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1

Managing Bacteria Pollution in Texas Waters  

E-print Network

Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 2 BACTERIA MANAGING tx H2O | pg. 3 IN TEXAS WATERS POLLUTION Managing Bacteria Pollution in Texas Waters tx H2O | pg. 4 W ith 310 water bodies in Texas failing to meetwater quality standards because... of bacteria,managing bacteria pollution is commanding the attention of water agencies, researchers and stake- holders across Texas. These water bodies are listed in the 2006 Texas Water Quality Inventory and 303(d) List for failing to meet the standards...

Wythe, Kathy

2007-01-01

2

The Management of Water: Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the official water pollution site for Canada. In the introduction, the problem is stated with reference to pollutants of the Great Lakes over 360 chemical compounds have been identified. Many are persistent toxic chemicals - alkylated lead, benzo(a)pyrene, DDT, mercury and mirex - potentially dangerous to humans and already destructive to the aquatic ecosystems. In referring to water quality, pollutants, toxic substances, and acid rain in the aquatic environment are discussed along with long-range transport of airborne pollutants and toxic chemicals said to be the legacy of a chemical society. Efforts to control water pollution include a multi-barrier approach to protecting drinking water, stated water quality objectives and guidelines, regulations, and advice on how to be a responsible consumer. Other sections include the effects of pollution and groundwater pollution.

3

Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

4

Water Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

Bowen, H. J. M.

1975-01-01

5

Water Pollution Control Legislation  

E-print Network

systems. Nonpoint source pollution from agriculture, urban stormwater runoff, septic systems, marinas of pollution, including urban runoff, agriculture, and forestry. In partnership with httpReference: Water Pollution Control Legislation ALISON JONES is Watershed Management Initiative

Pasternack, Gregory B.

6

Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of activities is designed to help students understand water pollution and its potential effects on human and wildlife habitats. They will understand that pollutants can be divided into three groups: chemical, thermal, and biological. Learning objectives include identification of two or more pollutants in a bog, marsh, stream or other wetland area, using words and art to relate a message about pollution, and understanding that some pollutants cannot be seen.

7

Designing of water pollution control technology database platform based on general management information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced was the development and implementation for the water pollution control technology database platform based on general management information system. The technology research and application demonstration of the system were developed, covering six fields such as lake water pollution treatment and ecological restoration, improvement of environment quality of urban water, drinking water safety, new technology of physical-chemical-biology water treatment, packaged

Chunhong Shi; Nan Li; Beihai Zhou; Wenjuan Song

2010-01-01

8

Integrated planning for water quality management: The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 and Coastal Zone Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments were enacted by Congress in response to the severe water quality problems our nation has been experiencing. Section 208 of the Amendments establishes regional planning for water quality management as being necessary and provides strong incentives for states and municipalities to implement the Section's requirements. Section 208 planning is the subject of this

Allayaud

1980-01-01

9

The Other Water Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

Barton, Kathy

1978-01-01

10

Water Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

11

Methodology for the characterization and management of nonpoint source water pollution. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research was development of a methodology for characterization and management of Nonpoint Source (NPS) water pollution. Section 319 of the 1987 Water Quality Act requires states to develop management programs for reduction of NPS pollution via Best Management Practices (BMPs). Air Force installations are expected to abide by federal, state, and local environmental regulations. Currently, the Air Force does not have a methodology to identify and quantify NPS pollution, or a succinct catalog of BMPs. Air Force installation managers need a package to assist them in meeting legislative and regulatory requirements associated with NPS pollution. Ten constituents characteristic of urban runoff were identified in the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program (NURP) and selected as those constituents of concern for modeling and sampling. Two models were used and compared with the results of a sampling and analysis program. Additionally, a compendium of BMPs was developed.... Nonpoint Source Pollution (NPS), Best Management Practices (BMPs), Water pollution, Water sampling and analysis, Stormwater runoff modeling, NPDES.

Praner, D.M.; Sprewell, G.M.

1992-09-01

12

Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

Lantz, H. B., Jr.

13

Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management  

PubMed Central

In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of CODCr NH3-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH3-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. PMID:23222206

Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

2012-01-01

14

Simulation of water environmental capacity and pollution load reduction using QUAL2K for water environmental management.  

PubMed

In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of COD(Cr) NH(3)-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH(3)-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. PMID:23222206

Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

2012-12-01

15

Intensive management in grasslands causes diffuse water pollution at the farm scale.  

PubMed

Arable land use is generally assumed to be the largest contributor to agricultural diffuse pollution. This study adds to the growing evidence that conventional temperate intensively managed lowland grasslands contribute significantly to soil erosion and diffuse pollution rates. This is the first grassland study to monitor hydrological characteristics and multiple pollutant fluxes (suspended sediment [SS] and the macronutrients: total oxidized nitrogen-N [TON], total phosphorus [TP], and total carbon [TC]) at high temporal resolution (monitoring up to every 15 min) over 1 yr. Monitoring was conducted across three fields (6.5-7.5 ha) on the North Wyke Farm Platform, UK. The estimated annual erosion rates (up to 527.4 kg ha), TP losses (up to 0.9 kg ha), and TC losses (up to 179 kg ha) were similar to or exceeded the losses reported for other grassland, mixed land-use, and arable sites. Annual yields of TON (up to 3 kg ha) were less than arable land-use fluxes and earlier grassland N studies, an important result as the study site is situated within a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone. The high-resolution monitoring allowed detailed "system's functioning" understanding of hydrological processes, mobilization- transport pathways of individual pollutants, and the changes of the relative importance of diffuse pollutants through flow conditions and time. Suspended sediment and TP concentrations frequently exceeded water quality guidelines recommended by the European Freshwater Fisheries Directive (25 mg L) and the European Water Framework Directive (0.04 mg soluble reactive P L), suggesting that intensively managed grasslands pose a significant threat to receiving surface waters. Such sediment and nutrient losses from intensively managed grasslands should be acknowledged in land management guidelines and advice for future compliance with surface water quality standards. PMID:25602218

Peukert, Sabine; Griffith, Bruce A; Murray, Phillip J; Macleod, Christopher J A; Brazier, Richard E

2014-11-01

16

Managing Beach Amenities to Reduce Exposure to Coastal Hazards: Storm Water Pollution  

E-print Network

Despite posted warnings and educational campaigns warning about the health risks associated with storm water pollution, swimmers continue to swim in coastal areas polluted by storm water run-off. This study uses a simple spatial model of beach visitation to show how beach amenities and storm drains influence the way in which beach goers choose to locate themselves at beaches in Santa Monica Bay, California. The estimated models indicate that passive means of preventing exposure to marine pollution (e.g. posted signs) could be made significantly more effective if combined with the active management of other beach amenities. Similar methods also could be used to reduce risks to swimmers from other hazards including riptides and boat traffic.

Linwood Pendleton

17

Interpolation of extensive routine water pollution monitoring datasets: methodology and discussion of implications for aquifer management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large fraction of the fresh water available for human use is stored in groundwater aquifers. Since human activities such as mining, agriculture, industry and urbanization often result in incursion of various pollutants to groundwater, routine monitoring of water quality is an indispensable component of judicious aquifer management. Unfortunately, groundwater pollution monitoring is expensive and usually cannot cover an aquifer with the spatial resolution necessary for making adequate management decisions. Interpolation of monitoring data between points is thus an important tool for supplementing measured data. However, interpolating routine groundwater pollution data poses a special problem due to the nature of the observations. The data from a producing aquifer usually includes many zero pollution concentration values from the clean parts of the aquifer but may span a wide range (up to a few orders of magnitude) of values in the polluted areas. This manuscript presents a methodology that can cope with such datasets and use them to produce maps that present the pollution plumes but also delineates the clean areas that are fit for production. A method for assessing the quality of mapping in a way which is suitable to the data's dynamic range of values is also presented. Local variant of inverse distance weighting is employed to interpolate the data. Inclusion zones around the interpolation points ensure that only relevant observations contribute to each interpolated concentration. Using inclusion zones improves the accuracy of the mapping but results in interpolation grid points which are not assigned a value. That inherent trade-off between the interpolation accuracy and coverage is demonstrated using both circular and elliptical inclusion zones. A leave-one-out cross testing is used to assess and compare the performance of the interpolations. The methodology is demonstrated using groundwater pollution monitoring data from the Coastal aquifer along the Israeli shoreline.

Yuval; Rimon, Y.; Graber, E. R.; Furman, A.

2013-07-01

18

Group 8 - Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BACKGROUND Investigate the issues of water pollution in the world. TASK - What is making the water so polluted? How bad is it? How does nature clean its own water? Who are the worst polluters? What can be done to stop so much pollution? What is the water cycle? What can be done to fix the problem? Explain all this, and 5 ...

Mecham, Mrs.

2006-11-30

19

Water Bottle Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The effect of water bottles and pollution around the world. Print off 3 copies of this form. W s First, let's learn about Water Bottle Pollution records on your w's form what you learned. Now let's learn about jaguars. Jaguars how can jaguars be harmed by water bottle pollution? Project: Create a travel brochure in Publisher using what you learned about water bottle pollution and jaguars. See ...

awl000422

2011-10-27

20

ISONITRATE demonstration project: How isotopic monitoring can improve management of nitrate pollution in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate is one of the major pollutants of drinking water resources worldwide. Recent European directives reduced inputs from intensive agriculture, but in most places NO3 levels are approaching the potable limit of 50 mg.l-1 in groundwater. Determining the source(s) of contamination in groundwater is an important first step for improving its quality by emission control. It is with this aim that we review here the benefit of using a multi-isotope approach (d15N, d180, d11B), in addition to conventional hydrogeological analysis, to constrain the the origin of NO3 pollution in water. The isotopic composition of the dissolved nitrogen species has been used extensively to better constrain the sources and fate of nitrate in groundwater. The possibility of quantifying both origin and secondary processes affecting N concentrations by means of a single tracer appears more limited however. Nitrogen cannot be considered conservative because it is biologically modified through nitrification and denitrification reactions, both during infiltration of the water and in the groundwater body, causing isotopic fractionation that modifies the d15N signatures of the dissolved N species. Discriminating multiple NO3 sources by their N isotopic composition alone becomes impossible whenever heterogenic or autogenic denitrification occurs, thus arising the need for establishing co-migrating discriminators of NO3 sources: addition of the d180 from NO3 and of the d11B. This presentation will strongly rely on our current European Life ISONITRATE project, which aims at showing policy makers how management of nitrate pollution in water can be greatly improved by the incorporation of the multi-isotope monitoring. The pilot site is located in the Alsace region (France and border Germany), part of the Upper Rhine basin, a groundwater body considered as one of the most important drinking water reservoirs in Europe. The demonstration of the multi-isotope approach is based on 4 distinct scenarios: 1. Natural case: corresponds to the natural nitrification of the soil and represents the reference end-member. Samples with NO3 concentration levels higher than this end-member are considered as polluted. 2. Denitrification case: groundwater samples are selected along an identified denitrification gradient in the "Appenweier-Rheinau" region (Germany): the uppermost samples being contaminated by mineral fertilizers used in vineyards (but not denitrified), and the downstream sample being (almost) totally denitrified. 3. Simple case: chosen as being under the influence of a sole type of nitrate pollution source: mineral fertilisation from the "Orschwihr- Bergholtz vineyards". 4. Complex case: where nitrates correspond to a mixing of different pollution sources (mineral and organic fertilisers), located within the "Dietwiller area".

Widory, D.

2008-12-01

21

Agricultural Land Use and Best Management Practices to Control Nonpoint Water Pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, improvements in point-source depuration technologies have highlighted the problems regarding agricultural nonpoint (diffuse) sources, and this issue has become highly relevant from the environmental point of view. The considerable extension of the areas responsible for this kind of pollution, together with the scarcity of funds available to local managers, make minimizing the impacts of nonpoint sources on a whole basin a virtually impossible task. This article presents the results of a study intended to pinpoint those agricultural areas, within a basin, that contribute most to water pollution, so that operations aimed at preventing and/or reducing this kind of pollution can be focused on them. With this aim, an innovative approach is presented that integrates a field-scale management model, a simple regression model, and a geographic information system (GIS). The Lake Vico basin, where recent studies highlighted a considerable increase in the trophic state, mainly caused by phosphorus (P) compounds deriving principally from the intensive cultivation of hazelnut trees in the lake basin, was chosen as the study site. Using the management model Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems (GLEAMS), the consequences, in terms of sediment yield and phosphorus export, of hazelnut tree cultivation were estimated on different areas of the basin with and without the application of a best management practice (BMP) that consists of growing meadow under the trees. The GLEAMS results were successively extended to basin scale thanks to the application of a purposely designed regression model and of a GIS. The main conclusions can be summarized as follows: The effectiveness of the above-mentioned BMP is always greater for erosion reduction than for particulate P reduction, whatever the slope value considered; moreover, the effectiveness with reference to both particulate P and sediment yield production decreases as the slope increases. The proposed approach, being completely distributed, represents a considerable step ahead compared to the semidistributed or lumped approaches, which are traditionally employed in research into tools to support the decision-making process for land-use planning aimed at water pollution control.

Ripa, Maria Nicoletta; Leone, Antonio; Garnier, Monica; Porto, Antonio Lo

2006-08-01

22

Agricultural land use and best management practices to control nonpoint water pollution.  

PubMed

In recent years, improvements in point-source depuration technologies have highlighted the problems regarding agricultural nonpoint (diffuse) sources, and this issue has become highly relevant from the environmental point of view. The considerable extension of the areas responsible for this kind of pollution, together with the scarcity of funds available to local managers, make minimizing the impacts of nonpoint sources on a whole basin a virtually impossible task. This article presents the results of a study intended to pinpoint those agricultural areas, within a basin, that contribute most to water pollution, so that operations aimed at preventing and/or reducing this kind of pollution can be focused on them. With this aim, an innovative approach is presented that integrates a field-scale management model, a simple regression model, and a geographic information system (GIS). The Lake Vico basin, where recent studies highlighted a considerable increase in the trophic state, mainly caused by phosphorus (P) compounds deriving principally from the intensive cultivation of hazelnut trees in the lake basin, was chosen as the study site. Using the management model Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems (GLEAMS), the consequences, in terms of sediment yield and phosphorus export, of hazelnut tree cultivation were estimated on different areas of the basin with and without the application of a best management practice (BMP) that consists of growing meadow under the trees. The GLEAMS results were successively extended to basin scale thanks to the application of a purposely designed regression model and of a GIS. The main conclusions can be summarized as follows: The effectiveness of the above-mentioned BMP is always greater for erosion reduction than for particulate P reduction, whatever the slope value considered; moreover, the effectiveness with reference to both particulate P and sediment yield production decreases as the slope increases. The proposed approach, being completely distributed, represents a considerable step ahead compared to the semidistributed or lumped approaches, which are traditionally employed in research into tools to support the decision-making process for land-use planning aimed at water pollution control. PMID:16779698

Ripa, Maria Nicoletta; Leone, Antonio; Garnier, Monica; Lo Porto, Antonio

2006-08-01

23

Storm Water Runoff Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (located on page 8 of the PDF) introduces learners to the concept of Non-point Source Pollution--what happens when rain washes garbage and other pollutants into rivers and lakes. Through this demonstration, learners observe how water systems are connected and how pollution in their own backyard can affect larger water supplies.

Museum, Chicago C.

2008-01-01

24

Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

25

Water Pollution, Causes and Cures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

26

Fecal Pollution of Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

27

ALGAE AND WATER POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Algae are involved in water pollution in a number of important ways. It requires a continuous monitoring and study of algae existing in waters of various quality in order to determine what controls or what changes or what uses can be instituted for the benefit of man and for cons...

28

Public Health Care Management of Water Pollution with Pharmaceuticals: Environmental Classification and Analysis of Pharmaceutical Residues in Sewage Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in surface water is an emerging problem in developed countries. If such pollution is transferred to drinking water, the resulting involuntary low-dose medication of large population groups may compromise public health. In addition, aquatic life may be compromised. The Stockholm County Council, the provider of public healthcare in the Stockholm, Sweden region, has introduced a classification

Åke Wennmalm; Bo Gunnarsson

2005-01-01

29

Water Pollution Prevention and Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is designed to help students apply the pollution prevention (P2) concept to water. It contains the needed background information about water pollution and provides guidance and activities to help students describe water uses and sources, explain why water conservation is important, and explain how pollution prevention concepts can be used to conserve water and prevent water pollution. The preceding pages of the fact sheet contain background information and the definitions necessary to implement this lesson plan.

30

COLLABORATIVE INVESTIGATIONS OF WATER QUALITY POLLUTION PATTERNS: WORKING WITH  

E-print Network

COLLABORATIVE INVESTIGATIONS OF WATER QUALITY POLLUTION PATTERNS: WORKING WITH THE KYUQUOT and Environmental Management Title of Research Project: Collaborative Investigations of Water Quality Pollution about water quality sampling and policy agenda setting. Through time and repeated interactions

31

Who has to pay for measures in the field of water management? A proposal for applying the polluter pays principle.  

PubMed

There is no doubt about the fact that the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the pursuit of its goal of good ecological status will give rise to measures in different fields of water management. However, a conclusive and transparent method of financing these measures is still missing up to now. Measures in the water management sector are no mere end in themselves; instead, they serve specific ends directed at human activities or they serve general environment objectives. Following the integrative approach of the WFD on looking upon river basins as a whole and its requirement to observe the polluter pays principle, all different groups within a river basin should contribute to the costs according to their cost-bearer roles as polluters, stakeholders with vested interests or beneficiaries via relevant yardsticks. In order to quantify the financial expenditure of each cost bearer, a special algorithm was developed and tested in the river basin of a small tributary of the Ruhr River. It was proved to be generally practicable with regard to its handling and the comprehension of the results. Therefore, the application of a cost bearer system based on the polluter-pays principle and thus in correspondence with the WFD's requirements should appear possible in order to finance future measures. PMID:19182349

Grünebaum, Thomas; Schweder, Heinrich; Weyand, Michael

2009-01-01

32

Water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

I am writing in reference to an article by Leonard B. Dworsky in the August issue of EOS dealing with what the author feels are the necessary steps toward an effective and credible program of water pollution control.That public expectations need to be adjusted to real world solutions can hardly be denied. The general public is all too often led

Donald F. Kostecki

1970-01-01

33

Water Pollution Control Industry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

1974-01-01

34

Ground water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment, methodologies. In-situ technologies. Aquifer restoration. Applications and case studies. Decision-making. Risk assessment. References include 225 with complete abstracts. This work covers technologies for ground water pollution control in part one and deals in depth with aquifer restoration decision-making in part two, while part three gives range of case studies and detailed abstracts of 225 references. CONTENTS: 1-Introduction. Technologies for

Canter

1985-01-01

35

The SOLUTIONS project: Challenges and responses for present and future emerging pollutants in land and water resources management.  

PubMed

SOLUTIONS (2013 to 2018) is a European Union Seventh Framework Programme Project (EU-FP7). The project aims to deliver a conceptual framework to support the evidence-based development of environmental policies with regard to water quality. SOLUTIONS will develop the tools for the identification, prioritisation and assessment of those water contaminants that may pose a risk to ecosystems and human health. To this end, a new generation of chemical and effect-based monitoring tools is developed and integrated with a full set of exposure, effect and risk assessment models. SOLUTIONS attempts to address legacy, present and future contamination by integrating monitoring and modelling based approaches with scenarios on future developments in society, economy and technology and thus in contamination. The project follows a solutions-oriented approach by addressing major problems of water and chemicals management and by assessing abatement options. SOLUTIONS takes advantage of the access to the infrastructure necessary to investigate the large basins of the Danube and Rhine as well as relevant Mediterranean basins as case studies, and puts major efforts on stakeholder dialogue and support. Particularly, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) Common Implementation Strategy (CIS) working groups, International River Commissions, and water works associations are directly supported with consistent guidance for the early detection, identification, prioritisation, and abatement of chemicals in the water cycle. SOLUTIONS will give a specific emphasis on concepts and tools for the impact and risk assessment of complex mixtures of emerging pollutants, their metabolites and transformation products. Analytical and effect-based screening tools will be applied together with ecological assessment tools for the identification of toxicants and their impacts. The SOLUTIONS approach is expected to provide transparent and evidence-based candidates or River Basin Specific Pollutants in the case study basins and to assist future review of priority pollutants under the WFD as well as potential abatement options. PMID:24951181

Brack, Werner; Altenburger, Rolf; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Krauss, Martin; López Herráez, David; van Gils, Jos; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Munthe, John; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; van Wezel, Annemarie; Schriks, Merijn; Hollender, Juliane; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Mekenyan, Ovanes; Dimitrov, Saby; Bunke, Dirk; Cousins, Ian; Posthuma, Leo; van den Brink, Paul J; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià; Faust, Michael; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Scrimshaw, Mark; Ignatova, Svetlana; Engelen, Guy; Massmann, Gudrun; Lemkine, Gregory; Teodorovic, Ivana; Walz, Karl-Heinz; Dulio, Valeria; Jonker, Michiel T O; Jäger, Felix; Chipman, Kevin; Falciani, Francesco; Liska, Igor; Rooke, David; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hollert, Henner; Vrana, Branislav; Hilscherova, Klara; Kramer, Kees; Neumann, Steffen; Hammerbacher, Ruth; Backhaus, Thomas; Mack, Juliane; Segner, Helmut; Escher, Beate; de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela

2015-01-15

36

Simulation and evaluation of pollution load reduction scenarios for water environmental management: a case study of inflow river of Taihu Lake, China.  

PubMed

In the beginning of the 21st century, the deterioration of water quality in Taihu Lake, China, has caused widespread concern. The primary source of pollution in Taihu Lake is river inflows. Effective pollution load reduction scenarios need to be implemented in these rivers in order to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake. It is important to select appropriate pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving particular goals. The aim of this study was to facilitate the selection of appropriate scenarios. The QUAL2K model for river water quality was used to simulate the effects of a range of pollution load reduction scenarios in the Wujin River, which is one of the major inflow rivers of Taihu Lake. The model was calibrated for the year 2010 and validated for the year 2011. Various pollution load reduction scenarios were assessed using an analytic hierarchy process, and increasing rates of evaluation indicators were predicted using the Delphi method. The results showed that control of pollution from the source is the optimal method for pollution prevention and control, and the method of "Treatment after Pollution" has bad environmental, social and ecological effects. The method applied in this study can assist for environmental managers to select suitable pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving various objectives. PMID:25207492

Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Zhu, Wenting; Gao, Hailong; Hu, Wei; Wang, Jinhua

2014-09-01

37

Remote Sensing of Water Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

White, P. G.

1971-01-01

38

Clean Water and Oceans: Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the water pollution portal for the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). NRDC works to continue reductions in industrial water pollution while pressing for effective pollution controls on agriculture, logging and other sources previously exempt from them. They help develop and promote strong federal laws and regulations to address polluted runoff, raw sewage discharges, and factory farm wastes and to sue polluters when the Clean Water Act is violated. This site contains simple issue overviews, news, how-to guides, frequently asked questions, photo essays and more in a section called In Brief. The In Depth section offers reports, white papers, policy analyses and other materials by NRDCs lawyers, scientists and analysts.

39

Exploring Water Pollution. Part 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists over 30 outdoor science activities dealing with water formation, erosion, pollution, and other water-related topics. Provides, in addition, a selected bibliography of films, tapes, booklets and pamphlets, and filmstrips as additional reference materials. (CP)

Rillo, Thomas J.

1976-01-01

40

Biology and Water Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

Warren, Charles E.

41

Water Pollution (Causes, Mechanisms, Solution).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show what…

Strandberg, Carl

42

How Does Water Get Polluted?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a hands-on modeling of the effects of pollution on our ground and surface water. Students will observe and record their observations as pollution is placed on the ground in their model and it is rained upon.

Anderson, Deb V.

43

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: INSTITUTIONALIZING POLLUTION PREVENTION  

E-print Network

This is one in a series of Information Briefs produced by EH-41 that discuss Environmental Management Systems (EMS), their implementation, and their relationship to other DOE environmental initiatives. DOE’s pollution prevention programs have been an integral part of DOE policy since the early nineties and are also an integral component of EMS philosophy. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 establishes as national policy a hierarchy of pollution prevention practices: first, pollution should be prevented or reduced at the source whenever feasible; pollution that cannot be prevented should be recycled; pollution that cannot be prevented or recycled should be treated; and disposal or other release into the environment should be employed only as a last resort in an environmentally safe manner. While pollution prevention is defined by EO 12856 and EPA’s interpretive guidance as “source reduction, ” within DOE, pollution prevention reaches beyond source reduction to include recycling, energy efficiency, water conservation, renewable energy resources and more. An EMS can institutionalize and extend DOE’s approach to pollution prevention across activities, programs, and facilities.

unknown authors

44

Water Quality Monitoring and Modeling in Lake Kastoria, Using GIS. Assessment and Management of Pollution Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Kastoria, is a very fragile aquatic ecosystem, protected by several national and international conventions, situated\\u000a in the Region of Western Macedonia, Greece. A monthly monitoring program has been operated by the Municipality of Kastoria,\\u000a during the past 5 years (2002–2007). The water quality parameters monitored, are: Water Temperature (Tw), dissolved oxygen\\u000a (DO), BOD, COD, pH, water conductivity (ECw), redox potential

N. Mantzafleri; A. Psilovikos; A. Blanta

2009-01-01

45

Landsat and water pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents data derived from satellite images predicting pollution loads after rainfall. It explains method for converting Landsat images of Eastern United States into cover maps for Baltimore/five county region.

Castruccio, P.; Fowler, T.; Loats, H., Jr.

1979-01-01

46

Water Pollution: Monitoring the Source.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an advanced biology class project involving study of the effects of organic pollution on an aquatic ecosystem from an sewage treatment plant overflow to evaluate the chemical quality and biological activity of the river water. (DS)

Wilkes, James W.

1980-01-01

47

An Instructional Delivery System for Manpower Management: A Report for Water Pollution Control Agencies. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains information to assist organizations and personnel responsible for the quality and quantity of operators available for water quality control efforts. The text discusses in detail the current developments in operator instructional programs. Each of the seven sections of this report deals with a specific aspect of manpower…

New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany.

48

Identification of Roads for Urban Runoff Pollution Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban roads are identified as major sources of many pollutants and the runoff from these areas discharges high pollution mass loads to receiving waters. Identifying roads is important for effective urban runoff and non point source pollution management. However, public land use information usually does not provide detailed road information. In this research, we identified roads and streets in an

Mi-Hyun Park; Michael K. Stenstrom

2008-01-01

49

Water Pollution Control courses offered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manhattan College will conduct the Nineteenth Summer Institute in Water Pollution Control, May 2024, 1974. Two one-week courses will be offered concurrently for advanced study in biological waste treatment and mathematical modeling of natural water systems. Enrollment, on a preregistration basis, will be limited.This continuing engineering education program is designed to enhance the competence of practicing engineers and scientists in

Anonymous

1974-01-01

50

Ground water. [Water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence that the Nation's ground water is contaminated by a variety of sources. These include unprotected industrial, municipal, and radioactive disposal sites, petroleum exploration and mining activities, agricultural operations such as insecticide spraying, high de-icing salts and others. As of March 1980, more than 8000 chemical tests have been performed on well water, with chlorinated organic solvents

Costle

1980-01-01

51

Water Pollution Scrubber Activity Simulates Pollution Control Devices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory activity caused students to think actively about water pollution. The students realized that it would be easier to keep water clean than to remove pollutants. They created a water scrubbing system allowing them to pour water in one end and have it emerge clean at the other end. (JOW)

Kennedy, Edward C., III; Waggoner, Todd C.

2003-01-01

52

Behaviours and attitudes in the management of nonpoint source pollution: Ping River Basin, Thailand   

E-print Network

Agricultural nonpoint source pollution is recognised as a major cause of water pollution. The characteristics of nonpoint source pollution suggest that an efficient approach should focus on a source control and hence land-use management. Recently...

Bumbudsanpharoke, Wimolpat

2010-01-01

53

Agricultural water pollution control: An interdisciplinary approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regulation and control of agricultural water pollution is unique and difficult to accomplish. Water quality standards are often proposed without adequate consideration of the overall economic impact on agricultural production. This article illustrates how economists and physical scientists can cooperate to develop appropriate control strategies for agricultural water pollution. Data provided by physical scientists and economists are used in a linear programming model to describe salt discharge as a function of water management, production levels, and an associated effluent charge. Four water management activities were chosen on the basis of different costs of production (including a parametrically varied effluent charge), water requirements, alfalfa yields, and levels of salt discharge. Results indicate that when the effluent charge is low (<0.20/metric ton salt discharged), maximum production with maximum salt discharge is most profitable. As the effluent charge is increased (0.20 0.40/metric ton salt discharged), it becomes progressively less profitable to produce alfalfa at maximum levels of pollutant discharge. When the effluent charge is >0.40/metric ton salt discharged, alfalfa production is no longer economically feasible. An important aspect of this approach is that it permits policy makers to identify explicitly the relationship between the environmental standard and the effect on agricultural production.

Miller, Watkins W.; Ching, Chauncey T. K.; Yanagida, John F.; Jakus, Paul

1985-01-01

54

Testing Water for Bacterial Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of water pollution control. It is a learning activity directed toward high school students of biology and/or ecology. A general knowledge of microbiology techniques is regarded as a prerequisite for the lesson. Behavioral objectives are given. Emphasis is placed on use of techniques and materials…

Dillner, Harry

55

Water Pollution in School Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water pollution curriculum units of four environmental secondary science programs in Britain, Germany, Israel, and the United States are examined. Comparisons reveal the use of quite different approaches in central topic selection, use of the laboratory and other media, controversial issues, and teacher-student roles. (CS)

Blum, Abraham

1979-01-01

56

Careers in Water Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are the activities, responsibilities, and educational and training requirements of the major occupations directly concerned with water pollution control. Also provided is an overview of employment trends, salaries, and projected demand for employees. Included in the appendix is a list of colleges and universities which offer…

Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

57

Exploring Water Pollution. Part II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

Rillo, Thomas J.

