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Sample records for water pollution management

  1. Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

  2. Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  3. Abatement vs. treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems.

    PubMed

    Roebeling, P C; Cunha, M C; Arroja, L; van Grieken, M E

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments. The delivery of water pollutants can be reduced through water pollution abatement as well as water pollution treatment. Hence, sustainable economic development of coastal regions requires balancing of the marginal costs from water pollution abatement and/or treatment and the associated marginal benefits from marine resource appreciation. Water pollution delivery reduction costs are, however, not equal across abatement and treatment options. In this paper, an optimal control approach is developed and applied to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems. For the case of diffuse source dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution in the Tully-Murray region, Queensland, Australia, (agricultural) water pollution abatement cost, (wetland) water pollution treatment cost and marine benefit functions are determined to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment. Considering partial (wetland) treatment costs and positive water quality improvement benefits, results show that welfare gains can be obtained, primarily, through diffuse source water pollution abatement (improved agricultural management practices) and, to a minor extent, through diffuse source water pollution treatment (wetland restoration). PMID:26287831

  4. Linking Air, Land, and Water Pollution for Effective Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, other federal agencies, and the states have made substantial progress in improving the Nation’s air and water quality. Traditionally, the air, land, and water pollution ...

  5. The Other Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  6. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  7. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  8. SCIENCE OF INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT: LINKING POLLUTANT CONTROL PRACTICES WITH WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    SCIENCE OF INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT: LINKING POLLUTANT CONTROL PRACTICES WITH WATER QUALITY M. Morrison (NRMRL), C. Nietch (NRMRL), 1. Schubauer-Berigan (NRMRL), M. Hantush (NRMRL), D. Lai (NRMRL), B. Daniel (NERL), M. Griffith (NCEA) Science Questions LTG 3. MYP Sc...

  9. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... to survive. Many different pollutants can harm our rivers, streams, lakes, and oceans. The three most common ... and bacteria. Rain washes soil into streams and rivers. The soil can kill tiny animals and fish ...

  10. Storm water pollution prevention plans

    SciTech Connect

    Rossmiller, R.L. )

    1993-03-01

    National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) general permit applications for industrial storm water discharge were to have been filed by October 1992. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies are now issuing permits based on these applications. One compliance aspect of the permits is the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3). The plan must identify the facility's potential sources of storm water pollution and develop and implement best management practices (BMPs) to reduce pollutants in storm water runoff. The objectives of the NPDES storm water program are to eliminate illegal dumping and illicit connections, and to reduce pollutants in industrial storm water discharge. These regulations require industry to develop detailed facility site maps, and describe the types, amounts and locations of potential pollutants. Based on this information, industry can develop and implement best management practices to reduce pollutants in storm water runoff.

  11. Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of CODCr NH3-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH3-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. PMID:23222206

  12. Intensive management in grasslands causes diffuse water pollution at the farm scale.

    PubMed

    Peukert, Sabine; Griffith, Bruce A; Murray, Phillip J; Macleod, Christopher J A; Brazier, Richard E

    2014-11-01

    Arable land use is generally assumed to be the largest contributor to agricultural diffuse pollution. This study adds to the growing evidence that conventional temperate intensively managed lowland grasslands contribute significantly to soil erosion and diffuse pollution rates. This is the first grassland study to monitor hydrological characteristics and multiple pollutant fluxes (suspended sediment [SS] and the macronutrients: total oxidized nitrogen-N [TON], total phosphorus [TP], and total carbon [TC]) at high temporal resolution (monitoring up to every 15 min) over 1 yr. Monitoring was conducted across three fields (6.5-7.5 ha) on the North Wyke Farm Platform, UK. The estimated annual erosion rates (up to 527.4 kg ha), TP losses (up to 0.9 kg ha), and TC losses (up to 179 kg ha) were similar to or exceeded the losses reported for other grassland, mixed land-use, and arable sites. Annual yields of TON (up to 3 kg ha) were less than arable land-use fluxes and earlier grassland N studies, an important result as the study site is situated within a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone. The high-resolution monitoring allowed detailed "system's functioning" understanding of hydrological processes, mobilization- transport pathways of individual pollutants, and the changes of the relative importance of diffuse pollutants through flow conditions and time. Suspended sediment and TP concentrations frequently exceeded water quality guidelines recommended by the European Freshwater Fisheries Directive (25 mg L) and the European Water Framework Directive (0.04 mg soluble reactive P L), suggesting that intensively managed grasslands pose a significant threat to receiving surface waters. Such sediment and nutrient losses from intensively managed grasslands should be acknowledged in land management guidelines and advice for future compliance with surface water quality standards. PMID:25602218

  13. Interpolation of extensive routine water pollution monitoring datasets: methodology and discussion of implications for aquifer management.

    PubMed

    Yuval, Yuval; Rimon, Yaara; Graber, Ellen R; Furman, Alex

    2014-08-01

    A large fraction of the fresh water available for human use is stored in groundwater aquifers. Since human activities such as mining, agriculture, industry and urbanisation often result in incursion of various pollutants to groundwater, routine monitoring of water quality is an indispensable component of judicious aquifer management. Unfortunately, groundwater pollution monitoring is expensive and usually cannot cover an aquifer with the spatial resolution necessary for making adequate management decisions. Interpolation of monitoring data is thus an important tool for supplementing monitoring observations. However, interpolating routine groundwater pollution data poses a special problem due to the nature of the observations. The data from a producing aquifer usually includes many zero pollution concentration values from the clean parts of the aquifer but may span a wide range of values (up to a few orders of magnitude) in the polluted areas. This manuscript presents a methodology that can cope with such datasets and use them to produce maps that present the pollution plumes but also delineates the clean areas that are fit for production. A method for assessing the quality of mapping in a way which is suitable to the data's dynamic range of values is also presented. A local variant of inverse distance weighting is employed to interpolate the data. Inclusion zones around the interpolation points ensure that only relevant observations contribute to each interpolated concentration. Using inclusion zones improves the accuracy of the mapping but results in interpolation grid points which are not assigned a value. The inherent trade-off between the interpolation accuracy and coverage is demonstrated using both circular and elliptical inclusion zones. A leave-one-out cross testing is used to assess and compare the performance of the interpolations. The methodology is demonstrated using groundwater pollution monitoring data from the coastal aquifer along the Israeli

  14. Spatiotemporal nonpoint source pollution water quality management framework using bi-directional model-GIS linkage

    SciTech Connect

    Faizullabhoy, M.S.; Yoon, J.

    1999-07-01

    A framework for water quality assessment and management purposes was developed. In this framework, a bilateral linkage was implemented between the distributed model, Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Model (AGNPS) and the Geographic Information System (GIS) to investigate a spatiotemporal nonpoint source pollution problem from a 750-acre watershed in the NSGA (Naval Security Group Activity) Northwest base at the Virginia/North Carolina border. AGNPS is an event-based, distributed parameter model that simulates runoff and the transport of sediment and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from predominantly agricultural watersheds. In this study rather than manually implementing AGNPS simulation, extracted data are integrated in an automated fashion through a direct bilateral linkage framework between the AGNPS model engine and the GIS. This bilateral linkage framework resulted in a powerful, up-to-date tool that would be capable of monitoring and instantaneously visualizing the transport of any pollutant as well as effectively identifying critical areas of the nonpoint source (NPS) pollution. The framework also allowed the various what if scenarios to support the decision-making processes. Best Management Practices (BMP) for the watershed can be generated in a close loop iterative scheme, until predefined management objectives are achieved. Simulated results showed that the optimal BMP scenario achieved an average reduction of about 41% in soluble and sediment-attached nitrogen and about 62% reduction in soluble and sediment phosphorus from current NPS pollution levels.

  15. Interpolation of extensive routine water pollution monitoring datasets: methodology and discussion of implications for aquifer management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuval; Rimon, Y.; Graber, E. R.; Furman, A.

    2013-07-01

    A large fraction of the fresh water available for human use is stored in groundwater aquifers. Since human activities such as mining, agriculture, industry and urbanization often result in incursion of various pollutants to groundwater, routine monitoring of water quality is an indispensable component of judicious aquifer management. Unfortunately, groundwater pollution monitoring is expensive and usually cannot cover an aquifer with the spatial resolution necessary for making adequate management decisions. Interpolation of monitoring data between points is thus an important tool for supplementing measured data. However, interpolating routine groundwater pollution data poses a special problem due to the nature of the observations. The data from a producing aquifer usually includes many zero pollution concentration values from the clean parts of the aquifer but may span a wide range (up to a few orders of magnitude) of values in the polluted areas. This manuscript presents a methodology that can cope with such datasets and use them to produce maps that present the pollution plumes but also delineates the clean areas that are fit for production. A method for assessing the quality of mapping in a way which is suitable to the data's dynamic range of values is also presented. Local variant of inverse distance weighting is employed to interpolate the data. Inclusion zones around the interpolation points ensure that only relevant observations contribute to each interpolated concentration. Using inclusion zones improves the accuracy of the mapping but results in interpolation grid points which are not assigned a value. That inherent trade-off between the interpolation accuracy and coverage is demonstrated using both circular and elliptical inclusion zones. A leave-one-out cross testing is used to assess and compare the performance of the interpolations. The methodology is demonstrated using groundwater pollution monitoring data from the Coastal aquifer along the Israeli

  16. Constructed wetlands for water pollution management of aquaculture farms conducting earthen pond culture.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Feng; Jing, Shuh-Ren; Lee, Der-Yuan; Chang, Yih-Feng; Sui, Hsuan-Yu

    2010-08-01

    This study established farm-scale constructed wetlands integrated to shrimp ponds, using existing earthern pond areas, with a wetland-to-pond ratio of only 0.086 for shrimp culture. The constructed wetlands were used as practice for aquaculture water and wastewater treatment, to regulate the water quality of shrimp ponds and manage pollution from pond effluents. The results of water quality monitoring for influent and effluent showed that constructed wetlands significantly reduced total suspended solids (59 to 72%), turbidity (55 to 65%), chlorophyll a (58 to 72%), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (29 to 40%), and chemical oxygen demand (13 to 24%) from pond water. The wetland treatment sufficiently regulated water quality of the recirculating shrimp pond, which was significantly (p < 0.05) better than that in a control shrimp pond, without the connection of constructed wetlands. Furthermore, the wetland-treated effluent satisfied the national effluent standards for aquaculture farms (R.O.C. Environmental Protection Administration, 2007). Accordingly, wetland treatment applications were proposed to implement the best management practices to reduce pollution from aquaculture farms in Taiwan. PMID:20853755

  17. Developing a multi-pollutant conceptual framework for the selection and targeting of interventions in water industry catchment management schemes.

