporate sediment concentration and water discharge variables for a river reach; allow defining downstream sediment rating curve in terms of upstream water discharges. The model is useful in generating sediment concentration graph for a station having no water discharge records. The hybrid models provide forecasting forms that can be used to forecast downstream sediment concentration/water discharges 2kx time unit ahead. The forecasting models are useful for applications in real time namely, in the real time management of sediment related pollution in water courses and in issuing flood warning. Integration of sediment rating model and the Muskingum model increases model parameters and nonlinearity requiring efficient estimation technique for parameter identification. To identify parameters in the hybrid models genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique can be used. The new model relies on the Muskingum model, obey continuity requirement and the parameters can be used in the Muskingum model with water discharges to estimate/predict downstream water discharge values. The proposed model formulations are demonstrated for simulating and forecasting sediment concentration and water discharges in the Mississippi River Basin, USA. Model parameters are estimated using non-dominated sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II). Model results show satisfactory model performances. PMID:24749192

Sil, Briti Sundar; Choudhury, Parthasarathi

2012-07-01

327

Water conservation through energy management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is the simultaneous management of two important industrial resources – energy and water. A class of industrial processes where heat transfer is accompanied by mass transfer (water evaporation and condensation) are concerned, and special attention is given to them where the transfer of heat is a limiting stage. These processes are considered not in isolation

Toshko K. Zhelev

2005-01-01

328

A CRITICAL APPRAlSAL OF THE WATER POLLUTION PROBLEM IN INDIA IN RELATION TO AQUACULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A satisfactory solution to the problem of inland water pollution in India has bocome an urgent and accepted necessity for sustained human health and the conservation of aquatic resources. -A bill entitled #'The Prevention of Water Pollution Bill, 1969\\

V. G. JKINGRAN

329

The Allocative Efficiency Implications of Water Pollution Abatement Cost Comparisons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessments of the efficiency of water pollution control allocations are usually based on abatement cost comparisons. The general rule is that efficiency is improved by reallocating abatement from sources with high marginal costs to low-cost sources. The welfare-theoretic foundation of this rule is well established for situations with nonstochastic emissions. In situations with stochastic emissions, pollution control involves improving the distribution of emissions. Nevertheless, efficiency analyses involving stochastic emissions usually sidestep formal consideration of the stochastic element by measuring pollution control and control costs with respect to changes in long-term average flows. An economic model of stochastic emissions is used to demonstrate that this approach can give misleading results. An alternative procedure is briefly discussed.

Shortle, James S.

1990-05-01

330

A neural network approach to multiobjective optimization for water quality management in a river basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new neural network-based multiobjective optimization of water quality management for water pollution control and river basin planning is presented. Past research on water quality management problems has shown that traditional multiobjective decision making does not provide an adequate solution since it depends directly on the decision maker's (DM's) preferences, which may not be clearly defined. In order to overcome

Ching-Gung Wen; Chih-Sheng Lee

1998-01-01

331

Achieving Integrated Water Resource Management: the mismatch in boundaries between water resources management and water supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central to the National Water Policy of South Africa and echoed in the National Water Act (Act 36 of 1998) and Water Services Act (Act 108 of 1997) is the devolution of water management and regulation to regional authorities that take the form of Water Services Authorities and Catchment Management Agencies. Our argument is that local government has a very

Sharon Pollard

332

Simulating Urban Tree Effects on Air, Water, and Heat Pollution Mitigation: iTree-Hydro Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban and suburban development changes land surface thermal, radiative, porous, and roughness properties and pollutant loading rates, with the combined effect leading to increased air, water, and heat pollution (e.g., urban heat islands). In this research we present the USDA Forest Service urban forest ecosystem and hydrology model, iTree Eco and Hydro, used to analyze how tree cover can deliver valuable ecosystem services to mitigate air, water, and heat pollution. Air pollution mitigation is simulated by dry deposition processes based on detected pollutant levels for CO, NO2, SO2, O3 and atmospheric stability and leaf area indices. Water quality mitigation is simulated with event mean concentration loading algorithms for N, P, metals, and TSS, and by green infrastructure pollutant filtering algorithms that consider flow path dispersal areas. Urban cooling considers direct shading and indirect evapotranspiration. Spatially distributed estimates of hourly tree evapotranspiration during the growing season are used to estimate human thermal comfort. Two main factors regulating evapotranspiration are soil moisture and canopy radiation. Spatial variation of soil moisture is represented by a modified urban topographic index and radiation for each tree is modified by considering aspect, slope and shade from surrounding buildings or hills. We compare the urban cooling algorithms used in iTree-Hydro with the urban canopy and land surface physics schemes used in the Weather Research and Forecasting model. We conclude by identifying biophysical feedbacks between tree-modulated air and water quality environmental services and how these may respond to urban heating and cooling. Improvements to this iTree model are intended to assist managers identify valuable tree services for urban living.

Yang, Y.; Endreny, T. A.; Nowak, D.

2011-12-01

333

Diffuse pollution of soil and water: Long term trends at large scales?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrialization and urbanization, which consequently increased pressure on the environment to cause degradation of soil and water quality over more than a century, is still ongoing. The number of potential environmental contaminants detected in surface and groundwater is continuously increasing; from classical industrial and agricultural chemicals, to flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. While point sources of pollution can be managed in principle, diffuse pollution is only reversible at very long time scales if at all. Compounds which were phased out many decades ago such as PCBs or DDT are still abundant in soils, sediments and biota. How diffuse pollution is processed at large scales in space (e.g. catchments) and time (centuries) is unknown. The relevance to the field of processes well investigated at the laboratory scale (e.g. sorption/desorption and (bio)degradation kinetics) is not clear. Transport of compounds is often coupled to the water cycle and in order to assess trends in diffuse pollution, detailed knowledge about the hydrology and the solute fluxes at the catchment scale is required (e.g. input/output fluxes, transformation rates at the field scale). This is also a prerequisite in assessing management options for reversal of adverse trends.

Grathwohl, P.

2012-04-01

334

Agricultural water nonpoint pollution control under uncertainty and climate variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to study the probabilistic cost-effectiveness of the farm management practices supported by the European Union for reducing nitrate pollution. Our method consists in using a bio-physical model to evaluate the environmental and economic impacts of various scenarios characterized by a set of farm practices. The cost-effectiveness of each scenario is calculated for a catchment

Anne Lacroix; Nicolas Beaudoin; David Makowski

2005-01-01

335

Experimental infrared measurements for hydrocarbon pollutant determination in subterranean waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subterranean waters are often polluted by industrial and anthropic effluents that are drained in subsoil. To prevent and control pollution, legislations of different developed countries require an online monitoring measurement, especially for detecting organic solvents (chlorinated and unchlorinated ones). Online measurements include both real-time and no real-time measurements. In general, it is difficult to implement real-time measurements in stricto sensu for online acquisitions on aqueous effluents since they need to be processed by a modeling. This research presents an experimental measurement system based on infrared (IR) spectroscopy for aqueous effluents containing hydrocarbons and capable of displaying excellent values of pollutant concentrations even in instable conditions; the system is able to detect pollutants either in laminar or turbulent flow. The results show the possibility of avoiding the use of "Pitot tube" that is employed to create a stagnation point in order to convert kinetic energy into potential one. This conversion allows the transformation of a turbulent flow in a laminar flow making easy measurement of pollutants included in an aqueous effluent. Obviously, "Pitot tube" is also used for other fluid effluents. The obtained results have been compared with those produced by means of sophisticated IR instrumentation for laboratory applications.

Lay-Ekuakille, A.; Palamara, I.; Caratelli, D.; Morabito, F. C.

2013-01-01

336

Priority organic pollutants in the urban water cycle (Toulouse, France).  

PubMed

Application of the European Water Framework Directive requires Member States to have better understanding of the quality of surface waters in order to improve knowledge of priority pollutants. Xenobiotics in urban receiving waters are an emerging concern. This study proposes a screening campaign of nine molecular species of xenobiotics in a separated sewer system. Five sites were investigated over one year in Toulouse (France) using quantitative monitoring. For each sample, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, nonylphenols, diethelhexylphthalate, linear alkylbenzene sulphonates, methyl tert-butylether, total hydrocarbons, estradiol and ethinylestradiol were analysed. Ground, rain and roof collected water concentrations are similar to treated wastewater levels. Run-off water was the most polluted of the five types investigated, discharged into the aquatic environment. The wastewater treatment plant reduced xenobiotic concentrations by 66% before discharge into the environment. Regarding environmental quality standards, observed concentrations in waters were in compliance with standards. The results show that xenobiotic concentrations are variable over time and space in all urban water compartments. PMID:22097031

Sablayrolles, C; Breton, A; Vialle, C; Vignoles, C; Montréjaud-Vignoles, M

2011-01-01

337

Nitrogen Pollution in the Northeastern United States: Sources, Effects, and Management Options  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about nitrogen pollution in the northeastern United States. The northeastern United States receives elevated inputs of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) largely from net imports of food and atmospheric deposition, with lesser inputs from fertilizer, net feed imports, and N fixation associated with leguminous crops. Ecological consequences of elevated N inputs to the Northeast include tropospheric ozone formation, ozone damage to plants, the alteration of forest N cycles, acidification of surface waters, and eutrophication in coastal waters. We used two models, PnET-BGC and WATERSN, to evaluate management strategies for reducing N inputs to forests and estuaries, respectively. Calculations with PnET-BGC suggest that aggressive reductions in N emissions alone will not result in marked improvements in the acidbase status of forest streams. WATERSN calculations showed that management scenarios targeting removal of N by wastewater treatment produce larger reductions in estuarine N loading than scenarios involving reductions in agricultural inputs or atmospheric emissions. Because N pollution involves multiple sources, management strategies targeting all major pollution sources will result in the greatest ecological benefits.

CHARLES T. DRISCOLL, DAVID WHITALL, JOHN ABER, ELIZABETH BOYER, MARK CASTRO, CHRISTOPHER CRONAN, CHRISTINE L. GOODALE, PETER GROFFMAN, CHARLES HOPKINSON, KATHLEEN LAMBERT, GREGORY LAWRENCE, and SCOTT OLLINGER (; )

2003-04-01

338

Finite-Volume-Particle Methods for Models of Transport of Pollutant in Shallow Water  

E-print Network

Finite-Volume-Particle Methods for Models of Transport of Pollutant in Shallow Water Alina Chertock of shallow water equations and the pollutant propagation is described by a transport equation. The idea and the pollution computations: the shallow water equations are numerically integrated using a #12;nite- volume

Kurganov, Alexander

339

Estimation of pollution by fire extinguishing water D. Calogine, S. Duplantier  

E-print Network

Estimation of pollution by fire extinguishing water D. Calogine, S. Duplantier INERIS, Accidentai by combustion and consequently the water will be loaded with pollutants such as HCI and HCN. The project O2FEU of pollution for soil and subsoil. The project consists in studying the fate of run-off waters in environment

Boyer, Edmond

340

Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual to tidal periods  

E-print Network

Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual to tidal periods. G. Monismith (2004), Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual the relationship between water temperature and fecal pollution in the surf zone at Huntington and Newport Beach

Winant, Clinton D.

341

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN BUILDING B51 AND BEVATRON DEMOLITION PROJECT  

E-print Network

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN FOR: BUILDING B51 AND BEVATRON DEMOLITION PROJECT PROJECT NO;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) Building B51 and Bevatron Demolition Project Lawrence............................................................................................300-3 300.4 Project Schedule/Water Pollution Control Schedule

342

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2011-01-01

343

Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process  

E-print Network

Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process Abstract: The study investigates water quality pollution impacts on urbanization by analyzing temporal the greatest contributors of surface water quality pollution from 1996 to 2003. High values existed

Yu, Qian

344

f " International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control. Vienna 1996 XIII/4 -1  

E-print Network

96/0852 f í " International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control. Vienna 1996 for water pollution control, Vienna : Austria (1996)" #12;í>tn International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control. Vienna 1996 XIII/4 - 2 · It is also planned that districts will be able to take

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

345

40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.145-2 Section...GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) No person...or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State...

2014-07-01

346

40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.145-2 Section...GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) No person...or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State...

2011-07-01

347

40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.145-2 Section...GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) No person...or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State...

2010-07-01

348

40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.145-2 Section...GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) No person...or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State...

2013-07-01

349

40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.145-2 Section...GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) No person...or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State...

2012-07-01

350

Underground coal mining methods to abate water pollution: a state of the art literature review. Water pollution control research series  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report reviews published information concerning the abatement of harmful drainage from underground coal mines. Although much has been written on mine water management, very little literature is available on the specific area of preventing the formation of acid water. The references used in this report include mining engineering and hydrology studies and spans the period of time when water

L. W. Wilson; N. J. Matthews; J. L. Stump

1970-01-01

351

Investigating the effects of point source and nonpoint source pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang) in South China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Understanding the physical processes of point source (PS) and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is critical to evaluate river water quality and identify major pollutant sources in a watershed. In this study, we used the physically-based hydrological/water quality model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool, to investigate the influence of PS and NPS pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang in Chinese) in southern China. Our results indicate that NPS pollution was the dominant contribution (>94%) to nutrient loads except for mineral phosphorus (50%). A comprehensive Water Quality Index (WQI) computed using eight key water quality variables demonstrates that water quality is better upstream than downstream despite the higher level of ammonium nitrogen found in upstream waters. Also, the temporal (seasonal) and spatial distributions of nutrient loads clearly indicate the critical time period (from late dry season to early wet season) and pollution source areas within the basin (middle and downstream agricultural lands), which resource managers can use to accomplish substantial reduction of NPS pollutant loadings. Overall, this study helps our understanding of the relationship between human activities and pollutant loads and further contributes to decision support for local watershed managers to protect water quality in this region. In particular, the methods presented such as integrating WQI with watershed modeling and identifying the critical time period and pollutions source areas can be valuable for other researchers worldwide.

Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

2013-01-01

352

Pollution prevention opportunity assessment: Foundation of pollution prevention for waste management  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to promote the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) technique as a fundamental of pollution prevention for waste management. All key elements of an effective PPOA program are presented. These key elements include impacts of environmental laws on pollution prevention, PPOA concepts and overview, waste minimization opportunities assessment, reporting and monitoring waste minimization progress, and PPOA program implementation. As environmental laws evolve the focus is shifting from end-of-pipe pollution control to front-end source reduction. Waste minimization was mistakenly interpreted to mean the reduction of hazardous waste after generation in the past. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 has clearly defined its requirement on resource reduction. Waste reduction can be viewed as a criterion to assess all industrial processes and operations. The fundamental approach of PPOA focuses on a mass balance concept. This concept deals with tracking of chemicals from the point of purchase, through storage, utilization in the process, and waste generation at the end of process. In other words, PPOA is a technique to analyze this input/output process. By applying PPOA techniques, the framework of applicable compliance requirements to the current operation process is established. Furthermore, documentation of PPOA itself can meet as documentation requirements for environmental compliance. In general, the PPOA process consists of two phases. The first phase involves input and output process description and waste characterization. The second phase is an opportunities assessment for waste minimization from input/output waste characterization. These two phases are explained in detail in the paper.

Damewood, R.W.

1994-03-24

353

Science, technology and policy for Water Pollution Control at the Watershed Scale: Current issues and future challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is a critical resource, and the shortage of freshwater resources worldwide will only become more critical as the world population increases and climate changes. The management of water resources provides a myriad of challenges, and, in light of advances in science, technology and policy making, now requires an integrated approach to be successful. Eutrophication and algal blooms are one of the most common and serious threats to the safety and security of water resources; however, despite advances in science and policy, the socio-economic consequences of the impact of such events on systems are still not well known. The economic cost of managing water quality issues is enormous, and can only benefit from the development of more integrated water management strategies. Research into areas related to water resources, such as management, policy, non-point source pollutants, wastewater, nutrients and water quality has increased significantly over the past 20 years, and will continue to increase as stakeholders and managers strive to develop more environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable water resource management plans. This perspective paper also presents a summary of a selection of research that formed part of the deliberations of the International Symposium on Science, Technology and Policy for Water Pollution Control at the Watershed Scale, held in April 2009.

Ghadouani, Anas; Coggins, Liah X.

354

An Empirical Test of Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) on water pollution was investigated with both semiparametric and parametric models using watershed level data for the state of Louisiana, USA. The parametric model indicated the turning points within the range $10241–$12993, $6636–$13877, and $6467–$12758 for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and dissolved oxygen (DO), respectively. However, only the parameters associated with N EKC were found

Krishna P. Paudel; Hector Zapata; Dwi Susanto

2005-01-01

355

Hydrocarbon analysis of shrimp from oil polluted waters  

E-print Network

. The organisms tested range from seaweed, sea grasses and benthic algae all the way to sharks in the upper end of the food chain. The analysis of these organisms consists of three basic phases: a) extraction of the lipid and hydro- carbon fractions from.... This is further com- 16 plicated by food chain magnification (Teal, 1977). Hydrocarbons enter the lipid fraction of rhe organism from food, water or pollution and cannot be distinguished from biogenic hydrocarbons that were synthe- sized by the organism...

DeWitt, Bernard John

1982-01-01

356

Vascular aquatic plants for mineral nutrient removal from polluted waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic plants have potential as feedstuffs in certain nations, but the economics of harvesting and processing would prohibit\\u000a their direct utilization as a forage in technologically advanced nations. However, nutrient pollution is accelerating rates\\u000a of eutrophication of natural waters in many areas. Aquatic plants produce large standing crops and accumulate large amounts\\u000a of nutrients. Systems based on the harvest of

Claude E. Boyd

1970-01-01

357

Water Management Best Practices  

E-print Network

$/Kgal Example Combined Water & Sewer Costs for CII 50 Largest Cities 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 5.00 4.00 3.50 1.60 1.28 C en ts p er F lu sh Gallons per Flush Best case example Cost for Toilet Flushing in California Restaurants Cents...

Hoffman, W.

2011-01-01

358

SRF (State Water Pollution Control Revolving Fund): initial guidance for state revolving funds  

SciTech Connect

The document represents the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) approach to implementation of Title VI of the Clean Water Act (CWA), until interim final regulations on selected provisions in the guidance are issued. The release of the document marks a significant step in the transition of the responsibility for financing, constructing, and managing municipal wastewater-treatment facilities from the Federal government to States and localities. It will assist EPA Regions in their review of proposed State Water Pollution Control Revolving Fund (SRF) programs and provide States with initial guidance on applying for Capitalization Grants.

Not Available

1988-01-01

359

Effects of long term irrigation with polluted water and sludge amendment on some soil enzyme activities  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of wastewater sludge-fly ash mixtures on urease, dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and beta-glucosidase activities in soils. In order to evaluate the probable effects of previous soil management practices (irrigation with polluted water) on soil enzymes, two different soil samples which were similar in physical properties, but different in irrigation practice were used. The application of wastewater sludges supplemented with varying doses of fly ash increased potential enzyme activities for a short period of time (3 months) in comparison to unamended soils. However, the activity levels generally showed a decreasing trend with increasing ash ratios indicating the inhibitory effect of fly ash. The urease and dehydrogenase activities were particularly lower in soils irrigated from a polluted stream, indicating the negative effects of the previous soil management on soil microbial activity.

Topac, F.O.; Baskaya, H.S.; Alkan, U.; Katkat, A.V. [Uludag University, Bursa (Turkey)

2008-01-15

360

Spatial and temporal variability of surface water pollution in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.  

PubMed

Surface water pollution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (MD) could threaten human, animal and ecosystem health given the fact that this water source is intensively used for drinking, irrigation and domestic services. We therefore determined the levels of pollution by organic pollutants, salts, metals and microbial indicators by (bi)monthly monitoring of canals between November 2011 and July 2012 at 32 sampling locations, representing fresh and saline/brackish environments. The results were compared with national water quality guidelines, between the studied regions and with water quality data from main waterways. Key factors explaining the observed levels of pollution in surface water were identified through principal component analysis (PCA). Temporal variations due to tidal regime and seasonality were also assessed. Based on regression models, the spatial variability of five water quality parameters was visualized using GIS based maps. Results indicate that pH (max. 8.6), turbidity (max. 461 FTU), maximum concentrations of ammonium (14.7 mg L(-1)), arsenic (44.1 ?g L(-1)), barium (157.5 ?g L(-1)), chromium (84.7 ?g L(-1)), mercury (45.5 ?g L(-1)), manganese (1659.7 ?g L(-1)), aluminum (14.5 mg L(-1)), iron (17.0 mg L(-1)) and the number of Escherichia coli (87,000 CFU 100 mL(-1)) and total coliforms (2,500,000 CFU 100 mL(-1)) in canals exceed the thresholds set by Vietnamese quality guidelines for drinking and domestic purposes. The PCA showed that i) urbanization; ii) metal leaching from soils; iii) aquaculture; and iv) tidal regime explain 85% of the variance of surface water quality attributes. Significant differences in water quality were found due to daily tidal regime and as a result of seasonality. Surface water quality maps for dissolved oxygen, ammonium, ortho-phosphate, manganese and total coliforms were developed to highlight hot-spot areas of pollution. The results of this study can assist policy makers in developing water management strategies and drinking water companies in selecting optimum water extraction locations. PMID:24747257

Wilbers, Gert-Jan; Becker, Mathias; Nga, La Thi; Sebesvari, Zita; Renaud, Fabrice G

2014-07-01

361

Total Water Management: A Watershed Based Approach  

EPA Science Inventory

In this urbanizing world, municipal water managers need to develop planning and management frameworks to meet challenges such as limiting fresh water supplies, degrading receiving waters, increasing regulatory requirements, flooding, aging infrastructure, rising utility (energy) ...

362

Assessing the well water pollution problem by nitrates in the small scale farming systems of the Niayes region, Senegal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human activities exert many pressures on the quality of groundwater, and advanced assessment programmes are needed to design sustainable water management strategies. To contribute to this challenge, we assessed the nitrate pollution problem of groundwater wells in the small scale farming systems of the Niayes region in Senegal and explained this water pollution problem in terms of well characteristics and land use properties. A fast rural appraisal was performed in 2007 to collect basic back ground data of the small scale farming systems and well water was analysed in 131 wells for nitrate content, pH and electrical conductivity. For a subset of wells, soil analyses were made of the well environment for assessing the attenuation properties of the protecting soil. Cluster analysis was used to define a well typology, while principal component and multiple correspondence analysis was used to explain the nitrate pollution in terms of well characteristics and other physico-chemical properties of the wells, and land use. The study confirms that the wells are seriously affected by the nitrate pollution problem. Wells can be classified in three well classes, which are characterized by a geographical gradient. Nitrate pollution increases from north to south, while the salinity affects particularly the wells in the northern area of the region. The nitrate levels exceeding 50 ppm are more common in residential areas than in the horticultural fields. The results further show that, even if direct pollution problem of wells cannot be excluded, pollution from leaching out of the root zone of vegetable crops to the groundwater is likely. This is confirmed by the assessment of the farming activities in this area and this is consistent with the low attenuation properties of the soils characterizing this region. Considering the nitrate pollution threshold, we further distinguish very few non-polluting crops in this region, which calls for an urgent adoption of agriculture management to protect water resources from further deterioration.

Mamadou, S.; Vanclooster, M.

2009-04-01

363

Improved water quality in response to pollution control measures at Masan Bay, Korea.  

PubMed

The total pollution load management system (TPLMS) was first applied in 2007 to the highly developed Masan Bay watershed, Korea. To evaluate the effect of TPLMS on water quality improvement, we analyzed the water qualities in rivers and bay during 2005-2010, targeting chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended sediment (SS), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) loads. Land-based pollutant loading all decreased during this period, with a significant reduction in COD and SS loads (p<0.01). The COD reduction in seawater, following the TPLMS implementation, was also significant (p<0.01). Time-lagged responses in COD and Chl-a supported an estimated seawater residence time of ~1 month. Land-based nutrient loads were also significantly reduced for TN (p<0.01) and TP (p<0.05), however, significant reductions were not observed in the bay, indicating potential alternative nutrient inputs from non-point sources into the bay system. PMID:22155120

Chang, Won Keun; Ryu, Jongseong; Yi, Yoonju; Lee, Won-Chan; Lee, Chan-Won; Kang, Daeseok; Lee, Chang-Hee; Hong, Seongjin; Nam, Jungho; Khim, Jong Seong

2012-02-01

364

Pollution prevention and water conservation in metals finishing operations  

SciTech Connect

Attleboro, Massachusetts is the headquarters of the Materials and Controls Group of Texas Instruments Incorporated (Texas Instruments). In support of their activities, Texas Instruments operates a number of metal finishing and electroplating processes. The water supply and the wastewater treatment requirements are supplied throughout the facility from a central location. Water supply quality requirements varies with each manufacturing operation. As a result, manufacturing operations are classified as either high level or a lower water quality. The facility has two methods of wastewater treatment and disposal. The first method involves hydroxide and sulfide metals precipitation prior to discharge to a surface water. The second method involves metals precipitation, filtration, and discharge via sewer to the Attleboro WTF. The facility is limited to a maximum wastewater discharge of 460,000 gallons per day to surface water under the existing National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. There is also a hydraulic flow restriction on pretreated wastewater that is discharged to the Attleboro WTF. Both of these restrictions combined with increased production could cause the facility to reach the treatment capacity. The net effect is that wastewater discharge problems are becoming restrictive to the company`s growth. This paper reviews Texas Instruments efforts to overcome these restrictions through pollution prevention and reuse practices rather than expansion of end of pipe treatment methods.

O`Shaughnessy, J.; Clark, W. [Worcester Polytechnic Inst., MA (United States); Lizotte, R.P. Jr.; Mikutel, D. [Texas Instruments Inc., Attleboro, MA (United States)

1996-11-01

365

The impact of land use on microbial surface water pollution.  

PubMed

Our knowledge relating to water contamination from point and diffuse sources has increased in recent years and there have been many studies undertaken focusing on effluent from sewage plants or combined sewer overflows. However, there is still only a limited amount of microbial data on non-point sources leading to diffuse pollution of surface waters. In this study, the concentrations of several indicator micro-organisms and pathogens in the upper reaches of a river system were examined over a period of 16 months. In addition to bacteria, diffuse pollution caused by Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. was analysed. A single land use type predestined to cause high concentrations of all microbial parameters could not be identified. The influence of different land use types varies between microbial species. The microbial concentration in river water cannot be explained by stable non-point effluent concentrations from different land use types. There is variation in the ranking of the potential of different land use types resulting in surface water contamination with regard to minimum, median and maximum effects. These differences between median and maximum impact indicate that small-scale events like spreading manure substantially influence the general contamination potential of a land use type and may cause increasing micro-organism concentrations in the river water by mobilisation during the next rainfall event. PMID:25456147

Schreiber, Christiane; Rechenburg, Andrea; Rind, Esther; Kistemann, Thomas

2015-03-01

366

Precipitation suppression by anthropogenic air pollution: major loss of water resources where we need them most  

E-print Network

Precipitation suppression by anthropogenic air pollution: major loss of water resources where we inferences of air pollution suppressing precipitation lead us to investigate historical climate records precipitation, decreases with time in the polluted regions and remains unchanged where no pollution sources were

Daniel, Rosenfeld

367

System engineering for water pollution control at the watershed level in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present water pollution situation at watershed level in China has been systematically analyzed. The causes of water pollution\\u000a are attributed to the extensive economic developmental pattern, poor wastewater treatment, and a lack of nonpoint pollution\\u000a control. The problems of water pollution control at watershed level include a lack of thought and approach, developmental\\u000a delay in the environmental standard system,

Wei Meng

2009-01-01

368

Identification and spatial patterns of coastal water pollution sources based on GIS and chemometric approach.  

