Sample records for water pollution management

  1. Managing Bacteria Pollution in Texas Waters 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 2 BACTERIA MANAGING tx H2O | pg. 3 IN TEXAS WATERS POLLUTION Managing Bacteria Pollution in Texas Waters tx H2O | pg. 4 W ith 310 water bodies in Texas failing to meetwater quality standards because... of bacteria,managing bacteria pollution is commanding the attention of water agencies, researchers and stake- holders across Texas. These water bodies are listed in the 2006 Texas Water Quality Inventory and 303(d) List for failing to meet the standards...

  2. Designing of water pollution control technology database platform based on general management information system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunhong Shi; Nan Li; Beihai Zhou; Wenjuan Song

    2010-01-01

    Introduced was the development and implementation for the water pollution control technology database platform based on general management information system. The technology research and application demonstration of the system were developed, covering six fields such as lake water pollution treatment and ecological restoration, improvement of environment quality of urban water, drinking water safety, new technology of physical-chemical-biology water treatment, packaged

  3. Integrated planning for water quality management: The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 and Coastal Zone Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allayaud

    1980-01-01

    The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments were enacted by Congress in response to the severe water quality problems our nation has been experiencing. Section 208 of the Amendments establishes regional planning for water quality management as being necessary and provides strong incentives for states and municipalities to implement the Section's requirements. Section 208 planning is the subject of this

  4. Linking Air, Land, and Water Pollution for Effective Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, other federal agencies, and the states have made substantial progress in improving the Nation?s air and water quality. Traditionally, the air, land, and water pollution ...

  5. Water Pollution

    MedlinePLUS

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  6. Hazardous Pollutant Database for Kura—Araks Water Quality Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bahruz Suleymanov; Majid Ahmedov; Famil Humbatov; Navai Ibadov

    Historically, there has been a deficiency of data for important chemicals, such as heavy metals, radionuclides and pesticides\\u000a contents from Kura—Araks river waters. A NATO—OSCE 977991 project began to fill such information gaps as well as develop a\\u000a scientifically based platform for transboundary water quality management issues. The results of 2 years monthly studies of\\u000a 12 heavy metals, Ag, As,

  7. Nonpoint source water pollution management in Canada and the United States: A comparative analysis of institutional arrangements and policy instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn M Johns

    2000-01-01

    Nearly thirty years after the introduction of water pollution management legislation in Canada and the United States, water pollution remains an important public policy problem. Very basically, water pollution problems can be divided into two types: point source and non-point source. Point source categorizes those cases where inputs into natural ecosystems come from easily identifiable sources such as industrial effluent

  8. Integrated planning for water quality management: The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 and Coastal Zone Management

    SciTech Connect

    Allayaud, W.K.

    1980-01-01

    The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments were enacted by Congress in response to the severe water quality problems our nation has been experiencing. Section 208 of the Amendments establishes regional planning for water quality management as being necessary and provides strong incentives for states and municipalities to implement the Section's requirements. Section 208 planning is the subject of this thesis. An interesting and important example of the way in which water quality planning processes interact is coastal zone management. The two planning processes, 208 planning and coastal zone management, must be integrated. The problems of integrating the planning processes are examined vis-a-vis five issue discussions. These are: Integration of Land and Water Planning; The Role of Local, State, and Federal Government; Coordination and Integration of Planning Processes; Sewage Disposal in the Coastal Zone; and The 208 Plan. A number of key recommendations are given for understanding and improving the planning processes. These recommendations focus on two major themes. First, the role that the states play is extremely important in the overall success of water quality management. Secondly, the review and approval process for 208 plans must be demanding and help facilitate the achievement of the goals of the law.

  9. Storm water pollution prevention plans

    SciTech Connect

    Rossmiller, R.L. (HDR Engineering, Inc., Bellevue, WA (United States))

    1993-03-01

    National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) general permit applications for industrial storm water discharge were to have been filed by October 1992. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies are now issuing permits based on these applications. One compliance aspect of the permits is the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3). The plan must identify the facility's potential sources of storm water pollution and develop and implement best management practices (BMPs) to reduce pollutants in storm water runoff. The objectives of the NPDES storm water program are to eliminate illegal dumping and illicit connections, and to reduce pollutants in industrial storm water discharge. These regulations require industry to develop detailed facility site maps, and describe the types, amounts and locations of potential pollutants. Based on this information, industry can develop and implement best management practices to reduce pollutants in storm water runoff.

  10. Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of CODCr NH3-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH3-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. PMID:23222206

  11. Intensive management in grasslands causes diffuse water pollution at the farm scale.

    PubMed

    Peukert, Sabine; Griffith, Bruce A; Murray, Phillip J; Macleod, Christopher J A; Brazier, Richard E

    2014-11-01

    Arable land use is generally assumed to be the largest contributor to agricultural diffuse pollution. This study adds to the growing evidence that conventional temperate intensively managed lowland grasslands contribute significantly to soil erosion and diffuse pollution rates. This is the first grassland study to monitor hydrological characteristics and multiple pollutant fluxes (suspended sediment [SS] and the macronutrients: total oxidized nitrogen-N [TON], total phosphorus [TP], and total carbon [TC]) at high temporal resolution (monitoring up to every 15 min) over 1 yr. Monitoring was conducted across three fields (6.5-7.5 ha) on the North Wyke Farm Platform, UK. The estimated annual erosion rates (up to 527.4 kg ha), TP losses (up to 0.9 kg ha), and TC losses (up to 179 kg ha) were similar to or exceeded the losses reported for other grassland, mixed land-use, and arable sites. Annual yields of TON (up to 3 kg ha) were less than arable land-use fluxes and earlier grassland N studies, an important result as the study site is situated within a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone. The high-resolution monitoring allowed detailed "system's functioning" understanding of hydrological processes, mobilization- transport pathways of individual pollutants, and the changes of the relative importance of diffuse pollutants through flow conditions and time. Suspended sediment and TP concentrations frequently exceeded water quality guidelines recommended by the European Freshwater Fisheries Directive (25 mg L) and the European Water Framework Directive (0.04 mg soluble reactive P L), suggesting that intensively managed grasslands pose a significant threat to receiving surface waters. Such sediment and nutrient losses from intensively managed grasslands should be acknowledged in land management guidelines and advice for future compliance with surface water quality standards. PMID:25602218

  12. Water Pollution Control Legislation

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    ) administer many of the Clean Water Act's provisions. This law addresses water pollution and water quality, including pollution from irrigated agriculture. FEDERAL LAWS Clean Water Act -- 1972 and 1987 The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 and 1987, known as the Clean Water Act, are the principal

  13. Agricultural Land Use and Best Management Practices to Control Nonpoint Water Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripa, Maria Nicoletta; Leone, Antonio; Garnier, Monica; Porto, Antonio Lo

    2006-08-01

    In recent years, improvements in point-source depuration technologies have highlighted the problems regarding agricultural nonpoint (diffuse) sources, and this issue has become highly relevant from the environmental point of view. The considerable extension of the areas responsible for this kind of pollution, together with the scarcity of funds available to local managers, make minimizing the impacts of nonpoint sources on a whole basin a virtually impossible task. This article presents the results of a study intended to pinpoint those agricultural areas, within a basin, that contribute most to water pollution, so that operations aimed at preventing and/or reducing this kind of pollution can be focused on them. With this aim, an innovative approach is presented that integrates a field-scale management model, a simple regression model, and a geographic information system (GIS). The Lake Vico basin, where recent studies highlighted a considerable increase in the trophic state, mainly caused by phosphorus (P) compounds deriving principally from the intensive cultivation of hazelnut trees in the lake basin, was chosen as the study site. Using the management model Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems (GLEAMS), the consequences, in terms of sediment yield and phosphorus export, of hazelnut tree cultivation were estimated on different areas of the basin with and without the application of a best management practice (BMP) that consists of growing meadow under the trees. The GLEAMS results were successively extended to basin scale thanks to the application of a purposely designed regression model and of a GIS. The main conclusions can be summarized as follows: The effectiveness of the above-mentioned BMP is always greater for erosion reduction than for particulate P reduction, whatever the slope value considered; moreover, the effectiveness with reference to both particulate P and sediment yield production decreases as the slope increases. The proposed approach, being completely distributed, represents a considerable step ahead compared to the semidistributed or lumped approaches, which are traditionally employed in research into tools to support the decision-making process for land-use planning aimed at water pollution control.

  14. Managing Beach Amenities to Reduce Exposure to Coastal Hazards: Storm Water Pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linwood Pendleton

    2001-01-01

    Despite posted warnings and educational campaigns warning about the health risks associated with storm water pollution, swimmers continue to swim in coastal areas polluted by storm water run-off. This study uses a simple spatial model of beach visitation to show how beach amenities and storm drains influence the way in which beach goers choose to locate themselves at beaches in

  15. Towards a Holistic Classification of Diffuse Agricultural Water Pollution from Intensively Managed Grasslands on Heavy Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Granger; R. Bol; S. Anthony; P. N. Owens; S. M. White; P. M. Haygarth

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing demand for food security comes an increasing pressure on the environment. Contamination of surface water by diffuse agricultural pollutants is widely recognized as an area of concern; however, this has still led to a fragmented approach to scientific research. Pollutants tend to be treated in isolation and only infrequently in the context of an environment where other

  16. Eutrophication. [Water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Medine, A.J. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder); Porcella, D.B.

    1982-06-01

    A literature review dealing with the process of eutrophication with respect to the sources and transport of pollutants is presented. Topics include the mathematical modeling of nutrient loading, eutrophication, and aquatic ecosystems. Biological and environmental indicators of eutrophication are reviewed, and the interactions between various chemical and biological pollutants are considered. Several lake management projects are discussed. (KRM)

  17. Are interactive effects of harmful algal blooms and copper pollution a concern for water quality management?

    PubMed

    Hochmuth, Jennifer D; Asselman, Jana; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2014-09-01

    Toxicity of mixtures of stressors is one of the major challenges in water quality management. Yet until now risk assessment focuses almost exclusively on the effect characterization of individual stressors. An important concern is the potential interactive effects of cyanobacteria, sometimes referred to as harmful algal blooms, with chemical stressors. Here, we evaluated the response of two clones of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna to the combined effects of five cyanobacteria and copper. The latter remains the most commonly applied chemical algaecide and is also often detected in eutrophic run-offs that promote harmful algal blooms. Because the different cyanobacteria studied here have known modes of action that are similar, as well as dissimilar compared to the known modes of actions of copper, we based our assessment on two widely used reference models, i.e. the Concentration Addition (CA) model for similarly acting stressors and the Independent Action (IA) model for dissimilarly acting stressors. We highlight four major findings. First, the conclusions drawn on the interaction type (non-interaction vs. synergism or antagonism) between either of the five cyanobacteria species and copper were the same for both D. magna clones. Second, the interaction type differed between the Microcystis + copper mixture (non-interaction according to CA and synergism according to IA) and the four other cyanobacteria + copper mixtures (antagonism according to CA and non-interaction according to IA). Third, both reference models provided reasonable predictions for all observed mixture toxicities. Fourth, we consistently obtained different results with the IA reference model compared to the CA model. More specifically, mixtures of Cu and Microcystis were synergistic with IA whereas non-interaction was observed with CA, while the remaining four cyanobacteria + copper combinations all displayed non-interaction with IA and antagonism with CA. Despite the IA reference model providing a marginally better fit to the data in general, the CA reference model delivered more conservative predictions for mixture toxicity of cyanobacteria + copper in all cases compared to the IA reference model. Thus, the CA model could serve as a conservative model to account for mixture toxicity of cyanobacteria and copper in water quality management, as it gives rise to conservative predictions of mixed stressor toxicity at sub-lethal effect levels in D. magna. Finally, and in accordance with other studies of cyanobacteria + chemical mixtures, we did not detect any strong synergistic effects of copper and cyanobacteria mixtures on D. magna. Consequently, based on our study with the model freshwater zooplankton species Daphnia, interactive effects of harmful algal blooms and copper pollution appear to be of limited concern for water quality management. PMID:24821194

  18. Fecal Pollution of Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

  19. Fecal Pollution of Water.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

  20. Public Health Care Management of Water Pollution with Pharmaceuticals: Environmental Classification and Analysis of Pharmaceutical Residues in Sewage Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Åke Wennmalm; Bo Gunnarsson

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in surface water is an emerging problem in developed countries. If such pollution is transferred to drinking water, the resulting involuntary low-dose medication of large population groups may compromise public health. In addition, aquatic life may be compromised. The Stockholm County Council, the provider of public healthcare in the Stockholm, Sweden region, has introduced a classification

  1. Water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald F. Kostecki

    1970-01-01

    I am writing in reference to an article by Leonard B. Dworsky in the August issue of EOS dealing with what the author feels are the necessary steps toward an effective and credible program of water pollution control.That public expectations need to be adjusted to real world solutions can hardly be denied. The general public is all too often led

  2. Planning of water resources management and pollution control for Heshui River watershed, China: A full credibility-constrained programming approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y M; Huang, G; Lu, H W; He, Li

    2015-08-15

    A key issue facing integrated water resources management and water pollution control is to address the vague parametric information. A full credibility-based chance-constrained programming (FCCP) method is thus developed by introducing the new concept of credibility into the modeling framework. FCCP can deal with fuzzy parameters appearing concurrently in the objective and both sides of the constraints of the model, but also provide a credibility level indicating how much confidence one can believe the optimal modeling solutions. The method is applied to Heshui River watershed in the south-central China for demonstration. Results from the case study showed that groundwater would make up for the water shortage in terms of the shrinking surface water and rising water demand, and the optimized total pumpage of groundwater from both alluvial and karst aquifers would exceed 90% of its maximum allowable levels when credibility level is higher than or equal to 0.9. It is also indicated that an increase in credibility level would induce a reduction in cost for surface water acquisition, a rise in cost from groundwater withdrawal, and negligible variation in cost for water pollution control. PMID:25897733

  3. Ground water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Canter

    1985-01-01

    Treatment, methodologies. In-situ technologies. Aquifer restoration. Applications and case studies. Decision-making. Risk assessment. References include 225 with complete abstracts. This work covers technologies for ground water pollution control in part one and deals in depth with aquifer restoration decision-making in part two, while part three gives range of case studies and detailed abstracts of 225 references. CONTENTS: 1-Introduction. Technologies for

  4. The SOLUTIONS project: challenges and responses for present and future emerging pollutants in land and water resources management.

    PubMed

    Brack, Werner; Altenburger, Rolf; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Krauss, Martin; López Herráez, David; van Gils, Jos; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Munthe, John; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; van Wezel, Annemarie; Schriks, Merijn; Hollender, Juliane; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Mekenyan, Ovanes; Dimitrov, Saby; Bunke, Dirk; Cousins, Ian; Posthuma, Leo; van den Brink, Paul J; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià; Faust, Michael; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Scrimshaw, Mark; Ignatova, Svetlana; Engelen, Guy; Massmann, Gudrun; Lemkine, Gregory; Teodorovic, Ivana; Walz, Karl-Heinz; Dulio, Valeria; Jonker, Michiel T O; Jäger, Felix; Chipman, Kevin; Falciani, Francesco; Liska, Igor; Rooke, David; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hollert, Henner; Vrana, Branislav; Hilscherova, Klara; Kramer, Kees; Neumann, Steffen; Hammerbacher, Ruth; Backhaus, Thomas; Mack, Juliane; Segner, Helmut; Escher, Beate; de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela

    2015-01-15

    SOLUTIONS (2013 to 2018) is a European Union Seventh Framework Programme Project (EU-FP7). The project aims to deliver a conceptual framework to support the evidence-based development of environmental policies with regard to water quality. SOLUTIONS will develop the tools for the identification, prioritisation and assessment of those water contaminants that may pose a risk to ecosystems and human health. To this end, a new generation of chemical and effect-based monitoring tools is developed and integrated with a full set of exposure, effect and risk assessment models. SOLUTIONS attempts to address legacy, present and future contamination by integrating monitoring and modelling based approaches with scenarios on future developments in society, economy and technology and thus in contamination. The project follows a solutions-oriented approach by addressing major problems of water and chemicals management and by assessing abatement options. SOLUTIONS takes advantage of the access to the infrastructure necessary to investigate the large basins of the Danube and Rhine as well as relevant Mediterranean basins as case studies, and puts major efforts on stakeholder dialogue and support. Particularly, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) Common Implementation Strategy (CIS) working groups, International River Commissions, and water works associations are directly supported with consistent guidance for the early detection, identification, prioritisation, and abatement of chemicals in the water cycle. SOLUTIONS will give a specific emphasis on concepts and tools for the impact and risk assessment of complex mixtures of emerging pollutants, their metabolites and transformation products. Analytical and effect-based screening tools will be applied together with ecological assessment tools for the identification of toxicants and their impacts. The SOLUTIONS approach is expected to provide transparent and evidence-based candidates or River Basin Specific Pollutants in the case study basins and to assist future review of priority pollutants under the WFD as well as potential abatement options. PMID:24951181

  5. Simulation and Evaluation of Pollution Load Reduction Scenarios for Water Environmental Management: A Case Study of Inflow River of Taihu Lake, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Zhu, Wenting; Gao, Hailong; Hu, Wei; Wang, Jinhua

    2014-01-01

    In the beginning of the 21st century, the deterioration of water quality in Taihu Lake, China, has caused widespread concern. The primary source of pollution in Taihu Lake is river inflows. Effective pollution load reduction scenarios need to be implemented in these rivers in order to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake. It is important to select appropriate pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving particular goals. The aim of this study was to facilitate the selection of appropriate scenarios. The QUAL2K model for river water quality was used to simulate the effects of a range of pollution load reduction scenarios in the Wujin River, which is one of the major inflow rivers of Taihu Lake. The model was calibrated for the year 2010 and validated for the year 2011. Various pollution load reduction scenarios were assessed using an analytic hierarchy process, and increasing rates of evaluation indicators were predicted using the Delphi method. The results showed that control of pollution from the source is the optimal method for pollution prevention and control, and the method of “Treatment after Pollution” has bad environmental, social and ecological effects. The method applied in this study can assist for environmental managers to select suitable pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving various objectives. PMID:25207492

  6. Evidence of viral dissemination and seasonality in a Mediterranean river catchment: Implications for water pollution management.

    PubMed

    Rusiñol, Marta; Fernandez-Cassi, Xavier; Timoneda, Natàlia; Carratalà, Anna; Abril, Josep Francesc; Silvera, Carolina; Figueras, Maria José; Gelati, Emiliano; Rodó, Xavier; Kay, David; Wyn-Jones, Peter; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Girones, Rosina

    2015-08-15

    Conventional wastewater treatment does not completely remove and/or inactive viruses; consequently, viruses excreted by the population can be detected in the environment. This study was undertaken to investigate the distribution and seasonality of human viruses and faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in a river catchment located in a typical Mediterranean climate region and to discuss future trends in relation to climate change. Sample matrices included river water, untreated and treated wastewater from a wastewater treatment plant within the catchment area, and seawater from potentially impacted bathing water. Five viruses were analysed in the study. Human adenovirus (HAdV) and JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) were analysed as indicators of human faecal contamination of human pathogens; both were reported in urban wastewater (mean values of 10(6) and 10(5) GC/L, respectively), river water (10(3) and 10(2) GC/L) and seawater (10(2) and 10(1) GC/L). Human Merkel Cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), which is associated with Merkel Cell carcinoma, was detected in 75% of the raw wastewater samples (31/37) and quantified by a newly developed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay with mean concentrations of 10(4) GC/L. This virus is related to skin cancer in susceptible individuals and was found in 29% and 18% of river water and seawater samples, respectively. Seasonality was only observed for norovirus genogroup II (NoV GGII), which was more abundant in cold months with levels up to 10(4) GC/L in river water. Human hepatitis E virus (HEV) was detected in 13.5% of the wastewater samples when analysed by nested PCR (nPCR). Secondary biological treatment (i.e., activated sludge) and tertiary sewage disinfection including chlorination, flocculation and UV radiation removed between 2.22 and 4.52 log10 of the viral concentrations. Climate projections for the Mediterranean climate areas and the selected river catchment estimate general warming and changes in precipitation distribution. Persistent decreases in precipitation during summer can lead to a higher presence of human viruses because river and sea water present the highest viral concentrations during warmer months. In a global context, wastewater management will be the key to preventing environmental dispersion of human faecal pathogens in future climate change scenarios. PMID:26046988

  7. Pollutants in airport runoff waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Maria Sulej; ?aneta Polkowska; Jacek Namie?nik

    2011-01-01

    Runoff waters from airport areas constitute a serious environmental problem. It is essential to monitor levels of pollutants emitted into the environment and measure their toxicity on a continuous basis.The aim of this paper is to critically review data on pollution from aviation fuel combustion, aviation fuel spillage, the washing and cleaning of aircraft and airport service equipment, the use

  8. Texas Water Pollution Control Officers 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    are coming down. In addition, public opinion in Texas is broadly supportive of measures aimed at improving and protecting the environment, and Texans may be receptive to proposals to reduce and control water pollution via market mechanisms. A key... vehicle for protecting and restoring water quality under the CWA has been the discharge permit. There are four permit types issued in Texas: National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit. Issued to point source dischargers of wastewater...

  9. Water Quality Monitoring and Modeling in Lake Kastoria, Using GIS. Assessment and Management of Pollution Sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Mantzafleri; A. Psilovikos; A. Blanta

    2009-01-01

    Lake Kastoria, is a very fragile aquatic ecosystem, protected by several national and international conventions, situated\\u000a in the Region of Western Macedonia, Greece. A monthly monitoring program has been operated by the Municipality of Kastoria,\\u000a during the past 5 years (2002–2007). The water quality parameters monitored, are: Water Temperature (Tw), dissolved oxygen\\u000a (DO), BOD, COD, pH, water conductivity (ECw), redox potential

  10. Identification of Roads for Urban Runoff Pollution Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mi-Hyun Park; Michael K. Stenstrom

    2008-01-01

    Urban roads are identified as major sources of many pollutants and the runoff from these areas discharges high pollution mass loads to receiving waters. Identifying roads is important for effective urban runoff and non point source pollution management. However, public land use information usually does not provide detailed road information. In this research, we identified roads and streets in an

  11. Water Pollution Control courses offered

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anonymous

    1974-01-01

    Manhattan College will conduct the Nineteenth Summer Institute in Water Pollution Control, May 2024, 1974. Two one-week courses will be offered concurrently for advanced study in biological waste treatment and mathematical modeling of natural water systems. Enrollment, on a preregistration basis, will be limited.This continuing engineering education program is designed to enhance the competence of practicing engineers and scientists in

  12. An Instructional Delivery System for Manpower Management: A Report for Water Pollution Control Agencies. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany.

    This report contains information to assist organizations and personnel responsible for the quality and quantity of operators available for water quality control efforts. The text discusses in detail the current developments in operator instructional programs. Each of the seven sections of this report deals with a specific aspect of manpower…

  13. Ground water. [Water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Costle

    1980-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the Nation's ground water is contaminated by a variety of sources. These include unprotected industrial, municipal, and radioactive disposal sites, petroleum exploration and mining activities, agricultural operations such as insecticide spraying, high de-icing salts and others. As of March 1980, more than 8000 chemical tests have been performed on well water, with chlorinated organic solvents

  14. Agricultural water pollution control: An interdisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Watkins W.; Ching, Chauncey T. K.; Yanagida, John F.; Jakus, Paul

    1985-01-01

    Regulation and control of agricultural water pollution is unique and difficult to accomplish. Water quality standards are often proposed without adequate consideration of the overall economic impact on agricultural production. This article illustrates how economists and physical scientists can cooperate to develop appropriate control strategies for agricultural water pollution. Data provided by physical scientists and economists are used in a linear programming model to describe salt discharge as a function of water management, production levels, and an associated effluent charge. Four water management activities were chosen on the basis of different costs of production (including a parametrically varied effluent charge), water requirements, alfalfa yields, and levels of salt discharge. Results indicate that when the effluent charge is low (<0.20/metric ton salt discharged), maximum production with maximum salt discharge is most profitable. As the effluent charge is increased (0.20 0.40/metric ton salt discharged), it becomes progressively less profitable to produce alfalfa at maximum levels of pollutant discharge. When the effluent charge is >0.40/metric ton salt discharged, alfalfa production is no longer economically feasible. An important aspect of this approach is that it permits policy makers to identify explicitly the relationship between the environmental standard and the effect on agricultural production.

  15. The Role of Tradable Permits in Water Pollution Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Andreas Kraemer; Eleftheria Kampa; Eduard Interwies

    2004-01-01

    This working paper first introduces tradable permits as part of an overall taxonomy of economic instruments in the field of water management. In this context, three fundamentally different fields of application of tradable permits systems relating to water are presented: tradable water abstraction rights, tradable rights to water-based resources and tradable water pollution rights. Next, the authors provide literature-based empirical

  16. Testing Water for Bacterial Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillner, Harry

    This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of water pollution control. It is a learning activity directed toward high school students of biology and/or ecology. A general knowledge of microbiology techniques is regarded as a prerequisite for the lesson. Behavioral objectives are given. Emphasis is placed on use of techniques and materials…

  17. Groundwater and surface water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Y.S.; Hamidi, A. [eds.

    2000-07-01

    This book contains almost all the technical know-how that is required to clean up the water supply. It provides a survey of up-to-date technologies for remediation, as well as a step-by-step guide to pollution assessment for both ground and surface waters. In addition to focusing on causes, effects, and remedies, the book stresses reuse, recycling, and recovery of resources. The authors suggest that through total recycling wastes can become resources.

  18. CONTROLLING POLLUTION FROM THE MANUFACTURING AND COATING OF METAL PRODUCTS. 3. WATER POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volume 3 addresses managers, engineers and other industry personnel responsible for resolving the water pollution problems of a manufacturing facility. It covers regulations, in-plant controls, three methods for wastewater treatment, establishment of a working relationship with a...

  19. Water pollution and the public trust doctrine

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    The prior appropriation system has served well in the Western US for 125 years, providing a legal regime that permits and encourages enormous economic growth of agriculture, industry and municipalities. This system, however, both in its inception and current application, fails to address or protect public interests in fisheries, recreation, environmental quality, and clean water. As a result, serious nonpoint water pollution problems are occurring throughout the West. Such pollution can be regulated either by the courts or the legislatures under the public trust doctrine, which antedates the prior appropriation system, and which protects fisheries and water quality. No one - including irrigators, industries or cities with appropriative rights - has a vested, constitutionally protected property right to degrade the quality of public waters. Some states are adopting police power regulations to control nonpoint pollution. Others are approaching the problem through the prior appropriation system itself, taking the position that beneficial use means use that does not harm the public through pollution. The public trust doctrine is not a panacea that will instantly solve all the conflicts that now surround the prior appropriation system. It should be considered, however, as a basis for setting standards as best practicable technology or best management practice.

  20. Pollution of ground water in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, S.; Key, A.

    1956-01-01

    This paper discusses pollution of ground water in 20 countries of the European region, giving for each an account of the geology and hydrogeology, water supplies, the extent and nature of ground water pollution, and the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling that pollution. For the countries not considered in the preceding article on surface water pollution, an account is also given of the superficial physical features, rainfall, population, and industries. A general discussion follows of such questions as the ways in which ground water pollution may occur, the factors mitigating or aggravating pollution, and ways of protection against pollution. The authors consider that the problem of ground water pollution in Europe may well be more serious than it would appear to be on the evidence so far obtained. PMID:13374533

  1. A dual-inexact fuzzy stochastic model for water resources management and non-point source pollution mitigation under multiple uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, C.; Tan, Q.; Huang, G.-H.; Cai, Y.-P.

    2014-01-01

    In this research, a dual-inexact fuzzy stochastic programming (DIFSP) method was developed for supporting the planning of water and farmland use management system considering the non-point source pollution mitigation under uncertainty. The random boundary interval (RBI) was incorporated into DIFSP through integrating fuzzy programming (FP) and chance-constrained programming (CCP) approaches within an interval linear programming (ILP) framework. The lower and upper bounds of RBI are continuous random variables, and the correlation exiting between the lower and upper bounds can be tackled in RBI through the joint probability distribution function. And thus the subjectivity of decision making is greatly reduced, enhancing the stability and robustness of obtained solutions. The proposed method was then applied to solve a water and farmland use planning model (WFUPM) with non-point source pollution. The generated results could provide decision makers with detailed water supply-demand schemes involving diversified water related activities under various system conditions. These useful solutions could allow more in-depth analyses of the trade-offs between human and environment, as well as those between system optimality and reliability. In addition, comparative analyses on the solutions obtained from ICCP (Interval chance-constraints programming) and DIFSP demonstrated the higher application of this developed approach for supporting the water and farmland use system planning.

  2. Agricultural nitrate monitoring in a lake basin in Central Italy: a further step ahead towards an integrated nutrient management aimed at controlling water pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Garnier; Fabio Recanatesi; Maria Nicoletta Ripa; Antonio Leone

    2010-01-01

    Water pollution from point sources has been considerably reduced over the last few decades. Nevertheless, some water quality\\u000a problems remain, which can be attributed to non-point pollution sources, and in particular to agriculture. In this paper the\\u000a results of a study intended to assess the consequences, in terms of NO3 water pollution, of growing a crop, whose impact in terms

  3. Energy analysis of regional water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Heggen; K. J. Williamson

    1979-01-01

    Methods of water pollution control that were used to restore water quality of Oregon's Willamette River basin are reviewed. A water pollution control strategy that takes environmental, economic, and energy use impacts into consideration is proposed based on experiences in the Willamette basin. In the control strategy, site-specific data are used to devise a water quality index for the basin.

  4. Managing hazardous pollutants in Chile: arsenic.

    PubMed

    Sancha, Ana María; O'Ryan, Raul

    2008-01-01

    Chile is one of the few countries that faces the environmental challenge posed by extensive arsenic pollution, which exists in the northern part of the country. Chile has worked through various options to appropriately address the environmental challenge of arsenic pollution of water and air. Because of cost and other reasons, copying standards used elsewhere in the world was not an option for Chile. Approximately 1.8 million people, representing about 12% of the total population of the country, live in arsenic-contaminated areas. In these regions, air, water, and soil are contaminated with arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. For long periods, water consumed by the population contained arsenic levels that exceeded values recommended by the World Health Organization. Exposure to airborne arsenic also occurred near several large cities, as a consequence of both natural contamination and the intensive mining activity carried out in those areas. In rural areas, indigenous populations, who lack access to treated water, were also exposed to arsenic by consuming foods grown locally in arsenic-contaminated soils. Health effects in children and adults from arsenic exposure first appeared in the 1950s. Such effects included vascular, respiratory, and skin lesions from intake of high arsenic levels in drinking water. Methods to remove arsenic from water were evaluated, developed, and implemented that allowed significant reductions in exposure at a relatively low cost. Construction and operation of treatment plants to remove arsenic from water first began in the 1970s. Beginning in the 1990s, epidemiological studies showed that the rate of lung and bladder cancer in the arsenic-polluted area was considerably higher than mean cancer rates for the country. Cancer incidence was directly related to arsenic exposure. During the 1990s, international pressure and concern by Chile's Health Ministry prompted action to regulate arsenic emissions from copper smelters. A process began in which emission standards appropriate for Chile were set; this process included careful evaluation of risks versus mitigation costs for abatement options. Such options were developed and implemented. More recently, local communities have pressed for more significant reductions of arsenic in air and water. Considerable experience was gained with the arsenic experience on how to manage this type of hazardous pollutant, in a context of trade-offs among production, jobs, income, and health. In this review article, we cover arsenic levels in Chile's air, water, and soils and discuss health impacts and patterns of exposure. We also describe the process followed to set arsenic regulatory standards, as well as abatement options for air and water and the associated costs. PMID:19025095

  5. Adaptive management, monitoring, and the ecological sustainability of a thermal-polluted water ecosystem: a case in SW Spain.

    PubMed

    Lavado Contador, J F

    2005-05-01

    The construction of the Almaraz nuclear power plant in Spain in the 1970s posed interesting environmental problems concerning the construction of a cooling reservoir (Arrocampo reservoir) to cool the steam condensers and the consequent heating of the reservoir's water. The socio-political context forced decision makers to set up a project for the monitoring and management of the environmental impacts derived from the construction and operation of the power plant. Numerous scientific and technical specialists collaborated with the representatives of social groups towards two goals: the improvement of the biodiversity and of the efficiency of the cooling system. These goals involved the monitoring and managing of the system with respect to different biological aspects, mainly limnology, ichthyology, avian fauna and vegetation. The management plan yielded numerous results. The control of the water eutrophy is one of the most important due to its repercussion on the rest of the ecosystem, especially the fish fauna. The development of the shore vegetation slowly increased the patchwork nature of the reservoir, leading to a greater diversity of the avian species. This paper describes the monitoring and management of the Arrocampo ecosystem, the condition before and after the construction of the reservoir and the results obtained concerning some biological communities. PMID:15931975

  6. Agricultural water pollution control: An interdisciplinary approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Watkins W. Miller; Chauncey T. K. Ching; John F. Yanagida; Paul Jakus

    1985-01-01

    Regulation and control of agricultural water pollution is unique and difficult to accomplish. Water quality standards are often proposed without adequate consideration of the overall economic impact on agricultural production. This article illustrates how economists and physical scientists can cooperate to develop appropriate control strategies for agricultural water pollution. Data provided by physical scientists and economists are used in a

  7. Bibliography of water pollution control benefits and costs. [3000 references

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Unger; D. L. Jordening

    1974-01-01

    The computer-listed bibliography includes approximately 3000 references to environmental quality management issues. The primary selection criteria for including the sources referenced was that the citation pertains to water pollution control benefits and costs. However, numerous listings include more general environmental issues within which water quality problems are embedded. Also, much of the economic cost-benefit analysis research has been conceptually developed

  8. Water Conservation and Nonpoint Source Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell-Poe, Kitt

    This book contains science activities that are designed to make learning and demonstrating nonpoint source pollution concepts exciting and fun. These activities can either be used alone or with an existing water resources education curricula. Activities include: Water Tasting, Acting Out the Hydrologic Cycle, Concentration of Chemical Pollutants

  9. Rural industries and water pollution in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Wang; Michael Webber; Brian Finlayson; Jon Barnett

    2008-01-01

    Water pollution from small rural industries is a serious problem throughout China. Over half of all river sections monitored for water quality are rated as being unsafe for human contact, and this pollution is estimated to cost several per cent of GDP. While China has some of the toughest environmental protection laws in the world, the implementation of these laws

  10. Global trends in water pollution control legislation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Ozolins; S. S. Fluss; R. Helmer

    1977-01-01

    The scope of legislation on water pollution control is initially examined. Then, the administrative machinery responsible for implementing water pollution control programs is examined, after which the approaches taken by selected countries (Norway, India, USA, Netherlands, Mexico, and New South Wales) to deal with the problem is reviewed. There follows an analysis of the policies adopted by various countries to

  11. Symposium on costs of water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anonymous

    1972-01-01

    A National Symposium on Costs of Water Pollution Control will be held in Raleigh, North Carolina, April 67, 1972. The symposium is sponsored by the Research Triangle Universities (Duke University, North Carolina State University, and the University of North Carolina and several national societies. The program will include sessions on economic implications of national goals for water pollution control cost

  12. Water pollution abatement through forest irrigation with municipal waste water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E. Sopper

    Serious pollution problems are often created by the disposal of municipal waste water into surface waters. An obvious alternative-method is diversion of these waste waters to the land. Such non-aqueous methods of disposal might eliminate or alleviate many water pollution problems and, in some cases, could even provide secondary benefits such as recharge of groundwater reservoirs, and increased production of

  13. Assessment and management of long-term nitrate pollution of ground water in agriculture-dominated watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almasri, Mohammad N.; Kaluarachchi, Jagath J.

    2004-08-01

    The objectives of this paper are to document and evaluate regional long-term trends and occurrences of nitrate in the ground water of agricultural watersheds. In Whatcom County, Washington, elevated nitrate concentrations in ground water are of great concern. Whatcom County is recognized by heavy agricultural activities, especially an intensive dairy farm industry. Historical nitrate concentration data from 1990 to 2000 were compiled from different agencies and assembled into a single composite database. A geographic information system was used to assess the spatial and temporal variability of nitrogen data. The analysis was conducted for the whole area as well as for individual watersheds and for different land use classes. In addition, nitrate concentration variability with descriptive parameters such as sampling depth, ground water recharge, dissolved oxygen, and on-ground nitrogen loadings was also investigated. The analysis showed that the areas with nitrate concentrations above the maximum contaminant level are areas characterized by heavy agricultural activities. The shallow surficial aquifers of the study area were found to contain high mean nitrate concentrations when compared to non-surficial aquifers. The analysis showed that high nitrate presence corresponds to areas with both high ground water recharge and high on-ground nitrogen loadings. In addition, the nitrate concentration decreased with increasing sampling depth. In general, the trend of long-term nitrate concentration remained elevated in shallow aquifers due to the persistent on-ground nitrogen loadings produced by agriculture-related land use practices. Finally, the watersheds were prioritized for management intervention, alternatives, and data monitoring based on a number of decision variables.