    PubMed

    Bloodworth, J W; Holman, I P; Burgess, P J; Gillman, S; Frogbrook, Z; Brown, P

    2015-09-15

    In recent years water companies have started to adopt catchment management to reduce diffuse pollution in drinking water supply areas. The heterogeneity of catchments and the range of pollutants that must be removed to meet the EU Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC) limits make it difficult to prioritise areas of a catchment for intervention. Thus conceptual frameworks are required that can disaggregate the components of pollutant risk and help water companies make decisions about where to target interventions in their catchments to maximum effect. This paper demonstrates the concept of generalising pollutants in the same framework by reviewing key pollutant processes within a source-mobilisation-delivery context. From this, criteria are developed (with input from water industry professionals involved in catchment management) which highlights the need for a new water industry specific conceptual framework. The new CaRPoW (Catchment Risk to Potable Water) framework uses the Source-Mobilisation-Delivery concept as modular components of risk that work at two scales, source and mobilisation at the field scale and delivery at the catchment scale. Disaggregating pollutant processes permits the main components of risk to be ascertained so that appropriate interventions can be selected. The generic structure also allows for the outputs from different pollutants to be compared so that potential multiple benefits can be identified. CaRPow provides a transferable framework that can be used by water companies to cost-effectively target interventions under current conditions or under scenarios of land use or climate change. PMID:26172105

  18. Feasibility of point-nonpoint source trading for managing agricultural pollutant loadings to coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutchfield, Stephen R.; Letson, David; Malik, Arun S.

    1994-10-01

    A recent focus of water quality policy discussions has been the trading of pollution abatement between point and nonpoint sources. Point-nonpoint trading would allow point sources to sponsor nonpoint source controls rather than install further controls of their own. If nonpoint source loadings are significant and the marginal costs of their control are lower than for additional point source controls, water quality goals could be met at lower cost with trading. We isolate difficulties particular to incentive policies such as point-nonpoint trading and then screen coastal watersheds for those satisfying conditions that play a major role in determining whether trading can improve water quality. We follow the recent Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments in emphasizing agriculture, the single largest cause of nonpoint source pollution. Our screening analysis provides an initial, empirical assessment of the feasibility of trading for managing agricultural land use to protect coastal water quality. We also illustrate the additional analysis required to quantify the potential for successful trading in those watersheds which meet our screening criteria.

  19. Agricultural Land Use and Best Management Practices to Control Nonpoint Water Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripa, Maria Nicoletta; Leone, Antonio; Garnier, Monica; Porto, Antonio Lo

    2006-08-01

    In recent years, improvements in point-source depuration technologies have highlighted the problems regarding agricultural nonpoint (diffuse) sources, and this issue has become highly relevant from the environmental point of view. The considerable extension of the areas responsible for this kind of pollution, together with the scarcity of funds available to local managers, make minimizing the impacts of nonpoint sources on a whole basin a virtually impossible task. This article presents the results of a study intended to pinpoint those agricultural areas, within a basin, that contribute most to water pollution, so that operations aimed at preventing and/or reducing this kind of pollution can be focused on them. With this aim, an innovative approach is presented that integrates a field-scale management model, a simple regression model, and a geographic information system (GIS). The Lake Vico basin, where recent studies highlighted a considerable increase in the trophic state, mainly caused by phosphorus (P) compounds deriving principally from the intensive cultivation of hazelnut trees in the lake basin, was chosen as the study site. Using the management model Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems (GLEAMS), the consequences, in terms of sediment yield and phosphorus export, of hazelnut tree cultivation were estimated on different areas of the basin with and without the application of a best management practice (BMP) that consists of growing meadow under the trees. The GLEAMS results were successively extended to basin scale thanks to the application of a purposely designed regression model and of a GIS. The main conclusions can be summarized as follows: The effectiveness of the above-mentioned BMP is always greater for erosion reduction than for particulate P reduction, whatever the slope value considered; moreover, the effectiveness with reference to both particulate P and sediment yield production decreases as the slope increases. The

  20. Agricultural land use and best management practices to control nonpoint water pollution.

    PubMed

    Ripa, Maria Nicoletta; Leone, Antonio; Garnier, Monica; Lo Porto, Antonio

    2006-08-01

    In recent years, improvements in point-source depuration technologies have highlighted the problems regarding agricultural nonpoint (diffuse) sources, and this issue has become highly relevant from the environmental point of view. The considerable extension of the areas responsible for this kind of pollution, together with the scarcity of funds available to local managers, make minimizing the impacts of nonpoint sources on a whole basin a virtually impossible task. This article presents the results of a study intended to pinpoint those agricultural areas, within a basin, that contribute most to water pollution, so that operations aimed at preventing and/or reducing this kind of pollution can be focused on them. With this aim, an innovative approach is presented that integrates a field-scale management model, a simple regression model, and a geographic information system (GIS). The Lake Vico basin, where recent studies highlighted a considerable increase in the trophic state, mainly caused by phosphorus (P) compounds deriving principally from the intensive cultivation of hazelnut trees in the lake basin, was chosen as the study site. Using the management model Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems (GLEAMS), the consequences, in terms of sediment yield and phosphorus export, of hazelnut tree cultivation were estimated on different areas of the basin with and without the application of a best management practice (BMP) that consists of growing meadow under the trees. The GLEAMS results were successively extended to basin scale thanks to the application of a purposely designed regression model and of a GIS. The main conclusions can be summarized as follows: The effectiveness of the above-mentioned BMP is always greater for erosion reduction than for particulate P reduction, whatever the slope value considered; moreover, the effectiveness with reference to both particulate P and sediment yield production decreases as the slope increases. The

  1. Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

  2. Understanding enabling capacities for managing the 'wicked problem' of nonpoint source water pollution in catchments: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Patterson, James J; Smith, Carl; Bellamy, Jennifer

    2013-10-15

    Nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution in catchments is a 'wicked' problem that threatens water quality, water security, ecosystem health and biodiversity, and thus the provision of ecosystem services that support human livelihoods and wellbeing from local to global scales. However, it is a difficult problem to manage because water catchments are linked human and natural systems that are complex, dynamic, multi-actor, and multi-scalar in nature. This in turn raises questions about understanding and influencing change across multiple levels of planning, decision-making and action. A key challenge in practice is enabling implementation of local management action, which can be influenced by a range of factors across multiple levels. This paper reviews and synthesises important 'enabling' capacities that can influence implementation of local management action, and develops a conceptual framework for understanding and analysing these in practice. Important enabling capacities identified include: history and contingency; institutional arrangements; collaboration; engagement; vision and strategy; knowledge building and brokerage; resourcing; entrepreneurship and leadership; and reflection and adaptation. Furthermore, local action is embedded within multi-scalar contexts and therefore, is highly contextual. The findings highlight the need for: (1) a systemic and integrative perspective for understanding and influencing change for managing the wicked problem of NPS water pollution; and (2) 'enabling' social and institutional arenas that support emergent and adaptive management structures, processes and innovations for addressing NPS water pollution in practice. These findings also have wider relevance to other 'wicked' natural resource management issues facing similar implementation challenges. PMID:23792915

  3. Water Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

  4. A management system for accidental water pollution risk in a harbour: The Barcelona case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grifoll, Manel; Jordà, Gabriel; Espino, Manuel; Romo, Javier; García-Sotillo, Marcos

    2011-10-01

    Water quality degradation in harbour domains can have an important negative impact from an economic, touristic and environmental point of view. In that sense, water quality management is becoming a main concern for harbour managers. In this paper, we present the research behind the initiative started in Spanish harbours to control water quality degradation due to accidental pollution. This management system is already operationally running in the Barcelona harbour (NW Mediterranean Sea). The system is based on a recent published risk assessment, which takes into account not only the different activities in the harbour and their inherent risk of accident but also the physical behaviour of harbour waters. In this methodology, a key element is to get hydrodynamic forecasts. Thus, the system is composed of a hierarchy of nested hydrodynamic models covering from the basin scale to the harbour scale and a module that computes the different parameters needed for risk assessment. Special emphasis is made on describing the steps followed for system implementation because such implementation is far from a mere technical problem. The first step is to identify the main forcing factors for the harbour hydrodynamics from both field data and numerical experiments, which has never been done before for the Barcelona harbour. Wind and shelf currents are suggested as the main forcing factors for the harbour circulation. The second step is to identify the requirements that a numerical model must fulfil in order to properly solve the Barcelona harbour's hydrodynamics. A high resolution (< 50 m) three dimensional model able to prognostically calculate temperature and salinity evolution; full air-sea coupling is needed as well. The third step is to investigate the best operational strategy. We have found that small errors in the initial density profiles are acceptable for surface current forecasts but not for deep circulation. A cold start must be avoided and a 72 h spin-up is

  5. Eutrophication. [Water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Medine, A.J.; Porcella, D.B.

    1982-06-01

    A literature review dealing with the process of eutrophication with respect to the sources and transport of pollutants is presented. Topics include the mathematical modeling of nutrient loading, eutrophication, and aquatic ecosystems. Biological and environmental indicators of eutrophication are reviewed, and the interactions between various chemical and biological pollutants are considered. Several lake management projects are discussed. (KRM)

  6. Are interactive effects of harmful algal blooms and copper pollution a concern for water quality management?

    PubMed

    Hochmuth, Jennifer D; Asselman, Jana; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2014-09-01

    model providing a marginally better fit to the data in general, the CA reference model delivered more conservative predictions for mixture toxicity of cyanobacteria + copper in all cases compared to the IA reference model. Thus, the CA model could serve as a conservative model to account for mixture toxicity of cyanobacteria and copper in water quality management, as it gives rise to conservative predictions of mixed stressor toxicity at sub-lethal effect levels in D. magna. Finally, and in accordance with other studies of cyanobacteria + chemical mixtures, we did not detect any strong synergistic effects of copper and cyanobacteria mixtures on D. magna. Consequently, based on our study with the model freshwater zooplankton species Daphnia, interactive effects of harmful algal blooms and copper pollution appear to be of limited concern for water quality management. PMID:24821194

  7. Economic and legal analysis of strategies for managing agricultural pollution of ground water. Final report, 1 October 1986-15 March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Batie, S.S.; Kramer, R.A.; Cox, W.E.

    1989-10-15

    The overall objectives were to identify constitutional and legal strategies for the management of ground-water quality, to design alternative state and/or federal strategies for the management of environmental risks associated with agricultural pollution of ground water, and to estimate first-round impacts of farm income, land use, government revenues, and ground-water pollution levels resulting from implementation of alternative management strategies in a case-study context.