PubMed

Comprehensive and joint applications of GIS and chemometric approach were applied in identification and spatial patterns of coastal water pollution sources with a large data set (5 years (2000-2004), 17 parameters) obtained through coastal water monitoring of Southern Water Control Zone in Hong Kong. According to cluster analysis the pollution degree was significantly different between September-next May (the 1st period) and June-August (the 2nd period). Based on these results, four potential pollution sources, such as organic/eutrophication pollution, natural pollution, mineral/anthropic pollution and fecal pollution were identified by factor analysis/principal component analysis. Then the factor scores of each monitoring site were analyzed using inverse distance weighting method, and the results indicated degree of the influence by various potential pollution sources differed among the monitoring sites. This study indicated that hybrid approach was useful and effective for identification of coastal water pollution source and spatial patterns. PMID:17966867

Zhou, Feng; Guo, Huai-Cheng; Liu, Yong; Hao, Ze-Jia

2007-01-01

369

SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse  

E-print Network

SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse #12;2 The SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse was established in 2004 as a joint venture between the South Australian Water Corporation and the University of South Australia (UniSA), adding significant expertise to the water research capability in South

Li, Jiuyong "John"

370

Chemistry and pollution of natural waters in western Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selected water analyses from the literature and current research in western Kenya are tabulated and the relationships between critical water quality parameters described. The waters are chemically characterised with Na as the dominant cation and bicarbonate as the dominant anion and, while waters of obviously different sources are represented, the available chemical data point to a general classification of bicarbonate-Na-rich waters, even for the saline waters of Lake Magadi. Potassium and chloride are among the less abundandt constituents. The concentration level of nutrients (nitrate, phosphate and sulphate) is mostly lower than maxium permissible drinking water levels, and salinity is not yet a serious problem in water bodies that are exploited for domestic and industrial purposes. Fluoride levels are variable with the higher values occurring in waters in and around the Rift Valley. Limited analytical data for I in waters from the Eldoret, Kiambu and Nairobi areas indicate concentrations well above world average figures. Mean values of some key water quality indicators such as total dissolved solids, total suspended solids and heavy metals are well below the threshold for contaminated water. These values are however exceeded by several factors in saline waters of lakes and in some springs. Significant organic pollution is reflected by mean values of parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand and faecal coliforms. The present quality of most of the water bodies in this part of the country is considered to be adequate at present for domestic and other purposes, though a gradual decrease in quality is evident from the recent upsurge in industrial activities in the subregion.

Davies, T. C.

1996-11-01

371

A river water quality management model for optimising regional wastewater treatment using a genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

To achieve water quality goals and wastewater treatment cost optimisation in a river basin, a water quality management model has been developed through the integration of a genetic algorithm (GA) and a mathematical water quality model. The developed model has been applied to the Youngsan River, where water quality has decreased due to heavy pollutant loads from Kwangju City and

Jae Heon Cho; Ki Seok Sung; Sung Ryong Ha

2004-01-01

372

Questionable Specificity of Genetic Total Faecal Pollution Markers for Integrated Water Quality Monitoring and Source Tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterisation of microbial faecal hazards in water is a fundamental aspect for target-orientated water resources management to achieve appropriate water quality for various purposes like water supply or agriculture and thus to minimize related health risks. Nowadays the management of water resources increasingly demands detailed knowledge on the extent and the origin of microbial pollution. Cultivation of standard faecal indicator bacteria, which has been used for over a century to test the microbiological water quality, cannot sufficiently meet these challenges. The abundant intestinal bacterial populations are very promising alternative targets for modern faecal indication systems. Numerous assays for the detection of genetic markers targeting source-specific populations of the phylum Bacteroidetes have been developed in recent years. In some cases markers for total faecal pollution were also proposed in order to relate source-specific marker concentrations to general faecal pollution levels. However, microbial populations in intestinal and non-intestinal systems exhibit a dazzling array of diversity and molecular analysis of microbial faecal pollution has been based on a fragmentary puzzle of very limited sequence information. The aim of this study was to test the available qPCR-based methods detecting genetic Bacteroidetes markers for total faecal pollution in terms of their value and specificity as indicators of faecal pollution. We applied the AllBac (Layton et al., 2006) the BacUni (Kildare et al., 2007) and the Bacteroidetes (Dick and Field, 2004) assays on soil DNA samples. Samples were collected in well characterised karst spring catchments in Austria's Eastern Calcareous Alps. They were at various levels of altitude between 800 and 1800 meters above sea level and from several different habitats (woodland, alpine pastures, krummholz). In addition we tried to choose sampling sites representing a presumptive gradient of faecal pollution levels. For example sites with obvious faecal influence (e.g. right next to a cowpat) were included as well as more pristine sites without faecal influence from large animals (e.g. fenced areas). Surprisingly, results from investigations with the AllBac assay showed concentrations of the total faecal marker in soil in the range of 106 to 109 Marker Equivalents per g of soil, which is equal or only slightly lower than the concentrations of this particular marker in faeces or raw sewage. Preliminary results from the other tested assays seem to confirm that the targeted markers are also highly abundant in soils. In addition, the markers were present in comparable concentrations in soils from pristine locations as well as in soils under the potential influence of faeces giving a strong indication that these methods also target non-intestinal, autochthonous soil populations. In contrast, source-specific markers (ruminant-specific BacR and human-specific BacH, Reischer et al., 2007, 2006) could only be detected in 30 to 50% of the soil samples at concentrations close to the detection limit, which is at least four orders of magnitude lower than in faecal samples of the respective target sources, ruminant animals and humans. The achieved results call the applicability of the proposed qPCR-based assays for total faecal pollution into question. In fact the assays do not seem to be specific for intestinal Bacteroidetes populations at all and the respective marker concentration levels in pristine soils negate their applicability in the investigated areas. This study also emphasizes the need to test the specificity and sensitivity of qPCR-based assays for total faecal pollution on the local level and especially against non-intestinal environmental samples, which might contribute to marker levels in the aquatic compartment. In conclusion there is a strong demand for marker-based detection techniques for total faecal pollution in water quality monitoring and risk assessment but currently none of the tested assays seems to meet the methodical requirements.

Vierheilig, Julia; Reischer, Georg H.; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

2010-05-01

373

Managing Nonpoint Source Pollution in Western Washington: Landowner Learning Methods and Motivations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

States, territories, and tribes identify nonpoint source pollution as responsible for more than half of the Nation’s existing and threatened water quality impairments, making it the principal remaining cause of water quality problems across the United States. Combinations of education, technical and financial assistance, and regulatory measures are used to inform landowners about nonpoint source pollution issues, and to stimulate the use of best management practices. A mail survey of non-commercial riparian landowners investigated how they learn about best management practices, the efficacy of different educational techniques, and what motivates them to implement land management activities. Landowners experience a variety of educational techniques, and rank those that include direct personal contact as more effective than brochures, advertisements, radio, internet, or television. The most important motivations for implementing best management practices were linked with elements of a personal stewardship ethic, accountability, personal commitment, and feasibility. Nonpoint source education and social marketing campaigns should include direct interpersonal contacts, and appeal to landowner motivations of caring, responsibility, and personal commitment.

Ryan, Clare M.

2009-06-01

374

Limitations of HSPF in Simulating Sub-Urban Pollutant Runoff Into Receiving Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program - Fortran) model is a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency endorsed mechanistic model for simulating the water quality impact of storm triggered point and non-point source loading. Although HSPF simulates both impervious and pervious hydrologic components of watershed runoff, the model cannot represent important urban transport mechanisms that route pollutants to receiving waters, including storm sewer runoff, spatially variable watertable triggered runoff, and basin-interior trapping of pollutants in vegetative filters and detention basins. These limitations, when revealed in modeling runoff in NYC's sub-urbanized Croton drinking water supply area, were overcome by loosely coupling HSPF with three other runoff models, Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), Hydrologic-Simulation Program - Fortran (HSPF), Program for Predicting Polluted Particle Passage through Pits, Puddles and Ponds (P8), and Topographic-based Land Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (TOPLATS). Combined, these four models simulate the following transport pathways of concern: 1) impervious processes of catch basin and storm sewer hydraulics, 2) pervious processes of infiltration, surface runoff, sub-surface storm flow, watertable dynamics, and 3) reach and reservoir processes of runoff routing and storm runoff detention. In addition to providing process simulation for investigators, the coupling of these models ultimately enables selection of more appropriate parameter values for a separate set of HSPF model runs that lump the dynamics revealed in the companion models.

Endreny, T. A.; Hassett, J. M.

2001-05-01

375

Natural Wetlands Mediate Non-point Source Water Pollution From Irrigated Pastures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-point source discharge from grazed pastures may be high in nutrients, sediment, and pathogens, three major contributors to water quality impairment in California. Intercepting pollution at its source and managing water quality within the landscape are essential to maintaining healthy downstream waters. We investigated the efficacy of flow-through wetlands interspersed throughout the agricultural landscape to reduce non-point source pollution of tailwater from cattle-grazed, irrigated pastures in the Sierra Nevada Foothills of California. Wetlands are known to positively impact water quality through ecological processes such as filtration, sedimentation, microbial transformations and plant uptake of nutrients. Influent and effluent water of small (0.25 ha), natural wetlands located downstream from flood irrigated pastures was analyzed for Escherichia coli, NO3-N, total N, total suspended solids (TSS), total P, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) throughout two summer irrigation seasons (June to October). We compared reductions of sediment, nutrients and E. coli provided by a healthy, non-degraded wetland with reductions from flow through a channelized, degraded wetland. Large reductions in E. coli (>75%) and TSS (>50%) were observed in water exiting the healthy wetland while nutrient and DOC (~ 20%) concentrations were less affected by flow through the wetland. The channelized wetland provided smaller reductions in all constituents than did the non-degraded wetland. Results from this study demonstrate that small flow-through wetlands can improve water quality through the attenuation of E. coli and suspended sediments, and to a lesser degree DOC and nutrients.

Knox, K.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Tate, K. W.

2005-12-01

376

[Method for environmental management in paper industry based on pollution control technology simulation].  

PubMed

To evaluate the reduction potential of industrial water pollutant emissions and to study the application of technology simulation in pollutant control and environment management, an Industrial Reduction Potential Analysis and Environment Management (IRPAEM) model was developed based on coupling of "material-process-technology-product". The model integrated bottom-up modeling and scenario analysis method, and was applied to China's paper industry. Results showed that under CM scenario, the reduction potentials of waster water, COD and ammonia nitrogen would reach 7 x 10(8) t, 39 x 10(4) t and 0.3 x 10(4) t, respectively in 2015, 13.8 x 10(8) t, 56 x 10(4) t and 0.5 x 10(4) t, respectively in 2020. Strengthening the end-treatment would still be the key method to reduce emissions during 2010-2020, while the reduction effect of structure adjustment would be more obvious during 2015-2020. Pollution production could basically reach the domestic or international advanced level of clean production in 2015 and 2020; the index of wastewater and ammonia nitrogen would basically meet the emission standards in 2015 and 2020 while COD would not. PMID:25639122

Zhang, Xue-Ying; Wen, Zong-Guo

2014-11-01

377

Total Water Management, the New Paradigm for Urban Water Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current resource management practices put different stresses on local water resources and urban infrastructure. Total Water Manag...

378

Water infiltration control to achieve mine water pollution control. A feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study determined the feasibility of conducting a full-scale demonstration to document the effectiveness of land reclamation at mined-out areas in establishing surface water infiltration control to prevent acid mine water pollution. The study site was the Dents Run Watershed, Monongalia County, West Virginia. Investigative measures included: investigation of each mine area and opening; a detailed description of each site;

F. J. Zaval; J. D. Robins

1973-01-01

379

Pollution: A Selected Bibliography of U.S. Government Publications on Air, Water, and Land Pollution 1965-1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials on environmental pollution published by the various offices of the federal government are presented in this select bibliography. Limited in scope to publications on air, water, and land pollution, the document is designed to serve teachers and researchers working in the field of environmental problems who wish reference to public…

Kiraldi, Louis, Comp.; Burk, Janet L., Comp.

380

In Hot Water: Thermoelectric Power and Thermal Pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of surface water for thermoelectric power plant cooling significantly impacts river water temperatures, posing risks to aquatic ecosystems. In addition, surface water temperatures in summer can exceed limits for power plant compliance with thermal effluent limitations, jeopardizing energy security during periods of peak power demand. For example, Brown's Ferry Nuclear Plant in Alabama curtailed power production by 50% for over 40 days in July-August of 2010 when river temperatures exceeded 90°F. Future increases in surface water temperatures due to climate change may further endanger energy security. This study examines summer intake and outflow water temperature data reported by power plants during peak production months across the United States to determine the impact of thermoelectric power plants on surface water temperatures in the summer. Initial results indicate that U.S. coal plants (n= 625) raised water temperatures by an average of 17°F (± 12°F) and discharged cooling water with median peak temperatures of 100°F (± 13°F) in the summer of 2005, the last year when this data was reliably reported. Further analysis will extend the time period of this study from 2000-2005 and expand the scope to various energy sources and cooling technologies. In addition, we explore regional variation to assess the relative threat that thermal pollution poses to energy security across the U.S.

Madden, N. T.

2010-12-01

381

Mixed finite element discretization of a model for organic pollution in waters  

E-print Network

Mixed finite element discretization of a model for organic pollution in waters Part I. The problem]), sophisticated modeling of the organic pollution in stream-waters has been elaborated. Taylor's dispersion´ephanie Salmon4 . Abstract We consider a mixed reaction diffusion system describing the organic pollution

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

382

ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL POLICIES. 1. A NATIONAL NETWORK MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to study the national implications of federal water pollution control policies, the authors developed a water pollution network model. The model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lake...

383

Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 1. A national network model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the national implications of federal water pollution control policies, the authors developed a water pollution network model. This model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and bays. While the geographical scope of the model and existing data availability required

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin; G. K. Young

1981-01-01

384

INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR AREAWIDE WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT PLANNING  

E-print Network

IN THE WASHINGTON, D.C. REGION UNDER THE FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ACT AMENDMENTS OF 1972 By Harvey Lieber as a follow-up to my book, Federalism and Clean Waters: The 1972Water Pollution Control Act, which had

District of Columbia, University of the

385

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF WATER SOURCES  

E-print Network

in a manual way. The expert compares measured concentrations of pollutants in the water with the reference) that would monitor water quality and suggest measures that need to be taken in case of pollution harmful effects of water pollutants. Drinking water is, by definition [4], water in its prime state

Bohanec, Marko

386

Draft Guidelines for State and Areawide Water Quality Management Program Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document discusses the draft guidelines formulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist the states in establishing a management program to integrate water quality and other resource management decisions. These guidelines are pfovided so that the long range goals of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

387

"Some, for all, forever" Managing Water for Sustainable Development in South Africa  

E-print Network

"Some, for all, forever" Managing Water for Sustainable Development in South Africa Priscilla" Integrated Water Resources Management in South Africa" a. Natural Conditions and Hydrology b. Pollution c Services Act of 1997 IV. Evaluation: South Africa as a Case Study a. Environmental goals b. Equity goals c

Mauzerall, Denise

388

Water Management in A PEMFC: Water Transport Mechanism and Material  

E-print Network

Water Management in A PEMFC: Water Transport Mechanism and Material Degradation in Gas Diffusion reaction in the cathode CL producing water and waste heat. Despite considerable progress in the overall on the water management of the PEMFC, namely the transport of product water (both liquid and vapor

Kandlikar, Satish

389

Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, and Infant Mortality in India  

E-print Network

Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, environmental regulations, and infant mortality from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental ...