1975-01-01

58

Groundwater and surface water pollution  

SciTech Connect

This book contains almost all the technical know-how that is required to clean up the water supply. It provides a survey of up-to-date technologies for remediation, as well as a step-by-step guide to pollution assessment for both ground and surface waters. In addition to focusing on causes, effects, and remedies, the book stresses reuse, recycling, and recovery of resources. The authors suggest that through total recycling wastes can become resources.

Chae, Y.S.; Hamidi, A. [eds.

2000-07-01

59

Combined air and water pollution control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

Wolverton, Billy C. (inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (inventor)

1990-01-01

60

The Role of Tradable Permits in Water Pollution Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This working paper first introduces tradable permits as part of an overall taxonomy of economic instruments in the field of water management. In this context, three fundamentally different fields of application of tradable permits systems relating to water are presented: tradable water abstraction rights, tradable rights to water-based resources and tradable water pollution rights. Next, the authors provide literature-based empirical

R. Andreas Kraemer; Eleftheria Kampa; Eduard Interwies

2004-01-01

61

How Did That Get There?: Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a group, learners consider sources of water pollution to understand where pollution starts and where it ends up. Also explored are the natural and human-made options for cleaning up our water supply. This activity encourages learners to use their powers of observation, imagination, and public speaking skills as they describe possible pollution stories and scenarios, and brainstorm pollution prevention efforts.

Illinois, University O.

2009-01-01

62

Options for managing produced water.  

SciTech Connect

Worldwide, the oil and gas industry generates more than 70 billion barrels of produced water per year. Within the US alone, between 15 and 20 billion barrels of produced water are generated each year. Management of these large quantities of water can be costly, and can determine whether wells are profitable or not. Companies must consider many different options for managing produced water. Produced water management technologies and strategies are described here in terms of a three-tiered water management or pollution prevention hierarchy--i.e. minimization, recycle/reuse and disposal.

Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

2007-11-01

63

Managing our water resources  

SciTech Connect

Water is a plentiful, renewable resource if it is properly managed. The US allocates 82% of its water to agriculture, 10% to industries and utilities. American farmers are beginning to adopt water-conserving techniques long used in the world's arid regions because past profligate use and recent droughts lowered both water tables and farm productivity. Runoff and pollution are responsible for much of the waste of usable water. Because of local water shortages, there is interest in drip irrigation, setting aside more land for reservoirs, and other conservation techniques to ensure adequate supplies for industrial development and economic growth. American faith in technology has led to schemes for desalination, cloud seeding, iceberg towing, and aquifer recharging, as well as the existing system of dams. Proper management of river basins is an important step in the process. 1 figure. (DCK)

Not Available

1982-05-01

64

A dual-inexact fuzzy stochastic model for water resources management and non-point source pollution mitigation under multiple uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, a dual-inexact fuzzy stochastic programming (DIFSP) method was developed for supporting the planning of water and farmland use management system considering the non-point source pollution mitigation under uncertainty. The random boundary interval (RBI) was incorporated into DIFSP through integrating fuzzy programming (FP) and chance-constrained programming (CCP) approaches within an interval linear programming (ILP) framework. The lower and upper bounds of RBI are continuous random variables, and the correlation exiting between the lower and upper bounds can be tackled in RBI through the joint probability distribution function. And thus the subjectivity of decision making is greatly reduced, enhancing the stability and robustness of obtained solutions. The proposed method was then applied to solve a water and farmland use planning model (WFUPM) with non-point source pollution. The generated results could provide decision makers with detailed water supply-demand schemes involving diversified water related activities under various system conditions. These useful solutions could allow more in-depth analyses of the trade-offs between human and environment, as well as those between system optimality and reliability. In addition, comparative analyses on the solutions obtained from ICCP (Interval chance-constraints programming) and DIFSP demonstrated the higher application of this developed approach for supporting the water and farmland use system planning.

Dong, C.; Tan, Q.; Huang, G.-H.; Cai, Y.-P.

2014-01-01

65

A dual-inexact fuzzy stochastic model for water resources management and non-point source pollution mitigation under multiple uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, a dual-inexact fuzzy stochastic programming (DIFSP) method was developed for supporting the planning of water and farmland use management system considering the non-point source pollution mitigation under uncertainty. The random boundary interval (RBI) was incorporated into DIFSP through integrating fuzzy linear programming (FLP) and chance-constrained programming (CCP) approaches within an interval linear programming (ILP) framework. This developed method could effectively tackle the uncertainties expressed as intervals and fuzzy sets. Moreover, the lower and upper bounds of RBI are continuous random variables, and the correlation existing between the lower and upper bounds can be tackled in RBI through the joint probability distribution function. And thus the subjectivity of decision making is greatly reduced, enhancing the stability and robustness of obtained solutions. The proposed method was then applied to solve a water and farmland use planning model (WFUPM) with non-point source pollution mitigation. The generated results could provide decision makers with detailed water supply-demand schemes involving diversified water-related activities under preferred satisfaction degrees. These useful solutions could allow more in-depth analyses of the trade-offs between humans and environment, as well as those between system optimality and reliability. In addition, comparative analyses on the solutions obtained from ICCP (Interval chance-constraints programming) and DIFSP demonstrated the higher application of this developed approach for supporting the water and farmland use system planning.

Dong, C.; Tan, Q.; Huang, G.-H.; Cai, Y.-P.

2014-05-01

66

Agricultural nitrate monitoring in a lake basin in Central Italy: a further step ahead towards an integrated nutrient management aimed at controlling water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pollution from point sources has been considerably reduced over the last few decades. Nevertheless, some water quality\\u000a problems remain, which can be attributed to non-point pollution sources, and in particular to agriculture. In this paper the\\u000a results of a study intended to assess the consequences, in terms of NO3 water pollution, of growing a crop, whose impact in terms

Monica Garnier; Fabio Recanatesi; Maria Nicoletta Ripa; Antonio Leone

2010-01-01

67

Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

68

Energy analysis of regional water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of water pollution control that were used to restore water quality of Oregon's Willamette River basin are reviewed. A water pollution control strategy that takes environmental, economic, and energy use impacts into consideration is proposed based on experiences in the Willamette basin. In the control strategy, site-specific data are used to devise a water quality index for the basin.

R. J. Heggen; K. J. Williamson

1979-01-01

69

Water Science, Management and Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new AGU book, Water:Science, Management and Policy, edited by Richard Lawford, Denise Fort, Holly Hartmann, and Susanna Eden, explores the scientific and political issues behind water use and sustainability worldwide. The book investigates critical issues facing water managers, policy makers, and scientists in the 21st century, examining specific examples of water planning and decision-making. Among the topics discussed by the authors are the current state of water engineering, sharing resources across state and international borders, and the best methods for managing the resource with the future impact of climate change and additional pollution.

Lifland, Jonathan

2004-02-01

70

Agricultural water pollution control: An interdisciplinary approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation and control of agricultural water pollution is unique and difficult to accomplish. Water quality standards are often proposed without adequate consideration of the overall economic impact on agricultural production. This article illustrates how economists and physical scientists can cooperate to develop appropriate control strategies for agricultural water pollution. Data provided by physical scientists and economists are used in a

Watkins W. Miller; Chauncey T. K. Ching; John F. Yanagida; Paul Jakus

1985-01-01

71

Water Pollution. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water is one of the most polluted resources in our environment. Since everyone has the same basic need for pure water, it follows that all people should have a basic knowledge of the causes, results and solutions to the water pollution problem. This unit is designed for use with Level II and III educable mentally retarded students to present…

Topeka Public Schools, KS.

72

Total Water Management - slides  

EPA Science Inventory

Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

73

Bibliography of water pollution control benefits and costs. [3000 references  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computer-listed bibliography includes approximately 3000 references to environmental quality management issues. The primary selection criteria for including the sources referenced was that the citation pertains to water pollution control benefits and costs. However, numerous listings include more general environmental issues within which water quality problems are embedded. Also, much of the economic cost-benefit analysis research has been conceptually developed

S. G. Unger; D. L. Jordening

1974-01-01

74

Water Conservation and Nonpoint Source Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains science activities that are designed to make learning and demonstrating nonpoint source pollution concepts exciting and fun. These activities can either be used alone or with an existing water resources education curricula. Activities include: Water Tasting, Acting Out the Hydrologic Cycle, Concentration of Chemical Pollutants

Farrell-Poe, Kitt

75

Symposium on costs of water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A National Symposium on Costs of Water Pollution Control will be held in Raleigh, North Carolina, April 67, 1972. The symposium is sponsored by the Research Triangle Universities (Duke University, North Carolina State University, and the University of North Carolina and several national societies. The program will include sessions on economic implications of national goals for water pollution control cost

Anonymous

1972-01-01

76

Global trends in water pollution control legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope of legislation on water pollution control is initially examined. Then, the administrative machinery responsible for implementing water pollution control programs is examined, after which the approaches taken by selected countries (Norway, India, USA, Netherlands, Mexico, and New South Wales) to deal with the problem is reviewed. There follows an analysis of the policies adopted by various countries to

G. Ozolins; S. S. Fluss; R. Helmer

1977-01-01

77

The Practice of Water Pollution Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water pollution techniques and practices, including data analysis, interpretation and display are described in this book intended primarily for the biologist inexperienced in this work, and for sanitary engineers, chemists, and water pollution control administrators. The characteristics of aquatic environments, their biota, and the effects of…

Mackenthun, Kenneth M.

78

Chapter 14 Water Pollution Factory-style hog farms in  

E-print Network

Chapter 14 Water Pollution #12;Factory-style hog farms in North Carolina Each pig produces, September 1999. #12;Hogs killed by flooding #12; Water pollution Common water pollutants Treating water pollution Wastewater treatment and renovation Learning Objectives #12; Water pollution refers

Pan, Feifei

79

Review of water pollution control in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resource shortage and pollution has seriously threatened the survival and development of developing countries. Because\\u000a of China’s specific economical and social circumstances, complete adoption of developed countries’ experience is unrealistic.\\u000a At present, China needs to develop strategies and technologies in source water pollution control and municipal environmental\\u000a remediation that embrace the country’s specific need to battle the water resource

Tingyao Gao; Hongbin Chen; Siqing Xia; Zengyan Zhou

2008-01-01

80

Pollution of surface water in Europe  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses pollution of surface water in 18 European countries. For each an account is given of its physical character, population, industries, and present condition of water supplies; the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling pollution are then described, and an outline is given of current research on the difficulties peculiar to each country. A general discussion of various aspects common to the European problem of water pollution follows; standards of quality are suggested; some difficulties likely to arise in the near future are indicated, and international collaboration, primarily by the exchange of information, is recommended to check or forestall these trends. PMID:13374532

Key, A.

1956-01-01

81

Development of a Master Plan for Water Pollution Control Using MCDM Techniques: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive demand for water due to a growing population, agricultural, and industrial development, along with climate change and depletion of nonrenewable resources have intensified the need for integrated water resources management and water pollution control. This paper presents different aspects of a master plan for water pollution control and the results of a case study for developing a master plan

Mohammad Karamouz; Banafsheh Zahraie; Reza Kerachian

2003-01-01

82

Engineering aspects of water pollution control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of proper engineering when providing pollution control systems is emphasized. Organization of engineering projects is described in detail. Included are discussions of: (1) collection and evaluation of available data; (2) establishment of survey and test program; (3) integration and evaluation of findings; (4) establishment of pollution control and water utilization systems; and (5) specification and detailed design preparation.

R. G. Dalbke; A. J. Turk

1967-01-01

83

Sheep dip chemicals and water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tweed River Purification Board's objective of reducing the numbers and significance of water pollution incidents by a proactive approach based on persuasion and education is described. This has consisted of prioritising potential pollutant sources which have then been investigated in detail followed by discussion and agreement with discharges as to remedial measures. The paper describes in detail the Board's

W. A. Virtue; J. W. Clayton

1997-01-01

84

Optimal dynamic management of groundwater pollutant sources.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The linear programing-superposition method is presented for managing multiple sources of groundwater pollution over time. The method uses any linear solute transport simulation model to generate a unit source-concentration response matrix that is incorporated into a management model. -from Authors

Gorelick, S.M.; Remson, I.

1982-01-01

85

Remote Sensing and GIS Approach for the Water Pollution and  

E-print Network

The present study area confined only to the Tiruchirappalli taluk which was surrounded by Srirangam taluk in north and west, Thanjavur district in east and southern portion was covered by Pudukottai district. Water resource development has taken place all over the world. There is a tremendous amount of pressure in protecting the water resources available in the country. Protecting the surface water resources from wastewater pollution plays a vital role for the development. The disposal of wastewater into the surface water bodies leads to serious problems and affects the people in health aspects. Especially in the urban areas, the pollution of domestic effluent discharges into the nearby surface water bodies created problems for the public. There are many ways of safe disposal of wastewater. But improper management of wastewater generation in the urban areas find its own way of getting into the surface water. To prepare base map from SOI Toposheets within 1:50000 scale. To demarcate the administrative division of the study area with prepare various thematic layers in the block. Remote sensing study through IRS 1D LISS III, satellite imagery and SRTM data. The above details gathered from government and NGOs, the study objectives came into a final target that the urbanization and industrialization preferably the main reason for the water pollution in the environment. Water pollution promotes the disturbances in the total surroundings in relation to health, traffic concession, over exploitation in and around the polluted area.

Alaguraja P; Yuvaraj D

86

SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Based on experiments with model systems of known organic water pollutants and environmental samples, conclusions are reached concerning the best general solvent for extraction and the most appropriate methods for related manipulations. Chloroform, methylene chloride-ether mixture...

87

Pollution of Natural Waters 1. Redox chemistry  

E-print Network

Pollution of Natural Waters Outline: 1. Redox chemistry 2. Redox potential in aquatic systems 3. Eutrophication 4. Water treatment 1. Redox chemistry #15; Principle of equilibration of chemical system R Keq on pH since Q r often dependent on pH 2. Redox potential in natural waters #15; Can be viewed

Schofield, Jeremy

88

Water Resource Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal, published by the University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Science (IFAS) Extension, offers a selection of links to information about water management issues. There is a 'Beginner's Guide to Water Management', which provides a basic introduction to the terminology and concepts used in water management. Other links access information on management in coastal waters, the impact of climate change on water resources, the use of stormwater as an alternative supply, wastewater management, and many others.

89

A model for managing sources of groundwater pollution.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The waste disposal capacity of a groundwater system can be maximized while maintaining water quality at specified locations by using a groundwater pollutant source management model that is based upon linear programing and numerical simulation. The decision variables of the management model are solute waste disposal rates at various facilities distributed over space. A concentration response matrix is used in the management model to describe transient solute transport and is developed using the US Geological Survey solute transport simulation model. The management model was applied to a complex hypothetical groundwater system. -from Author

Gorelick, S.M.

1982-01-01

90

POLLUTION OF WATER Blank page retained for pagination  

E-print Network

CHAPTER XX POLLUTION OF WATER #12;Blank page retained for pagination #12;ASPECTS OF WATER POLLUTION IN THE COASTAL AREA OF THE GULF OF MEXICOl Prepared in the DIVISION of WATER POLLUTION CONTROL and SHELLFISH, and Welfare Principal natural resources of the Gulf that ap- pear susceptible to damages from water pollution

91

Lab 3 GEO 465/565 Storm Water Pollution  

E-print Network

1 Lab 3 ­ GEO 465/565 Storm Water Pollution The Nation's Most Significant Water Quality Problem our rivers, lakes and coastal waters by controlling pollution from industry and sewage treatment, is that we have not done enough to stop storm water pollution, or non-point source pollution, that runs off

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

92

Marine pollution and management of shores; Pollutions marines et amenagement des rivages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fourteen chapters of the book are presented in three sections ; entitled description of marine pollution, oceanographic techniques in marine ; pollution studies, and prevention of marine pollution and management of shores. ; The first section discusses thermal, bacterial, radioactive, chemical and organic ; pollution. In the chapter on thermal pollution, emphasis is placed on the ; effects of

M. Aubert; J. Aubert

1973-01-01

93

Special Topics in Water Science (Water Pollution)  

MedlinePLUS

... A Teachers Contact Back to previous page Special Topics in Water Science Our Special Topics section lets you explore other water-science topic areas, such as water quality, urbanization and water, ...

94

Urbanization, Water Pollution, and Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewed in this report is a study concerned with water pollution as it relates to urbanization within the Regional Plan Association's set of 21 contiguous New York, New Jersey and Connecticut counties centered upon the numerous bay and estuarial reaches of the Port of New York and New Jersey. With a time frame covering a decade of water quality…

Carey, George W.; And Others

95

Water hyacinths for removal of phenols from polluted waters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Removal of phenol by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in static water was investigated. 2.75 g dry weight of this aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to absorb 100 mg of phenol per plant per 72 hours from distilled water, river water, and bayou water. One hectare of water hyacinth plants is shown to be potentially capable of removing 160 kg of phenol per 72 hours from waters polluted with this chemical.

Wolverton, B. C.

1975-01-01

96

Sensitivity Analysis for some Water Pollution Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensitivity Analysis for Some Water Pollution Problems Francois-Xavier Le Dimet1 & Tran Thu Ha2 & M. Yousuff Hussaini3 1Université de Grenoble, France, 2Vietnamese Academy of Sciences, 3 Florida State University Sensitivity analysis employs some response function and the variable with respect to which its sensitivity is evaluated. If the state of the system is retrieved through a variational data assimilation process, then the observation appears only in the Optimality System (OS). In many cases, observations have errors and it is important to estimate their impact. Therefore, sensitivity analysis has to be carried out on the OS, and in that sense sensitivity analysis is a second order property. The OS can be considered as a generalized model because it contains all the available information. This presentation proposes a method to carry out sensitivity analysis in general. The method is demonstrated with an application to water pollution problem. The model involves shallow waters equations and an equation for the pollutant concentration. These equations are discretized using a finite volume method. The response function depends on the pollutant source, and its sensitivity with respect to the source term of the pollutant is studied. Specifically, we consider: • Identification of unknown parameters, and • Identification of sources of pollution and sensitivity with respect to the sources. We also use a Singular Evolutive Interpolated Kalman Filter to study this problem. The presentation includes a comparison of the results from these two methods. .

Le Dimet, François-Xavier; Tran Thu, Ha; Hussaini, Yousuff

2014-05-01

97

Behavioural early warning responses to polluted water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural early warning responses to polluted surface water from an industrial effluent have been measured in two freshwater\\u000a macroinvertebrate species using the four electrode impedance conversion technique. Specimens ofGammarus pulex (L.) andHydropsycho angustipennis (Curtis) were caught from reference streams and exposed to water from above and below the factory and to reference water\\u000a for about 1 h with different kinds

Almut Gerhardt

1996-01-01

98

Design an effective storm water pollution prevention plan  

SciTech Connect

A case history shows ``how`` to plan and organize a storm water pollution prevention program (SWPPP). Using easy-to-use worksheets and guidelines, hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) operators can build upon existing best management practices (i.e., housekeeping procedures, visual inspections, spill prevention programs, etc.) to meet tighter restrictions set by National Pollutant Discharge Elimination system (NPDES) permits. Especially in high rainfall areas, storm water poses an intermittent, but large volume problem. The facility`s site size is another factor that impacts the scope and cost for SWPPP. The five steps to implementing a SWPPP are: Planning and organization; Assessment; Best management practice (BMP) identification; Implementation; Evaluation and monitoring. Initially, HPI operators must identify all potential contamination sources and past spills and leak areas. Following the SWPP guidelines, operators can map out a cost-effective storm water program that meets all NPDES requirements.

Vivona, M.A. [Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-08-01

99

Modelling and Simulation of a Polluted Water Pumping Process  

E-print Network

Modelling and Simulation of a Polluted Water Pumping Process Chitra Alavani1 , Roland Glowinski2 concentration when a polluted water pumping ship follows a pre­assigned trajectory to remove the pollutant. We for simplicity that the density of the pollutant is smaller than the one of the sea water (so that it remains

Tradacete, Pedro

100

Farm Solutions to Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this KET video from Common Ground and Cleaner Water, Tribby Vice, a Kentucky farmer, talks about the changes he has made on his farm to protect the water quality of the stream running through his property and the watershed in which he lives.

Ket

2008-09-02

101

E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (water pollution and control). E-mail newsletter  

SciTech Connect

Topics of discussion include the following: Pollution by municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mine wastes, radioactive contaminants; Chemistry and analysis of pollutants; Thermal pollution; Oil pollution; Control techniques and equipment; Sewage treatment; Industrial waste water pretreatment; Hydrology and limnology; Biological and ecological effects; Waste water reuse; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

NONE

1999-04-01

102

An integrated system for nonpoint source pollution modelling and management.  

PubMed

Modelling the impact of nonpoint source pollution (NSP) is a complex problem that has troubled water resource managers for many years when trying to set up proper management practices in catchment areas. In this paper, an integrated decision support system, NPSDSS (nonpoint source decision support system), was introduced to resolve this problem in a relatively easy way. The system was developed in a unique platform and integrated with the IMPULSE (integrated model of nonpoint source pollution processes) model, a stand alone geographic information system (GIS) toolbox, a well-structured database, a measure screening model, and an expert system, as well. The system has been applied in the Dianchi Lake catchment area and shown to give a good perspective on providing useful recommendations for appropriate NSP management. PMID:17302310

Zhang, D; Chen, J; Du, P; He, W

2006-01-01

103

Lawn Water Management  

E-print Network

Water is a limited resource in Texas. This booklet explains how homeowners can establish a water management program for a home lawn that both maintains a healthy sod and also conserves water. The publication discusses soil types, grass varieties...

McAfee, James

2006-06-26

104

Water quality in sustainable water management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pollution is a serious problem as almost 70% of India's surface water resources and a growing number of its groundwater reserves have been contaminated by biological, organic and inorganic pollutants. Pollu - tion of surface and groundwater resources occurs through point and diffuse sources. Examples of point source pollution are effluents from industries and from sewage-treatment plants. Typical examples

Sudhakar M. Rao; P. Mamatha

105

Drainage water management for water quality protection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Land drainage has been central to the development of North America since colonial times. Increasingly, agricultural drainage is being targeted as a conduit for pollution, particularly nutrient pollution. The export of agricultural drainage water and associated pollutants to surface water can be mana...

106

Getting Research-based Information on Water and Pollutants to Those Who Need It  

E-print Network

Getting Research-based Information on Water and Pollutants to Those Who Need It By Steve Ress Becoming a one-stop shop for information on watershed management and agricultural nonpoint source pollution is a goal of the Heartland Regional Water Quality Coordination Initiative. The new initiative, developed

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

107

Mathematical modeling for water pollution control processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic and steady-state mathematical models have been developed to the extent that they can be used to evaluate, through a series of simulations, design and operation alternatives as well as control strategies for any system. This book focuses on process performance models in water pollution control. Its purpose is: to establish the current status of existing models with emphasis on

T. M. Keinath; M. P. Wanielista

1975-01-01

108

Public Information for Water Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a handbook for water pollution control personnel to guide them towards a successful public relations program. This handbook was written to incorporate the latest methods of teaching basic public information techniques to the non-professional in this area. Contents include: (1) a rationale for a public information program; (2)…

Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

109

Water Pollution, Environmental Science Curriculum Guide Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is a 40-day unit plan on water pollution developed, in part, from the National Science Foundation Environmental Science Institutes' Ninth Grade Environmental Science Curriculum Guide. This unit contains teacher lesson plans, suggested teacher and student modules, case studies, and activities to be developed by teachers…

McKenna, Harold J.

110

Water Pollution Control Across the Nation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewed are accomplishments, problems, and frustrations faced by individual states in meeting requirements of P.L. 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. State Environmental officials complain the new law may be a hindrance to established cleanup programs. Statistics and charts are given. (BL)

Environmental Science and Technology, 1973

1973-01-01

111

Magnetic separation in water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic separation as applied to waterborne contaminants is successful in reducing the solids content of a water sample and in removing the dissolved orthophosphate from the aqueous slurry. The contaminants are chemically associated with a magnetic seeding material, and subsequent removal of this seed sweeps the pollutants from the system. The advantage of this form of treatment over conventional techniques

CHRISTOPHER DE LATOUR

1973-01-01

112

Effects of Water Pollution on Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an inquiry activity that, while based on a local area (the San Francisco Bay), could be adapted to the teacher's/student's local area. Students perform an experiment in which they observe how water pollution is absorbed into plants. The site contains a teacher's guide and printable student worksheet.

113

Environmental impact analysis in water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for a wide?ranging environmental impact analysis to guide the establishment of water quality objectives and the associated effluent discharge standards is discussed. The particular problems associated with water pollution control are identified including: multiple and conflicting demands; multiple parameter objective specifications, the stochastic and time varying nature of the system; secondary and tertiary effects; and time?delay.Current environmental impact

Jeremy P. Lumbers

1985-01-01

114

Targeting of Watershed Management Practices for Water Quality Protection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ensuring a clean and adequate water supply implies conservative use of water and protecting water resources from pollution. Sediment, nutrient, and pesticide losses in runoff are major pollutants of surface waters in the Midwest. This publication addresses the targeting of best management practices ...

115

CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS VS. RETENTION POND BMPS: MESOCOSM STUDIES FOR IMPROVED POLLUTANT MANAGEMENT IN URBAN STORMWATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Increased urbanization has increased the amount of directly connected impervious area that results in large quantities of stormwater runoff. This runoff can contribute significant amounts of debris and pollutants to receiving waters. Urban watershed managers often incorporate b...

116

Total Water Management - Report  

EPA Science Inventory

There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

117

Receiving Water Uses, Impairments, and Sources of Stormwater Pollutants  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 2 Receiving Water Uses, Impairments, and Sources of Stormwater Pollutants "Bathing in sewage-polluted seawater carries only a negligible risk to health, even on beaches that are aesthetically) .........................................................................26 Recreation (Non-Water Contact) Uses

Pitt, Robert E.

118

Water quality management worldwide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article analyzes water quality on a global scale. An overview of the global water supply and demand situation is presented first, including regional and country information, as well as data on selected water use patterns. The focus then shifts to a discussion of water pollution, its various causes, impact, and remedies, with emphasis on legal and administrative solutions. Water pollution control expenditures and the resultant achievements are dealt with in the final third of the article, with projections to 1995. A wide variety of published sources was dovetailed to obtain a composite picture and most likely scenario; this was supplemented with primary interviews by the author conducted in North America, Western and Eastern Europe, and Oceania at the start of the 1980s.

Gross, Andrew Charles

1986-01-01

119

Water pollution control in Canada: cleanup through collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent survey indicates that Canadians are willing to pay more taxes and higher prices to solve their country's air and water pollution problems. The political pollution control organization in Canada, the development of regulations for water pollution control, municipal facility construction and treatment levels, and the challenge for the Great Lakes are discussed. Environmental problems in Canada, particularly water

Feliciano

1979-01-01

120

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN (RISK LEVEL 1)  

E-print Network

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN (RISK LEVEL 1) for BUILDING 90 USER TEST BED FACILITY.G., GEOLOGIST/QSD (530) 222-4339 SWPPP Preparation Date: JUNE 10, 2012 #12;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan) 222-4339 Name and Title Telephone Number #12;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan Building 90 User

Eisen, Michael

121

Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

Rowbotham, N.

1973-01-01

122

Ship'S Ballast Water And Marine Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of invasive marine species into new environments by ships' ballast water attached to ships' hulls and via\\u000a other vectors has been identified as one of the four greatest threats to the world's oceans. The other three are land-based\\u000a sources of marine pollution, over exploitation of living marine resources and physical alteration\\/destruction of marine habitat.\\u000a Ballast is any material

T. Satir

123

The national recreational fishing benefits of water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented of an effort to estimate the fresh water recreational fishing benefit derived from water pollution control efforts. Methodology is potentially applicable to other subcategories. (PSB)

Clifford S. Russell; William J. Vaughan

1982-01-01

124

Water Management: towards 2030  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from Agriculture21 cites the management practices and policies that will be necessary to avoid water crises in the coming three decades. There are links to information on raising water productivity, improving irrigation technology, and modernizing irrigation management. The text is available in English, French, Spanish, Arabic, and Chinese.

125

Sanitary landfills: Water pollution. January 1980-August 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Aug 91  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, operation, and management of sanitary landfills as related to water pollution. Topics include water pollution control, leachate analyses, site studies, environmental monitoring, and solid waste management strategies. Hazardous materials, public health, refuse disposal, and waste disposal are considered. (Contains 126 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1991-07-01

126

An application of Landsat and computer technology to potential water pollution from soil erosion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Agricultural activity has been recognized as the primary source of nonpoint source water pollution. Water quality planners have needed information that is timely, accurate, easily reproducible, and relatively inexpensive to utilize to implement 'Best Management Practices' for water quality. In this paper, a case study shows how the combination of satellite data, which can give accurate land-cover/land-use information, and a computerized geographic information system, can assess nonpoint pollution at a regional scale and be cost effective.

Campbell, W. J.

1981-01-01

127

Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, & Infant Mortality in India  

E-print Network

Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, environmental regulations, and infant mortality from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental ...

Greenstone, Michael

2011-07-01

128

Adaptive hierarchical grid model of water-borne pollutant dispersion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water pollution by industrial and agricultural waste is an increasingly major public health issue. It is therefore important for water engineers and managers to be able to predict accurately the local behaviour of water-borne pollutants. This paper describes the novel and efficient coupling of dynamically adaptive hierarchical grids with standard solvers of the advection-diffusion equation. Adaptive quadtree grids are able to focus on regions of interest such as pollutant fronts, while retaining economy in the total number of grid elements through selective grid refinement. Advection is treated using Lagrangian particle tracking. Diffusion is solved separately using two grid-based methods; one is by explicit finite differences, the other a diffusion-velocity approach. Results are given in two dimensions for pure diffusion of an initially Gaussian plume, advection-diffusion of the Gaussian plume in the rotating flow field of a forced vortex, and the transport of species in a rectangular channel with side wall boundary layers. Close agreement is achieved with analytical solutions of the advection-diffusion equation and simulations from a Lagrangian random walk model. An application to Sepetiba Bay, Brazil is included to demonstrate the method with complex flows and topography.

Borthwick, A. G. L.; Marchant, R. D.; Copeland, G. J. M.