  8. Pollution from urban development and setback outfalls as a catchment management measure for river water quality improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Deonie; Haynes, Heather; Arthur, Scott

    2016-04-01

    Urban development causes an increase in fine sediment and heavy metal stormwater pollution. Pollution load estimation theorises that stormwater pollutant load and type are strongly, directly influenced by contributing catchment land use. The research presented investigates the validity of these assumptions using an extensive novel field data set of 53 catchments. This research has investigated the relationships between land use and pollutant concentrations (Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Ca, Ba, Sn, Mn) in urban stormwater outfall sediments. Cartographic and aerial photography data have been utilised to delineate the surface and subsurface contributing catchment land use. A zoned sub-catchment approach to catchment characterisation of stormwater pollutant concentration has been defined and tested. This method effectively describes the specific land use influence on pollutant concentrations at the stormwater outfall, showing strong dependency with road length, brake points, impervious area and open space. Road networks and open space are found to influence land use, and thus stormwater pollution, closer to stormwater outfall/receiving waterbody suggesting storage, treatment, assimilation, loss or dilution of the land use influence further away from stormwater outfall. An empirical description has been proposed with which to predict outfall pollutant contributions to the receiving urban waterbody based on catchment land use information. With the definition and quantification of contributing catchment specific fine sediment and urban heavy metal pollutants, the influence of urban stormwater outfall management on the receiving watercourse has been considered. The locations of stormwater outfalls, and their proximity to the receiving waterway, are known as key water quality and river health influences. Water quality benefits from the implementation of stormwater outfalls set back from the receiving waterway banks have been investigated using the catchment case study. Setback outfalls

  9. Chemical pollution assessment and prioritisation model for the Upper and Middle Vaal water management areas of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Dzwairo, B; Otieno, F A O

    2014-12-01

    A chemical pollution assessment and prioritisation model was developed for the Upper and Middle Vaal water management areas of South Africa in order to provide a simple and practical Pollution Index to assist with mitigation and rehabilitation activities. Historical data for 2003 to 2008 from 21 river sites were cubic-interpolated to daily values. Nine parameters were considered for this purpose, that is, ammonium, chloride, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, fluoride, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate. Parameter selection was based on sub-catchment pollution characteristics and availability of a consistent data range, against a harmonised guideline which provided five classes. Classes 1, 2, 3 and 4 used ideal catchment background values for Vaal Dam, Vaal Barrage, Blesbokspruit/Suikerbosrant and Klip Rivers, respectively. Class 5 represented values which fell above those for Klip River. The Pollution Index, as provided by the model, identified pollution prioritisation monitoring points on Rietspruit-W:K2, Natalspruit:K12, Blesbokspruit:B1, Rietspruit-L:R1/R2, Taaibosspruit:T1 and Leeuspruit:L1. Pre-classification indicated that pollution sources were domestic, industrial and mine effluent. It was concluded that rehabilitation and mitigation measures should prioritise points with high classes. Ability of the model to perform simple scenario building and analysis was considered to be an effective tool for acid mine drainage pollution assessment. PMID:25473990

  10. Fecal Pollution of Water.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

  11. Fecal Pollution of Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

  12. Analysis of Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China: Characteristics and Lessons for Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Hong; Zhang, Tongzhu; Liu, Bo; Lu, Feng; Fang, Shurong; You, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Understanding historical accidents is important for accident prevention and risk mitigation; however, there are no public databases of pollution accidents in China, and no detailed information regarding such incidents is readily available. Thus, 653 representative cases of surface water pollution accidents in China were identified and described as a function of time, location, materials involved, origin, and causes. The severity and other features of the accidents, frequency and quantities of chemicals involved, frequency and number of people poisoned, frequency and number of people affected, frequency and time for which pollution lasted, and frequency and length of pollution zone were effectively used to value and estimate the accumulated probabilities. The probabilities of occurrences of various types based on origin and causes were also summarized based on these observations. The following conclusions can be drawn from these analyses: (1) There was a high proportion of accidents involving multi-district boundary regions and drinking water crises, indicating that more attention should be paid to environmental risk prevention and the mitigation of such incidents. (2) A high proportion of accidents originated from small-sized chemical plants, indicating that these types of enterprises should be considered during policy making. (3) The most common cause (49.8 % of the total) was intentional acts (illegal discharge); accordingly, efforts to increase environmental consciousness in China should be enhanced.

  13. Analysis of Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China: Characteristics and Lessons for Risk Management.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Zhang, Tongzhu; Liu, Bo; Lu, Feng; Fang, Shurong; You, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Understanding historical accidents is important for accident prevention and risk mitigation; however, there are no public databases of pollution accidents in China, and no detailed information regarding such incidents is readily available. Thus, 653 representative cases of surface water pollution accidents in China were identified and described as a function of time, location, materials involved, origin, and causes. The severity and other features of the accidents, frequency and quantities of chemicals involved, frequency and number of people poisoned, frequency and number of people affected, frequency and time for which pollution lasted, and frequency and length of pollution zone were effectively used to value and estimate the accumulated probabilities. The probabilities of occurrences of various types based on origin and causes were also summarized based on these observations. The following conclusions can be drawn from these analyses: (1) There was a high proportion of accidents involving multi-district boundary regions and drinking water crises, indicating that more attention should be paid to environmental risk prevention and the mitigation of such incidents. (2) A high proportion of accidents originated from small-sized chemical plants, indicating that these types of enterprises should be considered during policy making. (3) The most common cause (49.8% of the total) was intentional acts (illegal discharge); accordingly, efforts to increase environmental consciousness in China should be enhanced. PMID:26739714

  14. Water Pollution Control Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

  15. Pollution and sanitation problems as setbacks to sustainable water resources management in Freetown.

    PubMed

    Kallon, Senesie B

    2008-12-01

    The civil conflict in Sierra Leone (1991-2001) caused a dramatic increase in the population of Freetown. This population increase overstretched housing facilities, leading to the creation of camps and many squatter settlements with poor sanitation practices. Overcrowding has become a serious concern in light of the acute water shortage that struck Freetown in May and June 2006. Some of the numerous small water bodies that could have been used to augment the public water supply were contaminated by the disposal of solid and industrial waste and poor sewage management. Improper disposal practices have a direct impact on public health. This paper recommends addressing the policy gap, establishing clear threshold criteria for all water bodies and wastewater discharge, and integrating the above issues in the ongoing review process of draft water sanitation policy. Public education of the negative consequences of poor waste management practices on water quality and public health can also positively affect general sanitation practices PMID:19115722

  16. Planning of water resources management and pollution control for Heshui River watershed, China: A full credibility-constrained programming approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y M; Huang, G; Lu, H W; He, Li

    2015-08-15

    A key issue facing integrated water resources management and water pollution control is to address the vague parametric information. A full credibility-based chance-constrained programming (FCCP) method is thus developed by introducing the new concept of credibility into the modeling framework. FCCP can deal with fuzzy parameters appearing concurrently in the objective and both sides of the constraints of the model, but also provide a credibility level indicating how much confidence one can believe the optimal modeling solutions. The method is applied to Heshui River watershed in the south-central China for demonstration. Results from the case study showed that groundwater would make up for the water shortage in terms of the shrinking surface water and rising water demand, and the optimized total pumpage of groundwater from both alluvial and karst aquifers would exceed 90% of its maximum allowable levels when credibility level is higher than or equal to 0.9. It is also indicated that an increase in credibility level would induce a reduction in cost for surface water acquisition, a rise in cost from groundwater withdrawal, and negligible variation in cost for water pollution control. PMID:25897733

  17. Pollution and the protection of water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Risebrough, R.

    1986-01-01

    This book reports on research and development in the study of pollution and methodologies to protect water quality, with emphasis on arid countries. Topics covered include overview of the effects of pollution on natural and human environments; water cycle and groundwater resources in arid countries; salinization; standards and technologies for waste water treatment; uses of recycled water; solid waste disposal; assessment of wastes from industry, agriculture, and shipping; methodologies of quality control; synthetic organic pollutants, including pesticides and PCBs; analytical techniques; quality control; sampling methodologies for organics, metals, and trace elements, including data acquisition techniques and instrumentation; data management; bioindicator organisms; assimilative capacity of receiving waters; application of appropriate water quality standards.

  18. The SOLUTIONS project: challenges and responses for present and future emerging pollutants in land and water resources management.

    PubMed

    Brack, Werner; Altenburger, Rolf; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Krauss, Martin; López Herráez, David; van Gils, Jos; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Munthe, John; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; van Wezel, Annemarie; Schriks, Merijn; Hollender, Juliane; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Mekenyan, Ovanes; Dimitrov, Saby; Bunke, Dirk; Cousins, Ian; Posthuma, Leo; van den Brink, Paul J; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià; Faust, Michael; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Scrimshaw, Mark; Ignatova, Svetlana; Engelen, Guy; Massmann, Gudrun; Lemkine, Gregory; Teodorovic, Ivana; Walz, Karl-Heinz; Dulio, Valeria; Jonker, Michiel T O; Jäger, Felix; Chipman, Kevin; Falciani, Francesco; Liska, Igor; Rooke, David; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hollert, Henner; Vrana, Branislav; Hilscherova, Klara; Kramer, Kees; Neumann, Steffen; Hammerbacher, Ruth; Backhaus, Thomas; Mack, Juliane; Segner, Helmut; Escher, Beate; de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela

    2015-01-15

    SOLUTIONS (2013 to 2018) is a European Union Seventh Framework Programme Project (EU-FP7). The project aims to deliver a conceptual framework to support the evidence-based development of environmental policies with regard to water quality. SOLUTIONS will develop the tools for the identification, prioritisation and assessment of those water contaminants that may pose a risk to ecosystems and human health. To this end, a new generation of chemical and effect-based monitoring tools is developed and integrated with a full set of exposure, effect and risk assessment models. SOLUTIONS attempts to address legacy, present and future contamination by integrating monitoring and modelling based approaches with scenarios on future developments in society, economy and technology and thus in contamination. The project follows a solutions-oriented approach by addressing major problems of water and chemicals management and by assessing abatement options. SOLUTIONS takes advantage of the access to the infrastructure necessary to investigate the large basins of the Danube and Rhine as well as relevant Mediterranean basins as case studies, and puts major efforts on stakeholder dialogue and support. Particularly, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) Common Implementation Strategy (CIS) working groups, International River Commissions, and water works associations are directly supported with consistent guidance for the early detection, identification, prioritisation, and abatement of chemicals in the water cycle. SOLUTIONS will give a specific emphasis on concepts and tools for the impact and risk assessment of complex mixtures of emerging pollutants, their metabolites and transformation products. Analytical and effect-based screening tools will be applied together with ecological assessment tools for the identification of toxicants and their impacts. The SOLUTIONS approach is expected to provide transparent and evidence-based candidates or River Basin Specific Pollutants in the case