Greenstone, Michael

390

Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, and Infant Mortality in India  

E-print Network

Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, and environmental regulations from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental regulations. ...

Greenstone, Michael

2011-07-01

391

UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN REMOVAL OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange, adsorption and acid catalysis properties. Different inorganic and organic pollutants have been removed from water at room temperature using various zeolites. Synthetic zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove inorganic pollutants...

392

awareness and pollution prevention  

E-print Network

..............................................5 Storm Water Pollution Prevention.....................5 Sanitary Sewer System ManagementHazard awareness and pollution prevention for contractors and visitors at UCSD #12;Hazard Awareness and Pollution Prevention For Contractors and Visitors at UC San Diego This booklet was developed by UC San Diego

Tsien, Roger Y.

393

Water hyacinths for removal of cadmium and nickel from polluted waters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Removal of cadmium and nickel from static water systems utilizing water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) was investigated. This aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to rapidly remove heavy metals from aqueous systems by root absorption and concentration. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to absorb and concentrate up to 0.67 mg of cadmium and 0.50 mg of nickel per gram of dry plant material when exposed for a 24-hour period to waters polluted with from 0.578 to 2.00 ppm of these toxic metals. It is found that one hectare of water hyacinths has the potential of removing 300 g of cadmium or nickel from 240,000 liters of water polluted with these metals during a 24-hour period.

Wolverton, B. C.

1975-01-01

394

Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process in Xi’an, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigates water quality pollution impacts on urbanization by analyzing temporal and spatial characteristics of different water quality parameters, and simulating economic loss of water quality pollution in Xi'an, China from 1996 to 2003. Results show that organic pollutants were the greatest contributors of surface water quality pollution from 1996 to 2003. High values existed in petroleum concentration, chemical

Hongming He; Jie Zhou; Yongjao Wu; Qian Yu; Wanchang Zhang; Xiuping Xie

2007-01-01

395

Optical multiple-analyte immunosensor for water pollution control.  

PubMed

A prototype of a portable optical immunosensor (called river analyser) has been developed. It can be applied for the monitoring of surface water quality. Antibodies carrying a fluorescent label are used for the specific recognition of pollutants, such as frequently applied pesticides. The transduction principle is based on total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF). The outstanding advantage of the river analyser is, that at least three analytes can be detected simultaneously in one sample. Test cycles and fluid handling are automated and enable unattended measuring. PMID:11849925

Barzen, Claudia; Brecht, Andreas; Gauglitz, Guenter

2002-04-01

396

New Photocatalysis for Effective Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of harmful compounds in water supplies and in the discharge of wastewater from chemical industries, power plants, and agricultural sources is a topic of global concern. The processes and technologies available at the present time for the treatment of polluted water are varied that include traditional water treatment processes such as biological, thermal and chemical treatment. All these water treatment processes, have limitations of their own and none is cost effective. Advanced oxidation processes have been proposed as an alternative for the treatment of this kind of wastewater. Heterogeneous photocatalysis has recently emerged as an efficient method for purifying water. TiO2 has generally been demonstrated to be the most active semiconductor material for decontamination water. One significant factor is the cost of separation TiO2, which is generally a powder having a very small particle size from the water after treatment by either sedimentation or ultrafiltration. The new photocatalyst, HTiNbO5, has been tested to determine whether its photocatalytic efficiency is good enough for use in photocatalytic water purification since it has high surface area and relatively large particle size. The larger particle sizes of the porous materials facilitate catalyst removal from a solution, after purification has taken place. It can be separated from water easily than TiO2, a significant technical improvement that might eliminate the tedious final filtration necessary with a slurry. These materials are characterized and tested as water decontamination photocatalysts. The new catalyst exhibited excellent catalytic activity, but with a strong pH dependence on the photo efficiency. These results suggest that elimination of the ion exchange character of the catalyst may greatly improve its performance at various pHs. This new research proposes to study the effects of a topotactic dehydration reaction on these new porous material catalysts.

Zarei Chaleshtori, M.; Saupe, G. B.; Masoud, S.

2009-12-01

397

Industrial effluent quality, pollution monitoring and environmental management.  

PubMed

Royal Commission Environmental Control Department (RC-ECD) at Yanbu industrial city in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has established a well-defined monitoring program to control the pollution from industrial effluents. The quality of effluent from each facility is monitored round the clock. Different strategic measures have been taken by the RC-ECD to implement the zero discharge policy of RC. Industries are required to pre-treat the effluent to conform pretreatment standards before discharging to central biological treatment plant. Industries are not allowed to discharge any treated or untreated effluent in open channels. After treatment, reclaimed water must have to comply with direct discharge standards before discharge to the sea. Data of industrial wastewater collected from five major industries and central industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP) is summarized in this report. During 5-year period, 3,705 samples were collected and analyzed for 43,436 parameters. There were 1,377 violations from pretreatment standards from all the industries. Overall violation percentage was 3.17%. Maximum violations were recorded from one of the petrochemical plants. The results show no significant pollution due to heavy metals. Almost all heavy metals were within RC pretreatment standards. High COD and TOC indicates that major pollution was due to hydrocarbons. Typical compounds identified by GC-MS were branched alkanes, branched alkenes, aliphatic ketones, substituted thiophenes, substituted phenols, aromatics and aromatic alcohols. Quality of treated water was also in compliance with RC direct discharge standards. In order to achieve the zero discharge goal, further studies and measures are in progress. PMID:18228156

Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S; Hammad, Waleed S

2008-12-01

398

Pollution Prevention and New Industrial Estates  

E-print Network

and Guidance Surface Water Management Project Examples #12;2 POLLUTION WITHIN INDUSTRIAL ESTATES Sources Poor ....CHRONIC POLLUTION Impact on the Water Environment Traditional gravity surface water drainage system discharging to watercourse ­ point source Source #12;5 Impact on the Water Environment ·Pollution from food

Heal, Kate

399

An novel identification method of the environmental risk sources for surface water pollution accidents in chemical industrial parks.  

PubMed

The chemical industry is a major source of various pollution accidents. Improving the management level of risk sources for pollution accidents has become an urgent demand for most industrialized countries. In pollution accidents, the released chemicals harm the receptors to some extent depending on their sensitivity or susceptibility. Therefore, identifying the potential risk sources from such a large number of chemical enterprises has become pressingly urgent. Based on the simulation of the whole accident process, a novel and expandable identification method for risk sources causing water pollution accidents is presented. The newly developed approach, by analyzing and stimulating the whole process of a pollution accident between sources and receptors, can be applied to identify risk sources, especially on the nationwide scale. Three major types of losses, such as social, economic and ecological losses, were normalized, analyzed and used for overall consequence modeling. A specific case study area, located in a chemical industry park (CIP) along the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province, China, was selected to test the potential of the identification method. The results showed that there were four risk sources for pollution accidents in this CIP. Aniline leakage in the HS Chemical Plant would lead to the most serious impact on the surrounding water environment. This potential accident would severely damage the ecosystem up to 3.8 km downstream of Yangtze River, and lead to pollution over a distance stretching to 73.7 km downstream. The proposed method is easily extended to the nationwide identification of potential risk sources. PMID:24218858

Peng, Jianfeng; Song, Yonghui; Yuan, Peng; Xiao, Shuhu; Han, Lu

2013-07-01

400

Got Milk? Got Water? Innovative Approach to Evaluating Groundwater Nitrate Nonpoint Source Pollution from Animal Farming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The California dairy industry produces 20% of US milk and is the largest animal industry in the state. Many of the dairy facilities are located in low-relief valleys and basins with vulnerable groundwater resources. The continued influx of dairies into California's Central Valley has raised critical questions regarding their environmental performance, in particular with respect to groundwater quality impacts. While animal farming systems are considered among the leading sources of groundwater nitrate,little is known about the actual impact of dairy farming practices on groundwater quality in the extensive alluvial aquifers underlying the Central Valley. With our work we attempt to characterize and assess shallow groundwater underneath dairies in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region and to discern the impact from various individual sources and management practices within dairies. An extensive shallow groundwater monitoring network was installed on five representative dairy operations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley, California. The monitoring network spans all dairy management units: manure water lagoons, corrals, storage areas, and manure treated forage fields under various management practices. We recently also surveyed production well water quality. Water quality is found to be highly variable, both in time and space. We propose that a meaningful interpretation of these (nonpoint source pollution) data is only possible by explicitly considering the various scales affiliated with groundwater measurement, pollution source management, regulatory control, and beneficial use. Using statistical analysis and innovative modeling tools, we provide an interpretation of the observed data that is meaningful at the field scale (the scale unit of management decisions), the farm scale (considered to be a regulatory and planning unit), and the regional scale (considered to be a planning unit).

Harter, T.; Vanderschans, M.; Leijnse, A.; Meyer, R. D.; Mathews, M. C.

2002-12-01

401

Linking Spatial Variations in Water Quality with Water and Land Management using Multivariate Techniques.  

PubMed

Most studies using multivariate techniques for pollution source evaluation are conducted in free-flowing rivers with distinct point and nonpoint sources. This study expanded on previous research to a managed "canal" system discharging into the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, where water and land management is the single most important anthropogenic factor influencing water quality. Hydrometric and land use data of four drainage basins were uniquely integrated into the analysis of 25 yr of monthly water quality data collected at seven stations to determine the impact of water and land management on the spatial variability of water quality. Cluster analysis (CA) classified seven monitoring stations into four groups (CA groups). All water quality parameters identified by discriminant analysis showed distinct spatial patterns among the four CA groups. Two-step principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) was conducted with (i) water quality data alone and (ii) water quality data in conjunction with rainfall, flow, and land use data. The results indicated that PCA/FA of water quality data alone was unable to identify factors associated with management activities. The addition of hydrometric and land use data into PCA/FA revealed close associations of nutrients and color with land management and storm-water retention in pasture and citrus lands; total suspended solids, turbidity, and NO + NO with flow and Lake Okeechobee releases; specific conductivity with supplemental irrigation supply; and dissolved O with wetland preservation. The practical implication emphasizes the importance of basin-specific land and water management for ongoing pollutant loading reduction and ecosystem restoration programs. PMID:25602661

Wan, Yongshan; Qian, Yun; Migliaccio, Kati White; Li, Yuncong; Conrad, Cecilia

2014-03-01

402

Multicriteria methodological approach to manage urban air pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managing urban air pollution necessitates a feasible and efficient abatement strategy which is characterised as a defined set of specific control measures. In practice, hard budget constraints are present in any decision-making process and therefore available alternatives need to be hierarchised in a fast but still reliable manner. Moreover, realistic strategies require adequate information on the available control measures, taking also into account the area's special characteristics. The selection of the most applicable bundle of measures rests in achieving stakeholders' consensus, while taking into consideration mutually conflicting views and criteria. A preliminary qualitative comparison of alternative control measures would be most handy for decision-makers, forming the grounds for an in-depth analysis of the most promising ones. This paper presents an easy-to-follow multicriteria methodological approach in order to include and synthesise multi-disciplinary knowledge from various stakeholders so as to result into a priority list of abatement options, achieve consensus and secure the adoption of the resulting optimal solution. The approach relies on the active involvement of public authorities and local stakeholders in order to incorporate their environmental, economic and social preferences. The methodological scheme is implemented for the case of Thessaloniki, Greece, an area considered among the most polluted cities within Europe, especially with respect to airborne particles. Intense police control, natural gas penetration in buildings and metro construction equally result into the most "promising" alternatives in order to control air pollution in the GTA. The three optimal alternatives belong to different thematic areas, namely road transport, thermal heating and infrastructure. Thus, it is obvious that efforts should spread throughout all thematic areas. Natural gas penetration in industrial units, intense monitoring of environmental standards and regular maintenance of heavy oil burners are ranked as 4th, 5th and 6th optimal alternatives, respectively.

Vlachokostas, Ch.; Achillas, Ch.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Banias, G.

2011-08-01

403

Blautia and Prevotella sequences distinguish human and animal fecal pollution in Brazil surface waters.  

PubMed

Untreated sewage discharges and limited agricultural manure management practices contribute to fecal pollution in rural Brazilian waterways. Most microbial source tracking studies have focused on Bacteroidales, and few have tested host-specific indicators in underdeveloped regions. Sequencing of sewage and human and animal feces with Illumina HiSeq revealed Prevotellaceae as the most abundant family in humans, with Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae also comprising a large proportion of the microbiome. These same families were also dominant in animals. Bacteroides, the genus containing the most commonly utilized human-specific marker in the United States was present in very low abundance. We used oligotyping to identify Prevotella and Blautia sequences that can distinguish human fecal contamination. Thirty-five of 61 Blautia oligotypes and 13 of 108 Prevotella oligotypes in humans were host-specific or highly abundant (i.e. host-preferred) compared to pig, dog, horse and cow sources. Certain human Prevotella and Blautia oligotypes increased more than an order of magnitude along a polluted river transect in rural Brazil, but traditional fecal indicator levels followed a steady or even decreasing trend. While both Prevotella and Blautia oligotypes distinguished human and animal fecal pollution in Brazil surface waters, Blautia appears to contain more discriminatory and globally applicable markers for tracking sources of fecal pollution. PMID:25360571

Koskey, Amber M; Fisher, Jenny C; Eren, A Murat; Ponce-Terashima, Rafael; Reis, Mitermayer G; Blanton, Ronald E; McLellan, Sandra L

2014-12-01

404

Industrial waste-water management practices in Air Force Logistics Command. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

The selection of a model plant was based upon criteria established by a review of current literature. The criteria were permit compliance, plant performance, and the adoption of pollution prevention as a corporate environmental philosophy. In this study, private sector firms were examined to identify the best industrial wastewater management practices using a Total Quality Management (TQM) tool called benchmarking. The data gathering process consisted of a survey of water pollution control organizations, and a survey of benchmark candidates. The purpose of surveying water pollution control organizations was to objectively identify possible benchmark candidates. A questionnaire was then used to gather technical data on each benchmark candidate's performance.

Smith, P.J.

1991-09-01

405

Feasibility of using the MIRADS data management system for a state air pollution agency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MIRADS is a generalized data management system. The feasibility of using MIRADS by the State of Alabama Air Pollution Control Commission is explored. The State's enforcement management system and the emission inventory system were implemented into MIRADS.

Schroer, B. J.