129

A Report of the Regional Monitoring Program for Water Quality in the San Francisco Estuary pollutant effects on aquatic life  

E-print Network

Program for Water Quality in the San Francisco Estuary 2011 pollutant effects on aquatic life pulse goals of Bay water quality managers is to ensure that pollutants do not interfere with the abilityA Report of the Regional Monitoring Program for Water Quality in the San Francisco Estuary

130

Water pollution in Lake Michigan by trace elements from pollution aerosol fallout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain trace elements which are strongly associated with air pollution sources in the Lake Michigan basin may be contributing significantly to lake water pollution by an atmospheric fallout route. In this paper a partial inventory of air pollution emissions for 30 trace elements is presented for the Chicago, Milwaukee, and northwest Indiana metropolitan areas, based on available published information. The

John W. Winchester; Gordon D. Nifong

1971-01-01

131

2.0 Storm Water Pollution Prevention Team  

E-print Network

Sample SWPPP Note: a DNR storm water permit does not require use of this particular Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP). This SWPPP is provided solely for voluntary use by industrial storm water permittees.

unknown authors

132

Watershed management: Clean water`s next act  

SciTech Connect

14 articles related to watershed management comprise this special advertising section of the Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies. Subtopics include water quality, regulations, US Environmental Protection Agency activities, analysis tools, economics, flooding and erosions, and non-point source pollutions. Articles on arid and coastal are included. Several articles describe municipal watershed programs being planned or in place.

Hite, R.W. [Metro Wastewater Reclamation District, Denver, CO (United States)

1996-09-23

133

Water quality beneath urban runoff water management basins  

SciTech Connect

The chemical impact of urban runoff water on water quality beneath five retention/recharge basins was investigated as part of the US EPA's Nationwide Urban Runoff Program in Fresno, California. Soil water percolating through alluvium soils and the ground water at the top of the water table were sampled with ceramic/Teflon vacuum water extractors at depths up to 26 m during the two-year investigation. Inorganic and organic pollutants are present in the runoff water delivered to the basins. No significant contamination of percolating soil water or ground water underlying any of the five retention/recharge basins has occurred for constituents monitored in the study. The oldest basin was constructed in 1962. The concentration of selected trace elements in the ground water samples was similar to the levels reported in the regional ground water. None of the pesticides or other organic priority pollutants, for which water samples were analyzed, was detected except diazinon which was found in trace amounts (0.3 g/L or less) in only three soil water samples. These results are important to the continued conservation of storm water and the development of a best management practice for storm-water management using retention/recharge basins in a semi-arid climate.

Nightingale, H.I.

1987-04-01

134

Purge water management system  

DOEpatents

A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

1995-01-01

135

Purge water management system  

DOEpatents

A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

Cardoso-Neto, Joao E. (North Augusta, SC); Williams, Daniel W. (Aiken, SC)

1996-01-01

136

Controlling the entrance of toxic pollutants into U. S. waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statutory authority for water pollution control is mandated primarily by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act; however, eight other federal laws also apply. These are: Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972; Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974; Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1974; Ports and Waterways Safety Act of 1972; Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act of

Barrett

1978-01-01

137

Removal of Estrogenic Pollutants from Contaminated Water Using  

E-print Network

Removal of Estrogenic Pollutants from Contaminated Water Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Z I H that this material may be appropriate for treating a complex mixture of estrogenic pollutants. The feasibility of removing estrogenic compounds from environmental water by the MIP was demonstrated using lake water spiked

Chen, Wilfred

138

Controlling Nonpoint-Source Water Pollution: A Citizen's Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Citizens can play an important role in helping their states develop pollution control programs and spurring effective efforts to deal with nonpoint-source pollution. This guide takes the reader step-by-step through the process that states must follow to comply with water quality legislation relevant to nonpoint-source pollution. Part I provides…

Hansen, Nancy Richardson; And Others

139

Conference Topic: Integrated Water Resources and Coastal Areas Management National Water Information Systems: A Tool to Support Integrated Water Resources  

E-print Network

of natural disasters; and reduced water quality due to pollution from industrial, agricultural and municipalConference Topic: Integrated Water Resources and Coastal Areas Management National Water Information Systems: A Tool to Support Integrated Water Resources Management in the Caribbean Marie-Claire St

Barthelat, Francois

140

Management of oil pollution of natural resources in Nigeria  

SciTech Connect

Oil spillages are prominent features of petroleum exploitation in Nigeria. For instance, within the decade 1970-1980, the country experienced 18 major spills. Oil pollution adversely affects the water and soil resources of the petroleum-producing Niger Delta. There have been attempts to manage the increasing menace of oil spills, and two strategies may be identified. These are the legislative and the project implementation approaches. The first approach relies on preventative laws, while the second, more or less curative, depends on the implementation of projects for the monitoring, control, and clearance of spilled oil. There are various problems in the effective operation of both strategies, and the persistence of spills, many of them avoidable, tends to indicate lapses in the management attempts. 12 references, 4 tables.

Ikporukpo, C.O.

1985-04-01

141

Preventing Water Pollution Tips for Vehicle Washing and Detailing Businesses  

E-print Network

Vehicle washing and detailing practices can produce: • soaps and cleaners • oil and antifreeze • dirt and grease • metals If these pollutants reach waterways, they can cause significant water pollution problems. YOU can prevent that. Standing on the edge of a storm drain is like standing on the shore of a stream. Stormwater carries pollutants that harm aquatic life and impact swimming and fishing. According to the Washington State Department of Ecology, stormwater is the number one source of water pollution in the urban areas of Western Washington. Thousands of small spills from many of us add up to our biggest pollution problem.

Stormwater Bmps For The Automotive

142

The Current State of Water Quality and Technology Development for Water Pollution Control in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes and presents an overview of the current state of water pollution, as well as recent progress and the potential future development of water pollution control technology, in China. Although China has made significant strides in water environmental protection over the past decades, analysis reveals that water pollution in the nation is still not sufficiently controlled, with a

Jiuhui Qu; Maohong Fan

2010-01-01

143

Water-pollution control: guidelines for project planning and financing. World Bank technical paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication provides guidelines to managers, supervisors, and others who are involved with decisions on filling needs for water-pollution-control facilities, but who may be lacking the detailed background in engineering, economics, financial management, or other applicable specialties. Political and economic planning leaders, who must provide the financial resources and overall policies, will also find the document useful in making themselves

R. C. Palange; A. Zavala

1987-01-01

144

Eutrophication assessment and management methodology of multiple pollution sources of a landscape lake in North China.  

PubMed

Landscape lakes in the city suffer high eutrophication risk because of their special characters and functions in the water circulation system. Using a landscape lake HMLA located in Tianjin City, North China, with a mixture of point source (PS) pollution and non-point source (NPS) pollution, we explored the methodology of Fluent and AQUATOX to simulate and predict the state of HMLA, and trophic index was used to assess the eutrophication state. Then, we use water compensation optimization and three scenarios to determine the optimal management methodology. Three scenarios include ecological restoration scenario, best management practices (BMPs) scenario, and a scenario combining both. Our results suggest that the maintenance of a healthy ecosystem with ecoremediation is necessary and the BMPs have a far-reaching effect on water reusing and NPS pollution control. This study has implications for eutrophication control and management under development for urbanization in China. PMID:23184129

Chen, Yanxi; Niu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Hongwei

2013-06-01

145

33 CFR 151.1514 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Ballast water management alternatives under... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2010-07-01

146

33 CFR 151.1512 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...schedule for approved ballast water management methods. 151... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2014-07-01

147

33 CFR 151.1515 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Ballast water management alternatives under... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2014-07-01

148

33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...for failure to conduct ballast water management. 151.1518... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2014-07-01

149

33 CFR 151.2035 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...schedule for approved ballast water management methods. 151... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2014-07-01

150

33 CFR 151.1515 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Ballast water management alternatives under... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2013-07-01

151

33 CFR 151.1512 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...schedule for approved ballast water management methods. 151... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2012-07-01

152

33 CFR 151.1514 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Ballast water management alternatives under... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2011-07-01

153

33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for failure to conduct ballast water management. 151.1518... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2012-07-01

154

33 CFR 151.1512 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...schedule for approved ballast water management methods. 151... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2013-07-01

155

33 CFR 151.2035 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...schedule for approved ballast water management methods. 151... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2012-07-01

156

33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for failure to conduct ballast water management. 151.1518... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2013-07-01

157

33 CFR 151.1515 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Ballast water management alternatives under... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2012-07-01

158

33 CFR 151.2035 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...schedule for approved ballast water management methods. 151... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2013-07-01

159

33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for failure to conduct ballast water management. 151.1518... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2011-07-01

160

33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for failure to conduct ballast water management. 151.1518... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2010-07-01

161

Nonpoint Source Pollution: Agriculture, Forestry, and Mining. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nonpoint sources of pollution have diffuse origins and are major contributors to water quality problems in both urban and rural areas. Addressed in this instructor's manual are the identification, assessment, and management of nonpoint source pollutants resulting from mining, agriculture, and forestry. The unit, part of the Working for Clean Water

Buskirk, E. Drannon, Jr.

162

Areawide planning under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972: intergovernmental and land-use implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

By 1972 Congress had recognized the impossibility of controlling water pollution without some degree of land use management. Congress subsequently amended the Federal Water Pollution Control Act by adding section 208, which creates a Federal system of areawide planning. This comment analyzes the planning responsibilities that section 208 imposed upon state and metropolitan governments, the new element of Federal control

Jungman

1977-01-01

163

Research needs and priorities: water pollution control benefits and costs. Volume II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research needs and priorities involving water pollution control costs ; and benefits are specified. A series of theoretical and methodological research ; needs are presented. Water quality management is required in a dynamic setting ; and over a broad range of hydrologic and economic conditions. The common ; property resource aspects of the problem with the prevalence of externalities ;

D. L. Jordening; J. K. Allwood

1973-01-01

164

Pollution-control equipment (Colombia). Water-pollution-control equipment, May 1992. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

There are few manufacturers of water pollution control equipment in Colombia. Imports of water pollution equipment decreased 14 percent from US $16.3 million in 1990 to US $14.2 million in 1991. For 1992, they may fall 5 percent to US $13.5 million due to the slow performance of the economy. The close relationship with U.S. suppliers and the possible enforcement of water quality standards could influence favorably the growth of imports within the next three years. For many years, the U.S. has been the major supplier of water pollution control equipment.

Not Available

1992-05-01

165

EFFECTIVENESS OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential water quality effects and economic implications of soil and water conservation practices (SWCPs) are identified. Method for estimating the effects of SWCPs on pollutant losses from croplands are presented. Mathematical simulation and linear programming models were u...

166

Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

Fowler, K. E. M.

167

Loading functions for assessment of water pollution from nonpoint sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for evaluating the quantity of water pollutants generated from nonpoint sources including agriculture, silviculture, construction, mining, runoff from urban areas and rural roads, and terrestrial disposal are developed and compiled for use in water quality planning. The loading functions, plus in some instances emission values, permit calculation of nonpoint source pollutants from available data and information. Natural background was

A. D. McElroy; S. Y. Chiu; J. W. Nebgen; A. Aleti; F. W. Bennett

1976-01-01

168

Impact of land-use on water pollution in a rapidly urbanizing catchment in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many catchments in developing countries are undergoing fast urbanization which is usually characterized by population increase, economic growth as well as drastic changes of land-use from natural/rural to urban area. During the urbanization process, some catchments experience water quality deterioration due to rapid increase of pollution loads. Nonpoint source pollution resulting from storm water runoff has been recognized as one of the major causes of pollutants in many cities in developing countries. The composition of land-use for a rapidly urbanizing catchment is usually heterogeneous, and this may result in significant spatial variations of storm runoff pollution and increase the difficulties of water quality management in the catchment. The Shiyan Reservoir catchment, a typical rapidly urbanizing area in China, is chosen as the study area, and temporary monitoring sites were set at the outlets of its 6 sub-catchments to synchronously measured rainfall, runoff and water quality during 4 storm events. Three indicators, event pollutant loads per unit area (EPL), event mean concentration (EMC) and pollutant loads transported by the first 50% of runoff volume (FF50), were used to describe the runoff pollution for different pollutants (such as COD, BOD, NH3-N, TN, TP and SS) in each sub-catchment during the storm events; and the correlations between runoff pollution spatial variations and land-use patterns were tested by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The results indicated that similar spatial variation trends were found for different pollutants (EPL or EMC) in light storm events, which strongly correlate with the proportion of residential land-use; however, they have different trends in heavy storm events, which correlate with the different proportional combination of residential, industrial, agricultural and bare land-use. It is also shown that it is necessary to consider some pervious land-use types in runoff pollution monitoring or management for a rapidly urbanizing area, particularly in heavy storm.

Khu, Soon-Thiam; Qin, Huapeng

2010-05-01

169

Energy and Water Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Energy efficiency isn't just a good idea; it's a necessity, both for cost reasons and to meet federal regulatory requirements. First, rising energy unit costs continue to erode NASA's mission budget. NASA spent roughly $156M on facility energy in FY 2007. Although that represents less than one per cent of NASA's overall annual budget, the upward trend in energy costs concerns the agency. While NASA reduced consumption 13%, energy unit costs have risen 63%. Energy cost increases counteract the effects of energy conservation, which results in NASA buying less yet spending more. The second factor is federal energy legislation. The National Energy Conservation Policy Act, as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Executive Order (EO) 13423 (January, 2007), and the Energy Independence and Security Act (December, 2007), mandates energy/water conservation goals for all federal agencies, including NASA. There are also reporting requirements associated with this legislation. The Energy/Water Management Task was created to support NASA Headquarters Environmental Management Division (HO EMD) in meeting these requirements. With assistance from TEERM, HQ EMD compiled and submitted the NASA Annual Report to the Department of Energy FY 2007. The report contains information on how NASA is meeting federally mandated energy and water management goals. TEERM monitored input for timeliness, errors, and conformity to the new energy/water reporting guidelines and helped compile the information into the final report. TEERM also assists NASA Energy/Water Management with proposal and award calls, updates to the energy/water management database, and facilitating communication within the energy/water management community. TEERM is also supporting NASA and the Interagency Working Group (IWG) on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells. Established shortly after the President announced the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in 2003, this IWG serves as the mechanism for collaboration among the Federal agencies involved in hydrogen-related research, development, and demonstration. TEERM developed a matrix showing all Hydrogen and Fuel Cell activities from the various NASA centers to be included in the Group's extensive hydrogen research taxonomy of past, present, and future hydrogen activities of the Federal government.

Valek, Susan E.

2008-01-01

170

Enforcement of Section 208 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 to control nonpoint source pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpoint source pollution (NPS) caused by agriculture, road building, and other activities is, while less visible than point source pollution, recognized as such a major contributor to water pollution that it must be brought under control. Section 208 is the only portion of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 to deal directly with the NPS problem. The

Wicker

1979-01-01

171

Seeking More Effective Management of Freshwater Pollution  

EPA Science Inventory

The atmosphere contains airborne pollutants such as mercury, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides released from automobiles, factories, and power plants. Similarly, land surfaces such as croplands, feedlots, logged forests, construction sites, and urban land surfaces may be reserv...

172

IMPROVED POLLUTANT MANAGEMENT IN URBAN STORMWATER BMPS  

EPA Science Inventory

Increased urbanization has resulted in a larger percentage of impervious areas that produce large quantities of stormwater runoff and contribute significant amounts of debris and pollutants (e.g., litter, oils, heavy metals, sediments, nutrients, organic matter, and microorganism...

173

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

2014-07-01

174

9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. 318...14 Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. (a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited...

2014-01-01

175

9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. 381...151 Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. (a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited...

2012-01-01

176

9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. 381...151 Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. (a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited...

2014-01-01

177

9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. 381...151 Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. (a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited...

2013-01-01

178

9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. 318...14 Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. (a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited...

2013-01-01

179

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The...requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

2012-01-01

180

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2011-04-01

181

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The...requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

2011-01-01

182

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2010-01-01

183

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2010-04-01

184

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts...7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

2011-10-01

185

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The...requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

2010-01-01

186

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The...requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

2013-01-01

187

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts...7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

2012-10-01

188

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2014-01-01

189

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2012-01-01

190

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2012-04-01

191

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts...7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

2010-10-01

192

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2013-04-01

193

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

2011-07-01

194

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

2013-07-01

195

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts...et seq. ) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33...

2013-10-01

196

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2013-01-01

197

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

2010-07-01

198

40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in...

2012-07-01

199

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The...requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

2014-01-01

200

19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,...

2014-04-01

201

"Some, for all, forever" Managing Water for Sustainable Development in South Africa  

E-print Network

" Integrated Water Resources Management in South Africa" a. Natural Conditions and Hydrology b. Pollution c"Some, for all, forever" Managing Water for Sustainable Development in South Africa Priscilla a growing population, pollution, and other unsustainable uses of water are putting this invaluable resource

Mauzerall, Denise

202

Decision support system for drinking water management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problems in drinking water management are complex and often solutions must be reached under strict time constrains. This is especially distinct in case of environmental accidents in the catchment areas of the wells that are used for drinking water supply. The beneficial tools that can help decision makers and make program of activities more efficient are decision support systems (DSS). In general they are defined as computer-based support systems that help decision makers utilize data and models to solve unstructured problems. The presented DSS was developed in the frame of INCOME project which is focused on the long-term stable and safe drinking water supply in Ljubljana. The two main water resources Ljubljana polje and Barje alluvial aquifers are characterized by a strong interconnection of surface and groundwater, high vulnerability, high velocities of groundwater flow and pollutant transport. In case of sudden pollution, reactions should be very fast to avoid serious impact to the water supply. In the area high pressures arising from urbanization, industry, traffic, agriculture and old environmental burdens. The aim of the developed DSS is to optimize the activities in cases of emergency water management and to optimize the administrative work regarding the activities that can improve groundwater quality status. The DSS is an interactive computer system that utilizes data base, hydrological modelling, and experts' and stakeholders' knowledge. It consists of three components, tackling the different abovementioned issues in water management. The first one utilizes the work on identification, cleaning up and restoration of illegal dumpsites that are a serious threat to the qualitative status of groundwater. The other two components utilize the predictive capability of the hydrological model and scenario analysis. The user interacts with the system by a graphical interface that guides the user step-by-step to the recommended remedial measures. Consequently, the acquisition of information to support the water management's decisions is simplified and faster, thus contributing to more efficient water management and a safer supply of drinking water.

Janža, M.

2012-04-01

203

Environmental economics: capital expenditures for air and water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey showed that in the period 1970-76, capital expenditures by industries and utilities for air pollution abatement of stationary sources was $19.8 billion compared with $12.9 billion for water pollution control. During the 1977-85 period, capital expenditures by industries and utilities for air pollution abatement are expected to total over $36 billion, of which $6.75 billion will be for

de la Rue

1977-01-01

204

Mine water pollution in Scotland: nature, extent and preventative strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scotland was one of the world's first industrialised countries, and has therefore also been one of the first countries to experience wholesale post-industrial dereliction. Water pollution arising from abandoned mines, particularly abandoned coal mines, is second only to sewage as a source of freshwater pollution nation-wide, and in many coalfield catchments it is the pre-eminent source. Most of the pollution

P. L. Younger

2001-01-01

205

Integrated Water Management Options in the Nebraska Ground Water Management &  

E-print Network

Integrated Water Management Options in the Nebraska Ground Water Management & Protection Act by J. David Aiken UNL Water & Agricultural Law Specialist Nebraska statutes authorize natural resources districts (NRDs) and the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources (DNR) to regulate ground water and surface

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

206

The latent causal chain of industrial water pollution in China.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to discover the latent causal chain of industrial water pollution in China and find ways to cure the wanton discharge of toxic waste from industries. It draws evidences from the past pollution incidents in China. Through further digging the back interests and relations by analyzing representative cases, extended theory about loophole derivations and causal chain effect is drawn. This theoretical breakthrough reflects deeper causality. Institutional defect instead of human error is confirmed as the deeper reason of frequent outbreaks of water pollution incidents in China. Ways for collaborative environmental governance are proposed. This paper contributes to a better understanding about the deep inducements of industrial water pollution in China, and, is meaningful for ensuring future prevention and mitigation of environmental pollution. It illuminates multiple dimensions for collaborative environmental governance to cure the stubborn problem. PMID:25467695

Miao, Xin; Tang, Yanhong; Wong, Christina W Y; Zang, Hongyu

2014-11-20

207

Stable Isotope Mixing Models as a Tool for Tracking Sources of Water and Water Pollutants  

EPA Science Inventory

One goal of monitoring pollutants is to be able to trace the pollutant to its source. Here we review how mixing models using stable isotope information on water and water pollutants can help accomplish this goal. A number of elements exist in multiple stable (non-radioactive) i...

208

Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation Division of Water Pollution Control  

E-print Network

Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation Division of Water Pollution Control):_________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Submit Application to: **Department of Environment and Conservation Division of Water Pollution Control

Gray, Matthew

209

Toward an effective and credible program: Water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the public demand for water pollution control remains loud, the political response has become deafening. The responsible political leadership in both parties has avoided the temptation to engage in competitive promises. But those seeking instant solutions and those whose political response has been guided by the pressure of Earth Day have created an image about the pollution problem that

Leonard B. Dworsky

1970-01-01

210

Conflict between energy conservation and water pollution control standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential conflict in national needs for both energy conservation and water pollution control is indicated. Meeting broader obligations in reconciling these apparent differences has failed. Major contributions to energy conservation efforts needed today could be made without giving up any important pollution control goals. Hopefully, state and Federal regulatory agencies soon will recognize their obligations in this respect and

Lamb

1980-01-01

211

IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF FECAL POLLUTION IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of Microbial Source Tracking (MST) methods are currently used to determine the origin of fecal pollution impacting environmental waters. MST is based on the assumption that given the appropriate method and indicator organism, the source of fecal microbial pollution can ...

212

The allocative efficiency implications of water pollution abatement cost comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessments of the efficiency of water pollution control allocations are usually based on abatement cost comparisons. The general rule is that efficiency is improved by reallocating abatement from sources with high marginal costs to low-cost sources. The welfare-theoretic foundation of this rule is well established for situations with nonstochastic emissions. In situations with stochastic emissions, pollution control involves improving the

James S. Shortle

1990-01-01

213

ALTERNATIVE POLICIES FOR CONTROLLING NONPOINT AGRICULTURAL SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This study of policies for controlling water pollution from nonpoint agricultural sources includes a survey of existing state and Federal programs, agencies, and laws directed to the control of soil erosion. Six policies representing a variety of approaches to this pollution prob...

214

Spatially based management of agricultural phosphorus pollution from diffuse sources: the SCIMAP risk based approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollution of rivers from agricultural phosphorus is recognised as a significant global problem and is a major management challenge as it involves processes that are small in magnitude, distributed over large areas, operating at fine spatial scales and associated with certain land use types when they are well connected to the receiving waters. Whilst some of these processes have been

S. M. Reaney; L. Heathwaite; C. Buckley

2007-01-01

215

Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen  

E-print Network

information, we are confident that: (1) nonpoint pollution of surface waters with P and N could be reduced by reducing surplus nutrient flows in agricultural systems and processes, reducing agricultural and urban runoff by diverse methods, and reducing N...

Carpenter, S. R.; Caraco, N. F.; Correll, D. L.; Howarth, R. W.; Sharpley, A. N.; Smith, Val H.

1998-08-01

216

NONPOINT POLLUTION OF SURFACE WATERS WITH PHOSPHORUS AND NITROGEN  

E-print Network

to downstream aquatic ecosystems, and which can also volatilize to the atmosphere, redepositing elsewhere and eventually reaching aquatic ecosystems. If current practices continue, nonpoint pollution of surface waters is virtually certain to increase...

Carpenter, Stephen R.; Caraco, Nina F. M.; Correll, David L.; Howarth, Robert W.; Sharpley, Andrew N.; Smith, Val H.

1998-01-01

217

Recruitment and Employment of the Water Pollution Control Specialist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are the basic principles of personnel recruitment and employment for the water pollution control field. Attention is given to determination of staffing requirements, effective planning, labor sources, affirmative action, and staffing policies. (CS)

Sherrard, J. H.; Sherrard, F. A.

1979-01-01

218

A Philosophy of Water Pollution Control--Past and Present.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview of water pollution control in the U.S. is given, leading to an analysis of present policy trends. A "rational environmental program" is called for to provide economic growth and environmental quality. (MDR)

Schroeffer, George J.

1978-01-01

219

Assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote measurement of chlorophyll concentrations to determine extent of water pollution is discussed. Construction and operation of radiometer to provide measurement capability are explained. Diagram of equipment is provided.

Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

1972-01-01

220

Indoor Air Pollution: An Energy Management Problem?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy conservation measures have led to airtight buildings and reduced levels of ventilation resulting in indoor air pollution. Five kinds of contaminants--tobacco smoke, combustion products, microorganisms, organic compounds, and radon--are described, their hazards considered, and countermeasures outlined. (MLF)

Cousins, David M.; Kulba, John W.

1987-01-01

221

Energy requirements for industrial water pollution control. a perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of available information on energy requirements (ER) for industrial air and water pollution control to meet the existing U.S. Legislation (e.g., the Public Law 92-500) includes estimates of the ER by sector (industry, powerplants, and municipal wastes), by pollutant type (water, sulfur oxides, particulates, and thermal wastes), and by industry for 1977-1983, showing the relative importance of the

Serth

1978-01-01

222

Hydrocarbon analysis of shrimp from oil polluted waters  

E-print Network

HYDROCARBON ANALYSIS OF SHRIMP FROM OIL POLLUTED WATERS A Thesis by BERNARD JOHN DEWITT III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1982... Major Subject: Food Science and Technology HYDROCARBON ANALYSIS OF SHRIMP FROM OIL POLLUTED WATERS A Thesis BERNARD JOHN DEWITT III Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) (Head of apartment) May 1982...

DeWitt, Bernard John

2012-06-07

223

Outbreak of Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome occurred in the third week of a diarrhoea epidemic caused by water pollution in EL-Sult, Jordan. Of 30 000 people exposed to polluted water, 5000 developed diarrhoea, 74 typhoid, and 30 infectious hepatitis. Thirteen of the 16 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had been mildly affected by diarrhoea 8-24 days before the onset of peripheral neuropathy.

N A Sliman

1978-01-01

224

NATION WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ASSESSMENT MODEL - VERSION 2.1.  

EPA Science Inventory

NWPCAM brings together large amounts of environmental data and complex hydrologic and water quality modeling techniques into a system whose purpose is to estimate the water quality and economic benefits of water pollution control policies. NWPCAM began as a point source evaluati...

225

Water pollution in the USSR and other Eastern European countries*  

PubMed Central

The condition of water bodies and measures taken to prevent their pollution in the USSR, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Bulgaria and Romania are the main subjects of this paper. For each of these countries information is given on population and area, physical features, rain-fall and rivers, the distribution of population and industry, water supply and sewerage, the condition of surface and ground waters, the authorities and legislation concerned with the protection of water resources, and research on pollution. The author draws attention to the experience gained in these countries in the setting up of special State bodies to take charge of water resources and in classifying rivers according to the uses to which they are put, a factor which determines the regulations governing the discharge of effluent into them. A plea is also made for the convening of specialized international conferences on problems connected with the protection of European water resources from pollution. PMID:14465925

Litvinov, N.

1962-01-01

226

Consequences of Decentralization: Environmental Impact Assessment and Water Pollution Control in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

After having been one of the most centralized states in the world for more than thirty years, in 2001 Indonesia introduced a sweeping program of decentralization with important consequences for the management of the industrial sector. This article explores whether the decentralization process has led to substantial changes in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and enforcement of water pollution law. Its

ADRIAAN BEDNER

2010-01-01

227

Salmonella pollution in ground and surface waters. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the contamination of ground waters and surface waters by Salmonella bacteria. Articles discuss the occurence, survival, origin, and control of these bacteria in water sources including rivers, reservoirs, swimming pools, wastewater, aquifers, and ground water. Citations also address the use of Salmonella populations as biological indicators of pollution in aquatic systems. (Contains a minimum of 102 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-04-01

228

WASTE MANAGEMENT, ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE AND POLLUTION PREVENTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Management and Environmental Compliance Group within the Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is responsible for managing all waste generated in NMT facilities from operations with, or that support, actinide processing. These operations result in the generation of a variety of waste forms, from sanitary and salvage to radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste.

James J. Balkey; Ronald E. Wieneke

2000-01-01

229

Water management tools for Mississippi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our goal is to equip crop producers in the Southeast with tools to improve crop production and management including: • Knowledge of crop and soil water relations • Irrigation scheduling tools for better water management, and • Economic benefits of water conservation technologies Crop performance can...

230

River Pollution: Part II. Biological Methods for Assessing Water Quality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses methods used in the biological assessment of river quality and such indicators of clean and polluted waters as the Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score System, and species diversity indexes. Includes a summary of a river classification scheme based on quality criteria related to water use. (JN)

Openshaw, Peter

1984-01-01

231

Team Approaches for Agricultural Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpoint source water pollution, primarily from agricultural sources, is a major cause of water quality impairment. Uncertainty and asymmetric information are the key regulatory difficulties in the control of agricultural NPSP. The main target of this study is to describe a potential incentive scheme that can be applied in limited information situations. Team contracts built upon principal-agent theory are proposed.

Zou Jiliang; Yuan Yongkang

2009-01-01

232

Water pollution control: the case for local control and accountability  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a time when substantial changes are taking place, or are proposed, in the organizational structure for preventing water pollution in Scotland, the paper makes the case for maintaining the status quo. The Scottish system relies on 10 independent river purification authorities comprising elected and appointed members, with considerable freedom to set water quality objectives and standards in light of

David W. Mackay

1993-01-01

233

Identification and Control of Pollution from Salt Water Intrusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains informational guidelines for identifying and evaluating the nature and extent of pollution from salt water intrusion. The intent of these guidelines is to provide a basic framework for assessing salt water intrusion problems and their relationship to the total hydrologic system, and to provide assistance in developing…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

234

Spectral reflectance and radiance characteristics of water pollutants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral reflectance characteristics of water pollutants and water bodies were compiled using the existing literature. Radiance calculations were performed at satellite altitude for selected illumination angles and atmospheric conditions. The work described in this report was limited to the reflective portion of the spectrum between 0.40 micrometer to 1.0 micrometer.