  19. Multiple interactive pollutants in water quality trading.

    PubMed

    Sarang, Amin; Lence, Barbara J; Shamsai, Abolfazl

    2008-10-01

    Efficient environmental management calls for the consideration of multiple pollutants, for which two main types of transferable discharge permit (TDP) program have been described: separate permits that manage each pollutant individually in separate markets, with each permit based on the quantity of the pollutant or its environmental effects, and weighted-sum permits that aggregate several pollutants as a single commodity to be traded in a single market. In this paper, we perform a mathematical analysis of TDP programs for multiple pollutants that jointly affect the environment (i.e., interactive pollutants) and demonstrate the practicality of this approach for cost-efficient maintenance of river water quality. For interactive pollutants, the relative weighting factors are functions of the water quality impacts, marginal damage function, and marginal treatment costs at optimality. We derive the optimal set of weighting factors required by this approach for important scenarios for multiple interactive pollutants and propose using an analytical elasticity of substitution function to estimate damage functions for these scenarios. We evaluate the applicability of this approach using a hypothetical example that considers two interactive pollutants. We compare the weighted-sum permit approach for interactive pollutants with individual permit systems and TDP programs for multiple additive pollutants. We conclude by discussing practical considerations and implementation issues that result from the application of weighted-sum permit programs. PMID:18584238

  20. Multiple Interactive Pollutants in Water Quality Trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarang, Amin; Lence, Barbara J.; Shamsai, Abolfazl

    2008-10-01

    Efficient environmental management calls for the consideration of multiple pollutants, for which two main types of transferable discharge permit (TDP) program have been described: separate permits that manage each pollutant individually in separate markets, with each permit based on the quantity of the pollutant or its environmental effects, and weighted-sum permits that aggregate several pollutants as a single commodity to be traded in a single market. In this paper, we perform a mathematical analysis of TDP programs for multiple pollutants that jointly affect the environment (i.e., interactive pollutants) and demonstrate the practicality of this approach for cost-efficient maintenance of river water quality. For interactive pollutants, the relative weighting factors are functions of the water quality impacts, marginal damage function, and marginal treatment costs at optimality. We derive the optimal set of weighting factors required by this approach for important scenarios for multiple interactive pollutants and propose using an analytical elasticity of substitution function to estimate damage functions for these scenarios. We evaluate the applicability of this approach using a hypothetical example that considers two interactive pollutants. We compare the weighted-sum permit approach for interactive pollutants with individual permit systems and TDP programs for multiple additive pollutants. We conclude by discussing practical considerations and implementation issues that result from the application of weighted-sum permit programs.

  1. Pollution of water sources due to poor waste management--the case of Dar-es-Salaam.

    PubMed

    Makule, D E

    2000-01-01

    Pollution of water sources for the city of Dar-es-Salaam originates from haphazard disposal of solid wastes, discharge of untreated or inadequately treated wastewater to water sources, lack of standard sanitary facilities and poor hygienic practices. Contaminated water used for human consumption can lead to serious health problems e.g. cholera, typhoid, skin diseases, etc., which, in turn, leads to reduced working hours/manpower. This has a direct effect to production output which can lead to a deterioration of local community welfare. Having realised this as a problem, the Government of Tanzania stipulated, in its water policy of 1991, the need for protection of water sources. In achieving this goal, proper waste management was singled out to be of vital importance. Due to economic hardships, however, budget allocation by the central Government could not cover the costs needed for proper handling of waste. This left Tanzania with no alternative other than heavy reliance on donor and bilateral organisations for financial support of programmes. Nevertheless, these sources of funds proved to be unreliable for many different reasons. To deal with these problems, the Government currently emphasises involving local community and NGOs, the formation of stakeholder funds and organisations, and involvement of the private sector. Other efforts are intensification of education programmes to create more awareness to the local communities on the need for protection of water sources. Although at its infancy level, the system is showing some signs of improvement. PMID:10842803

  2. Remote Sensing of Water Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

  3. The use of GIS and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) to identify agricultural land management practices which cause surface water pollution in drinking water supply catchments.

    PubMed

    Grayson, Richard; Kay, Paul; Foulger, Miles

    2008-01-01

    Diffuse pollution poses a threat to water quality and results in the need for treatment for potable water supplies which can prove costly. Within the Yorkshire region, UK, nitrates, pesticides and water colour present particular treatment problems. Catchment management techniques offer an alternative to 'end of pipe' solutions and allow resources to be targeted to the most polluting areas. This project has attempted to identify such areas using GIS based modelling approaches in catchments where water quality data were available. As no model exists to predict water colour a model was created using an MCE method which is capable of predicting colour concentrations at the catchment scale. CatchIS was used to predict pesticide and nitrate N concentrations and was found to be generally capable of reliably predicting nitrate N loads at the catchment scale. The pesticides results did not match the historic data possibly due to problems with the historic pesticide data and temporal and spatially variability in pesticide usage. The use of these models can be extended to predict water quality problems in catchments where water quality data are unavailable and highlight areas of concern. PMID:19029721

  4. Evidence of viral dissemination and seasonality in a Mediterranean river catchment: Implications for water pollution management.

    PubMed

    Rusiñol, Marta; Fernandez-Cassi, Xavier; Timoneda, Natàlia; Carratalà, Anna; Abril, Josep Francesc; Silvera, Carolina; Figueras, Maria José; Gelati, Emiliano; Rodó, Xavier; Kay, David; Wyn-Jones, Peter; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Girones, Rosina

    2015-08-15

    . Persistent decreases in precipitation during summer can lead to a higher presence of human viruses because river and sea water present the highest viral concentrations during warmer months. In a global context, wastewater management will be the key to preventing environmental dispersion of human faecal pathogens in future climate change scenarios. PMID:26046988

  5. Exploring Water Pollution. Part 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    Lists over 30 outdoor science activities dealing with water formation, erosion, pollution, and other water-related topics. Provides, in addition, a selected bibliography of films, tapes, booklets and pamphlets, and filmstrips as additional reference materials. (CP)

  6. Mixing and transport. [Water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, P.J.W.

    1982-06-01

    The mixing and transport of water pollution is the subject of this literature review with 110 references. The environmental transport of pollutants is examined in streams, rivers, reservoirs, ponds, estuaries, salt marshes and coastal waters. The dynamics of fluid flow, and the physical properties of jets, plumes, and stratified fluids are discussed. (KRM)

  7. Water Pollution (Causes, Mechanisms, Solution).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strandberg, Carl

    Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show what…

  8. Biology and Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Charles E.

    Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

  9. Simulation and Evaluation of Pollution Load Reduction Scenarios for Water Environmental Management: A Case Study of Inflow River of Taihu Lake, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Zhu, Wenting; Gao, Hailong; Hu, Wei; Wang, Jinhua

    2014-01-01

    In the beginning of the 21st century, the deterioration of water quality in Taihu Lake, China, has caused widespread concern. The primary source of pollution in Taihu Lake is river inflows. Effective pollution load reduction scenarios need to be implemented in these rivers in order to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake. It is important to select appropriate pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving particular goals. The aim of this study was to facilitate the selection of appropriate scenarios. The QUAL2K model for river water quality was used to simulate the effects of a range of pollution load reduction scenarios in the Wujin River, which is one of the major inflow rivers of Taihu Lake. The model was calibrated for the year 2010 and validated for the year 2011. Various pollution load reduction scenarios were assessed using an analytic hierarchy process, and increasing rates of evaluation indicators were predicted using the Delphi method. The results showed that control of pollution from the source is the optimal method for pollution prevention and control, and the method of “Treatment after Pollution” has bad environmental, social and ecological effects. The method applied in this study can assist for environmental managers to select suitable pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving various objectives. PMID:25207492

  10. Landsat and water pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P.; Fowler, T.; Loats, H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Report presents data derived from satellite images predicting pollution loads after rainfall. It explains method for converting Landsat images of Eastern United States into cover maps for Baltimore/five county region.

  11. Long term fluctuations of groundwater mine pollution in a sulfide mining district with dry Mediterranean climate: Implications for water resources management and remediation.

    PubMed

    Caraballo, Manuel A; Macías, Francisco; Nieto, José Miguel; Ayora, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Water resources management and restoration strategies, and subsequently ecological and human life quality, are highly influenced by the presence of short and long term cycles affecting the intensity of a targeted pollution. On this respect, a typical acid mine drainage (AMD) groundwater from a sulfide mining district with dry Mediterranean climate (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain) was studied to unravel the effect of long term weather changes in water flow rate and metal pollutants concentration. Three well differentiated polluting stages were observed and the specific geochemical, mineralogical and hydrological processes involved (pyrite and enclosing rocks dissolution, evaporitic salts precipitation-redisolution and pluviometric long term fluctuations) were discussed. Evidencing the importance of including longer background monitoring stage in AMD management and restoration strategies, the present study strongly advise a minimum 5-years period of AMD continuous monitoring previous to the design of any AMD remediation system in regions with dry Mediterranean climate. PMID:26379258

  12. Water Pollution: Monitoring the Source.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkes, James W.

    1980-01-01

    Described is an advanced biology class project involving study of the effects of organic pollution on an aquatic ecosystem from an sewage treatment plant overflow to evaluate the chemical quality and biological activity of the river water. (DS)

  13. An Instructional Delivery System for Manpower Management: A Report for Water Pollution Control Agencies. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany.

    This report contains information to assist organizations and personnel responsible for the quality and quantity of operators available for water quality control efforts. The text discusses in detail the current developments in operator instructional programs. Each of the seven sections of this report deals with a specific aspect of manpower…

  14. SWAT: Agricultural water and nonpoint source pollution management at a watershed scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global change and demographic changes increasingly cause water, food, and health problems in many areas of the world. In addition, the growth in bioenergy production leads to land-use change and associated environmental impacts. The lack of integration in resource assessments and policy-making leads...