  14. Review of water pollution control in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tingyao Gao; Hongbin Chen; Siqing Xia; Zengyan Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Water resource shortage and pollution has seriously threatened the survival and development of developing countries. Because\\u000a of China’s specific economical and social circumstances, complete adoption of developed countries’ experience is unrealistic.\\u000a At present, China needs to develop strategies and technologies in source water pollution control and municipal environmental\\u000a remediation that embrace the country’s specific need to battle the water resource

  15. Development of a Master Plan for Water Pollution Control Using MCDM Techniques: A Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Karamouz; Banafsheh Zahraie; Reza Kerachian

    2003-01-01

    Excessive demand for water due to a growing population, agricultural, and industrial development, along with climate change and depletion of nonrenewable resources have intensified the need for integrated water resources management and water pollution control. This paper presents different aspects of a master plan for water pollution control and the results of a case study for developing a master plan

  16. Pollution of surface water in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Key, A.

    1956-01-01

    This paper discusses pollution of surface water in 18 European countries. For each an account is given of its physical character, population, industries, and present condition of water supplies; the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling pollution are then described, and an outline is given of current research on the difficulties peculiar to each country. A general discussion of various aspects common to the European problem of water pollution follows; standards of quality are suggested; some difficulties likely to arise in the near future are indicated, and international collaboration, primarily by the exchange of information, is recommended to check or forestall these trends. PMID:13374532

  17. Engineering aspects of water pollution control systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Dalbke; A. J. Turk

    1967-01-01

    The importance of proper engineering when providing pollution control systems is emphasized. Organization of engineering projects is described in detail. Included are discussions of: (1) collection and evaluation of available data; (2) establishment of survey and test program; (3) integration and evaluation of findings; (4) establishment of pollution control and water utilization systems; and (5) specification and detailed design preparation.

  18. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on experiments with model systems of known organic water pollutants and environmental samples, conclusions are reached concerning the best general solvent for extraction and the most appropriate methods for related manipulations. Chloroform, methylene chloride-ether mixture...

  19. Special Topics in Water Science (Water Pollution)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Q&A Teachers Contact Back to previous page Water Basics Earth's Water Where is Earth's water? How much water is ... wet is your state? Glaciers and icecaps Watersheds Water Properties Water properties Adhesion and cohesion Capillary action ...

  20. Control of Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution by Natural Wetland Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduction of nonpoint source pollutants, principally sediment and nutrients moving from cultivated fields to surface waters, is a major challenge. Remnants of once-extensive natural wetlands occur across the agricultural landscape, and some workers have suggested that these areas might be managed t...

  1. Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan For: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Computation;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) LBNL CRTF UC Project No.912314 LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL........................................................................................... 9 2.5 Potential Construction Site Pollutant Sources

  2. Assessment and management of long-term nitrate pollution of ground water in agriculture-dominated watersheds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad N Almasri; Jagath J Kaluarachchi

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to document and evaluate regional long-term trends and occurrences of nitrate in the ground water of agricultural watersheds. In Whatcom County, Washington, elevated nitrate concentrations in ground water are of great concern. Whatcom County is recognized by heavy agricultural activities, especially an intensive dairy farm industry. Historical nitrate concentration data from 1990 to 2000

  3. Water Resource Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This portal, published by the University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Science (IFAS) Extension, offers a selection of links to information about water management issues. There is a 'Beginner's Guide to Water Management', which provides a basic introduction to the terminology and concepts used in water management. Other links access information on management in coastal waters, the impact of climate change on water resources, the use of stormwater as an alternative supply, wastewater management, and many others.

  4. Regional Water Management: Adapting to Uncertain Water

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Regional Water Management: Adapting to Uncertain Water Supply and Demand Jim Schneider, Ph · Identify the basin goals and concerns · Assess the water supply and water demands · Develop · How Nebraska manages water · Dealing with uncertain water supplies: adaptive management #12;Regional

  5. Good operating practices cut water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    West, D.E.

    1982-07-12

    This paper explains how the pipeline industry can avoid violating the Clean Water Act (PL 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act), which states that pollution of US waters from any cause other than an act of God, war or Government negligence is the responsibility of the owner or operator of the facility. Reporting pollution to the National Response Center will limit the maximum penalty to $5,000 Rectifiers must be kept in top operating condition, and visual inspections of the right-of-way by aerial or ground patrols must detect construction of new pipelines or other facilities. Accidental damage by third parties is the major cause of failures in pipeline systems, which can be prevented by periodic contact with landowners. Conclusion is that if a pipeline operator follows good operating and maintenance practices, his exposure to effects of the Clean Water Act will be minimal.

  6. Water hyacinths for removal of phenols from polluted waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Removal of phenol by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in static water was investigated. 2.75 g dry weight of this aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to absorb 100 mg of phenol per plant per 72 hours from distilled water, river water, and bayou water. One hectare of water hyacinth plants is shown to be potentially capable of removing 160 kg of phenol per 72 hours from waters polluted with this chemical.

  7. Urbanization, Water Pollution, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, George W.; And Others

    Reviewed in this report is a study concerned with water pollution as it relates to urbanization within the Regional Plan Association's set of 21 contiguous New York, New Jersey and Connecticut counties centered upon the numerous bay and estuarial reaches of the Port of New York and New Jersey. With a time frame covering a decade of water quality…

  8. Technological Innovation to Remove Water Pollutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas D. Parker; Margriet F. Caswell

    \\u000a Irrigation and precipitation runoff from agricultural fields contributes to topsoil loss and to the sedimentation of river\\u000a basins. The movement of suspended soil particles from fields to streams can also serve as a transport mechanism for agricultural\\u000a chemicals. These agricultural nonpoint sources of pollution (NSP) are receiving increased attention from water quality regulators.\\u000a Potential actions to curb such pollutants include

  9. Sensitivity Analysis for some Water Pollution Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Dimet, François-Xavier; Tran Thu, Ha; Hussaini, Yousuff

    2014-05-01

    Sensitivity Analysis for Some Water Pollution Problems Francois-Xavier Le Dimet1 & Tran Thu Ha2 & M. Yousuff Hussaini3 1Université de Grenoble, France, 2Vietnamese Academy of Sciences, 3 Florida State University Sensitivity analysis employs some response function and the variable with respect to which its sensitivity is evaluated. If the state of the system is retrieved through a variational data assimilation process, then the observation appears only in the Optimality System (OS). In many cases, observations have errors and it is important to estimate their impact. Therefore, sensitivity analysis has to be carried out on the OS, and in that sense sensitivity analysis is a second order property. The OS can be considered as a generalized model because it contains all the available information. This presentation proposes a method to carry out sensitivity analysis in general. The method is demonstrated with an application to water pollution problem. The model involves shallow waters equations and an equation for the pollutant concentration. These equations are discretized using a finite volume method. The response function depends on the pollutant source, and its sensitivity with respect to the source term of the pollutant is studied. Specifically, we consider: • Identification of unknown parameters, and • Identification of sources of pollution and sensitivity with respect to the sources. We also use a Singular Evolutive Interpolated Kalman Filter to study this problem. The presentation includes a comparison of the results from these two methods. .

  10. Purge water management system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Cardoso-Neto; D. W. Williams

    1995-01-01

    A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at

  11. Purge water management system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Cardoso-Neto; D. W. Williams

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at

  12. Purge water management system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joao E. Cardoso-Neto; Daniel W. Williams

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well

  13. A Study of Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkis, Vahak D.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a method (involving a Hach Colorimeter and simplified procedures) that can be used for the analysis of up to 56 different chemical constituents of water. Presents the results of student analysis of waters of Fulton and Montgomery counties in New York. (GS)

  14. Determining a quantifiable pollution management model (QPM)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhys Rowland-Jones; Malcolm Cresser

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this research is to develop a model for environmental management from which quantifiable indication of overall environmental performance for an organisation may be derived. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The links between environmental performance and financial performance are considered. Several research methods are described which consider pollution performance. However, it is clear that no single method wholly reflects

  15. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (water pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Pollution by municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mine wastes, radioactive contaminants; Chemistry and analysis of pollutants; Thermal pollution; Oil pollution; Control techniques and equipment; Sewage treatment; Industrial waste water pretreatment; Hydrology and limnology; Biological and ecological effects; Waste water reuse; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

  16. Is a heftier administrative law required to prevent state hollowing?: the issue of transborder water pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Breena E. Coates

    2004-01-01

    Concerns regarding the management of water and air pollution in border regions – such as the California-Mexico Border, is an old issue, which has bubbled up to its current crisis situation. Health and safety disasters, stemming from water pollution on both sides of the border mount as do related costs to local financially-strapped communities in California. One such impacted community

  17. Water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the studies of water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. Citations examine the development, management, and protection of estuary and coastal resources. Topics include pollution sources, environmental monitoring, water chemistry, eutrophication, models, land use, government policy, and laws and regulations. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. USGS Water Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    USGS Water Management: The USGS provides maps, reports, and information to help others meet their needs to manage, develop, and protect America's water, energy, mineral, and land resources. Some of the seventeen topics included here are flood forecasting, reservoir management, water allocation and bioremediation.

  19. Effects of Water Pollution on Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an inquiry activity that, while based on a local area (the San Francisco Bay), could be adapted to the teacher's/student's local area. Students perform an experiment in which they observe how water pollution is absorbed into plants. The site contains a teacher's guide and printable student worksheet.

  20. Mathematical modeling for water pollution control processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Keinath; M. P. Wanielista

    1975-01-01

    Dynamic and steady-state mathematical models have been developed to the extent that they can be used to evaluate, through a series of simulations, design and operation alternatives as well as control strategies for any system. This book focuses on process performance models in water pollution control. Its purpose is: to establish the current status of existing models with emphasis on

  1. Environmental impact analysis in water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy P. Lumbers

    1985-01-01

    The need for a wide?ranging environmental impact analysis to guide the establishment of water quality objectives and the associated effluent discharge standards is discussed. The particular problems associated with water pollution control are identified including: multiple and conflicting demands; multiple parameter objective specifications, the stochastic and time varying nature of the system; secondary and tertiary effects; and time?delay.Current environmental impact

  2. Water quality in sustainable water management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudhakar M. Rao; P. Mamatha

    Water pollution is a serious problem as almost 70% of India's surface water resources and a growing number of its groundwater reserves have been contaminated by biological, organic and inorganic pollutants. Pollu - tion of surface and groundwater resources occurs through point and diffuse sources. Examples of point source pollution are effluents from industries and from sewage-treatment plants. Typical examples

  3. Good operating practices cut water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    West, D.E.

    1982-07-12

    This article advises the pipeline industry on how to comply with the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (PL 92-500), which states that pollution of US waters by any cause other than an ''Act of God,'' ''Act of War,'' or US Government negligence is the responsibility of the owner or operator of the facility. Points out that the actions of third parties do not relieve owners or operators of liability unless they are the sole cause of pollution. Emphasizes that liability can be reduced by prompt reporting of pollution to the National Response Center. Reveals that the major cause of failures in pipeline systems is accidental damage by third parties. Proposes tha the best defense against pipeline damage resulting from landowner activity is periodic contact of the landowner by the operator. Recommends aerial and ground patrols as sources of information on construction activities. Concludes that assessing a penalty against the party causing the pollution would be better than merely penalizing the pipeline operator.

  4. Lawn Water Management

    E-print Network

    McAfee, James

    2006-06-26

    Water is a limited resource in Texas. This booklet explains how homeowners can establish a water management program for a home lawn that both maintains a healthy sod and also conserves water. The publication discusses soil types, grass varieties...

  5. Lawn Water Management 

    E-print Network

    McAfee, James

    2006-06-26

    Water is a limited resource in Texas. This booklet explains how homeowners can establish a water management program for a home lawn that both maintains a healthy sod and also conserves water. The publication discusses soil types, grass varieties...

  6. Impacts of soil and water pollution on food safety and health risks in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Song, Shuai; Wang, Ruoshi; Liu, Zhaoyang; Meng, Jing; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Li, Hong; Luo, Wei; Wang, Tieyu

    2015-04-01

    Environmental pollution and food safety are two of the most important issues of our time. Soil and water pollution, in particular, have historically impacted on food safety which represents an important threat to human health. Nowhere has that situation been more complex and challenging than in China, where a combination of pollution and an increasing food safety risk have affected a large part of the population. Water scarcity, pesticide over-application, and chemical pollutants are considered to be the most important factors impacting on food safety in China. Inadequate quantity and quality of surface water resources in China have led to the long-term use of waste-water irrigation to fulfill the water requirements for agricultural production. In some regions this has caused serious agricultural land and food pollution, especially for heavy metals. It is important, therefore, that issues threatening food safety such as combined pesticide residues and heavy metal pollution are addressed to reduce risks to human health. The increasing negative effects on food safety from water and soil pollution have put more people at risk of carcinogenic diseases, potentially contributing to 'cancer villages' which appear to correlate strongly with the main food producing areas. Currently in China, food safety policies are not integrated with soil and water pollution management policies. Here, a comprehensive map of both soil and water pollution threats to food safety in China is presented and integrated policies addressing soil and water pollution for achieving food safety are suggested to provide a holistic approach. PMID:25603422

  7. CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS VS. RETENTION POND BMPS: MESOCOSM STUDIES FOR IMPROVED POLLUTANT MANAGEMENT IN URBAN STORMWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased urbanization has increased the amount of directly connected impervious area that results in large quantities of stormwater runoff. This runoff can contribute significant amounts of debris and pollutants to receiving waters. Urban watershed managers often incorporate b...

  8. Water pollution control in Canada: cleanup through collaboration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feliciano

    1979-01-01

    A recent survey indicates that Canadians are willing to pay more taxes and higher prices to solve their country's air and water pollution problems. The political pollution control organization in Canada, the development of regulations for water pollution control, municipal facility construction and treatment levels, and the challenge for the Great Lakes are discussed. Environmental problems in Canada, particularly water

  9. Managing storm water at airports

    SciTech Connect

    Halm, M.J.

    1996-09-01

    Airports are active facilities with numerous on-going operations at their sites. The following operations may adversely affect the water quality of nearby aquatic environments: De-icing runways; de-icing taxiways; de-icing and anti-icing aircraft; aircraft maintenance; and salt de-icer application. Until the amendments to the Clean Water Act of 1972, referred to as the Water Quality Act of 1987, were passed by Congress, the majority of storm water discharges in the US were unregulated. The Water Quality Act of 1987 was promulgated as an effort to manage the pollution resulting from storm water runoff. Many industrial facilities, especially airports, were faced with complex problems in attempting to comply with these new federal regulations. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for airports with more than 50,000 flight operations per year require periodic monitoring of receiving waters and storm sewer outfalls. The federal government has given states jurisdiction in issuing NPDES permits for storm water discharges. States may require composite or grab samples.

  10. The national recreational fishing benefits of water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clifford S. Russell; William J. Vaughan

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of an effort to estimate the fresh water recreational fishing benefit derived from water pollution control efforts. Methodology is potentially applicable to other subcategories. (PSB)

  11. Setting the Course for Clean Water: A Citizen's Guide to the Section 208 Water Quality Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, Diane L.; Albright, Catherine

    This is a citizen's guide to the section 208 water quality management program. Section 208 refers to that section of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (the Clean Water Act) which calls for public participation in water quality management planning. Included in this guide are chapters on controlling pollution through the Clean Water

  12. Pollution susceptibility: An environmental parameter for coastal zone management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter K. Weyl

    1976-01-01

    The pollution susceptibility is a simple quantitative measure of the tidal flushing of coastal waters. It can be determined from readily available data on tidal height and currents. The pollution susceptibility is the spatial and temporal average concentration of a miscible, conservative pollutant that results from a unit rate of discharge. In embayments, in addition to a pollution susceptibility suitable

  13. Water quality management worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Andrew Charles

    1986-01-01

    This article analyzes water quality on a global scale. An overview of the global water supply and demand situation is presented first, including regional and country information, as well as data on selected water use patterns. The focus then shifts to a discussion of water pollution, its various causes, impact, and remedies, with emphasis on legal and administrative solutions. Water pollution control expenditures and the resultant achievements are dealt with in the final third of the article, with projections to 1995. A wide variety of published sources was dovetailed to obtain a composite picture and most likely scenario; this was supplemented with primary interviews by the author conducted in North America, Western and Eastern Europe, and Oceania at the start of the 1980s.

  14. Sanitary landfills: Water pollution. January 1980-August 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Aug 91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, operation, and management of sanitary landfills as related to water pollution. Topics include water pollution control, leachate analyses, site studies, environmental monitoring, and solid waste management strategies. Hazardous materials, public health, refuse disposal, and waste disposal are considered. (Contains 126 citations with title list and subject index.)

  15. Water Management: towards 2030

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This article from Agriculture21 cites the management practices and policies that will be necessary to avoid water crises in the coming three decades. There are links to information on raising water productivity, improving irrigation technology, and modernizing irrigation management. The text is available in English, French, Spanish, Arabic, and Chinese.

  16. Management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China: current status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan

    2006-01-01

    Water quality in China shows an overall trend of deterioration in recent years. Nonpoint source pollution from agricultural and rural regions is the leading source of water pollution. The agricultural nonpoint source pollutants are mainly from fertilization of cropland, excessive livestock and poultry breeding and undefined disposal of daily living wastes in rural areas. Agricultural nonpoint sources contribute the main source of pollution to most watersheds in China, but they are ignored in management strategy and policy. Due to the lack of full understanding of water pollution control and management and the lack of perfect water quality standard systems and practical legislative regulations, agricultural nonpoint source pollution will become one of the biggest challenges to the sustainable development of rural areas and to society as a whole. The system for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control in China should include an appropriate legislation and policy framework, financing mechanisms, monitoring system, and technical guidelines and standards. The management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution requires multidisciplinary approaches that will involve a range of government departments, institutions and the public. PMID:16594318

  17. Characterization and source apportionment of water pollution in Jinjiang River, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Yue, Weifeng; Song, Liuting

    2013-11-01

    Characterizing water quality and identifying potential pollution sources could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river ecosystem. In this study, fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA), pollution index (PI), principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) were combined to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal-spatial characterization and sources of water pollution with a case study of the Jinjiang River, China. Measurement data were obtained with 17 water quality variables from 20 sampling sites in the December 2010 (withered water period) and June 2011 (high flow period). FCA and PI were used to comprehensively estimate the water quality variables and compare temporal-spatial variations, respectively. Rotated PCA and receptor model (APCS-MLR) revealed potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions. Application results showed that comprehensive application of various multivariate methods were effective for water quality assessment and management. In the withered water period, most sampling sites were assessed as low or moderate pollution with characteristics pollutants of permanganate index and total nitrogen (TN), whereas 90% sites were classified as high pollution in the high flow period with higher TN and total phosphorus. Agricultural non-point sources, industrial wastewater discharge, and domestic sewage were identified as major pollution sources. Apportionment results revealed that most variables were complicatedly influenced by industrial wastewater discharge and agricultural activities in withered water period and primarily dominated by agricultural runoff in high flow period. PMID:23737126

  18. Water renewal and risk assessment of water pollution in semi-enclosed domains: Application to Bilbao Harbour (Bay of Biscay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grifoll, Manel; Del Campo, Andrea; Espino, Manuel; Mader, Julien; González, Manuel; Borja, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of water renewal behaviour in the risk assessment of water pollution for Bilbao harbour (located within the Nervión estuary, southeastern Bay of Biscay) is analysed. Several parameterisations of water renewal (integral and local perspectives), obtained from the numerical evolution analysis of a Eulerian tracer, were used. The local characterisation of water renewal confirmed a strong horizontal spatial variability. In addition, vertical variability on water renewal patterns, due to the 3-dimensional structure of the flow was also appreciated. For the period analysed (August 2008) the water renewal was less effective at the surface, than in deeper waters, because marine breezes counteracted water renewal at the surface, during the observed period. The incidence of this vertical variability, on harbour environmental management, was analysed in implementing a recently developed methodology to evaluate the risk of water pollution. Since this methodology takes into account water renewal, the values of risk of water pollution in Bilbao harbour differed considerably, as a function of the renewal pattern at the surface or within deeper waters. In conclusion, it was found that the water renewal should be parameterised properly, in order to improve environmental management strategies in semi-enclosed water bodies in coastal areas. The findings permitted knowledge to be gained on water renewal behaviour within Bilbao harbour, advancing the framework for the environmental management of harbour waters.

  19. Watershed management: Clean water`s next act

    SciTech Connect

    Hite, R.W. [Metro Wastewater Reclamation District, Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-09-23

    14 articles related to watershed management comprise this special advertising section of the Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies. Subtopics include water quality, regulations, US Environmental Protection Agency activities, analysis tools, economics, flooding and erosions, and non-point source pollutions. Articles on arid and coastal are included. Several articles describe municipal watershed programs being planned or in place.

  20. Controlling Nonpoint-Source Water Pollution: A Citizen's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Nancy Richardson; And Others

    Citizens can play an important role in helping their states develop pollution control programs and spurring effective efforts to deal with nonpoint-source pollution. This guide takes the reader step-by-step through the process that states must follow to comply with water quality legislation relevant to nonpoint-source pollution. Part I provides…

  1. Modelling and simulation of a polluted water pumping process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chitra Alavani; Roland Glowinski; Susana Gomez; Benjamin Ivorra; Pallavi Joshi; Angel Manuel Ramos

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article is to discuss the modeling and simulation of the motion of oil spots in the open sea, and the effect on the pollutant concentration when a polluted water pumping ship follows a pre-assigned trajectory to remove the pollutant. We assume here that the oil spots mo- tion is due to the coupling of diffusion, the

  2. The Current State of Water Quality and Technology Development for Water Pollution Control in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiuhui Qu; Maohong Fan

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes and presents an overview of the current state of water pollution, as well as recent progress and the potential future development of water pollution control technology, in China. Although China has made significant strides in water environmental protection over the past decades, analysis reveals that water pollution in the nation is still not sufficiently controlled, with a

  3. Purge water management system

    DOEpatents

    Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  4. Purge water management system

    DOEpatents

    Cardoso-Neto, Joao E. (North Augusta, SC); Williams, Daniel W. (Aiken, SC)

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  5. Water-pollution control: guidelines for project planning and financing. World Bank technical paper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Palange; A. Zavala

    1987-01-01

    This publication provides guidelines to managers, supervisors, and others who are involved with decisions on filling needs for water-pollution-control facilities, but who may be lacking the detailed background in engineering, economics, financial management, or other applicable specialties. Political and economic planning leaders, who must provide the financial resources and overall policies, will also find the document useful in making themselves

  6. Combining Watershed Variables with PCR-based Methods for Better Characterization and Management of Fecal Pollution in Small Streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ability to distinguish between human and animal fecal pollution is important for risk assessment and watershed management, particularly in bodies of water used as sources of drinking water or for recreation. PCR-based methods were used to determine the source of fecal pollution ...

  7. Nonpoint Source Pollution: Agriculture, Forestry, and Mining. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskirk, E. Drannon, Jr.

    Nonpoint sources of pollution have diffuse origins and are major contributors to water quality problems in both urban and rural areas. Addressed in this instructor's manual are the identification, assessment, and management of nonpoint source pollutants resulting from mining, agriculture, and forestry. The unit, part of the Working for Clean Water

  8. Areawide planning under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972: intergovernmental and land-use implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jungman

    1977-01-01

    By 1972 Congress had recognized the impossibility of controlling water pollution without some degree of land use management. Congress subsequently amended the Federal Water Pollution Control Act by adding section 208, which creates a Federal system of areawide planning. This comment analyzes the planning responsibilities that section 208 imposed upon state and metropolitan governments, the new element of Federal control

  9. Research needs and priorities: water pollution control benefits and costs. Volume II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Jordening; J. K. Allwood

    1973-01-01

    Research needs and priorities involving water pollution control costs ; and benefits are specified. A series of theoretical and methodological research ; needs are presented. Water quality management is required in a dynamic setting ; and over a broad range of hydrologic and economic conditions. The common ; property resource aspects of the problem with the prevalence of externalities ;

  10. Management of oil pollution of natural resources in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Ikporukpo, C.O.

    1985-04-01

    Oil spillages are prominent features of petroleum exploitation in Nigeria. For instance, within the decade 1970-1980, the country experienced 18 major spills. Oil pollution adversely affects the water and soil resources of the petroleum-producing Niger Delta. There have been attempts to manage the increasing menace of oil spills, and two strategies may be identified. These are the legislative and the project implementation approaches. The first approach relies on preventative laws, while the second, more or less curative, depends on the implementation of projects for the monitoring, control, and clearance of spilled oil. There are various problems in the effective operation of both strategies, and the persistence of spills, many of them avoidable, tends to indicate lapses in the management attempts. 12 references, 4 tables.

  11. EFFECTIVENESS OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential water quality effects and economic implications of soil and water conservation practices (SWCPs) are identified. Method for estimating the effects of SWCPs on pollutant losses from croplands are presented. Mathematical simulation and linear programming models were u...

  12. Pollution-control equipment (Colombia). Water-pollution-control equipment, May 1992. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    There are few manufacturers of water pollution control equipment in Colombia. Imports of water pollution equipment decreased 14 percent from US $16.3 million in 1990 to US $14.2 million in 1991. For 1992, they may fall 5 percent to US $13.5 million due to the slow performance of the economy. The close relationship with U.S. suppliers and the possible enforcement of water quality standards could influence favorably the growth of imports within the next three years. For many years, the U.S. has been the major supplier of water pollution control equipment.

  13. Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, K. E. M.

    This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

  14. [Safety concentration of genotoxic carcinogens in water pollution accident based on human health risk].

    PubMed

    Luo, Jin-Hong; Zheng, Bing-Hui; Fu, Qing; Hung, Min-Sheng

    2012-02-01

    It was an urgent problem to determine short-term exposure safety concentration of genetic carcinogens in water pollution accident in China. Based on the hypothesis that the relationship between exposure dosage and carcinogenic risk was linear, the calculation process of genetic carcinogens safety concentration was put forwarded, and the method using life-time exposed safety concentration to calculate short-term exposure safety concentration was set up. Based on the statistical result of water pollution accident occurred in china during 2000-2010, arsenic was a major characteristic contaminate in water pollution accident. According to the method of short-term exposure safety concentration of genotoxic carcinogens, the safety concentration of arsenic was 0.5 mg x L(-1), it showed that the method was feasible in emergence management of water pollution accident. PMID:22509565

  15. ICM training for marine pollution prevention and management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huming Yu; Chua Thia-Eng

    1998-01-01

    The GEF\\/UNDP\\/IMO Regional Programme on Marine Pollution Prevention and Management in the East Asian Seas (MPP-EAS) conducts annually a regional training course on the application of the integrated coastal management (ICM) system for addressing marine pollution problems. The training initiative is unique in that: (a) the training curriculum is tailored for strengthening environmental protection and management capacity in the developing

  16. Assessment of water quality and identification of polluted risky regions based on field observations & GIS in the Honghe River watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chang-An; Zhang, Wanchang; Zhang, Zhijie; Liu, Yuanmin; Deng, Cai; Nie, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Water quality assessment at the watershed scale requires not only an investigation of water pollution and the recognition of main pollution factors, but also the identification of polluted risky regions resulted in polluted surrounding river sections. To realize this objective, we collected water samplings from 67 sampling sites in the Honghe River watershed of China with Grid GIS method to analyze six parameters including dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). Single factor pollution index and comprehensive pollution index were adopted to explore main water pollutants and evaluate water quality pollution level. Based on two evaluate methods, Geo-statistical analysis and Geographical Information System (GIS) were used to visualize the spatial pollution characteristics and identifying potential polluted risky regions. The results indicated that the general water quality in the watershed has been exposed to various pollutants, in which TP, NO2-N and TN were the main pollutants and seriously exceeded the standard of Category III. The zones of TP, TN, DO, NO2-N and NH3-N pollution covered 99.07%, 62.22%, 59.72%, 37.34% and 13.82% of the watershed respectively, and they were from medium to serious polluted. 83.27% of the watershed in total was polluted by comprehensive pollutants. These conclusions may provide useful and effective information for watershed water pollution control and management. PMID:25768942

  17. Assessment of Water Quality and Identification of Polluted Risky Regions Based on Field Observations & GIS in the Honghe River Watershed, China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chang-An; Zhang, Wanchang; Zhang, Zhijie; Liu, Yuanmin; Deng, Cai; Nie, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Water quality assessment at the watershed scale requires not only an investigation of water pollution and the recognition of main pollution factors, but also the identification of polluted risky regions resulted in polluted surrounding river sections. To realize this objective, we collected water samplings from 67 sampling sites in the Honghe River watershed of China with Grid GIS method to analyze six parameters including dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). Single factor pollution index and comprehensive pollution index were adopted to explore main water pollutants and evaluate water quality pollution level. Based on two evaluate methods, Geo-statistical analysis and Geographical Information System (GIS) were used to visualize the spatial pollution characteristics and identifying potential polluted risky regions. The results indicated that the general water quality in the watershed has been exposed to various pollutants, in which TP, NO2-N and TN were the main pollutants and seriously exceeded the standard of Category III. The zones of TP, TN, DO, NO2-N and NH3-N pollution covered 99.07%, 62.22%, 59.72%, 37.34% and 13.82% of the watershed respectively, and they were from medium to serious polluted. 83.27% of the watershed in total was polluted by comprehensive pollutants. These conclusions may provide useful and effective information for watershed water pollution control and management. PMID:25768942

  18. RESEARCH AREA -- POLLUTION PREVENTION (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The strategy of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Indoor Environment Management Branch (IEMB) is to apply IEMB's expertise in indoor air quality (i.e., source characterization, ventilation, filtration, modeling, biocontaminants, and sustainable buildings) to...

  19. Enforcement of Section 208 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 to control nonpoint source pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wicker

    1979-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution (NPS) caused by agriculture, road building, and other activities is, while less visible than point source pollution, recognized as such a major contributor to water pollution that it must be brought under control. Section 208 is the only portion of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 to deal directly with the NPS problem. The

  20. Water Management Best Practices 

    E-print Network

    Hoffman, W.

    2011-01-01

    The Very Boring Topic of Water Conservation H. W. (Bill) Hoffman, P.E. H. W. (Bill) Hoffman & Associations, LLC 512-294-7193 billhoffmantx@earthlink.net ?Water is the oil of the 21st century.? Andrew Liveris, Chief... Shortages Mun./Ind. Demand Agricultural Demand Total Demand One MGD = 1,121 Ac-Ft/Yr. 40% 60% Recommended Water Management Strategies in 2060 Cons./Reuse/ Desal Conventional $45.80 $3.40 $0.40 $2.30 $1.23 $53 Billions of Dollars Needed to Meet...

  1. Environmental economics: capital expenditures for air and water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    de la Rue

    1977-01-01

    A survey showed that in the period 1970-76, capital expenditures by industries and utilities for air pollution abatement of stationary sources was $19.8 billion compared with $12.9 billion for water pollution control. During the 1977-85 period, capital expenditures by industries and utilities for air pollution abatement are expected to total over $36 billion, of which $6.75 billion will be for

  2. An Integrated Risk Management Model for Source Water Protection Areas

    PubMed Central

    Chiueh, Pei-Te; Shang, Wei-Ting; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2012-01-01

    Watersheds are recognized as the most effective management unit for the protection of water resources. For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans. The aim of this article is to establish a risk assessment model that provides basic information for identifying critical pollutants and areas at high risk for degraded water quality. In this study, a quantitative risk model that uses hazard quotients for each water quality parameter was combined with a qualitative risk model that uses the relative risk level of potential pollution events in order to characterize the current condition and potential risk of watersheds providing drinking water. In a case study of Taipei Source Water Area in northern Taiwan, total coliforms and total phosphorus were the top two pollutants of concern. Intensive tea-growing and recreational activities around the riparian zone may contribute the greatest pollution to the watershed. Our risk assessment tool may be enhanced by developing, recording, and updating information on pollution sources in the water supply watersheds. Moreover, management authorities could use the resultant information to create watershed risk management plans. PMID:23202770

  3. The geopressured geothermal resources of Texas. Regulatory controls over water pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Rogers; A. W. Oberbeck

    1977-01-01

    Contents: Overview of control framework; Federal pollution control of surface waters; State water pollution control in Texas; New federal standards for underground injection control; Summary assessment.

  4. Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation Division of Water Pollution Control

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation Division of Water Pollution Control):_________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Submit Application to: **Department of Environment and Conservation Division of Water Pollution Control

  5. An Innovative Partnership Approach for Environmental Management and Pollution Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erten-Unal, Mujde; Aydlett, Guy M.

    1997-01-01

    A partnership between a university and a government regulatory agency sought to assist industries with pollution prevention and waste management. Economic incentives were developed to promote waste minimization. (SK)

  6. A Review of Modelling Tools for Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive in Handling Diffuse Water Pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. S. Yang; L. Wang

    2010-01-01

    A numerical catchment-scale model capable of simulating diffuse water pollution is necessary in sustainable environmental\\u000a management for better implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive. This paper provides critical reviews of most popular\\u000a and free models for diffuse water modelling, with detailed sources and application potential. Based upon these reviews, further\\u000a work of selecting and testing the HSPF model was

  7. Stable Isotope Mixing Models as a Tool for Tracking Sources of Water and Water Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    One goal of monitoring pollutants is to be able to trace the pollutant to its source. Here we review how mixing models using stable isotope information on water and water pollutants can help accomplish this goal. A number of elements exist in multiple stable (non-radioactive) i...

  8. The latent causal chain of industrial water pollution in China.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xin; Tang, Yanhong; Wong, Christina W Y; Zang, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discover the latent causal chain of industrial water pollution in China and find ways to cure the want on discharge of toxic waste from industries. It draws evidences from the past pollution incidents in China. Through further digging the back interests and relations by analyzing representative cases, extended theory about loophole derivations and causal chain effect is drawn. This theoretical breakthrough reflects deeper causality. Institutional defect instead of human error is confirmed as the deeper reason of frequent outbreaks of water pollution incidents in China. Ways for collaborative environmental governance are proposed. This paper contributes to a better understanding about the deep inducements of industrial water pollution in China, and, is meaningful for ensuring future prevention and mitigation of environmental pollution. It illuminates multiple dimensions for collaborative environmental governance to cure the stubborn problem. PMID:25467695

  9. [Spatio-temporal characteristics and source identification of water pollutants in Wenruitang River watershed].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-xue; Wang, La-chun; Liao, Ling-ling

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the temp-spatial distribution and sources of water pollutants is of great significance for efficient water quality management pollution control in Wenruitang River watershed, China. A total of twelve water quality parameters, including temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+ -N), electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity (Turb), nitrite-N (NO2-), nitrate-N(NO3-), phosphate-P(PO4(3-), total organic carbon (TOC) and silicate (SiO3(2-)), were analyzed from September, 2008 to October, 2009. Geographic information system(GIS) and principal component analysis(PCA) were used to determine the spatial distribution and to apportion the sources of pollutants. The results demonstrated that TN, NH4+ -N, PO4(3-) were the main pollutants during flow period, wet period, dry period, respectively, which was mainly caused by urban point sources and agricultural and rural non-point sources. In spatial terms, the order of pollution was tertiary river > secondary river > primary river, while the water quality was worse in city zones than in the suburb and wetland zone regardless of the river classification. In temporal terms, the order of pollution was dry period > wet period > flow period. Population density, land use type and water transfer affected the water quality in Wenruitang River. PMID:25898648

  10. National Water Management Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Started during the Great Depression, the National Resources Conservation Service has "provided leadership in a partnership effort to help America's private land owners and managers to conserve their soil, water, and other natural resources." One of their outreach projects includes the National Water Management Center (NWMC) website. Persons with an interest in water-related issues and resource conservation will find the site most useful, and they can use the site to learn about water resource planning, watershed assessments, water policy implementations, and other topics. On the NWMC homepage visitors can look at the right hand side of the page to learn more about their work on environmental compliance, stream restoration, and water resource partnering. Visitors won't want to miss their special "Mississippi River Basin" area. Here, they can learn about the difficult conditions facing the Basin, including the persistent low oxygen conditions which affect about 15000 square kilometers. The site also includes an "Information For" area which contains thematic resources organized specifically for engineers, watershed planners, and policy makers.

  11. Decision support system for drinking water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janža, M.

    2012-04-01

    The problems in drinking water management are complex and often solutions must be reached under strict time constrains. This is especially distinct in case of environmental accidents in the catchment areas of the wells that are used for drinking water supply. The beneficial tools that can help decision makers and make program of activities more efficient are decision support systems (DSS). In general they are defined as computer-based support systems that help decision makers utilize data and models to solve unstructured problems. The presented DSS was developed in the frame of INCOME project which is focused on the long-term stable and safe drinking water supply in Ljubljana. The two main water resources Ljubljana polje and Barje alluvial aquifers are characterized by a strong interconnection of surface and groundwater, high vulnerability, high velocities of groundwater flow and pollutant transport. In case of sudden pollution, reactions should be very fast to avoid serious impact to the water supply. In the area high pressures arising from urbanization, industry, traffic, agriculture and old environmental burdens. The aim of the developed DSS is to optimize the activities in cases of emergency water management and to optimize the administrative work regarding the activities that can improve groundwater quality status. The DSS is an interactive computer system that utilizes data base, hydrological modelling, and experts' and stakeholders' knowledge. It consists of three components, tackling the different abovementioned issues in water management. The first one utilizes the work on identification, cleaning up and restoration of illegal dumpsites that are a serious threat to the qualitative status of groundwater. The other two components utilize the predictive capability of the hydrological model and scenario analysis. The user interacts with the system by a graphical interface that guides the user step-by-step to the recommended remedial measures. Consequently, the acquisition of information to support the water management's decisions is simplified and faster, thus contributing to more efficient water management and a safer supply of drinking water.