Wezernak, C. T.; Turner, R. E.; Lyzenga, D. R.

1976-01-01

235

Research progress of nuclear, biological and chemical polluted water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a major victim of the biochemical warfare in the history, China is confronting the threat of new nuclear, chemical and biological warfare nowadays. Water is the main transmission mode of nuclear, chemical and biological warfare agent. Therefore pure water treatment becomes an important mode of Three Defenses. This paper mainly introduces the characteristics of chemical and biological pollution, the

Wang Xiaojie; Li Xiaojing; Ji Yunzhe

2011-01-01

236

NON-POINT SOURCE GROUND WATER POLLUTANTS IN SOUTH FLORIDA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Non-point source water pollutants resulting from agricultural areas have been implicated as a source of water quality degradation in South Florida, USA. The nutrients loading from agricultural and urban areas have increased nutrient concentrations, particularly phosphorus, at the Everglades National...

237

Pollution Of Ground Sources Of Drinking Water With Technogenic Tritium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems of fresh groundwater pollution with technogenic tritium are considered with Obninsk (Russia) for illustration. The\\u000a paper deals with engineering and geological reasons of groundwater pollution with tritium near Obninsk. Tritium concentrations\\u000a in municipal water intakes and springs are by 20–100 and 10,000 times, respectively, higher as compared to the background\\u000a value in Russia as a whole. The highest concentrations

Olga Momot; Boris Synzynys; Gennady Kozmin; Igor Silin

238

Water Pollution Control: Lessons from Transnational Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is fundamental to life, as reflected in space scientists' compulsive search for signs of its presence when scrutinizing other planets for possible life forms. Fortunately for our species, more than two-thirds of our planet is covered with water, creating an environment richly conducive to life. Humans have just begun to appreciate how precious earth's water resources are and how

Robert V. Percival

1998-01-01

239

Risk assessment and risk management of noncriteria pollutants.  

PubMed

Noncriteria air pollutants are synonymous with hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), air toxics or toxic air pollutants (TAPs). The term noncriteria pollutants refers to all air pollutants except for the criteria pollutants (SOx, PM, NOx, CO, O3, and Pb). Air toxics are pervasive in our environment worldwide in varying degrees. Uses of these chemicals are varied and numerous; their emissions are ubiquitous, and they include organic compounds such as chlorinated hydrocarbons, dioxins, aldehydes, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals such as chromium, nickel, cadmium, and mercury. There are more than 70,000 chemicals that are in use commercially in the United States, and we know relatively little about their ambient concentrations, persistence, transport and transformation as well as their effects on health and the environment, many of which take decades to emerge. The United States Environmental Protection Agency, under the authority of Section 112 of the Clean Air Act, is mandated to regulate any air pollutant which, in the Administrator's judgment, "causes, or contributes to, air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to result in an increase in serious irreversible or incapacitating reversible illness." For such regulatory decision-making, EPA's Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) provides scientific assessment of health effects for potentially hazardous air pollutants. In accordance with risk assessment guidelines developed by OHEA over the years, Health Assessment Documents (HADs) containing risk assessment information were prepared and were subjected to critical review and careful revision to produce Final Draft HADs which serve as scientific databases for regulatory decision-making by the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) in its risk management process. EPA developed databases such as the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) and the National Air Toxics Information Clearinghouse (NATICH) and a technical assistance response system called the Air Risk Information Support Center (AIR RISC), in addition, to help in implementation of the National Air Toxics Program by state and local regulators. PMID:1670281

Lee, S D

1990-10-01

240

Multicriteria methodological approach to manage urban air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing urban air pollution necessitates a feasible and efficient abatement strategy which is characterised as a defined set of specific control measures. In practice, hard budget constraints are present in any decision-making process and therefore available alternatives need to be hierarchised in a fast but still reliable manner. Moreover, realistic strategies require adequate information on the available control measures, taking

Ch. Vlachokostas; Ch. Achillas; N. Moussiopoulos; G. Banias

2011-01-01

241

Center for Water Resources Research Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

in assessing the susceptibility of surface water supplies to pollution from current and future activities, Hydrology, Models Descriptors: Drinking Water, Source Water, Pollution Sources, Watershed Management Supply Descriptors: Drinking water, source water, pollution sources, watershed management Primary PI

242

Economic Instruments for Water Pollution Control Policy making issues: Experiences from Colombia.  

E-print Network

??As part of the pollution control effort several developing countries have established economic-based initiatives to improve environmental quality. In this study the Colombian water pollution… (more)

Montoya, Monica Mildrei

2006-01-01

243

Pollution prevention: Avoiding the need to manage wastes  

SciTech Connect

Today`s industrial processes generate many types of waste products that constitute risks to human health and the surrounding environment. While proper waste management procedures can lower this risk, prevention of the waste`s generation will eliminate the risk. For this reason, the United States has established pollution prevention as a national objective, through the passage of its Pollution Prevention Act of 1990. Pollution prevention involves a wide range of approaches, all with the same objective: to reduce or eliminate the creation of waste at its source in other words, within the process that generates it. This objective, so beneficial to the environment, also coincides with industrial economic interests. Pollution prevention measures and greater process efficiency go hand in hand, and typically result in lower operating costs as well as greatly reduced waste management expenses. The US Environmental Protection Agency defines pollution prevention as the maximum feasible reduction of all wastes generated at production sites. This objective is accomplished largely through source reduction and reuse of input materials during production.

Meltzer, M.

1993-12-01

244

Water-Quality Trading: Can We Get the Price of Pollution Right?1  

E-print Network

Water-Quality Trading: Can We Get the Price of Pollution Right?1 Yoshifumi Konishi Faculty for pollution can work for air. Should they not work for water pollution too? The U.S. Environmental Protection known (Mauzerall et al., 2005). Spatial dependence is likely even more prominent for water pollution

Weiblen, George D

245

Managing Multimedia Pollution for a Multimedia World  

EPA Science Inventory

Through modest attention to the information highway we ride upon each day, we are increasingly aware of the intent, actions, and reactions of local, state and Federal governments, regional compacts, and international organizations to protect the quality of the water we drink, th...

246

MANAGING EXPOSURE TO INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS IN RESIDENTIAL AND OFFICE ENVIRONMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the factors to be considered in managing indoor air pollutants in residential and office environments to reduce occupant exposures. Techniques for managing indoor air pollution sources include: source elimination, substitution, modification, and pretreatment a...

247

Indoor pollution and burning practices in wood stove management.  

PubMed

This study evaluates effects of good burning practice and correct installation and management of wood heaters on indoor air pollution in an Italian rural area. The same study attests the role of education in mitigating wood smoke pollution. In August 2007 and winters of 2007 and 2008, in a little mountain village of Liguria Apennines (Italy), indoor and outdoor benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) concentrations were measured in nine wood-heated houses. During the first sampling, several mistakes in heating plant installations and management were found in all houses. Indoor BTEX concentrations increased during use of wood burning. Low toluene/benzene ratios were in agreement with wood smoke as main indoor and outdoor pollution source. Other BTEX sources were identified as the indoor use ofsolvents andpaints and incense burning. Results obtained during 2007 were presented and discussed with homeowners. Following this preventive intervention, in the second winter sampling all indoor BTEX concentrations decreased, in spite of the colder outdoor air temperatures. Information provided to families has induced the adoption of effective good practices in stoves and fire management. These results highlight the importance ofeducation, supported by reliable data on air pollution, as an effective method to reduce wood smoke exposures. PMID:25509552

Piccardo, M T; Cipolla, M; Stella, A; Ceppi, M; Bruzzone, M; Izzotti, A; Valerio, F

2014-11-01

248

DETERMINATION OF OCTANOL/WATER DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENTS, WATER SOLUBILITIES, AND SEDIMENT/WATER PARTITION COEFFICIENTS FOR HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Octanol/water distribution coefficients, water solubilities, and sediment/water partition coefficients are basic to any assessment of transport or dispersion of organic pollutants. In addition, these determinations are prerequisites for many chemical or biological process studies...

249

A Comparison of Erosion and Water Pollution Control Strategies for an Agricultural Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness and efficiency of two erosion control strategies and one water pollution control (riparian) strategy are compared for Idaho's Tom Beall watershed. Erosion control strategies maximize annualized net returns per hectare on each field and restrict field erosion rates to no more than 11.2 or 16.8 tons per hectare. The riparian strategy uses good vegetative cover on all fields adjacent to the creek and in noncropland areas and the resource management system that maximizes annualized net returns per hectare on remaining fields. The Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution model is used to simulate the levels and concentrations of sediment, nitrogen, phosphorus, and chemical oxygen demand at the outlet of the watershed. Erosion control strategies generate less total erosion and water pollution but are less efficient than the riparian strategy. The riparian strategy is less equitable for farmers than the erosion control strategies.

Prato, Tony; Shi, Hongqi

1990-02-01

250

VOLATILIZATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS FROM WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The volatilization of organic environmental contaminants from water bodies to the atmosphere was investigated. The general aim was to elucidate the factors that control the volatilization process and develop predictive methods for calculating volatilization rates for various comp...

251

Institutional instruments for water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the articulation of policies in the interface between economic production and water quality. One problem\\u000a is the introduction, at this production-ecologic interface, of unwanted water-borne residuals by firms and municipalities.\\u000a The policy objective is to absorb the social cost of environmental degradation into the production function within the two\\u000a constraints of efficiency in the allocation of

A. P. Grima

1981-01-01

252

Water pollution control in river basin by interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective programming  

SciTech Connect

The potential conflict between protection of water quality and economic development by different uses of land within river basins is a common problem in regional planning. Many studies have applied multiobjective decision analysis under uncertainty to problems of this kind. This paper presents the interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming (IFIMOMIP) model to evaluate optimal strategies of wastewater treatment levels within a river system by considering the uncertainties in decision analysis. The interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming approach is illustrated in a case study for the evaluation of optimal wastewater treatment strategies for water pollution control in a river basin. In particular, it demonstrates how different types of uncertainty in a water pollution control system can be quantified and combined through the use of interval numbers and membership functions. The results indicate that such an approach is useful for handling system complexity and generating more flexible policies for water quality management in river basins.

Chang, N.B.; Chen, H.W. [National Cheng-Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Shaw, D.G.; Yang, C.H. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Economics

1997-12-01

253

Water Pollution Detection by Reflectance Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement of the intensity of light reflected from various planar liquid surfaces has been performed. The results of this brief study show that the presence of a film of foreign material floating on a reference substrate is easily detected by reflectance measurement if the two liquids possess significantly different refractive indices, for example, oil (n = 1.40) and water (n = 1.33). Additional study of various optical configurations, and the building and testing of a prototype monitoring device revealed that the method is sufficiently practical for application to continuous water quality monitoring.

Goolsby, A. D.

1971-01-01

254

Retrofit conserves energy at a water pollution control facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major retrofit of process structures and incorporation of additional mechanical equipment was undertaken to replace the existing chemical phosphorus removal process with a biological phosphorus removal process. The new process will reduce energy use up to 81% and lime use up to 86% at the Amherst, New York water pollution control facility.

A. S. Haimes; J. Dedyo

1980-01-01

255

Introduction to Instrumental Analysis of Water Pollutants. Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course is designed for those requiring an introduction to instruments commonly used in water pollution analyses. Examples are: pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen meters, spectrophotometers, turbidimeters, carbon analyzer, and gas chromatographs. Students should have a basic knowledge of analytical chemistry. (CO)

Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

256

Water Pollution, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed are the reasons why present mechanisms for the control of water purity are inadequate. The control of waterborne epidemics is discussed to illustrate a problem which has been solved, then degradation of the environment is presented as an unsolved problem. Case histories are given of pollution and attempts at control in rivers, lakes,…

Berg, George G.

257

ISOLATION OF ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS BY XAD RESINS AND CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

The recovery efficiencies of XAD resins -2, -4, -7, and -8 and of resin mixtures were measured using distilled water samples containing 13 organic pollutants. An equal-weight mixture of XAD-4 and XAD-8 was most efficient. XAD-2 and XAD-4/8 were further tested and found effective ...

258

Storm water pollution in the urban environment of Genoa, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpoint pollution resulting from urban surface runoff is recognized as one of the major causes of quality deterioration in the receiving water bodies. In order to investigate the first flush phenomenon connected to different types of urban surfaces, two monitoring systems have been installed in the experimental catchment of Villa Cambiaso, University of Genoa (Italy), to sample separately roof and

I. Gnecco; C. Berretta; L. G. Lanza; P. La Barbera

2005-01-01

259

The Role of Monitoring in Controlling Water Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of trends in the national water pollution control effort and to describe the role of monitoring in that effort, particularly in relation to the responsibilities of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). I hope the paper will serve as a useful framework for the more specific discussions of monitoring technology to follow.

Hirsch, Allan

1971-01-01

260

Optical multiple-analyte immunosensor for water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype of a portable optical immunosensor (called river analyser) has been developed. It can be applied for the monitoring of surface water quality. Antibodies carrying a fluorescent label are used for the specific recognition of pollutants, such as frequently applied pesticides. The transduction principle is based on total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF). The outstanding advantage of the river analyser

Claudia Barzen; Andreas Brecht; Guenter Gauglitz

2002-01-01

261

Water pollution and habitat degradation in the Gulf of Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gulf of Thailand has been a major marine resource for Thai people for a long time. However, recent industrialization and community development have exerted considerable stress on the marine environments and provoked habitat degradation. The following pollution problems in the Gulf have been prioritized and are discussed in details: (1) Untreated municipal and industrial waste water are considered to

Voravit Cheevaporn; Piamsak Menasveta

2003-01-01

262

Acrylamide encephaloneuropathy due to well water pollution.  

PubMed Central

All five members of a family developed subacutely mental confusion and/or truncal ataxia. Symptoms and signs of polyneuropathy were seen later. The well water in the patients' home contained 400 ppm acrylamide. The present cases are unique in that they are cases of acrylamide poisoning induced by oral intake and percutaneous penetration, and that central nervous system symptoms were prominent. PMID:168322

Igisu, H; Goto, I; Kawamura, Y; Kato, M; Izumi, K

1975-01-01

263

Acrylamide encephaloneuropathy due to well water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

All five members of a family developed subacutely mental confusion and\\/or truncal ataxia. Symptoms and signs of polyneuropathy were seen later. The well water in the patients' home contained 400 ppm acrylamide. The present cases are unique in that they are cases of acrylamide poisoning induced by oral intake and percutaneous penetration, and that central nervous system symptoms were prominent.

H Igisu; I Goto; Y Kawamura; M Kato; K Izumi

1975-01-01

264

Hypothesis-Driven Approach for the Identification of Fecal Pollution Sources in Water Resources  

PubMed Central

Water resource management must strive to link catchment information with water quality monitoring. The present study attempted this for the field of microbial fecal source tracking (MST). A fecal pollution source profile based on catchment data (e.g., prevalence of fecal sources) was used to formulate a hypothesis about the dominant sources of pollution in an Austrian mountainous karst spring catchment. This allowed a statistical definition of methodical requirements necessary for an informed choice of MST methods. The hypothesis was tested in a 17-month investigation of spring water quality. The study followed a nested sampling design in order to cover the hydrological and pollution dynamics of the spring and to assess effects such as differential persistence between parameters. Genetic markers for the potential fecal sources as well as microbiological, hydrological, and chemo?physical parameters were measured. The hypothesis that ruminant animals were the dominant sources of fecal pollution in the catchment was clearly confirmed. It was also shown that the concentration of ruminant markers in feces was equally distributed in different ruminant source groups. The developed approach provides a tool for careful decision-making in MST study design and might be applied on various types of catchments and pollution situations. PMID:21466151

2011-01-01

265

Awakening Seed Pond Water ChemistryAwakening Seed Pond Water Chemistry Our Question: Is our pond polluted?Our Question: Is our pond polluted?  

E-print Network

Awakening Seed Pond Water ChemistryAwakening Seed Pond Water Chemistry Our Question: Is our pond polluted?Our Question: Is our pond polluted? Our InvestigationOur Investigation We discussed what kinds of pollutants we should look for. We narrowed down the aspects of pond chemistry that we would investigate

Hall, Sharon J.

266

Health hazards associated with windsurfing on polluted water  

SciTech Connect

We documented the risks associated with windsurfing on sewage polluted water. Seventy-nine windsurfers and 41 controls were studied over a nine-day period for occurrence of symptoms of gastroenteritis, otitis, conjunctivitis, and skin infection. Relative risks were 2.9 for occurrence of one or more of these symptoms and 5.5 for symptoms of gastroenteritis. Relative risk increased with the reported number of falls into the water.

Dewailly, E.; Poirier, C.; Meyer, F.M.

1986-06-01

267

Spatial distribution and source apportionment of water pollution in different administrative zones of Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, China.  

PubMed

Water quality degradation in river systems has caused great concerns all over the world. Identifying the spatial distribution and sources of water pollutants is the very first step for efficient water quality management. A set of water samples collected bimonthly at 12 monitoring sites in 2009 and 2010 were analyzed to determine the spatial distribution of critical parameters and to apportion the sources of pollutants in Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, near the East China Sea. The 12 monitoring sites were divided into three administrative zones of urban, suburban, and rural zones considering differences in land use and population density. Multivariate statistical methods [one-way analysis of variance, principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) methods] were used to investigate the spatial distribution of water quality and to apportion the pollution sources. Results showed that most water quality parameters had no significant difference between the urban and suburban zones, whereas these two zones showed worse water quality than the rural zone. Based on PCA and APCS-MLR analysis, urban domestic sewage and commercial/service pollution, suburban domestic sewage along with fluorine point source pollution, and agricultural nonpoint source pollution with rural domestic sewage pollution were identified to the main pollution sources in urban, suburban, and rural zones, respectively. Understanding the water pollution characteristics of different administrative zones could put insights into effective water management policy-making especially in the area across various administrative zones. PMID:23404042

Yang, Liping; Mei, Kun; Liu, Xingmei; Wu, Laosheng; Zhang, Minghua; Xu, Jianming; Wang, Fan

2013-08-01

268

Reducing the cost of water-pollution control under the Clean Water Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present water-pollution-regulation system focuses on treatment by the individual and ignores the aggregate cost of pollution control. Economists have proposed three methods to create pollution-control systems that cost less than the present one: effluent charges, marketable effluent permits, and private ownership of the waterway. Of these methods, only the marketable permit system has any potential for use within the

Rothfelder

1982-01-01

269

A simulation of water pollution model parameter estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parameter estimation procedure for a water pollution transport model is elaborated. A two-dimensional instantaneous-release shear-diffusion model serves as representative of a simple transport process. Pollution concentration levels are arrived at via modeling of a remote-sensing system. The remote-sensed data are simulated by adding Gaussian noise to the concentration level values generated via the transport model. Model parameters are estimated from the simulated data using a least-squares batch processor. Resolution, sensor array size, and number and location of sensor readings can be found from the accuracies of the parameter estimates.

Kibler, J. F.

1976-01-01

270

Water quality management and sustainability: the experience of Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project (LVEMP)??Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human health and development are threatened in many parts of the world either from lack of water or poor water quality. Human development has partially contributed to water quality deterioration. In Tanzania, for instance, rapid population growth that caused expansion of agricultural activities, livestock keeping, deforestation, biomass burning and human settlement have exerted pressures within the Lake Victoria Basin. These developments have led to land degradation and increased levels of pollution mainly from non-point sources. The Governments of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda initiated the program of Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project, (LVEMP), in 1994 to rehabilitate the Lake Ecosystem through restoration and conservation of biodiversity in the lake as well as within the catchment. This paper presents the five years (1997-2002) experience of LVEMP in Tanzania on the issues of water quality; focusing on water pollution, water quality monitoring and LVEMP strategies to accomplish water quality management in the Lake Zone (Kagera, Mara and Mwanza regions). The findings show that non-point source pollution from agricultural practices; as well as unplanned urban settlements contribute more to siltation and eutrophication of the of Lake Victoria than that from point source pollution. Recommendations for water quality management and sustainability are presented.

Machiwa, Praxeda K.

271

Improving Forecasts for Water Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in seasonal to interannual hydroclimate predictions provide an opportunity for developing a proactive approach toward water management. This motivated a recent AGU Chapman Conference (see program details at http://chapman.agu.org/watermanagement/). Approximately 85 participants from the United States, Oceania, Asia, Europe, and South America presented and discussed the current state of successes, challenges, and opportunities in seasonal to interannual hydroclimate forecasts and water management, and a number of key messages emerged.

Arumugam, Sankar; Wood, Andy; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Schaake, John

2014-01-01

272

2011 Baird Holm LLP Storm Water Management  

E-print Network

into the ground ­ Accumulates debris, chemicals, sediment, or other pollutants ­ May adversely affect water/landscape irrigation · Rising ground waters · Diverted stream flows/springs · Street wash water · Uncontaminated ground water infiltration or pumped ground water · Potable water discharge · De-chlorinated swimming pool

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

273

The Allocative Efficiency Implications of Water Pollution Abatement Cost Comparisons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessments of the efficiency of water pollution control allocations are usually based on abatement cost comparisons. The general rule is that efficiency is improved by reallocating abatement from sources with high marginal costs to low-cost sources. The welfare-theoretic foundation of this rule is well established for situations with nonstochastic emissions. In situations with stochastic emissions, pollution control involves improving the distribution of emissions. Nevertheless, efficiency analyses involving stochastic emissions usually sidestep formal consideration of the stochastic element by measuring pollution control and control costs with respect to changes in long-term average flows. An economic model of stochastic emissions is used to demonstrate that this approach can give misleading results. An alternative procedure is briefly discussed.

Shortle, James S.

1990-05-01

274

Managing agricultural phosphorus for water quality protection: principles for progress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The eutrophication of aquatic systems due to diffuse pollution of agricultural phosphorus (P) is a local, even regional, water quality problem that can be found world-wide. Sustainable management of P requires prudent tempering of agronomic practices, recognizing that additional steps are often requ...

275

SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse  

E-print Network

SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse #12;' Our Mission The SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse aims to advance the science and technology of sustainable water management through fundamental and applied research. Our Vision To be Australia's leading research centre for water reuse

Li, Jiuyong "John"

276

Experimental infrared measurements for hydrocarbon pollutant determination in subterranean waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subterranean waters are often polluted by industrial and anthropic effluents that are drained in subsoil. To prevent and control pollution, legislations of different developed countries require an online monitoring measurement, especially for detecting organic solvents (chlorinated and unchlorinated ones). Online measurements include both real-time and no real-time measurements. In general, it is difficult to implement real-time measurements in stricto sensu for online acquisitions on aqueous effluents since they need to be processed by a modeling. This research presents an experimental measurement system based on infrared (IR) spectroscopy for aqueous effluents containing hydrocarbons and capable of displaying excellent values of pollutant concentrations even in instable conditions; the system is able to detect pollutants either in laminar or turbulent flow. The results show the possibility of avoiding the use of "Pitot tube" that is employed to create a stagnation point in order to convert kinetic energy into potential one. This conversion allows the transformation of a turbulent flow in a laminar flow making easy measurement of pollutants included in an aqueous effluent. Obviously, "Pitot tube" is also used for other fluid effluents. The obtained results have been compared with those produced by means of sophisticated IR instrumentation for laboratory applications.

Lay-Ekuakille, A.; Palamara, I.; Caratelli, D.; Morabito, F. C.

2013-01-01

277

Technology for Water Treatment (National Water Management)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

1992-01-01

278

Irrigation Water Quality Salinity Management  

E-print Network

Irrigation Water Quality Standards and Salinity Management Strategies B-1667 4-03 #12;Nearly all concern is salinity levels, since salts can affect both the soil struc- ture and crop yield. However and are commonly found in Texas waters (Table 1). Most salinity problems in agricul- ture result directly from

279

Best Management Practices Water Quality  

E-print Network

Rank Rivers Lakes Estuaries 1 Agricultural Agricultural Urban runoff 2 Municipal point sources Municipal point sources Municipal point sources 3 Stream/ habitat changes Urban runoff Agricultural ThreeBest Management Practices (BMP) for Water Quality How Land Treatment Can Protect Water Quality? #12

Mukhtar, Saqib

280

Framework for Restoring Polluted Waters Adopt Water Quality Standards  

E-print Network

Western Interstate Region and National Conference Meetings “Tools Tools for Protecting and Improving Water Quality ” Workshop County ounty issue brief with TMDL case studies NACo wins EPA grant for water quality capacity-building capacity building project

Sarah Furtak; Menchu Martinez; Stormwater Stormwater; Urban Runoff Webinar

2009-01-01

281

40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.145-2 Section...GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) No person...or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State...

2014-07-01

282

40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.145-2 Section...GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) No person...or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State...

2012-07-01

283

40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.145-2 Section...GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) No person...or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State...

2011-07-01

284

f " International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control. Vienna 1996 XIII/4 -1  

E-print Network

96/0852 f í " International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control. Vienna 1996 for water pollution control, Vienna : Austria (1996)" #12;í>tn International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control. Vienna 1996 XIII/4 - 2 · It is also planned that districts will be able to take

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

285

45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. ...2543.86 Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. ...pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S...the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as...

2014-10-01

286

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2011-01-01

287

Finite-Volume-Particle Methods for Models of Transport of Pollutant in Shallow Water  

E-print Network

Finite-Volume-Particle Methods for Models of Transport of Pollutant in Shallow Water Alina Chertock of shallow water equations and the pollutant propagation is described by a transport equation. The idea and the pollution computations: the shallow water equations are numerically integrated using a #12;nite- volume

Kurganov, Alexander

288

Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process  

E-print Network

Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process Abstract: The study investigates water quality pollution impacts on urbanization by analyzing temporal the greatest contributors of surface water quality pollution from 1996 to 2003. High values existed

Yu, Qian

289

Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual to tidal periods  

E-print Network

Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual to tidal periods. G. Monismith (2004), Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual the relationship between water temperature and fecal pollution in the surf zone at Huntington and Newport Beach

Winant, Clinton D.

290

Estimation of pollution by fire extinguishing water D. Calogine, S. Duplantier  

E-print Network

Estimation of pollution by fire extinguishing water D. Calogine, S. Duplantier INERIS, Accidentai by combustion and consequently the water will be loaded with pollutants such as HCI and HCN. The project O2FEU of pollution for soil and subsoil. The project consists in studying the fate of run-off waters in environment

Boyer, Edmond

291

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN BUILDING B51 AND BEVATRON DEMOLITION PROJECT  

E-print Network

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN FOR: BUILDING B51 AND BEVATRON DEMOLITION PROJECT PROJECT NO;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) Building B51 and Bevatron Demolition Project Lawrence............................................................................................300-3 300.4 Project Schedule/Water Pollution Control Schedule

292

Underground coal mining methods to abate water pollution: a state of the art literature review. Water pollution control research series  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report reviews published information concerning the abatement of harmful drainage from underground coal mines. Although much has been written on mine water management, very little literature is available on the specific area of preventing the formation of acid water. The references used in this report include mining engineering and hydrology studies and spans the period of time when water

L. W. Wilson; N. J. Matthews; J. L. Stump

1970-01-01

293

Investigating the effects of point source and nonpoint source pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang) in South China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Understanding the physical processes of point source (PS) and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is critical to evaluate river water quality and identify major pollutant sources in a watershed. In this study, we used the physically-based hydrological/water quality model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool, to investigate the influence of PS and NPS pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang in Chinese) in southern China. Our results indicate that NPS pollution was the dominant contribution (>94%) to nutrient loads except for mineral phosphorus (50%). A comprehensive Water Quality Index (WQI) computed using eight key water quality variables demonstrates that water quality is better upstream than downstream despite the higher level of ammonium nitrogen found in upstream waters. Also, the temporal (seasonal) and spatial distributions of nutrient loads clearly indicate the critical time period (from late dry season to early wet season) and pollution source areas within the basin (middle and downstream agricultural lands), which resource managers can use to accomplish substantial reduction of NPS pollutant loadings. Overall, this study helps our understanding of the relationship between human activities and pollutant loads and further contributes to decision support for local watershed managers to protect water quality in this region. In particular, the methods presented such as integrating WQI with watershed modeling and identifying the critical time period and pollutions source areas can be valuable for other researchers worldwide.

Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

2013-01-01

294

Science, technology and policy for Water Pollution Control at the Watershed Scale: Current issues and future challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is a critical resource, and the shortage of freshwater resources worldwide will only become more critical as the world population increases and climate changes. The management of water resources provides a myriad of challenges, and, in light of advances in science, technology and policy making, now requires an integrated approach to be successful. Eutrophication and algal blooms are one of the most common and serious threats to the safety and security of water resources; however, despite advances in science and policy, the socio-economic consequences of the impact of such events on systems are still not well known. The economic cost of managing water quality issues is enormous, and can only benefit from the development of more integrated water management strategies. Research into areas related to water resources, such as management, policy, non-point source pollutants, wastewater, nutrients and water quality has increased significantly over the past 20 years, and will continue to increase as stakeholders and managers strive to develop more environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable water resource management plans. This perspective paper also presents a summary of a selection of research that formed part of the deliberations of the International Symposium on Science, Technology and Policy for Water Pollution Control at the Watershed Scale, held in April 2009.

Ghadouani, Anas; Coggins, Liah X.

295

33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...ballast water into the waters of the United States under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33...

2010-07-01

296

33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...ballast water into the waters of the United States under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33...

2012-07-01

297

33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...ballast water into the waters of the United States under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33...

2013-07-01

298

33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...ballast water into the waters of the United States under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33...

2014-07-01

299

33 CFR 151.2025 - Ballast water management requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...ballast water into the waters of the United States under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33...

2012-07-01

300

33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...ballast water into the waters of the United States under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33...

2011-07-01

301

33 CFR 151.2025 - Ballast water management requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...ballast water into the waters of the United States under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33...

2013-07-01

302

33 CFR 151.2025 - Ballast water management requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...ballast water into the waters of the United States under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33...