  15. China's water pollution by persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lian-Jun; Maruya, Keith A; Snyder, Shane A; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-04-01

    Available data were reviewed to assess the status of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in drinking water sources and coastal waters of China. The levels of POPs in China's waters were generally at the high end of the global range. A comparison of China's regulatory limits indicated that PCBs in rivers and coastal water may pose potential human health risk. Occurrence of DDTs in some rivers of China may also pose health risk to humans using the regulatory limits of DDTs recommended by the European Union. Future monitoring of POPs in China's waters should be directed towards analytes of concern (e.g. PCBs and PCDD/Fs) and to fill data gaps for analytes (e.g. PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, and chlordane) and in watersheds/regions (e.g. West China) where data are scarce. PMID:22325437

  16. Ground water. [Water pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Costle, D.M.

    1980-09-01

    There is growing evidence that the Nation's ground water is contaminated by a variety of sources. These include unprotected industrial, municipal, and radioactive disposal sites, petroleum exploration and mining activities, agricultural operations such as insecticide spraying, high de-icing salts and others. As of March 1980, more than 8000 chemical tests have been performed on well water, with chlorinated organic solvents found most frequently. Because 100 million Americans may be threatened by unfit drinking water, EPA has developed a new ground water strategy. It will enlist the help of State and local governments who already have programs under way and it will involve broad public debate and participation.

  17. Basic environmental technology: Water supply, waste disposal, pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Nathanson, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    This book emphasizes hydrology, hydraulics, water management and water quality. It also discusses solid and hazardous waste, and air and noise pollution. Fundamental scientific concepts are introduced as needed - the text does not assume extensive knowledge of chemistry or biology.

  18. Water Pollution Scrubber Activity Simulates Pollution Control Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Edward C., III; Waggoner, Todd C.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory activity caused students to think actively about water pollution. The students realized that it would be easier to keep water clean than to remove pollutants. They created a water scrubbing system allowing them to pour water in one end and have it emerge clean at the other end. (JOW)

  19. Testing Water for Bacterial Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillner, Harry

    This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of water pollution control. It is a learning activity directed toward high school students of biology and/or ecology. A general knowledge of microbiology techniques is regarded as a prerequisite for the lesson. Behavioral objectives are given. Emphasis is placed on use of techniques and materials…

  20. Careers in Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    Described are the activities, responsibilities, and educational and training requirements of the major occupations directly concerned with water pollution control. Also provided is an overview of employment trends, salaries, and projected demand for employees. Included in the appendix is a list of colleges and universities which offer…

  1. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  2. Water Pollution in School Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham

    1979-01-01

    Water pollution curriculum units of four environmental secondary science programs in Britain, Germany, Israel, and the United States are examined. Comparisons reveal the use of quite different approaches in central topic selection, use of the laboratory and other media, controversial issues, and teacher-student roles. (CS)

  3. Combined air and water pollution control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  4. Cultural Dimensions of Water Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polaki, L.; Bekkam, V. R.

    2014-12-01

    Water (along with leaf, flower and fruit) is an important ingredient of Hindu worship. Abhishekam is the ritual pouring of water over idols. Some Shaivite temples perform Sahasra Ghatabhishekam (pouring of thousand pots of water, about 15000 L). However, the pollution caused by Abhishekam is minimal. Hindus cremate their dead and immerse the ashes in the waters of perennial rivers, the most preferred being the sacred waters of the Ganga. It has been estimated that 15,000 tonnes/year of cremation ash is immersed in the Ganga. Apart from these 140 to 250 tonnes of half burned corpses are dumped in the Ganges per year. There are 500 million people living in the catchment area of the Ganga, and that number is increasing. While there may be no objection from the public in regard to the cleansing of about 5.8 ×105 million liters of chemical wastes per year, the control of cremation ashes in the Ganga is for more difficult to achieve because of the sentiment. It is urgently necessary that pollution including cultural pollution of Ganges, is drastically reduced. The new Indian government has ambitious plans to do this, with allocation of about US$ 700 million in the current year's budget.

  5. Future water quality monitoring--adapting tools to deal with mixtures of pollutants in water resource management.

    PubMed

    Altenburger, Rolf; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Antczak, Philipp; Backhaus, Thomas; Barceló, Damià; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Brion, Francois; Busch, Wibke; Chipman, Kevin; López de Alda, Miren; Umbuzeiro, Gisela de Aragão; Escher, Beate I; Falciani, Francesco; Faust, Michael; Focks, Andreas; Hilscherova, Klara; Hollender, Juliane; Hollert, Henner; Jäger, Felix; Jahnke, Annika; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Krauss, Martin; Lemkine, Gregory F; Munthe, John; Neumann, Steffen; Schymanski, Emma L; Scrimshaw, Mark; Segner, Helmut; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Smedes, Foppe; Kughathas, Subramaniam; Teodorovic, Ivana; Tindall, Andrew J; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Walz, Karl-Heinz; Williams, Tim D; Van den Brink, Paul J; van Gils, Jos; Vrana, Branislav; Zhang, Xiaowei; Brack, Werner

    2015-04-15

    Environmental quality monitoring of water resources is challenged with providing the basis for safeguarding the environment against adverse biological effects of anthropogenic chemical contamination from diffuse and point sources. While current regulatory efforts focus on monitoring and assessing a few legacy chemicals, many more anthropogenic chemicals can be detected simultaneously in our aquatic resources. However, exposure to chemical mixtures does not necessarily translate into adverse biological effects nor clearly shows whether mitigation measures are needed. Thus, the question which mixtures are present and which have associated combined effects becomes central for defining adequate monitoring and assessment strategies. Here we describe the vision of the international, EU-funded project SOLUTIONS, where three routes are explored to link the occurrence of chemical mixtures at specific sites to the assessment of adverse biological combination effects. First of all, multi-residue target and non-target screening techniques covering a broader range of anticipated chemicals co-occurring in the environment are being developed. By improving sensitivity and detection limits for known bioactive compounds of concern, new analytical chemistry data for multiple components can be obtained and used to characterise priority mixtures. This information on chemical occurrence will be used to predict mixture toxicity and to derive combined effect estimates suitable for advancing environmental quality standards. Secondly, bioanalytical tools will be explored to provide aggregate bioactivity measures integrating all components that produce common (adverse) outcomes even for mixtures of varying compositions. The ambition is to provide comprehensive arrays of effect-based tools and trait-based field observations that link multiple chemical exposures to various environmental protection goals more directly and to provide improved in situ observations for impact assessment of

  6. Pollution of ground water in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, S.; Key, A.

    1956-01-01

    This paper discusses pollution of ground water in 20 countries of the European region, giving for each an account of the geology and hydrogeology, water supplies, the extent and nature of ground water pollution, and the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling that pollution. For the countries not considered in the preceding article on surface water pollution, an account is also given of the superficial physical features, rainfall, population, and industries. A general discussion follows of such questions as the ways in which ground water pollution may occur, the factors mitigating or aggravating pollution, and ways of protection against pollution. The authors consider that the problem of ground water pollution in Europe may well be more serious than it would appear to be on the evidence so far obtained. PMID:13374533

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT / POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Goal 8.4 Improve Environmental Systems Management (Formally Pollution Prevention and New Technology) Background The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed and evaluated tools and technologies to monitor, prevent, control, and clean-up pollution through...

  8. Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

    This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

  9. Managing hazardous pollutants in Chile: arsenic.

    PubMed

    Sancha, Ana María; O'Ryan, Raul

    2008-01-01

    process began in which emission standards appropriate for Chile were set; this process included careful evaluation of risks versus mitigation costs for abatement options. Such options were developed and implemented. More recently, local communities have pressed for more significant reductions of arsenic in air and water. Considerable experience was gained with the arsenic experience on how to manage this type of hazardous pollutant, in a context of trade-offs among production, jobs, income, and health. In this review article, we cover arsenic levels in Chile's air, water, and soils and discuss health impacts and patterns of exposure. We also describe the process followed to set arsenic regulatory standards, as well as abatement options for air and water and the associated costs. PMID:19025095

  10. Water Science, Management and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifland, Jonathan

    2004-02-01

    A new AGU book, Water:Science, Management and Policy, edited by Richard Lawford, Denise Fort, Holly Hartmann, and Susanna Eden, explores the scientific and political issues behind water use and sustainability worldwide. The book investigates critical issues facing water managers, policy makers, and scientists in the 21st century, examining specific examples of water planning and decision-making. Among the topics discussed by the authors are the current state of water engineering, sharing resources across state and international borders, and the best methods for managing the resource with the future impact of climate change and additional pollution.

  11. Water Pollution. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    Water is one of the most polluted resources in our environment. Since everyone has the same basic need for pure water, it follows that all people should have a basic knowledge of the causes, results and solutions to the water pollution problem. This unit is designed for use with Level II and III educable mentally retarded students to present…

  12. Total Water Management - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  13. Upstream water resource management to address downstream pollution concerns: A policy framework with application to the Nakdong River basin in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Taeyeon; Rhodes, Charles; Shah, Farhed A.

    2015-02-01

    An empirical framework for assisting with water quality management is proposed that relies on open-source hydrologic data. Such data are measured periodically at fixed water stations and commonly available in time-series form. To fully exploit the data, we suggest that observations from multiple stations should be combined into a single long-panel data set, and an econometric model developed to estimate upstream management effects on downstream water quality. Selection of the model's functional form and explanatory variables would be informed by rating curves, and idiosyncrasies across and within stations handled in an error term by testing contemporary correlation, serial correlation, and heteroskedasticity. Our proposed approach is illustrated with an application to the Nakdong River basin in South Korea. Three alternative policies to achieve downstream BOD level targets are evaluated: upstream water treatment, greater dam discharge, and development of a new water source. Upstream water treatment directly cuts off incoming pollutants, thereby presenting the smallest variation in its downstream effects on BOD levels. Treatment is advantageous when reliability of water quality is a primary concern. Dam discharge is a flexible tool, and may be used strategically during a low-flow season. We consider development of a new water corridor from an extant dam as our third policy option. This turns out to be the most cost-effective way for securing lower BOD levels in the downstream target city. Even though we consider a relatively simple watershed to illustrate the usefulness of our approach, it can be adapted easily to analyze more complex upstream-downstream issues.