1975-01-01

406

Quantifying the role of immobile water on pollutant fluxes in double-permeable media under dynamic flow conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable use of water resources and their protection against pollution requires fundamental understanding of filter, buffer and storage functions of groundwater systems. Of particular importance are heterogeneous porous aquifers including zones with mobile and immobile water. Pollutants diffuse from high permeable areas into immobile zones with low permeability. Consequently, pollutants can be stored in such immobile water regions and their residence time in double-permeable aquifers is much longer compared to water residence times. However, it still remains unknown how the heterogeneity of an aquifer and time-dependent variability of the water flow influences the pollutant fate in such systems. The objective of this study was to develop experimental and mathematical methods to understand the role of immobile water zones on the pollutant retention, kinetic ad-/desorption and degradation. In saturated column experiments at three different flow rates multitracer experiments were conducted and 4-Chloronitrobenzene (intermediate in the production of explosives) was used as pollutant. The columns were packed with an outer cylinder of clay containing mainly immobile water whereas the centre was filled with coarse quartz sand containing mobile water. In the resulting breakthrough curves of the conservative tracers characterized by different diffusion properties, differences were observed in peak concentration and tailing. These differences indicated a mass exchange with immobile water zones driven by diffusion and were depended on the tracers' molecular diffusion coefficient. The mass exchange increased with decreasing flow rates and was quantified for conservative tracers applying a Single-Fissure Dispersion Model (SFDM) to porous media for the first time. The observed concentrations of the reactive solute 4-Chloronitronbenzen indicated that sorption onto clay minerals enhanced the mass exchange into the immobile water zone. On the other hand sorption and degradation inhibited the back-diffusion from immobile water to mobile water zones. Mathematical models based on analytical and numerical models have to be further developed to describe and quantify these observed processes. A better understanding about the influence of immobile water and dynamic flow conditions on pollutant transport will help to improve prediction of pollutant fluxes and site remediation techniques and management.

Knorr, Bastian; Krämer, Florian; Stumpp, Christine; Maloszewski, Piotr

2014-05-01

407

Spreadsheet WATERSHED modeling for nonpoint-source pollution management in a Wisconsin basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although several sophisticated nonpoint pollution models exist, few are available that are easy to use, cover a variety of conditions, and integrate a wide range of information to allow managers and planners to assess different control strategies. Here, a straightforward pollutant input accounting approach is presented in the form of an existing model (WATERSHED) that has been adapted to run on modern electronic spreadsheets. As an application, WATERSHED is used to assess options to improve the quality of highly eutrophic Delavan Lake in Wisconsin. WATERSHED is flexible in that several techniques, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation or unit-area loadings, can be used to estimate nonpoint-source inputs. Once the model parameters are determined (and calibrated, if possible), the spreadsheet features can be used to conduct a sensitivity analysis of management options. In the case of Delavan Lake, it was concluded that, although some nonpoint controls were cost-effective, the overall reduction in phosphorus would be insufficient to measurably improve water quality.A straightforward pollutant input accounting approach is presented in the form of an existing model (WATERSHED) that has been adapted to run on modern electronic spreadsheets. As an application, WATERSHED is used to assess options to improve the quality of highly eutrophic Delavan Lake in Wisconsin. WATERSHED is flexible in that several techniques, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation or unit-area loadings, can be used to estimate nonpoint-source inputs. Once the model parameters are determined (and calibrated, if possible), the spreadsheet features can be used to conduct a sensitivity analysis of management options. In the case of Delavan Lake, it was concluded that, although some nonpoint controls were cost-effective, the overall reduction in phosphorus would be insufficient to measurably improve water quality.

Walker, J.F.; Pickard, S.A.; Sonzogni, W.C.

1989-01-01

408

Fish discards management: pollution levels and best available removal techniques.  

PubMed

Fish discards and by-catch issues are highly topical subjects that are permanently under a social focus. Two main approaches are being considered to address this discard problem: reducing the by-catch and increasing by-catch utilization. Interest in increased by-catch valorization may arise from a greater demand for fish products, such as the development of new markets for previously discarded species, the use of low-value specimens for aquaculture or the creation of value-added fish products for the food, pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries. However, contaminants present in fish discards may be transferred to their valorized products, leading to possible long-term bioaccumulation and subsequent adverse health effects. In this valorization framework, the aim is to promote responsible and sustainable management of marine resources. The pollutant levels in catches from European fisheries and the best available decontamination techniques for marine valorized discards/by-products are compiled and analyzed in this work. PMID:22542692

Antelo, Luis T; Lopes, Carla; Franco-Uría, Amaya; Alonso, Antonio A

2012-07-01

409

Relaxation Approximations to Shallow Water and Pollutant Transport Department of Sciences, Division of Mathematics,  

E-print Network

1 Relaxation Approximations to Shallow Water and Pollutant Transport Equations A.I. Delis solution of shallow water flows and the transport and diffusion of pollutant in such flows. By first can be considered as an alternative to classical finite difference methods. Keywords--Shallow water

Katsaounis, Theodoros D.

410

The River Basin Model: Computer Output. Water Pollution Control Research Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research report is part of the Water Pollution Control Research Series which describes the results and progress in the control and abatement of pollution in our nation's waters. The River Basin Model described is a computer-assisted decision-making tool in which a number of computer programs simulate major processes related to water use that…

Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

411

The determination and fate of disinfection by-products from ozonation of polluted raw water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major disinfection by-products (DBPs) resulting from ozone treatment of polluted surface water were investigated. By-products of either health concern or which may contribute to biological instability of treated drinking water were investigated. The major DBPs were analyzed in two fractions: carbonyl compounds and brominated organic compounds. The natural organic matter (NOM) was also isolated and fractionated from polluted water

Winn-Jung Huang; Guor-Cheng Fang; Chun-Chen Wang

2005-01-01

412

DEVELOPMENTS AT FOURTEENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WATER POLLUTION RESEARCH - BRIGHTON, ENGLAND, JULY 17-22, 1988  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this report is to provide a mechanism whereby current water research developments from around the world as reported at the 14th International Conference on Water Pollution Research of the International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control can be high...

413

Water management by early people in the Yucatan, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yucatan Peninsula is a coastal plain underlain by permeable limestone and receives abundant rainfall. Such hydrogeologic conditions should provide major supplies of water; however, factors of climate and hydrogeology have combined to form a hydrologic system with chemical boundaries that limits the amount of fresh water available. Management of water resources has long had a major influence on the cultural and economic development of the Yucatan. The Mayan culture of the northern Yucatan developed on extensive use of groundwater. The religion was water oriented and the Mayan priests prayed to Chac, the water god, for assistance in water management, primarily to decrease the severity of droughts. The Spaniards arrived in 1517 and augmented the supply by digging wells, which remained the common practice for more than 300 years. Many wells now have been abandoned because of serious problems of pollution. A historical perspective of a paper such as this provides insight into the attitudes concerning water of early people and perhaps provides insight into current attitudes concerning water. Hydrogeologists possess the expertise to generate relevant information required by water managers to arrive at management programs to achieve sustainable development.

Back, W.

1995-06-01

414

Voluntary Pollution Reduction Programs, Environmental Management, and Environmental Performance: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines, empirically, the mechanism by which a voluntary pollution reduction program (VPR) achieves pollution reductions. We find that participation in the 33\\/50 program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s first VPR, spurred the adoption of total quality environmental management (TQEM), an environmental management system that views pollution as a quality defect to be continuously reduced through the development of

Abdoul G. Sam; Madhu Khanna; Robert Innes

2009-01-01

415

The waste management approach to pollution prevention for the 21st century  

SciTech Connect

This book covers--in a thorough and clear style--the fundamentals of pollution prevention and their application to real-world problems. It explains the fundamentals of pollution prevention and their applications to real world problems; covers reduction and elimination of waste streams; explores waste management through energy conservation and health and safety prevention; discusses waste management through technical and engineering aspects of pollution prevention; and includes case studies and a solutions manual.

Theodore, L.; Dupont, R.; Ganesan, K.

1999-11-01

416

[Method of ecological risk assessment for risk pollutants under short-term and high dose exposure in water pollution accident].  

PubMed

In recent years, water pollution accidents resulting in acute aquatic ecological risk and security issues become a research focus. However, in our country, the surface water quality standards and drinking water health standards were used to determine the safety of waters or not in pollution incidents due to lacking safety effect threshold or risk value for protection of aquatic life. In foreign countries, although predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) or risk value (R) of pollutants were provided for protection of aquatic organisms, the PNECs or risk values were derived based on long-term exposure toxicity data NOECs (no observed effect concentrations) and lack of short-term exposure risk or threshold values. For the short-term and high dose exposure in pollution incident, ecological risk assessment methods were discussed according to the procedures of the conventional ecological risk assessment and the water quality criteria establishment of the U.S. EPA for the protection of aquatic organisms in short-term exposure, and had a case study. At the same time, we provide some suggestions for the establishment of ecological risk assessment system in water pollution incidents. PMID:22295619

Lei, Bing-Li; Sun, Yan-Feng; Liu, Qian; Yu, Zhi-Qiang; Zeng, Xiang-Ying

2011-11-01

417

Integrated water management: emerging issues and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the projected global population increases will take place in Third World Countries that already suffer from water, food, and health problems. Increasingly, agricultural water management must be coordinated with, and integrated into, the overall water management of the region. Sustainability, public health, and environmental protection are key factors. More storage of water behind dams and especially in aquifers

Herman Bouwer

2000-01-01

418

Optimal Search on Water Pollution Accident Source in Discrete Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the pollution accidents take place in the river basin, it is very important and necessary to find out the accidental sources of pollution , so that effective measures can be taken to reduce the pollution. But because of the lack of monitoring efforts and the secluded source, very little about the accidental sources of pollution is known to searcher

Ying Liu; Dan Liu; Kun Wang; Qingxin Zhu

2007-01-01

419

Operation and Maintenance of Water Pollution Control Facilities: A WPCF White Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are the recommendations of the Water Pollution Control Federation for operation and maintenance consideration during the planning design, construction, and operation of wastewater treatment facilities. (CS)

Hill, William R.; And Others

1979-01-01

420

WATER INFILTRATION CONTROL TO ACHIEVE MINE WATER POLLUTION CONTROL: THE DENTS RUN WATERSHED DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of surface mined land reclamation measures in establishing surface water infiltratin control to prevent or reduce pollution from acid mine drainage. The Dents Run watershed, located in Monongalia County, West Virgin...

421

Use of Copper Components in Water Systems to Reduce Water Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anti-bacillus action of copper ions leaching from a copper strainer retards the growth of slime on the strainer. The drain holes in the strainer can thus be 1 mm or less in diameter. This reduces the outflow of kitchen waste, which reduces the pollution of river water. Investigation into the degradation of trap resin in the drain of kitchen

Toshinori Ozaki; Muneo Kodaira; Seiichi Takagi

422

Spectroscopic analyses of pollutants in water, sediment and fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water ways in Egypt is suffering from continual discharge without adequate treatment especially in the Delta and greater Cairo area. Accordingly water, sediments and catfishes were collected from El Mouheet El Youmna drain in Giza. Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn were determined furthermore the molecular structure of sediment and catfish were conducted with FTIR spectroscopy. Although studied metals were lower in water, higher values are recorded in sediment and catfish samples. FTIR shows possible interaction among metals and organic structures mainly proteins. The bioaccumulation of Pb and Cd proportion was significantly increased in the liver tissues of catfish. A correlation coefficient among sediment and fish liver metals accumulation exist. This infers that the waste assimilation capacity for the drain is high, a phenomena that could be ascribed to dilution, sedimentation and continual water exchange. Furthermore, the genotoxicity affect in catfish genomic corroborates the genus diagnostic markers which attributed to long pollution. This is an indication that agriculture and industrial wastes discharged into the drain has badly a significant effect on the ecological balance.

Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh.; Ibrahim, Hanan S.; Ammar, Nabila S.; Ibrahim, Medhat

2012-11-01

423

The Potential Importance of Conservation, Restoration, and Altered Management Practices for Water Quality in the Wabash River Watershed  

EPA Science Inventory

Non-point source (NPS) pollution is one of the leading causes of water quality impairment within the United States. Conservation, restoration and altered management (CRAM) practices may effectively reduce NPS pollutants discharge into receiving water bodies and enhance local and ...

424

40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the owner's or operator's intake water will not be removed by any wastewater treatment systems whose design capacity and...toxic pollutant(s) present in the water after any water supply treatment steps have been performed by or...

2010-07-01

425

75 FR 7627 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Notice is hereby given that on February 16...the pre-treatment requirements of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act), 40 CFR part 403...

2010-02-22

426

40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the owner's or operator's intake water will not be removed by any wastewater treatment systems whose design capacity and...toxic pollutant(s) present in the water after any water supply treatment steps have been performed by or...

2012-07-01

427

40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the owner's or operator's intake water will not be removed by any wastewater treatment systems whose design capacity and...toxic pollutant(s) present in the water after any water supply treatment steps have been performed by or...

2013-07-01

428

40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the owner's or operator's intake water will not be removed by any wastewater treatment systems whose design capacity and...toxic pollutant(s) present in the water after any water supply treatment steps have been performed by or...

2014-07-01

429

Linking Near Real-Time Water Quality Measurements to Fecal Coliforms and Trace Organic Pollutants in Urban Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic pollutants, including pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, and estrogens are detected in urban water bodies. Effective examination of dilute organic and microbial pollutant loading rates within surface waters is currently prohibitively expensive and labor intensive. Effort is being placed on the development of improved monitoring methodologies to more accurately assess surface water quality and evaluate the effectiveness of water quality management practices. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008 a "real-time" wireless network equipped with high frequency fundamental water quality parameter sensors measured turbidity, conductivity, pH, depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen and nitrate above and below stormwater inputs at two urban stream locations. At each location one liter grab samples were concurrently collected by ISCO automatic samplers at two hour intervals for 24 hour durations during three dry periods and five rain events. Grab samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms, atrazine (agricultural herbicide), prometon (residential herbicide) and caffeine (wastewater indicator). Surrogate relationships between easy-to-measure water quality parameters and difficult-to-measure pollutants were developed, subsequently facilitating monitoring of these pollutants without the development of new, and likely costly, technologies. Additionally, comparisons were made between traditional grab sampling techniques and the "real-time" monitoring to assess the accuracy of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) calculations.

Henjum, M.; Wennen, C.; Hondzo, M.; Hozalski, R. M.; Novak, P. J.; Arnold, W. A.