  12. ALTERNATIVE POLICIES FOR CONTROLLING NONPOINT AGRICULTURAL SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study of policies for controlling water pollution from nonpoint agricultural sources includes a survey of existing state and Federal programs, agencies, and laws directed to the control of soil erosion. Six policies representing a variety of approaches to this pollution prob...

  13. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: WATER POLLUTANTS FROM COAL STORAGE AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a study of water pollution levels that result from coal stockpiles maintained outdoors. A representative source was defined to characterize the pollution levels. Effluent data was obtained by placing coals, collected from various regions in the U.S., under a...

  14. Toward an effective and credible program: Water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard B. Dworsky

    1970-01-01

    While the public demand for water pollution control remains loud, the political response has become deafening. The responsible political leadership in both parties has avoided the temptation to engage in competitive promises. But those seeking instant solutions and those whose political response has been guided by the pressure of Earth Day have created an image about the pollution problem that

  15. Conflict between energy conservation and water pollution control standards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lamb

    1980-01-01

    The potential conflict in national needs for both energy conservation and water pollution control is indicated. Meeting broader obligations in reconciling these apparent differences has failed. Major contributions to energy conservation efforts needed today could be made without giving up any important pollution control goals. Hopefully, state and Federal regulatory agencies soon will recognize their obligations in this respect and

  16. INTEGRAL MANAGEMENT OF THE URBAN WASTE WATER DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandra Medvedeva

    The largest sources of concentrated pollution of water resources in a basin are the human settlements and industry, therefore, in solving the problem of integral management of water resources in the last ten years, a special attention is paid to the solution of urban waste water disposal systems. The fundamental axiom of the contemporary approaches to these issues states that

  17. publication 426-043 Urban Water-Quality Management

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    publication 426-043 Urban Water-Quality Management Rain Garden Plants Mike Andruczyk, Extension Gilland, Extension Agent, Portsmouth A rain garden is a landscaped area specially designed to collect rainfall and storm-water runoff. The plants and soil in the rain garden clean pollutants from the water

  18. Water quality management library. 2. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenfelder, W.W.; Malina, J.F.; Patterson, J.W. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    A series of ten books offered in conjunction with Water Quality International, the Biennial Conference and Exposition of the International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control (IAWPRC). Volume 1, Activated Sludge Process, Design and Control, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 2, Upgrading Wastewater Treatment Plants, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 3, Toxicity Reduction, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 4, Municipal Sewage Sludge Management, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 5, Design and Retrofit of Wastewater Treatment Plants for Biological Nutrient Removal, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 6, Dynamics and Control of the Activated Sludge Process, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 7: Design of Anaerobic Processes for the Treatment of Industrial and Municipal Wastes, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 8, Groundwater Remediation, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 9, Nonpoint Pollution and Urban Stormwater Management, 1st edition, 1995: Volume 10, Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse, 1st edition, 1998.

  19. Seeking More Effective Management of Freshwater Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    The atmosphere contains airborne pollutants such as mercury, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides released from automobiles, factories, and power plants. Similarly, land surfaces such as croplands, feedlots, logged forests, construction sites, and urban land surfaces may be reserv...

  20. IMPROVED POLLUTANT MANAGEMENT IN URBAN STORMWATER BMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased urbanization has resulted in a larger percentage of impervious areas that produce large quantities of stormwater runoff and contribute significant amounts of debris and pollutants (e.g., litter, oils, heavy metals, sediments, nutrients, organic matter, and microorganism...

  1. Integrated Water Management Options in the Nebraska Ground Water Management &

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    contamination from fertilizer use. Some water quality GMAs also deal with pesticide contamination of groundIntegrated Water Management Options in the Nebraska Ground Water Management & Protection Act by J districts (NRDs) and the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources (DNR) to regulate ground water and surface

  2. NATION WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ASSESSMENT MODEL - VERSION 2.1.

    EPA Science Inventory

    NWPCAM brings together large amounts of environmental data and complex hydrologic and water quality modeling techniques into a system whose purpose is to estimate the water quality and economic benefits of water pollution control policies. NWPCAM began as a point source evaluati...

  3. New Photocatalysis for Effective Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zarei Chaleshtori; G. B. Saupe; S. Masoud

    2009-01-01

    The presence of harmful compounds in water supplies and in the discharge of wastewater from chemical industries, power plants, and agricultural sources is a topic of global concern. The processes and technologies available at the present time for the treatment of polluted water are varied that include traditional water treatment processes such as biological, thermal and chemical treatment. All these

  4. Energy requirements for industrial water pollution control. a perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serth

    1978-01-01

    A summary of available information on energy requirements (ER) for industrial air and water pollution control to meet the existing U.S. Legislation (e.g., the Public Law 92-500) includes estimates of the ER by sector (industry, powerplants, and municipal wastes), by pollutant type (water, sulfur oxides, particulates, and thermal wastes), and by industry for 1977-1983, showing the relative importance of the

  5. Consequences of Decentralization: Environmental Impact Assessment and Water Pollution Control in Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ADRIAAN BEDNER

    2010-01-01

    After having been one of the most centralized states in the world for more than thirty years, in 2001 Indonesia introduced a sweeping program of decentralization with important consequences for the management of the industrial sector. This article explores whether the decentralization process has led to substantial changes in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and enforcement of water pollution law. Its

  6. Effects of long term irrigation with polluted water and sludge amendment on some soil enzyme activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. O. Topac; H. S. Baskaya; U. Alkan; A. V. Katkat

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of wastewater sludge-fly ash mixtures on urease, dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and beta-glucosidase activities in soils. In order to evaluate the probable effects of previous soil management practices (irrigation with polluted water) on soil enzymes, two different soil samples which were similar in physical properties, but different in irrigation practice were

  7. Salmonella pollution in ground and surface waters. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the contamination of ground waters and surface waters by Salmonella bacteria. Articles discuss the occurence, survival, origin, and control of these bacteria in water sources including rivers, reservoirs, swimming pools, wastewater, aquifers, and ground water. Citations also address the use of Salmonella populations as biological indicators of pollution in aquatic systems. (Contains a minimum of 102 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Water hyacinth as indicator of heavy metal pollution the tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, H.; Otero, M. (Institute of Transport Investigations, Havana (Cuba)); Lodenius, M. (Univ. of Helsinki (Finland))

    1989-12-01

    The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a common aquatic plant in many tropical countries. Its ability absorb nutrients and other elements from the water has made it possible to use it for water purification purposes. Eichhornia, especially stems and leaves, have been successfully used as indicators of heavy metal pollution in tropical countries. The uptake of heavy metals in this plant is stronger in the roots than in the floating shoots. Metallothionein-like compounds have been found from roots of this species after cadmium exposure. The purpose of this investigation was to study the possibilities of using roots of water hyacinth as a biological indicator of metal pollution in tropical aquatic ecosystems.

  9. Science, Pollution, and Clean Drinking Water: Choosing Between Tap Water, Bottled Water, and Home Purification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franz Foltz

    1999-01-01

    Focusing on the recent explosion in the use of bottled water, this article—originally written for my NASTS conference presentation—will examine the rhetoric used by the bottled water industry and home purification system providers to affect the public’s idea of clean, pure, dirty, and polluted water. Bottlers argue that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides better regulation of bottled water

  10. Water quality . . . potential sources of pollution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank, (artist)

    1996-01-01

    What is water quality? To most students, water quality may suggest only "clean" water for drinking, swimming, and fishing. But to the farmer or manufacturer, water quality may have an entirely different meaning. One of the most important issues concerning the quality of water is how that water will be used. Water that is perfectly fine for irrigation might not be suitable for drinking or swimming.

  11. Industrial storm water pollution prevention: Effectiveness and limitations of source controls in the transportation industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Donald Duke; Y. Jae Chung

    1995-01-01

    Industrial activities that are sources of pollutants in storm water runoff at typical facilities of the transportation industry are identified by site investigations at five facilities. This research then evaluates pollution prevention measures implemented to reduce those pollutants, as required by storm water regulations under the U.S. Clean Water Act. Activities that potentially generate storm water pollutants, particular to facilities

  12. Indoor Air Pollution: An Energy Management Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, David M.; Kulba, John W.

    1987-01-01

    Energy conservation measures have led to airtight buildings and reduced levels of ventilation resulting in indoor air pollution. Five kinds of contaminants--tobacco smoke, combustion products, microorganisms, organic compounds, and radon--are described, their hazards considered, and countermeasures outlined. (MLF)

  13. A Monitor for 22 Water Pollutants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Examples of user experiences of the Enviro Monitor are cited together with advantages for its use. This is an all-weather instrument capable of making a continuous record of pollutants and controlling unattended operations at remote locations under adverse weather conditions. (BL)

  14. The sources, impact and management of car park runoff pollution: a review.

    PubMed

    Revitt, D Michael; Lundy, Lian; Coulon, Frédéric; Fairley, Martin

    2014-12-15

    Traffic emissions contribute significantly to the build-up of diffuse pollution loads on urban surfaces with their subsequent mobilisation and direct discharge posing problems for receiving water quality. This review focuses on the impact and mitigation of solids, metals, nutrients and organic pollutants in the runoff deriving from car parks. Variabilities in the discharged pollutant levels and in the potentials for pollutant mitigation complicate an impact assessment of car park runoff. The different available stormwater best management practices and proprietary devices are reported to be capable of reductions of between 20% and almost 100% for both suspended solids and a range of metals. This review contributes to prioritising the treatment options which can achieve the appropriate pollutant reductions whilst conforming to the site requirements of a typical car park. By applying different treatment scenarios to the runoff from a hypothetical car park, it is shown that optimal performance, in terms of ecological benefits for the receiving water, can be achieved using a treatment train incorporating permeable paving and bioretention systems. The review identifies existing research gaps and emphasises the pertinent management practices as well as design issues which are relevant to the mitigation of car park pollution. PMID:25214073

  15. Models of Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Surface Waters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okome, Gloria Eloho

    2013-01-01

    There is the need to answer very crucial questions of "what happens to pollutants in surface waters?" This question must be answered to determine the factors controlling fate and transport of chemicals and their evolutionary state in surface waters. Monitoring and experimental methods are used in establishing the environmental states.…

  16. Regulating Industrial Water Pollution in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winston Harrington

    2003-01-01

    The performance of the industrial point-source water pollution abatement program in the U.S. Clean Water Act is examined. I begin with a brief description of the statute and then turn to a description of the process used to develop the rules that govern effluent discharges. This is followed by a discussion of the outcomes resulting from efforts to apply these

  17. Identification and Control of Pollution from Salt Water Intrusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This document contains informational guidelines for identifying and evaluating the nature and extent of pollution from salt water intrusion. The intent of these guidelines is to provide a basic framework for assessing salt water intrusion problems and their relationship to the total hydrologic system, and to provide assistance in developing…

  18. Team Approaches for Agricultural Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zou Jiliang; Yuan Yongkang

    2009-01-01

    Nonpoint source water pollution, primarily from agricultural sources, is a major cause of water quality impairment. Uncertainty and asymmetric information are the key regulatory difficulties in the control of agricultural NPSP. The main target of this study is to describe a potential incentive scheme that can be applied in limited information situations. Team contracts built upon principal-agent theory are proposed.

  19. Water pollution control: the case for local control and accountability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Mackay

    1993-01-01

    At a time when substantial changes are taking place, or are proposed, in the organizational structure for preventing water pollution in Scotland, the paper makes the case for maintaining the status quo. The Scottish system relies on 10 independent river purification authorities comprising elected and appointed members, with considerable freedom to set water quality objectives and standards in light of

  20. Spectral reflectance and radiance characteristics of water pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wezernak, C. T.; Turner, R. E.; Lyzenga, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    Spectral reflectance characteristics of water pollutants and water bodies were compiled using the existing literature. Radiance calculations were performed at satellite altitude for selected illumination angles and atmospheric conditions. The work described in this report was limited to the reflective portion of the spectrum between 0.40 micrometer to 1.0 micrometer.

  1. Irrigation Water Quality Salinity Management

    E-print Network

    Irrigation Water Quality Standards and Salinity Management Strategies B-1667 4-03 #12;Nearly all of the earth's surface. In addition, drainage waters from irrigated lands and effluent from city sewage and industrial waste water can impact water quality. In most irrigation situations, the primary water qual- ity

  2. Irrigation management under water scarcity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Santos Pereira; Theib Oweis; Abdelaziz Zairi

    2002-01-01

    The use of water for agricultural production in water scarcity regions requires innovative and sustainable research, and an appropriate transfer of technologies. This paper discusses some of these aspects, mainly relative to on-farm irrigation management including the use of treated wastewater and saline waters. First, the paper proposes some concepts relative to water scarcity, concerning aridity, drought, desertification and water

  3. Stormwater Management Criteria for On-Site Pollution Control: A Comparative Assessment of International Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, Jérémie; Berthier, Emmanuel; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2015-07-01

    Over the last decade, a growing interest has been shown toward innovative stormwater management practices, breaking away from conventional "end of pipe" approaches (based on conveying water offsite to centralized detention facilities). Innovative strategies, referred to as sustainable urban drainage systems, low impact development (LID) or green infrastructures, advocating for management of runoff as close to its origin as possible, have therefore gained a lot of popularity among practitioners and public authorities. However, while the need for pollution control is generally well accepted, there is no wide agreement about management criteria to be given to developers. This article hence aims to compare these criteria through literature analysis of different state or local stormwater management manuals or guidelines, investigating both their suitability for pollution control and their influence on best management practices selection and design. Four categories of criteria were identified: flow-rate limitations, "water quality volumes" (to be treated), volume reduction (through infiltration or evapotranspiration), and non-hydrologic criteria (such as loads reduction targets or maximum effluent concentrations). This study suggests that hydrologic criteria based on volume reduction (rather than treatment) might generally be preferable for on-site control of diffuse stormwater pollution. Nonetheless, determination of an appropriate management approach for a specific site is generally not straightforward and presents a variety of challenges for site designers seeking to satisfy local requirements in addressing stormwater quantity and quality issues. The adoption of efficient LID solution may therefore strongly depend on the guidance given to practitioners to account for these management criteria.

  4. Stormwater management criteria for on-site pollution control: a comparative assessment of international practices.

    PubMed

    Sage, Jérémie; Berthier, Emmanuel; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2015-07-01

    Over the last decade, a growing interest has been shown toward innovative stormwater management practices, breaking away from conventional "end of pipe" approaches (based on conveying water offsite to centralized detention facilities). Innovative strategies, referred to as sustainable urban drainage systems, low impact development (LID) or green infrastructures, advocating for management of runoff as close to its origin as possible, have therefore gained a lot of popularity among practitioners and public authorities. However, while the need for pollution control is generally well accepted, there is no wide agreement about management criteria to be given to developers. This article hence aims to compare these criteria through literature analysis of different state or local stormwater management manuals or guidelines, investigating both their suitability for pollution control and their influence on best management practices selection and design. Four categories of criteria were identified: flow-rate limitations, "water quality volumes" (to be treated), volume reduction (through infiltration or evapotranspiration), and non-hydrologic criteria (such as loads reduction targets or maximum effluent concentrations). This study suggests that hydrologic criteria based on volume reduction (rather than treatment) might generally be preferable for on-site control of diffuse stormwater pollution. Nonetheless, determination of an appropriate management approach for a specific site is generally not straightforward and presents a variety of challenges for site designers seeking to satisfy local requirements in addressing stormwater quantity and quality issues. The adoption of efficient LID solution may therefore strongly depend on the guidance given to practitioners to account for these management criteria. PMID:25855072

  5. [Pollution hazard for water bodies at oil production].

    PubMed

    Zholdakova, Z I; Belyaeva, N I

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there have been summarizes the concepts of the danger of the pollution ofwater bodies in oil production (the most dangerous are reagents used in the drilling, drilling waste, oil and petrochemicals, oil biodestructors. There was shown the danger of the spread of oil pollution. New indices, presenting a hazard during drilling and oil production have been substantiated The tasks aimed to the improvement of the standards and methods of the control of the water pollution by oil, as well as of the documents regulating the conditions of environmental protection during the drilling have been conceived. PMID:26031037

  6. Water Losses Management and Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Mendaza; L. Lazzarin; H. Lorenze; H. Lee; M. Farley; H. Esko; K. Johnson; M. Rapinat; P. Dohnal; R. McKenzie; D. Weimer; S. K. S. Lai; E. Somos; S. Davis; F. Martinez

    Since the 1991 IWSA International Report on 'Unaccounted for Water and the Economics of Leak Detection', the topic of management of water losses in distribution systems has received increased attention. This International Report seeks to present an overview of the 'state of the art' in management of Water Losses, based on the Reports prepared by National Rapporteurs, the recent recommendations

  7. Water quality models for waste water management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul G. Whitehead

    A methodology is proposed for evaluating the impact of effluent on the aquatic environment and for the development of management strategies for the planning and control of waste water systems. The particular approach considers the dynamic behaviour of the river system and relates time varying upstream influents to downstream water quality using simple, low order but robust models of water

  8. Water Pollution Control: Lessons from Transnational Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert V. Percival

    1998-01-01

    Water is fundamental to life, as reflected in space scientists' compulsive search for signs of its presence when scrutinizing other planets for possible life forms. Fortunately for our species, more than two-thirds of our planet is covered with water, creating an environment richly conducive to life. Humans have just begun to appreciate how precious earth's water resources are and how

  9. Magnitude of pollution indicator organisms in rural potable water.

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, S S; Warren, W J; Nelson, P

    1979-01-01

    A total of 460 water samples were randomly drawn from the potable water supply sources of rural communities in three counties of South Carolina. About 10% of the population, not incorporated in municipalities, was sampled. The samples were tested for total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci. Significant levels of these pollution indicator organisms were detected in almost all the water supplies. Total coliforms were the most common, and only 7.5% of the water supplies were uncontaminated. E. coli, considered a reliable indicator of recent and dangerous pollution, was observed in 43% of the water supplies. Statistical analyses indicated that the bacterial populations, especially E. coli, were associated with the supply source depth and its distance from the septic tank. Total coliform counts were also weakly correlated to the pH of the water. PMID:36849

  10. 64 FR 73414 - Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants; Available Cyanide in Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-12-30

    ...e.g., the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) maximum contaminant...Constants of Cyano Complexes,'' Pure & Appl. Chem...Waste treatment and disposal, Water pollution control. Dated...1251, et seq.) (The Federal Water Pollution Control Act...

  11. MERCURY SEPARATION FROM POLLUTANT WATER USING ZEOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water has been examined at room temperature. Experiments have...

  12. Needed: Clean Water. Problems of Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet utilizes illustrations and captions to indicate the demands currently made on our water resources and the problems associated with that demand. Current and future solutions are described with suggestions for personal conservation efforts to help provide enough clean water for everyone in the future. (CS)

  13. A Comparison of Erosion and Water Pollution Control Strategies for an Agricultural Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prato, Tony; Shi, Hongqi

    1990-02-01

    The effectiveness and efficiency of two erosion control strategies and one water pollution control (riparian) strategy are compared for Idaho's Tom Beall watershed. Erosion control strategies maximize annualized net returns per hectare on each field and restrict field erosion rates to no more than 11.2 or 16.8 tons per hectare. The riparian strategy uses good vegetative cover on all fields adjacent to the creek and in noncropland areas and the resource management system that maximizes annualized net returns per hectare on remaining fields. The Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution model is used to simulate the levels and concentrations of sediment, nitrogen, phosphorus, and chemical oxygen demand at the outlet of the watershed. Erosion control strategies generate less total erosion and water pollution but are less efficient than the riparian strategy. The riparian strategy is less equitable for farmers than the erosion control strategies.

  14. Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) pollution prevention program implementation plan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-01-01

    This plan documents the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Pollution Prevention\\/Waste Minimization (P2\\/WMin) Program. The subject implementation plan has been updated to reflect the Fiscal Year (FY) 1997 contract structure in which Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) is the management and integration contractor. The P2\\/WMin Program scope includes FDH as the principal PHMC contractor, and B&W Hanford Company (BWHC), Duke

  15. Biodetention: A best management practice for nonpoint source pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Murfee, G.; Scaief, J.; Whelan, M.

    1998-07-01

    Biodetention is an innovative nonpoint source (NPS) pollution control best management practice (BMP) developed as an alternative to sedimentation/filtration ponds. Biodetention is applicable as a runoff treatment system for concentrated point discharges from stormwater collection facilities. Treatment is facilitated by vegetative filter strips and stiff grass hedges.

  16. Entrepreneurs' behaviour in water management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. B. Pols; H. Staats; P. J. Baars

    1995-01-01

    Although there are sufficient technical means for preventing waste water from becoming seriously polluted, in practice the implementation of preventive measures lags far behind the possibilities. Many reasons can be suggested for this, such as ignorance and economic uncertainties, but very little research, if any, has been carried out into the way in which entrepreneurs' behaviour can be influenced in

  17. Applied research reduces air pollution from platforms in offshore California waters

    SciTech Connect

    Konczvald, A.; Shackell, G.C.

    1996-12-31

    The monumental task of reducing air pollutants generated from offshore oil and gas platforms while preserving safety and production safeguards is difficult. Recently, a group of scientists have pioneered the smokeless oil spill burn concept using Enhanced Burning Additives (EBA), while the Minerals Management Service (MMS) entered the 89th year of monitoring the safe operational practices under air pollutant reducing measures such as water injected turbine generators and the use of new fuels on platforms along the Californian Pacific coast. This paper presents the conclusions of this trial period of selecting the right, technically feasible concepts.

  18. Water pollution control in river basin by interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective programming

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, N.B.; Chen, H.W. [National Cheng-Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Shaw, D.G.; Yang, C.H. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Economics

    1997-12-01

    The potential conflict between protection of water quality and economic development by different uses of land within river basins is a common problem in regional planning. Many studies have applied multiobjective decision analysis under uncertainty to problems of this kind. This paper presents the interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming (IFIMOMIP) model to evaluate optimal strategies of wastewater treatment levels within a river system by considering the uncertainties in decision analysis. The interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming approach is illustrated in a case study for the evaluation of optimal wastewater treatment strategies for water pollution control in a river basin. In particular, it demonstrates how different types of uncertainty in a water pollution control system can be quantified and combined through the use of interval numbers and membership functions. The results indicate that such an approach is useful for handling system complexity and generating more flexible policies for water quality management in river basins.

  19. WATER TREATMENT MODEL FOR POLLUTANT EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mathematical model of potable water treatment for toxic substance removal for use in exposure assessment modeling has been developed. The sedimentation, coagulation-flocculation, filtration, aeration, chemical oxidation, and granular activated carbon adsorption treatment proces...

  20. Institutional instruments for water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Grima

    1981-01-01

    This paper focuses on the articulation of policies in the interface between economic production and water quality. One problem\\u000a is the introduction, at this production-ecologic interface, of unwanted water-borne residuals by firms and municipalities.\\u000a The policy objective is to absorb the social cost of environmental degradation into the production function within the two\\u000a constraints of efficiency in the allocation of

  1. Technical management techniques for identification and control of industrial safety and pollution hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R.; Dyer, M. K.; Hoard, E. G.; Little, D. G.; Taylor, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    Constructive recommendations are suggested for pollution problems from offshore energy resources industries on outer continental shelf. Technical management techniques for pollution identification and control offer possible applications to space engineering and management.

  2. Pollution prevention: Avoiding the need to manage wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Meltzer, M.

    1993-12-01

    Today`s industrial processes generate many types of waste products that constitute risks to human health and the surrounding environment. While proper waste management procedures can lower this risk, prevention of the waste`s generation will eliminate the risk. For this reason, the United States has established pollution prevention as a national objective, through the passage of its Pollution Prevention Act of 1990. Pollution prevention involves a wide range of approaches, all with the same objective: to reduce or eliminate the creation of waste at its source in other words, within the process that generates it. This objective, so beneficial to the environment, also coincides with industrial economic interests. Pollution prevention measures and greater process efficiency go hand in hand, and typically result in lower operating costs as well as greatly reduced waste management expenses. The US Environmental Protection Agency defines pollution prevention as the maximum feasible reduction of all wastes generated at production sites. This objective is accomplished largely through source reduction and reuse of input materials during production.

  3. Hypothesis-Driven Approach for the Identification of Fecal Pollution Sources in Water Resources

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Water resource management must strive to link catchment information with water quality monitoring. The present study attempted this for the field of microbial fecal source tracking (MST). A fecal pollution source profile based on catchment data (e.g., prevalence of fecal sources) was used to formulate a hypothesis about the dominant sources of pollution in an Austrian mountainous karst spring catchment. This allowed a statistical definition of methodical requirements necessary for an informed choice of MST methods. The hypothesis was tested in a 17-month investigation of spring water quality. The study followed a nested sampling design in order to cover the hydrological and pollution dynamics of the spring and to assess effects such as differential persistence between parameters. Genetic markers for the potential fecal sources as well as microbiological, hydrological, and chemo?physical parameters were measured. The hypothesis that ruminant animals were the dominant sources of fecal pollution in the catchment was clearly confirmed. It was also shown that the concentration of ruminant markers in feces was equally distributed in different ruminant source groups. The developed approach provides a tool for careful decision-making in MST study design and might be applied on various types of catchments and pollution situations. PMID:21466151

  4. Introduction to Instrumental Analysis of Water Pollutants. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This course is designed for those requiring an introduction to instruments commonly used in water pollution analyses. Examples are: pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen meters, spectrophotometers, turbidimeters, carbon analyzer, and gas chromatographs. Students should have a basic knowledge of analytical chemistry. (CO)

  5. Water Pollution, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, George G.

    Analyzed are the reasons why present mechanisms for the control of water purity are inadequate. The control of waterborne epidemics is discussed to illustrate a problem which has been solved, then degradation of the environment is presented as an unsolved problem. Case histories are given of pollution and attempts at control in rivers, lakes,…

  6. Solidification\\/Stabilization of Power Plants Wastes Potential Water Pollutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandra Kosti?-Pulek; Svetlana Popov

    The intensive firing of coal in power plants can harm the environment. The problems are caused by the emission of solid particles, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, as well as by pollution of the surrounding waters and the degradation of the land due to the disposition of the solid wastes: fly ash, bottom ash

  7. Retrofit conserves energy at a water pollution control facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Haimes; J. Dedyo

    1980-01-01

    A major retrofit of process structures and incorporation of additional mechanical equipment was undertaken to replace the existing chemical phosphorus removal process with a biological phosphorus removal process. The new process will reduce energy use up to 81% and lime use up to 86% at the Amherst, New York water pollution control facility.

  8. ISOLATION OF ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS BY XAD RESINS AND CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recovery efficiencies of XAD resins -2, -4, -7, and -8 and of resin mixtures were measured using distilled water samples containing 13 organic pollutants. An equal-weight mixture of XAD-4 and XAD-8 was most efficient. XAD-2 and XAD-4/8 were further tested and found effective ...

  9. The means and problems of preventing pollution of surface waters by waste waters from cities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Bolotina

    One of the tasks most urgent for the conservation of water is to stop the pollution of water bodies by waste water discharged by the sewers of large industrial cities. At present industrial wastes are prevalent in urban waste water, but a substantial decrease in the quantity of industrial ef­ fluents is expected. At the same time the volume of

  10. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of water pollution in different administrative zones of Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liping; Mei, Kun; Liu, Xingmei; Wu, Laosheng; Zhang, Minghua; Xu, Jianming; Wang, Fan

    2013-08-01

    Water quality degradation in river systems has caused great concerns all over the world. Identifying the spatial distribution and sources of water pollutants is the very first step for efficient water quality management. A set of water samples collected bimonthly at 12 monitoring sites in 2009 and 2010 were analyzed to determine the spatial distribution of critical parameters and to apportion the sources of pollutants in Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, near the East China Sea. The 12 monitoring sites were divided into three administrative zones of urban, suburban, and rural zones considering differences in land use and population density. Multivariate statistical methods [one-way analysis of variance, principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) methods] were used to investigate the spatial distribution of water quality and to apportion the pollution sources. Results showed that most water quality parameters had no significant difference between the urban and suburban zones, whereas these two zones showed worse water quality than the rural zone. Based on PCA and APCS-MLR analysis, urban domestic sewage and commercial/service pollution, suburban domestic sewage along with fluorine point source pollution, and agricultural nonpoint source pollution with rural domestic sewage pollution were identified to the main pollution sources in urban, suburban, and rural zones, respectively. Understanding the water pollution characteristics of different administrative zones could put insights into effective water management policy-making especially in the area across various administrative zones. PMID:23404042

  11. Mine water pollution in Scotland: nature, extent and preventative strategies.

    PubMed

    Younger, P L

    2001-01-29

    Scotland was one of the world's first industrialised countries, and has therefore also been one of the first countries to experience wholesale post-industrial dereliction. Water pollution arising from abandoned mines, particularly abandoned coal mines, is second only to sewage as a source of freshwater pollution nation-wide, and in many coalfield catchments it is the pre-eminent source. Most of the pollution is due to net-alkaline ferruginous waters emerging from deep mines. Scrutiny of records from 80 deep mine discharges reveals that iron concentrations in these waters are only likely to exceed 20 mg/l, and the pH to be below 6.5, where the discharge emerges within 0.5 km of the outcrop of the shallowest mined seam. The bulk of mature near-outcrop mine water discharges in Scotland have < 50 mg/l total Fe, and concentrations > 100 mg/l are only likely where a marine bed lies within 25 m of the worked seam. Where the nearest marine bed is more than 80 m above or below the seam, then the total iron will be less than 4 mg/l, and in most cases less than 1 mg/l. Net-acidic mine waters are far more rare than net-alkaline waters in Scotland, and are most commonly associated with unreclaimed spoil heaps (bings). Both net-alkaline and net-acidic discharges have detrimental effects on the hydrochemistry and biological integrity of receiving waters. Scotland has recently pioneered the use of pre-emptive pump-and-treat solutions to prevent mine water pollution, and has also experienced the successful introduction of passive treatment technology for both abandoned and active workings. PMID:11227275

  12. Indoor pollution and burning practices in wood stove management.

    PubMed

    Piccardo, M T; Cipolla, M; Stella, A; Ceppi, M; Bruzzone, M; Izzotti, A; Valerio, F

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluates effects of good burning practice and correct installation and management of wood heaters on indoor air pollution in an Italian rural area. The same study attests the role of education in mitigating wood smoke pollution. In August 2007 and winters of 2007 and 2008, in a little mountain village of Liguria Apennines (Italy), indoor and outdoor benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) concentrations were measured in nine wood-heated houses. During the first sampling, several mistakes in heating plant installations and management were found in all houses. Indoor BTEX concentrations increased during use of wood burning. Low toluene/benzene ratios were in agreement with wood smoke as main indoor and outdoor pollution source. Other BTEX sources were identified as the indoor use ofsolvents andpaints and incense burning. Results obtained during 2007 were presented and discussed with homeowners. Following this preventive intervention, in the second winter sampling all indoor BTEX concentrations decreased, in spite of the colder outdoor air temperatures. Information provided to families has induced the adoption of effective good practices in stoves and fire management. These results highlight the importance ofeducation, supported by reliable data on air pollution, as an effective method to reduce wood smoke exposures. PMID:25509552

  13. Managing Multimedia Pollution for a Multimedia World

    EPA Science Inventory

    Through modest attention to the information highway we ride upon each day, we are increasingly aware of the intent, actions, and reactions of local, state and Federal governments, regional compacts, and international organizations to protect the quality of the water we drink, th...

  14. Water pollution and the public trust doctrine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johnson

    1989-01-01

    The prior appropriation system has served well in the Western US for 125 years, providing a legal regime that permits and encourages enormous economic growth of agriculture, industry and municipalities. This system, however, both in its inception and current application, fails to address or protect public interests in fisheries, recreation, environmental quality, and clean water. As a result, serious nonpoint

  15. New technological methods for protecting underground waters from agricultural pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavlyanov, Gani

    2015-04-01

    The agricultural production on the irrigated grounds can not carry on without mineral fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Especially it is shown in Uzbekistan, in cultivation of cotton. There is an increase in mineralization, rigidity, quantity of heavy metals, phenols and other pollutions in the cotton fields. Thus there is an exhaustion of stocks of fresh underground waters. In the year 2003 we were offered to create the ecological board to prevent pollution to get up to a level of subsoil waters in the top 30 centimeter layer of the ground. We carried out an accumulation and pollution processing. This layer possesses a high adsorbing ability for heavy metals, mineral oil, mineral fertilizers remnants, defoliants and pesticides. In order to remediate a biological pollution treatment processing should be take into account. The idea is consisted in the following. The adsorption properties of coal is all well-known that the Angren coal washing factories in Tashkent area have collected more than 10 million tons of the coal dust to mix with clays. We have picked up association of anaerobic microorganisms which, using for development, destroys nutrients of coal waste pollutions to a harmless content for people. Coal waste inoculation also are scattered by these microorganisms on the field before plowing. Deep (up to 30 cm) plowing brings them on depth from 5 up to 30 cm. Is created by a plough a layer with necessary protective properties. The norm of entering depends on the structure of ground and the intensity of pollutions. Laboratory experiments have shown that 50% of pollutions can be treated by the ecological board and are processed up to safe limit.

  16. Reducing the cost of water-pollution control under the Clean Water Act

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rothfelder

    1982-01-01

    The present water-pollution-regulation system focuses on treatment by the individual and ignores the aggregate cost of pollution control. Economists have proposed three methods to create pollution-control systems that cost less than the present one: effluent charges, marketable effluent permits, and private ownership of the waterway. Of these methods, only the marketable permit system has any potential for use within the

  17. Southwest Florida Water Management District

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The mission of the Southwest Florida Water Management District is to manage the water and water-related resources within its boundaries. Central to the mission is maintaining the balance between the water needs of current and future users while protecting and maintaining the natural systems that provide the District with its existing and future water supply. The website includes an Information and Education page, which offers activities, newsletters, virtual field trips, and other resources for K-12 students and teachers. Also provided on the site are various datasets, brochures, publications, reports, textual references and links.

  18. Self-Propelled Micromotors for Cleaning Polluted Water

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We describe the use of catalytically self-propelled microjets (dubbed micromotors) for degrading organic pollutants in water via the Fenton oxidation process. The tubular micromotors are composed of rolled-up functional nanomembranes consisting of Fe/Pt bilayers. The micromotors contain double functionality within their architecture, i.e., the inner Pt for the self-propulsion and the outer Fe for the in situ generation of ferrous ions boosting the remediation of contaminated water.The degradation of organic pollutants takes place in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which acts as a reagent for the Fenton reaction and as main fuel to propel the micromotors. Factors influencing the efficiency of the Fenton oxidation process, including thickness of the Fe layer, pH, and concentration of hydrogen peroxide, are investigated. The ability of these catalytically self-propelled micromotors to improve intermixing in liquids results in the removal of organic pollutants ca. 12 times faster than when the Fenton oxidation process is carried out without catalytically active micromotors. The enhanced reaction–diffusion provided by micromotors has been theoretically modeled. The synergy between the internal and external functionalities of the micromotors, without the need of further functionalization, results into an enhanced degradation of nonbiodegradable and dangerous organic pollutants at small-scale environments and holds considerable promise for the remediation of contaminated water. PMID:24180623

  19. 9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling...REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.14 Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for...

  20. 9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling...Other Reinspections; Processing Requirements § 381.151 Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for...

  1. The geopressured geothermal resources of Texas: regulatory controls over water pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Rogers; A. W. Oberbeck

    1977-01-01

    The following are presented: an overview of the control framework, Federal pollution control of surface waters, state water pollution control in Texas, new Federal standards for underground injection control, and a summary assessment. (MHR)

  2. A CRITICAL APPRAlSAL OF THE WATER POLLUTION PROBLEM IN INDIA IN RELATION TO AQUACULTURE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. G. JKINGRAN

    A satisfactory solution to the problem of inland water pollution in India has bocome an urgent and accepted necessity for sustained human health and the conservation of aquatic resources. -A bill entitled #'The Prevention of Water Pollution Bill, 1969\\

  3. [Research of early-warning method for regional groundwater pollution based on risk management].

    PubMed

    Bai, Li-Ping; Wang, Ye-Yao; Guo, Yong-Li; Zhou, You-Ya; Liu, Li; Yan, Zeng-Guang; Li, Fa-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    Groundwater is the main source of water supply in China, and China's overall situation of groundwater pollution is not optimistic at present. Groundwater pollution risk evaluation and early-warning are the effective measures to prevent groundwater pollution. At present, research of groundwater early-warning method at home and abroad is still at the exploratory stage, and the sophisticated technology has not been developed for reference. This paper briefly described the data and technological demand of the early-warning method in different scales, and the main factors influencing the early-warning results of groundwater pollution were classified as protection performance of geological medium, characteristics of pollution sources, groundwater dynamics and groundwater value. Then the main early-warning indexes of groundwater pollution were screened to establish the early-warning model of regional or watershed scale by the index overlay method. At last, the established early-warning model was used in Baotou plain, and the different early-warning grades were zoned by the model. The research results could provide scientific support for the local management department to protect the groundwater resources. PMID:25338359

  4. The Allocative Efficiency Implications of Water Pollution Abatement Cost Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shortle, James S.