  14. Water pollution and human health in China.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, C; Maurer, C; Wang, Y; Xue, S; Davis, D L

    1999-01-01

    China's extraordinary economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization, coupled with inadequate investment in basic water supply and treatment infrastructure, have resulted in widespread water pollution. In China today approximately 700 million people--over half the population--consume drinking water contaminated with levels of animal and human excreta that exceed maximum permissible levels by as much as 86% in rural areas and 28% in urban areas. By the year 2000, the volume of wastewater produced could double from 1990 levels to almost 78 billion tons. These are alarming trends with potentially serious consequences for human health. This paper reviews and analyzes recent Chinese reports on public health and water resources to shed light on what recent trends imply for China's environmental risk transition. This paper has two major conclusions. First, the critical deficits in basic water supply and sewage treatment infrastructure have increased the risk of exposure to infectious and parasitic disease and to a growing volume of industrial chemicals, heavy metals, and algal toxins. Second, the lack of coordination between environmental and public health objectives, a complex and fragmented system to manage water resources, and the general treatment of water as a common property resource mean that the water quality and quantity problems observed as well as the health threats identified are likely to become more acute. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10090702

  15. [Watershed water environment pollution models and their applications: a review].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yao; Liang, Zhi-Wei; Li, Wei; Yang, Yi; Yang, Mu-Yi; Mao, Wei; Xu, Han-Li; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2013-10-01

    Watershed water environment pollution model is the important tool for studying watershed environmental problems. Through the quantitative description of the complicated pollution processes of whole watershed system and its parts, the model can identify the main sources and migration pathways of pollutants, estimate the pollutant loadings, and evaluate their impacts on water environment, providing a basis for watershed planning and management. This paper reviewed the watershed water environment models widely applied at home and abroad, with the focuses on the models of pollutants loading (GWLF and PLOAD), water quality of received water bodies (QUAL2E and WASP), and the watershed models integrated pollutant loadings and water quality (HSPF, SWAT, AGNPS, AnnAGNPS, and SWMM), and introduced the structures, principles, and main characteristics as well as the limitations in practical applications of these models. The other models of water quality (CE-QUAL-W2, EFDC, and AQUATOX) and watershed models (GLEAMS and MIKE SHE) were also briefly introduced. Through the case analysis on the applications of single model and integrated models, the development trend and application prospect of the watershed water environment pollution models were discussed. PMID:24483100

  16. Water Pollution: Appearances Can Be Deceiving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raloff, Janet

    1977-01-01

    Expresses concern over the amounts of toxic chemical pollutants being discharged into fresh water supplies. Analyzes the role of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in establishing and enforcing water quality standards. (CP)

  17. The Practice of Water Pollution Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenthun, Kenneth M.

    Water pollution techniques and practices, including data analysis, interpretation and display are described in this book intended primarily for the biologist inexperienced in this work, and for sanitary engineers, chemists, and water pollution control administrators. The characteristics of aquatic environments, their biota, and the effects of…

  18. Pollution prevention and total quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, G.E.

    1995-09-01

    Both quality management and pollution prevention are paradigms for their respective concepts to be followed and put into effect in industrial production. They each represent a framework for making things better, and for the examination and evaluation of current practices. Both pollution prevention and total quality management welcome innovative thought and the mandate to question the validity of practices. This chapter investigates the similarities of purpose and content of pollution prevention and total quality management techniques for industrial wastes. It also examines the reasons and directions that industry is following to make both paradigms integral parts of conducting business.

  19. Visible region remote spectroscopy of polluted water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, P. G.

    1970-01-01

    The use of an airborne spectrometer for measuring the amount of pollutants under the surface of a body of water is discussed. Difficulties created by high water absorption, atmospheric absorption, molecular scattering by water, and atmospheric scattering for the range of wavelengths from 0.2 to 20.0 microns are described. It was determined that some form of quantitative measurement of subsurface pollutants is possible using an airborne spectrometer.

  20. Agricultural nitrate monitoring in a lake basin in Central Italy: a further step ahead towards an integrated nutrient management aimed at controlling water pollution.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Monica; Recanatesi, Fabio; Ripa, Maria Nicoletta; Leone, Antonio

    2010-11-01

    Water pollution from point sources has been considerably reduced over the last few decades. Nevertheless, some water quality problems remain, which can be attributed to non-point pollution sources, and in particular to agriculture. In this paper the results of a study intended to assess the consequences, in terms of NO3 water pollution, of growing a crop, whose impact in terms of P pollution is already well known, are presented. The potential consequences, in terms of water pollution from nitrates of a BMP expressly applied to reduce P pollution are also discussed. The study site is the Lake Vico basin, Central Italy, which has suffered a shift in trophic state since the mid 1990s, caused by P compounds used for intensive cultivation of hazelnut trees. The results of the monitoring campaign described in this paper allow to assert that hazelnut tree cropping has probably caused a considerable increase in nitrate concentration in the groundwater, although not in the lake water, because of the specific hydrogeological characteristics of the basin. The main conclusion is that monitoring is essential to single out environmental characteristics peculiar of a specific area, which even the most sophisticated model would not have been able to highlight. This is why monitoring and model simulations should be integrated. PMID:19911291

  1. Pollution of surface water in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Key, A.

    1956-01-01

    This paper discusses pollution of surface water in 18 European countries. For each an account is given of its physical character, population, industries, and present condition of water supplies; the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling pollution are then described, and an outline is given of current research on the difficulties peculiar to each country. A general discussion of various aspects common to the European problem of water pollution follows; standards of quality are suggested; some difficulties likely to arise in the near future are indicated, and international collaboration, primarily by the exchange of information, is recommended to check or forestall these trends. PMID:13374532

  2. CHOOSING OPTIMUM MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This seminar publication is addressed to managers and supervisors who have some responsibility for their plant's pollution control measures. The information and guidance provided to these decision personnel are drawn from case histories of working plants and include laws, regulat...

  3. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on experiments with model systems of known organic water pollutants and environmental samples, conclusions are reached concerning the best general solvent for extraction and the most appropriate methods for related manipulations. Chloroform, methylene chloride-ether mixture...

  4. Optimal dynamic management of groundwater pollutant sources.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorelick, S.M.; Remson, I.

    1982-01-01

    The linear programing-superposition method is presented for managing multiple sources of groundwater pollution over time. The method uses any linear solute transport simulation model to generate a unit source-concentration response matrix that is incorporated into a management model. -from Authors

  5. Control of Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution by Natural Wetland Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduction of nonpoint source pollutants, principally sediment and nutrients moving from cultivated fields to surface waters, is a major challenge. Remnants of once-extensive natural wetlands occur across the agricultural landscape, and some workers have suggested that these areas might be managed t...

  6. Total Water Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will investigate total water management (TWM) as a way of improving water resource management and reducing waste streams. This project will also improve management of potable water, wastewater and wet-weather flow through combined management, reuse and recycling wil...

  7. Good operating practices cut water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    West, D.E.

    1982-07-12

    This paper explains how the pipeline industry can avoid violating the Clean Water Act (PL 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act), which states that pollution of US waters from any cause other than an act of God, war or Government negligence is the responsibility of the owner or operator of the facility. Reporting pollution to the National Response Center will limit the maximum penalty to $5,000 Rectifiers must be kept in top operating condition, and visual inspections of the right-of-way by aerial or ground patrols must detect construction of new pipelines or other facilities. Accidental damage by third parties is the major cause of failures in pipeline systems, which can be prevented by periodic contact with landowners. Conclusion is that if a pipeline operator follows good operating and maintenance practices, his exposure to effects of the Clean Water Act will be minimal.

  8. Urbanization, Water Pollution, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, George W.; And Others

    Reviewed in this report is a study concerned with water pollution as it relates to urbanization within the Regional Plan Association's set of 21 contiguous New York, New Jersey and Connecticut counties centered upon the numerous bay and estuarial reaches of the Port of New York and New Jersey. With a time frame covering a decade of water quality…

  9. Water Conservation and Nonpoint Source Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell-Poe, Kitt

    This book contains science activities that are designed to make learning and demonstrating nonpoint source pollution concepts exciting and fun. These activities can either be used alone or with an existing water resources education curricula. Activities include: Water Tasting, Acting Out the Hydrologic Cycle, Concentration of Chemical Pollutants…

  10. Water hyacinths for removal of phenols from polluted waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Removal of phenol by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in static water was investigated. 2.75 g dry weight of this aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to absorb 100 mg of phenol per plant per 72 hours from distilled water, river water, and bayou water. One hectare of water hyacinth plants is shown to be potentially capable of removing 160 kg of phenol per 72 hours from waters polluted with this chemical.

  11. Sensitivity Analysis for some Water Pollution Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Dimet, François-Xavier; Tran Thu, Ha; Hussaini, Yousuff

    2014-05-01

    Sensitivity Analysis for Some Water Pollution Problems Francois-Xavier Le Dimet1 & Tran Thu Ha2 & M. Yousuff Hussaini3 1Université de Grenoble, France, 2Vietnamese Academy of Sciences, 3 Florida State University Sensitivity analysis employs some response function and the variable with respect to which its sensitivity is evaluated. If the state of the system is retrieved through a variational data assimilation process, then the observation appears only in the Optimality System (OS). In many cases, observations have errors and it is important to estimate their impact. Therefore, sensitivity analysis has to be carried out on the OS, and in that sense sensitivity analysis is a second order property. The OS can be considered as a generalized model because it contains all the available information. This presentation proposes a method to carry out sensitivity analysis in general. The method is demonstrated with an application to water pollution problem. The model involves shallow waters equations and an equation for the pollutant concentration. These equations are discretized using a finite volume method. The response function depends on the pollutant source, and its sensitivity with respect to the source term of the pollutant is studied. Specifically, we consider: • Identification of unknown parameters, and • Identification of sources of pollution and sensitivity with respect to the sources. We also use a Singular Evolutive Interpolated Kalman Filter to study this problem. The presentation includes a comparison of the results from these two methods. .

  12. A Study of Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkis, Vahak D.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a method (involving a Hach Colorimeter and simplified procedures) that can be used for the analysis of up to 56 different chemical constituents of water. Presents the results of student analysis of waters of Fulton and Montgomery counties in New York. (GS)

  13. Pollution effects on fisheries — potential management activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindermann, C. J.

    1980-03-01

    Management of ocean pollution must be based on the best available scientific information, with adequate consideration of economic, social, and political realities. Unfortunately, the best available scientific information about pollution effects on fisheries is often fragmentary, and often conjectural; therefore a primary concern of management should be a critical review and assessment of available factual information about effects of pollutants on fish and shellfish stocks. A major problem in any such review and assessment is the separation of pollutant effects from the effects of all the other environmental factors that influence survival and well-being of marine animals. Data from long-term monitoring of resource abundance, and from monitoring of all determinant environmental variables, will be required for analyses that lead to resolution of the problem. Information must also be acquired about fluxes of contaminants through resource-related ecosystems, and about contaminant effects on resource species as demonstrated in field and laboratory experiments. Other possible management activities include: (1) encouragement of continued efforts to document clearly the localized and general effects of pollution on living resources; (2) continued pressure to identify and use reliable biological indicators of environmental degradation (indicators of choice at present are: unusually high levels of genetic and other anomalies in the earliest life history stages; presence of pollution-associated disease signs, particularly fin erosion and ulcers, in fish; and biochemical/physiological changes); and (3) major efforts to reduce inputs of pollutants clearly demonstrated to be harmful to living resources, from point sources as well as ocean dumping. Such pollution management activities, based on continuous efforts in stock assessment, environmental assessment, and experimental studies, can help to insure that rational decisions will be made about uses and abuses of coastal

  14. A model for managing sources of groundwater pollution.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorelick, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    The waste disposal capacity of a groundwater system can be maximized while maintaining water quality at specified locations by using a groundwater pollutant source management model that is based upon linear programing and numerical simulation. The decision variables of the management model are solute waste disposal rates at various facilities distributed over space. A concentration response matrix is used in the management model to describe transient solute transport and is developed using the US Geological Survey solute transport simulation model. The management model was applied to a complex hypothetical groundwater system. -from Author

  15. Drainage water management for water quality protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land drainage has been central to the development of North America since colonial times. Increasingly, agricultural drainage is being targeted as a conduit for pollution, particularly nutrient pollution. The export of agricultural drainage water and associated pollutants to surface water can be mana...