2009-05-01

430

Combined Multivariate Statistical Techniques, Water Pollution Index (WPI) and Daniel Trend Test Methods to Evaluate Temporal and Spatial Variations and Trends of Water Quality at Shanchong River in the Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China  

PubMed Central

Understanding spatial and temporal variations in river water quality and quantitatively evaluating the trend of changes are important in order to study and efficiently manage water resources. In this study, an analysis of Water Pollution Index (WPI), Daniel Trend Test, Cluster Analysis and Discriminant Analysis are applied as an integrated approach to quantitatively explore the spatial and temporal variations and the latent sources of water pollution in the Shanchong River basin, Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China. We group all field surveys into 2 clusters (dry season and rainy season). Moreover, 14 sampling sites have been grouped into 3 clusters for the rainy season (highly polluted, moderately polluted and less polluted sites) and 2 clusters for the dry season (highly polluted and less polluted sites) based on their similarities and the level of pollution during the two seasons. The results show that the main trend of pollution was aggravated during the transition from the dry to the rainy season. The Water Pollution Index of Total Nitrogen is the highest of all pollution parameters, whereas the Chemical Oxygen Demand (Chromium) is the lowest. Our results also show that the main sources of pollution are farming activities alongside the Shanchong River, soil erosion and fish culture at Shanchong River reservoir area and domestic sewage from scattered rural residential area. Our results suggest that strategies to prevent water pollutionat the Shanchong River basin need to focus on non-point pollution control by employing appropriate fertilizer formulas in farming, and take the measures of soil and water conservation at Shanchong reservoir area, and purifying sewage from scattered villages. PMID:25837673

Wang, Quan; Wu, Xianhua; Zhao, Bin; Qin, Jie; Peng, Tingchun

2015-01-01

431

Combined Multivariate Statistical Techniques, Water Pollution Index (WPI) and Daniel Trend Test Methods to Evaluate Temporal and Spatial Variations and Trends of Water Quality at Shanchong River in the Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China.  

PubMed

Understanding spatial and temporal variations in river water quality and quantitatively evaluating the trend of changes are important in order to study and efficiently manage water resources. In this study, an analysis of Water Pollution Index (WPI), Daniel Trend Test, Cluster Analysis and Discriminant Analysis are applied as an integrated approach to quantitatively explore the spatial and temporal variations and the latent sources of water pollution in the Shanchong River basin, Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China. We group all field surveys into 2 clusters (dry season and rainy season). Moreover, 14 sampling sites have been grouped into 3 clusters for the rainy season (highly polluted, moderately polluted and less polluted sites) and 2 clusters for the dry season (highly polluted and less polluted sites) based on their similarities and the level of pollution during the two seasons. The results show that the main trend of pollution was aggravated during the transition from the dry to the rainy season. The Water Pollution Index of Total Nitrogen is the highest of all pollution parameters, whereas the Chemical Oxygen Demand (Chromium) is the lowest. Our results also show that the main sources of pollution are farming activities alongside the Shanchong River, soil erosion and fish culture at Shanchong River reservoir area and domestic sewage from scattered rural residential area. Our results suggest that strategies to prevent water pollutionat the Shanchong River basin need to focus on non-point pollution control by employing appropriate fertilizer formulas in farming, and take the measures of soil and water conservation at Shanchong reservoir area, and purifying sewage from scattered villages. PMID:25837673

Wang, Quan; Wu, Xianhua; Zhao, Bin; Qin, Jie; Peng, Tingchun

2015-01-01

432

An integrated solution for superficial water resources management based on complex distributed models and innovative web technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Action plans to reduce water pollution is a strategic task of European Countries (2000\\/60\\/CE) where water demand is steadily increasing, while water resources are limited. Action plans for water resource protection include monitoring activities, programming, identification of interventions, measures, constraints, and, in general, a variety of integrated actions for a water resource management policy. The advances in web- based technologies,

M. Fiori; Pierluigi Cau; Giancarlo Meloni

433

Remote sensing in the mixing zone. [water pollution in Wisconsin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characteristics of dispersion and diffusion as the mechanisms by which pollutants are transported in natural river courses were studied with the view of providing additional data for the establishment of water quality guidelines and effluent outfall design protocols. Work has been divided into four basic categories which are directed at the basic goal of developing relationships which will permit the estimation of the nature and extent of the mixing zone as a function of those variables which characterize the outfall structure, the effluent, and the river, as well as climatological conditions. The four basic categories of effort are: (1) the development of mathematical models; (2) laboratory studies of physical models; (3) field surveys involving ground and aerial sensing; and (4) correlation between aerial photographic imagery and mixing zone characteristics.

Villemonte, J. R.; Hoopes, J. A.; Wu, D. S.; Lillesand, T. M.

1973-01-01

434

The Degradation of Organic Pollutants by Bubble Discharge in Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic pollutants could be degraded by using bubble discharge in water with gas aeration in the discharge reactor and more plasma can be generated in the discharge process. When pulsed high voltage was applied between electrodes with gas aerated into the reactor, it showed that bubbles were broken, which meant that breakdown took place. It could also be observed that the removal rate of phenol increased with increasing discharge voltage or pulse frequency, and with reducing initial phenol concentration or solution electric conductivity. It could remove more amount of phenol by oxygen aeration. With increasing oxygen flow rate, the removal rate increased. There was little difference with air or nitrogen aeration for phenol removal. The solution temperature after discharge increased to a great extent. However, this part of energy consumption did not contribute to the reaction, which led to a reduction in the energy utilization efficiency.

Zhu, Linan; Wang, Yongjun; Ren, Zhijun; Liu, Guifang; Kang, Kai

2013-10-01

435

Integrated estuary management for diffused sediment pollution in Dapeng Bay and neighboring rivers (Taiwan).  

PubMed

This work investigated sediment samples collected from Dapeng Bay and three neighboring rivers (Kaoping River, Tungkang River, and Lingbeng River) in southwestern Taiwan, Republic of China. Multivariate statistical analysis techniques, i.e., factor analysis, cluster analysis, and canonical discriminant analysis were used for the evaluation of spatial variations to determine the types of pollution and to identify pollutant sources from neighboring rivers. Factor analysis results showed that the most important latent factors in Dapeng Bay are soil texture, heavy metals, organic matter, and nutrients factors. Contour maps incorporating the factor scores showed heavy metals accumulate along the lakesides, especially on the southeastern banks of the lakes. A cluster analysis was performed using factor scores computed from these latent factors. We then classified these areas into five distinct classes using sampling stations, and we illustrate that in the three river classes, the sediment properties are influenced by industrial and domestic wastewater and agricultural activities (including livestock rearing and farm activities). However, in Dapeng Bay, the rivers were influenced more by complicated biogeochemical processes; these could be identified as a type of pollution. Canonical discriminant analysis illustrated that two constructed discriminant functions made a marked contribution to most of the discriminant variables, and the significant parameters of porosity and Cd, Cr, Al, and Pb content were combined as the "heavy metal factor". The recognition capacities of the two discriminant functions were 82.6% and 17.4%, respectively. It is also likely that the annual mean of the water exchange rate is insufficient (taking about 7 days to eliminate pollutants) and therefore has significantly influenced the carbon and nutrient biogeochemical processes and budgets in the semi-enclosed ecosystem. Thus, the sediment properties are not similar between the lagoon and the neighboring rivers. Our results yield useful information concerning estuary recovery and water resources management and may be applicable to other basins with similar characteristics that are experiencing similar coastal environmental issues. PMID:20195746

Chung, Chung-Yi; Chen, Jen-Jeng; Lee, Chang-Gai; Chiu, Chun-Yen; Lai, Wen-Liang; Liao, Shao-Wei

2011-02-01

436

Water resource management: an Indian perspective.  

PubMed

Water is precious natural resource for sustaining life and environment. Effective and sustainable management of water resources is vital for ensuring sustainable development. In view of the vital importance of water for human and animal life, for maintaining ecological balance and for economic and developmental activities of all kinds, and considering its increasing scarcity, the planning and management of water resource and its optimal, economical and equitable use has become a matter of the utmost urgency. Management of water resources in India is of paramount importance to sustain one billion plus population. Water management is a composite area with linkage to various sectors of Indian economy including the agricultural, industrial, domestic and household, power, environment, fisheries and transportation sector. The water resources management practices should be based on increasing the water supply and managing the water demand under the stressed water availability conditions. For maintaining the quality of freshwater, water quality management strategies are required to be evolved and implemented. Decision support systems are required to be developed for planning and management of the water resources project. There is interplay of various factors that govern access and utilization of water resources and in light of the increasing demand for water it becomes important to look for holistic and people-centered approaches for water management. Clearly, drinking water is too fundamental and serious an issue to be left to one institution alone. It needs the combined initiative and action of all, if at all we are serious in socioeconomic development. Safe drinking water can be assured, provided we set our mind to address it. The present article deals with the review of various options for sustainable water resource management in India. PMID:25151722

Khadse, G K; Labhasetwar, P K; Wate, S R

2012-10-01

437

Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid  

PubMed Central

Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P?=?0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l?1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l?1 (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

Van Dijk, Tessa C.; Van Staalduinen, Marja A.; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

2013-01-01

438

Effective management for acidic pollution in the canal network of the Mekong Delta of Vietnam: a modeling approach.  

PubMed

Acidic pollution can cause severe environmental consequences annually in coastal areas overlain with acid sulfate soils (ASS). A water quality model was used as an analytical tool for exploring the effects of water management options and other interventions on acidic pollution and salinity in Bac Lieu, a coastal province of the Mekong Delta. Fifty eight percent of the provincial area is covered by ASS, and more than three-fourths (approximately 175,000 ha) are used for brackish-water shrimp culture. Simulations of acid water propagation in the canal network indicate that the combination of opening the two main sluices along the East Sea of the study area at high tide for one day every week in May and June and widening the canals that connect these sluices to the West Sea allows for adequate saline water intake and minimizes the acidic pollution in the study area. On the other hand, canal dredging in the freshwater ASS area should be done properly as it can create severe acidic pollution. PMID:24726961

Phong, Ngo Dang; Hoanh, Chu Thai; Tuong, To Phuc; Malano, Hector

2014-07-01

439

75 FR 43554 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (“Clean Water...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (``Clean Water Act'') Notice is hereby given that on July 21, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree in...

2010-07-26

440

40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Water quality management plans. 130.6...PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water...a) Water quality management (WQM) plans...Continuing water quality planning shall be based...

2010-07-01

441

Farmers, Trust, and the Market Solution to Water Pollution: The Role of Social Embeddedness in Water Quality Trading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water quality trading (WQT) is a market arrangement in which a point-source water polluter pays farmers to implement conservation practices and claims the resulting benefits as credits toward meeting a pollution permit. Success rates of WQT programs nationwide are highly variable. Most of the literature on WQT is from an economic perspective…

Mariola, Matt J.

2012-01-01

442

Water Management Strategies against Water Shortage in the Alps (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the European Alps water has been perceived as ubiquitous and not the subject of management. Climate change and anthropogenic pressures have changed demand and supply relations rapidly and over the last 10 years, water problems have increasingly become apparent over temporal and spatial hotspots. Stakeholders in the Alpine Space have been confronted with water management problems in agriculture, tourism

C. de Jong

2009-01-01

443

Citizens' guides to ocean and coastal law: Guide to laws regulating coastal water pollution  

SciTech Connect

The pamphlet is intended to help citizens, like those participating in water quality monitoring programs, who want to understand the complex nature of state, federal, and local laws that apply to the chief sources of coastal water pollution: point source pollution--pollution discharged from pipes which require state and federal permits; and nonpoint source pollution--generally unregulated runoff from agricultural operations and urban land uses, timber harvesting (silviculture), and construction activities. The pamphlet explains the legal standards and penalties established by coastal water quality laws so that citizens can better participate in the implementation and enforcement of these laws.

Not Available

1993-01-01

444

The transition in Dutch water management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decades, the Dutch people have been confronted with severe water-related problems, which are the result of an unsustainable water system, arising from human interventions in the physical infrastructure of the water system and the water management style. The claims of housing, industry, infrastructure and agriculture have resulted in increasing pressure on the water system. The continuous subsidence

Rutger van der Brugge; Jan Rotmans; Derk Loorbach

2005-01-01

445

State of ISRAEL Water Resources Management  

E-print Network

. Water wells purification and aquifers water quality improvement. Increasing capacity of waste waterState of ISRAEL Water Resources Management Socio-Economic Perspective Tami Shor , Deputy Director (Regulation) Israel Water Authority April, 2010 #12;State of ISRAEL 2 Israel is situated at the edge

Einat, Aharonov

446

Analysis of national water-pollution-control policies. 1. A national network model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the national implications of federal water-pollution-control policies, the authors developed a water-pollution-network model. This model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and bays. While the geographical scope of the model and existing data availability required make many simplifying assumptions,

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin; G. K. Young

1981-01-01

447

Research on Regional Water Consumption and Water Pollutants Emissions with REPI Model - A Case Study in Shandong Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

High economic growth in Shandong has had huge implications for great water consumption and produced significant water pollutants. Saving index is introduced to analyze the evolution of the performance of water consumption, waste water discharges, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and ammonia nitrogen emissions in Shandong over the past 12 years. The change of saving indexes represents Shandong's water efficiency, waste

Xueliang Yuan; Qingsong Wang; Liqiang Zhang; Lin Cui; Chunyuan Ma; Ruimin Mu

2010-01-01

448

Agricultural Management, Water Quality and Phosphorus  

E-print Network

Agricultural Management, Water Quality and Phosphorus: The Long and Winding Road Andrew Sharpley #12;In the beginning Agriculture and water quality Targeted watershed P management Linking ecosystem;#12;Optimal soil PO concentrations for plant growth ~0.20 mg/L #12;For flowing waters ~0.01 to 0.10 mg/L #12

449

Trading pollution for water quality : assessing the effects of market-based instruments in three basins  

E-print Network

Since its passage in 1972, the majority of pollution reduction under the federal Clean Water Act has resulted from technology-based limits imposed on point source dischargers. However, most U.S. water bodies are unmonitored ...

Wallace, Katherine Hay

2007-01-01

450

The influence of light and air on the purification of polluted water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study was made between the organic polluted water from the river Lieve (Ghent, Belgium), and the same water treated in the laboratory aquaria, with light and atmospheric air at a constant temperature.