    1990-05-01

    Assessments of the efficiency of water pollution control allocations are usually based on abatement cost comparisons. The general rule is that efficiency is improved by reallocating abatement from sources with high marginal costs to low-cost sources. The welfare-theoretic foundation of this rule is well established for situations with nonstochastic emissions. In situations with stochastic emissions, pollution control involves improving the distribution of emissions. Nevertheless, efficiency analyses involving stochastic emissions usually sidestep formal consideration of the stochastic element by measuring pollution control and control costs with respect to changes in long-term average flows. An economic model of stochastic emissions is used to demonstrate that this approach can give misleading results. An alternative procedure is briefly discussed.

  5. Outsource water/wastewater management

    SciTech Connect

    Tedesco, J.A. [BetzDearborn Water Management Group, Horsham, PA (United States); Cichon, E.J. [Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., Wakefield, MA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    For some operating facilities, outsourcing water/wastewater management offers an economical way to receive and use high-quality water and maintain effluent treatment services. As high-volume water users, hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) companies daily use, consume and discard large quantities of water and wastewater. To remain competitive and to reduce daily operating costs, HPI companies have farmed out services. Water management is a possible plant function that can be administrated by a third party. Outsourcing the utilities area allows operators to focus and allocate resources on their core profit-generating products. It is an opportunity to try new technologies without risking capital. Before signing the contract, facilities should carefully scrutinize the benefits--financial, environmental, etc.--and actual costs from outsourcing their water management.

  6. Water quality management and sustainability: the experience of Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project (LVEMP)??Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machiwa, Praxeda K.

    Human health and development are threatened in many parts of the world either from lack of water or poor water quality. Human development has partially contributed to water quality deterioration. In Tanzania, for instance, rapid population growth that caused expansion of agricultural activities, livestock keeping, deforestation, biomass burning and human settlement have exerted pressures within the Lake Victoria Basin. These developments have led to land degradation and increased levels of pollution mainly from non-point sources. The Governments of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda initiated the program of Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project, (LVEMP), in 1994 to rehabilitate the Lake Ecosystem through restoration and conservation of biodiversity in the lake as well as within the catchment. This paper presents the five years (1997-2002) experience of LVEMP in Tanzania on the issues of water quality; focusing on water pollution, water quality monitoring and LVEMP strategies to accomplish water quality management in the Lake Zone (Kagera, Mara and Mwanza regions). The findings show that non-point source pollution from agricultural practices; as well as unplanned urban settlements contribute more to siltation and eutrophication of the of Lake Victoria than that from point source pollution. Recommendations for water quality management and sustainability are presented.

  7. Investigating water pollution of the Dareh Morad Beik River in the Hamadan District, Iran.

    PubMed

    Khoram, Mahdi Reyahi; Nafea, Minoo

    2008-10-01

    Water-related hazards, such as drought, floods, erosion, and various kinds of pollution, should be factored into any integrated approach to water-resource management. This research attempt has been made to assess the process of water pollution in the Dareh Morad Beik (DMB) River, whose length is about 18 km and whose average flow rate is 250 L/s. The quality of river water, including chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate, fecal coliform, and total coliform, were all measured and evaluated at three different sampling stations within different months of the year. The information was gathered by conducting experiments and through field visits, as well as by library study. The results of this research showed that, from a microbiological point of view, the water of the DMB was polluted during the year. Based on the results obtained it was determined that the amount of COD and BOD at station 1 was negligible. Also the influx of qantas waters from Hamadan City into the DMB has caused dilution of COD, BOD, and nitrate of that river at station 3. PMID:18991905

  8. Diffuse pollution of soil and water: Long term trends at large scales?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grathwohl, P.

    2012-04-01

    Industrialization and urbanization, which consequently increased pressure on the environment to cause degradation of soil and water quality over more than a century, is still ongoing. The number of potential environmental contaminants detected in surface and groundwater is continuously increasing; from classical industrial and agricultural chemicals, to flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. While point sources of pollution can be managed in principle, diffuse pollution is only reversible at very long time scales if at all. Compounds which were phased out many decades ago such as PCBs or DDT are still abundant in soils, sediments and biota. How diffuse pollution is processed at large scales in space (e.g. catchments) and time (centuries) is unknown. The relevance to the field of processes well investigated at the laboratory scale (e.g. sorption/desorption and (bio)degradation kinetics) is not clear. Transport of compounds is often coupled to the water cycle and in order to assess trends in diffuse pollution, detailed knowledge about the hydrology and the solute fluxes at the catchment scale is required (e.g. input/output fluxes, transformation rates at the field scale). This is also a prerequisite in assessing management options for reversal of adverse trends.

  9. Experimental infrared measurements for hydrocarbon pollutant determination in subterranean waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay-Ekuakille, A.; Palamara, I.; Caratelli, D.; Morabito, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Subterranean waters are often polluted by industrial and anthropic effluents that are drained in subsoil. To prevent and control pollution, legislations of different developed countries require an online monitoring measurement, especially for detecting organic solvents (chlorinated and unchlorinated ones). Online measurements include both real-time and no real-time measurements. In general, it is difficult to implement real-time measurements in stricto sensu for online acquisitions on aqueous effluents since they need to be processed by a modeling. This research presents an experimental measurement system based on infrared (IR) spectroscopy for aqueous effluents containing hydrocarbons and capable of displaying excellent values of pollutant concentrations even in instable conditions; the system is able to detect pollutants either in laminar or turbulent flow. The results show the possibility of avoiding the use of "Pitot tube" that is employed to create a stagnation point in order to convert kinetic energy into potential one. This conversion allows the transformation of a turbulent flow in a laminar flow making easy measurement of pollutants included in an aqueous effluent. Obviously, "Pitot tube" is also used for other fluid effluents. The obtained results have been compared with those produced by means of sophisticated IR instrumentation for laboratory applications.

  10. NPS Water Quality Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This National Park Service, part of the Department of Interior website, looks at issues concerning water quality, policies and objectives, water quality standards, monitoring and the NPS's cooperation with other agencies.

  11. f " International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control. Vienna 1996 XIII/4 -1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    96/0852 f í " International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control. Vienna 1996 for water pollution control, Vienna : Austria (1996)" #12;í>tn International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control. Vienna 1996 XIII/4 - 2 · It is also planned that districts will be able to take

  12. Evaluation of the Pollutant Content in Road Runoff First Flush Waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanna Mangani; Arnaldo Berloni; Francesca Bellucci; Fabio Tatàno; Michela Maione

    2005-01-01

    Road runoff waters are able to convey a number of organic and inorganic pollutants originated by different non-point sources and by the road surface itself. Such pollutants can enter aquatic systems, thus contributing to water and soil contamination. This study was aimed at evaluating the pollutant content in first flush runoff waters from a highway located in Central Italy. A

  13. Water Resour Manage DOI 10.1007/s11269-010-9598-8

    E-print Network

    .V. 2010 Abstract The Bosque River Watershed in Texas is facing a suite of water quality issues includingWater Resour Manage DOI 10.1007/s11269-010-9598-8 Simulation of Agricultural Management excess sediment, nutrient, and bacteria. The sources of the pollutants are improperly managed cropland

  14. SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse

    E-print Network

    Li, Jiuyong "John"

    SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse #12;' Our Mission The SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse aims to advance the science and technology of sustainable water management through fundamental and applied research. Our Vision To be Australia's leading research centre for water reuse

  15. Models of Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Surface Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okome, Gloria Eloho

    There is the need to answer very crucial questions of "what happens to pollutants in surface waters?" This question must be answered to determine the factors controlling fate and transport of chemicals and their evolutionary state in surface waters. Monitoring and experimental methods are used in establishing the environmental states. These measurements are used with the known scientific principles to identify processes and to estimate the future environmental conditions. Conceptual and computational models are needed to analyze environmental processes by applying the knowledge gained from experimentation and theory. Usually, a computational framework includes the mathematics and the physics of the phenomenon, and the measured characteristics to model pollutants interactions and transport in surface water. However, under certain conditions, the complexity of the situation in the actual environment precludes the utilization of these techniques. Pollutants in several forms: Nitrogen (Nitrate, Nitrite, Kjeldhal Nitrogen and Ammonia), Phosphorus (orthophosphate and total phosphorus), bacteria (E-coli and Fecal coliform), Salts (Chloride and Sulfate) are chosen to follow for this research. The objective of this research is to model the fate and transport of these pollutants in non-ideal conditions of surface water measurements and to develop computational methods to forecast their fate and transport. In an environment of extreme drought such as in the Brazos River basin, where small streams flow intermittently, there is added complexity due to the absence of regularly sampled data. The usual modeling techniques are no longer applicable because of sparse measurements in space and time. Still, there is a need to estimate the conditions of the environment from the information that is present. Alternative methods for this estimation must be devised and applied to this situation, which is the task of this dissertation. This research devices a forecasting technique that is based upon sparse data. The method uses the equations of functions that fit the time series data for pollutants at each water quality monitoring stations to interpolate and extrapolate the data and to make estimates of present and future pollution levels. This method was applied to data obtained from the Leon River watershed (Indian creek) and Navasota River.

  16. Underground coal mining methods to abate water pollution: a state of the art literature review. Water pollution control research series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. W. Wilson; N. J. Matthews; J. L. Stump

    1970-01-01

    The report reviews published information concerning the abatement of harmful drainage from underground coal mines. Although much has been written on mine water management, very little literature is available on the specific area of preventing the formation of acid water. The references used in this report include mining engineering and hydrology studies and spans the period of time when water

  17. Science, technology and policy for Water Pollution Control at the Watershed Scale: Current issues and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadouani, Anas; Coggins, Liah X.

    Water is a critical resource, and the shortage of freshwater resources worldwide will only become more critical as the world population increases and climate changes. The management of water resources provides a myriad of challenges, and, in light of advances in science, technology and policy making, now requires an integrated approach to be successful. Eutrophication and algal blooms are one of the most common and serious threats to the safety and security of water resources; however, despite advances in science and policy, the socio-economic consequences of the impact of such events on systems are still not well known. The economic cost of managing water quality issues is enormous, and can only benefit from the development of more integrated water management strategies. Research into areas related to water resources, such as management, policy, non-point source pollutants, wastewater, nutrients and water quality has increased significantly over the past 20 years, and will continue to increase as stakeholders and managers strive to develop more environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable water resource management plans. This perspective paper also presents a summary of a selection of research that formed part of the deliberations of the International Symposium on Science, Technology and Policy for Water Pollution Control at the Watershed Scale, held in April 2009.

  18. Nitrogen Pollution in the Northeastern United States: Sources, Effects, and Management Options

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    CHARLES T. DRISCOLL, DAVID WHITALL, JOHN ABER, ELIZABETH BOYER, MARK CASTRO, CHRISTOPHER CRONAN, CHRISTINE L. GOODALE, PETER GROFFMAN, CHARLES HOPKINSON, KATHLEEN LAMBERT, GREGORY LAWRENCE, and SCOTT OLLINGER (; )

    2003-04-01

    This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about nitrogen pollution in the northeastern United States. The northeastern United States receives elevated inputs of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) largely from net imports of food and atmospheric deposition, with lesser inputs from fertilizer, net feed imports, and N fixation associated with leguminous crops. Ecological consequences of elevated N inputs to the Northeast include tropospheric ozone formation, ozone damage to plants, the alteration of forest N cycles, acidification of surface waters, and eutrophication in coastal waters. We used two models, PnET-BGC and WATERSN, to evaluate management strategies for reducing N inputs to forests and estuaries, respectively. Calculations with PnET-BGC suggest that aggressive reductions in N emissions alone will not result in marked improvements in the acidbase status of forest streams. WATERSN calculations showed that management scenarios targeting removal of N by wastewater treatment produce larger reductions in estuarine N loading than scenarios involving reductions in agricultural inputs or atmospheric emissions. Because N pollution involves multiple sources, management strategies targeting all major pollution sources will result in the greatest ecological benefits.

  19. Phase behavior of organic pollutants in supercritical water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Artemenko; P. Krijgsman; V. A. Mazur

    2010-01-01

    Methods for analyzing, ranking, and predicting the global phase behavior and possible heterogeneous fluid equilibria in supercritical\\u000a water-organic pollutant systems are discussed in terms of present-day conceptions of the global phase diagrams of binary mixtures.\\u000a The phase equilibria of some classes of organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated\\u000a dibenzodioxins and furans as well as some pesticides) in supercritical

  20. Hydrocarbon analysis of shrimp from oil polluted waters 

    E-print Network

    DeWitt, Bernard John

    1982-01-01

    ), serious pollution problems are caused by crude oils, residual fuel oils, lubricating oils and miscel- laneous tank washings, sludges and tarsi known collectively as persis- tant oils, to distinguish them from light fuel oils such as gasoline, kerosene... evaluation by taste was conducted on shrimp boiled in water for three minutes. Each member of the panel was given five sets of three different, color tagged shrimp for each phase (raw and cooked). The shrimp were selected at random, however each set...

  1. An Empirical Test of Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krishna P. Paudel; Hector Zapata; Dwi Susanto

    2005-01-01

    The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) on water pollution was investigated with both semiparametric and parametric models using watershed level data for the state of Louisiana, USA. The parametric model indicated the turning points within the range $10241–$12993, $6636–$13877, and $6467–$12758 for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and dissolved oxygen (DO), respectively. However, only the parameters associated with N EKC were found

  2. Technology for Water Treatment (National Water Management)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

  3. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment: Foundation of pollution prevention for waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Damewood, R.W.

    1994-03-24

    The objective of this paper is to promote the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) technique as a fundamental of pollution prevention for waste management. All key elements of an effective PPOA program are presented. These key elements include impacts of environmental laws on pollution prevention, PPOA concepts and overview, waste minimization opportunities assessment, reporting and monitoring waste minimization progress, and PPOA program implementation. As environmental laws evolve the focus is shifting from end-of-pipe pollution control to front-end source reduction. Waste minimization was mistakenly interpreted to mean the reduction of hazardous waste after generation in the past. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 has clearly defined its requirement on resource reduction. Waste reduction can be viewed as a criterion to assess all industrial processes and operations. The fundamental approach of PPOA focuses on a mass balance concept. This concept deals with tracking of chemicals from the point of purchase, through storage, utilization in the process, and waste generation at the end of process. In other words, PPOA is a technique to analyze this input/output process. By applying PPOA techniques, the framework of applicable compliance requirements to the current operation process is established. Furthermore, documentation of PPOA itself can meet as documentation requirements for environmental compliance. In general, the PPOA process consists of two phases. The first phase involves input and output process description and waste characterization. The second phase is an opportunities assessment for waste minimization from input/output waste characterization. These two phases are explained in detail in the paper.

  4. Spatial and temporal variability of surface water pollution in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Wilbers, Gert-Jan; Becker, Mathias; Nga, La Thi; Sebesvari, Zita; Renaud, Fabrice G

    2014-07-01

    Surface water pollution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (MD) could threaten human, animal and ecosystem health given the fact that this water source is intensively used for drinking, irrigation and domestic services. We therefore determined the levels of pollution by organic pollutants, salts, metals and microbial indicators by (bi)monthly monitoring of canals between November 2011 and July 2012 at 32 sampling locations, representing fresh and saline/brackish environments. The results were compared with national water quality guidelines, between the studied regions and with water quality data from main waterways. Key factors explaining the observed levels of pollution in surface water were identified through principal component analysis (PCA). Temporal variations due to tidal regime and seasonality were also assessed. Based on regression models, the spatial variability of five water quality parameters was visualized using GIS based maps. Results indicate that pH (max. 8.6), turbidity (max. 461 FTU), maximum concentrations of ammonium (14.7 mg L(-1)), arsenic (44.1 ?g L(-1)), barium (157.5 ?g L(-1)), chromium (84.7 ?g L(-1)), mercury (45.5 ?g L(-1)), manganese (1659.7 ?g L(-1)), aluminum (14.5 mg L(-1)), iron (17.0 mg L(-1)) and the number of Escherichia coli (87,000 CFU 100 mL(-1)) and total coliforms (2,500,000 CFU 100 mL(-1)) in canals exceed the thresholds set by Vietnamese quality guidelines for drinking and domestic purposes. The PCA showed that i) urbanization; ii) metal leaching from soils; iii) aquaculture; and iv) tidal regime explain 85% of the variance of surface water quality attributes. Significant differences in water quality were found due to daily tidal regime and as a result of seasonality. Surface water quality maps for dissolved oxygen, ammonium, ortho-phosphate, manganese and total coliforms were developed to highlight hot-spot areas of pollution. The results of this study can assist policy makers in developing water management strategies and drinking water companies in selecting optimum water extraction locations. PMID:24747257

  5. SRF (State Water Pollution Control Revolving Fund): initial guidance for state revolving funds

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The document represents the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) approach to implementation of Title VI of the Clean Water Act (CWA), until interim final regulations on selected provisions in the guidance are issued. The release of the document marks a significant step in the transition of the responsibility for financing, constructing, and managing municipal wastewater-treatment facilities from the Federal government to States and localities. It will assist EPA Regions in their review of proposed State Water Pollution Control Revolving Fund (SRF) programs and provide States with initial guidance on applying for Capitalization Grants.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES: DRINKING WATER TREATMENT FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides information for small system owners, operators, managers, and local decision makers, such as town officials, regarding drinking water treatment requirements and the treatment technologies suitable for small systems. t is not intended to be a comprehensive m...

  7. Assessing the well water pollution problem by nitrates in the small scale farming systems of the Niayes region, Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamadou, S.; Vanclooster, M.

    2009-04-01

    Human activities exert many pressures on the quality of groundwater, and advanced assessment programmes are needed to design sustainable water management strategies. To contribute to this challenge, we assessed the nitrate pollution problem of groundwater wells in the small scale farming systems of the Niayes region in Senegal and explained this water pollution problem in terms of well characteristics and land use properties. A fast rural appraisal was performed in 2007 to collect basic back ground data of the small scale farming systems and well water was analysed in 131 wells for nitrate content, pH and electrical conductivity. For a subset of wells, soil analyses were made of the well environment for assessing the attenuation properties of the protecting soil. Cluster analysis was used to define a well typology, while principal component and multiple correspondence analysis was used to explain the nitrate pollution in terms of well characteristics and other physico-chemical properties of the wells, and land use. The study confirms that the wells are seriously affected by the nitrate pollution problem. Wells can be classified in three well classes, which are characterized by a geographical gradient. Nitrate pollution increases from north to south, while the salinity affects particularly the wells in the northern area of the region. The nitrate levels exceeding 50 ppm are more common in residential areas than in the horticultural fields. The results further show that, even if direct pollution problem of wells cannot be excluded, pollution from leaching out of the root zone of vegetable crops to the groundwater is likely. This is confirmed by the assessment of the farming activities in this area and this is consistent with the low attenuation properties of the soils characterizing this region. Considering the nitrate pollution threshold, we further distinguish very few non-polluting crops in this region, which calls for an urgent adoption of agriculture management to protect water resources from further deterioration.

  8. Effects of long term irrigation with polluted water and sludge amendment on some soil enzyme activities

    SciTech Connect

    Topac, F.O.; Baskaya, H.S.; Alkan, U.; Katkat, A.V. [Uludag University, Bursa (Turkey)

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of wastewater sludge-fly ash mixtures on urease, dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and beta-glucosidase activities in soils. In order to evaluate the probable effects of previous soil management practices (irrigation with polluted water) on soil enzymes, two different soil samples which were similar in physical properties, but different in irrigation practice were used. The application of wastewater sludges supplemented with varying doses of fly ash increased potential enzyme activities for a short period of time (3 months) in comparison to unamended soils. However, the activity levels generally showed a decreasing trend with increasing ash ratios indicating the inhibitory effect of fly ash. The urease and dehydrogenase activities were particularly lower in soils irrigated from a polluted stream, indicating the negative effects of the previous soil management on soil microbial activity.

  9. System engineering for water pollution control at the watershed level in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Meng

    2009-01-01

    The present water pollution situation at watershed level in China has been systematically analyzed. The causes of water pollution\\u000a are attributed to the extensive economic developmental pattern, poor wastewater treatment, and a lack of nonpoint pollution\\u000a control. The problems of water pollution control at watershed level include a lack of thought and approach, developmental\\u000a delay in the environmental standard system,

  10. Water management in Windhoek, Namibia.

    PubMed

    Lahnsteiner, J; Lempert, G

    2007-01-01

    For decades, the city of Windhoek in Namibia succeeded in stretching their limited potable water resources through strict water management, latterly including wastewater reclamation and direct potable reuse. An integrated approach was followed and proper policies were put in place. This was followed up with appropriate legislation, education, policing and technical and financial measures with the result that extreme water shortages were overcome even in times of severe droughts. PMID:17305169

  11. Modelling Regional Hotspots of Water Pollution Induced by Salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malsy, M.; Floerke, M.

    2014-12-01

    Insufficient water quality is one of the main global topics causing risk to human health, biodiversity, and food security. At this, salinization of water and land resources is widely spread especially in arid to semi-arid climates, where salinization, often induced by irrigation agriculture, is a fundamental aspect of land degradation. High salinity is crucial to water use for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes, and therefore poses a risk to human health and ecosystem status. However, salinization is also an economic problem, in particular in those regions where agriculture makes a significant contribution to the economy and/or where agriculture is mainly based on irrigation. Agricultural production is exposed to high salinity of irrigation water resulting in lower yields. Hence, not only the quantity of irrigation water is of importance for growing cops but also its quality, which may further reduce the available resources. Thereby a major concern for food production and security persists, as irrigated agriculture accounts for over 30% of the total agricultural production. In this study, the large scale water quality model WorldQual was applied to simulate recent total dissolved solids (TDS) loadings and in-stream concentrations from point and diffuse sources to get an insight on potential environmental impacts as well as risks to food security. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries, as these are most threatened by water pollution. Furthermore, insufficient water quality for irrigation and therefore restrictions in irrigation water use were examined, indicating limitations to crop production. For this purpose, model simulations were conducted for the year 2010 to show the recent status of surface water quality and to identify hotspots and main causes of pollution. Our results show that salinity hotspots mainly occur in peak irrigation regions as irrigated agriculture is by far the dominant sector contributing to water abstractions as well as TDS loadings. Additionally, large urban areas are initially loading hotspots and pollution prevention becomes important as point sources are dependent on sewer connection rates. River discharge plays a crucial role due to the dilution potential, especially in semi-arid to arid regions and in terms of seasonal variability.

  12. Pollution prevention and water conservation in metals finishing operations

    SciTech Connect

    O`Shaughnessy, J.; Clark, W. [Worcester Polytechnic Inst., MA (United States); Lizotte, R.P. Jr.; Mikutel, D. [Texas Instruments Inc., Attleboro, MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Attleboro, Massachusetts is the headquarters of the Materials and Controls Group of Texas Instruments Incorporated (Texas Instruments). In support of their activities, Texas Instruments operates a number of metal finishing and electroplating processes. The water supply and the wastewater treatment requirements are supplied throughout the facility from a central location. Water supply quality requirements varies with each manufacturing operation. As a result, manufacturing operations are classified as either high level or a lower water quality. The facility has two methods of wastewater treatment and disposal. The first method involves hydroxide and sulfide metals precipitation prior to discharge to a surface water. The second method involves metals precipitation, filtration, and discharge via sewer to the Attleboro WTF. The facility is limited to a maximum wastewater discharge of 460,000 gallons per day to surface water under the existing National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. There is also a hydraulic flow restriction on pretreated wastewater that is discharged to the Attleboro WTF. Both of these restrictions combined with increased production could cause the facility to reach the treatment capacity. The net effect is that wastewater discharge problems are becoming restrictive to the company`s growth. This paper reviews Texas Instruments efforts to overcome these restrictions through pollution prevention and reuse practices rather than expansion of end of pipe treatment methods.

  13. Development of microbial and chemical MST tools to identify the origin of the faecal pollution in bathing and shellfish harvesting waters in France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gourmelon; M. P. Caprais; S. Mieszkin; R. Marti; N. Wéry; E. Jardé; M. Derrien; A. Jadas-Hécart; P. Y. Communal; A. Jaffrezic; A. M. Pourcher

    2010-01-01

    The microbiological quality of coastal or river waters can be affected by faecal pollution from human or animal sources. An efficient MST (Microbial Source Tracking) toolbox consisting of several host-specific markers would therefore be valuable for identifying the origin of the faecal pollution in the environment and thus for effective resource management and remediation. In this multidisciplinary study, after having

  14. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Water Quality Best Management Practices by Texas Beef Cattle Producers 

    E-print Network

    Peterson, Jennifer

    2014-05-28

    to encourage the voluntary adoption of best management practices (BMPs) to improve water quality and control nonpoint source pollution originating from livestock, farm, and forestry operations as well as urban nonpoint sources. Policy tools used to encourage...

  15. Management of the water balance and quality in mining areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasanen, Antti; Krogerus, Kirsti; Mroueh, Ulla-Maija; Turunen, Kaisa; Backnäs, Soile; Vento, Tiia; Veijalainen, Noora; Hentinen, Kimmo; Korkealaakso, Juhani

    2015-04-01

    Although mining companies have long been conscious of water related risks they still face environmental management problems. These problems mainly emerge because mine sites' water balances have not been adequately assessed in the stage of the planning of mines. More consistent approach is required to help mining companies identify risks and opportunities related to the management of water resources in all stages of mining. This approach requires that the water cycle of a mine site is interconnected with the general hydrologic water cycle. In addition to knowledge on hydrological conditions, the control of the water balance in the mining processes require knowledge of mining processes, the ability to adjust process parameters to variable hydrological conditions, adaptation of suitable water management tools and systems, systematic monitoring of amounts and quality of water, adequate capacity in water management infrastructure to handle the variable water flows, best practices to assess the dispersion, mixing and dilution of mine water and pollutant loading to receiving water bodies, and dewatering and separation of water from tailing and precipitates. WaterSmart project aims to improve the awareness of actual quantities of water, and water balances in mine areas to improve the forecasting and the management of the water volumes. The study is executed through hydrogeological and hydrological surveys and online monitoring procedures. One of the aims is to exploit on-line water quantity and quality monitoring for the better management of the water balances. The target is to develop a practical and end-user-specific on-line input and output procedures. The second objective is to develop mathematical models to calculate combined water balances including the surface, ground and process waters. WSFS, the Hydrological Modeling and Forecasting System of SYKE is being modified for mining areas. New modelling tools are developed on spreadsheet and system dynamics platforms to systematically integrate all water balance components (groundwater, surface water, infiltration, precipitation, mine water facilities and operations etc.) into overall dynamic mine site considerations. After coupling the surface and ground water models (e.g. Feflow and WSFS) with each other, they are compared with Goldsim. The third objective is to integrate the monitoring and modelling tools into the mine management system and process control. The modelling and predictive process control can prevent flood situations, ensure water adequacy, and enable the controlled mine water treatment. The project will develop a constantly updated management system for water balance including both natural waters and process waters.

  16. Integrated watershed approach in controlling point and non-point source pollution within Zelivka drinking water reservoir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Holas; M. Hrncir

    An agricultural watershed involves manipulation of soil, water and other natural resources and it has profound impacts on ecosystems. To manage these complex issues, we must understand causes and consequences and interactions-related transport of pollutants, quality of the environment, mitigation measures and policy measures. A ten year period of economic changes has been analysed with respect to sustainable development concerning

  17. Estimation of heavy metals in drinking water and development of heavy metal pollution index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Venkata Mohan; P. Nithila; S. Jayarama Reddy

    1996-01-01

    Four heavy metals (Copper, Cadmium, Lead and Zinc) are monitored in drinking water at twelve important residential areas using DPASV Technique. The results indicate the water to free of heavy metal pollution. The data monitored have been used to compute Heavy metal pollution index (HPI) using weighted arithmetic mean method and the proposed Pollution Index (HPI) seems to be applicable

  18. Source assessment: water pollutants from coal storage areas. Final task report Nov 1976Dec 1977

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Wachter; T. R. Blackwood

    1978-01-01

    This report describes a study of water pollution levels that result from coal stockpiles maintained outdoors. A representative source was defined to characterize the pollution levels. Effluent data was obtained by placing coals, collected from various regions in the U.S., under a rainfall simulator. Drainage samples were analyzed for water quality parameters, organic and inorganic substances, and pollutants covered by

  19. Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 1. A national network model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin; G. K. Young

    1981-01-01

    In order to study the national implications of federal water pollution control policies, the authors developed a water pollution network model. This model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and bays. While the geographical scope of the model and existing data availability required

  20. 40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water. 129.6 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS TOXIC POLLUTANT EFFLUENT STANDARDS Toxic Pollutant Effluent Standards and Prohibitions...

  1. Water infiltration control to achieve mine water pollution control. A feasibility study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Zaval; J. D. Robins

    1973-01-01

    The study determined the feasibility of conducting a full-scale demonstration to document the effectiveness of land reclamation at mined-out areas in establishing surface water infiltration control to prevent acid mine water pollution. The study site was the Dents Run Watershed, Monongalia County, West Virginia. Investigative measures included: investigation of each mine area and opening; a detailed description of each site;

  2. [Method for environmental management in paper industry based on pollution control technology simulation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Ying; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the reduction potential of industrial water pollutant emissions and to study the application of technology simulation in pollutant control and environment management, an Industrial Reduction Potential Analysis and Environment Management (IRPAEM) model was developed based on coupling of "material-process-technology-product". The model integrated bottom-up modeling and scenario analysis method, and was applied to China's paper industry. Results showed that under CM scenario, the reduction potentials of waster water, COD and ammonia nitrogen would reach 7 x 10(8) t, 39 x 10(4) t and 0.3 x 10(4) t, respectively in 2015, 13.8 x 10(8) t, 56 x 10(4) t and 0.5 x 10(4) t, respectively in 2020. Strengthening the end-treatment would still be the key method to reduce emissions during 2010-2020, while the reduction effect of structure adjustment would be more obvious during 2015-2020. Pollution production could basically reach the domestic or international advanced level of clean production in 2015 and 2020; the index of wastewater and ammonia nitrogen would basically meet the emission standards in 2015 and 2020 while COD would not. PMID:25639122

  3. SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse

    E-print Network

    Li, Jiuyong "John"

    SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse #12;2 The SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse was established in 2004 as a joint venture between the South Australian Water Corporation and the University of South Australia (UniSA), adding significant expertise to the water research capability in South

  4. Analysis considerations relating to water pollution emergency incidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, K. Clive; Benke, Peter

    2005-05-01

    Planning for high impact very low probability events is very difficult. This is particularly true when dealing with the analysis arising from potable water emergency pollution incidents. The main issues are: how to rapidly detect when significant contamination has occurred; to identify the cause or convincingly prove a negative in the absence of contamination and finally maintain an efficient and effective 24h/365d response system on a long-term basis for very low frequency events. This paper considers the handling of these issues for a water laboratory responsible for the regulatory analysis of drinking water for a population of over 8 million. Other key issue are how to assess the emergency response performance on a regular basis and the need to minimise operational costs. Chemical, radiological and ecotoxicological screening protocols are discussed. Microbiological emergency incidents are not covered. The numerous benefits of setting up a mutual aid laboratory response scheme are outlined.

  5. Detection and mapping of water pollution variation in the Nile Delta using multivariate clustering and GIS techniques.

    PubMed

    Shaban, M; Urban, B; El Saadi, A; Faisal, M

    2010-08-01

    The limited water resources of Egypt lead to widespread water-stress. Consequently, the use of marginal water sources, such as agricultural drainage waters, provides one of the national feasible solutions to the problem. However, the marginal quality of the drainage waters may restrict their use. The objective of this research is to develop a tool for planning and managing the reuse of agricultural drainage water for irrigation in the Nile Delta. This is achieved by classifying the pollution levels of drainage water into several categories using a statistical clustering approach that may ensure simple but accurate information about the pollution levels and water characteristics at any point within the drainage system. The derived clusters are then visualized by using a Geographical Information System (GIS) to draw thematic maps based on the entire Nile Delta, thus making GIS as a decision support system. The obtained maps may assist the decision makers in managing and controlling pollution in the Nile Delta regions. The clustering process also provides an effective overview of those spots in the Nile Delta where intensified monitoring activities are required. Consequently, the obtained results make a major contribution to the assessment and redesign of the Egyptian national water quality monitoring network. PMID:20413208

  6. Water hyacinths for removal of cadmium and nickel from polluted waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Removal of cadmium and nickel from static water systems utilizing water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) was investigated. This aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to rapidly remove heavy metals from aqueous systems by root absorption and concentration. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to absorb and concentrate up to 0.67 mg of cadmium and 0.50 mg of nickel per gram of dry plant material when exposed for a 24-hour period to waters polluted with from 0.578 to 2.00 ppm of these toxic metals. It is found that one hectare of water hyacinths has the potential of removing 300 g of cadmium or nickel from 240,000 liters of water polluted with these metals during a 24-hour period.

  7. INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR AREAWIDE WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT PLANNING

    E-print Network

    District of Columbia, University of the

    IN THE WASHINGTON, D.C. REGION UNDER THE FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ACT AMENDMENTS OF 1972 By Harvey Lieber as a follow-up to my book, Federalism and Clean Waters: The 1972Water Pollution Control Act, which had

  8. Total Water Management, the New Paradigm for Urban Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current resource management practices put different stresses on local water resources and urban infrastructure. Total Water Manag...

  9. Water demand management and agricultural water use efficiency in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinxia; van den Boom, Bart; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Yumin

    2010-05-01

    Faced with limited water supply and increasing water demands, how to deal with the serious conflict between the agricultural and ecological sector has become one big challenge in the Zhangye Irrigation District in the Heihe River Basin in Northwest China. Managing agricultural water demand and increasing agricultural water use efficiency are considered the main policy options to ease the water use conflict. In this paper we explore some practical water demand management measures and their impact on increasing water use efficiency. For this purpose, we conducted a field survey in the Zhangye Irrigation Districts in July 2009, covering 40 villages, 160 households and 95 surface and groundwater managers. Survey results show that from 2001 to 2008, collectively managed villages have been substituted by Water User Associations (WUAs). By 2008, 98 percent of villages were managed WUAs. In addition to this institutional change, Zhangye irrigation District also adopted several other measures, including water pricing policy, water tickets and water rights. Quantitative analysis show that among all these demand management measures, changing management institution, implementing water pricing and water rights policies have played significant role in increasing agricultural water use efficiency. How to extend the experiences and lessons on water demand management from Heihe River Basin to other regions is another challenge policy makers are facing. Key words Water demand management measures; agricultural water use efficiency; institutional change, water pricing, water rights, water tickets

  10. An imprecise fuzzy risk approach for water quality management of a river system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Rehana; P. P. Mujumdar

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainty plays an important role in water quality management problems. The major sources of uncertainty in a water quality management problem are the random nature of hydrologic variables and imprecision (fuzziness) associated with goals of the dischargers and pollution control agencies (PCA). Many Waste Load Allocation (WLA) problems are solved by considering these two sources of uncertainty. Apart from randomness

  11. Draft Guidelines for State and Areawide Water Quality Management Program Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This document discusses the draft guidelines formulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist the states in establishing a management program to integrate water quality and other resource management decisions. These guidelines are pfovided so that the long range goals of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972…

  12. New regulations to minimize water impairment from animals rely on management practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terence J Centner

    2004-01-01

    Water pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) led to revised federal regulations in the United States. The regulations provide for the greater management of potential sources of agricultural contamination and impose additional financial costs on producers. Along with a duty to secure a permit, significant changes address coverage of pollutants, separation of production and land application areas, effluent limitation

  13. Recommendations on methods for the detection and control of biological pollution in marine coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Olenin, Sergej; Elliott, Michael; Bysveen, Ingrid; Culverhouse, Phil F; Daunys, Darius; Dubelaar, George B J; Gollasch, Stephan; Goulletquer, Philippe; Jelmert, Anders; Kantor, Yuri; Mézeth, Kjersti Bringsvor; Minchin, Dan; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Olenina, Irina; Vandekerkhove, Jochen

    2011-12-01

    Adverse effects of invasive alien species (IAS), or biological pollution, is an increasing problem in marine coastal waters, which remains high on the environmental management agenda. All maritime countries need to assess the size of this problem and consider effective mechanisms to prevent introductions, and if necessary and where possible to monitor, contain, control or eradicate the introduced impacting organisms. Despite this, and in contrast to more enclosed water bodies, the openness of marine systems indicates that once species are in an area then eradication is usually impossible. Most institutions in countries are aware of the problem and have sufficient governance in place for management. However, there is still a general lack of commitment and concerted action plans are needed to address this problem. This paper provides recommendations resulting from an international workshop based upon a large amount of experience relating to the assessment and control of biopollution. PMID:21889171

  14. An novel identification method of the environmental risk sources for surface water pollution accidents in chemical industrial parks.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jianfeng; Song, Yonghui; Yuan, Peng; Xiao, Shuhu; Han, Lu

    2013-07-01

    The chemical industry is a major source of various pollution accidents. Improving the management level of risk sources for pollution accidents has become an urgent demand for most industrialized countries. In pollution accidents, the released chemicals harm the receptors to some extent depending on their sensitivity or susceptibility. Therefore, identifying the potential risk sources from such a large number of chemical enterprises has become pressingly urgent. Based on the simulation of the whole accident process, a novel and expandable identification method for risk sources causing water pollution accidents is presented. The newly developed approach, by analyzing and stimulating the whole process of a pollution accident between sources and receptors, can be applied to identify risk sources, especially on the nationwide scale. Three major types of losses, such as social, economic and ecological losses, were normalized, analyzed and used for overall consequence modeling. A specific case study area, located in a chemical industry park (CIP) along the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province, China, was selected to test the potential of the identification method. The results showed that there were four risk sources for pollution accidents in this CIP. Aniline leakage in the HS Chemical Plant would lead to the most serious impact on the surrounding water environment. This potential accident would severely damage the ecosystem up to 3.8 km downstream of Yangtze River, and lead to pollution over a distance stretching to 73.7 km downstream. The proposed method is easily extended to the nationwide identification of potential risk sources. PMID:24218858

  15. Natural attenuation: A feasible approach to remediation of ground water pollution at landfills?

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, T.H.; Bjerg, P.L.; Kjeldsen, P.