2014-07-01

303

SRF (State Water Pollution Control Revolving Fund): initial guidance for state revolving funds  

SciTech Connect

The document represents the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) approach to implementation of Title VI of the Clean Water Act (CWA), until interim final regulations on selected provisions in the guidance are issued. The release of the document marks a significant step in the transition of the responsibility for financing, constructing, and managing municipal wastewater-treatment facilities from the Federal government to States and localities. It will assist EPA Regions in their review of proposed State Water Pollution Control Revolving Fund (SRF) programs and provide States with initial guidance on applying for Capitalization Grants.

Not Available

1988-01-01

304

The impact of land use on microbial surface water pollution.  

PubMed

Our knowledge relating to water contamination from point and diffuse sources has increased in recent years and there have been many studies undertaken focusing on effluent from sewage plants or combined sewer overflows. However, there is still only a limited amount of microbial data on non-point sources leading to diffuse pollution of surface waters. In this study, the concentrations of several indicator micro-organisms and pathogens in the upper reaches of a river system were examined over a period of 16 months. In addition to bacteria, diffuse pollution caused by Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. was analysed. A single land use type predestined to cause high concentrations of all microbial parameters could not be identified. The influence of different land use types varies between microbial species. The microbial concentration in river water cannot be explained by stable non-point effluent concentrations from different land use types. There is variation in the ranking of the potential of different land use types resulting in surface water contamination with regard to minimum, median and maximum effects. These differences between median and maximum impact indicate that small-scale events like spreading manure substantially influence the general contamination potential of a land use type and may cause increasing micro-organism concentrations in the river water by mobilisation during the next rainfall event. PMID:25456147

Schreiber, Christiane; Rechenburg, Andrea; Rind, Esther; Kistemann, Thomas

2014-10-01

305

Precipitation suppression by anthropogenic air pollution: major loss of water resources where we need them most  

E-print Network

Precipitation suppression by anthropogenic air pollution: major loss of water resources where we inferences of air pollution suppressing precipitation lead us to investigate historical climate records precipitation, decreases with time in the polluted regions and remains unchanged where no pollution sources were

Daniel, Rosenfeld

306

Hydrology and pollutant-removal effectiveness of wetland buffer areas receiving pumped agricultural drainage water  

SciTech Connect

The hydrology and pollutant-removing effectiveness of two wetland areas being used to buffer impacts of pumped agricultural drainage in Eastern North Carolina were studied. Collection and analysis of field data over a two-year period showed that buffer one, originally equipped with an efficient diffuser canal, was essentially 100% effective for pollutant removal for all observed events. A routine was added to calculate residence time of the water on the buffer and percent removal of nutrients. Hourly surface and subsurface field-drainage volumes calculated by a water-management model. The two models estimated that over a 20-year period, study buffer one would remove 79% of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 82% of nitrate nitrogen, 81% of total phosphorus, and 92% of sediment.

Chescheir, G.M.; Gilliam, J.W.; Skaggs, R.W.; Broadhead, R.G.; Lea, R.

1987-08-01

307

System engineering for water pollution control at the watershed level in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present water pollution situation at watershed level in China has been systematically analyzed. The causes of water pollution\\u000a are attributed to the extensive economic developmental pattern, poor wastewater treatment, and a lack of nonpoint pollution\\u000a control. The problems of water pollution control at watershed level include a lack of thought and approach, developmental\\u000a delay in the environmental standard system,

Wei Meng

2009-01-01

308

[Method for environmental management in paper industry based on pollution control technology simulation].  

PubMed

To evaluate the reduction potential of industrial water pollutant emissions and to study the application of technology simulation in pollutant control and environment management, an Industrial Reduction Potential Analysis and Environment Management (IRPAEM) model was developed based on coupling of "material-process-technology-product". The model integrated bottom-up modeling and scenario analysis method, and was applied to China's paper industry. Results showed that under CM scenario, the reduction potentials of waster water, COD and ammonia nitrogen would reach 7 x 10(8) t, 39 x 10(4) t and 0.3 x 10(4) t, respectively in 2015, 13.8 x 10(8) t, 56 x 10(4) t and 0.5 x 10(4) t, respectively in 2020. Strengthening the end-treatment would still be the key method to reduce emissions during 2010-2020, while the reduction effect of structure adjustment would be more obvious during 2015-2020. Pollution production could basically reach the domestic or international advanced level of clean production in 2015 and 2020; the index of wastewater and ammonia nitrogen would basically meet the emission standards in 2015 and 2020 while COD would not. PMID:25639122

Zhang, Xue-Ying; Wen, Zong-Guo

2014-11-01

309

Chemistry and pollution of natural waters in western Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selected water analyses from the literature and current research in western Kenya are tabulated and the relationships between critical water quality parameters described. The waters are chemically characterised with Na as the dominant cation and bicarbonate as the dominant anion and, while waters of obviously different sources are represented, the available chemical data point to a general classification of bicarbonate-Na-rich waters, even for the saline waters of Lake Magadi. Potassium and chloride are among the less abundandt constituents. The concentration level of nutrients (nitrate, phosphate and sulphate) is mostly lower than maxium permissible drinking water levels, and salinity is not yet a serious problem in water bodies that are exploited for domestic and industrial purposes. Fluoride levels are variable with the higher values occurring in waters in and around the Rift Valley. Limited analytical data for I in waters from the Eldoret, Kiambu and Nairobi areas indicate concentrations well above world average figures. Mean values of some key water quality indicators such as total dissolved solids, total suspended solids and heavy metals are well below the threshold for contaminated water. These values are however exceeded by several factors in saline waters of lakes and in some springs. Significant organic pollution is reflected by mean values of parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand and faecal coliforms. The present quality of most of the water bodies in this part of the country is considered to be adequate at present for domestic and other purposes, though a gradual decrease in quality is evident from the recent upsurge in industrial activities in the subregion.

Davies, T. C.

1996-11-01

310

Water management; Challenge and opportunity  

SciTech Connect

Water management is multidimensional. It embraces planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance. Its ingredients include technological capability, social attitudes, economic realities, political viewpoints, and environmental goals. Being able to effectively manage water resources often depends more on our ability to maneuver within institutional constraints than to design technological fixes. Engineering capability is more advanced than its application, yesterday's methods are being applied to tomorrow's problems, and regional problems are begging for solutions because we try to solve them on a local scale. The need for institutional reform is clear but the key to accomplishing it is elusive. Both resource-related and institutional factors must be considered. Potential avenues for reform are presented.

Wiessman, W. Jr. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (USA). Dept. of Environmental Engineering Sciences)

1990-03-01

311

Managing water quality of River Yamuna in NCR Delhi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River Yamuna is a typical example of degraded lotic ecosystem which has been turns into a sewage drain in Delhi National capital region due to anthropogenic pressure and aggravating pollution load. Delhi is alone responsible for 79% of the entire pollution load in the said river. The drain discharges exerting a massive BOD load of hundreds of tons per day into the river. The pollutants could not get diluted as the river has very little or no flow in non-monsoon months due to lack of indigenous water. Water quality index reveal that before entering Delhi, river water has the medium water quality, gets severely polluted in Delhi, shows very bad water quality which continues till Agra Canal. Improper location of STPs and mismatch between the available treatment capacities of STPs with the actual sewage generation results muddle up of “approx” 60% untreated wastewater into the River Yamuna. Implementation of sustainable management plan with already available facilities, proper sewerage planning and maintaining the minimum ecological flow will control the pollution in River Yamuna.

Upadhyay, Rahul; Dasgupta, Niladri; Hasan, Aziz; Upadhyay, S. K.

312

[Water pollution and health risks at Yaoundé, Cameroon].  

PubMed

The aim of this article consists of developing an ecosystemic approach to collect information about groundwater pollution in order to determine its origin and infer the health risks in Mingoa's watershed through the study of 12 spontaneous settlements. From an environmental point of view, family interviews and direct observations allowed us to inventory springs, wells and latrines, and to collect information. So, we have selected, on the basis of predefined criteria, 21 wells and springs for physico-chemical and bacteriological laboratory analyses. Two hundred children aged less than 5 years were subjected to KOAP examination. A number of 1224 latrines were inventoried, for an average use of 15 people per latrine, producing 913.3 kg/year of excreta. Most of 91% of people use these latrines. The superficial aquifers, connected to the wells and springs, present high values of nitrogen, phosphorous pollutant and fecal contamination indicators (coliforms and fecal streptococcus), which make water inappropriate to human consumption. PCA analysis establishes that water pollution comes mainly from traditional pit latrines. The overall prevalence of diarrhea and parasite infestation was important (=40%). The presence of cysts of Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris limbricoides, and Entamoeba coli confirms this high prevalence and testify to very approximate hygiene and environment conditions. PMID:23916209

Youmbi, Jean Ghislain Tabué; Feumba, Roger; Njitat, Valérie Tsama; de Marsily, Ghislain; Ekodeck, Georges Emmanuel

2013-01-01

313

Questionable Specificity of Genetic Total Faecal Pollution Markers for Integrated Water Quality Monitoring and Source Tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterisation of microbial faecal hazards in water is a fundamental aspect for target-orientated water resources management to achieve appropriate water quality for various purposes like water supply or agriculture and thus to minimize related health risks. Nowadays the management of water resources increasingly demands detailed knowledge on the extent and the origin of microbial pollution. Cultivation of standard faecal indicator bacteria, which has been used for over a century to test the microbiological water quality, cannot sufficiently meet these challenges. The abundant intestinal bacterial populations are very promising alternative targets for modern faecal indication systems. Numerous assays for the detection of genetic markers targeting source-specific populations of the phylum Bacteroidetes have been developed in recent years. In some cases markers for total faecal pollution were also proposed in order to relate source-specific marker concentrations to general faecal pollution levels. However, microbial populations in intestinal and non-intestinal systems exhibit a dazzling array of diversity and molecular analysis of microbial faecal pollution has been based on a fragmentary puzzle of very limited sequence information. The aim of this study was to test the available qPCR-based methods detecting genetic Bacteroidetes markers for total faecal pollution in terms of their value and specificity as indicators of faecal pollution. We applied the AllBac (Layton et al., 2006) the BacUni (Kildare et al., 2007) and the Bacteroidetes (Dick and Field, 2004) assays on soil DNA samples. Samples were collected in well characterised karst spring catchments in Austria's Eastern Calcareous Alps. They were at various levels of altitude between 800 and 1800 meters above sea level and from several different habitats (woodland, alpine pastures, krummholz). In addition we tried to choose sampling sites representing a presumptive gradient of faecal pollution levels. For example sites with obvious faecal influence (e.g. right next to a cowpat) were included as well as more pristine sites without faecal influence from large animals (e.g. fenced areas). Surprisingly, results from investigations with the AllBac assay showed concentrations of the total faecal marker in soil in the range of 106 to 109 Marker Equivalents per g of soil, which is equal or only slightly lower than the concentrations of this particular marker in faeces or raw sewage. Preliminary results from the other tested assays seem to confirm that the targeted markers are also highly abundant in soils. In addition, the markers were present in comparable concentrations in soils from pristine locations as well as in soils under the potential influence of faeces giving a strong indication that these methods also target non-intestinal, autochthonous soil populations. In contrast, source-specific markers (ruminant-specific BacR and human-specific BacH, Reischer et al., 2007, 2006) could only be detected in 30 to 50% of the soil samples at concentrations close to the detection limit, which is at least four orders of magnitude lower than in faecal samples of the respective target sources, ruminant animals and humans. The achieved results call the applicability of the proposed qPCR-based assays for total faecal pollution into question. In fact the assays do not seem to be specific for intestinal Bacteroidetes populations at all and the respective marker concentration levels in pristine soils negate their applicability in the investigated areas. This study also emphasizes the need to test the specificity and sensitivity of qPCR-based assays for total faecal pollution on the local level and especially against non-intestinal environmental samples, which might contribute to marker levels in the aquatic compartment. In conclusion there is a strong demand for marker-based detection techniques for total faecal pollution in water quality monitoring and risk assessment but currently none of the tested assays seems to meet the methodical requirements.

Vierheilig, Julia; Reischer, Georg H.; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

2010-05-01

314

An air and water pollution prevention primer for small businesses  

SciTech Connect

Pollution prevention is one of the few areas in which environmental goals and economic interests clearly coincide. Benefits include reduced costs, liabilities and regulatory burdens, and an improved environment. Minimizing the quantity and toxicity of waste also reduces the need for waste treatment operations. Because economics is one of the factors weighed when adopting pollution prevent technologies, economic analysis based on equipment's payback period is important to determine whether a system should be adopted and, if so, what equipment should be selected. Many air pollution control methods, wastewater treatment systems and sludge dewatering processes can be used for materials recovery and water reuse. Factors to consider when selecting a waste treatment system include legal limitations or effluent criteria imposed for public protection, social limitations imposed by the community in which the pollution source is or will be located, and economic limitations. The latter two factors are critical for small businesses, which typically are located in or near metropolitan areas, and often have limited financial resources. Another factor to consider is whether a waste treatment system can be designed to accommodate future expansion or operational modifications. Although small businesses tend to prefer traditional, proven environmental technologies, some new technologies can be adopted easily to reduce waste generation and costs. In addition, several relatively simple and inexpensive practices have proven successful in eliminating or minimizing wastes. These include: improving housekeeping practices; segregating wastes; changing materials purchasing and inventory control procedures; substituting less toxic materials; recycling and reusing wastes; reducing wastewater flows; changing production methods or modifying production processes; and training employees in pollution prevention.

Huang, C.S. (Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States))

1995-03-01

315

SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse  

E-print Network

SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse #12;2 The SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse was established in 2004 as a joint venture between the South Australian Water Corporation and the University of South Australia (UniSA), adding significant expertise to the water research capability in South

Li, Jiuyong "John"

316

Sustainable Urban Water Management James P. Heaney, Len Wright, and David Sample  

E-print Network

water: Groundwater recharge. Recycling of water. 4. Pollution abatement in urban areas: Conveyance3-1 Chapter 3 Sustainable Urban Water Management James P. Heaney, Len Wright, and David Sample Introduction Water supply, wastewater, and stormwater systems are explored in this chapter, first individually

Pitt, Robert E.

317

In Hot Water: Thermoelectric Power and Thermal Pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of surface water for thermoelectric power plant cooling significantly impacts river water temperatures, posing risks to aquatic ecosystems. In addition, surface water temperatures in summer can exceed limits for power plant compliance with thermal effluent limitations, jeopardizing energy security during periods of peak power demand. For example, Brown's Ferry Nuclear Plant in Alabama curtailed power production by 50% for over 40 days in July-August of 2010 when river temperatures exceeded 90°F. Future increases in surface water temperatures due to climate change may further endanger energy security. This study examines summer intake and outflow water temperature data reported by power plants during peak production months across the United States to determine the impact of thermoelectric power plants on surface water temperatures in the summer. Initial results indicate that U.S. coal plants (n= 625) raised water temperatures by an average of 17°F (± 12°F) and discharged cooling water with median peak temperatures of 100°F (± 13°F) in the summer of 2005, the last year when this data was reliably reported. Further analysis will extend the time period of this study from 2000-2005 and expand the scope to various energy sources and cooling technologies. In addition, we explore regional variation to assess the relative threat that thermal pollution poses to energy security across the U.S.

Madden, N. T.

2010-12-01

318

Water infiltration control to achieve mine water pollution control. A feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study determined the feasibility of conducting a full-scale demonstration to document the effectiveness of land reclamation at mined-out areas in establishing surface water infiltration control to prevent acid mine water pollution. The study site was the Dents Run Watershed, Monongalia County, West Virginia. Investigative measures included: investigation of each mine area and opening; a detailed description of each site;

F. J. Zaval; J. D. Robins

1973-01-01

319

Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 1. A national network model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the national implications of federal water pollution control policies, the authors developed a water pollution network model. This model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and bays. While the geographical scope of the model and existing data availability required

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin; G. K. Young

1981-01-01

320

Estimation of heavy metals in drinking water and development of heavy metal pollution index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four heavy metals (Copper, Cadmium, Lead and Zinc) are monitored in drinking water at twelve important residential areas using DPASV Technique. The results indicate the water to free of heavy metal pollution. The data monitored have been used to compute Heavy metal pollution index (HPI) using weighted arithmetic mean method and the proposed Pollution Index (HPI) seems to be applicable

S. Venkata Mohan; P. Nithila; S. Jayarama Reddy

1996-01-01

321

ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL POLICIES. 1. A NATIONAL NETWORK MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to study the national implications of federal water pollution control policies, the authors developed a water pollution network model. The model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lake...

322

Mixed finite element discretization of a model for organic pollution in waters  

E-print Network

Mixed finite element discretization of a model for organic pollution in waters Part I. The problem]), sophisticated modeling of the organic pollution in stream-waters has been elaborated. Taylor's dispersion´ephanie Salmon4 . Abstract We consider a mixed reaction diffusion system describing the organic pollution

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

323

Total Water Management, the New Paradigm for Urban Water Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current resource management practices put different stresses on local water resources and urban infrastructure. Total Water Manag...

324

Pecos River Water Management Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandia National Laboratories is providing technical assistance to farmer members of the Carlsbad Irrigation District (CID) to better plan the storage, delivery, and application of water to the Carlsbad Project. The surface waters along the Pecos River are allocated by the State of New Mexico to three major entities: 1) The State of Texas - each year a percentage of water from the natural river flow must be delivered to Texas as governed by the Interstate Streams Commission; 2) CID farmer members - a fixed portion of water must be delivered to the farming members of the CID; and 3) wildlife - an amount of water must be allocated to support the wildlife habitat in the Pecos River, most notably, the endangered Pecos Bluntnose Shiner Minnow. The Pecos Bluntnose Shiner Minnow habitat preference is under investigation by other state and national agencies and preliminary work has established that water depth, water velocity, and sediment activity (dunes, ripples, etc.) are the key parameters influencing minnow habitat preference. The amount of water (river flow rate) necessary to maintain a preferable habitat to support this species has yet to be determined. With a limited amount of water in the Pecos River and its reservoirs, it is critical to allocate water efficiently such that habitat is maintained, the farmers of the CID are supported, and New Mexico meets its commitments to the State of Texas. This study investigates the relationship between flow rate in the river and water depth, water velocity, and sediment activity. The goal is to establish a predictive tool that supports informed decisions about water management practices along the Pecos River that will maximize water available for agriculture and the State of Texas while maintaining the aquatic habitat.

Roberts, J. D.; James, S. C.

2003-12-01

325

awareness and pollution prevention  

E-print Network

..............................................5 Storm Water Pollution Prevention.....................5 Sanitary Sewer System ManagementHazard awareness and pollution prevention for contractors and visitors at UCSD #12;Hazard Awareness and Pollution Prevention For Contractors and Visitors at UC San Diego This booklet was developed by UC San Diego

Tsien, Roger Y.

326

Water Pollution from Urban Stormwater Runoff in the Brunette River Watershed, B.C.  

E-print Network

Water Pollution from Urban Stormwater Runoff in the Brunette River Watershed, B.C. DOE FRAP 1998. The Fraser River Action Plan (FRAP) also provided funding as part of their research and pollution abatement

327

UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN REMOVAL OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange, adsorption and acid catalysis properties. Different inorganic and organic pollutants have been removed from water at room temperature using various zeolites. Synthetic zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove inorganic pollutants...

328

Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, and Infant Mortality in India  

E-print Network

Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, and environmental regulations from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental regulations. ...

Greenstone, Michael

2011-07-01

329

Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, and Infant Mortality in India  

E-print Network

Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, environmental regulations, and infant mortality from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental ...

Greenstone, Michael

330

INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR AREAWIDE WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT PLANNING  

E-print Network

IN THE WASHINGTON, D.C. REGION UNDER THE FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ACT AMENDMENTS OF 1972 By Harvey Lieber as a follow-up to my book, Federalism and Clean Waters: The 1972Water Pollution Control Act, which had

District of Columbia, University of the

331

40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...control nonpoint source pollution where necessary to protect or achieve approved water uses. Economic, institutional...Act. (9) Ground water. Identification and...for control of ground-water pollution including the...

2014-07-01

332

40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...control nonpoint source pollution where necessary to protect or achieve approved water uses. Economic, institutional...Act. (9) Ground water. Identification and...for control of ground-water pollution including the...

2013-07-01

333

40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...control nonpoint source pollution where necessary to protect or achieve approved water uses. Economic, institutional...Act. (9) Ground water. Identification and...for control of ground-water pollution including the...

2010-07-01

334

40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...control nonpoint source pollution where necessary to protect or achieve approved water uses. Economic, institutional...Act. (9) Ground water. Identification and...for control of ground-water pollution including the...

2011-07-01

335

40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...control nonpoint source pollution where necessary to protect or achieve approved water uses. Economic, institutional...Act. (9) Ground water. Identification and...for control of ground-water pollution including the...

2012-07-01

336

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF WATER SOURCES  

E-print Network

in a manual way. The expert compares measured concentrations of pollutants in the water with the reference) that would monitor water quality and suggest measures that need to be taken in case of pollution harmful effects of water pollutants. Drinking water is, by definition [4], water in its prime state

Bohanec, Marko

337

State of the art molecular markers for fecal pollution source tracking in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most environmental waters are susceptible to fecal contamination from animal and\\/or human pollution sources. To attenuate\\u000a or eliminate such contamination, it is often critical that the pollution sources are rapidly and correctly identified. Fecal\\u000a pollution source tracking (FST) is a promising research area that aims to identify the origin(s) of fecal pollution in water.\\u000a This mini-review focuses on the potentials

Peter Roslev; Annette S. Bukh

2011-01-01

338

Draft Guidelines for State and Areawide Water Quality Management Program Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document discusses the draft guidelines formulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist the states in establishing a management program to integrate water quality and other resource management decisions. These guidelines are pfovided so that the long range goals of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

339

Humboldt Bay Initiative: Adaptive Management in a Changing World  

E-print Network

watersheds and reduce polluted water runoff (WA OR CA 2008).species, polluted urban runoff, sea level rise, salt waterwater pollution through better stormwater management, pollution source detection and reduction and other strategies to reduce polluted

Schlosser, Susan

2009-01-01

340

Water Management in A PEMFC: Water Transport Mechanism and Material  

E-print Network

Water Management in A PEMFC: Water Transport Mechanism and Material Degradation in Gas Diffusion reaction in the cathode CL producing water and waste heat. Despite considerable progress in the overall on the water management of the PEMFC, namely the transport of product water (both liquid and vapor

Kandlikar, Satish

341

Feasibility of using the MIRADS data management system for a state air pollution agency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MIRADS is a generalized data management system. The feasibility of using MIRADS by the State of Alabama Air Pollution Control Commission is explored. The State's enforcement management system and the emission inventory system were implemented into MIRADS.

Schroer, B. J.

1975-01-01

342

Pollution Prevention and New Industrial Estates  

E-print Network

and Guidance Surface Water Management Project Examples #12;2 POLLUTION WITHIN INDUSTRIAL ESTATES Sources Poor ....CHRONIC POLLUTION Impact on the Water Environment Traditional gravity surface water drainage system discharging to watercourse ­ point source Source #12;5 Impact on the Water Environment ·Pollution from food

Heal, Kate

343

The development of policy approaches for reducing nitrogen pollution to coastal waters of the USA.  

PubMed

Two-thirds of the coastal rivers and bays in the United States are degraded from nutrient pollution, and nitrogen inputs these waters continue to increase. The nitrogen comes from a variety of sources, including runoff from agricultural fields, concentrated animal feeding operations, atmospheric deposition from fossil fuel combustion, and sewage and septic wastes. Technical solutions for nitrogen pollution exist at reasonable cost. That most of these solutions have not yet been implemented to any significant extent across the United States suggests that new policy approaches are necessary. The best solution may involve a combination of voluntary and mandatory approaches, applying different approaches to different sources of nitrogen pollution. A watershed-based approach that relies heavily on voluntary mechanisms (such as crop-yield insurance to reduce over-fertilization) is likely to be the most effective for some sources of nitrogen (such as runoff from agricultural fields), while a uniform national regulatory approach may be better for others (such as NOx emissions from fossil fuel combustion). Implementation of management strategies should be carefully coupled to monitoring programs to assess the effectiveness of these strategies. While both nitrogen and phosphorus are important to control, the focus should be on nitrogen management, in part because nitrogen is more generally the causal agent of coastal eutrophication. Also, while nitrogen-control practices tend to also reduce phosphorus pollution, phosphorus-control practices often have little effect on nitrogen. Although current scientific and technical knowledge is sufficient to begin to make substantial progress toward solving coastal nitrogen pollution, progress will be made more quickly and more cost effectively with increased investment in appropriate scientific research. PMID:16512202

Howarth, Robert W

2005-12-01

344

The development of policy approaches for reducing nitrogen pollution to coastal waters of the USA.  

PubMed

Two-thirds of the coastal rivers and bays in the United States are degraded from nutrient pollution, and nitrogen inputs these waters continue to increase. The nitrogen comes from a variety of sources, including runoff from agricultural fields, concentrated animal feeding operations, atmospheric deposition from fossil fuel combustion, and sewage and septic wastes. Technical solutions for nitrogen pollution exist at reasonable cost. That most of these solutions have not yet been implemented to any significant extent across the United States suggests that new policy approaches are necessary. The best solution may involve a combination of voluntary and mandatory approaches, applying different approaches to different sources of nitrogen pollution. A watershed-based approach that relies heavily on voluntary mechanisms (such as crop-yield insurance to reduce over-fertilization) is likely to be the most effective for some sources of nitrogen (such as runoff from agricultural fields), while a uniform national regulatory approach may be better for others (such as NO(x) emissions from fossil fuel combustion). Implementation of management strategies should be carefully coupled to monitoring programs to assess the effectiveness of these strategies. While both nitrogen and phosphorus are important to control, the focus should be on nitrogen management, in part because nitrogen is more generally the causal agent of coastal eutrophication. Also, while nitrogen-control practices tend to also reduce phosphorus pollution, phosphorus-control practices often have little effect on nitrogen. Although current scientific and technical knowledge is sufficient to begin to make substantial progress toward solving coastal nitrogen pollution, progress will be made more quickly and more cost effectively with increased investment in appropriate scientific research. PMID:20549435

Howarth, Robert W

2005-09-01

345

An novel identification method of the environmental risk sources for surface water pollution accidents in chemical industrial parks.  

PubMed

The chemical industry is a major source of various pollution accidents. Improving the management level of risk sources for pollution accidents has become an urgent demand for most industrialized countries. In pollution accidents, the released chemicals harm the receptors to some extent depending on their sensitivity or susceptibility. Therefore, identifying the potential risk sources from such a large number of chemical enterprises has become pressingly urgent. Based on the simulation of the whole accident process, a novel and expandable identification method for risk sources causing water pollution accidents is presented. The newly developed approach, by analyzing and stimulating the whole process of a pollution accident between sources and receptors, can be applied to identify risk sources, especially on the nationwide scale. Three major types of losses, such as social, economic and ecological losses, were normalized, analyzed and used for overall consequence modeling. A specific case study area, located in a chemical industry park (CIP) along the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province, China, was selected to test the potential of the identification method. The results showed that there were four risk sources for pollution accidents in this CIP. Aniline leakage in the HS Chemical Plant would lead to the most serious impact on the surrounding water environment. This potential accident would severely damage the ecosystem up to 3.8 km downstream of Yangtze River, and lead to pollution over a distance stretching to 73.7 km downstream. The proposed method is easily extended to the nationwide identification of potential risk sources. PMID:24218858

Peng, Jianfeng; Song, Yonghui; Yuan, Peng; Xiao, Shuhu; Han, Lu

2013-07-01

346

Natural Salt Pollution and Water Supply Reliability in the Brazos River Basin  

E-print Network

rights allocations, and water supply contracts, (2) facility expansions and construction of new water supply projects, and (3) projects and strategies for dealing with salt pollution. Consideration of water quality as well as quantity is important...

Wurbs, Ralph A.; Karama, Awes S.; Saleh, Ishtiaque; Ganze, C. Keith

347

REMOVAL OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS FROM SUBCRITICAL WATER WITH ACTIVATED CARBON  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has demonstrated that controlling the temperature (and to a lesser extent, the pressure) of water can dramatically change its ability to extract organics and inorganics from matrices ranging from soils and sediments to waste sludges and coal. The dielectric constant of water can be changed from about 80 (a very polar solvent) to <5 (similar to a nonpolar organic solvent) by controlling the temperature (from ambient to about 400 C) and pressure (from about 5 to 350 bar). The EERC has shown that hazardous organic pollutants such as pesticides, PACS (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) can be completely removed from soils, sludges, and sediments at temperatures (250 C) and pressures (<50 atm) that are much milder than typically used for supercritical water processes (temperature >374 C, pressure >221 atm). In addition, the process has been demonstrated to be particularly effective for samples containing very high levels of contaminants (e.g., part per thousand). Current projects include demonstrating the subcritical water remediation process at the pilot scale using an 8-liter system constructed under separate funding during 1997. To date, subcritical water has been shown to be an effective extraction fluid for removing a variety of organic pollutants from soils and sludges contaminated with fossil fuel products and waste products, including PACS from soil (e.g., town gas sites), refining catalysts, and petroleum tank bottom sludges; PCBs from soil and sediments; toxic gasoline components (e.g., benzene) from soil and waste sludge; and phenols from petroleum refinery sludges. The obvious need to clean the wastewater from subcritical water processes led to preliminary experiments with activated carbon placed in line after the extractor. Initial experiments were performed before and after cooling the extractant water (e.g., with water at 200 C and with water cooled to 25 C). Surprisingly, the ability of activated carbon to remove organics from the water is better at a high temperature than at room temperature. These initial results are opposite to those expected from chromatographic theory, since the solubility of the organics is about 100,000-fold higher in the hot water than in ambient water. At present, the physicochemical mechanism accounting for these results is unknown; however, it is possible that the lower surface tension and lower viscosity of subcritical water (compared to water at ambient conditions) greatly increases the available area of the carbon by several orders of magnitude. Regardless of the mechanism involved, the optimal use of activated carbon to clean the wastewater generated from subcritical water remediation will depend on obtaining a better understanding of the controlling parameters. While these investigations focused on the cleanup of wastewater generated from subcritical water remediation, the results also apply to cleanup of any wastewater contaminated with nonpolar and moderately polar organics such as wastewaters from coal and petroleum processing.