  16. Water Pollution Control Across the Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Reviewed are accomplishments, problems, and frustrations faced by individual states in meeting requirements of P.L. 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. State Environmental officials complain the new law may be a hindrance to established cleanup programs. Statistics and charts are given. (BL)

  17. Water Pollution, Environmental Science Curriculum Guide Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Harold J.

    This curriculum guide is a 40-day unit plan on water pollution developed, in part, from the National Science Foundation Environmental Science Institutes' Ninth Grade Environmental Science Curriculum Guide. This unit contains teacher lesson plans, suggested teacher and student modules, case studies, and activities to be developed by teachers…

  18. Public Information for Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication is a handbook for water pollution control personnel to guide them towards a successful public relations program. This handbook was written to incorporate the latest methods of teaching basic public information techniques to the non-professional in this area. Contents include: (1) a rationale for a public information program; (2)…

  19. Good operating practices cut water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    West, D.E.

    1982-07-12

    This article advises the pipeline industry on how to comply with the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (PL 92-500), which states that pollution of US waters by any cause other than an ''Act of God,'' ''Act of War,'' or US Government negligence is the responsibility of the owner or operator of the facility. Points out that the actions of third parties do not relieve owners or operators of liability unless they are the sole cause of pollution. Emphasizes that liability can be reduced by prompt reporting of pollution to the National Response Center. Reveals that the major cause of failures in pipeline systems is accidental damage by third parties. Proposes tha the best defense against pipeline damage resulting from landowner activity is periodic contact of the landowner by the operator. Recommends aerial and ground patrols as sources of information on construction activities. Concludes that assessing a penalty against the party causing the pollution would be better than merely penalizing the pipeline operator.

  20. Optical method for water pollution remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yi; Wu, Jian

    1998-08-01

    The random facet physics model is adopted to develop the water wave scattering theory that is used to calculate distributions of the diffusely reflected light from rough air-water surfaces. The depolarization is discussed in detail, which shows that the water surface diffused light is partly depolarized in all direction except the back. For a solid matter surface with strong roughness, even in the back- scattered light, the depolarized component occupies an obvious part. When the local incidence angle (Theta) i satisfies the Brewsterr condition for pure water, the scattered light is line polarized, only the S polarized component can be observed at this direction. In the polluted water case, or something is floating on the water, the received light is partly polarized or even unpolarized at the same direction. These differences suggest us to arbitrate water contamination qualitatively by realizing the received light depolarization.

  1. Hazardous waste management and pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shen-yann.

    1992-01-01

    The management of hazardous wastes is one of the most critical environmental issues that faces many developing countries. It is one of the areas where institutional control and treatment and disposal technology has not kept pace with economic development. This paper reviews the development of hazardous waste management methods over the past decades, and provides the information on the status and trends of hazardous waste management strategy in selected western nations. Several issues pertinent to hazardous waste management will be reviewed, including: (1) definition of hazard; (2) why are we concerned with hazardous wastes; (3) aspects of hazardous waste management system; and (4) prioritization of hazardous waste management options. Due to regulatory and economic pressure on hazardous waste management, pollution prevention has become a very important environmental strategy in many developed countries. In many developed countries, industry is increasingly considering such alternative approaches, and finding many opportunities for their cost effective implementation. This paper provides a review of the status and trends of pollution prevention in selected western nations.

  2. Hazardous waste management and pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shen-yann

    1992-03-01

    The management of hazardous wastes is one of the most critical environmental issues that faces many developing countries. It is one of the areas where institutional control and treatment and disposal technology has not kept pace with economic development. This paper reviews the development of hazardous waste management methods over the past decades, and provides the information on the status and trends of hazardous waste management strategy in selected western nations. Several issues pertinent to hazardous waste management will be reviewed, including: (1) definition of hazard; (2) why are we concerned with hazardous wastes; (3) aspects of hazardous waste management system; and (4) prioritization of hazardous waste management options. Due to regulatory and economic pressure on hazardous waste management, pollution prevention has become a very important environmental strategy in many developed countries. In many developed countries, industry is increasingly considering such alternative approaches, and finding many opportunities for their cost effective implementation. This paper provides a review of the status and trends of pollution prevention in selected western nations.

  3. Total Water Management - Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  4. Water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the studies of water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. Citations examine the development, management, and protection of estuary and coastal resources. Topics include pollution sources, environmental monitoring, water chemistry, eutrophication, models, land use, government policy, and laws and regulations. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Targeting of Watershed Management Practices for Water Quality Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ensuring a clean and adequate water supply implies conservative use of water and protecting water resources from pollution. Sediment, nutrient, and pesticide losses in runoff are major pollutants of surface waters in the Midwest. This publication addresses the targeting of best management practices ...

  6. Forewarning model for water pollution risk based on Bayes theory.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Jin, Juliang; Guo, Qizhong; Chen, Yaqian; Lu, Mengxiong; Tinoco, Luis

    2014-02-01

    In order to reduce the losses by water pollution, forewarning model for water pollution risk based on Bayes theory was studied. This model is built upon risk indexes in complex systems, proceeding from the whole structure and its components. In this study, the principal components analysis is used to screen out index systems. Hydrological model is employed to simulate index value according to the prediction principle. Bayes theory is adopted to obtain posterior distribution by prior distribution with sample information which can make samples' features preferably reflect and represent the totals to some extent. Forewarning level is judged on the maximum probability rule, and then local conditions for proposing management strategies that will have the effect of transforming heavy warnings to a lesser degree. This study takes Taihu Basin as an example. After forewarning model application and vertification for water pollution risk from 2000 to 2009 between the actual and simulated data, forewarning level in 2010 is given as a severe warning, which is well coincide with logistic curve. It is shown that the model is rigorous in theory with flexible method, reasonable in result with simple structure, and it has strong logic superiority and regional adaptability, providing a new way for warning water pollution risk. PMID:24194413

  7. Evolving water management institutions in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearne, Robert R.

    2004-12-01

    Mexico's water management institutions are undergoing a gradual but dramatic change that corresponds to other changes in Mexican society. Implementing these changes has led to the creation of new institutions, including river basin councils, state water commissions, aquifer management committees, and water user associations. Established institutions such as the National Water Commission have accepted new roles. Some of these changes can be considered to be superficial, but this institutional change is impressive. Successful practices can be identified. These include the transfer of the management of large irrigation districts to the users, the periodic practice of establishing a national water plan, the cautious approach to private sector participation in water supply and sanitation, and the national registry of water use. Remaining challenges include weak river basin and aquifer management organizations, overexploitation of key aquifers, polluted surface water, and the inability of water markets to facilitate intersectoral water transfers.

  8. Impacts of soil and water pollution on food safety and health risks in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Song, Shuai; Wang, Ruoshi; Liu, Zhaoyang; Meng, Jing; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Li, Hong; Luo, Wei; Wang, Tieyu

    2015-04-01

    Environmental pollution and food safety are two of the most important issues of our time. Soil and water pollution, in particular, have historically impacted on food safety which represents an important threat to human health. Nowhere has that situation been more complex and challenging than in China, where a combination of pollution and an increasing food safety risk have affected a large part of the population. Water scarcity, pesticide over-application, and chemical pollutants are considered to be the most important factors impacting on food safety in China. Inadequate quantity and quality of surface water resources in China have led to the long-term use of waste-water irrigation to fulfill the water requirements for agricultural production. In some regions this has caused serious agricultural land and food pollution, especially for heavy metals. It is important, therefore, that issues threatening food safety such as combined pesticide residues and heavy metal pollution are addressed to reduce risks to human health. The increasing negative effects on food safety from water and soil pollution have put more people at risk of carcinogenic diseases, potentially contributing to 'cancer villages' which appear to correlate strongly with the main food producing areas. Currently in China, food safety policies are not integrated with soil and water pollution management policies. Here, a comprehensive map of both soil and water pollution threats to food safety in China is presented and integrated policies addressing soil and water pollution for achieving food safety are suggested to provide a holistic approach. PMID:25603422

  9. Water footprint as a tool for integrated water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldaya, Maite; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2010-05-01

    In a context where water resources are unevenly distributed and, in some regions precipitation and drought conditions are increasing, enhanced water management is a major challenge to final consumers, businesses, water resource users, water managers and policymakers in general. By linking a large range of sectors and issues, virtual water trade and water footprint analyses provide an appropriate framework to find potential solutions and contribute to a better management of water resources. The water footprint is an indicator of freshwater use that looks not only at direct water use of a consumer or producer, but also at the indirect water use. The water footprint of a product is the volume of freshwater used to produce the product, measured over the full supply chain. It is a multi-dimensional indicator, showing water consumption volumes by source and polluted volumes by type of pollution; all components of a total water footprint are specified geographically and temporally. The water footprint breaks down into three components: the blue (volume of freshwater evaporated from surface or groundwater systems), green (water volume evaporated from rainwater stored in the soil as soil moisture) and grey water footprint (the volume of polluted water associated with the production of goods and services). Closely linked to the concept of water footprint is that of virtual water trade, which represents the amount of water embedded in traded products. Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. Virtual water trade between nations and even continents could thus be used as an instrument to improve global water use efficiency and to achieve water security in water-poor regions of the world. The virtual water trade

  10. Contribution of Nutrient Pollution to Water Scarcity in the Water-Rich Northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, R. L.; Lopez, C.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    , water treatment and nutrient management. Our analysis by sector highlights that the economic cost of water scarcity due to pollution in this region is largely borne by the public.