    2000-12-31

    Remediation of ground water pollution at old landfills with no engineered leachate collection system is a demanding and costly operation. It requires control of the landfill body, since the majority of the pollutants are still present in the landfilled waste for decades after the site has been closed. However, natural attenuation of the plume without removing the source is an attractive approach to managing leachate plumes. Natural attenuation has been implemented for petroleum hydrocarbon plumes and for chlorinated solvent plumes, primarily in the US. Natural attenuation has not yet gained a foothold with respect to leachate plumes, however. Based on the experiences gained from 10 years of research on two Danish landfills, it is suggested that natural attenuation is a feasible approach but is more complicated and demanding than in the case of petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvent.

  16. The development of policy approaches for reducing nitrogen pollution to coastal waters of the USA.

    PubMed

    Howarth, Robert W

    2005-12-01

    Two-thirds of the coastal rivers and bays in the United States are degraded from nutrient pollution, and nitrogen inputs these waters continue to increase. The nitrogen comes from a variety of sources, including runoff from agricultural fields, concentrated animal feeding operations, atmospheric deposition from fossil fuel combustion, and sewage and septic wastes. Technical solutions for nitrogen pollution exist at reasonable cost. That most of these solutions have not yet been implemented to any significant extent across the United States suggests that new policy approaches are necessary. The best solution may involve a combination of voluntary and mandatory approaches, applying different approaches to different sources of nitrogen pollution. A watershed-based approach that relies heavily on voluntary mechanisms (such as crop-yield insurance to reduce over-fertilization) is likely to be the most effective for some sources of nitrogen (such as runoff from agricultural fields), while a uniform national regulatory approach may be better for others (such as NOx emissions from fossil fuel combustion). Implementation of management strategies should be carefully coupled to monitoring programs to assess the effectiveness of these strategies. While both nitrogen and phosphorus are important to control, the focus should be on nitrogen management, in part because nitrogen is more generally the causal agent of coastal eutrophication. Also, while nitrogen-control practices tend to also reduce phosphorus pollution, phosphorus-control practices often have little effect on nitrogen. Although current scientific and technical knowledge is sufficient to begin to make substantial progress toward solving coastal nitrogen pollution, progress will be made more quickly and more cost effectively with increased investment in appropriate scientific research. PMID:16512202

  17. Got Milk? Got Water? Innovative Approach to Evaluating Groundwater Nitrate Nonpoint Source Pollution from Animal Farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, T.; Vanderschans, M.; Leijnse, A.; Meyer, R. D.; Mathews, M. C.

    2002-12-01

    The California dairy industry produces 20% of US milk and is the largest animal industry in the state. Many of the dairy facilities are located in low-relief valleys and basins with vulnerable groundwater resources. The continued influx of dairies into California's Central Valley has raised critical questions regarding their environmental performance, in particular with respect to groundwater quality impacts. While animal farming systems are considered among the leading sources of groundwater nitrate,little is known about the actual impact of dairy farming practices on groundwater quality in the extensive alluvial aquifers underlying the Central Valley. With our work we attempt to characterize and assess shallow groundwater underneath dairies in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region and to discern the impact from various individual sources and management practices within dairies. An extensive shallow groundwater monitoring network was installed on five representative dairy operations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley, California. The monitoring network spans all dairy management units: manure water lagoons, corrals, storage areas, and manure treated forage fields under various management practices. We recently also surveyed production well water quality. Water quality is found to be highly variable, both in time and space. We propose that a meaningful interpretation of these (nonpoint source pollution) data is only possible by explicitly considering the various scales affiliated with groundwater measurement, pollution source management, regulatory control, and beneficial use. Using statistical analysis and innovative modeling tools, we provide an interpretation of the observed data that is meaningful at the field scale (the scale unit of management decisions), the farm scale (considered to be a regulatory and planning unit), and the regional scale (considered to be a planning unit).

  18. Water Management in A PEMFC: Water Transport Mechanism and Material

    E-print Network

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Water Management in A PEMFC: Water Transport Mechanism and Material Degradation in Gas Diffusion reaction in the cathode CL producing water and waste heat. Despite considerable progress in the overall on the water management of the PEMFC, namely the transport of product water (both liquid and vapor

  19. Destruction of environmental organic pollutants by supercritical water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Williams, P T; Onwudili, J A

    2006-08-01

    The supercritical water oxidation of two environmental pollutants in the form of diesel fuel and two waste landfill leachate samples have been examined in relation to sub-critical and supercritical water oxidation conditions. Supercritical water oxidation involves reactions in an aqueous fluid phase under conditions below and around the critical point of water (T(c) = 374 degrees C, P(c) = 22.1 MPa). Experiments were carried out using a batch autoclave reactor at temperatures between 300 degrees C and 380 degrees C corresponding to pressures between 10.5 MPa and 22.8 MPa. The oxidative decomposition of the diesel fuel, which was loaded onto a sand matrix to simulate a contaminated land sample, was determined in relation to process conditions. The results showed that almost complete destruction of the components of the diesel fuel could be achieved. In addition, intermediate oxygenated compounds were formed and identified. The level of loading of the diesel fuel onto the sand matrix influenced the level of compound decomposition and the amount of intermediate oxygenated compounds formed. The characteristics of the waste landfill leachates were determined and were shown to be highly chemically complex. The high chloride concentration of the leachate resulted in significant corrosion of the reactor. However, almost complete oxidation of the organic components of the leachate could be achieved under supercritical water oxidation conditions. PMID:16972378

  20. DEVELOPMENTS AT FOURTEENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WATER POLLUTION RESEARCH - BRIGHTON, ENGLAND, JULY 17-22, 1988

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this report is to provide a mechanism whereby current water research developments from around the world as reported at the 14th International Conference on Water Pollution Research of the International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control can be high...

  1. The River Basin Model: Computer Output. Water Pollution Control Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This research report is part of the Water Pollution Control Research Series which describes the results and progress in the control and abatement of pollution in our nation's waters. The River Basin Model described is a computer-assisted decision-making tool in which a number of computer programs simulate major processes related to water use that…

  2. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Luther L.

    1970-01-01

    Our mechanized environment has produced a variety of man-made pollutants. Prevention of pollution and resulting health hazards is a primary challenge. The Federal Government undertakes a large responsibility in the field of environmental control. (CK)

  3. The Project The Southern Region Water Quality Regional Coordination Project is designed to promote regional collaboration,

    E-print Network

    issues: · Drinking Water and Human Health · Environmental Restoration · Waste Management · Nutrient to protect and restore water resources. Effective approaches for watershed management, pollution prevention and Pesticide Management · Pollution Assessment and Prevention · Watershed Management · Water Quantity

  4. Cost and Pollutant Removal of StormWater Treatment Practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter T. Weiss; John S. Gulliver; Andrew J. Erickson

    2007-01-01

    Six storm-water best management practices BMPs for treating urban rainwater runoff were evaluated for cost and effective- ness in removing suspended sediments and total phosphorus. Construction and annual operating and maintenance O and M cost data were collected and analyzed for dry extended detention basins, wet basins, sand filters, constructed wetlands, bioretention filters, and infiltration trenches using literature that reported

  5. Industrial waste-water management practices in Air Force Logistics Command. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.J.

    1991-09-01

    The selection of a model plant was based upon criteria established by a review of current literature. The criteria were permit compliance, plant performance, and the adoption of pollution prevention as a corporate environmental philosophy. In this study, private sector firms were examined to identify the best industrial wastewater management practices using a Total Quality Management (TQM) tool called benchmarking. The data gathering process consisted of a survey of water pollution control organizations, and a survey of benchmark candidates. The purpose of surveying water pollution control organizations was to objectively identify possible benchmark candidates. A questionnaire was then used to gather technical data on each benchmark candidate's performance.

  6. Controlling agricultural nonpoint water pollution: costs of implementing the Maryland Water Quality Improvement Act of 1998

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doug Parker

    2000-01-01

    The Maryland Water Quality Improvement Act of 1998 (WQIA) seeks to create environmental and other benefits to the Chesapeake Bay through reductions in nonpoint source nutrient pollution. This paper analyzes the economic impacts of the WQIA on agricultural users of nutrients (commercial fertilizers or animal manures) and on poultry growers in the state of Maryland. The net economic impacts to

  7. WATER INFILTRATION CONTROL TO ACHIEVE MINE WATER POLLUTION CONTROL: THE DENTS RUN WATERSHED DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of surface mined land reclamation measures in establishing surface water infiltratin control to prevent or reduce pollution from acid mine drainage. The Dents Run watershed, located in Monongalia County, West Virgin...

  8. 40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...the owner's or operator's intake water will not be removed by any wastewater treatment systems whose design capacity and...toxic pollutant(s) present in the water after any water supply treatment steps have been performed by or...

  9. 40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...the owner's or operator's intake water will not be removed by any wastewater treatment systems whose design capacity and...toxic pollutant(s) present in the water after any water supply treatment steps have been performed by or...

  10. 40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...the owner's or operator's intake water will not be removed by any wastewater treatment systems whose design capacity and...toxic pollutant(s) present in the water after any water supply treatment steps have been performed by or...

  11. Propagation of uncertainty in diffuse pollution into water quality predictions: application to the River Dender in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vandenberghe, V; van Griensven, A; Bauwens, W; Vanrolleghem, P A

    2005-01-01

    The uncertainty of water quality predictions caused by uncertainty in the inputs related to emissions of diffuse pollution is analysed. An uncertainty analysis of the effects of diffuse pollution is essential to compare the cost and benefits of measures to lower those emissions. We focus on diffuse nitrate pollution due to fertiliser use. Using an efficient Monte Carlo method and Latin Hypercube sampling, the contribution to the overall uncertainty by each of the inputs is calculated. The modelling environment is ESWAT, an extension of SWAT, which allows for integral modelling of the water quantity and quality processes in river basins. The diffuse pollution sources are assessed by considering crop and soil processes. The crop simulations include growth, uptake of water and nutrients and several land management practices. The in-stream water quality model is based on QUAL2E. The spatial variability of the terrain strongly affects the non-point source pollution processes. The methodology is applied to the Dender basin in Belgium. Eight inputs have significant influence on the time that the nitrate content in the river is higher than 3 mg/l. The uncertainty analysis indicated wide uncertainty bounds (95% percentile bounds differ up to +/-50% from the average NO3 predictions). PMID:15850208

  12. Environmental Science and Engineering at Rice University was founded in 1967 to study problems related to water supply and water pollution. Today it is widely recognized as one of the nation's leaders

    E-print Network

    purification and waste water reuse Aquatic and colloid chemistry Transport and fate of contaminants related to water supply and water pollution. Today it is widely recognized as one of the nation's leaders with the management, preservation and remediation of the environment in which we live. Fundamental to solving

  13. The waste management approach to pollution prevention for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore, L.; Dupont, R.; Ganesan, K.

    1999-11-01

    This book covers--in a thorough and clear style--the fundamentals of pollution prevention and their application to real-world problems. It explains the fundamentals of pollution prevention and their applications to real world problems; covers reduction and elimination of waste streams; explores waste management through energy conservation and health and safety prevention; discusses waste management through technical and engineering aspects of pollution prevention; and includes case studies and a solutions manual.

  14. Combined Multivariate Statistical Techniques, Water Pollution Index (WPI) and Daniel Trend Test Methods to Evaluate Temporal and Spatial Variations and Trends of Water Quality at Shanchong River in the Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Quan; Wu, Xianhua; Zhao, Bin; Qin, Jie; Peng, Tingchun

    2015-01-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal variations in river water quality and quantitatively evaluating the trend of changes are important in order to study and efficiently manage water resources. In this study, an analysis of Water Pollution Index (WPI), Daniel Trend Test, Cluster Analysis and Discriminant Analysis are applied as an integrated approach to quantitatively explore the spatial and temporal variations and the latent sources of water pollution in the Shanchong River basin, Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China. We group all field surveys into 2 clusters (dry season and rainy season). Moreover, 14 sampling sites have been grouped into 3 clusters for the rainy season (highly polluted, moderately polluted and less polluted sites) and 2 clusters for the dry season (highly polluted and less polluted sites) based on their similarities and the level of pollution during the two seasons. The results show that the main trend of pollution was aggravated during the transition from the dry to the rainy season. The Water Pollution Index of Total Nitrogen is the highest of all pollution parameters, whereas the Chemical Oxygen Demand (Chromium) is the lowest. Our results also show that the main sources of pollution are farming activities alongside the Shanchong River, soil erosion and fish culture at Shanchong River reservoir area and domestic sewage from scattered rural residential area. Our results suggest that strategies to prevent water pollutionat the Shanchong River basin need to focus on non-point pollution control by employing appropriate fertilizer formulas in farming, and take the measures of soil and water conservation at Shanchong reservoir area, and purifying sewage from scattered villages. PMID:25837673

  15. Combined multivariate statistical techniques, Water Pollution Index (WPI) and Daniel Trend Test methods to evaluate temporal and spatial variations and trends of water quality at Shanchong River in the Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quan; Wu, Xianhua; Zhao, Bin; Qin, Jie; Peng, Tingchun

    2015-01-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal variations in river water quality and quantitatively evaluating the trend of changes are important in order to study and efficiently manage water resources. In this study, an analysis of Water Pollution Index (WPI), Daniel Trend Test, Cluster Analysis and Discriminant Analysis are applied as an integrated approach to quantitatively explore the spatial and temporal variations and the latent sources of water pollution in the Shanchong River basin, Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China. We group all field surveys into 2 clusters (dry season and rainy season). Moreover, 14 sampling sites have been grouped into 3 clusters for the rainy season (highly polluted, moderately polluted and less polluted sites) and 2 clusters for the dry season (highly polluted and less polluted sites) based on their similarities and the level of pollution during the two seasons. The results show that the main trend of pollution was aggravated during the transition from the dry to the rainy season. The Water Pollution Index of Total Nitrogen is the highest of all pollution parameters, whereas the Chemical Oxygen Demand (Chromium) is the lowest. Our results also show that the main sources of pollution are farming activities alongside the Shanchong River, soil erosion and fish culture at Shanchong River reservoir area and domestic sewage from scattered rural residential area. Our results suggest that strategies to prevent water pollutionat the Shanchong River basin need to focus on non-point pollution control by employing appropriate fertilizer formulas in farming, and take the measures of soil and water conservation at Shanchong reservoir area, and purifying sewage from scattered villages. PMID:25837673

  16. Linking Near Real-Time Water Quality Measurements to Fecal Coliforms and Trace Organic Pollutants in Urban Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henjum, M.; Wennen, C.; Hondzo, M.; Hozalski, R. M.; Novak, P. J.; Arnold, W. A.

    2009-05-01

    Anthropogenic pollutants, including pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, and estrogens are detected in urban water bodies. Effective examination of dilute organic and microbial pollutant loading rates within surface waters is currently prohibitively expensive and labor intensive. Effort is being placed on the development of improved monitoring methodologies to more accurately assess surface water quality and evaluate the effectiveness of water quality management practices. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008 a "real-time" wireless network equipped with high frequency fundamental water quality parameter sensors measured turbidity, conductivity, pH, depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen and nitrate above and below stormwater inputs at two urban stream locations. At each location one liter grab samples were concurrently collected by ISCO automatic samplers at two hour intervals for 24 hour durations during three dry periods and five rain events. Grab samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms, atrazine (agricultural herbicide), prometon (residential herbicide) and caffeine (wastewater indicator). Surrogate relationships between easy-to-measure water quality parameters and difficult-to-measure pollutants were developed, subsequently facilitating monitoring of these pollutants without the development of new, and likely costly, technologies. Additionally, comparisons were made between traditional grab sampling techniques and the "real-time" monitoring to assess the accuracy of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) calculations.

  17. Water management by early people in the Yucatan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, W.

    1995-06-01

    The Yucatan Peninsula is a coastal plain underlain by permeable limestone and receives abundant rainfall. Such hydrogeologic conditions should provide major supplies of water; however, factors of climate and hydrogeology have combined to form a hydrologic system with chemical boundaries that limits the amount of fresh water available. Management of water resources has long had a major influence on the cultural and economic development of the Yucatan. The Mayan culture of the northern Yucatan developed on extensive use of groundwater. The religion was water oriented and the Mayan priests prayed to Chac, the water god, for assistance in water management, primarily to decrease the severity of droughts. The Spaniards arrived in 1517 and augmented the supply by digging wells, which remained the common practice for more than 300 years. Many wells now have been abandoned because of serious problems of pollution. A historical perspective of a paper such as this provides insight into the attitudes concerning water of early people and perhaps provides insight into current attitudes concerning water. Hydrogeologists possess the expertise to generate relevant information required by water managers to arrive at management programs to achieve sustainable development.

  18. Integrated Watershed Management - A New Paradigm for Water Management?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Ward

    Water management, as it has a number of times in the past, is undergoing considerable change in the 1990s. Past efforts to break down water management activities into highly specialized subject areas (eg flood control, water supply, recreation, irrigation, and waste water treatment) have resulted in the creation of large institutions that today are increasingly being questioned relative to their

  19. The Potential Importance of Conservation, Restoration, and Altered Management Practices for Water Quality in the Wabash River Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution is one of the leading causes of water quality impairment within the United States. Conservation, restoration and altered management (CRAM) practices may effectively reduce NPS pollutants discharge into receiving water bodies and enhance local and ...

  20. Development of a multiobjective optimization tool for the selection and placement of best management practices for nonpoint source pollution control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maringanti, Chetan; Chaubey, Indrajeet; Popp, Jennie

    2009-06-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) are effective in reducing the transport of agricultural nonpoint source pollutants to receiving water bodies. However, selection of BMPs for placement in a watershed requires optimization of the available resources to obtain maximum possible pollution reduction. In this study, an optimization methodology is developed to select and place BMPs in a watershed to provide solutions that are both economically and ecologically effective. This novel approach develops and utilizes a BMP tool, a database that stores the pollution reduction and cost information of different BMPs under consideration. The BMP tool replaces the dynamic linkage of the distributed parameter watershed model during optimization and therefore reduces the computation time considerably. Total pollutant load from the watershed, and net cost increase from the baseline, were the two objective functions minimized during the optimization process. The optimization model, consisting of a multiobjective genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) in combination with a watershed simulation tool (Soil Water and Assessment Tool (SWAT)), was developed and tested for nonpoint source pollution control in the L'Anguille River watershed located in eastern Arkansas. The optimized solutions provided a trade-off between the two objective functions for sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen reduction. The results indicated that buffer strips were very effective in controlling the nonpoint source pollutants from leaving the croplands. The optimized BMP plans resulted in potential reductions of 33%, 32%, and 13% in sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen loads, respectively, from the watershed.

  1. Protamine precipitation of two reovirus particle types from polluted waters.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, D J; Ridinger, D N; Spendlove, R S; Barnett, B B

    1982-01-01

    Two forms of virus particle are released from reovirus-infected cell cultures, infectious reovirus and potentially infectious reovirus (PIV). PIV particle forms have a complete outer coat and are not infectious until the outer coat is altered or removed. The PIV concentration in polluted waters, however, has not been determined. Protamine sulfate precipitation, using 0.25% fetal bovine serum and 0.005% protamine sulfate for the first precipitation of the sample and 0.0025% for the second, was employed to concentrate infectious reovirus and PIV from water and sewage. Infectious reovirus and PIV particles were concentrated over 500-fold from river water inoculated with virus, and virus recoveries of between 80 and 100% were achieved. Virus precipitates stored at -20 degrees C as a protamine-virus concentrate showed a 5% loss of PIV after 14 days. Virus preparations were assayed, before and after treatment, with 200 micrograms of chymotrypsin per ml, using a fluorescent-antibody procedure. Protamine sulfate precipitation and fluorescent-antibody detection are effective ways to recover and assay reoviruses present in raw sewage. PMID:7138002

  2. Advancing towards universal screening for organic pollutants in waters.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Félix; Ibáñez, María; Portolés, Tania; Cervera, María I; Sancho, Juan V; López, Francisco J

    2015-01-23

    Environmental analytical chemists face the challenge of investigating thousands of potential organic pollutants that may be present in the aquatic environment. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) hyphenated to chromatography offers the possibility of detecting a large number of contaminants without pre-selection of analytes due to its accurate-mass full-spectrum acquisition at good sensitivity. Interestingly, large screening can be made even without reference standards, as the valuable information provided by HRMS allows the tentative identification of the compound detected. In this work, hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) MS was combined with both liquid and gas chromatography (using a single instrument) for screening of around 2000 compounds in waters. This was feasible thanks to the use of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source in GC. The screening was qualitatively validated for around 300 compounds at three levels (0.02, 0.1, 0.5?g/L), and screening detection limits were established. Surface, ground water and effluent wastewater samples were analyzed, detecting and identifying a notable number of pesticides and transformation products, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and illicit drugs, among others. This is one of the most universal approaches in terms of comprehensive measurement for broad screening of organic contaminants within a large range of polarity and volatility in waters. PMID:25204505

  3. Analysis of national water-pollution-control policies. 1. A national network model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin; G. K. Young

    1981-01-01

    In order to study the national implications of federal water-pollution-control policies, the authors developed a water-pollution-network model. This model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and bays. While the geographical scope of the model and existing data availability required make many simplifying assumptions,

  4. Effective management for acidic pollution in the canal network of the Mekong Delta of Vietnam: a modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Phong, Ngo Dang; Hoanh, Chu Thai; Tuong, To Phuc; Malano, Hector

    2014-07-01

    Acidic pollution can cause severe environmental consequences annually in coastal areas overlain with acid sulfate soils (ASS). A water quality model was used as an analytical tool for exploring the effects of water management options and other interventions on acidic pollution and salinity in Bac Lieu, a coastal province of the Mekong Delta. Fifty eight percent of the provincial area is covered by ASS, and more than three-fourths (approximately 175,000 ha) are used for brackish-water shrimp culture. Simulations of acid water propagation in the canal network indicate that the combination of opening the two main sluices along the East Sea of the study area at high tide for one day every week in May and June and widening the canals that connect these sluices to the West Sea allows for adequate saline water intake and minimizes the acidic pollution in the study area. On the other hand, canal dredging in the freshwater ASS area should be done properly as it can create severe acidic pollution. PMID:24726961

  5. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    Such projects must also be for the further purpose of developing preliminary plans for providing such safe water and such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in the State of...

  6. Prevention of water pollution by waste waters of the petrochemical industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. I. Gyunter; I. F. Shatalaev

    1987-01-01

    The authors examine the problems of reception of waste waters of petrochemistry for biological treatment, improvement and introduction of new methods of toxicological control permitting active intervention, and management of the process of arrival of waste waters for biological treatment. In the investigations, they used activated sludge of the first stage of biological treatment of waste waters of a petrochemical

  7. WATER POLLUTION CAUSED BY INACTIVE ORE AND MINERAL MINES - A NATIONAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report identifies the scope and magnitude of water pollution from inactive ore and mineral mines. Data collected from Federal, State, and local agencies indicates water pollution from acids, heavy metals, and sedimentation occurs at over 100 locations and affects over 1200 ki...

  8. Study of CPAM\\/ bentonite microparticle retention system on reducing pollution load of papermaking white water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sha Li-zheng; Zhao Hui-fang

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of CPAM\\/bentonite microparticle retention system on reducing pollution load of papermaking white water, the dynamic drainage jar was used to simulate the wet end of low grammage fresh-keeping case board production. The turbidity and CODcr of the filtrate were measured to express the pollution load of white water. Results showed that the turbidity and

  9. Water pollution control: assessing the impacts and costs of environmental standards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Luken; E. H. Pechan

    1977-01-01

    This book addresses one of the key policy changes enacted into law by the Congress in 1972, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, that of requiring certain categories of industries and municipalities to meet pollution-discharge standards based on specific technology objectives regardless of the prior conditions or desired uses of the water. The procedures used to address

  10. Political crisis and the politics of water pollution control in the 1970s

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsoukalas

    1991-01-01

    This research investigates the sociopolitical context and formation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1977 in light of the theory of the relative autonomy of the state. Data on state legitimacy and political crisis are derived from previous studies on public trust in government and business and the

  11. Federal environmental litigation in 1976: the Federal Water Pollution Control Act

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Hunciker; V. Pagano

    1976-01-01

    The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 forms a vital part of EPA's national battle against pollution. The general objective of the act, to ''restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters,'' will hopefully be achieved through the completion of specific goals set and carried out by EPA and the federal government. The application

  12. Feasibility study: Fuel cell cogeneration in a water pollution control facility, volume 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Hirschenhofer; D. B. Baillieul; L. M. Barton; R. J. Brumberg; C. E. Hannan; H. H. Fiedler; M. G. Kile; M. G. Klett; G. A. Malone; H. P. Milliron

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of a cogeneration fuel cell power plant operating in a large water pollution control facility. In this particular application, the fuel cell power plant would use methane rich digester gas from the water pollution control facility as a fuel feedstock to provide electrical and thermal energy. Several

  13. Contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and relevant management in China.

    PubMed

    Tieyu, Wang; Yonglong, Lu; Hong, Zhang; Yajuan, Shi

    2005-08-01

    The status of typical persistent organic pollutant (POP) contamination in many media (e.g., farm produce, soil, human milk, water, and sediments) was surveyed and China's relevant countermeasures for controlling POPs were analyzed in this paper. The results showed that the proportion of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) to all kinds of pesticides has descended significantly since 1983 when the OCPs were forbidden from being used. The spatial distribution characteristic of pesticide application in the whole country was as follows: southeast>central>northwest. The pesticide residues in food with high fat and high protein content were more than that in foodstuffs. The residual concentration in soil in the whole country was as follows: south>central>north. Furthermore, in vegetable fields, the residual concentration was higher than that in crop fields. As for human milk, the retained amount tended to decrease. In the recent two decades, although the reduction was 81.5%, it was still higher than that in some developed European and American countries. The rank of the residual concentrations of OCPs in different media was: human milk>animal foodstuff>soil>vegetable food>water and sediment. The initial relevant POP management in China can be traced back to 1982 when the Ordinance of Pesticide Management was enacted. Now, environmental control of POPs in China is close to the international level. The legal management system of POPs can be divided into four facets, including 3 regulations, 6 ordinances, and 20 standards. However, on the whole, most of the existing regulations do not refer to POPs directly. Only some clauses mention POPs and lack pertinent, explicit statements on POP pollution and control. Legislation is urgently needed for more effective environmental management to enhance POP control. PMID:15982740

  14. Improvement of lake water quality by paying farmers to abate nonpoint source pollution. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Lupi, F.; Farnsworth, R.L.; Braden, J.B.

    1988-12-01

    To mitigate damages caused by agricultural runoff, private lake owners' associations are paying for inlake and instream pollution abatement measures and on land-conservation practices. This phenomenon supports the notion that individuals who benefit from improved water quality should be willing to pay part of the abatement costs. The research suggests that on land-conservation measures can substantially reduce sediment delivery at low cost. The Sediment Economics (SEDEC) model was modified and then used to select and to site management systems that achieved stated sediment goals at least cost. Other resource policies such as T value, no-till, and contouring were compared with the least-cost frontier and shown to be more costly. The noncropland areas substantially reduced sediment delivery to water channels and lowered abatement costs. Further research is needed for long-range watershed-planning models such as SEDEC.

  15. Rich Water World an adaptive water management tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rheenen, Hans; van den Berg, Wim

    2015-04-01

    Rich Water World an adaptive water management tool based on weather forecasting, sensor data and hydrological modelling. Climate change will cause periods of more extreme rainfall relieved by periods of drought. Water systems have to become more robust and self supporting in order to prevent damage by flooding and drought. For climate proof water management, it is important to anticipate on extreme events by using excellent weather forecast data, sensor data on soil and water, and hydrologic model data. The Rich Water World project has created an Adaptive Water Management Tool that integrates all these data.

  16. Water quality management library. 2. edition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. W. Eckenfelder; J. F. Malina; J. W. Patterson

    1998-01-01

    A series of ten books offered in conjunction with Water Quality International, the Biennial Conference and Exposition of the International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control (IAWPRC). Volume 1, Activated Sludge Process, Design and Control, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 2, Upgrading Wastewater Treatment Plants, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 3, Toxicity Reduction, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 4, Municipal Sewage Sludge

  17. Concept of an innovative water management system with decentralized water reclamation and cascading material-cycle for agricultural areas.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, T

    2012-01-01

    Unlike in urban areas where intensive water reclamation systems are available, development of decentralized technologies and systems is required for water use to be sustainable in agricultural areas. To overcome various water quality issues in those areas, a research project entitled 'Development of an innovative water management system with decentralized water reclamation and cascading material-cycle for agricultural areas under the consideration of climate change' was launched in 2009. This paper introduces the concept of this research and provides detailed information on each of its research areas: (1) development of a diffuse agricultural pollution control technology using catch crops; (2) development of a decentralized differentiable treatment system for livestock and human excreta; and (3) development of a cascading material-cycle system for water pollution control and value-added production. The author also emphasizes that the innovative water management system for agricultural areas should incorporate a strategy for the voluntary collection of bio-resources. PMID:22828292

  18. Integrated watershed approach in controlling point and non-point source pollution within Zelivka drinking water reservoir.

    PubMed

    Holas, J; Hrncir, M

    2002-01-01

    An agricultural watershed involves manipulation of soil, water and other natural resources and it has profound impacts on ecosystems. To manage these complex issues, we must understand causes and consequences and interactions-related transport of pollutants, quality of the environment, mitigation measures and policy measures. A ten year period of economic changes has been analysed with respect to sustainable development concerning Zelivka drinking water reservoir and its watershed, where agriculture and forestry are the main human activities. It is recommended that all land users within a catchment area should receive payments for their contribution to water cycle management. Setting up the prevention principles and best management practices financially subsidized by a local water company has been found very effective in both point and non-point source pollution abatement, and the newly prepared Clean Water Programme actively involves local municipal authorities as well. The first step based on systems analysis was to propose effective strategies and select alternative measures and ways for their financing. Long term monitoring of nutrient loads entering the reservoir and hazardous events statistics resulted in maps characterising the territory including vulnerable zones and risk factors. Financing involves providing annual payments to farmers, who undertake to manage specified areas of their land in a particular way and one-off payments to realise proposed issues ensuring soil conservation and watershed ecosystem benefits. PMID:12079117

  19. A Review of the Federal Clean Water Act and the Maryland Water Quality Improvement Act: The Rationale For Developing a Water And Nutrient Management Planning Process For Container Nursery And Green house

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Lea-Cox; David S. Ross

    Newly enforced provisions of the Federal Clean Water Act of 1972 and new state laws like the Maryland Water Quality Improvement Act of 1998 are forcing agriculture to develop effective procedures to show that they are not polluting our nation's water resources. Formulating a water and nutrient management process for nursery and greenhouse operations that takes both water and nutrient

  20. Water Management at UBC Okanagan Part 2: Water Features

    E-print Network

    Water Features 18 UBC-Okanagan 18 University of Colorado- Denver 18 Tsinghua University 19 UBC of water use and water features at UBC-Okanagan in comparison to the University of ColoradoWater Management at UBC Okanagan Part 2: Water Features UBC Okanagan 2007 Angele Clarke A SEEDS

  1. Water resource management: an Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Khadse, G K; Labhasetwar, P K; Wate, S R

    2012-10-01

    Water is precious natural resource for sustaining life and environment. Effective and sustainable management of water resources is vital for ensuring sustainable development. In view of the vital importance of water for human and animal life, for maintaining ecological balance and for economic and developmental activities of all kinds, and considering its increasing scarcity, the planning and management of water resource and its optimal, economical and equitable use has become a matter of the utmost urgency. Management of water resources in India is of paramount importance to sustain one billion plus population. Water management is a composite area with linkage to various sectors of Indian economy including the agricultural, industrial, domestic and household, power, environment, fisheries and transportation sector. The water resources management practices should be based on increasing the water supply and managing the water demand under the stressed water availability conditions. For maintaining the quality of freshwater, water quality management strategies are required to be evolved and implemented. Decision support systems are required to be developed for planning and management of the water resources project. There is interplay of various factors that govern access and utilization of water resources and in light of the increasing demand for water it becomes important to look for holistic and people-centered approaches for water management. Clearly, drinking water is too fundamental and serious an issue to be left to one institution alone. It needs the combined initiative and action of all, if at all we are serious in socioeconomic development. Safe drinking water can be assured, provided we set our mind to address it. The present article deals with the review of various options for sustainable water resource management in India. PMID:25151722

  2. Water relations and photosynthesis in pine trees exposed to industrial pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Kaipianen, L.K.; Bolondinskii, V.K.; Sazonova, T.A.; Sofronova, G.I. [Karelian Scientific Center, Karelia (Russian Federation)

    1995-05-01

    The temporal and spatial variability of the shoot water potential, a sensitive characteristic of plant water relations, was investigated in common pine growing under conditions of industrial pollution. The alterations in the xylem structure that made the plants more susceptible to water deficit were revealed. It is concluded that water stress, enhanced by pollutants, negatively affects the diurnal pattern and light curves of CO{sub 2}-gas exchange; this additional factor, along the damage to assimilatory apparatus and stomata, accounts for photosynthesis decline in the pollutant-exposed pine trees. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Removal of some heavy metals from polluted water by water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Muramoto; Y. Oki

    1983-01-01

    Water hyacinth(Eichhornia crassipes.(Mart.) Solms) grows abunduntly throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world (PENFOUND & EARLE 1948), and is also widely distributed in the southwest regions in Japan(UEKl et ai.1976). Recently, this plant has received attention because of its potential for removal of pollutants when utilized as a biological filtration system(WOLVERTON ~t al. 1978). There are many reports

  4. Water Markets, Water Rights and Strategies for Decentralizing Water Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. William Easter; Robert Hearne

    \\u000a To implement effective water management, institutional and organizational arrangements must be developed to deal with market\\u000a and government failures. The major types of market failure are: the positive and negative externalities, which lead to non-optimal\\u000a resource provision; nonexcludability and nonsubtractability, which contribute to the under-provision of goods or services;\\u000a and natural monopolies, which result in non-competitive pricing. Nonexcludability refers to

  5. 2011 Baird Holm LLP Storm Water Management

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    © 2011 Baird Holm LLP Storm Water Management ­ Shifting Paradigms John P. Heil, Esq. Baird Holm LLP for control of storm water runoff has been the use of best management practices ("BMPs") ­ Notwithstanding limitations · Disaggregate storm water sources in computing waste load allocations · Assign waste load

  6. MODELING WATER QUALITY AND THE EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURAL BMPS (BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES) IN THE IOWA RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a demonstration application of comprehensive hydrology and water quality modeling on a large river basin to evaluate the effects of agricultural nonpoint pollution and proposed best management practices (BMPs). The model application combines detailed simulati...