Steven B. Hawthorne; Arnaud J. Lagadec

1999-08-01

348

Cost and Pollutant Removal of StormWater Treatment Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six storm-water best management practices BMPs for treating urban rainwater runoff were evaluated for cost and effective- ness in removing suspended sediments and total phosphorus. Construction and annual operating and maintenance O and M cost data were collected and analyzed for dry extended detention basins, wet basins, sand filters, constructed wetlands, bioretention filters, and infiltration trenches using literature that reported

Peter T. Weiss; John S. Gulliver; Andrew J. Erickson

2007-01-01

349

Industrial waste-water management practices in Air Force Logistics Command. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

The selection of a model plant was based upon criteria established by a review of current literature. The criteria were permit compliance, plant performance, and the adoption of pollution prevention as a corporate environmental philosophy. In this study, private sector firms were examined to identify the best industrial wastewater management practices using a Total Quality Management (TQM) tool called benchmarking. The data gathering process consisted of a survey of water pollution control organizations, and a survey of benchmark candidates. The purpose of surveying water pollution control organizations was to objectively identify possible benchmark candidates. A questionnaire was then used to gather technical data on each benchmark candidate's performance.

Smith, P.J.

1991-09-01

350

Linking Spatial Variations in Water Quality with Water and Land Management using Multivariate Techniques.  

PubMed

Most studies using multivariate techniques for pollution source evaluation are conducted in free-flowing rivers with distinct point and nonpoint sources. This study expanded on previous research to a managed "canal" system discharging into the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, where water and land management is the single most important anthropogenic factor influencing water quality. Hydrometric and land use data of four drainage basins were uniquely integrated into the analysis of 25 yr of monthly water quality data collected at seven stations to determine the impact of water and land management on the spatial variability of water quality. Cluster analysis (CA) classified seven monitoring stations into four groups (CA groups). All water quality parameters identified by discriminant analysis showed distinct spatial patterns among the four CA groups. Two-step principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) was conducted with (i) water quality data alone and (ii) water quality data in conjunction with rainfall, flow, and land use data. The results indicated that PCA/FA of water quality data alone was unable to identify factors associated with management activities. The addition of hydrometric and land use data into PCA/FA revealed close associations of nutrients and color with land management and storm-water retention in pasture and citrus lands; total suspended solids, turbidity, and NO + NO with flow and Lake Okeechobee releases; specific conductivity with supplemental irrigation supply; and dissolved O with wetland preservation. The practical implication emphasizes the importance of basin-specific land and water management for ongoing pollutant loading reduction and ecosystem restoration programs. PMID:25602661

Wan, Yongshan; Qian, Yun; Migliaccio, Kati White; Li, Yuncong; Conrad, Cecilia

2014-03-01

351

The River Basin Model: Computer Output. Water Pollution Control Research Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research report is part of the Water Pollution Control Research Series which describes the results and progress in the control and abatement of pollution in our nation's waters. The River Basin Model described is a computer-assisted decision-making tool in which a number of computer programs simulate major processes related to water use that…

Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

352

Relaxation Approximations to Shallow Water and Pollutant Transport Department of Sciences, Division of Mathematics,  

E-print Network

1 Relaxation Approximations to Shallow Water and Pollutant Transport Equations A.I. Delis solution of shallow water flows and the transport and diffusion of pollutant in such flows. By first can be considered as an alternative to classical finite difference methods. Keywords--Shallow water

Katsaounis, Theodoros D.

353

A novel integrated concept of urban water management in a megalopolis from Latin America  

E-print Network

.g. treatment of high heavy metals waters and emulsified oil wastes ­ ZOUBOLIS et al., 2000). The impurities (10m3 /s) in a polluted river in São Paulo (the treated water was pumped to a multipurpose reservoir and inadequate disposal of wastewater. Monitoring, management, remediation and revitalization of urban waters

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

354

Operation and Maintenance of Water Pollution Control Facilities: A WPCF White Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are the recommendations of the Water Pollution Control Federation for operation and maintenance consideration during the planning design, construction, and operation of wastewater treatment facilities. (CS)

Hill, William R.; And Others

1979-01-01

355

A modeling approach to evaluate the impacts of water quality management plans implemented in a watershed in Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several best management practices (BMPs) have been implemented through Water Quality Management Plans (WQMPs) in the West Fork Watershed of Trinity River Basin in Texas, USA, where nonpoint source pollution is a serious concern. Major sources of pollution are sediment erosion and nutrients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of implementation of WQMPs on nonpoint

C. Santhi; R. Srinivasan; J. G. Arnold; J. R. Williams

2006-01-01

356

Toward quantifying water pollution abatement in response to installing buffers on crop land.  

PubMed

The scientific research literature is reviewed (i) for evidence of how much reduction in nonpoint source pollution can be achieved by installing buffers on crop land, (ii) to summarize important factors that can affect this response, and (iii) to identify remaining major information gaps that limit our ability to make probable estimates. This review is intended to clarify the current scientific foundation of the USDA and similar buffer programs designed in part for water pollution abatement and to highlight important research needs. At this time, research reports are lacking that quantify a change in pollutant amounts (concentration and/or load) in streams or lakes in response to converting portions of cropped land to buffers. Most evidence that such a change should occur is indirect, coming from site-scale studies of individual functions of buffers that act to retain pollutants from runoff: (1) reduce surface runoff from fields, (2) filter surface runoff from fields, (3) filter groundwater runoff from fields, (4) reduce bank erosion, and (5) filter stream water. The term filter is used here to encompass the range of specific processes that act to reduce pollutant amounts in runoff flow. A consensus of experimental research on functions of buffers clearly shows that they can substantially limit sediment runoff from fields, retain sediment and sediment-bound pollutants from surface runoff, and remove nitrate N from groundwater runoff. Less certain is the magnitude of these functions compared to the cultivated crop condition that buffers would replace within the context of buffer installation programs. Other evidence suggests that buffer installation can substantially reduce bank erosion sources of sediment under certain circumstances. Studies have yet to address the degree to which buffer installation can enhance channel processes that remove pollutants from stream flow. Mathematical models offer an alternative way to develop estimates for water quality changes in response to buffer installation. Numerous site conditions and buffer design factors have been identified that can determine the magnitude of each buffer function. Accurate models must be able to account for and integrate these functions and factors over whole watersheds. At this time, only pollutant runoff and surface filtration functions have been modeled to this extent. Capability is increasing as research data is produced, models become more comprehensive, and new techniques provide means to describe variable conditions across watersheds. A great deal of professional judgment is still required to extrapolate current knowledge of buffer functions into broadly accurate estimates of water pollution abatement in response to buffer installation on crop land. Much important research remains to be done to improve this capability. The greatest need is to produce direct quantitative evidence of this response. Such data would confirm the hypothesis and enable direct testing of watershed-scale prediction models as they become available. Further study of individual pollution control functions is also needed, particularly to generate comparative evidence for how much they can be manipulated through buffer installation and management. PMID:11568840

Dosskey, M G

2001-11-01

357

New developments in the trace analysis of organic water pollutants.  

PubMed

Challenging tasks, increasing demands, and new generations of powerful analytical instruments initiated considerable progress in aquatic environmental analysis and led to a considerable improvement of analytical performance during the last few years. The ever growing number of emerging pollutants is tackled by specific and highly sensitive analytical methods with detection limits of a few nanogram per liter and even lower. Wide-scope monitoring techniques and multiclass and multiresidue analysis allow for the simultaneous determination of hundreds of compounds. The high mass resolution capability and mass accuracy of advanced mass spectrometric instruments, i.e., time-of-flight (TOF) MS or Fourier transform (FT)-Orbitrap MS, enable combined target and non-target analysis, including the identification of metabolites and abiotic degradation products. This minireview highlights some of the most recent developments in the trace analysis of important organic water pollutants and focuses on some specific groups of emerging contaminants, i.e., pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, disinfection by-products, surfactants, per- and polyfluorinated compounds, benzotriazoles, and benzothiazoles, as well as on the identification of transformation products and on non-target analysis. References were selected according to their exemplary and innovative character and to their practical relevance. PMID:22358315

Fischer, Klaus; Fries, Elke; Körner, Wolfgang; Schmalz, Christina; Zwiener, Christian

2012-04-01

358

Anthropogenic impacts on the integrity of the Blesbokspruit catchment : a case study of surface water pollution .  

E-print Network

??Water Quality Management is one of the critical challenges currently facing South Africa. The triad of water resource management, socio- economic development and environmental sustainability… (more)

Phaleng, Dipitseng Maropeng

2009-01-01

359

75 FR 7627 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Notice is hereby given that on...pre-treatment requirements of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act), 40 CFR part 403 and 33...

2010-02-22

360

[Effect of changing into slippers on the pollution situation in the nuclear medicine management district].  

PubMed

Changing into slippers when entering the nuclear medicine management district prevented pollution expansion. Accidents involving patients falling occurred in university facilities. It was thought that changing slippers was the cause. The pollution situation was measured in three facilities by using the smear method and the direct technique to examine the effect of changing slippers. The current state was measured. After pollution prevention guidance was continuously done, pollution expansion was measured; three weeks of measurements were compared. Pollution was detected in the first period of weeks at a frequency of 19 times. For the latter period, it was detected 6 times. Half the pollution was in the restroom. Pollution was reduced by doing pollution prevention guidance for the restroom. Patients' falls occur even if they change slippers. Falling accidents can be decreased. PMID:22277821

Miyashita, Makoto; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Akiyama, Masayuki; Takase, Tadashi; Kato, Kyoichi; Nitta, Masaru; Nakazawa, Yasuo

2012-01-01

361

Linking Near Real-Time Water Quality Measurements to Fecal Coliforms and Trace Organic Pollutants in Urban Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic pollutants, including pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, and estrogens are detected in urban water bodies. Effective examination of dilute organic and microbial pollutant loading rates within surface waters is currently prohibitively expensive and labor intensive. Effort is being placed on the development of improved monitoring methodologies to more accurately assess surface water quality and evaluate the effectiveness of water quality management practices. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008 a "real-time" wireless network equipped with high frequency fundamental water quality parameter sensors measured turbidity, conductivity, pH, depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen and nitrate above and below stormwater inputs at two urban stream locations. At each location one liter grab samples were concurrently collected by ISCO automatic samplers at two hour intervals for 24 hour durations during three dry periods and five rain events. Grab samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms, atrazine (agricultural herbicide), prometon (residential herbicide) and caffeine (wastewater indicator). Surrogate relationships between easy-to-measure water quality parameters and difficult-to-measure pollutants were developed, subsequently facilitating monitoring of these pollutants without the development of new, and likely costly, technologies. Additionally, comparisons were made between traditional grab sampling techniques and the "real-time" monitoring to assess the accuracy of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) calculations.

Henjum, M.; Wennen, C.; Hondzo, M.; Hozalski, R. M.; Novak, P. J.; Arnold, W. A.

2009-05-01

362

The Potential Importance of Conservation, Restoration, and Altered Management Practices for Water Quality in the Wabash River Watershed  

EPA Science Inventory

Non-point source (NPS) pollution is one of the leading causes of water quality impairment within the United States. Conservation, restoration and altered management (CRAM) practices may effectively reduce NPS pollutants discharge into receiving water bodies and enhance local and ...

363

Remote sensing in the mixing zone. [water pollution in Wisconsin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characteristics of dispersion and diffusion as the mechanisms by which pollutants are transported in natural river courses were studied with the view of providing additional data for the establishment of water quality guidelines and effluent outfall design protocols. Work has been divided into four basic categories which are directed at the basic goal of developing relationships which will permit the estimation of the nature and extent of the mixing zone as a function of those variables which characterize the outfall structure, the effluent, and the river, as well as climatological conditions. The four basic categories of effort are: (1) the development of mathematical models; (2) laboratory studies of physical models; (3) field surveys involving ground and aerial sensing; and (4) correlation between aerial photographic imagery and mixing zone characteristics.

Villemonte, J. R.; Hoopes, J. A.; Wu, D. S.; Lillesand, T. M.

1973-01-01

364

Effective management for acidic pollution in the canal network of the Mekong Delta of Vietnam: a modeling approach.  

PubMed

Acidic pollution can cause severe environmental consequences annually in coastal areas overlain with acid sulfate soils (ASS). A water quality model was used as an analytical tool for exploring the effects of water management options and other interventions on acidic pollution and salinity in Bac Lieu, a coastal province of the Mekong Delta. Fifty eight percent of the provincial area is covered by ASS, and more than three-fourths (approximately 175,000 ha) are used for brackish-water shrimp culture. Simulations of acid water propagation in the canal network indicate that the combination of opening the two main sluices along the East Sea of the study area at high tide for one day every week in May and June and widening the canals that connect these sluices to the West Sea allows for adequate saline water intake and minimizes the acidic pollution in the study area. On the other hand, canal dredging in the freshwater ASS area should be done properly as it can create severe acidic pollution. PMID:24726961

Phong, Ngo Dang; Hoanh, Chu Thai; Tuong, To Phuc; Malano, Hector

2014-07-01

365

Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.  

PubMed

Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1). For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1) (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

Van Dijk, Tessa C; Van Staalduinen, Marja A; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P

2013-01-01

366

Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid  

PubMed Central

Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P?=?0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l?1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l?1 (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

Van Dijk, Tessa C.; Van Staalduinen, Marja A.; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

2013-01-01

367

A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection in a chemical factory.  

PubMed

A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection was developed. It is based on the enhanced evaporation by using solar, wind and air temperature energy and additional heat-electric energy. It consists of four parts: (1) evaporation carrier system (evaporation carrier and frame for evaporation carrier) for polluted water; (2) polluted water circulating system (pumping-spraying-collecting); (3) heating system; (4) workshop with polluted water reservoir-tanks and rainfall prevention roof. The polluted water was (heated in case necessary) sprayed to the evaporation carrier system and the water was evaporated when it moved in the space and downward along the carrier mainly by using natural (solar, wind and air temperature energy). In case, when there is no roof for the carrier system, the polluted water can be stored in the reservoirs (storage volume for about 20 days). The first 10-25 mm rainfall also need to be stored in the reservoirs to meet the state standard for discharging wastewater. The dye may be collected at the surface in the reservoir-tanks and the crystallized salt may be collected at the bottom plate. The black-color wastewater released by the factory is no more discharged to the surface water system of Taihu Lake Basin. About 2 kg dye and 200 kg industrial salt may be collected from each tone of the polluted water. The non-pollution production of dye may be realized by using this technology with environmental, economical and social benefits. PMID:11590742

Pu, J P; Pu, P M; Hu, C H; Qian, J L; Pu, J X; Hua, J K

2001-04-01

368

Citizens' guides to ocean and coastal law: Guide to laws regulating coastal water pollution  

SciTech Connect

The pamphlet is intended to help citizens, like those participating in water quality monitoring programs, who want to understand the complex nature of state, federal, and local laws that apply to the chief sources of coastal water pollution: point source pollution--pollution discharged from pipes which require state and federal permits; and nonpoint source pollution--generally unregulated runoff from agricultural operations and urban land uses, timber harvesting (silviculture), and construction activities. The pamphlet explains the legal standards and penalties established by coastal water quality laws so that citizens can better participate in the implementation and enforcement of these laws.

Not Available

1993-01-01

369

Nonpoint source pollution management models for regional groundwater quality control  

SciTech Connect

Several steady-state groundwater quality management models useful for investigating regional groundwater wasteload allocation from nonpoint sources are presented. These management models are constructed as linear programming optimization models. Equations from a finite difference, steady-state, two-dimensional horizontal, unconfined, advective contaminant transport model are used as part of each optimization problem constraint set. The management models were applied over the Sole Source aquifer of Barnstable County, Massachusetts. Barnstable County is incurring widespread nitrate contamination from distributed septic systems which serve 88 percent of the population. The modeling approach requires general data normally available through state geological surveys, regional planning commissions, and the census bureau. The optimal regional nonpoint source groundwater wasteload allocations are generated from this data as are resultant contaminant distributions, boundaries of critical recharge areas, and the associated water quality tradeoffs for changes in existing and proposed land use (or source) management schemes. The optimal wasteload allocations were translated into estimates of distributed source densities and land use development patterns.

Hatfield, K.

1988-01-01

370

Farmers, Trust, and the Market Solution to Water Pollution: The Role of Social Embeddedness in Water Quality Trading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water quality trading (WQT) is a market arrangement in which a point-source water polluter pays farmers to implement conservation practices and claims the resulting benefits as credits toward meeting a pollution permit. Success rates of WQT programs nationwide are highly variable. Most of the literature on WQT is from an economic perspective…

Mariola, Matt J.

2012-01-01

371

Water resource management: an Indian perspective.  

PubMed

Water is precious natural resource for sustaining life and environment. Effective and sustainable management of water resources is vital for ensuring sustainable development. In view of the vital importance of water for human and animal life, for maintaining ecological balance and for economic and developmental activities of all kinds, and considering its increasing scarcity, the planning and management of water resource and its optimal, economical and equitable use has become a matter of the utmost urgency. Management of water resources in India is of paramount importance to sustain one billion plus population. Water management is a composite area with linkage to various sectors of Indian economy including the agricultural, industrial, domestic and household, power, environment, fisheries and transportation sector. The water resources management practices should be based on increasing the water supply and managing the water demand under the stressed water availability conditions. For maintaining the quality of freshwater, water quality management strategies are required to be evolved and implemented. Decision support systems are required to be developed for planning and management of the water resources project. There is interplay of various factors that govern access and utilization of water resources and in light of the increasing demand for water it becomes important to look for holistic and people-centered approaches for water management. Clearly, drinking water is too fundamental and serious an issue to be left to one institution alone. It needs the combined initiative and action of all, if at all we are serious in socioeconomic development. Safe drinking water can be assured, provided we set our mind to address it. The present article deals with the review of various options for sustainable water resource management in India. PMID:25151722

Khadse, G K; Labhasetwar, P K; Wate, S R

2012-10-01

372

Analysis of national water-pollution-control policies. 1. A national network model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the national implications of federal water-pollution-control policies, the authors developed a water-pollution-network model. This model links both point and nonpoint sources of pollution at the county level of detail with a national network of major rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and bays. While the geographical scope of the model and existing data availability required make many simplifying assumptions,

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin; G. K. Young

1981-01-01

373

Trading pollution for water quality : assessing the effects of market-based instruments in three basins  

E-print Network

Since its passage in 1972, the majority of pollution reduction under the federal Clean Water Act has resulted from technology-based limits imposed on point source dischargers. However, most U.S. water bodies are unmonitored ...

Wallace, Katherine Hay

2007-01-01

374

Water pollution control: assessing the impacts and costs of environmental standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book addresses one of the key policy changes enacted into law by the Congress in 1972, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, that of requiring certain categories of industries and municipalities to meet pollution-discharge standards based on specific technology objectives regardless of the prior conditions or desired uses of the water. The procedures used to address

R. A. Luken; E. H. Pechan

1977-01-01

375

Political crisis and the politics of water pollution control in the 1970s  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigates the sociopolitical context and formation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1977 in light of the theory of the relative autonomy of the state. Data on state legitimacy and political crisis are derived from previous studies on public trust in government and business and the

Tsoukalas

1991-01-01

376

Feasibility study: Fuel cell cogeneration in a water pollution control facility, volume 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual design study was conducted to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of a cogeneration fuel cell power plant operating in a large water pollution control facility. In this particular application, the fuel cell power plant would use methane rich digester gas from the water pollution control facility as a fuel feedstock to provide electrical and thermal energy. Several

J. H. Hirschenhofer; D. B. Baillieul; L. M. Barton; R. J. Brumberg; C. E. Hannan; H. H. Fiedler; M. G. Kile; M. G. Klett; G. A. Malone; H. P. Milliron

1980-01-01

377

Federal environmental litigation in 1976: the Federal Water Pollution Control Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 forms a vital part of EPA's national battle against pollution. The general objective of the act, to ''restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters,'' will hopefully be achieved through the completion of specific goals set and carried out by EPA and the federal government. The application

K. M. Hunciker; V. Pagano

1976-01-01

378

WATER POLLUTION CAUSED BY INACTIVE ORE AND MINERAL MINES - A NATIONAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report identifies the scope and magnitude of water pollution from inactive ore and mineral mines. Data collected from Federal, State, and local agencies indicates water pollution from acids, heavy metals, and sedimentation occurs at over 100 locations and affects over 1200 ki...

379

Bacterial community composition in low-flowing river water with different sources of pollutants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pollution of water resources is a major risk to human health and water quality throughout the world. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of pollutant sources from agricultural activities, urban runoffs, and runoffs from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on bacterial communitie...

380

Discrimination of source (human or animal) of fecal pollution of water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fecal pollution is a serious environmental problem that affects many coastal and inland waters worldwide. Both human and animal fecal pollution impose risks to human health from exposure to pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. To assist authorities with the implementation of the changes suggested by more restricted legislation concerning water quality in Europe, methods are needed which can identify more

Apostolos Vantarakis

381

Adapting California's water management to climate change  

E-print Network

of flood management--including reservoir operations, levees, bypasses, insurance, and land-use regulation of agricultural water districts manage water supplies for California's farmers. Nearly 600 local wastewater responsible for managing the quality of stormwater runoff. Local governments also oversee land development

Pasternack, Gregory B.

382

A trading-ratio system for trading water pollution discharge permits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fact that water flows to the lowest level uni-directionally is a very specific and useful property of water. By utilizing this property, we design a trading-ratio system (TRS) of tradable discharge permits for water pollution control. Such a trading-ratio system has three main characteristics: (1) the zonal effluent cap is set by taking into account the water pollutant loads

Ming-Feng Hung; Daigee Shaw

2005-01-01

383

Integrated watershed approach in controlling point and non-point source pollution within Zelivka drinking water reservoir.  

PubMed

An agricultural watershed involves manipulation of soil, water and other natural resources and it has profound impacts on ecosystems. To manage these complex issues, we must understand causes and consequences and interactions-related transport of pollutants, quality of the environment, mitigation measures and policy measures. A ten year period of economic changes has been analysed with respect to sustainable development concerning Zelivka drinking water reservoir and its watershed, where agriculture and forestry are the main human activities. It is recommended that all land users within a catchment area should receive payments for their contribution to water cycle management. Setting up the prevention principles and best management practices financially subsidized by a local water company has been found very effective in both point and non-point source pollution abatement, and the newly prepared Clean Water Programme actively involves local municipal authorities as well. The first step based on systems analysis was to propose effective strategies and select alternative measures and ways for their financing. Long term monitoring of nutrient loads entering the reservoir and hazardous events statistics resulted in maps characterising the territory including vulnerable zones and risk factors. Financing involves providing annual payments to farmers, who undertake to manage specified areas of their land in a particular way and one-off payments to realise proposed issues ensuring soil conservation and watershed ecosystem benefits. PMID:12079117

Holas, J; Hrncir, M

2002-01-01

384

A Nonparametric Instrumental Variable Approach to Estimating the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollutants at the Global Level1  

E-print Network

for Water Pollutants at the Global Level1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lin,2 Krishna P. Paudel, Mahesh Pandit for Water Pollutants at the Global Level Abstract We examine the relationship between income and water pollutants using country- level global water quality data over the period 1980 to 2012. We include civil

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

385

A Nonparametric Instrumental Variable Approach to Estimating the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollutants at the Global Level  

E-print Network

for Water Pollutants at the Global Level Krishna P. Paudel1 , C.-Y. Cynthia Lin2 , Mahesh Pandit the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollutants at the Global Level Abstract We examine the relationship between income and water pollutants using country- level global water quality data over the period 1980

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

386

Water Source Pollution and Disease Diagnosis in a Nigerian Rural Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Samples from five water sources (spring, borehole, pond, stream, and well) in rural Nigerian communities were tested. Results include source reliabilities in terms of water quality and quantity, pollution effects upon water quality, epidemiological effects related to water quantity and waste disposal, and impact of water quality improvement upon…

Sangodoyin, A. Y.

1991-01-01

387

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF COOLING WATER MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

1 CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF COOLING WATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM WATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM GUIDELINES for Wet and Hybrid Cooling Towers at Power Plants May 17, 2004 A widely distributed in man-made water systems. It is the principal cause of Legionellosis, otherwise known

388

Incorporating Virtual Water into Water Management: A British Columbia Example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual water is the water required to produce food or a commodity, and includes rainwater in addition to irrigation and the\\u000a water required to grow feed in livestock systems. Measuring virtual water is a useful concept in assessing water management\\u000a as it permits the comparison of crops and livestock from the perspective of embedded water. To evaluate trade-offs in water

S. Brown; H. Schreier; L. M. Lavkulich

2009-01-01

389

16/05/12 3:57 PMWATER: Floating robots use GPS-enabled smartphones to track water flow, help water management Page 1 of 4http://www.lakeconews.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article...o-track-water-flow-help-water-management&catid=1:latest&Itemid=1  

E-print Network

moves, such as the spread of pollutants, the migration of salmon or the mixture of salt and fresh water16/05/12 3:57 PMWATER: Floating robots use GPS-enabled smartphones to track water flow, help water management Page 1 of 4http://www.lakeconews.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article...o-track-water-flow-help-water

390

Evaluation of seasonal scale first flush pollutant loading and implications for urban runoff management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated how the occurrence and magnitude of first flush events in stormwater may influence the effective management of urban runoff pollution. To facilitate the understanding of the first flush phenomenon on a seasonal scale, the City of San Jose, CA carried out an investigation between May 1997 and April 2000 to characterize concentrations of pollutants in local waterbodies

Jeffrey Soller; Julie Stephenson; Kendra Olivieri; James Downing; Adam W. Olivieri

2005-01-01

391

Economic resilience through "One-Water" management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Disruption of water availability leads to food scarcity and loss of economic opportunity. Development of effective water-resource policies and management strategies could provide resiliance to local economies in the face of water disruptions such as drought, flood, and climate change. To accomplish this, a detailed understanding of human water use and natural water resource availability is needed. A hydrologic model is a computer software system that simulates the movement and use of water in a geographic area. It takes into account all components of the water cycle--“One Water”--and helps estimate water budgets for groundwater, surface water, and landscape features. The U.S. Geological Survey MODFLOW One-Water Integrated Hydrologic Model (MODFLOWOWHM) software and scientific methods can provide water managers and political leaders with hydrologic information they need to help ensure water security and economic resilience.

Hanson, Randall T.; Schmid, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

392

INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH (AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

Research conducted by NRMRL's Air pollution Prevention and Control Division's Indoor Environment Management Branch in Research Triangle Park, NC, has been the basis for developing a better understanding of the relationship between indoor air quality (IAQ) and emissions sources, h...

393

Non point source pollution modelling in the watershed managed by Integrated Conctructed Wetlands: A GIS approach.   

E-print Network

The non-point source pollution has been recognised as main cause of eutrophication in Ireland (EPA Ireland, 2001). Integrated Constructed Wetland (ICW) is a management practice adopted in Annestown stream watershed, located in the south county...

Vyavahare, Nilesh

2008-12-05

394

Deposition of air pollutants to the great waters. First report to Congress  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Great Waters program is to evaluate the atmospheric deposition of air pollutants to the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, Chesapeake Bay, and coastal waters. The report to Congress is to include information on the contribution of atmospheric deposition to pollutant loadings, the environmental or public health effects of such pollution, the source or sources of such pollution, and a description of any regulatory revisions under applicable Federal laws that may be necessary to assure protection of human health and the environment. The scientific information currently available is summarized in this report, and recommended actions are described.

Not Available

1994-05-01

395

Water quality management of rooftop rainwater harvesting systems.  

PubMed

The ancient technique of harvesting rainwater falling on rooftops, which had been forgotten after the advent of large-scale centralized water resource systems like dam-based reservoirs, has staged a global comeback in the post-modern era. It is expected that in the near future all dwellings everywhere will be equipped to harvest and use rainwater. Such widespread use of rooftop rainwater harvesting makes it very important that the water quality aspects associated with it are clearly understood and managed. The present paper addresses the related issues. The pathways by which pollutants can enter in a rainwater harvest have been traced and the strategies to manage the water quality, at pre-harvest as well as post-harvest stages, have been discussed. PMID:21117427

Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

2009-10-01

396

Water Resour Manage DOI 10.1007/s11269-010-9670-4  

E-print Network

and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has been widely used in hydrologic and nonpoint sources modeling. However-hourly version of SWAT is a promising tool for hydrology and non-point source pollution assessment studiesWater Resour Manage DOI 10.1007/s11269-010-9670-4 Development and Integration of Sub

397

Paying for Pollution: Water Quality and Effluent Charges. Proceedings from a Conference (Chicago, Illinois, May 19, 1977).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication gives the proceedings from a 1977 conference sponsored by the Conservation Foundation. Participants discuss the appropriate means to control water pollution, emphasizing the use of effluent charges as economic incentive for polluters to clean up their waters. (MA)

Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC.

398

Sustainable Water Management & Satellite Remote Sensing  

EPA Science Inventory

Eutrophication assessment frameworks such as the Australian National Water Quality Management Strategy, Oslo Paris (OSPAR) Commission Common Procedure, Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Union, Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) from the European Commission, ...

399

Citizen's guide to coastal water resource management  

SciTech Connect

Contents include: taking the initiative; water-quality standards; Coastal Area Management Act; dredge-and-fill permits under Section 404; sediment and erosion control; other environmental laws; nonregulatory ways to help protect water resources.

Kennedy, J.; Miller, T.

1988-01-01

400

Citizen Noise Pollution Monitoring Maisonneuve  

E-print Network

problems such as air and water pollution. With this background, there is a clear need to manageCitizen Noise Pollution Monitoring Nicolas Maisonneuve Sony Computer Science Laboratory Paris pollution involving citizens and built upon the notions of participatory sensing and citizen science. We

TAGora project

401

Evaluation of pollutant loads from stormwater BMPs to receiving water using load frequency curves with uncertainty analysis.  