WILLEM H. O. DE SMET; Frans M. J. C. Evens

1970-01-01

451

Asymptotic estimation error growth applied to monitoring. [Water pollution monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems in the design of optimal measurement systems for monitoring pollutant levels in a confined aquifer are discussed. It is assumed that a two-dimensional region Z exists within an aquifer into which a collection of stochastic and deterministic point sources are injecting a pollutant species. It is required to design a monitoring system whereby best estimates of the pollutant concentration

Pimentel

1978-01-01

452

INFORMATION MANAGEMENT FOR INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (IWRM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Already in 1988, management specialist, Peter Drucker, recognised that we are generally moving away from the traditional command-and-control organisation to the information-based organisation. With the advent of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in South Africa, introduced through the radical reforms of the National Water Act, 1998, we urgently need to ask what the information-based organisation for water management will look

E. Braune; H. Keuris; E. Trennery; M. Watson

2004-01-01

453

Water pollution control: assessing the impacts and costs of environmental standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book addresses one of the key policy changes enacted into law by the Congress in 1972, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, that of requiring certain categories of industries and municipalities to meet pollution-discharge standards based on specific technology objectives regardless of the prior conditions or desired uses of the water. The procedures used to address

R. A. Luken; E. H. Pechan

1977-01-01

454

Feasibility study: Fuel cell cogeneration in a water pollution control facility, volume 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual design study was conducted to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of a cogeneration fuel cell power plant operating in a large water pollution control facility. In this particular application, the fuel cell power plant would use methane rich digester gas from the water pollution control facility as a fuel feedstock to provide electrical and thermal energy. Several

J. H. Hirschenhofer; D. B. Baillieul; L. M. Barton; R. J. Brumberg; C. E. Hannan; H. H. Fiedler; M. G. Kile; M. G. Klett; G. A. Malone; H. P. Milliron

1980-01-01

455

Federal environmental litigation in 1976: the Federal Water Pollution Control Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 forms a vital part of EPA's national battle against pollution. The general objective of the act, to ''restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters,'' will hopefully be achieved through the completion of specific goals set and carried out by EPA and the federal government. The application

K. M. Hunciker; V. Pagano

1976-01-01

456

Political crisis and the politics of water pollution control in the 1970s  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigates the sociopolitical context and formation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1977 in light of the theory of the relative autonomy of the state. Data on state legitimacy and political crisis are derived from previous studies on public trust in government and business and the

Tsoukalas

1991-01-01

457

Oil-spill cleanup fulfills aim of Federal Water Pollution Control Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decision in Union Petroleum Corp. v. United States reaffirms the Federal judiciary's commitment to control water pollution under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Those in charge of oil terminals who have taken reasonable precautions to prevent vandalism and oil spills into navigable rivers will be reimbursed when vandals spill oil from tank cars parked at the terminal. Awarding

1982-01-01

458

MINE-WATER POLLUTION OF AN HYDROLOGICAL SYSTEM DOWNWARD A FORMER METALLIC MINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mine-water pollution is a wide problem, very often studied because it is generally associated with acid sulfate waters (ASW), contamination due to dissolved pollutants (As, S, Zn, Pb…) in surface and groundwaters, to the precipitation of these potentially toxic elements in stream sediments…(Schwertmann et al., 1995; Bigham et al., 1996). In an abandoned mine of tungsten in the French Massif

Alexandra COURTIN-NOMADE; Hubert BRIL; Cécile GROSBOIS; Christophe ROUSSEL

459

Bacterial community composition in low-flowing river water with different sources of pollutants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pollution of water resources is a major risk to human health and water quality throughout the world. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of pollutant sources from agricultural activities, urban runoffs, and runoffs from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on bacterial communitie...

460

Monitoring heated water pollution of the DaYaWan nuclear power plant using TM images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heated water pollution is one of the problems to which environmental protection efforts pay great attention. As traditional heated water pollution monitoring methods are inefficient, remote sensing plays an increasingly more and more important role, as it can monitor large areas in real time. This study focuses on how to use remote sensing technology effectively to monitor and evaluate heated

C. Wu; Q. Wang; Z. Yang; W. Wang

2007-01-01

461

A trading-ratio system for trading water pollution discharge permits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fact that water flows to the lowest level uni-directionally is a very specific and useful property of water. By utilizing this property, we design a trading-ratio system (TRS) of tradable discharge permits for water pollution control. Such a trading-ratio system has three main characteristics: (1) the zonal effluent cap is set by taking into account the water pollutant loads

Ming-Feng Hung; Daigee Shaw

2005-01-01

462

A Nonparametric Instrumental Variable Approach to Estimating the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollutants at the Global Level1  

E-print Network

for Water Pollutants at the Global Level1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lin,2 Krishna P. Paudel, Mahesh Pandit for Water Pollutants at the Global Level Abstract We examine the relationship between income and water pollutants using country- level global water quality data over the period 1980 to 2012. We include civil

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

463

A Nonparametric Instrumental Variable Approach to Estimating the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollutants at the Global Level  

E-print Network

for Water Pollutants at the Global Level Krishna P. Paudel1 , C.-Y. Cynthia Lin2 , Mahesh Pandit the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollutants at the Global Level Abstract We examine the relationship between income and water pollutants using country- level global water quality data over the period 1980

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

464

Water pollution and habitat degradation in the Gulf of Thailand.  

PubMed

The Gulf of Thailand has been a major marine resource for Thai people for a long time. However, recent industrialization and community development have exerted considerable stress on the marine environments and provoked habitat degradation. The following pollution problems in the Gulf have been prioritized and are discussed in details: (1) Untreated municipal and industrial waste water are considered to be the most serious problems of the country due to limited waste water treatment facilities in the area. (2) Eutrophication is an emerging problem in the gulf of Thailand. Fortunately, the major species of phytoplankton that have been reported as the cause of red tide phenomena were non-toxic species such as Noctiluca sp. and Trichodesmium sp. (3) Few problems have been documented from trace metals contamination in the Gulf of Thailand and public health threat from seafood contamination does not appear to be significant yet. (4) Petroleum hydrocarbon residue contamination is not a problem, although a few spills from small oil tankers have been recorded. A rapid decrease in mangrove forest, coral reefs, and fisheries resources due to mismanagement is also discussed. PMID:12787596

Cheevaporn, Voravit; Menasveta, Piamsak

2003-01-01

465

An integrated approach for modelling and managing golf course water quality and ecosystem diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models can help planners assess the potential impacts of planned land development. However, pollutant yield results from common watershed water quality models are inadequate and must be coupled with other important ecosystem component models to assess the overall impact of land development and management. For example, golf course development typically replaces agricultural or native lands with intensively managed grassland with

K. R Mankin

2000-01-01

466

An experimental study on the feasibility of monitoring petroleum-polluted waters with remote sensing technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study was carried out in order to prove the feasibility of monitoring petroluem-polluted waters with remote sensing technology. The field data was collected in the rivers threatened by petroleum pollution. The measured items mainly included (1) the absorption coefficients of yellow substance, de-pigmented particles and phytoplankton pigments; (2) the backscattering coefficients data of water; (3) water quality parameters; (4) in-situ fine water spectral data. First, absorption spectral features and backscattering coefficients of petroleum-polluted water were analyzed. Secondly, the field spectral data were processed as corresponding bands of ENVISAT/MERIS using the spectral respond function of ENVISAT/MERIS in order to probe into the contribution of the various constituent concentrations in waters on the leaving-water radiation and remote sensing reflectance. The results showed that (1) with the increase of the petroleum pollution concentration, the absorption coefficients of petroleum-polluted water are also increased; (2) the spectra slope of exponential function of petroleum-polluted water is larger than that of petroleum-unpolluted water; (3) Emulsificated oil and decomposed oil in water can be absorbed by suspended particles and influence the scattering properties of the particles. Moreover it will change the spectral model of the inorganic particles backscattering coefficient with petroleum-polluted water; (4) the correlation between petroleum pollution concentration and remote sensing reflectance based on ENVISAT/MERIS is negative. These features of inherent optical parameters and apparent optical parameters obtained from the experiment provide the feasibility for monitoring petroleum-polluted waters with remote sensing technology.

Huang, Miaofen; Song, Qingjun; Xing, Xufeng; Tang, Junwu; Yu, Wuyi; Zhang, Yimin

2009-09-01

467

An experimental study on the feasibility of monitoring petroleum-polluted waters with remote sensing technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study was carried out in order to prove the feasibility of monitoring petroluem-polluted waters with remote sensing technology. The field data was collected in the rivers threatened by petroleum pollution. The measured items mainly included (1) the absorption coefficients of yellow substance, de-pigmented particles and phytoplankton pigments; (2) the backscattering coefficients data of water; (3) water quality parameters; (4) in-situ fine water spectral data. First, absorption spectral features and backscattering coefficients of petroleum-polluted water were analyzed. Secondly, the field spectral data were processed as corresponding bands of ENVISAT/MERIS using the spectral respond function of ENVISAT/MERIS in order to probe into the contribution of the various constituent concentrations in waters on the leaving-water radiation and remote sensing reflectance. The results showed that (1) with the increase of the petroleum pollution concentration, the absorption coefficients of petroleum-polluted water are also increased; (2) the spectra slope of exponential function of petroleum-polluted water is larger than that of petroleum-unpolluted water; (3) Emulsificated oil and decomposed oil in water can be absorbed by suspended particles and influence the scattering properties of the particles. Moreover it will change the spectral model of the inorganic particles backscattering coefficient with petroleum-polluted water; (4) the correlation between petroleum pollution concentration and remote sensing reflectance based on ENVISAT/MERIS is negative. These features of inherent optical parameters and apparent optical parameters obtained from the experiment provide the feasibility for monitoring petroleum-polluted waters with remote sensing technology.

Huang, Miaofen; Song, Qingjun; Xing, Xufeng; Tang, Junwu; Yu, Wuyi; Zhang, Yimin

2010-11-01

468

Evaluating agricultural nonpoint-source pollution using integrated geographic information systems and hydrologic/water quality model  

SciTech Connect

Considerable progress has been made in developing physically based, distributed parameter, hydrologic/water quality (HIWQ) models for planning and control of nonpoint-source pollution. The widespread use of these models is often constrained by the excessive and time-consuming input data demands and the lack of computing efficiencies necessary for iterative simulation of alternative management strategies. Recent developments in geographic information systems (GIS) provide techniques for handling large amounts of spatial data for modeling nonpoint-source pollution problems. Because a GIS can be used to combine information from several sources to form an array of model input data and to examine any combinations of spatial input/output data, it represents a highly effective tool for HiWQ modeling. This paper describes the integration of a distributed-parameter model (AGNPS) with a GIS (ARC/INFO) to examine nonpoint sources of pollution in an agricultural watershed. The ARC/INFO GIS provided the tools to generate and spatially organize the disparate data to support modeling, while the AGNPS model was used to predict several water quality variables including soil erosion and sedimentation within a watershed. The integrated system was used to evaluate the effectiveness of several alternative management strategies in reducing sediment pollution in a 417-ha watershed located in southern Iowa. The implementation of vegetative filter strips and contour buffer (grass) strips resulted in a 41 and 47% reduction in sediment yield at the watershed outlet, respectively. In addition, when the integrated system was used, the combination of the above management strategies resulted in a 71% reduction in sediment yield. In general, the study demonstrated the utility of integrating a simulation model with GIS for nonpoini-source pollution control and planning. Such techniques can help characterize the diffuse sources of pollution at the landscape level. 52 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Tim, U.S.; Jolly, R. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

1994-01-01

469

Economic resilience through "One-Water" management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Disruption of water availability leads to food scarcity and loss of economic opportunity. Development of effective water-resource policies and management strategies could provide resiliance to local economies in the face of water disruptions such as drought, flood, and climate change. To accomplish this, a detailed understanding of human water use and natural water resource availability is needed. A hydrologic model is a computer software system that simulates the movement and use of water in a geographic area. It takes into account all components of the water cycle--“One Water”--and helps estimate water budgets for groundwater, surface water, and landscape features. The U.S. Geological Survey MODFLOW One-Water Integrated Hydrologic Model (MODFLOWOWHM) software and scientific methods can provide water managers and political leaders with hydrologic information they need to help ensure water security and economic resilience.

Hanson, Randall T.; Schmid, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

470

Role of water in urban planning and management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of people in urban areas intensify water problems such as flooding and pollution, but these deleterious effects on water resources can be minimized or corrected by comprehensive planning and management. Such planning of the water resources of an urban area must be based on adequate hydrologic data. Through the use of a matrix, urban water problems can be evaluated and availability of data assessed. The Washington-Baltimore metropolitan area is used as a case study. The completed matrix provides both a means for developing a meaningful dialogue between the hydrologist and the urban planner and a method for developing a work plan to insure consideration of water-resources data in urban planning.

Schneider, William Joseph; Rickert, David A.; Spieker, Andrew Maute

1973-01-01

471

Water-Particle Distribution of Hydrophobic Micro Pollutants in Storm Water Runoff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorptive behaviors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as other classes of hydrophobic pollutants (i.e., n-alkanes and linear alkylbenzenes: LABs) were investigated for street runoff and for particle-size segregated river water samples. PAHs, except for 3-ring aromatics, were mostly transported with particles >1.2?m. In all the environmental samples PAHs were more hydrophobic than expected from their Kow; whereas vigorous

Hidetoshi Kumata; Kouji Masuda; Junya Yamada; Hideshige Takada

2000-01-01

472

Water quality management of rooftop rainwater harvesting systems.  

PubMed

The ancient technique of harvesting rainwater falling on rooftops, which had been forgotten after the advent of large-scale centralized water resource systems like dam-based reservoirs, has staged a global comeback in the post-modern era. It is expected that in the near future all dwellings everywhere will be equipped to harvest and use rainwater. Such widespread use of rooftop rainwater harvesting makes it very important that the water quality aspects associated with it are clearly understood and managed. The present paper addresses the related issues. The pathways by which pollutants can enter in a rainwater harvest have been traced and the strategies to manage the water quality, at pre-harvest as well as post-harvest stages, have been discussed. PMID:21117427

Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

2009-10-01

473

Fuzzy Optimization Model for Water Quality Management of a River System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuzzy waste-load allocation model, FWLAM, is developed for water quality management of a river system using fuzzy multiple-objective optimization. An important feature of this model is its capability to incorporate the aspirations and conflicting objectives of the pollution control agency and dischargers. The vague- ness associated with specifying the water quality criteria and fraction removal levels is modeled in

K. Sasikumar; Vijay K. Minocha; P. P. Mujumdar

1998-01-01

474

Sustainable Water Management & Satellite Remote Sensing  

EPA Science Inventory

Eutrophication assessment frameworks such as the Australian National Water Quality Management Strategy, Oslo Paris (OSPAR) Commission Common Procedure, Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Union, Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) from the European Commission, ...