  7. INFORMATION MANAGEMENT FOR INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (IWRM)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Braune; H. Keuris; E. Trennery; M. Watson

    2004-01-01

    Already in 1988, management specialist, Peter Drucker, recognised that we are generally moving away from the traditional command-and-control organisation to the information-based organisation. With the advent of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in South Africa, introduced through the radical reforms of the National Water Act, 1998, we urgently need to ask what the information-based organisation for water management will look

  8. Evaluation of pollutant loads from stormwater BMPs to receiving water using load frequency curves with uncertainty analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Daeryong; Roesner, Larry A

    2012-12-15

    This study examined pollutant loads released to receiving water from a typical urban watershed in the Los Angeles (LA) Basin of California by applying a best management practice (BMP) performance model that includes uncertainty. This BMP performance model uses the k-C model and incorporates uncertainty analysis and the first-order second-moment (FOSM) method to assess the effectiveness of BMPs for removing stormwater pollutants. Uncertainties were considered for the influent event mean concentration (EMC) and the aerial removal rate constant of the k-C model. The storage treatment overflow and runoff model (STORM) was used to simulate the flow volume from watershed, the bypass flow volume and the flow volume that passes through the BMP. Detention basins and total suspended solids (TSS) were chosen as representatives of stormwater BMP and pollutant, respectively. This paper applies load frequency curves (LFCs), which replace the exceedance percentage with an exceedance frequency as an alternative to load duration curves (LDCs), to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs. An evaluation method based on uncertainty analysis is suggested because it applies a water quality standard exceedance based on frequency and magnitude. As a result, the incorporation of uncertainty in the estimates of pollutant loads can assist stormwater managers in determining the degree of total daily maximum load (TMDL) compliance that could be expected from a given BMP in a watershed. PMID:22578429

  9. Role of water in urban planning and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, William Joseph; Rickert, David A.; Spieker, Andrew Maute

    1973-01-01

    Concentrations of people in urban areas intensify water problems such as flooding and pollution, but these deleterious effects on water resources can be minimized or corrected by comprehensive planning and management. Such planning of the water resources of an urban area must be based on adequate hydrologic data. Through the use of a matrix, urban water problems can be evaluated and availability of data assessed. The Washington-Baltimore metropolitan area is used as a case study. The completed matrix provides both a means for developing a meaningful dialogue between the hydrologist and the urban planner and a method for developing a work plan to insure consideration of water-resources data in urban planning.

  10. Nutrient sources in a Mediterranean catchment and their improvement for water quality management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Candela; Gaspare Viviani

    2010-01-01

    Changes in land-use or management strategies may affect water outflow, sediment and nutrients loads. Thus, there is an increasing demand for quantitative information at the catchment scale that would help decision makers or planners to take appropriate decisions. The characterisation of water status, the description of pollution sources impact, the establishment of monitoring programs and the implementation of river basin

  11. Geographic information systems: a tool for strategic ground water quality management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. W. Canter; A. K. M. M. Chowdhury; B. E. Vieux

    1994-01-01

    Geographically?related information is needed for several elements of an integrated ground water quality management programme, including ground water monitoring planning, prioritization of pollution sources, usage of permits and inspections for source control, and planning and completion of remedial actions. Geographic Information Systems (GISs) can be used to support these elements along with delineating wellhead protection areas (WHPAs), prioritizing existing contaminant

  12. Treatment and recycling facilities of highly polluted water-based paint wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mairambek Mamadiev; Gulsum Yilmaz

    2011-01-01

    The study presented focuses on treatment and recycling facilities of highly polluted water-based paint wastewater from electronics industry, using coagulation-flocculation, Fenton’s oxidation and membrane processes. The treated water is sought after for recycling purposes within the painting unit and the water quality is negligible except suspended solids. The wastewater used in this study was characterized as highly polluted wastewater with

  13. Oceanic deep water formation as a sink of persistent organic pollutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Lohmann; Elena Jurado; Michael E. Q. Pilson; Jordi Dachs

    2006-01-01

    The formation of deep oceanic waters occurs as part of the global thermohaline circulation due to gradients in salinity and temperature, and moves surface waters, including persistent organic pollutants (POPs), directly to the deep Ocean. For the four main deep water formation regions, removal fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were calculated based on their surface water concentrations and deep

  14. Modelling mitigation options to reduce diffuse nitrogen water pollution from agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bouraoui, Fayçal; Grizzetti, Bruna

    2014-01-15

    Agriculture is responsible for large scale water quality degradation and is estimated to contribute around 55% of the nitrogen entering the European Seas. The key policy instrument for protecting inland, transitional and coastal water resources is the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Reducing nutrient losses from agriculture is crucial to the successful implementation of the WFD. There are several mitigation measures that can be implemented to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural areas to surface and ground waters. For the selection of appropriate measures, models are useful for quantifying the expected impacts and the associated costs. In this article we review some of the models used in Europe to assess the effectiveness of nitrogen mitigation measures, ranging from fertilizer management to the construction of riparian areas and wetlands. We highlight how the complexity of models is correlated with the type of scenarios that can be tested, with conceptual models mostly used to evaluate the impact of reduced fertilizer application, and the physically-based models used to evaluate the timing and location of mitigation options and the response times. We underline the importance of considering the lag time between the implementation of measures and effects on water quality. Models can be effective tools for targeting mitigation measures (identifying critical areas and timing), for evaluating their cost effectiveness, for taking into consideration pollution swapping and considering potential trade-offs in contrasting environmental objectives. Models are also useful for involving stakeholders during the development of catchments mitigation plans, increasing their acceptability. PMID:23998504

  15. Simulation Games: The Future of Water Resources Education and Management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castilla Rho, J. C.; Mariethoz, G.; Rojas, R. F.; Andersen, M. S.; Kelly, B. F.; Holley, C.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists rely on models of the water cycle to describe and predict problems of water scarcity in a changing climate, and to suggest adaptation strategies for securing future water needs. Yet these models are too often complicated for managers, the general public and for students to understand. Simpler modelling environments will help with finding solutions by engaging a broader segment of the population. Such environments will enable education at the earliest stages and collective action. I propose that simulation games can be an effective communication platform between scientists and 'non-experts' and that such games will shed light on problems of pollution and overuse of water resources. In the same way as pilots use flight simulators to become proficient at flying aircraft, simulation games—if underpinned by good science—can be used to educate the public, students and managers about how to best manage our water resources. I aim to motivate young scientists to think about using games to advance water education and management.

  16. Removal of phosphate from polluted water by lanthanum doped vesuvianite.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng; Ru, Jingyu; Yin, Wen; Liu, Xiaohai; Wang, Jiaqiang; Zhang, Wudi

    2009-08-30

    The adsorption capacities of vesuvianite and lanthanum doped vesuvianite were studied. The effects of different mass ratios of La/vesuvianite at different contact times, pHs, and temperatures on adsorption capacity were also studied. It was found that lanthanum doped vesuvianite exhibited higher adsorption capacity than undoped one due to the reaction of bounded lanthanum with phosphate. The adsorption capacity of lanthanum doped vesuvianite for phosphate removal increased with the increase of La/vesuvianite mass ratio. The Freundlich and Langmuir models were used to simulate the sorption equilibrium, and the results indicate that the Langmuir model had a better correlation with the experimental data than the Freundlich model did. When the initial phosphate concentration was 1mgP/L, the adsorptive capacity rate would be 1.32 mg P/g lanthanum doped vesuvianite (La/vesuvianite mass ratio >or=0.14) at pH between 6 and 9 after 40h. The concentrations of residual lanthanum ions in solution at different conditions were measured. Lanthanum doped vesuvianite was also used for the removal of phosphate in a polluted river water and it could be easily recycled once without losing its activity to a greater extent. PMID:19297092

  17. Non-piont source pollution and stormwater management practices of parking lot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-li Li; Wu Che

    2011-01-01

    As one of the urban infrastructure, parking lot holds a large proportion in the urban impervious area. Characteristics of parking lots and their negative effects to environment ware analyzed. The main pollutants in parking lot runoff and the event mean concentration of those pollutants ware listed. Representative stormwater management technologies in parking lot ware introduced, suchas permeable pavements, grass swale

  18. Water pollution: EPA controls over ballast water at Trans-Alaska Pipeline Marine Terminal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The Alyeska Pipeline Service Company at Valdez, Alaska, operates a water treatment plant at the terminal to treat ballast water, oily sea water that is carried in tankers to provide stability, before it is discharged into the bay. The Environmental Protection Agency is nearly 4 years late in issuing a new permit to Alyeska which regulates the types and amounts of pollution that can be discharged. Alyeska has been operating under an extension of its old permit whose conditions may be less stringent than the new permit will require. Prior to 1984, EPA monitored Alyeska's permit and identified instances of noncompliance with permit conditions, but its enforcement actions were limited to discussions and correspondence with Alyeska. In contrast, since 1984, EPA has begun taking enforcement actions as well as investigating allegations of other environmental problems. EPA should have acted sooner and until the new permit is issued, questions about the protection of marine life and water quality in Valdez Bay will remain unanswered.

  19. Water quality management of rooftop rainwater harvesting systems.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

    2009-10-01

    The ancient technique of harvesting rainwater falling on rooftops, which had been forgotten after the advent of large-scale centralized water resource systems like dam-based reservoirs, has staged a global comeback in the post-modern era. It is expected that in the near future all dwellings everywhere will be equipped to harvest and use rainwater. Such widespread use of rooftop rainwater harvesting makes it very important that the water quality aspects associated with it are clearly understood and managed. The present paper addresses the related issues. The pathways by which pollutants can enter in a rainwater harvest have been traced and the strategies to manage the water quality, at pre-harvest as well as post-harvest stages, have been discussed. PMID:21117427

  20. Method of and device for detecting oil pollutions on water surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Belov, Michael Leonidovich (Moscow, RU); Gorodnichev, Victor Aleksandrovich (Moscow, RU); Kozintsev, Valentin Ivanovich (Moscow, RU); Smimova, Olga Alekseevna (Moscow, RU); Fedotov, Yurii Victorovich (Moscow, RU); Khroustaleva, Anastasiva Michailovnan (Moscow, RU)

    2008-08-26

    Detection of oil pollution on water surfaces includes providing echo signals obtained from optical radiation of a clean water area at two wavelengths, optically radiating an investigated water area at two wavelengths and obtaining echo signals from the optical radiation of the investigated water area at the two wavelengths, comparing the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the investigated area at two wavelengths with the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the clean water area, and based on the comparison, determining presence or absence of oil pollution in the investigated water area.

  1. Sustainable Water Management in the Minerals Industry 1 SUSTAINABLE WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE MINERALS

    E-print Network

    McGuinness, Mark

    Sustainable Water Management in the Minerals Industry 1 SUSTAINABLE WATER MANAGEMENT interest. It arises in the provision of water for Queensland coal mines, where additional water is available via a pipeline from a public supply, and also in cases where recycled or more expensive water

  2. Marine Pollution Monitoring Management Group The Group Co-ordinating Sea Disposal Monitoring

    E-print Network

    ............................................................................................................................... 9 2. Sampling and analysis at sewage-sludge disposal sites ............................................................................. 15 4. Standards for sediment metals at sewage-sludge disposal sitesMarine Pollution Monitoring Management Group The Group Co-ordinating Sea Disposal Monitoring

  3. Non point source pollution modelling in the watershed managed by Integrated Conctructed Wetlands: A GIS approach. 

    E-print Network

    Vyavahare, Nilesh

    2008-12-05

    The non-point source pollution has been recognised as main cause of eutrophication in Ireland (EPA Ireland, 2001). Integrated Constructed Wetland (ICW) is a management practice adopted in Annestown stream watershed, located in the south county...

  4. INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH (AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research conducted by NRMRL's Air pollution Prevention and Control Division's Indoor Environment Management Branch in Research Triangle Park, NC, has been the basis for developing a better understanding of the relationship between indoor air quality (IAQ) and emissions sources, h...

  5. POINTS-OF-CONTACT (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of research conducted by the Indoor Environment Management Branch (IEMB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, can provide practical methods that architects, design engineers, builders, manufacturers, suppliers and the gen...

  6. Water pollutant fingerprinting tracks recent industrial transfer from coastal to inland China: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Tian, Dajun; Jiang, Songhui; Andersen, Melvin E.; He, Genhsjeng; Crabbe, M. James C.; Zheng, Yuxin; Zhong, Yang; Qu, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, China’s developed regions have transferred industries to undeveloped regions. Large numbers of unlicensed or unregistered enterprises are widespread in these undeveloped regions and they are subject to minimal regulation. Current methods for tracing industrial transfers in these areas, based on enterprise registration information or economic surveys, do not work. We have developed an analytical framework combining water fingerprinting and evolutionary analysis to trace the pollution transfer features between water sources. We collected samples in Eastern China (industrial export) and Central China (industrial acceptance) separately from two water systems. Based on the water pollutant fingerprints and evolutionary trees, we traced the pollution transfer associated with industrial transfer between the two areas. The results are consistent with four episodes of industrial transfers over the past decade. Our results also show likely types of the transferred industries - electronics, plastics, and biomedicines - that contribute to the water pollution transfer. PMID:23301152

  7. Water pollutant fingerprinting tracks recent industrial transfer from coastal to inland China: a case study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Tian, Dajun; Jiang, Songhui; Andersen, Melvin E; He, Genhsjeng; Crabbe, M James C; Zheng, Yuxin; Zhong, Yang; Qu, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, China's developed regions have transferred industries to undeveloped regions. Large numbers of unlicensed or unregistered enterprises are widespread in these undeveloped regions and they are subject to minimal regulation. Current methods for tracing industrial transfers in these areas, based on enterprise registration information or economic surveys, do not work. We have developed an analytical framework combining water fingerprinting and evolutionary analysis to trace the pollution transfer features between water sources. We collected samples in Eastern China (industrial export) and Central China (industrial acceptance) separately from two water systems. Based on the water pollutant fingerprints and evolutionary trees, we traced the pollution transfer associated with industrial transfer between the two areas. The results are consistent with four episodes of industrial transfers over the past decade. Our results also show likely types of the transferred industries - electronics, plastics, and biomedicines - that contribute to the water pollution transfer. PMID:23301152

  8. Effects of urban stormwater-management strategies on stream-water quantity and quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loperfido, J.V.; Hogan, Dianna M.

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization results in elevated stormwater runoff, greater and more intense streamflow, and increased delivery of pollutants to local streams and downstream aquatic systems such as the Chesapeake Bay. Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) are used to mitigate these effects of urban land use by retaining large volumes of stormwater runoff (water quantity) and removing pollutants in the runoff (water quality). Current USGS research aims to understand how the spatial pattern and connectivity of stormwater BMPs affect water quantity and water quality in urban areas.

  9. Citizen's guide to coastal water resource management

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.; Miller, T.

    1988-01-01

    Contents include: taking the initiative; water-quality standards; Coastal Area Management Act; dredge-and-fill permits under Section 404; sediment and erosion control; other environmental laws; nonregulatory ways to help protect water resources.

  10. Sustainable Water Management & Satellite Remote Sensing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eutrophication assessment frameworks such as the Australian National Water Quality Management Strategy, Oslo Paris (OSPAR) Commission Common Procedure, Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Union, Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) from the European Commission, ...

  11. Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    in water resources, including the management of water resources among competing uses; controlling pollution Quality Focus Category: Water Quality, Sediments, Non Point Pollution Descriptors: AgricultureWater Resources Center Annual Technical Report FY 2001 Introduction Research Program Research

  12. Risk assessment of surface water and groundwater pollution through agricultural activity on the catchment area of the Shelek River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubairov, Bulat; Dautova, Assel

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural activity in rural areas of Kazakhstan can create a potential risk of surface and groundwater pollution. In our contribution, we will focus on the risk assessment of surface water and groundwater pollution in the catchment area of the Shelek River basin in southeast Kazakhstan. Since soviet time, in the research area an intensive cultivation of tobacco was performed which means to use a big amount of pesticides during the growing-process. Therefore, this research was conducted in order to receive reliable data for management decisions justification and for practical testing of approach which is recommended by WHO for drinking water supply based on risks mapping. For our study, the soil and water samples from tobacco fields, artesian spring, and surface water source were taken for analysis on pesticides content. The samples were investigated in laboratory of Centre of Sanitary and Epidemiological Expertise of Almaty city (CSEE) according to approved methods from the national standards which are accepted in Kazakhstan. For the first time, in artesian spring small amount of nitrate pollution was found whose groundwater is one of the drinking water supplies of the region.

  13. ANALYSIS OF EXTRACTABLE PRIORITY POLLUTANTS IN WATER BY GC/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following the June 1976 Consent Decree (NRDC et al. vs. EPA), there has been a continuously increasing demand for the analysis of water samples for the 129 priority pollutants. The protocol originally designed for the analysis of the priority pollutants that are extractable into ...

  14. A Bi-Enzymatic Whole-Cell Algal Biosensor for Monitoring Waste Water Pollutants

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Bi-Enzymatic Whole-Cell Algal Biosensor for Monitoring Waste Water Pollutants Claude Durrieu,1 Ce biosensors are developed to measure specific toxicity of freshwater pollutants. Both optical and conductometric biosensors are based on inhibition of algal alkaline phosphatase (AP) and esterase activi- ties

  15. An information Grid-based model for sharing water pollution control and prevention technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Minghu; Gao Zhenji; Xu Chunlian; Huang Haiming

    2010-01-01

    Though water pollution control and prevention technologies have made a great progress, most polluting enterprises even have never heard of them, not to mention use them. So we design an technologies sharing model based on information Grid, and focus our discussion on the process of searching and invoking the wanted technologies with mobile agents.

  16. Implementation of intergovernmental regulatory programs: Section 402 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wassenberg

    1985-01-01

    This study develops and tests a theoretical framework for the study of the process by which intergovernmental regulatory policies are implemented. The framework is applied to the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program of the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. The general question addressed is why some states have the authority to implement intergovernmental regulatory

  17. Experimental study of effectiveness of nonpoint source water pollution control group contract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen N. Pushkarskaya; Hal Arkes; Jason Pieratt; Ibrahim Bamba

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this experimental study was to test an effectiveness of a group contract designed to control nonpoint source water pollution from farms' runoff (Pushkarskaya 2003). In particular, the regulator pays for pollution reduction credits earned by the group of the farmers, who voluntary enter the contract, and is concerned only with the total level of the abatement achieved,

  18. State-of-art review: water pollution control benefits and costs. Volume I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Unger; M. J. Emerson; D. L. Jordening

    1973-01-01

    A survey and assessment are presented of the state-of-art of economic ; analyses dealing with water pollution control benefits and costs. The ; investigation includes the extension of traditional benefit cost analysis into ; the area of pollution control. Implications for planning and research plus some ; directions of needed study are also developed. A conceptual basis for benefit ;

  19. Making Water Pollution a Problem in the Classroom Through Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, John D.

    Alternative means for dealing with water pollution control are presented for students and teachers. One computer oriented program is described in terms of teaching wastewater treatment and pollution concepts to middle and secondary school students. Suggestions are given to help teachers use a computer simulation program in their classrooms.…

  20. Waste water treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment of industrial pollutants. The use and effectiveness of biological treatments and carbon additives are examined. References also discuss problems and recommendations for the removal of mercury and its compounds, fertilizers, and pesticides from polluted waste water. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution abatement cost functions in central portugal.

    PubMed

    Roebeling, P C; Rocha, J; Nunes, J P; Fidélis, T; Alves, H; Fonseca, S

    2014-01-01

    Coastal aquatic ecosystems are increasingly affected by diffuse source nutrient water pollution from agricultural activities in coastal catchments, even though these ecosystems are important from a social, environmental and economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance marginal costs from coastal catchment water pollution abatement and associated marginal benefits from coastal resource appreciation. Diffuse-source water pollution abatement costs across agricultural sectors are not easily determined given the spatial heterogeneity in biophysical and agro-ecological conditions as well as the available range of best agricultural practices (BAPs) for water quality improvement. We demonstrate how the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) can be used to estimate diffuse-source water pollution abatement cost functions across agricultural land use categories based on a stepwise adoption of identified BAPs for water quality improvement and corresponding SWAT-based estimates for agricultural production, agricultural incomes, and water pollution deliveries. Results for the case of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) surface water pollution by the key agricultural land use categories ("annual crops," "vineyards," and "mixed annual crops & vineyards") in the Vouga catchment in central Portugal show that no win-win agricultural practices are available within the assessed BAPs for DIN water quality improvement. Estimated abatement costs increase quadratically in the rate of water pollution abatement, with largest abatement costs for the "mixed annual crops & vineyards" land use category (between 41,900 and 51,900 € tDIN yr) and fairly similar abatement costs across the "vineyards" and "annual crops" land use categories (between 7300 and 15,200 € tDIN yr). PMID:25602550

  2. Application of Ion Exchange Technique to Decontamination of Polluted Water Generated by Fukushima Nuclear Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshita, Kenji; Ogata, Takeshi

    By the Fukushima nuclear disaster, large amounts of water and sea water polluted mainly with radioactive Cs were generated and the environment around the nuclear site was contaminated by the fallout from the nuclear site. The coagulation settling process using ferric ferrocyanide and an inorganic coagulant and the adsorption process using ferric ferrocyanide granulated by silica binder were applied to the treatment of polluted water. In the coagulation settling process, Cs was removed completely from polluted water and sea water (DF?104). In the adsorption process, the recovery of trace Cs (10 ppb) in sea water, which was not suitable for the use of zeolite, was attained successfully. Finally, the recovery of Cs from sewage sludge was tested by a combined process with the hydrothermal process using subcritical water and the coagulation settling process using ferric ferrocyanide. 96% of radioactive Cs was recovered successfully from sewage sludge with the radioactivity of 10,000 Bq/kg.

  3. 9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure...318.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  4. 9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure...318.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  5. 9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure...318.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  6. OVERALL MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FOR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM SMALL WATER POOLS UNDER SIMULATED INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small chamber tests were conducted to experimentally determine the overall mass transfer coefficient for pollutant emissions from still water under simulated indoor-residential or occupational-environmental conditions. Fourteen tests were conducted in small environmental chambers...

  7. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Brown, Christopher; Orozco, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2013, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  8. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Tobias, Barry; Orozco, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2012, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  9. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Wilson, Laura Labuda; Orozco, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2011, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  10. VERIFICATION TESTING OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is the basis for quality assurance for the Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center (APCT Center) operated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It describes the policies, organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, and qualit...

  11. CSREES Nutrient Management Working Meeting

    E-print Network

    or "themes": · Animal Waste Management · Drinking Water and Human Health · Environmental Restoration · Nutrient and Pesticide Management · Pollution Prevention · Watershed Management · Water Quantity and PolicyWelcome CSREES Nutrient Management Working Meeting May 4 and 5, 2004 Atlanta, GA #12;University

  12. LINEAR MODELS FOR MANAGING SOURCES OF GROUNDWATER POLLUTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorelick, Steven M.; Gustafson, Sven-Ake

    1984-01-01

    Mathematical models for the problem of maintaining a specified groundwater quality while permitting solute waste disposal at various facilities distributed over space are discussed. The pollutants are assumed to be chemically inert and their concentrations in the groundwater are governed by linear equations for advection and diffusion. The aim is to determine a disposal policy which maximises the total amount of pollutants released during a fixed time T while meeting the condition that the concentration everywhere is below prescribed levels.

  13. THE USE OF WETLANDS FOR WATER POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands such as marshes, swamps and artificial wetlands, have been shown to remove selected pollutants from urban stormwater runoff and treated municipal wastewaters. Wetlands have produced reduction in BOD, pathogens, and some hydrocarbons, and excel in nitrogen removal. They h...

  14. Protecting Water Resources and Managing Stormwater

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Protecting Water Resources and Managing Stormwater A BiRd'S EyE ViEW foR NEW HAMPSHiRE Co, endorsement or recommendation. Protecting Water Resources and Managing Stormwater: A Birds Eye View For New of New Hampshire Stormwater Center design and production by: tricia Miller, MillerWorks Graphic design

  15. Research Report International Water Management Institute

    E-print Network

    Scott, Christopher

    , Mexico Research Report 41 International Water Management Institute P O Box 2075, Colombo, Sri Lanka Management Institute (IWMI), Mexico Program, and Gilbert Levine is a Senior Fellow, IWMI, Colombo, Sri Lanka in the water-short Guanajuato river basin, Mexico. Colombo, Sri Lanka. Research Report 41. Colombo, Sri Lanka

  16. COMPREHENSIVE WATER MANAGEMENT SCENARIOS FOR STRATEGIC PLANNING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. MANOLI; G. ARAMPATZIS; D. ASSIMACOPOULOS

    The assessment of the applicability and suitability of potential measures and instruments is crucial in the strategic planning of water resources management. This paper presents a methodology founded on scenario analysis for assessing potentially applicable water management options in a regional context with respect to their efficiency, extent of application, cost and environmental impact. Formulation, analysis and evaluation of the

  17. 9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    (a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited to flood water) in an official establishment, all products and ingredients for use in the preparation of such products that have been rendered adulterated by the water shall be...

  18. Polluted water concentrates: Induction of genetic alterations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Moretton; P. Baró; A. Zelazny; M. D'Aquino

    1991-01-01

    In a previous paper the authors showed that samples of raw water obtained from the Riachuelo (a heavily polluted watercourse) induced genetic effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain. In those tests the raw water samples were assayed within 24 hr and only the mutagenic activity of the non-volatile, water soluble constituents could be detected. The detection and quantitation of genetic

  19. NATIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ASSESSMENT MODEL, VERSION 2.0 (NWPCAM 2.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    NWPCAM 2.0 is a national-level water quality modeling system that can be used to simulate the water quality changes and economic benefits that result from various pollution control policies. It builds and significantly improves on an earlier model the Clean Water Act Effects Mode...

  20. The effect of water pollution control regulations on the cost of production of electric power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Deyak; A. N. Link

    1979-01-01

    The impact of water pollution control regulations, such as those outlined in 1972 FWPCA Amendments, on production costs in the electric utility industry are examined. The use of water by electric utilities, and the impact that water regulations will have on those uses are discussed. The production process of electric utilities is discussed, and a cost function from a cross-section

  1. Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 2. Agricultural sediment control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin

    1981-01-01

    Application of a national water network model permits an analysis of the likely affects of agricultural sediment control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier

  2. Water quality along the sone river polluted by the orient Paper Mill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Srivastava; W. S. Fargo; V. S. Sai; K. C. Mathur

    1988-01-01

    Changes in water quality along the Sone River, which is polluted by effluents from the Orient Paper Mills (OPM), Amlai, M.P., India were studied in the present work. The water samples from fifteen stations, covering a distance of about 216 km along the river course were subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis to determine similarity relations with respect to seven water

  3. Water hyacinth as indicator of heavy metal pollution in the tropics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Humberto Gonzalez; Martin Lodenius; Mirta Otero

    1989-01-01

    The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a common aquatic plant in many tropical countries. Its ability absorb nutrients and other elements from the water has made it possible to use it for water purification purposes. Eichhornia, especially stems and leaves, have been successfully used as indicators of heavy metal pollution in tropical countries. The uptake of heavy metals in this

  4. Pollution Status of Surface Water Resources in Arid Region of Rajasthan (india)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachhawa, Chanchal

    Present investigation deals with the evaluation of DO, BOD and COD of six surface water resources of Bikaner district which fall in arid region of Rajasthan - a part of Great Indian Desert, to determine pollution status. Water sample analysed for two years 2008-2009 showed these parameters beyond the limit of standard prescribed by WHO. These parameters also showed great seasonal fluctuation, indicating the degree of organic pollution more during summer season and least during winter season.

  5. Industry sector analysis Canada: Water pollution control equipment and instrumentation. Export trade information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Bryan; S. Lee

    1992-01-01

    U.S. suppliers of water pollution control equipment are in a prime position to benefit from Canadian industries' needs to modernize equipment in order to comply with tough, new legislation to control water pollution. In selling to the Canadian market, U.S. suppliers clearly benefit from the advantages of advanced technical know-how, proximity to the market, and reduced tariffs under the U.S.-Canada

  6. Analysis of River Water Quality and its influencing factors for the Effective Management of Water Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, G.; Sadohara, S.; Yoshida, S.; Yuichi, S.

    2011-12-01

    In Japan, remarkable improvements in water quality have been observed over recent years because of regulations imposed on industrial wastewater and development of sewerage system. However, pollution loads from agricultural lands are still high and coverage ratio of sewerage system is still low in small and medium cities. In present context, nonpoint source pollution such as runoff from unsewered developments, urban and agricultural runoffs could be main water quality impacting factors. Further, atmospheric nitrogen (N) is the complex nonpoint source than can seriously affect river water environment. This study was undertaken to spatially investigate the present status of river water quality of Hadano Basin located in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Water quality of six rivers was investigated and its relationship with nonpoint pollution sources was analyzed. This study, with inclusion of ground water circulation and atmospheric N, can be effectively employed for water quality management of other watersheds also, both with and without influence of ground water circulation. Hence, as a research area of this study, it is significant in terms of water quality management. Total nitrogen (TN) was found consistently higher in urbanized basins indicating that atmospheric N might be influencing TN of river water. Ground water circulation influenced both water quality and quantity. In downstream basins of Muro and Kuzuha rivers, Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phosphorus (TP) were diluted by ground water inflow. In Mizunashi River and the upstream of Kuzuha River, surface water infiltrated to the subsurface due to higher river bed permeability. Influencing factors considered in the analysis were unsewered population, agricultural land, urban area, forest and atmospheric N. COD and TP showed good correlation with unsewered population and agricultural land. While TN had good correlation with atmospheric N deposition. Multiple regression analysis between water quality pollution loads and influencing factors resulted that unsewered population had higher impact on river water quality. For TN, atmospheric N deposition was taking effect. Continuous development of sewerage system and its expansion along with the pace of urbanization could be the pragmatic option to maintain river water quality in Hadano basin. However, influence of agricultural loads and atmospheric N on water quality cannot be denied for the proper water quality management of Hadano basin. It was found that if the proportion of sewered population could be increased from 72% to 86%, corresponding loads of COD and TP could be decreased by about 41% and 45% respectively. As per the development trend of sewerage system in Hadano basin for last 10 years, unsewered population could be reduced to its half by 2014, provided that the expansion of sewerage system continues at same rate. Regarding TN, its proper control is complicated as atmospheric N is propagated to regional and sometimes to global extent. Further study on the relationship between TN and atmospheric N deposition should be conducted for the proper management of TN in the river water.

  7. What is Nonpoint Source Pollution? Nonpoint Source Pollution, or people pollution, is a contamination of our ground water,

    E-print Network

    Rainforth, Emma C.

    , recreational water activities, the fishing industry, tourism and our precious drinking water resources lifestyle can make a tremendous difference in the quality of New Jersey's water resources. Here are just a pesticide, follow the label directions carefully. HOUSEHOLD HAZARDOUS PRODUCTS: Many common household

  8. Better Insight Into Water Resources Management With Integrated Hydrodynamic And Water Quality Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debele, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Parlange, J.

    2004-12-01

    Models have long been used in water resources management to guide decision making and improve understanding of the system. Numerous models of different scales -spatial and temporal - are available. Yet, very few models manage to bridge simulations of hydrological and water quality parameters from both upland watershed and riverine system. Most water quality models, such as QUAL2E and EPD-RIV1 concentrate on the riverine system while CE-QUAL-W2 and WASP models focus on larger waterbodies, such as lakes and reservoirs. On the other hand, the original SWAT model, HSPF and other upland watershed hydrological models simulate agricultural (diffuse) pollution sources with limited number of processes incorporated to handle point source pollutions that emanate from industrial sectors. Such limitations, which are common in most hydrodynamic and water quality models undermine better understanding that otherwise could be uncovered by employing integrated hydrological and water quality models for both upland watershed and riverine system. The SWAT model is a well documented and verified hydrological and water quality model that has been developed to simulate the effects of various management scenarios on the health of the environment in terms of water quantity and quality. Recently, the SWAT model has been extended to include the simulation of hydrodynamic and water quality parameters in the river system. The extended SWAT model (ESWAT) has been further extended to run using diurnally varying (hourly) weather data and produce outputs at hourly timescales. This and other improvements in the ESWAT model have been documented in the current work. Besides, the results from two case studies in Texas will be reported.

  9. Water pollution risk simulation and prediction in the main canal of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Cheng, Xi

    2014-11-01

    The middle route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (MRP) will divert water to Beijing Tuancheng Lake from Taocha in the Danjiangkou reservoir located in the Hubei province of China. The MRP is composed of a long canal and complex hydraulic structures and will transfer water in open channel areas to provide drinking water for Beijing, Shijiazhuang and other cities under extremely strict water quality requirements. A large number of vehicular accidents, occurred on the many highway bridges across the main canal would cause significant water pollution in the main canal. To ensure that water quality is maintained during the diversion process, the effects of pollutants on water quality due to sudden pollution accidents were simulated and analyzed in this paper. The MIKE11 HD module was used to calculate the hydraulic characteristics of the 42-km Xishi-to-Beijuma River channel of the MRP. Six types of hydraulic structures, including inverted siphons, gates, highway bridges, culverts and tunnels, were included in this model. Based on the hydrodynamic model, the MIKE11 AD module, which is one-dimensional advection dispersion model, was built for TP, NH3-N, CODMn and F. The validated results showed that the computed values agreed well with the measured values. In accordance with transportation data across the Dianbei Highway Bridge, the effects of traffic accidents on the bridge on water quality were analyzed. Based on simulated scenarios with three discharge rates (ranged from 12 m3/s to 17 m3/s, 40 m3/s, and 60 m3/s) and three pollution loading concentration levels (5 t, 10 t and 20 t) when trucks spill their contents (i.e., phosphate fertilizer, cyanide, oil and chromium solution) into the channel, emergency measures were proposed. Reasonable solutions to ensure the water quality with regard to the various types of pollutants were proposed, including treating polluted water, maintaining materials, and personnel reserves.

  10. Geospatial Investigation into Groundwater Pollution and Water Quality Supported by Satellite Data: A Case Study from the Evros River (Eastern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Dimitriou; Angeliki, Mentzafou; Vasiliki, Markogianni; Maria, Tzortziou; Christina, Zeri

    2014-06-01

    Managing water resources, in terms of both quality and quantity, in transboundary rivers is a difficult and challenging task that requires efficient cross-border cooperation and transparency. Groundwater pollution risk assessment and mapping techniques over the full catchment area are important tools that could be used as part of these water resource management efforts, to estimate pollution pressures and optimize land planning processes. The Evros river catchment is the second largest river in Eastern Europe and sustains a population of 3.6 million people in three different countries (Bulgaria, Turkey and Greece). This study provides detailed information on the main pollution sources and pressures in the Evros catchment and, for the first time, applies, assesses and evaluates a groundwater pollution risk mapping technique using satellite observations (Landsat NDVI) and an extensive dataset of field measurements covering different seasons and multiple years. We found that approximately 40 % of the Greek part of the Evros catchment is characterized as of high and very high pollution risk, while 14 % of the study area is classified as of moderate risk. Both the modeled and measured water quality status of the river showed large spatiotemporal variations consistent with the strong anthropogenic pressures in this system, especially on the northern and central segments of the catchment. The pollutants identified illustrate inputs of agrochemicals and urban wastes in the river. High correlation coefficients ( R between 0.79 and 0.85) were found between estimated pollution risks and measured concentrations of those chemical parameters that are mainly attributed to anthropogenic activities rather than in situ biogeochemical processes. The pollution risk method described here could be used elsewhere as a decision support tool for mitigating the impact of hazardous human activities and improving management of groundwater resources.

  11. Natural water purification and water management by artificial groundwater recharge

    PubMed Central

    Balke, Klaus-Dieter; Zhu, Yan

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, several regions suffer from water scarcity and contamination. The infiltration and subsurface storage of rain and river water can reduce water stress. Artificial groundwater recharge, possibly combined with bank filtration, plant purification and/or the use of subsurface dams and artificial aquifers, is especially advantageous in areas where layers of gravel and sand exist below the earth’s surface. Artificial infiltration of surface water into the uppermost aquifer has qualitative and quantitative advantages. The contamination of infiltrated river water will be reduced by natural attenuation. Clay minerals, iron hydroxide and humic matter as well as microorganisms located in the subsurface have high decontamination capacities. By this, a final water treatment, if necessary, becomes much easier and cheaper. The quantitative effect concerns the seasonally changing river discharge that influences the possibility of water extraction for drinking water purposes. Such changes can be equalised by seasonally adapted infiltration/extraction of water in/out of the aquifer according to the river discharge and the water need. This method enables a continuous water supply over the whole year. Generally, artificially recharged groundwater is better protected against pollution than surface water, and the delimitation of water protection zones makes it even more save. PMID:18357624

  12. Determination of urban groundwater pollution in alluvial aquifer using linked process models considering urban water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizintin, Goran; Souvent, Petra; Veseli?, Miran; Cencur Curk, Barbara

    2009-10-01

    SummaryThis paper presents the results of the 5th FP project AISUWRS (Assessing and Improving the Sustainability of Urban Water Resources and Systems) which aimed to assess the impact of the urban water infrastructure to underlying or nearby aquifers with the urban water balance modelling approach - a chain of different models that handle with contaminant fluxes and the movement of contaminants from the urban infrastructure into the underlying aquifer. An existing urban water management model UVQ was linked to a model for sewer infiltration and exfiltration (NEIMO), as well as unsaturated zone models (SLeakI/POSI, UL_FLOW) with existing numerical groundwater models. The linked process models offer the prospect of better quantification of urban water balance and contaminant loads, including improved estimates of total recharge and its components in urban areas. Once the model framework has been set up for a selected city, it can easily be updated in the future and it can be used for other purposes like planning of local remediation measures in the vicinity of individual contaminant spillages. This paper describes the application and results of the urban water model chain for the city of Ljubljana, which is the capital of Slovenia. The results from this study suggest that residential land-uses in urban areas with thick unsaturated zone may have significantly smaller impact on the groundwater than agriculture or industry. This can be seen as a speculative understanding of the groundwater pollutions problems. In this respect, use of sustainable urban development systems like on-site infiltration of roof runoff and improved sewer control and standards could result in better groundwater quality.