PubMed

This study examined pollutant loads released to receiving water from a typical urban watershed in the Los Angeles (LA) Basin of California by applying a best management practice (BMP) performance model that includes uncertainty. This BMP performance model uses the k-C model and incorporates uncertainty analysis and the first-order second-moment (FOSM) method to assess the effectiveness of BMPs for removing stormwater pollutants. Uncertainties were considered for the influent event mean concentration (EMC) and the aerial removal rate constant of the k-C model. The storage treatment overflow and runoff model (STORM) was used to simulate the flow volume from watershed, the bypass flow volume and the flow volume that passes through the BMP. Detention basins and total suspended solids (TSS) were chosen as representatives of stormwater BMP and pollutant, respectively. This paper applies load frequency curves (LFCs), which replace the exceedance percentage with an exceedance frequency as an alternative to load duration curves (LDCs), to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs. An evaluation method based on uncertainty analysis is suggested because it applies a water quality standard exceedance based on frequency and magnitude. As a result, the incorporation of uncertainty in the estimates of pollutant loads can assist stormwater managers in determining the degree of total daily maximum load (TMDL) compliance that could be expected from a given BMP in a watershed. PMID:22578429

Park, Daeryong; Roesner, Larry A

2012-12-15

402

Fungal pollution of indoor environments and its management  

PubMed Central

Indoor environments play important roles in human health. The health hazards posed by polluted indoor environments include allergy, infections and toxicity. Life style changes have resulted in a shift from open air environments to air tight, energy efficient, environments, in which people spend a substantial portion of their time. Most indoor air pollution comes from the hazardous non biological agents and biological agents. Fungi are ubiquitous in distribution and are a serious threat to public health in indoor environments. In this communication, we have reviewed the current status on biotic indoor air pollution, role of fungi as biological contaminants and their impact on human health. PMID:23961203

Haleem Khan, A.A.; Mohan Karuppayil, S.

2012-01-01

403

GIS APPLICATION FOR INTERGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is constantly flowing through the landscape in response to weather events and most often, in the form of streams and rivers. This water flow carries micro-organisms, dissolved chemicals and sediment, which define water quality. We need to understand these flow- and quality-patterns and how they change in order to properly manage water resources of river basins. Hydrological analysis and

E. Theron; O. J. Gericke; S. W. Slabbert; M Dent

404

OPTIMAL MANAGEMENT OF NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION FROM AGRICULTURE: AN APPLICATION OF DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural non-point source pollution is a major source of water quality impairment. When considering responses to non-point source pollution, several policy options have been considered historically, including reducing inputs (e.g. fertilizers) altering technologies on the landscape (e.g. conserv...

405

Pathologic Analysis of Control Plans for Air Pollution Management in Tehran Metropolis: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Regarding the importance of air pollution issue for large cities, as Tehran metropolis, many plans, programs, projects and regulations have been developed to manage urban air pollution. However, most of them failed to decline the pollution. The purpose of this study is to pathologically analyze air-pollution control plans in order to offer effective solutions for Tehran metropolis. Methods: A qualitative content analysis and a semi-structured interview with 14 practicing professionals were used to identify key causes and sources of Tehran's air pollution, to recognize challenges and obstacles towards effective performance of air-pollution control plans in this metropolitan area, and to suggest the most effective controlling solutions. Results: Challenges related to air-pollution control plans can be divided into two major categories: Firstly lack of integrated and organized stewardship and secondly those related to political, economical, social and technical environmental abbreviated as PEST, challenges. For effective control of the Tehran air pollution, the following eight controlling alternatives were identified: Systematization of plan preparation process, organizing the stewardship, standardization and utilization of new technologies and professional experts, cultural and infrastructural development, realization of social justice, developing coordination and controlling mechanisms, improving citizen's participatory capacity, and focusing on effective management of fuel and energy. Conclusions: Controlling air pollution in Tehran should be considered as a priority for policymakers to make enforcements through applying a systemic cycle of preparation effective and comprehensive plans. Further, implement the enforcements and evaluate the environmental impact of the plans through involving all stakeholders. PMID:24130939

Shahrabi, Narges Salehi; Pourezzat, Aliasghar; Fayaz-Bakhsh, Ahmad; Mafimoradi, Shiva; Poursafa, Parinaz

2013-01-01

406

Observed Increase of TTL Temperature and Water Vapor in Polluted Couds over Asia  

SciTech Connect

Aerosols can affect cloud particle size and lifetime, which impacts precipitation, radiation and climate. Previous studies1-4 suggested that reduced ice cloud particle size and fall speed due to the influence of aerosols may increase evaporation of ice crystals and/or cloud radiative heating in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), leading to higher water vapor abundance in air entering the stratosphere. Observational substantiation of such processes is still lacking. Here, we analyze new observations from multiple NASA satellites to show the imprint of pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. We focus our analysis on the highly-polluted South and East Asia region during boreal summer. We find that "polluted" ice clouds have smaller ice effective radius than "clean" clouds. In the TTL, the polluted clouds are associated with warmer temperature and higher specific humidity than the clean clouds. The water vapor difference between the polluted and clean clouds cannot be explained by other meteorological factors, such as updraft and detrainment strength. Therefore, the observed higher water vapor entry value into the stratosphere in the polluted clouds than in the clean clouds is likely a manifestation of aerosol pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. Given the radiative and chemical importance of stratospheric water vapor, the increasing emission of aerosols over Asia may have profound impacts on stratospheric chemistry and global energy balance and water cycle.

Su, Hui; Jiang, Jonathan; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, J.; Read, William G.; Massie, Steven T.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Colarco, Peter; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Santee, Michelle L.

2011-06-01

407

Water Resources Management and Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cameroon is blessed with abundant water resources. Rapid population increase, unplanned urbanisation, intensive industrial\\u000a and socio-economic development have led to poor and unsustainable management of these resources. Integrated Water Resources\\u000a Management (IWRM) is a promising approach in ensuring sustainable management of Cameroon’s water resources. It entails management\\u000a of water for various purposes and not for a single purpose which therefore

Andrew Ako Ako; Gloria Eneke Takem Eyong; George Elambo Nkeng

2010-01-01

408

Hydrochemical evaluation of surface water quality and pollution source apportionment in the Luan River basin, China.  

PubMed

In the context of rapid economic growth in China, hydrochemical characteristics of stream water quality are being influenced by a variety of natural and anthropogenic inputs. We determined 10 hydrochemical parameters of the surface water at 29 monitoring sites in the Luan River basin of northern China during 2007-2009. Water quality hydrochemistry was evaluated using fuzzy comprehensive analysis based on the National Surface Water Environmental Quality Standards of China. Our results showed that 14 sites were classified as 'meeting standard (MS)' while the other 15 sites were classified 'non-meeting standard (NS)'. According to principal component analysis, four potential pollution sources were identified that explained 80.6% of the total variance among these MS sites, and three potential pollution sources that explained 78.3% of the total variance among these NS sites. Furthermore, multi-linear regression of the absolute principal component scores was used to estimate contributions from identified pollution sources. Most water pollution variables were influenced primarily by municipal sewage and non-point pollution in MS sites. In NS sites, chemical industry wastewater pollution dominated. Pollution in the main stream was more serious than that in the small tributaries. Our findings provide useful information for developing better pollution control strategies for the Luan River. PMID:22105137

Wang, Huiliang; Li, Xuyong; Xie, Ying

2011-01-01

409

Application of enteric viruses for fecal pollution source tracking in environmental waters  

EPA Science Inventory

Microbial source tracking (MST) tools are used to identify sources of fecal pollution for accurately assessing public health risk and implementing best management practices (BMPs). This review focuses on the potential of enteric viruses for MST applications. Following host infect...

410

LINEAR MODELS FOR MANAGING SOURCES OF GROUNDWATER POLLUTION.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mathematical models for the problem of maintaining a specified groundwater quality while permitting solute waste disposal at various facilities distributed over space are discussed. The pollutants are assumed to be chemically inert and their concentrations in the groundwater are governed by linear equations for advection and diffusion. The aim is to determine a disposal policy which maximises the total amount of pollutants released during a fixed time T while meeting the condition that the concentration everywhere is below prescribed levels.

Gorelick, Steven M.; Gustafson, Sven-Ake

1984-01-01

411

40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water. 129.6 Section 129.6 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS TOXIC POLLUTANT EFFLUENT STANDARDS...presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water. (a) Upon the request of...

2014-07-01

412

23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are included in...

2011-04-01

413

23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are included in...

2010-04-01

414

23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are included in...

2013-04-01

415

23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are included in...

2014-04-01

416

Uniqueness for an ill-posed reaction-dispersion model. Application to organic pollution in stream-waters  

E-print Network

Uniqueness for an ill-posed reaction-dispersion model. Application to organic pollution in stream-waters waters. The sources we consider are point-wise and simulate stationary or moving pollution sources to measure the pollution extent due to organic agents and then to evaluate the water characteristics. Another

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

417

23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to...Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are included in...

2012-04-01

418

Method of and device for detecting oil pollutions on water surfaces  

DOEpatents

Detection of oil pollution on water surfaces includes providing echo signals obtained from optical radiation of a clean water area at two wavelengths, optically radiating an investigated water area at two wavelengths and obtaining echo signals from the optical radiation of the investigated water area at the two wavelengths, comparing the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the investigated area at two wavelengths with the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the clean water area, and based on the comparison, determining presence or absence of oil pollution in the investigated water area.

Belov, Michael Leonidovich (Moscow, RU); Gorodnichev, Victor Aleksandrovich (Moscow, RU); Kozintsev, Valentin Ivanovich (Moscow, RU); Smimova, Olga Alekseevna (Moscow, RU); Fedotov, Yurii Victorovich (Moscow, RU); Khroustaleva, Anastasiva Michailovnan (Moscow, RU)

2008-08-26

419

Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: Progresses and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental pollution affects the quality of pedosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Great efforts\\u000a have been made in the last two decades to reduce pollution sources and remedy the polluted soil and water resources. Phytoremediation,\\u000a being more cost-effective and fewer side effects than physical and chemical approaches, has gained increasing popularity in\\u000a both academic and practical circles. More than 400

Mohammad Iqbal Lone; Zhen-li He; Peter J. Stoffella; Xiao-e Yang

2008-01-01

420

Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2012, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

Carter, Layne; Tobias, Barry; Orozco, Nicole

2012-01-01

421

Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2013, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

Carter, Layne; Brown, Christopher; Orozco, Nicole

2014-01-01

422

Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 2. Agricultural sediment control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of a national water network model permits an analysis of the likely affects of agricultural sediment control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier assessments concluded that agriculture-related pollution problems are widespread and ubiquitous, this analysis concludes that it is probably more efficient to focus sediment-related pollution control policies on about one third of the nation's agricultural regions.

Gianessi, Leonard P.; Peskin, Henry M.

1981-08-01

423

WQM: A Water Quality Management Simulation Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Description of WQM, a simulation game designed to introduce students to the water quality management function, emphasizes the decision-making process involved in various facets of business. The simulation model is described, computer support is explained, and issues in water resource management are discussed. (13 references) (LRW)

Sharda, Ramesh; And Others

1988-01-01

424

Implementation of intergovernmental regulatory programs: Section 402 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops and tests a theoretical framework for the study of the process by which intergovernmental regulatory policies are implemented. The framework is applied to the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program of the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. The general question addressed is why some states have the authority to implement intergovernmental regulatory

Wassenberg

1985-01-01

425

Experimental study of effectiveness of nonpoint source water pollution control group contract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this experimental study was to test an effectiveness of a group contract designed to control nonpoint source water pollution from farms' runoff (Pushkarskaya 2003). In particular, the regulator pays for pollution reduction credits earned by the group of the farmers, who voluntary enter the contract, and is concerned only with the total level of the abatement achieved,

Helen N. Pushkarskaya; Hal Arkes; Jason Pieratt; Ibrahim Bamba

2005-01-01

426

State-of-art review: water pollution control benefits and costs. Volume I  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey and assessment are presented of the state-of-art of economic ; analyses dealing with water pollution control benefits and costs. The ; investigation includes the extension of traditional benefit cost analysis into ; the area of pollution control. Implications for planning and research plus some ; directions of needed study are also developed. A conceptual basis for benefit ;

S. G. Unger; M. J. Emerson; D. L. Jordening

1973-01-01

427

Making Water Pollution a Problem in the Classroom Through Computer Assisted Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternative means for dealing with water pollution control are presented for students and teachers. One computer oriented program is described in terms of teaching wastewater treatment and pollution concepts to middle and secondary school students. Suggestions are given to help teachers use a computer simulation program in their classrooms.…

Flowers, John D.

428

An information Grid-based model for sharing water pollution control and prevention technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though water pollution control and prevention technologies have made a great progress, most polluting enterprises even have never heard of them, not to mention use them. So we design an technologies sharing model based on information Grid, and focus our discussion on the process of searching and invoking the wanted technologies with mobile agents.

Wang Minghu; Gao Zhenji; Xu Chunlian; Huang Haiming

2010-01-01

429

Waste water treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment of industrial pollutants. The use and effectiveness of biological treatments and carbon additives are examined. References also discuss problems and recommendations for the removal of mercury and its compounds, fertilizers, and pesticides from polluted waste water. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-05-01

430

Oil Palm Biomass–Based Adsorbents for the Removal of Water Pollutants—A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a review on the role of oil palm biomass (trunks, fronds, leaves, empty fruit bunches, shells, etc.) as adsorbents in the removal of water pollutants such as acid and basic dyes, heavy metals, phenolic compounds, various gaseous pollutants, and so on. Numerous studies on adsorption properties of various low-cost adsorbents, such as agricultural wastes and its based

TANWEER AHMAD; MOHD RAFATULLAH; ARNIZA GHAZALI; OTHMAN SULAIMAN; ROKIAH HASHIM

2011-01-01

431

ANALYSIS OF EXTRACTABLE PRIORITY POLLUTANTS IN WATER BY GC/MS  

EPA Science Inventory

Following the June 1976 Consent Decree (NRDC et al. vs. EPA), there has been a continuously increasing demand for the analysis of water samples for the 129 priority pollutants. The protocol originally designed for the analysis of the priority pollutants that are extractable into ...

432

An Instructors Guide to Water Pollution. Test Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems, No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of several study guides on contemporary problems produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science with support of the National Science Foundation. This study guide on water pollution includes the following units: (1) Overview of World Pollution; (2) History, Definition, Criteria; (3) Ecosystem Theory; (4) Biological…

Kidd, David E.

433

Field Studies for Key Stage 4 on Mine Water Pollution: A University and Museum Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how a university and a museum have worked together to create a "How science works" workshop entitled "What's in our water?" The workshop teaches students about the continuing pollution from a disused coal mine, how the pollution is cleaned up using a state-of-the-art treatment works and how…

Hopwood, Jeremy D.; Berry, Stuart D.; Ambrose, Jayne L.

2013-01-01

434

Diversity as a measure of benthic macroinvertebrate community response to water pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assumption that water pollution causes a depression in the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates as measured by the Shannon index and similar diversity indices is questioned. An interpretation of the community response of benthic macroinvertebrates to pollution in the Millers River, Massachusetts is developed from species presence-absence and abundance data in conjunction with published information on the species' environmental tolerances

Paul J. Godfrey

1978-01-01

435

Water pollution abatement by Chinese industry: cost estimates and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factory-level data are used to estimate water pollution abatement costs for Chinese industry. Joint abatement cost functions are utilized which relate total costs to treatment volume and the simultaneous effect of reductions in suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand and other pollutants. Tests of alternative functional forms suggest that a very simple (constant elasticity) model fits the data

Susmita Dasgupta; Mainul Huq; David Wheeler; Chonghua Zhang

2001-01-01

436

Pay Attention to Rural NonPoint Source Pollution, Guarantee the Security of Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of agricultural modernization in China great changes have taken place in the rural economy visage. But subsequently various pollution problems emerge out more frequently and especially because of the aggravating non-point source pollution the safety of drinking water in the vast rural areas has suffered a lot from severe threats which is drawing more and more

Jingdong Zhang; Yuan Zhou; Jiawen Wang

2009-01-01

437

Raman Scattering of Water and Photoluminescence of Pollutants Arising from Solid-Water Interaction  

E-print Network

Systematic Raman experiments performed on water and water-ethanol samples, stored in different containers (fused silica, polypropylene, soda-lime glass type III) for several hours, have shown that the luminescence contribution to the Raman signal fluctuations is directly related to the container composition. Intensity fluctuations as large as 98%, have been observed in the spectral regions corresponding to the both water intramolecular and intermolecular vibrations, despite the fact that the wavenumbers of the modes remained unchanged. We undoubtedly attribute these fluctuations to a luminescence phenomenon on the basis of : i) the absence of such effect in the anti-Stokes domain, ii) its dependence on the excitation laser wavelength, iii) other relevant photoluminescence experiments. This luminescence is attributed to pollutants at ultra-low concentration coming from the different containers.

Vallée, P; Ghomi, M; Jouanne, M; Vall\\'{e}e, Philippe; Lafait, Jacques; Ghomi, Mahmoud; Jouanne, Michel

2003-01-01

438

Water Management Studies in the Rolling Plains.  

E-print Network

CROP WATER REQUIREMENT 4 COTION 9 GRAIN SORGHUM 12 SMALL GRAINS 14 POTATOES 16 SWB6TCORN 19 LITKRATURE CITED SUMMARY Water management studies were conducted with cotton, grain sorghum, wheat, potatoes, and sweet com from 1976 through 1978.... These studies demonstrated that water is the dominant factor influencing yields in the Rolling Plains. Yields of cotton, grain sorghum, potatoes, and sweet corn were a linear function of applied water and water use. Moisture need and average rainfall...

Gerard, C.J.; Bordovsky, D.G.; Clark, L.E.

1980-01-01

439

Advancing Science for Water Resources Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the major advances in science to underpin water resources and river management that have taken place over the past\\u000a two decades, a need remains to establish a unifying framework that will lead to new, appropriate tools for water resources\\u000a management. In Europe, this need has been highlighted by the promotion of the Water Framework Directive. From a scientific\\u000a perspective,

G. E. Petts; J. Nestler; R. Kennedy

2006-01-01

440

Advancing science for water resources management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the major advances in science to underpin water resources and river management that have taken place over the past\\u000a two decades, a need remains to establish a unifying framework that will lead to new, appropriate tools for water resources\\u000a management. In Europe, this need has been highlighted by the promotion of the Water Framework Directive. From a scientific\\u000a perspective,

G. E. Petts; J. Nestler; R. Kennedy

441

Detecting effects of Best Management Practices on rain events generating nonpoint source pollution in agricultural watersheds using a physically-based stratagem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpoint source pollution (NPSP) is the export to receiving waters of nutrients originating from diffuse sources. This research documents a methodology for confirming reductions in NPSP resulting from implementation of agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs). It employs that methodology to confirm the success of BMPs implemented in Graywood Gully, a study sub-watershed that drains into Conesus Lake, NY. Evaluating the

James Zollweg; Joseph C. Makarewicz

2009-01-01

442

Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

in water resources, including the management of water resources among competing uses; controlling pollution Quality Focus Category: Water Quality, Sediments, Non Point Pollution Descriptors: AgricultureWater Resources Center Annual Technical Report FY 2001 Introduction Research Program Research

443

Cure for the nation`s water pollution problem: Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses federal and state implementation of the water quality-based strategy. It focuses on the development and implementation of water quality standards-based limitations (namely, total maximum daily loads or TMDLs) under section 303(d). It addresses the impact of such limitations on entities and activities that generate water pollution.

McCune, J.F.

1998-08-31

444

75 FR 43554 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (“Clean Water...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (``Clean Water Act'') Notice is hereby given that on July...Defendants violated Sections 301 and 308 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311 and 1318, at...

2010-07-26

445

The extent of chronic marine oil pollution in southeastern Newfoundland waters assessed through beached  

E-print Network

The extent of chronic marine oil pollution in southeastern Newfoundland waters assessed through fingerprinting; Oil Vulnerability Index 1. Introduction Oil enters the marine environment from land runoff, natural seeps, vessels, pipelines and offshore exploration and production platforms (Clark, 1992; Schmidt

Jones, Ian L.

446

Setting Up a Special Collection on Water Pollution in a University Library  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The establishment of a special collection within the university library, the complexities of identifying and collecting reports in the environmental area, locating agencies concerned with water pollution, and recording the location of other local collections of data are described. (Author)

Friedlander, Janet

1974-01-01

447

Analysis of River Water Quality and its influencing factors for the Effective Management of Water Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Japan, remarkable improvements in water quality have been observed over recent years because of regulations imposed on industrial wastewater and development of sewerage system. However, pollution loads from agricultural lands are still high and coverage ratio of sewerage system is still low in small and medium cities. In present context, nonpoint source pollution such as runoff from unsewered developments, urban and agricultural runoffs could be main water quality impacting factors. Further, atmospheric nitrogen (N) is the complex nonpoint source than can seriously affect river water environment. This study was undertaken to spatially investigate the present status of river water quality of Hadano Basin located in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Water quality of six rivers was investigated and its relationship with nonpoint pollution sources was analyzed. This study, with inclusion of ground water circulation and atmospheric N, can be effectively employed for water quality management of other watersheds also, both with and without influence of ground water circulation. Hence, as a research area of this study, it is significant in terms of water quality management. Total nitrogen (TN) was found consistently higher in urbanized basins indicating that atmospheric N might be influencing TN of river water. Ground water circulation influenced both water quality and quantity. In downstream basins of Muro and Kuzuha rivers, Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phosphorus (TP) were diluted by ground water inflow. In Mizunashi River and the upstream of Kuzuha River, surface water infiltrated to the subsurface due to higher river bed permeability. Influencing factors considered in the analysis were unsewered population, agricultural land, urban area, forest and atmospheric N. COD and TP showed good correlation with unsewered population and agricultural land. While TN had good correlation with atmospheric N deposition. Multiple regression analysis between water quality pollution loads and influencing factors resulted that unsewered population had higher impact on river water quality. For TN, atmospheric N deposition was taking effect. Continuous development of sewerage system and its expansion along with the pace of urbanization could be the pragmatic option to maintain river water quality in Hadano basin. However, influence of agricultural loads and atmospheric N on water quality cannot be denied for the proper water quality management of Hadano basin. It was found that if the proportion of sewered population could be increased from 72% to 86%, corresponding loads of COD and TP could be decreased by about 41% and 45% respectively. As per the development trend of sewerage system in Hadano basin for last 10 years, unsewered population could be reduced to its half by 2014, provided that the expansion of sewerage system continues at same rate. Regarding TN, its proper control is complicated as atmospheric N is propagated to regional and sometimes to global extent. Further study on the relationship between TN and atmospheric N deposition should be conducted for the proper management of TN in the river water.

Shrestha, G.; Sadohara, S.; Yoshida, S.; Yuichi, S.

2011-12-01

448

Drainage Water Management for the Midwest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Subsurface tile drainage is an essential water management practice on many highly productive fields in the Midwest. However, nitrate carried in drainage water can lead to local water quality problems and contribute to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico, so strategies are needed to reduce the nitrate load...

449

Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers  

E-print Network

Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers Theresa Pistochini May 23rd, 2012 ResearchAirCapacity,tons Gallons of Water Continuous Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F Cyclic Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F #12 AverageWaterHardness(ppm) Cooling Degree Days (60°F Reference) 20% Population 70% Population 10

California at Davis, University of

450

Natural water purification and water management by artificial groundwater recharge  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, several regions suffer from water scarcity and contamination. The infiltration and subsurface storage of rain and river water can reduce water stress. Artificial groundwater recharge, possibly combined with bank filtration, plant purification and/or the use of subsurface dams and artificial aquifers, is especially advantageous in areas where layers of gravel and sand exist below the earth’s surface. Artificial infiltration of surface water into the uppermost aquifer has qualitative and quantitative advantages. The contamination of infiltrated river water will be reduced by natural attenuation. Clay minerals, iron hydroxide and humic matter as well as microorganisms located in the subsurface have high decontamination capacities. By this, a final water treatment, if necessary, becomes much easier and cheaper. The quantitative effect concerns the seasonally changing river discharge that influences the possibility of water extraction for drinking water purposes. Such changes can be equalised by seasonally adapted infiltration/extraction of water in/out of the aquifer according to the river discharge and the water need. This method enables a continuous water supply over the whole year. Generally, artificially recharged groundwater is better protected against pollution than surface water, and the delimitation of water protection zones makes it even more save. PMID:18357624

Balke, Klaus-Dieter; Zhu, Yan

2008-01-01

451

Artificial recharge of groundwater and its role in water management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper summarizes and discusses the various aspects and methods of artificial recharge with particular emphasis on its uses and potential role in water management in the Arabian Gulf region. Artificial recharge occurs when man's activities cause more water to enter an aquifer, either under pumping or non-pumping conditions, than otherwise would enter the aquifer. Use of artificial recharge can be a practical means of dealing with problems of overdraft of groundwater. Methods of artificial recharge may be grouped under two broad types: (a) water spreading techniques, and (b) well-injection techniques. Successful use of artificial recharge requires a thorough knowledge of the physical and chemical characteristics of the aquifier system, and extensive onsite experimentation and tailoring of the artificial-recharge technique to fit the local or areal conditions. In general, water spreading techniques are less expensive than well injection and large quantities of water can be handled. Water spreading can also result in significant improvement in quality of recharge waters during infiltration and movement through the unsaturated zone and the receiving aquifer. In comparison, well-injection techniques are often used for emplacement of fresh recharge water into saline aquifer zones to form a manageable lens of fresher water, which may later be partially withdrawn for use or continue to be maintained as a barrier against salt-water encroachment. A major advantage in use of groundwater is its availability, on demand to wells, from a natural storage reservoir that is relatively safe from pollution and from damage by sabotage or other hostile action. However, fresh groundwater occurs only in limited quantities in most of the Arabian Gulf region; also, it is heavily overdrafted in many areas, and receives very little natural recharge. Good use could be made of artificial recharge by well injection in replenishing and managing aquifers in strategic locations if sources of freshwater could be made available for the artificial-recharge operations. ?? 1989.

Kimrey, J.O.

1989-01-01

452

Industry sector analysis Canada: Water pollution control equipment and instrumentation. Export trade information  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. suppliers of water pollution control equipment are in a prime position to benefit from Canadian industries' needs to modernize equipment in order to comply with tough, new legislation to control water pollution. In selling to the Canadian market, U.S. suppliers clearly benefit from the advantages of advanced technical know-how, proximity to the market, and reduced tariffs under the U.S.-Canada

T. Bryan; S. Lee

1992-01-01

453

Pollution Status of Surface Water Resources in Arid Region of Rajasthan (india)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present investigation deals with the evaluation of DO, BOD and COD of six surface water resources of Bikaner district which fall in arid region of Rajasthan - a part of Great Indian Desert, to determine pollution status. Water sample analysed for two years 2008-2009 showed these parameters beyond the limit of standard prescribed by WHO. These parameters also showed great seasonal fluctuation, indicating the degree of organic pollution more during summer season and least during winter season.

Kachhawa, Chanchal

454

Assessment of water quality of polluted lake using multivariate statistical techniques: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariate statistical techniques, cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to the data on water quality of Manchar Lake (Pakistan), generated during 2005–06, with monitoring at five different sites for 36 parameters. This study evaluated and interpreted complex water quality data sets and apportioned of pollution sources to get better information about water quality and to design

T. G. Kazi; M. B. Arain; M. K. Jamali; N. Jalbani; H. I. Afridi; R. A. Sarfraz; J. A. Baig; Abdul Q. Shah

2009-01-01

455

9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

(a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited to flood water) in an official establishment, all products and ingredients for use in the preparation of such products that have been rendered adulterated by the water shall be...

2011-01-01

456

Analysis of national water pollution control policies: 2. Agricultural sediment control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of a national water network model permits an analysis of the likely affects of agricultural sediment control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin

1981-01-01

457

The effect of water pollution control regulations on the cost of production of electric power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of water pollution control regulations, such as those outlined in 1972 FWPCA Amendments, on production costs in the electric utility industry are examined. The use of water by electric utilities, and the impact that water regulations will have on those uses are discussed. The production process of electric utilities is discussed, and a cost function from a cross-section

T. A. Deyak; A. N. Link

1979-01-01

458

How much water can pollution aerosols hold in the cloud by  

E-print Network

How much water can pollution aerosols hold in the cloud by suppressing warm rain Daniel Rosenfeld) aerosols. #12;Small CCN aerosols have been known for 50 years to slow down the conversion of cloud water.7ºC Hyderabad, India 22 June 2009 #12;Growing Mature DissipatingHail 0°C #12;How much water can

Einat, Aharonov

459

A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume II - Appendices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of water pollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…

Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

460

Analysis of national water-pollution-control policies. 2. Agricultural sediment control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national water network model is used to analyze the likely effects of agricultural sediment-control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier assessments concluded that

Leonard P. Gianessi; Henry M. Peskin

1981-01-01

461

Valorization of solid waste products from olive oil industry as potential adsorbents for water pollution control--a review.  

PubMed

The global olive oil production for 2010 is estimated to be 2,881,500 metric tons. The European Union countries produce 78.5% of the total olive oil, which stands for an average production of 2,136,000 tons. The worldwide consumption of olive oil increased of 78% between 1990 and 2010. The increase in olive oil production implies a proportional increase in olive mill wastes. As a consequence of such increasing trend, olive mills are facing severe environmental problems due to lack of feasible and/or cost-effective solutions to olive-mill waste management. Therefore, immediate attention is required to find a proper way of management to deal with olive mill waste materials in order to minimize environmental pollution and associated health risks. One of the interesting uses of solid wastes generated from olive mills is to convert them as inexpensive adsorbents for water pollution control. In this review paper, an extensive list of adsorbents (prepared by utilizing different types of olive mill solid waste materials) from vast literature has been compiled, and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants removal are presented. Different physicochemical methods that have been used to convert olive mill solid wastes into efficient adsorbents have also been discussed. Characterization of olive-based adsorbents and adsorption mechanisms of various aquatic pollutants on these developed olive-based adsorbents have also been discussed in detail. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed, and suggestions for future research are proposed. PMID:24068561

Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Hogland, William; Marques, Marcia; Paraskeva, Christakis A; Papadakis, Vagelis G; Sillanpää, Mika

2014-01-01

462

Beyond pollution prevention: Managing life-cycle costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Companies that purchases and use chemicals and materials in their everyday operation are finding that disposing of these products is becoming increasingly expensive. These disposal and liability costs have been the motivating factor behind recent efforts at pollution prevention. This paper suggests an alternative approach: considering the full life-cycle costs of chemicals and materials at the time purchase decisions are

D. Cohan; D. Gess

1993-01-01

463

URBAN WET-WEATHER FLOW POLLUTION MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the challenges in protecting urban watersheds lies in effectively controlling the contaminants in both overland runoff and sewerage system overflows during wet-weather events. Abatement of wet-weather flow (WWF) pollution can be implemented at the source by land managemen...