475

Eberhard Morgenroth 1 Urban Water Management  

E-print Network

water and wastewater pipes in Switzerland alone require 4.4 Billion CHF per year maintenance. Energy Robust Elicitation of Imprecise Expert Knowledge for Water Infrastructure Management Close to research

Giger, Christine

476

Water relations and photosynthesis in pine trees exposed to industrial pollution  

SciTech Connect

The temporal and spatial variability of the shoot water potential, a sensitive characteristic of plant water relations, was investigated in common pine growing under conditions of industrial pollution. The alterations in the xylem structure that made the plants more susceptible to water deficit were revealed. It is concluded that water stress, enhanced by pollutants, negatively affects the diurnal pattern and light curves of CO{sub 2}-gas exchange; this additional factor, along the damage to assimilatory apparatus and stomata, accounts for photosynthesis decline in the pollutant-exposed pine trees. 19 refs., 2 figs.

Kaipianen, L.K.; Bolondinskii, V.K.; Sazonova, T.A.; Sofronova, G.I. [Karelian Scientific Center, Karelia (Russian Federation)

1995-05-01

477

Deposition of air pollutants to the great waters. First report to Congress  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Great Waters program is to evaluate the atmospheric deposition of air pollutants to the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, Chesapeake Bay, and coastal waters. The report to Congress is to include information on the contribution of atmospheric deposition to pollutant loadings, the environmental or public health effects of such pollution, the source or sources of such pollution, and a description of any regulatory revisions under applicable Federal laws that may be necessary to assure protection of human health and the environment. The scientific information currently available is summarized in this report, and recommended actions are described.

Not Available

1994-05-01

478

Non-piont source pollution and stormwater management practices of parking lot  

Microsoft Academic Search

As one of the urban infrastructure, parking lot holds a large proportion in the urban impervious area. Characteristics of parking lots and their negative effects to environment ware analyzed. The main pollutants in parking lot runoff and the event mean concentration of those pollutants ware listed. Representative stormwater management technologies in parking lot ware introduced, suchas permeable pavements, grass swale

Jin-li Li; Wu Che

2011-01-01

479

Paying for Pollution: Water Quality and Effluent Charges. Proceedings from a Conference (Chicago, Illinois, May 19, 1977).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication gives the proceedings from a 1977 conference sponsored by the Conservation Foundation. Participants discuss the appropriate means to control water pollution, emphasizing the use of effluent charges as economic incentive for polluters to clean up their waters. (MA)

Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC.

480

The legal framework to manage chemical pollution in India and the lesson from the Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs).  

PubMed

India's rapid agro-economic growth has resulted into many environmental issues, especially related to chemical pollution. Environmental management and control of toxic chemicals have gained significant attention from policy makers, researchers, and enterprises in India. The present study reviews the policy and legal and non-regulatory schemes set in place in this country during the last decades to manage chemical risk and compares them with those in developed nations. India has a large and fragmented body of regulation to control and manage chemical pollution which appears to be ineffective in protecting environment and human health. The example of POPs contamination in India is proposed to support such a theory. Overlapping of jurisdictions and retrospectively approached environmental policy and risk management currently adopted in India are out of date and excluding Indian economy from the process of building and participating into new, environmentally-sustainable market spaces for chemical products. To address these issues, the introduction of a new integrated and scientifically-informed regulation and management scheme is recommended. Such scheme should acknowledge the principle of risk management rather than the current one based on risk acceptance. To this end, India should take advantage of the experience of recently introduced chemical management regulation in some developed nations. PMID:24907609

Sharma, Brij Mohan; Bharat, Girija K; Tayal, Shresth; Nizzetto, Luca; Larssen, Thorjørn

2014-08-15

481

Water renewal and risk assessment of water pollution in semi-enclosed domains: Application to Bilbao Harbour (Bay of Biscay)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inclusion of water renewal behaviour in the risk assessment of water pollution for Bilbao harbour (located within the Nervión estuary, southeastern Bay of Biscay) is analysed. Several parameterisations of water renewal (integral and local perspectives), obtained from the numerical evolution analysis of a Eulerian tracer, were used. The local characterisation of water renewal confirmed a strong horizontal spatial variability.

Manel Grifoll; Andrea Del Campo; Manuel Espino; Julien Mader; Manuel González; Ángel Borja

482

18 CFR 740.4 - State water management planning program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false State water management planning program. 740.4 Section 740...WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.4 State water management planning program. (a) A State...

2010-04-01

483

Evaluation of pollutant loads from stormwater BMPs to receiving water using load frequency curves with uncertainty analysis.  

PubMed

This study examined pollutant loads released to receiving water from a typical urban watershed in the Los Angeles (LA) Basin of California by applying a best management practice (BMP) performance model that includes uncertainty. This BMP performance model uses the k-C model and incorporates uncertainty analysis and the first-order second-moment (FOSM) method to assess the effectiveness of BMPs for removing stormwater pollutants. Uncertainties were considered for the influent event mean concentration (EMC) and the aerial removal rate constant of the k-C model. The storage treatment overflow and runoff model (STORM) was used to simulate the flow volume from watershed, the bypass flow volume and the flow volume that passes through the BMP. Detention basins and total suspended solids (TSS) were chosen as representatives of stormwater BMP and pollutant, respectively. This paper applies load frequency curves (LFCs), which replace the exceedance percentage with an exceedance frequency as an alternative to load duration curves (LDCs), to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs. An evaluation method based on uncertainty analysis is suggested because it applies a water quality standard exceedance based on frequency and magnitude. As a result, the incorporation of uncertainty in the estimates of pollutant loads can assist stormwater managers in determining the degree of total daily maximum load (TMDL) compliance that could be expected from a given BMP in a watershed. PMID:22578429

Park, Daeryong; Roesner, Larry A

2012-12-15

484

Non point source pollution modelling in the watershed managed by Integrated Conctructed Wetlands: A GIS approach.   

E-print Network

The non-point source pollution has been recognised as main cause of eutrophication in Ireland (EPA Ireland, 2001). Integrated Constructed Wetland (ICW) is a management practice adopted in Annestown stream watershed, located in the south county...

Vyavahare, Nilesh

2008-12-05

485

Marine Pollution Monitoring Management Group The Group Co-ordinating Sea Disposal Monitoring  

E-print Network

............................................................................................................................... 9 2. Sampling and analysis at sewage-sludge disposal sites ............................................................................. 15 4. Standards for sediment metals at sewage-sludge disposal sitesMarine Pollution Monitoring Management Group The Group Co-ordinating Sea Disposal Monitoring

486

HEALTH CARE GUIDE TO POLLUTION PREVENTION IMPLEMENTATION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Health Care Guide to Pollution Prevention Implementation through Environmental Management Systems provides example EMS procedures and forms used in four ISO 14001 EMS certified hospitals. The latest revisions include more EMS hospital case studies, more compliance resources, ...

487

Modelling mitigation options to reduce diffuse nitrogen water pollution from agriculture.  

PubMed

Agriculture is responsible for large scale water quality degradation and is estimated to contribute around 55% of the nitrogen entering the European Seas. The key policy instrument for protecting inland, transitional and coastal water resources is the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Reducing nutrient losses from agriculture is crucial to the successful implementation of the WFD. There are several mitigation measures that can be implemented to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural areas to surface and ground waters. For the selection of appropriate measures, models are useful for quantifying the expected impacts and the associated costs. In this article we review some of the models used in Europe to assess the effectiveness of nitrogen mitigation measures, ranging from fertilizer management to the construction of riparian areas and wetlands. We highlight how the complexity of models is correlated with the type of scenarios that can be tested, with conceptual models mostly used to evaluate the impact of reduced fertilizer application, and the physically-based models used to evaluate the timing and location of mitigation options and the response times. We underline the importance of considering the lag time between the implementation of measures and effects on water quality. Models can be effective tools for targeting mitigation measures (identifying critical areas and timing), for evaluating their cost effectiveness, for taking into consideration pollution swapping and considering potential trade-offs in contrasting environmental objectives. Models are also useful for involving stakeholders during the development of catchments mitigation plans, increasing their acceptability. PMID:23998504

Bouraoui, Fayçal; Grizzetti, Bruna

2014-01-15

488

Effects of urban stormwater-management strategies on stream-water quantity and quality  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urbanization results in elevated stormwater runoff, greater and more intense streamflow, and increased delivery of pollutants to local streams and downstream aquatic systems such as the Chesapeake Bay. Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) are used to mitigate these effects of urban land use by retaining large volumes of stormwater runoff (water quantity) and removing pollutants in the runoff (water quality). Current USGS research aims to understand how the spatial pattern and connectivity of stormwater BMPs affect water quantity and water quality in urban areas.

Loperfido, J.V.; Hogan, Dianna M.

2012-01-01

489

Australia vs. CA Water Management Policy Cartaino, Ives, Ohanesian, Spitsyn ESM121 Water Science and Management  

E-print Network

of California's water management policies. Australia's policies include climate change aspects, and most ramifications to including comprehensive climate change factors in current water management practices. Most, that there is a great amount of spatial distance between water management practices today and climate change

Pasternack, Gregory B.

490

Determination of arsenic in polluted waters by differential pulse anodic-stripping voltammetry.  

PubMed

Experimental parameters affecting the analytical response of arsenic in differential pulse anodic-stripping voltammetry (DPASV) have been examined. DPASV offers higher sensitivity than linear-scan anodic-stripping voltammetry for similar analysis times. Both techniques have been applied to the NBS Standard Reference Water (SRM 1643) and some polluted water samples. The results on polluted waters compared favourably with those obtained by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectroscopy. PMID:18963176

Leung, P C; Subramanian, K S; Méranger, J C

1982-06-01

491

Tourism Development and Water Pollution: Case Study in Lijiang Ancient Town  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tourism development results in water pollution not only in water-scarce areas, but also in areas with relatively abundant water resources, such as Lijiang Ancient Town (LAT). In this article, LAT is described for its use of the freshwater resource, on account of its attractive landscaping. Tourism here has grown rapidly in recent years and at the same time the water

Ning Baoying; He Yuanqing

2007-01-01

492

Observed Increase of TTL Temperature and Water Vapor in Polluted Couds over Asia  

SciTech Connect

Aerosols can affect cloud particle size and lifetime, which impacts precipitation, radiation and climate. Previous studies1-4 suggested that reduced ice cloud particle size and fall speed due to the influence of aerosols may increase evaporation of ice crystals and/or cloud radiative heating in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), leading to higher water vapor abundance in air entering the stratosphere. Observational substantiation of such processes is still lacking. Here, we analyze new observations from multiple NASA satellites to show the imprint of pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. We focus our analysis on the highly-polluted South and East Asia region during boreal summer. We find that "polluted" ice clouds have smaller ice effective radius than "clean" clouds. In the TTL, the polluted clouds are associated with warmer temperature and higher specific humidity than the clean clouds. The water vapor difference between the polluted and clean clouds cannot be explained by other meteorological factors, such as updraft and detrainment strength. Therefore, the observed higher water vapor entry value into the stratosphere in the polluted clouds than in the clean clouds is likely a manifestation of aerosol pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. Given the radiative and chemical importance of stratospheric water vapor, the increasing emission of aerosols over Asia may have profound impacts on stratospheric chemistry and global energy balance and water cycle.

Su, Hui; Jiang, Jonathan; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, J.; Read, William G.; Massie, Steven T.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Colarco, Peter; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Santee, Michelle L.

2011-06-01

493

Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2013, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

Carter, Layne; Brown, Christopher; Orozco, Nicole

2014-01-01

494

An overview of trace metal pollution in the coastal waters of Hong Kong.  

PubMed

The state of metal pollution in Hong Kong's coastal waters has been assessed by measuring metal levels in: (i) the water column; (ii) sediments and (iii) in organisms, i.e. biomonitors. Current literature is reviewed. Data from sediment analysis have shown that metal pollution is most severe in the urban areas of Victoria Harbour, Tolo Harbour, Deep Bay and Northwestern waters. Bottom sediments in typhoon shelters are particularly heavily polluted with, for example, Cu levels from Kowloon Bay reaching 5300 mg.kg-1 in 1995. Since 1987, levels of pollution have generally either stabilized or fallen in Deep Bay and Victoria Harbour but have increased in Inner Tolo Harbour and Northwestern waters. Many biomonitors have been used to study metal pollution in Hong Kong, the most popular of which are barnacles, mussels (in particular Perna viridis) and algae (in particular Ulva lactuca). Biomonitoring studies generally recorded high levels of metal pollution in Victoria Harbour in the late nineteen seventies and early eighties, with increasing pollution of the semi-enclosed Tolo Harbour through the eighties and early nineties. In a recent study using barnacles, the levels of Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn were shown to be greatly reduced as compared to those recorded in 1986 and 1989, respectively. Levels of metal pollution in Hong Kong coastal waters may have lowered in the last 10 years. PMID:9646516

Blackmore, G

1998-06-18

495

Hydrochemical evaluation of surface water quality and pollution source apportionment in the Luan River basin, China.  

PubMed

In the context of rapid economic growth in China, hydrochemical characteristics of stream water quality are being influenced by a variety of natural and anthropogenic inputs. We determined 10 hydrochemical parameters of the surface water at 29 monitoring sites in the Luan River basin of northern China during 2007-2009. Water quality hydrochemistry was evaluated using fuzzy comprehensive analysis based on the National Surface Water Environmental Quality Standards of China. Our results showed that 14 sites were classified as 'meeting standard (MS)' while the other 15 sites were classified 'non-meeting standard (NS)'. According to principal component analysis, four potential pollution sources were identified that explained 80.6% of the total variance among these MS sites, and three potential pollution sources that explained 78.3% of the total variance among these NS sites. Furthermore, multi-linear regression of the absolute principal component scores was used to estimate contributions from identified pollution sources. Most water pollution variables were influenced primarily by municipal sewage and non-point pollution in MS sites. In NS sites, chemical industry wastewater pollution dominated. Pollution in the main stream was more serious than that in the small tributaries. Our findings provide useful information for developing better pollution control strategies for the Luan River. PMID:22105137

Wang, Huiliang; Li, Xuyong; Xie, Ying

2011-01-01

496

23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are included in...

2014-04-01

497

23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are included in...

2013-04-01

498

Uniqueness for an ill-posed reaction-dispersion model. Application to organic pollution in stream-waters  

E-print Network

Uniqueness for an ill-posed reaction-dispersion model. Application to organic pollution in stream-waters waters. The sources we consider are point-wise and simulate stationary or moving pollution sources to measure the pollution extent due to organic agents and then to evaluate the water characteristics. Another

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

499

23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are included in...

2010-04-01

500

23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are included in...

2011-04-01