  13. Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers Theresa Pistochini May 23rd, 2012 ResearchAirCapacity,tons Gallons of Water Continuous Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F Cyclic Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F #12 AverageWaterHardness(ppm) Cooling Degree Days (60°F Reference) 20% Population 70% Population 10

  14. Water quality management plan for Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The management plan provides an assessment of Cherokee Reservoir's current water quality, identifies those factors which affect reservoir water quality, and develops recommendations aimed at restoring or maintaining water quality at levels sufficient to support diverse beneficial uses. 20 references, 8 figures, 15 tables. (ACR)

  15. STORM WATER MANAGEMENT MODEL (SWMM) MODERNIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Water Supply and Water Resources Division in partnership with the consulting firm of CDM to redevelop and modernize the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). In the initial phase of this project EPA rewrote SWMM's computational engine usi...

  16. Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loenen, A.; van Dijk, M.; van Verseveld, W.; Berger, H.

    2012-04-01

    Most of the Dutch large rivers, canals and lakes are controlled by the Dutch water authorities. The main reasons concern safety, navigation and fresh water supply. Historically the separate water bodies have been controlled locally. For optimizating management of these water systems an integrated approach was required. Presented is a platform which integrates data from all control objects for monitoring and control purposes. The Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems (IWP) is an implementation of Delft-FEWS which supports operational control of water systems and actively gives advice. One of the main characteristics of IWP is that is real-time collects, transforms and presents different types of data, which all add to the operational water management. Next to that, hydrodynamic models and intelligent decision support tools are added to support the water managers during their daily control activities. An important advantage of IWP is that it uses the Delft-FEWS framework, therefore processes like central data collection, transformations, data processing and presentation are simply configured. At all control locations the same information is readily available. The operational water management itself gains from this information, but it can also contribute to cost efficiency (no unnecessary pumping), better use of available storage and advise during (water polution) calamities.

  17. Deposition of Air Pollutants to the Great Waters, Third Report to Congress, June 2000

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    Released on June 8 2000, this report is the third in a series from the Environmental protection Agency (EPA) "to Congress on atmospheric deposition of pollution to the Great Waters, which include the Great Lakes, Chesapeake Bay and several other major U.S. water bodies." This report focuses on fifteen "pollutants of concern," offering updated scientific information about these pollutants and the Great Waters and discussing programs implemented by the EPA, states, tribes, and others to address them. It also describes "recent advancements in scientific research and tools used to improve our understanding of atmospheric deposition to the Great Waters." Background information and an executive summary are offered in HTML format, while the full text is provided by chapter in .pdf format. The previous two reports may be accessed from the Great Waters Program homepage.

  18. Gulls identified as major source of fecal pollution in coastal waters: a microbial source tracking study.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Susana; Henriques, Isabel S; Leandro, Sérgio Miguel; Alves, Artur; Pereira, Anabela; Correia, António

    2014-02-01

    Gulls were reported as sources of fecal pollution in coastal environments and potential vectors of human infections. Microbial source tracking (MST) methods were rarely tested to identify this pollution origin. This study was conducted to ascertain the source of water fecal contamination in the Berlenga Island, Portugal. A total of 169 Escherichia coli isolates from human sewage, 423 isolates from gull feces and 334 water isolates were analyzed by BOX-PCR. An average correct classification of 79.3% was achieved. When an 85% similarity cutoff was applied 24% of water isolates were present in gull feces against 2.7% detected in sewage. Jackknifing resulted in 29.3% of water isolates classified as gull, and 10.8% classified as human. Results indicate that gulls constitute a major source of water contamination in the Berlenga Island. This study validated a methodology to differentiate human and gull fecal pollution sources in a real case of a contaminated beach. PMID:24140684

  19. Contaminant Loading in Drainage and Fresh Water Used for Wetland Management at Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Kilbride; F. L. Paveglio; W. G. Henry

    1998-01-01

    .   Throughout the western United States, studies have identified various detrimental effects of contaminants to aquatic biota\\u000a from the use of agricultural drainage water for management of arid wetlands. However, little is known about the relative contributions\\u000a of contaminant loading from pollutants dissolved in water compared with those carried by drifting material (e.g., detritus) associated with drainage water. Consequently, we

  20. Optimizing basin-scale coupled water quantity and water quality man-agement with stochastic dynamic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo; Engelund Holm, Peter; Trapp, Stefan; Rosbjerg, Dan; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Few studies address water quality in hydro-economic models, which often focus primarily on optimal allocation of water quantities. Water quality and water quantity are closely coupled, and optimal management with focus solely on either quantity or quality may cause large costs in terms of the oth-er component. In this study, we couple water quality and water quantity in a joint hydro-economic catchment-scale optimization problem. Stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) is used to minimize the basin-wide total costs arising from water allocation, water curtailment and water treatment. The simple water quality module can handle conservative pollutants, first order depletion and non-linear reactions. For demonstration purposes, we model pollutant releases as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and use the Streeter-Phelps equation for oxygen deficit to compute the resulting min-imum dissolved oxygen concentrations. Inelastic water demands, fixed water allocation curtailment costs and fixed wastewater treatment costs (before and after use) are estimated for the water users (agriculture, industry and domestic). If the BOD concentration exceeds a given user pollution thresh-old, the user will need to pay for pre-treatment of the water before use. Similarly, treatment of the return flow can reduce the BOD load to the river. A traditional SDP approach is used to solve one-step-ahead sub-problems for all combinations of discrete reservoir storage, Markov Chain inflow clas-ses and monthly time steps. Pollution concentration nodes are introduced for each user group and untreated return flow from the users contribute to increased BOD concentrations in the river. The pollutant concentrations in each node depend on multiple decision variables (allocation and wastewater treatment) rendering the objective function non-linear. Therefore, the pollution concen-tration decisions are outsourced to a genetic algorithm, which calls a linear program to determine the remainder of the decision variables. This hybrid formulation keeps the optimization problem computationally feasible and represents a flexible and customizable method. The method has been applied to the Ziya River basin, an economic hotspot located on the North China Plain in Northern China. The basin is subject to severe water scarcity, and the rivers are heavily polluted with wastewater and nutrients from diffuse sources. The coupled hydro-economic optimiza-tion model can be used to assess costs of meeting additional constraints such as minimum water qual-ity or to economically prioritize investments in waste water treatment facilities based on economic criteria.

  1. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. (Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo, CSIC, Barcelona (ES))

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  2. "Upstream Thinking": the catchment management approach of a water provider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand-Clement, E.; Ross, M.; Smith, D.; Anderson, K.; Luscombe, D.; Le Feuvre, N.; Brazier, R. E.

    2012-04-01

    Human activities have large impacts on water quality and provision. Water companies throughout the UK are faced with the consequences of poor land management and need to find appropriate solutions to decreasing water quality. This is particularly true in the South West of England, where 93% of the drinking water is sourced from rivers and reservoirs: large areas of drained peatlands (i.e. Exmoor and Dartmoor National Parks) are responsible for a significant input of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) discolouring the water, whilst poorly managed farming activities can lead to diffuse pollution. Alongside the direct environmental implications, poor water quality is partly increasing water treatment costs and will drive significant future investment in additional water treatment, with further repercussions on customers. This highlights the need for water companies throughout the UK, and further afield, to be more involved in catchment management. "Upstream Thinking" is South West Water's (SWW) approach to catchment management, where working with stakeholders to improve water quality upstream aims to avoid increasingly costly solutions downstream. This approach has led the company to invest in two major areas of work: (1) The Farmland programme where problematic farm management practices and potential solutions are identified, typically 40% of the required investment is then offered in exchange for a legal undertaking to maintain the new farm assets in good condition for 25 years; (2) The Mires programme which involves heavy investment in peatland restoration through the blocking of open ditches in order to improve water storage and quality in the long term. From these two projects, it has been clear that stakeholder involvement of groups such as local farmers, the Westcountry Rivers Trust, the Exmoor National Park Authority, the Environment Agency, Natural England and the Exmoor Society is essential, first because it draws in catchment improvement expertise which is not directly held within the company, and second because it shows how local communities and groups are considered and valued by the company. Monitoring changes and providing a solid scientific base is also undertaken to prove the concept and justify any investment. The work carried out so far has highlighted that SWW's collaborative approach to catchment management is changing the relationship between private water suppliers in the UK and stakeholders or groups having an impact on water quality. This results in a progressive move from a situation where the polluter has to pay, to rewarding providers of clean water instead. The value of ecosystem payments of this kind is being discussed with the appropriate authorities (i.e. Natural England, and the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs) so that it can form part of ensuring sustainable water supplies in future, with all the environmental and ecological benefits of clear raw waters in rivers, lakes and streams.

  3. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Water quality management planning. 35.2023...ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works...2023 Water quality management planning. (a...carry out water quality management planning including...alternatives to such construction, and...

  4. URBAN WET-WEATHER FLOW POLLUTION MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the challenges in protecting urban watersheds lies in effectively controlling the contaminants in both overland runoff and sewerage system overflows during wet-weather events. Abatement of wet-weather flow (WWF) pollution can be implemented at the source by land managemen...

  5. URBAN STORMWATER POLLUTANT SOURCES, CHARACTERIZATION & BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (BMP) TREATABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper covers the origin and values of the various pollutants or stressors in urban stormwater including flow (shear force), pathogens, suspended solids/sediment, toxicants (organic and metals), nutrients, oxygen demanding substances, and coarse solids. A broad overview of t...

  6. Tradable Permits Under Threat to Manage Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mourad Ali; Patrick Rio

    2008-01-01

    In this article we treat the problem of nonpoint source pollution as a problem of moral hazard in group. To solve this kind of problem we consider a group performance based tax coupled to tradable permits market. The tax is activated if the group fails to meet the ambient standard. So the role of the tax is to provide an

  7. Horse paddocks - an emerging source of agricultural water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masud Parvage, Mohammed; Ulén, Barbro; Kirchmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Horse farms occupy about 4% of the total agricultural land in the EU but are not well investigated with regard to their impact on water quality. Horse paddocks commonly hold horses on a limited space and the animal density often exceeds the recommended density. Therefore, paddock soils receive significant amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) through feed residues and deposition of faeces and urine, which can lead to nutrient build-up in the soil and subsequent losses to aquatic systems. This study characterized the potential risk of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) leaching losses from Swedish horse paddocks through three stage examination of soil and water P and N status. The experiment began with a pilot study where surface soil P status and eight years of drainage P data were examined from a paddock catchment and an adjacent arable catchment both receiving similar amount of P and N over years. Results showed that there were no signi?cant differences in water-soluble P (WSP) or total P data in soils but the drainage water P concentrations, being higher in the paddock catchment (0.33 mg P l-1, mainly in dissolved reactive form) than the arable catchment (0.10 mg P l-1). In the second experiment, soil P and N status were examined in different parts of horse paddocks (feeding, grazing, and excretion areas) to identify existence of any potential hotspots for losses within the paddock. In total, seven horse farms, covering different grazing densities and soil textures representative of Swedish horse paddocks were examined. The results showed that concentrations of WSP, plant available P or P-AL (P extracted in ammonium acetate lactate solution at pH 3.75), and total N were highest in feeding and excretion areas within the paddocks. It was also observed that the WSP concentration in the paddocks was strongly correlated with horse density (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.001) and P-AL with years of paddock management (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.001). In the final experiment, topsoil columns (0-20 cm) from the different segments of the paddock were isolated and potential leaching losses of P, N and carbon (C) were measured from two representative horse paddock (a clay and a loamy sand) following simulated rainfall events in the laboratory. Results showed that the leachate concentrations and net release of P, N, and dissolved organic C (DOC) from paddock topsoils were highest in feeding and excretion areas and considerably higher from the loamy sand than the clay paddock topsoil. It was concluded that: i) horse paddocks pose a potential threat to water quality via leaching of excess P and N, ii) feeding and excretion areas are potential hotspots for highly enhanced leaching losses, and iii) paddocks established on sandy soils are particularly susceptible to high losses.

  8. Nuclear techniques applicable to studies of pollutants in ground water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wogman

    1976-01-01

    The current nuclear methods which can be used for the analysis of inorganic pollutants or tracers, including radioactive species in sediments and in their associated atmospheric and aqueous media are summarized. Nuclear techniques allow many trace elements to be analyzed in the ppM to ppB range in both field and laboratory experiments. For direct in situ field measurements, techniques of

  9. Water Resources, Development and Management Service

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-05-10

    The world's food production depends on the availability of water, a precious but finite resource. Users can learn about the need for more efficient usage of water for irrigation, and about the activities of the Water Resources Development and Management Service, which is concerned with sustainable use and conservation of water in agriculture. Links to other sites related to irrigation practices and food production are also provided.

  10. Water Resources, Development and Management Service

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The world\\'s food production depends on the availability of water, a precious but finite resource. Users can learn about the need for more efficient usage of water for irrigation, and about the activities of the Water Resources Development and Management Service, which is concerned with sustainable use and conservation of water in agriculture. Links to other sites related to irrigation practices and food production are also provided.

  11. 64 FR 68722 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination SystemRegulations for Revision of the Water Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-12-08

    ...brought into the storm water discharge control...that population and density should not be an...discharge to sensitive waters, high growth or...high population density, contiguity to an...likelihood of adverse water quality impacts at these population and density levels. In...

  12. Health damage due to water pollution in Hungary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELONA STRAUB

    The number of the drinking water borne epidemics in Hungary has decreased recently, but the hazard is not over. The number of epidemics caused by water in swimming pools and spas, however, has not decreased. From 1975-1993, approximately 7500 persons (mainly children) became ill due to contaminated swimming pool water. Recrea­ tional waters of lakes and streams have not caused

  13. WASTE AND WATER MANAGEMENT FOR CONVENTIONAL COAL COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT REPORT - 1979; VOLUME II. WATER MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, the second of five volumes, describes water management for conventional combustion sources and assesses the current status of various studies and programs in water management and trends in water recycle/reuse. A coal-fired boiler produces both chemical and thermal pol...

  14. MODERN MANAGEMENT METHODS FOR MANAGING THE WASTE WATER AND RECOVERING THE HEAT FROM WASTE WATER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radu Todoran

    2010-01-01

    The management of waste water had become a real issue for the EU in the last years.Specialists have been trying to conceive a way to address all the processes and to optimise it. For thewaste water the concept is known as Waste Water Management featuring high originality and bringsnew ways to build, maintain, supervise and repair the sewage. Also, it

  15. Conserving Water Resources Through Integrated Water Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David H. Paul

    1989-01-01

    Today we face the challenges ofproviding goodfood, good air, and good water for a humanpopulation that is doubling every 40-50 years. The challenges are real and were evident enough during 1988 for Time magazine to dedicate its first 1989 issue to „Planet of the Year….Endangered Earth”.Great technological progress has been made over the past few years, enabling many industries and

  16. Fluorescence diagnostics of oil pollution in coastal marine waters by use of artificial neural networks

    E-print Network

    Oldenburg, Carl von Ossietzky Universität

    marine waters with fluorescence spectroscopy and of using artificial neural networks for data interpre with an artificial neural network. The results demonstrate the possibility of estimating oil concentrationsFluorescence diagnostics of oil pollution in coastal marine waters by use of artificial neural

  17. Sediment-Water Partition Coefficients of Hydrophobic Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    total organic carbon, black carbon and oil phases model) could model PCB data suc- cessfully whereas on the fraction of organic carbon (foc) and organic carbon­water partition coefficients (Koc) to correctly predict Sediment-Water Partition Coefficients of Hydrophobic Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs

  18. Effects of cattle manure on erosion rates and runoff water pollution by faecal coliforms

    E-print Network

    Quinton, John

    Effects of cattle manure on erosion rates and runoff water pollution by faecal coliforms M that are produced annually in many areas in which cattle are raised could be an important source of organic matter. In this paper, the effects of cattle manure application on soil erosion rates and runoff and on surface water

  19. Social Status Variations in Attitudes and Conceptualization Pertaining to Water Pollution and Supply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Irving A.

    Data, secured by questionnaire from single household dwelling units in Warwick, Rhode Island, were used to ascertain differences among social status groups with respect to attitudes and conceptualization pertaining to water pollution and water supply. A social status index was used to delineate three status groups having high, middle, and low rank…

  20. An Intelligent Decision Support System of Lake Water Pollution Control Based on Multi-agent Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianjun Ni; Chuanbiao Zhang; Li Ren

    2009-01-01

    With the rapidly development of the economic, environmental problem has become one of the most prominent problems of the society. Lake water environmental problem became more and more serious, and it had seriously effect on human health and the socio-economic sustainable development. It is a key project to find a more effective way of water pollution control. An intelligent decision

  1. Manpower and Training Needs in Water Pollution Control. Senate Document No. 49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

    To determine trained manpower needs and training resources in the clean water field, data were gathered from interviews with state and federal agencies as well as the Water Pollution Control Federation, from prior manpower reports, and from Bureau of Census employment data. After analysis of present manpower resources and future requirements,…

  2. Removal of organic pollutants from water via molecular inclusion within a cavitand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrico Dalcanale; Giuliano Costantini; Paolo Soncini

    1992-01-01

    The molecular inclusion chemistry of cavitands provides a useful way for the removal of organic pollutants from water. A wide range of lipophilic organic compounds, present at trace level in water, are efficiently extracted by cavitand1, which can be easily reactivated and reused.

  3. Cloud and the corresponding precipitation chemistry in south China: Water-soluble components and pollution transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minghu Sun; Yan Wang; Tao Wang; Shaojia Fan; Wenxing Wang; Penghui Li; Jia Guo; Yuhua Li

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the transport and deposition of pollutants in south China, the chemical composition of cloud water and rainwater was studied at Mount Heng, which is located in the heart of China's acid rain affected region. A total of 194 cloud samples and 38 event-based precipitation samples from March to May 2009 were analyzed for a wide variety of water-soluble

  4. Health risks from large-scale water pollution: Current trends and implications for improving drinking water quality in the lower Amu Darya drainage basin, Uzbekistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnqvist, Rebecka; Jarsjö, Jerker

    2010-05-01

    Safe drinking water is a primary prerequisite to human health, well being and development. Yet, there are roughly one billion people around the world that lack access to safe drinking water supply. Health risk assessments are effective for evaluating the suitability of using various water sources as drinking water supply. Additionally, knowledge of pollutant transport processes on relatively large scales is needed to identify effective management strategies for improving water resources of poor quality. The lower Amu Darya drainage basin close to the Aral Sea in Uzbekistan suffers from physical water scarcity and poor water quality. This is mainly due to the intensive agriculture production in the region, which requires extensive freshwater withdrawals and use of fertilizers and pesticides. In addition, recurrent droughts in the region affect the surface water availability. On average 20% of the population in rural areas in Uzbekistan lack access to improved drinking water sources, and the situation is even more severe in the lower Amu Darya basin. In this study, we consider health risks related to water-borne contaminants by dividing measured substance concentrations with health-risk based guideline values from the World Health Organisation (WHO). In particular, we analyse novel results of water quality measurements performed in 2007 and 2008 in the Mejdurechye Reservoir (located in the downstream part of the Amu Darya river basin). We furthermore identify large-scale trends by comparing the Mejdurechye results to reported water quality results from a considerable stretch of the Amu Darya river basin, including drainage water, river water and groundwater. The results show that concentrations of cadmium and nitrite exceed the WHO health-risk based guideline values in Mejdurechye Reservoir. Furthermore, concentrations of the since long ago banned and highly toxic pesticides dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) were detected in the reservoir water for the first time in a decade. However, a relatively pronounced temporal variability in concentrations was observed for many of the substances, implying that the reservoir could contain low-risk waters temporarily. Health risk factors related to lead and chromium concentrations in groundwater were up to 200 times higher than for river water. The identified major divergence in health risk between groundwater and surface water illuminates the risk of using groundwater for drinking water supply during recurrent surface water deficits in the study area. However, the severe water scarcity and lack of financial resources in the region makes the choices of alternative water supply sources limited. Due to the presence of multiple contaminants, it appears reasonable that the aggregated toxicity of contaminant mixtures should be in focus in surface and groundwater water monitoring and management in the region. Key words: Aral Sea, Drinking water, Groundwater, Health Risk, Surface Water

  5. I mproving waste water treatment quality through an auction-based management of discharges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dídac Busquets; Jordi Dalmau; Beatriz López; Víctor Muñoz

    This paper proposes the use of an auction process in which the capacity of a Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) is sold to coordinate the industrial discharges. The main goal of coordination is to manage the wastewater inflow rate and pollutants to improve the WWTP operation. The system is modeled as a multi-agent system where each industry is represented by

  6. Agricultural Management, Water Quality and Phosphorus

    E-print Network

    #12;In the beginning Agriculture and water quality Targeted watershed P management Linking ecosystem area #12;#12;Conservation tillage #12;Maumee River watershed Sandusky River watershed MICHIGAN Lake

  7. The impact of land management in agricultural catchments on groundwater pollution levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matysik, Magdalena

    2014-10-01

    Agricultural activity results in water pollution from nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. Increased concentrations of nitrogen compounds pose a threat to animal and human health. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of agriculture in a catchment basin on the level of groundwater pollution from biogenic compounds. Spatial analysis of the land cover was conducted using a GIS and was based on data from the Corine Land Cover databases.

  8. Integrated modelling of nitrate loads to coastal waters and land rent applied to catchment-scale water management.

    PubMed

    Refsgaard, A; Jacobsen, T; Jacobsen, B; Ørum, J-E

    2007-01-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires an integrated approach to river basin management in order to meet environmental and ecological objectives. This paper presents concepts and full-scale application of an integrated modelling framework. The Ringkoebing Fjord basin is characterized by intensive agricultural production and leakage of nitrate constitute a major pollution problem with respect groundwater aquifers (drinking water), fresh surface water systems (water quality of lakes) and coastal receiving waters (eutrophication). The case study presented illustrates an advanced modelling approach applied in river basin management. Point sources (e.g. sewage treatment plant discharges) and distributed diffuse sources (nitrate leakage) are included to provide a modelling tool capable of simulating pollution transport from source to recipient to analyse the effects of specific, localized basin water management plans. The paper also includes a land rent modelling approach which can be used to choose the most cost-effective measures and the location of these measures. As a forerunner to the use of basin-scale models in WFD basin water management plans this project demonstrates the potential and limitations of comprehensive, integrated modelling tools. PMID:17710998

  9. Industrial effluent quality, pollution monitoring and environmental management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maqbool Ahmad; Ahmad S. Bajahlan; Waleed S. Hammad

    2008-01-01

    Royal Commission Environmental Control Department (RC-ECD) at Yanbu industrial city in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has established\\u000a a well-defined monitoring program to control the pollution from industrial effluents. The quality of effluent from each facility\\u000a is monitored round the clock. Different strategic measures have been taken by the RC-ECD to implement the zero discharge policy\\u000a of RC. Industries are required

  10. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    SciTech Connect

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  11. Water Security - science and management challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.

    2015-04-01

    This paper briefly reviews the contemporary issues of Water Security, noting that current and prospective pressures represent major challenges for society. It is argued that, given the complex interdependencies and multi-faceted nature of these challenges, new trans-disciplinary science is needed to support the development of science-based policy and management. The effects of human society on land and water are now large and extensive. Hence we conclude that: (a) the management of water involves the management of a complex human-natural system, and (b) potential impacts of the human footprint on land and water systems can influence not only water quantity and quality, but also local and regional climate. We note, however, that research to quantify impacts of human activities is, in many respects, in its infancy. The development of the science base requires a trans-disciplinary place-based focus that must include the natural sciences, social sciences and engineering, and address management challenges at scales that range from local to large river basin scale, and may include trans-boundary issues. Large basin scale studies can provide the focus to address these science and management challenges, including the feedbacks associated with man's impact from land and water management on regional climate systems.

  12. Enhanced treatment of polluted surface water from Yellow river (China) with biooxidation as pretreatment: Pilot scale studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Xiangyang; ABSTR A C T

    The Yellow River in China is being polluted with artifi cial pollution, which brings great chal- lenges to drinking water treatment plants (DWTP) along the Yellow River. The conventional treatment processes could not ensure satisfactory quality of drinking water, and innovative processes are crucial for the achievement of the newly issued drinking water standard (GB5749- 2006). The DWTP in Zhengzhou

  13. Enhanced treatment of polluted surface water from Yellow river (China) with biooxidation as pretreatment: Pilot scale studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangyang Song

    2009-01-01

    The Yellow River in China is being polluted with artificial pollution, which brings great challenges to drinking water treatment plants (DWTP) along the Yellow River. The conventional treatment processes could not ensure satisfactory quality of drinking water, and innovative processes are crucial for the achievement of the newly issued drinking water standard (GB5749- 2006). The DWTP in Zhengzhou City takes

  14. Permits and effluent charges in the water pollution control policies of France, West Germany, and the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan C. Bongaerts; Andreas Kraemer

    1989-01-01

    In this article the water pollution control policies of these countries and their effects on emitters are analyzed. In the Netherlands, local water control boards levy pollution charges on both direct and indirect emitters. The charges are based upon measured emissions and actual treatment costs and they vary among the boards. Discharges into surface waters are by permission only. West

  15. River water quality management under incomplete information: application of an N-person iterated signaling game.

    PubMed

    Abed-Elmdoust, Armaghan; Kerachian, Reza

    2012-10-01

    One of the important issues in river quality management is to provide pollution control strategies which are acceptable for all stakeholders. When there is only one water quality checkpoint in a reach of a river which receives pollution loads of several dischargers and dischargers are penalized for any water quality violation, the game theory can be used for modeling the natural process of bargaining among load dischargers considering the assimilative capacity of a river. There are also some types of uncertainties in river water quality management which should be incorporated throughout the bargaining process. Signaling games can be utilized for modeling the bargaining among dischargers and developing perfect Bayesian equilibrium (PBE) strategies for pollution control. In this paper, a new methodology called N-person iterated signaling game is developed for river quality management considering the existing uncertainties in pollution loads of dischargers. The methodology can provide the stable PBE waste load allocation strategies. The practical utility of the proposed methodology is illustrated by applying it to a reach of the Zarjub River in Iran. This reach includes seven pollution load dischargers. PMID:22016041

  16. Identification of hotspots and trends of fecal surface water pollution in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina; Alcamo, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Water is the essential resource ensuring human life on earth, which can only prosper when water is available and accessible. But of importance is not only the quantity of accessible water but also its quality, which in case of pollution may pose a risk to human health. The pollutants which pose a risk to human health are manifold, covering several groups such as pathogens, nutrients, human pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, and others. With regards to human health, pathogen contamination is of major interest as 4% of all death and 5.7% of disability or ill health in the world can be attributed to poor water supply, sanitation and personal and domestic hygiene. In developing countries, 2.6 billion people lacked access to improved sanitation in 2011. The lack of sanitation poses a risk to surface water pollution which is a threat to human health. A typical indicator for pathogen pollution is fecal coliform bacteria. The objective our study is to assess fecal pollution in the developing regions Africa, Asia and Latin America using the large-scale water quality model WorldQual. Model runs were carried-out to calculate in-stream concentrations and the respective loadings reaching rivers for the time period 1990 to 2010. We identified hotspots of fecal coliform loadings and in-stream concentrations which were further analyzed and ranked in terms of fecal surface water pollution. Main findings are that loadings mainly originate from the domestic sector, thus loadings are high in highly populated areas. In general, domestic loadings can be attributed to the two subsectors domestic sewered and domestic non sewered. The spatial distribution of both sectors varies across catchments. Hotspot pattern of in-stream concentrations are similar to the loadings pattern although they are different in seasonality. As the dilution varies with climate its dilution capacity is high during seasons with high precipitation, which in turn decreases the in-stream concentrations. The fecal pollution is increasing from 1990 to 2010 with increased loadings and larger number of river kilometers with high fecal pollution. Fecal pollution is mainly caused by the domestic sector, and hence, the sanitation type, collection and treatment (level) of collected wastewater are highly important to ensure good quality of water bodies.

  17. Diffuse pollution of surface water by pharmaceutical products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. M. Derksen; G. B. J. Rijs; R. H. Jongbloed

    2004-01-01

    Pharmaceutical products for humans or animals, as well as their related metabolites (degradation products) end up in the aquatic environment after use. Recent investigations from abroad show that low concentrations of pharmaceuticals are detectable in municipal waste water, surface water, groundwater and even drinking water. Little is known about the effects, and with that the risk, of long term exposure

  18. AREERA Section 406 established a competitive grants process for USDA-NIFA water program funding, and is composed of three major

    E-print Network

    Colleges and Universities Animal Waste Management Drinking Water and Human Health Pollution Assessment water resources through projects addressing eight water resource themes: Animal Waste Management. ·Regional Water Resource Projects are managed by State Water Quality Coordinators to solve water resource

  19. Storm water management in an urban catchment: effects of source control and real-time management of sewer systems on receiving water quality.

    PubMed

    Frehmann, T; Nafo, I; Niemann, A; Geiger, W F

    2002-01-01

    For the examination of the effects of different storm water management strategies in an urban catchment area on receiving water quality, an integrated simulation of the sewer system, wastewater treatment plant and receiving water is carried out. In the sewer system real-time control measures are implemented. As examples of source control measures the reduction of wastewater and the reduction of the amount of impervious surfaces producing storm water discharges are examined. The surface runoff calculation and the simulation of the sewer system and the WWTP are based on a MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation environment. The impact of the measures on the receiving water is simulated using AQUASIM. It can be shown that the examined storm water management measures, especially the source control measures, can reduce the combined sewer overflow volume and the pollutant discharge load considerably. All examined measures also have positive effects on the receiving water quality. Moreover, the reduction of impervious surfaces avoids combined sewer overflow activities, and in consequence prevents pollutants from discharging into the receiving water after small rainfall events. However, the receiving water quality improvement may not be seen as important enough to avoid acute receiving water effects in general. PMID:12380970

  20. Water Management in Austria and Security of Water Supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilfried Schimon

    \\u000a Water Management in Austria is based on a real abundance of water in great parts of the country. Related to the water availability\\u000a per capita, Austria is ranked in the upper range in Europe. However, the distribution of precipitation and thus the availability\\u000a of the resource is not even. In the eastern and south-eastern regions of the country, temporal problems

  1. Will urban expansion lead to an increase in future water pollution loads?--a preliminary investigation of the Haihe River Basin in northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yang; Liu, Yi; Chen, Jining

    2014-01-01

    Urban expansion is a major driving force changing regional hydrology and nonpoint source pollution. The Haihe River Basin, the political, economic, and cultural center of northeastern China, has undergone rapid urbanization in recent decades. To investigate the consequences of future urban sprawl on nonpoint source water pollutant emissions in the river basin, the urban sprawl in 2030 was estimated, and the annual runoff and nonpoint source pollution in the Haihe River basin were simulated. The Integrated Model of Non-Point Sources Pollution Processes (IMPULSE) was used to simulate the effects of urban sprawl on nonpoint source pollution emissions. The outcomes indicated that the urban expansion through 2030 increased the nonpoint source total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) emissions by 8.08, 0.14, and 149.57 kg/km(2), respectively. Compared to 2008, the total nonpoint emissions rose by 15.33, 0.57, and 12.39 %, respectively. Twelve percent of the 25 cities in the basin would increase by more than 50 % in nonpoint source TN and COD emissions in 2030. In particular, the nonpoint source TN emissions in Xinxiang, Jiaozuo, and Puyang would rise by 73.31, 67.25, and 58.61 %, and the nonpoint source COD emissions in these cities would rise by 74.02, 51.99, and 53.27 %, respectively. The point source pollution emissions in 2008 and 2030 were also estimated to explore the effects of urban sprawl on total water pollution loads. Urban sprawl through 2030 would bring significant structural changes of total TN, TP, and COD emissions for each city in the area. The results of this study could provide insights into the effects of urbanization in the study area and the methods could help to recognize the role that future urban sprawl plays in the total water pollution loads in the water quality management process. PMID:24532209

  2. Management and modeling: Tools to improve water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural, urban and suburban sources contribute to the contamination of surface waters, which has been observed by the detection of pesticides, excess nutrients, industrial pollutants, antibiotics, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products in both natural waters and treated wastewaters. The us...

  3. Water demand management in Kuwait

    E-print Network

    Milutinovic, Milan, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    Kuwait is an arid country located in the Middle East, with limited access to water resources. Yet water demand per capita is much higher than in other countries in the world, estimated to be around 450 L/capita/day. There ...

  4. Regulation via the Polluter-Pays Principle Stefan Ambec

    E-print Network

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    classification: C7, D02, D30, D6. Keywords: Regulation, Polluter-Pays Principle, Responsibility for Pollution issues such as water quality management in a river or the reduction of sulfur dioxide or greenhouse gas interpreta- tion of the polluter-pays (PP) principle. It states that the costs of pollution should be borne

  5. Control of aquatic weeds through pollutant reduction and weed utilization: a weed management approach in the lower Kafue River of Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkala, Thomson; Mwase, Enala T.; Mwala, Mick

    The aquatic weed situation in the Kafue River in Zambia continues to be a major challenge to the sustainable utilization of the water resources of the river. The general methods for managing the weeds, especially the water hyacinth, include use of bio-agents, chemicals, mechanical and physical approaches. These have had very little impact. This paper reports on a project that is investigating weed management strategies which involve use of cleaner production (CP) approach and the utilization of the weed for economic purposes. In addition, the ecological implications of these methods are being assessed. Effluent assessments indicated that apart from nitrates and phosphates, other effluent parameters met the Environmental Council of Zambia standards. Results further show that all the 24 areas surveyed for CP have uncontrolled socio-economic activities which generate both point and non-point sources of pollution that enter the water bodies. To minimize pollution, efforts include devising policy and technical strategies with the involvement of the affected riparian community. Production of mushroom by the communities using the water hyacinth substrate has been demonstrated. Up to 2.1 kg of mushroom was harvested from a single flush over a period of 4-5 weeks. Vegetables grown on soils treated with water hyacinth manure performed better than those grown using commercial fertiliser. The economics of the production are however, yet to be confirmed. If weed usage is proven economically and ecologically viable, the riverine community is envisaged to play a big role in aquatic weed management. High numbers of invertebrates known to be sensitive to pollution have been recorded in the weed-infested Kafue River implying that the water is of “good” quality for these aquatic invertebrates. This observed quality of water may be due to water hyacinth playing a role by sieving pollutants from the river.

  6. Water pollution effect on population health in an industrial northern region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. I. Moiseenko; V. V. Megorskii; N. A. Gashkina; L. P. Kudryavtseva

    2010-01-01

    The pollution of water sources and drinking water in some towns and settlements of the Kola North by metals, wastewaters,\\u000a and aerial effluents of mining-and-metallurgical industry is characterized. Statistical data on population morbidity are given.\\u000a Relationships were found to exist between water quality indices and heavy metal accumulation in kidney and liver of postmortem-examined\\u000a patients, and the results of their

  7. Extraction of organic pollutants from environmental solids with sub- and supercritical water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven B. Hawthorne; Yu. Yang; David J. Miller

    1994-01-01

    Low-polarity organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) typically have very low solubilities (e.g., ppb) in water at ambient conditions because of water's high polarity (dielectric constant, [epsilon] = 80). However, the dielectric constant can be drastically lowered by raising the temperature of the water under moderate pressure with dramatic increases (e.g., to percent levels) in the solubility of

  8. Criminal sanctions applicable to Federal water pollution control measures. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.C.

    1991-09-30

    Overkill or not enough: Two decades ago, Congress realized that a system of civil remedies alone, devoid of any lasting punitive consequences, was inadequate to insure compliance with environmental protection statutes. Other than the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, which was designed to protect navigation, Federal criminal sanctions were not applicable to water pollution offenses. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, more commonly known as the Clean Water Act (CWA), was twenty-four years old before Federal criminal enforcement of its provisions was allowed. But since the early 1970's, the criminal provisions of the CWA have been strengthened, the United States Department of Justice has beefed up its environmental enforcement efforts, and environmental polluters have been prosecuted. This Federal effort is now approaching overkill.

  9. Exploring the effectiveness of sustainable water management structures in the Upper Pungwe river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyikadzino, B.; Chibisa, P.; Makurira, H.

    The study endeavoured to assess the effectiveness of stakeholder structures and their participation in sustainable water resources management in the Upper Pungwe river basin shared by Zimbabwe and Mozambique. The study sought to assess the level and effectiveness of stakeholder, gender and the vulnerable groups representation in sustainable water resources management as well as the whole stakeholder participation process. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative methods for data collection and analysis. Sampling data was obtained from 15 stakeholder representatives (councillors) constituting Pungwe Subcatchment Council, 30 water users ranging from small scale to large scale users and professionals in water resources management. Two different questionnaires and three structured interviews were administered during the study. Water permit database, financial reports and other source documents were also analysed. The study established that the sustainability and effectiveness of stakeholder structures and their participation in water resources management is being compromised by lack of stakeholder awareness. Water utilisation is very high in the subcatchment (99%) while women participation is still low (20%). The study therefore recommends the use of quotas for the participation of women in stakeholder structures. Stakeholder structures are encouraged to intensify stakeholder awareness on issues of river protection, efficient water use and pollution control. Further research is recommended to be carried out on the effectiveness of stakeholder structures in combating water pollution and enhancing river protection.