464

Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process  

E-print Network

Abstract: The study investigates water quality pollution impacts on urbanization by analyzing temporal and spatial characteristics of different water quality parameters, and simulating economic loss of water quality pollution in Xi’an, China from 1996 to 2003. Results show that organic pollutants were the greatest contributors of surface water quality pollution from 1996 to 2003. High values existed in petroleum concentration, chemical oxygen demand index ?KMnO4?, biochemical oxygen demand index, and phenol concentration, followed by nitrogen concentration ?TN and NH3-N?. From spatial analysis in different buffers from central urban area ?inner buffers: 1–5 km; central buffers: 5–10 km; outer buffers: ?10 km?, socioeconomic activities such as business activities, car transportation, industry factories, agriculture practices, and households were likely to lead to different behaviors of water quality parameters in nature. Results also reveal that both surface and ground water quality improved gradually after enforcement of control measures within the 7 years from 1996 to 2003. It shows the total economic loss, including cost of water use and supply, agriculture economic loss, ecosystem conservation costs, and economic loss of human health, reached $1.12?10 9 from 1996 to 2003, which increased $1.79?10 7 from $1.26?10 8 in 1996 to $1.46?10 8 in 2003. However, economic loss of water quality pollution increased while water quality pollution alleviated in the past years. This can be explained by more intensive social activities in broader regions, more populations were moved from rural area into urban area, and more costs were input in water quality pollution treatment.

unknown authors

465

Role of rural solid waste management in non-point source pollution control of Dianchi Lake catchments, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, with control of the main municipal and industrial point pollution sources and implementation of cleaning\\u000a for some inner pollution sources in the water body, the discharge of point source pollution decreased gradually, while non-point\\u000a source pollution has become increasingly distressing in Dianchi Lake catchments. As one of the major targets in non-point\\u000a source pollution control, an integrated

Wenjing Lu; Hongtao Wang

2008-01-01

466

Techniques for integrated water resources management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The course, Decision Support Techniques for Integrated Water Resources Management, is designed mainly for technical managers and staff of water resources management agencies at the international, national, regional, and local water board level, as well as consultants in other professions working in or interested in the field of water resources development, planning, and operation. It will be held in Wageningen, The Netherlands, June 10-15, 1991.The course objective is to promote better understanding and dissemination of techniques to be applied in “real-world” integrated water resources management. The course offers an introduction to the concepts of decision modeling, plus ample case studies to demonstrate their applicability. It covers decision theory, operations research and simulation methods, as well as certain aspects of law and psychology. Selected multiple objective techniques will be presented, followed by an overview of recent trends in the field. Computer-based techniques will be demonstrated.

467

Political economy of transnational water pollution: what do the LMB data (1985-2000) say?  

PubMed

On the basis of the cross-section and time-series data of the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB)--including large sections of Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam, and Cambodia, we find little evidence in support of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. Instead, our regressions support the general views that water pollution had been positively related to income level and that, as a result of the end of the Cold War era, it had been significantly reduced in the 1990s vis-à-vis the 1980s. In most circumstances, water resources were more seriously polluted in the transnational border areas than in the other areas. Specifically, the estimated coefficients on the political boundary dummies show that political influence on transnational water pollution was more significant in areas near "the international border along which the river runs" (denoted by BORDER2) than in places near "the international border across which the river runs" (denoted by BORDER1). The estimated coefficients on the ASEAN dummy present some information about the positive role of the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) membership in the reduction of transnational water pollution. Finally, the country-specific dummies are found to present conflicting information about the transnational differences of water pollution, although Thailand is found to have the least water pollution in the LMB. PMID:14986893

Guo, Rongxing; Yang, Kaizhong

2003-10-01

468

[GIS and scenario analysis aid to water pollution control planning of river basin].  

PubMed

The forward and backward algorithms for watershed water pollution control planning were summarized in this paper as well as their advantages and shortages. The spatial databases of water environmental function region, pollution sources, monitoring sections and sewer outlets were built with ARCGIS8.1 as the platform in the case study of Ganjiang valley, Jiangxi province. Based on the principles of the forward algorithm, four scenarios were designed for the watershed pollution control. Under these scenarios, ten sets of planning schemes were generated to implement cascade pollution source control. The investment costs of sewage treatment for these schemes were estimated by means of a series of cost-effective functions; with pollution source prediction, the water quality was modeled with CSTR model for each planning scheme. The modeled results of different planning schemes were visualized through GIS to aid decision-making. With the results of investment cost and water quality attainment as decision-making accords and based on the analysis of the economic endurable capacity for water pollution control in Ganjiang river basin, two optimized schemes were proposed. The research shows that GIS technology and scenario analysis can provide a good guidance to the synthesis, integrity and sustainability aspects for river basin water quality planning. PMID:15515932

Wang, Shao-ping; Cheng, Sheng-tong; Jia, Hai-feng; Ou, Zhi-dan; Tan, Bin

2004-07-01

469

Investigation of priorities in water quality management based on correlations and variations.  

PubMed

The development of water quality assessment strategies investigating spatial and temporal changes caused by natural and anthropogenic phenomena is an important tool in management practices. This paper used cluster analysis, water quality index method, sensitivity analysis and canonical correlation analysis to investigate priorities in pollution control activities. Data sets representing 22 surface water quality parameters were subject to analysis. Results revealed that organic pollution was serious threat for overall water quality in the region. Besides, oil and grease, lead and mercury were the critical variables violating the standard. In contrast to inorganic variables, organic and physical-inorganic chemical parameters were influenced by variations in physical conditions (discharge, temperature). This study showed that information produced based on the variations and correlations in water quality data sets can be helpful to investigate priorities in water management activities. Moreover statistical techniques and index methods are useful tools in data - information transformation process. PMID:23422063

Boyac?o?lu, Hülya; Gündogdu, Vildan; Boyac?o?lu, Hayal

2013-04-15

470

Urban runoff pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the construction of wastewater treatment plants combined sewer overflows have become an increasingly important limitation to the quality of the surrounding surface waters. Over the years urban water resources have often been so modified by anthropogenic activity that water quality management requires an integrated approach both at an evaluation and an investment level. Effects of acute pollutants, such as

M. Grum

2001-01-01

471

Water Availability and Management of Water Resources  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the most pressing national and global issues is the availability of freshwater due to global climate change, energy scarcity issues and the increase in world population and accompanying economic growth. Estimates of water supplies and flows through the world's hydrologic c...

472

Nutrient sources in a Mediterranean catchment and their improvement for water quality management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in land-use or management strategies may affect water outflow, sediment and nutrients loads. Thus, there is an increasing demand for quantitative information at the catchment scale that would help decision makers or planners to take appropriate decisions. The characterisation of water status, the description of pollution sources impact, the establishment of monitoring programs and the implementation of river basin management plans require an analysis of the current basin status and estimates of the relative significance of the different sources of pollution. Particularly, in this study the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT2000) model was considered since it is an integrated hydrological model that simulates both the qualitative as well as quantitative terms of hydrological balances. It is a spatially distributed hydrological model that operates on a daily time step at catchment scale developed by the Agricultural Research Service at the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Its purpose is to simulate water sediment and chemical yields on large river basins and possible impacts of land use, climate changes and watershed management. Integrated hydrological models are, nowadays, needed to support the implementation of integrated water management plans and to comply with the current requirements of the European Water Directive. Actually, they can help in evaluating current water resources, identify pollution sources, evaluate alternative management policies. More specifically, the analysis has been applied to the Oreto catchment (77 Km2), an agricultural and urbanised catchment located in Sicily (Italy). Residential, commercial, farm and industrial settlements cover almost the entire area. The climate is Mediterranean with hot dry summer and rainy winter season. The hydrological response of this basin is dominated by long dry seasons and following wetting-up periods, during which even large inputs of rainfall may produce little or no response at the basin outlet. Regarding the inventory of point and non-point pollutants sources, the river receives a number of point source pollutants from small villages and some outskirts of Palermo, most of them untreated, and non point source pollutants from agricultural cropland and zoo-technical farms. In particular, the Oreto river receives untreated wastewater and stormwater from Altofonte (8200 inhabitants) and Pioppo (2500 inhabitants) . The model was first calibrated using meteorological, flow and water quality data collected at various stations through-out the catchment, in order to predict water and nutrient concentrations at the catchment outlet and then was used to evaluate the potential impact of various management strategies on surface water quality. The results demonstrates that point and non-point polluting sources have to be contiguously analysed because they concur to the definition of river water quality both during wet and dry periods.

Candela, Angela; Viviani, Gaspare

2010-05-01

473

Geospatial Investigation into Groundwater Pollution and Water Quality Supported by Satellite Data: A Case Study from the Evros River (Eastern Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managing water resources, in terms of both quality and quantity, in transboundary rivers is a difficult and challenging task that requires efficient cross-border cooperation and transparency. Groundwater pollution risk assessment and mapping techniques over the full catchment area are important tools that could be used as part of these water resource management efforts, to estimate pollution pressures and optimize land planning processes. The Evros river catchment is the second largest river in Eastern Europe and sustains a population of 3.6 million people in three different countries (Bulgaria, Turkey and Greece). This study provides detailed information on the main pollution sources and pressures in the Evros catchment and, for the first time, applies, assesses and evaluates a groundwater pollution risk mapping technique using satellite observations (Landsat NDVI) and an extensive dataset of field measurements covering different seasons and multiple years. We found that approximately 40 % of the Greek part of the Evros catchment is characterized as of high and very high pollution risk, while 14 % of the study area is classified as of moderate risk. Both the modeled and measured water quality status of the river showed large spatiotemporal variations consistent with the strong anthropogenic pressures in this system, especially on the northern and central segments of the catchment. The pollutants identified illustrate inputs of agrochemicals and urban wastes in the river. High correlation coefficients ( R between 0.79 and 0.85) were found between estimated pollution risks and measured concentrations of those chemical parameters that are mainly attributed to anthropogenic activities rather than in situ biogeochemical processes. The pollution risk method described here could be used elsewhere as a decision support tool for mitigating the impact of hazardous human activities and improving management of groundwater resources.

Elias, Dimitriou; Angeliki, Mentzafou; Vasiliki, Markogianni; Maria, Tzortziou; Christina, Zeri

2014-06-01

474

Water pollution risk simulation and prediction in the main canal of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The middle route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (MRP) will divert water to Beijing Tuancheng Lake from Taocha in the Danjiangkou reservoir located in the Hubei province of China. The MRP is composed of a long canal and complex hydraulic structures and will transfer water in open channel areas to provide drinking water for Beijing, Shijiazhuang and other cities under extremely strict water quality requirements. A large number of vehicular accidents, occurred on the many highway bridges across the main canal would cause significant water pollution in the main canal. To ensure that water quality is maintained during the diversion process, the effects of pollutants on water quality due to sudden pollution accidents were simulated and analyzed in this paper. The MIKE11 HD module was used to calculate the hydraulic characteristics of the 42-km Xishi-to-Beijuma River channel of the MRP. Six types of hydraulic structures, including inverted siphons, gates, highway bridges, culverts and tunnels, were included in this model. Based on the hydrodynamic model, the MIKE11 AD module, which is one-dimensional advection dispersion model, was built for TP, NH3-N, CODMn and F. The validated results showed that the computed values agreed well with the measured values. In accordance with transportation data across the Dianbei Highway Bridge, the effects of traffic accidents on the bridge on water quality were analyzed. Based on simulated scenarios with three discharge rates (ranged from 12 m3/s to 17 m3/s, 40 m3/s, and 60 m3/s) and three pollution loading concentration levels (5 t, 10 t and 20 t) when trucks spill their contents (i.e., phosphate fertilizer, cyanide, oil and chromium solution) into the channel, emergency measures were proposed. Reasonable solutions to ensure the water quality with regard to the various types of pollutants were proposed, including treating polluted water, maintaining materials, and personnel reserves.

Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Cheng, Xi

2014-11-01

475

Water Resources Management Practicum 2006 Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies  

E-print Network

2007 Water Resources Management Practicum 2006 Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies for Monona Bay, Madison, Wisconsin #12;Water Resources Management Practicum Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, 608/262-7996. The Water Resources Management Practicum is a regular part

Sheridan, Jennifer

476

Prioritizing hazardous pollutants in two Nigerian water supply schemes: a risk-based approach  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To rank pollutants in two Nigerian water supply schemes according to their effect on human health using a risk-based approach. Methods Hazardous pollutants in drinking-water in the study area were identified from a literature search and selected pollutants were monitored from April 2010 to December 2011 in catchments, treatment works and consumer taps. The disease burden due to each pollutant was estimated in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) using data on the pollutant’s concentration, exposure to the pollutant, the severity of its health effects and the consumer population. Findings The pollutants identified were microbial organisms, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc. All were detected in the catchments but only cadmium, cobalt, chromium, manganese and lead exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) guideline values after water treatment. Post-treatment contamination was observed. The estimated disease burden was greatest for chromium in both schemes, followed in decreasing order by cadmium, lead, manganese and cobalt. The total disease burden of all pollutants in the two schemes was 46?000 and 9500 DALYs per year or 0.14 and 0.088 DALYs per person per year, respectively, much higher than the WHO reference level of 1?×?10?6 DALYs per person per year. For each metal, the disease burden exceeded the reference level and was comparable with that due to microbial contamination reported elsewhere in Africa. Conclusion The estimated disease burden of metal contamination of two Nigerian water supply systems was high. It could best be reduced by protection of water catchment and pretreatment by electrocoagulation. PMID:23940402

Etchie, Ayotunde T; Etchie, Tunde O; Krishnamurthi, Kannan; SaravanaDevi, S; Wate, Satish R

2013-01-01

477

Contaminant Loading in Drainage and Fresh Water Used for Wetland Management at Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Throughout the western United States, studies have identified various detrimental effects of contaminants to aquatic biota\\u000a from the use of agricultural drainage water for management of arid wetlands. However, little is known about the relative contributions\\u000a of contaminant loading from pollutants dissolved in water compared with those carried by drifting material (e.g., detritus) associated with drainage water. Consequently, we

K. M. Kilbride; F. L. Paveglio; W. G. Henry

1998-01-01

478

Water Resources, Development and Management Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world\\'s food production depends on the availability of water, a precious but finite resource. Users can learn about the need for more efficient usage of water for irrigation, and about the activities of the Water Resources Development and Management Service, which is concerned with sustainable use and conservation of water in agriculture. Links to other sites related to irrigation practices and food production are also provided.

479

Water Resources, Development and Management Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world's food production depends on the availability of water, a precious but finite resource. Users can learn about the need for more efficient usage of water for irrigation, and about the activities of the Water Resources Development and Management Service, which is concerned with sustainable use and conservation of water in agriculture. Links to other sites related to irrigation practices and food production are also provided.

2004-05-10

480

"Upstream Thinking": the catchment management approach of a water provider  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human activities have large impacts on water quality and provision. Water companies throughout the UK are faced with the consequences of poor land management and need to find appropriate solutions to decreasing water quality. This is particularly true in the South West of England, where 93% of the drinking water is sourced from rivers and reservoirs: large areas of drained peatlands (i.e. Exmoor and Dartmoor National Parks) are responsible for a significant input of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) discolouring the water, whilst poorly managed farming activities can lead to diffuse pollution. Alongside the direct environmental implications, poor water quality is partly increasing water treatment costs and will drive significant future investment in additional water treatment, with further repercussions on customers. This highlights the need for water companies throughout the UK, and further afield, to be more involved in catchment management. "Upstream Thinking" is South West Water's (SWW) approach to catchment management, where working with stakeholders to improve water quality upstream aims to avoid increasingly costly solutions downstream. This approach has led the company to invest in two major areas of work: (1) The Farmland programme where problematic farm management practices and potential solutions are identified, typically 40% of the required investment is then offered in exchange for a legal undertaking to maintain the new farm assets in good condition for 25 years; (2) The Mires programme which involves heavy investment in peatland restoration through the blocking of open ditches in order to improve water storage and quality in the long term. From these two projects, it has been clear that stakeholder involvement of groups such as local farmers, the Westcountry Rivers Trust, the Exmoor National Park Authority, the Environment Agency, Natural England and the Exmoor Society is essential, first because it draws in catchment improvement expertise which is not directly held within the company, and second because it shows how local communities and groups are considered and valued by the company. Monitoring changes and providing a solid scientific base is also undertaken to prove the concept and justify any investment. The work carried out so far has highlighted that SWW's collaborative approach to catchment management is changing the relationship between private water suppliers in the UK and stakeholders or groups having an impact on water quality. This results in a progressive move from a situation where the polluter has to pay, to rewarding providers of clean water instead. The value of ecosystem payments of this kind is being discussed with the appropriate authorities (i.e. Natural England, and the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs) so that it can form part of ensuring sustainable water supplies in future, with all the environmental and ecological benefits of clear raw waters in rivers, lakes and streams.

Grand-Clement, E.; Ross, M.; Smith, D.; Anderson, K.; Luscombe, D.; Le Feuvre, N.; Brazier, R. E.

2012-04-01

481

[Fish parasites as bioindicators of the pollution of bodies of water].  

PubMed

The paper presents the results of studies on the effect of wastes of the Cherepovets iron-and-steel works containing phenol, naphthaline and oil products on fish parasites of the Sheksna part of the Rybinsk water reservoir (the Volga river system). It has been shown that the number of highly sensitive ectoparasites of Abramis brama (Protozoa, Dactylogyrus monogeneans, Ergasilus sieboldi crustaceans and Caspiobdella fadejewi leeches) considerably decreases in the zone of pollution. It has been first suggested to use Diplozoon paradoxum and Caryophyllaeus laticeps, parasites of bream highly resistant to toxic effect, the number of which considerably increases in the zone of pollution, as indicators of anthropogenic pollution and ecological state of a water body. Among diplozoons there have been first discovered individuals having structural anomalies (reduction of the attachment organs, violation in the symmetry of arrangement and number of valves) that serves as evidence of mutagenic effect of toxic substances of polluted waters on morphogenesis of the parasite. PMID:1299804

Kuperman, B I

1992-01-01

482

Managing water quality under drought conditions in the Llobregat River Basin.  

PubMed

The primary effects of droughts on river basins include both depleted quantity and quality of the available water resources, which can render water resources useless for human needs and simultaneously damage the environment. Isolated water quality analyses limit the action measures that can be proposed. Thus, an integrated evaluation of water management and quality is warranted. In this study, a methodology consisting of two coordinated models is used to combine aspects of water resource allocation and water quality assessment. Water management addresses water allocation issues by considering the storage, transport and consumption elements. Moreover, the water quality model generates time series of concentrations for several pollutants according to the water quality of the runoff and the demand discharges. These two modules are part of the AQUATOOL decision support system shell for water resource management. This tool facilitates the analysis of the effects of water management and quality alternatives and scenarios on the relevant variables in a river basin. This paper illustrates the development of an integrated model for the Llobregat River Basin. The analysis examines the drought from 2004 to 2008, which is an example of a period when the water system was quantitative and qualitatively stressed. The performed simulations encompass a wide variety of water management and water quality measures; the results provide data for making informed decisions. Moreover, the results demonstrated the importance of combining these measures depending on the evolution of a drought event and the state of the water resources system. PMID:24993514

Momblanch, Andrea; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Munné, Antoni; Manzano, Andreu; Arnau, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín

2015-01-15

483

Industrial effluent quality, pollution monitoring and environmental management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Royal Commission Environmental Control Department (RC-ECD) at Yanbu industrial city in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has established\\u000a a well-defined monitoring program to control the pollution from industrial effluents. The quality of effluent from each facility\\u000a is monitored round the clock. Different strategic measures have been taken by the RC-ECD to implement the zero discharge policy\\u000a of RC. Industries are required

Maqbool Ahmad; Ahmad S. Bajahlan; Waleed S. Hammad

2008-01-01

484

WASTE AND WATER MANAGEMENT FOR CONVENTIONAL COAL COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT REPORT - 1979; VOLUME II. WATER MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report, the second of five volumes, describes water management for conventional combustion sources and assesses the current status of various studies and programs in water management and trends in water recycle/reuse. A coal-fired boiler produces both chemical and thermal pol...

485

Gulls identified as major source of fecal pollution in coastal waters: a microbial source tracking study.  

PubMed

Gulls were reported as sources of fecal pollution in coastal environments and potential vectors of human infections. Microbial source tracking (MST) methods were rarely tested to identify this pollution origin. This study was conducted to ascertain the source of water fecal contamination in the Berlenga Island, Portugal. A total of 169 Escherichia coli isolates from human sewage, 423 isolates from gull feces and 334 water isolates were analyzed by BOX-PCR. An average correct classification of 79.3% was achieved. When an 85% similarity cutoff was applied 24% of water isolates were present in gull feces against 2.7% detected in sewage. Jackknifing resulted in 29.3% of water isolates classified as gull, and 10.8% classified as human. Results indicate that gulls constitute a major source of water contamination in the Berlenga Island. This study validated a methodology to differentiate human and gull fecal pollution sources in a real case of a contaminated beach. PMID:24140684

Araújo, Susana; Henriques, Isabel S; Leandro, Sérgio Miguel; Alves, Artur; Pereira, Anabela; Correia, António

2014-02-01

486

Water management in the Roman world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate variability can have extreme impacts on societies in regions that are water-limited for agriculture. A society's ability to manage its water resources in such environments is critical to its long-term viability. Water management can involve improving agricultural yields through in-situ irrigation or redistributing water resources through trade in food. Here, we explore how such water management strategies affected the resilience of the Roman Empire to climate variability in the water-limited region of the Mediterranean. Using the large-scale hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB and estimates of landcover based on the Historical Database of the Global Environment (HYDE) we generate potential agricultural yield maps under variable climate. HYDE maps of population density in conjunction with potential yield estimates are used to develop maps of agricultural surplus and deficit. The surplus and deficit regions are abstracted to nodes on a water redistribution network based on the Stanford Geospatial Network Model of the Roman World (ORBIS). This demand-driven, water redistribution network allows us to quantitatively explore how water management strategies such as irrigation and food trade improved the resilience of the Roman Empire to climate variability.

Dermody, Brian J.; van Beek, Rens L. P. H.; Meeks, Elijah; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; Scheidel, Walter; Wassen, Martin J.; van der Velde, Ype; Dekker, Stefan C.

2014-05-01

487

The impact of land management in agricultural catchments on groundwater pollution levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural activity results in water pollution from nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. Increased concentrations of nitrogen compounds pose a threat to animal and human health. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of agriculture in a catchment basin on the level of groundwater pollution from biogenic compounds. Spatial analysis of the land cover was conducted using a GIS and was based on data from the Corine Land Cover databases.

Matysik, Magdalena

2014-10-01

488

Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use  

SciTech Connect

Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

2007-10-31

489

Water governance across competing scales: Coupling land and water management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water governance is becoming an increasingly important area of study for hydrologists, as the impacts of human decisions on water flows and their various management scales are recognised. Hydrology has long tackled issues of water flow and quality across basins-from rain to soil and sub-soil, from upstream to downstream, between surface water and groundwater systems, and through interlinked watersheds-with the understanding that these stocks and flows can be modified en-route due to the actions of people, including through organised water management and governance processes. In this setting, one common aim of water governance is to develop management processes and infrastructure systems that can control hydrological variability at different levels of spatial and temporal scales. For example, water storages, distribution systems and drainage networks are developed for long-term seasonal and inter-decadal variability-in the case of large dams and irrigation systems-as well as shorter-term variability, such as flooding events, that may take place over hours (e.g. urban flash floods), days (e.g. catchment-based river flooding) or months (e.g. basin-wide flood-plain inundation events). Particularly when looking at water supply issues, water allocation rules are elaborated and negotiated in order to provide water to people when and where they most need it, rather than when and where it would naturally be available.

Daniell, Katherine A.; Barreteau, Olivier

2014-11-01

490

METRO-APEX Volume 8.1: Water Quality Manager's Manual. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The water Quality Manager's Manual is one of a set of twenty-one manuals used in METRO-APEX 1974, a computerized college and professional level, computer-supported, role-play, simulation exercise of a community with "normal" problems. Stress is placed on environmental quality considerations. APEX 1974 is an expansion of APEX--Air Pollution

University of Southern California, Los Angeles. COMEX Research Project.

491

Water demand management in Kuwait  

E-print Network

Kuwait is an arid country located in the Middle East, with limited access to water resources. Yet water demand per capita is much higher than in other countries in the world, estimated to be around 450 L/capita/day. There ...

Milutinovic, Milan, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01

492

Virtual water management in the Roman world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change can have extreme societal impacts particularly in regions that are water-limited for agriculture. A society's ability to manage its water resources in such environments is critical to its long-term viability. Water management can involve improving agricultural yields through in-situ irrigation or the redistribution of virtual water resources through trade in food. Here, we explore how such water management strategies improve societal resilience by examining virtual water management during the Roman Empire in the water-limited region of the Mediterranean. Climate was prescribed based on previously published reconstructions which show that during the Roman Empire when the Central Mediterranean was wetter, the West and Southeastern Mediterranean became drier and vice-versa. Evidence indicates that these shifts in the climatic seesaw may have occurred relatively rapidly. Using the Global hydrological model PCR GLOBWB and estimates of landcover based on the HYDE dataset we generate potential agricultural yield maps under two extremes of this climatic seesaw. HYDE estimates of population in conjunction with potential yield estimates are used to identify regions of Mediterranean with a yield surplus or deficit. The surplus and deficit regions form nodes on a virtual water redistribution network with transport costs taken from the Stanford Geospatial Network Model of the Roman World (ORBIS). Our demand-driven, virtual water redistribution network allows us to quantitatively explore the importance of water management strategies such as irrigation and food trade for the Romans. By examining virtual water transport cost anomalies between climate scenarios our analysis highlights regions of the Mediterranean that were most vulnerable to climate change during the Roman Period.

Dermody, B.; Van Beek, L. P.; Meeks, E.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Bierkens, M. F.; Scheidel, W.; Wassen, M. J.; Van der Velde, Y.; Dekker, S. C.

2013-12-01

493

UF in Florence Global Water Resource Management  

E-print Network

buildings, city squares, gardens, monasteries, museums, and art galleries. Excursions Coursework human pressures on water resources create the need for sustainable water resource management worldwide the city and in walking distance or a short commute to where classes are held. #12;University of Florida

Jawitz, James W.

494

Measurement of dielectric properties and determination of microwave emissivity of polluted waters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dielectric properties of polluted waters are measured with a reflection-type resonant cavity at 1.43 GHz. Very small water samples in quartz tubes of known volume are placed in the center of the maximum electric field. Measurement of the resonance-frequency variation and a change of the cavity's quality factor are used to determine the dielectric properties. The microwave emissivity of the polluted water is then calculated via the Fresnel equation and applied to data reductions of microwave radiometer measurements.

Blume, H.-J. C.

1980-01-01

495

Water Management in Austria and Security of Water Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Water Management in Austria is based on a real abundance of water in great parts of the country. Related to the water availability\\u000a per capita, Austria is ranked in the upper range in Europe. However, the distribution of precipitation and thus the availability\\u000a of the resource is not even. In the eastern and south-eastern regions of the country, temporal problems

Wilfried Schimon

496

Remote measurements of water pollution with a lidar polarimeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines a dual polarization laser backscatter system as a method for remote measurements of certain water quality parameters. Analytical models for describing the backscatter from turbid water and oil on turbid water are presented and compared with experimental data. Laser backscatter field measurements from natural waterways are presented and compared with simultaneous ground observations of the water quality parameters: turbidity, suspended solids, and transmittance. The results of this study show that the analytical models appear valid and that the sensor investigated is applicable to remote measurements of these water quality parameters and oil spills on water.-

Sheives, T. C.; Rouse, J. W., Jr.; Mayo, W. T., Jr.

1974-01-01

497

Petroleum Pollutant Degradation by Surface Water Microorganisms (8 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aims and Scope   It is well known that the composition of petroleum or some of its processing products changes in the environment mostly under\\u000a the influence of microorganisms. A series of experiments was conducted in order to define the optimum conditions for an efficient\\u000a biodegradation of petroleum pollutant, or bioremediation of different segments of the environment. The aim of

Mališa P. Anti?; Branimir Jovancicevic; Miroslav M. Vrvi?; Jan Schwarzbauer

2006-01-01

498

Manpower and Training Needs in Water Pollution Control. Senate Document No. 49.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine trained manpower needs and training resources in the clean water field, data were gathered from interviews with state and federal agencies as well as the Water Pollution Control Federation, from prior manpower reports, and from Bureau of Census employment data. After analysis of present manpower resources and future requirements,…

Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

499

An Intelligent Decision Support System of Lake Water Pollution Control Based on Multi-agent Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapidly development of the economic, environmental problem has become one of the most prominent problems of the society. Lake water environmental problem became more and more serious, and it had seriously effect on human health and the socio-economic sustainable development. It is a key project to find a more effective way of water pollution control. An intelligent decision

Jianjun Ni; Chuanbiao Zhang; Li Ren

2009-01-01

500

We All Live Downstream. A Guide to Waste Treatment That Stops Water Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the idea that the prevention and treatment of water pollution should begin at its source, this document focuses on some methods that individuals can use in their homes and businesses to treat wastewater. Chapter one, "What Is the Water Crisis?" explains the basic concepts of the hydrologic cycle, evapotranspiration, and the quantity of…

Costner, Pat; And Others