  10. Water Management Strategies against Water Shortage in the Alps (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, C.

    2009-12-01

    In the European Alps water has been perceived as ubiquitous and not the subject of management. Climate change and anthropogenic pressures have changed demand and supply relations rapidly and over the last 10 years, water problems have increasingly become apparent over temporal and spatial hotspots. Stakeholders in the Alpine Space have been confronted with water management problems in agriculture, tourism and hydropower to such an extent that they approached scientists to create solution strategies based on adaptation and mitigation. In this context, Alp-Water-Scarce, a European project on Water Management Strategies against Water Scarcity in the Alps was funded by the Alpine Space programme as part of the "European Territorial Cooperation" scheme. It has 17 project partners from Austria Switzerland, France, Italy and Slovenia from local governments, provinces, federal institutes and offices, universities, regional agencies, alpine societies, geological surveys, and chambers of agriculture and forestry. The Lead Partner is the Mountain Institute in Savoy, Rhone-Alpes, France. The main challenges of this project are to create local Early Warning Systems against Water Scarcity in the Alps. This system is based on strengthening existing long-term monitoring and modeling and creating new measuring networks in those countries where they do not yet exist. It is anchored strongly and actively within a Stakeholder Interaction Forum linked across comparative and contrasting regions across the Alps. The Early Warning System is based on the linkage and improvement of field monitoring and assemblage of qualitative and quantitative data derived both from natural water reservoirs as well as from anthropogenic water use in 28 selected pilot regions selected in France, Italy, Austria, Slovenia and Switzerland. The objectives are to improve water management at the short term (annual scale) and long term (using future scenarios) based on modelling and application of climate change and anthropogenic scenarios. Innovative measures of mitigation and adaptation should predict and prevent future water shortages.

  11. AOIPS water resources data management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, E. S.; Shotwell, R. L.; Place, M. C.; Belknap, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    A geocoded data management system applicable for hydrological applications was designed to demonstrate the utility of the Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System (AOIPS) for hydrological applications. Within that context, the geocoded hydrology data management system was designed to take advantage of the interactive capability of the AOIPS hardware. Portions of the Water Resource Data Management System which best demonstrate the interactive nature of the hydrology data management system were implemented on the AOIPS. A hydrological case study was prepared using all data supplied for the Bear River watershed located in northwest Utah, southeast Idaho, and western Wyoming.

  12. GROUND-WATER POLLUTION PROBLEMS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evaluation of principal sources of ground-water contamination has been carried out in seven southeastern States--Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia. Natural ground-water quality is good to excellent, except for the presence of ...

  13. USE OF SYNTHETIC ZEOLITES FOR ARSENATE REMOVAL FROM POLLUTANT WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water below the current and proposed EPA MCL has been examined...

  14. WATER CONSERVATION AND POLLUTION CONTROL IN COAL CONVERSION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to determine water consumption and environmental impacts of coal conversion processes in Western states. Part 1 gives brief descriptions and process water requirements for nine conversion processes. Detailed designs and analyses are given for t...

  15. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: PRIORITIZATION OF STATIONARY WATER POLLUTION SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives priority lists to aid in selecting specific sources of water effluents for detailed assessment. It describes the general water prioritization model, explains its implementation, and gives a detailed example of its use. It describes hazard factors that were develo...

  16. Use of synthetic zeolites for arsenate removal from pollutant water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siddhesh Shevade; Robert G. Ford

    2004-01-01

    Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water below the current and proposed EPA MCL has been examined at room temperature. Experiments have been conducted to examine the extent of arsenic

  17. Sorption of aromatic organic pollutants to grasses from water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbour, J.P.; Smith, J.A.; Chiou, C.T.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of plant lipids on the equilibrium sorption of three aromatic solutes from water was studied. The plant-water sorption isotherms of benzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and phenanthrene were measured over a large range of solute concentrations using sealed vessels containing water, dried plant material, and solute. The plant materials studied include the shoots of annual rye, tall fescue, red fescue, and spinach as well as the roots of annual rye. Seven out of eight sorption isotherms were linear with no evidence of competitive effects between the solutes. For a given plant type, the sorption coefficient increased with decreasing solute water solubility. For a given solute, sorption increased with increasing plant lipid content. The estimated lipid-water partition coefficients of individual solutes were found to be significantly greater than the corresponding octanol-water partition coefficients. This indicates that plant lipids are a more effective partition solvent than octanol for the studied aromatic compounds. As expected, the solute lipid-water partition coefficients were log-linearly related to the respective water solubilities. For the compounds studied, partitioning into the lipids is believed to be the primary sorption mechanism. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  18. The photocatalytic removal of bacterial pollutants from drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. M. Dunlop; J. A. Byrne; N. Manga; B. R. Eggins

    2002-01-01

    Pathogens in drinking water supplies can be removed by sand filtration followed by chlorine or ozone disinfection. These processes reduce the possibility of any pathogens entering the drinking water distribution network. However, there is doubt about the ability of these methods to remove chlorine resistant microorganisms including protozoan oocysts. Concern has also been raised about the production of disinfection by-products

  19. Reducing surface water pollution through the assessment of the cost-effectiveness of BMPs at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Y; Makropoulos, C; Mimikou, M

    2011-10-01

    Two kinds of agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs) were examined with respect to cost-effectiveness (CE) in reducing sediment, nitrates-nitrogen (NO(3)-N) and total phosphorus (TP) losses to surface waters of the Arachtos catchment in Western Greece. The establishment of filter strips at the edge of fields and a non-structural measure, namely fertilization reduction in alfalfa, combined with contour farming and zero-tillage in corn and reduction of animal numbers in pastureland, were evaluated. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used as the non-point-source (NPS) estimator, while a simple economic component was developed estimating BMP implementation cost as the mean annual expenses needed to undertake and operate the practice for a 5-year period. After each BMP implementation, the ratio of their CE in reducing pollution was calculated for each Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU) separately, for each agricultural land use type entirely and for the whole catchment. The results at the HRU scale are presented comprehensively on a map, demonstrating the spatial differentiation of CE ratios across the catchment that enhances the identification of locations where each BMP is most advisable for implementation. Based on the analysis, a catchment management solution of affordable total cost would include the expensive measure of filter strips in corn and only in a small number of pastureland fields, in combination with the profitable measure of reducing fertilization to alfalfa fields. When examined for its impact on river loads at the outlet, the latter measure led to a 20 tn or 8% annual decrease of TP from the baseline with savings of 15€/kg of pollutant reduction. Filter strips in corn fields reduced annual sediments by 66 Ktn or 5%, NO(3)-N by 71 tn or 9.5% and TP by 27 tn or 10%, with an additional cost of 3.1 €/tn, 3.3 €/kg and 8.1 €/kg of each pollutant respectively. The study concludes that considerable reductions of several pollutant types at the same time can be achieved, even at low total cost, by combining targeted BMP implementation strategies only in small parts of the catchment, also enabling policy makers to take local socio-economic constraints into consideration. The methodology and the results presented aim to facilitate decision making for a cost-effective management of diffuse pollution by enabling modelers and researchers to make rapid and reliable BMP cost estimations and thus being able to calculate their CE at the local level in order to identify the most suitable areas for their implementation. PMID:21742430

  20. Managing Our Environment, A Report on Ways Agricultural Research Fights Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    A report on the ways agricultural research attempts to fight pollution is presented in this series of articles covering some of the major challenges facing scientists and regulatory officials working in agricultural research. Improved resource management is stressed with the use of advanced technologies as the avenue to solving environmental…

  1. Energy management of HEV to optimize fuel consumption and pollutant emissions

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    AVEC'12 Energy management of HEV to optimize fuel consumption and pollutant emissions Pierre Michel Electric Vehicle (HEV), the electrical machine and battery offer an additional freedom degree to ensure emissions. An accurate simulation HEV model, with parallel architecture and spark-ignition engine, is built

  2. RESEARCH AREA -- RADON MITIGATION (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In prior years, NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Indoor Environment Management Branch (IEMB) conducted a significant amount of research on the subject of reducing indoor radon levels in homes, schools, and other large buildings. This research is no longer a...

  3. PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Market-Based Pollution Abatement Strategies: Risk Management

    E-print Network

    Maranas, Costas

    for the availability of derivative instruments such as emission option contracts. The model quantifies the benefitsPROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Market-Based Pollution Abatement Strategies: Risk Management Using Emission Option Contracts Anshuman Gupta and Costas D. Maranas* Department of Chemical Engineering

  4. Mark your Calendars Water Supply, Agriculture and Salinity Management Workshop

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Eric E.

    Mark your Calendars Water Supply, Agriculture and Salinity Management Workshop September 29 supply, agriculture and salinity manage- ment an opportunity to network with their colleagues. Topics, desalination of agricultural drainage water, salinity management options based on irrigation methods

  5. Exchanges across land-water-scape boundaries in urban systems: strategies for reducing nitrate pollution.

    PubMed

    Cadenasso, M L; Pickett, S T A; Groffman, P M; Band, L E; Brush, G S; Galvin, M F; Grove, J M; Hagar, G; Marshall, V; McGrath, B P; O'Neil-Dunne, J P M; Stack, W P; Troy, A R

    2008-01-01

    Conservation in urban areas typically focuses on biodiversity and large green spaces. However, opportunities exist throughout urban areas to enhance ecological functions. An important function of urban landscapes is retaining nitrogen thereby reducing nitrate pollution to streams and coastal waters. Control of nonpoint nitrate pollution in urban areas was originally based on the documented importance of riparian zones in agricultural and forested ecosystems. The watershed and boundary frameworks have been used to guide stream research and a riparian conservation strategy to reduce nitrate pollution in urban streams. But is stream restoration and riparian-zone conservation enough? Data from the Baltimore Ecosystem Study and other urban stream research indicate that urban riparian zones do not necessarily prevent nitrate from entering, nor remove nitrate from, streams. Based on this insight, policy makers in Baltimore extended the conservation strategy throughout larger watersheds, attempting to restore functions that no longer took place in riparian boundaries. Two urban revitalization projects are presented as examples aimed at reducing nitrate pollution to stormwater, streams, and the Chesapeake Bay. An adaptive cycle of ecological urban design synthesizes the insights from the watershed and boundary frameworks, from new data, and from the conservation concerns of agencies and local communities. This urban example of conservation based on ameliorating nitrate water pollution extends the initial watershed-boundary approach along three dimensions: 1) from riparian to urban land-water-scapes; 2) from discrete engineering solutions to ecological design approaches; and 3) from structural solutions to inclusion of individual, household, and institutional behavior. PMID:18566096

  6. Sulfonated Graphene Nanosheets as a Superb Adsorbent for Various Environmental Pollutants in Water.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi; Chen, Baoliang

    2015-06-16

    Graphene nanosheets, as a novel nanoadsorbent, can be further modified to optimize the adsorption capability for various pollutants. To overcome the structural limits of graphene (aggregation) and graphene oxide (hydrophilic surface) in water, sulfonated graphene (GS) was prepared by diazotization reaction using sulfanilic acid. It was demonstrated that GS not only recovered a relatively complete sp(2)-hybridized plane with high affinity for aromatic pollutants but also had sulfonic acid groups and partial original oxygen-containing groups that powerfully attracted positively charged pollutants. The saturated adsorption capacities of GS were 400 mg/g for phenanthrene, 906 mg/g for methylene blue and 58 mg/g for Cd(2+), which were much higher than the corresponding values for reduced graphene oxide and graphene oxide. GS as a graphene-based adsorbent exhibits fast adsorption kinetic rate and superior adsorption capacity toward various pollutants, which mainly thanks to the multiple adsorption sites in GS including the conjugate ? region sites and the functional group sites. Moreover, the sulfonic acid groups endow GS with the good dispersibility and single or few nanosheets which guarantee the adsorption processes. It is great potential to expose the adsorption sites of graphene nanosheets for pollutants in water by regulating their microstructures, surface properties and water dispersion. PMID:26008607

  7. Sustainable Water Management: Achieving A Culture of Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. White

    In the driest continent on earth, population growth, extended drought conditions and the potential impact of climate change has hammered home the need for an integrated approach to water management. Water authorities, councils, water industry organisations and developers face many challenges in delivering sustainable solutions to urban water management issues associated with stormwater management, water recycling and reuse. One of

  8. Integrated Ecosystem Assessment: Lake Ontario Water Management

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Mark B.; Singkran, Nuanchan; Mills, Katherine E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Ecosystem management requires organizing, synthesizing, and projecting information at a large scale while simultaneously addressing public interests, dynamic ecological properties, and a continuum of physicochemical conditions. We compared the impacts of seven water level management plans for Lake Ontario on a set of environmental attributes of public relevance. Methodology and Findings Our assessment method was developed with a set of established impact assessment tools (checklists, classifications, matrices, simulations, representative taxa, and performance relations) and the concept of archetypal geomorphic shoreline classes. We considered each environmental attribute and shoreline class in its typical and essential form and predicted how water level change would interact with defining properties. The analysis indicated that about half the shoreline of Lake Ontario is potentially sensitive to water level change with a small portion being highly sensitive. The current water management plan may be best for maintaining the environmental resources. In contrast, a natural water regime plan designed for greatest environmental benefits most often had adverse impacts, impacted most shoreline classes, and the largest portion of the lake coast. Plans that balanced multiple objectives and avoided hydrologic extremes were found to be similar relative to the environment, low on adverse impacts, and had many minor impacts across many shoreline classes. Significance The Lake Ontario ecosystem assessment provided information that can inform decisions about water management and the environment. No approach and set of methods will perfectly and unarguably accomplish integrated ecosystem assessment. For managing water levels in Lake Ontario, we found that there are no uniformly good and bad options for environmental conservation. The scientific challenge was selecting a set of tools and practices to present broad, relevant, unbiased, and accessible information to guide decision-making on a set of management options. PMID:19030230

  9. Water pollution control: Twenty-five years of progress and challenges for the new millennium

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    Consistent with the goals of the new Clean Water Action Plan, the Office of Wastewater Management (OWM) has renewed its commitment to improving the quality of water in the United States for the benefit of all citizens.

  10. US Water Cycle Research to Support Improved Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawford, R.

    2003-04-01

    Over the past four years the United States has been developing a research program under the auspices of the United States Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) that is intended to focus research efforts on the global water cycle including the improved application of this research to the management of water resources. This focus has arisen because of the importance of the global water cycle for climate and the opportunities for improving existing and proposed water management strategies. The questions considered in this program cover a range of space and time scales. Space scales range from basins as large as the Mississippi Basin to catchments that cover a few kilometers. The issues also range over many time scales extending from problems of non-stationarity in the long-term precipitation regimes arising from climate change to estimating water yields from a rain event in a small basin. This paper provides an overview of the plans of the Global Water Cycle program as they relate to water management needs and reviews some of the research being undertaken within this program.

  11. A Hybrid Interval–Robust Optimization Model for Water Quality Management

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jieyu; Li, Yongping; Huang, Guohe

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In water quality management problems, uncertainties may exist in many system components and pollution-related processes (i.e., random nature of hydrodynamic conditions, variability in physicochemical processes, dynamic interactions between pollutant loading and receiving water bodies, and indeterminacy of available water and treated wastewater). These complexities lead to difficulties in formulating and solving the resulting nonlinear optimization problems. In this study, a hybrid interval–robust optimization (HIRO) method was developed through coupling stochastic robust optimization and interval linear programming. HIRO can effectively reflect the complex system features under uncertainty, where implications of water quality/quantity restrictions for achieving regional economic development objectives are studied. By delimiting the uncertain decision space through dimensional enlargement of the original chemical oxygen demand (COD) discharge constraints, HIRO enhances the robustness of the optimization processes and resulting solutions. This method was applied to planning of industry development in association with river-water pollution concern in New Binhai District of Tianjin, China. Results demonstrated that the proposed optimization model can effectively communicate uncertainties into the optimization process and generate a spectrum of potential inexact solutions supporting local decision makers in managing benefit-effective water quality management schemes. HIRO is helpful for analysis of policy scenarios related to different levels of economic penalties, while also providing insight into the tradeoff between system benefits and environmental requirements. PMID:23922495

  12. Approach to the health-risk management on municipal reclaimed water reused in landscape water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Li, J.; Liu, W.

    2008-12-01

    Water pollution and water heavily shortage are both main environmental conflicts in China. Reclaimed water reuse is an important approach to lessen water pollution and solve the water shortage crisis in the city. The heath risk of reclaimed water has become the focus of the public. It is impending to evaluate the health risk of reclaimed water with risk assessment technique. Considering the ways of the reclaimed water reused, it is studied that health risk produced by toxic pollutants and pathogenic microbes in the processes of reclaimed water reused in landscape water system. The pathogenic microbes monitoring techniques in wastewater and reclaimed water are discussed and the hygienic indicators, risk assessment methods, concentration limitations of pathogenic microbes for various reclaimed water uses are studied. The principle of health risk assessment is used to research the exposure level and the health risk of concerned people in a wastewater reuse project where the reclaimed water is applied for green area irrigation in a public park in Beijing. The exposure assessment method and model of various reclaimed water uses are built combining with Beijing reclaimed water project. Firstly the daily ingesting dose and lifetime average daily dose(LADD) of exposure people are provided via field work and monitoring analysis, which could be used in health risk assessment as quantitative reference. The result shows that the main risk comes from the pathology pollutants, the toxic pollutants, the eutrophication pollutants, pathogenic microbes and the secondary pollutants when municipal wastewater is reclaimed for landscape water. The major water quality limited should include pathogenic microbes, toxic pollutants, and heavy metals. Keywords: municipal wastewater, reclaimed water, landscape water, health risk

  13. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF SELECTED ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Widespread contamination of ground water by a variety of synthetic organic compounds has created a need for information about the biotransformation of these contaminants in aquifers and associated regions of the unsaturated subsurface. Uncontaminated samples of the subsurface wer...

  14. MUNICIPAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ABSTRACTS: NOVEMBER 1976-OCTOBER 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Franklin Institute Research Laboratories, Science Information Services Department, prepared for the Environmental Protection Agency Volume 4 of the Municipal Technology Bulletin, a current-awareness abstracting bulletin covering methods of municipal waste water treatment, pro...

  15. MUNICIPAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ABSTRACTS: APRIL 1975-MARCH 1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Franklin Institute Research Laboratories, Science Information Services Department prepared for the Environmental Protection Agency, Volume 3 of a monthly current-awareness abstracting bulletin, Municipal Technology Bulletin, which dealt with methods of municipal waste water t...

  16. MUNICIPAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ABSTRACTS: MAY-OCTOBER 1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Franklin Institute Research Laboratories, Science Information Services Department prepared for the Environmental Protection Agency, Volume 4 of a monthly current-awareness abstracting bulletin, Municipal Technology Bulletin, which dealt with methods of municipal waste water t...

  17. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6...

  18. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6...

  19. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6...

  20. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6...

  1. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6...

  2. H. R. 3282: To amend the Federal Water Pollution Control Act to provide for the renewal of the quality of the Nation's waters, and for other purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    H.R. 3282, also called the Water Quality Renewal Act of 1984, amends the Federal Water Pollution Act in ways that make budget and authorization adjustments, limit construction grants, and modify compliance deadlines by replacing specific deadlines with instructions for as expeditious action as is possible. The Bill also deals with control strategies for toxic pollutants, civil penalties, implementation programs for nonpoint pollution source control, and dates for complying with coal mining pollution requirements. Specific areas dealt with in the legislation include agricultural stormwater discharge into lakes and streams, raw sewage discharges, alternative processing, pretreatment of toxic pollutants, and sulfide corrosion studies in designated areas.

  3. Adapting water allocation management to drought scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomelli, P.; Rossetti, A.; Brambilla, M.

    2008-04-01

    Climate change dynamics have significant consequences on water resources on a watershed scale. With water becoming scarcer and susceptible to variation, the planning and reallocation decisions in watershed management need to be reviewed. This research focuses on an in-depth understanding of the current allocation balance of water resources among competitors, placed along the course of the Adda River. In particular, during the summer period, the demand for water dramatically increases. This is due to the increase in irrigation activities in the lower part of the basin and to the highest peaks of tourist inflow, in the Como Lake and Valtellina areas. Moreover, during these months, the hydroelectric reservoirs in the upper part of the Adda River basin (the Valtellina) retain most of the volume of water coming from the snow and glacier melt. The existing allocation problem among these different competing users is exacerbated by the decreasing water supplies. The summer of 2003 testified the rise in a number of allocation problems and situations of water scarcity that brought about environmental and economical consequences. The RICLIC project is committed to the understanding of water dynamics on a regional scale, to quantify the volumes involved and offer local communities an instrument to improve a sustainable water management system, within uncertain climate change scenarios.

  4. State revolving fund: Final report to Congress. Financial status and operations of water pollution control revolving funds

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This is the final report to Congress. The SRF final report addresses the financial status and operations of water pollution control revolving funds established by the States under Title VI of the Clean Water Act (CWA).

  5. [Analysis of fluorescence spectrum of petroleum-polluted water].

    PubMed

    Huang, Miao-Fen; Song, Qing-Jun; Xing, Xu-Feng; Jian, Wei-Jun; Liu, Yuan; Zhao, Zu-Long

    2014-09-01

    In four ratio experiments, natural waters, sampled from the mountain reservoir and the sea water around Dalian city, were mixed with the sewage from petroleum refinery and petroleum exploitation plants. The fluorescence spectra of water samples containing only chromophoric dissolved organic matters(CDOM), samples containing only petroleum, and samples containing a mixture of petroleum and CDOM were analyzed, respectively. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a basis for determining the contribution of petroleum substances and CDOM to the total absorption coefficient of the petroleum-contaminated water by using fluorescence technique. The results showed that firstly, CDOM in seawater had three main fluorescence peaks at Ex: 225-230 nm/Em: 320-330 nm, Ex: 280 nm/Em: 340 nm and Ex: 225-240 nm/Em: 430-470 nm, respectively, and these may arise from the oceanic chlorophyll. CDOM in natural reservoir water had two main fluorescence peaks at EX: 240- 260 nm/Em: 420-450 nm and Ex: 310~350 nm/Em: 420--440 nm, respectively, and these may arise from the terrestrial sources; secondly, the water samples containing only petroleum extracted with n-hexane had one to three fluorescence spectral peaksat Ex: 220-240 nm/Em: 320-340 nm, Ex: 270-290 nm/Em: 310-340 nm and Ex: 220-235 nm/Em: 280-310 nm, respectively, caused by their hydrocarbon component; finally, the water samples containing both petroleum and CDOM showed a very strong fluorescence peak at Ex: 230-250 nm/Em: 320-370 nm, caused by the combined effect of CDOM and petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:25532346

  6. Integrated watershed economic model for non-point source pollution management in Upper Big Walnut Creek Watershed, OH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Today, non-point source pollution (NPS) is one of the major sources of water quality impairments globally (UNEP, 2007). In the US, nutrient pollution is the leading cause of water quality issues in lakes and estuaries (USEPA, 2002). The maximum concentration of nutrients in streams is found to be in...

  7. 40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    (b) Effluent limitations established pursuant to this section shall be calculated on the basis of the amount of section 307(a) toxic pollutant(s) present in the water after any water supply treatment steps have been performed by or for the owner or...

  8. Costs and water quality effects of controlling point and nonpoint pollution sources

    SciTech Connect

    Macal, C.M.; Broomfield, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    Costs and water quality effects of controlling point and nonpoint pollution sources are compared for the DuPage River basin in northern Illinois. Costs are estimated for effluent standards for municipal wastewater treatment plants and for the alternative, controlling runoff from nonpoint sources such as streets, agricultural lands, and forests. A dynamic water-quality/hydrology simulation model is used to determine water quality effects of various treatment plant standards and nonpoint-source controls. Costs and water quality data are combined, and the point-source and nonpoint-source plans are compared on a cost-effectiveness basis. Nonpoint-source controls are found to be more cost-effective than stricter control of pollutants from point sources.

  9. Catchment Engineering: A New Paradigm in Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, P. F.; Burke, S.; O'Donnell, G. M.; Wilkinson, M.; Jonczyk, J.; Barber, N.; Nicholson, A.; Proactive Team

    2011-12-01

    Recent catchment initiatives have highlighted the need for new holistic approaches to sustainable water management. Here, a catchment engineering approach seeks to describe catchment 'function' (or role) as the principal driver for evaluating how it should be managed in the future. Catchment engineering does not seek to re-establish a natural system but seeks to work with natural processes in order to engineer landscapes so that multiple benefits accrue. This approach involves quantifying and assessing catchment change and impacts but most importantly suggests an urgent and proactive agenda for future planning. In particular, an interventionist approach to managing hydrological flow pathways across scale is proposed. It is already accepted that future management will require a range of scientific expertise and full engagement with stakeholders, namely the general public and policy makers. This inclusive concept under a catchment engineering agenda forces any consortia to commit to actively changing and perturbing the catchment system and thus learn, in situ, how to manage the environment for collective benefits. The shared cost, the design, the implementation, the evaluation and any subsequent modifications should involve all relevant parties in the consortia. This joint ownership of a 'hands on' interventionist agenda to catchment change is at the core of catchment engineering. In this paper we show a range of catchment engineering projects from the UK that have addressed multi-disciplinary approaches to flooding, pollution and ecosystem management whilst maintaining economic food production. Local scale demonstration activities, led by local champions, have proven to be an effective means of encouraging wider uptake. Catchment engineering is a concept that relies on all relevant parties within a catchment to take responsibility for the water quantity and quality that arises from the catchment. Further, any holistic solution requires a bottom up, problem solving agenda which is facilitated by policy makers and is underpinned by scientific knowledge.

  10. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    of cistern waters and development of management measures for sediment and pollution reduction. At the same: VI Research Category: None Focus Category: Hydrology, Non Point Pollution, Water Quality Descriptors the concentration of the pollutants and the water flow that transports the pollutant into the receiving waters

  11. Evaluation of pollutant loadings in the runoff waters from a major rural highway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Legret; C. Pagotto

    1999-01-01

    The quality of pavement runoff water from a 275-m motorway section has been studied for 1 year, during which approximately 50 rain events have been sampled. Two different types of pollution have been revealed. One type can be defined as chronic and includes suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, total hydrocarbons, zinc and lead. The second type can be considered to

  12. Water Pollution from Urban Stormwater Runoff in the Brunette River Watershed, B.C.

    E-print Network

    Water Pollution from Urban Stormwater Runoff in the Brunette River Watershed, B.C. DOE FRAP 1998. of Civil Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z2 May 1998 #12;ii Columbia. B.C. Research Corp. conducted the Microtox bioassays. Several students assisted with the field

  13. Pollution control of surface waters by coupling gliding discharge treatment with incorporated oyster shell powder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Njoyim-Tamungang; S. Laminsi; P. Ghogomu; D. Njopwouo; J.-L. Brisset

    2011-01-01

    Highly oxidizing gaseous species (OH, NO and derivatives) formed in an electrical discharge (a gliding discharge burning in humid air), are suitable for abating the organic pollutant concentration of surface waters sampled in Cameroonian brooks, e.g., 47% (Total Organic Carbon, TOC) within 10min exposure. The plasma technique coupled with the use of finely powdered oyster shell (OS) acting as a

  14. Water Quality and Pollution. Environmental Studies. 4 Color Transparencies, Reproducibles & Teaching Guide. Grade 3, 4, 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortleb, Edward P.; And Others

    The world is faced with a variety of environmental problems. No country has escaped pollution and resource depletion. Basic ecological principles are often ignored and sometimes this contributes to ecological disasters. This volume is designed to provide basic information about the quality of the earth's water resources. The visual aids,…

  15. The extent of chronic marine oil pollution in southeastern Newfoundland waters assessed through beached

    E-print Network

    Jones, Ian L.

    The extent of chronic marine oil pollution in southeastern Newfoundland waters assessed through Cooperative Wildlife Ecology Research Network, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. JohnÕs Newfoundland The Grand Banks south of Newfoundland provide year-round feeding habitat for tens of millions of seabirds

  16. New Paradigm for Sizing Riparian Buffers to Reduce Risks of Polluted Storm Water: Practical Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    available rainfall and stream discharge data to parameterize the buffer-sizing equations and use variable-width, it is not surprising that recommendations for riparian buffer widths range over two orders of magnitude e.g., HawesNew Paradigm for Sizing Riparian Buffers to Reduce Risks of Polluted Storm Water: Practical

  17. Water Quality & Pollutant Source Monitoring: Field and Laboratory Procedures. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on techniques and instrumentation used to develop data in field monitoring programs and related laboratory operations concerned with water quality and pollution monitoring. Topics include: collection and handling of samples; bacteriological, biological, and chemical field and laboratory methods; field…

  18. EQUILIBRIUM DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENTS FOR EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC PRIORITY POLLUTANTS FROM WATER - II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is the second of a series of two reports dealing with the removal of certain of the organic EPA Priority Pollutants from water by means of solvent extraction. The principal focus of the project has been measurement of equilibrium distribution coefficients (equivalent ...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF POLLUTED WATERS USING SOURCE TRACKING MOLECULAR TOOLS: LESSONS LEARNED AND FUTURE NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Different approaches have been used to identify fecal pollution sources in water samples. Early on, the fecal coliforms - fecal streptococci ratio was proposed as a method that could discriminate between human and animal contamination. Several studies showed that the latter appro...

  20. LEAF PHOTOSYNTHETIC AND WATER RELATIONS RESPONSES FOR "VALENCIA" ORANGE TREES EXPOSED TO OXIDANT AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Leaf responses were measured to test a hypothesis that reduced photosynthetic capacity and/or altered water relations were associated with reductions in yield for "Valencia" orange trees exposed to ambient oxidant air pollution. xposures were continuous for four years to three le...

  1. Radiation-induced grafting of cellulose for adsorption of hazardous water pollutants: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnárovits, L.; Földváry, Cs. M.; Takács, E.

    2010-08-01

    This review paper briefly introduces the radiation chemistry of cellulose, the different grafting techniques used, and the methods of characterization of the grafted material. It shows the application of the grafted polymer for the removal of water pollutants and also the regeneration of the adsorbent.

  2. Training Course on Water Pollution. Red Sea & Gulf of Aden Programme (PERSGA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arab Organization for Education and Science, Cairo (Egypt).

    This document presents a training course on water pollution developed by the staff of the National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt. This course, which is organized by the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO), is intended for Junior Bachelor of Science (B.S.) graduates from various Arab countries. The duration of the…

  3. Development of a CFD Model for Secondary Final Settling Tanks in Water Pollution Control Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minwei Gong; Savvas Xanthos; Krish Ramalingam; John Fillos

    2007-01-01

    To assess performance and evaluate alternatives to improve efficiency of the New York City the Wards Island Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) FSTs at peak loads, a 3D CFD model has been developed. Fluent was utilized as the base platform, where sub-models of the Suspended Solids (SS), settling characteristics, density currents and SS flocculation were incorporated. This was supplemented by

  4. The value of incorporating bioindicators in economic approaches to water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew G. Keeler; Donna McLemore

    1996-01-01

    Bioindicators provide better information about environmental quality than chemical and physical measures alone. This paper addresses how this information can improve the efficiency of water pollution control policy. We model bioindicators as a means of resolving uncertainty about the relationship of human activities and environmental effects. Two economic policy models are developed to formalize efficiency gains that result from biological

  5. A study on volatile organic sulfide causes of odors at Philadelphia's Northeast Water Pollution Control Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianhao Cheng; Earl Peterkin; Gary A. Burlingame

    2005-01-01

    Volatile organic sulfide (VOS) causes of odors were studied at Philadelphia's Northeast Water Pollution Control Plant between September 11 and November 25, 2003. Results showed that dimethyl sulfide (DMS) dominated the VOS pool whenever VOS concentration rose above the background level (<50?g\\/L). Methanethiol was generally less than 10% of VOS and it was mainly found at sites with limited or

  6. REVIEW OF WESTERN EUROPEAN AND JAPANESE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY EXEMPLARY WATER POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a literature survey of current Western European and Japanese water pollution control technology in the iron and steel industry. Further information was obtained through personal communication. Recycle technology was identified as being practiced to a h...

  7. Laws of the United States Relating to Water Pollution Control and Environmental Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Public Works.

    This compilation of Federal legislation contains copies of twelve Public Laws, four Executive Orders, and five International Conventions relevant to water pollution control. It also contains two Public Laws and two Executive Orders pertaining to environmental quality. There is a brief introduction summarizing the provisions of each Act. (AL)

  8. Post Evaluation of Water Pollution Control Planning for Huai River Basin in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siyu Zeng; Mi Tian; Jing Li; Jining Chen

    2008-01-01

    Post evaluation methodology for river basin water pollution control planning has been applied to Huai River Basin plan (2001-2005). It consists of assessment on plan enforcement results and enforcement process. The former is conducted through the multi-criteria comprehensive evaluation method based on an indicator system. And the latter is to assess the impact of natural endowment, plan preparation assumptions, policy

  9. Impacts of full secondary treatment at the joint water pollution control plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Miele

    1985-01-01

    In September 1979, the Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County applied for a 301(h) waiver for modification of secondary treatment requirements for the Joint Water Pollution Control Plant. As specified by Environmental Protection Agency regulations, the waiver evaluated the environmental impacts associated with implementation of partial secondary treatment as compared to elimination of the wastewater discharge entirely. This paper presents

  10. Application of Genetic Algorithm in the Optimization of Water Pollution Control Scheme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui-Ming Zhao; Dong-Ping Qian

    2007-01-01

    Genetic Algorithm (Genetic Algorithm Chine write for the GA) is a kind of hunting Algorithm bionic global optimization imitating the Darwinian biological evolution theories, is advancing front of complex nonlinear science and artificial intelligence science. In the basic of introducing the GA basic principle and optimization Algorithm, this text leads the GA into the domain of the water pollution control

  11. CRITICAL REVIEW OF ESTIMATING BENEFITS OF AIR AND WATER POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides a critical review of the current state-of-the-art and future prospects of estimating benefits of air and water pollution control. This report represents three independent critiques by three experts of benefit assessment methodologies. Specific aspects discuss...

  12. Incidence of water pollution control costs: partial vs. general equilibrium computations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES S. SHORTLE; KEITH D. WILLETT

    1986-01-01

    A comparison of two computations of the distributional effects of a fully implemented federal water pollution control policy, one based on an extreme partial equilibrium method and one on a computable general equilibrium model, finds some differences that show the importance of the general equilibrium computations. The application, however, only demonstrates the feasibility of the approach and illustrates the importance

  13. Industry sector analysis, Indonesia: Water pollution control equipment. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Bhinekawati, R.

    1992-10-21

    The market survey covers the water pollution control equipment market in Indonesia. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Indonesian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

  14. Research on Decision Support System of Water Pollution Control Based on Immune Agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo-ping Zhang; Guo-xi Wu; Shi-yu Shang

    2008-01-01

    A new method of decision support system (DSS) is put forward, and the theory of immune arithmetic and agent is applied in the scopes. Based on immune agent, a decision support system of urban river water pollution control based on immune agent is proposed. The system includes apperceive agent, control agent and response agent, which solves the problem that DSS

  15. Energy conservation at the West Dover, Vermont, Water Pollution Control facility. Special report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Martel; B. C. Sargent; W. Bronson

    1982-01-01

    An energy audit was conducted at the West Dover, Vermont, water pollution control facility. The audit revealed that aeration, not pumping to the land treatment site, was the largest energy consumer. As a result of the audit, five Energy Conservation Opportunities (EOC) were evaluated. Three of the ECOs were recommended for implementation; these could result in annual savings of more

  16. Industry sector analysis, Indonesia: Water pollution control equipment. Export trade information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhinekawati

    1992-01-01

    The market survey covers the water pollution control equipment market in Indonesia. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Indonesian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

  17. Review of the literature of 1966 on wastewater and water pollution control. Part 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Weiss; R. S. Engelbrecht

    1967-01-01

    The 1966 literature on wastewater and water pollution control for a number of industrial plants is reviewed. This article is divided into discussions for each industrial application covered. One such discussion is on petroleum processing waste. This reveals that Standard Oil Co. of Ohio has begun a $1 million program to modernize wastewater treating facilities at its Toledo, Ohio, refinery.

  18. Action for Environmental Quality. Standards and Enforcement for Air and Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for setting and enforcing environmental quality standards for the nation. With the Clean Air Act of 1970 (P.L. 91-604) and the Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (P.L. 92-500), the first truly nationwide control programs were established. This booklet is designed to inform the public…

  19. A comparison of erosion and water pollution control strategies for an agricultural watershed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony Prato; Hongqi Shi

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness and efficiency of two erosion control strategies and one water pollution control (riparian) strategy are compared for Idaho's Tom Beall watershed. Erosion control strategies maximize annualized net returns per hectare on each field and restrict field erosion rates to no more than 11.2 or 16.8 tons per hectare. The riparian strategy uses good vegetative cover on all fields

  20. Elimination of air and water pollution by double-stage scrubber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Athanassiadis

    1982-01-01

    This new scrubbing system has been developed to eliminate entirely air pollution caused by water cooling towers during oil\\u000a or fat deodorization. It also minimizes water effluent. In industrial application for more than one year, this system is based\\u000a on the action of two scrubbers placed in series. The first scrubber is a conventional one, whereas the second uses concentrated