  11. CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS VS. RETENTION POND BMPS: MESOCOSM STUDIES FOR IMPROVED POLLUTANT MANAGEMENT IN URBAN STORMWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased urbanization has increased the amount of directly connected impervious area that results in large quantities of stormwater runoff. This runoff can contribute significant amounts of debris and pollutants to receiving waters. Urban watershed managers often incorporate b...

  12. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  13. 33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.). ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water management. 151... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL...

  14. 33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.). ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ballast water management. 151... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL...

  15. Toxic risk of surface water pollution--six years of experience.

    PubMed

    Soldán, Premysl

    2003-03-01

    Assessment of an ecological quality of surface water is necessary for effective protection, abatement and successive revitalisation of river ecosystems. This quality is primarily given by biological impact of surface water pollution. Substances contained in pollution are frequently toxic to aquatic organisms. Risk of chronic impact of surface water pollution is very often underestimated due to hidden long time action of pollutants. Proper estimation of the risk is not possible from results of chemical analyses and data of substances' toxicity. Chemical analyses are not able to detect all substances presented in water including the products of reactions between them. In addition, a simultaneous presence of substances can modify their final effect on aquatic organisms. Therefore, a complex method of assessment of toxic risk of surface water pollution based on ecotoxicological approach was developed. The toxic risk of surface water pollution is determined from results of evaluation of toxic risk of organic part and inorganic part of surface water pollution. Resultant degree of toxic risk of total pollution is given by the highest degree detected in any part of the water pollution. Presented method, which is routinely used for monitoring in the Czech part of the Odra river basin, was fully standardised and published in the form of the Czech branch technical norm of water management (TNV) in the year 2000. PMID:12605913

  16. An application of Landsat and computer technology to potential water pollution from soil erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Agricultural activity has been recognized as the primary source of nonpoint source water pollution. Water quality planners have needed information that is timely, accurate, easily reproducible, and relatively inexpensive to utilize to implement 'Best Management Practices' for water quality. In this paper, a case study shows how the combination of satellite data, which can give accurate land-cover/land-use information, and a computerized geographic information system, can assess nonpoint pollution at a regional scale and be cost effective.

  17. [Mineral oil drinking water pollution accident in Slavonski Brod, Croatia].

    PubMed

    Medverec Knežević, Zvonimira; Nadih, Martina; Josipović, Renata; Grgić, Ivanka; Cvitković, Ante

    2011-12-01

    On 21 September 2008, heavy oil penetrated the drinking water supply in Slavonski Brod, Croatia. The accident was caused by the damage of heat exchange units in hot water supply. The system was polluted until the beginning of November, when the pipeline was treated with BIS O 2700 detergent and rinsed with water. Meanwhile, water samples were taken for chemical analysis using spectrometric and titrimetric methods and for microbiological analysis using membrane filtration and total plate count. Mineral oils were determined with infrared spectroscopy. Of the 192 samples taken for mineral oil analysis, 55 were above the maximally allowed concentration (MAC). Five samples were taken for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene analysis (BTEX), but none was above MAC. Epidemiologists conducted a survey about health symptoms among the residents affected by the accident. Thirty-six complained of symptoms such as diarrhoea, stomach cramps, vomiting, rash, eye burning, chills, and gastric disorders.This is the first reported case of drinking water pollution with mineral oil in Slavonski Brod and the accident has raised a number of issues, starting from poor water supply maintenance to glitches in the management of emergencies such as this. PMID:22202469

  18. Sanitary landfills: Water pollution. January 1980-August 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Aug 91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, operation, and management of sanitary landfills as related to water pollution. Topics include water pollution control, leachate analyses, site studies, environmental monitoring, and solid waste management strategies. Hazardous materials, public health, refuse disposal, and waste disposal are considered. (Contains 126 citations with title list and subject index.)

  19. Purge water management system

    DOEpatents

    Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  20. Purge water management system

    DOEpatents

    Cardoso-Neto, Joao E.; Williams, Daniel W.

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  1. Watershed management: Clean water`s next act

    SciTech Connect

    Hite, R.W.

    1996-09-23

    14 articles related to watershed management comprise this special advertising section of the Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies. Subtopics include water quality, regulations, US Environmental Protection Agency activities, analysis tools, economics, flooding and erosions, and non-point source pollutions. Articles on arid and coastal are included. Several articles describe municipal watershed programs being planned or in place.

  2. Characterization and source apportionment of water pollution in Jinjiang River, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Yue, Weifeng; Song, Liuting

    2013-11-01

    Characterizing water quality and identifying potential pollution sources could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river ecosystem. In this study, fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA), pollution index (PI), principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) were combined to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal-spatial characterization and sources of water pollution with a case study of the Jinjiang River, China. Measurement data were obtained with 17 water quality variables from 20 sampling sites in the December 2010 (withered water period) and June 2011 (high flow period). FCA and PI were used to comprehensively estimate the water quality variables and compare temporal-spatial variations, respectively. Rotated PCA and receptor model (APCS-MLR) revealed potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions. Application results showed that comprehensive application of various multivariate methods were effective for water quality assessment and management. In the withered water period, most sampling sites were assessed as low or moderate pollution with characteristics pollutants of permanganate index and total nitrogen (TN), whereas 90% sites were classified as high pollution in the high flow period with higher TN and total phosphorus. Agricultural non-point sources, industrial wastewater discharge, and domestic sewage were identified as major pollution sources. Apportionment results revealed that most variables were complicatedly influenced by industrial wastewater discharge and agricultural activities in withered water period and primarily dominated by agricultural runoff in high flow period. PMID:23737126

  3. Management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China: current status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan

    2006-01-01

    Water quality in China shows an overall trend of deterioration in recent years. Nonpoint source pollution from agricultural and rural regions is the leading source of water pollution. The agricultural nonpoint source pollutants are mainly from fertilization of cropland, excessive livestock and poultry breeding and undefined disposal of daily living wastes in rural areas. Agricultural nonpoint sources contribute the main source of pollution to most watersheds in China, but they are ignored in management strategy and policy. Due to the lack of full understanding of water pollution control and management and the lack of perfect water quality standard systems and practical legislative regulations, agricultural nonpoint source pollution will become one of the biggest challenges to the sustainable development of rural areas and to society as a whole. The system for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control in China should include an appropriate legislation and policy framework, financing mechanisms, monitoring system, and technical guidelines and standards. The management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution requires multidisciplinary approaches that will involve a range of government departments, institutions and the public. PMID:16594318

  4. Setting the Course for Clean Water: A Citizen's Guide to the Section 208 Water Quality Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, Diane L.; Albright, Catherine

    This is a citizen's guide to the section 208 water quality management program. Section 208 refers to that section of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (the Clean Water Act) which calls for public participation in water quality management planning. Included in this guide are chapters on controlling pollution through the Clean Water…

  5. New direction for environmental water management.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Akio; Nakura, Yoshio; Ishikawa, Takuya

    2016-01-30

    Japan experienced severe environmental problems including water pollution and damages to aquatic organisms and fishery industry through and after the high economic growth period in the 1960s. One of the countermeasures to address these problems was the Total Pollutant Load Control System (TPLCS), which has been implemented with the aim of reducing the total amount of pollutant loads, specifically targeting Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The TPLCS has significantly improved the quality of the coastal sea water. However, while the accumulated pollutant loads from the past industrialization have still remained, new environmental concerns have arisen. Our new environmental policies are thus to deal with conservation of biological diversity and other related marine environmental issues. Japan has entered a new phase of environmental management, setting the new direction and framework toward a beautiful, bio-diverse, bustling-with-people and bountiful sea. PMID:26952992

  6. Controlling Nonpoint-Source Water Pollution: A Citizen's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Nancy Richardson; And Others

    Citizens can play an important role in helping their states develop pollution control programs and spurring effective efforts to deal with nonpoint-source pollution. This guide takes the reader step-by-step through the process that states must follow to comply with water quality legislation relevant to nonpoint-source pollution. Part I provides…

  7. Massive immuno multiresidue screening of water pollutants.

    PubMed

    Dobosz, Paulina; Morais, Sergi; Bonet, Emilio; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Ángel

    2015-10-01

    An immuno multiresidue screening assay in microarray format for the determination of complex chemical mixtures at the microgram per liter level, using antibody-functionalized gold nanoparticles, is presented. The analytical method relies on the use of a cocktail of nanogold-labeled specific antibodies, acting as recognition and detection species. The concept of multireside screening is proved by developing a multiplex assay on a compact disk support for the determination of 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)propionic acid, 3-phenoxybenozic acid, 4-nitrophenol, alachlor, atrazine, azoxystrobin, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, diuron, endosulfan, fenthion, forchlorfenuron, imidacloprid, malathion, pentachlorophenol, pyraclostrobin, sulfasalazine, and triclosan, achieving detection limits of 0.07, 0.24, 10.9, 0.21, 0.14, 0.11, 0.11, 102, 0.36, 1.8, 1.7, 0.06, 0.08, 5.8, 1.0, 0.39, 0.003, and 12 μg/L, respectively. Due to the selectivity of the antibody-functionalized nanoparticles, the developed screening methodology allows the simultaneous determination of mixtures of water pollutants in a 10-plex configuration. The analytical performances were compared with those of reference chromatographic methods by the analysis of spiked water samples, the sensitivity and recovery results being in good agreement. The presented screening approach directly quantifies the concentration of complex chemical mixtures without sample treatment or preconcentration steps in a total time of 35 min. PMID:26390221

  8. EFFECTIVENESS OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential water quality effects and economic implications of soil and water conservation practices (SWCPs) are identified. Method for estimating the effects of SWCPs on pollutant losses from croplands are presented. Mathematical simulation and linear programming models were u...

  9. Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, K. E. M.

    This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

  10. Management of oil pollution of natural resources in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Ikporukpo, C.O.

    1985-04-01

    Oil spillages are prominent features of petroleum exploitation in Nigeria. For instance, within the decade 1970-1980, the country experienced 18 major spills. Oil pollution adversely affects the water and soil resources of the petroleum-producing Niger Delta. There have been attempts to manage the increasing menace of oil spills, and two strategies may be identified. These are the legislative and the project implementation approaches. The first approach relies on preventative laws, while the second, more or less curative, depends on the implementation of projects for the monitoring, control, and clearance of spilled oil. There are various problems in the effective operation of both strategies, and the persistence of spills, many of them avoidable, tends to indicate lapses in the management attempts. 12 references, 4 tables.

  11. Energy and Water Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valek, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    Energy efficiency isn't just a good idea; it's a necessity, both for cost reasons and to meet federal regulatory requirements. First, rising energy unit costs continue to erode NASA's mission budget. NASA spent roughly $156M on facility energy in FY 2007. Although that represents less than one per cent of NASA's overall annual budget, the upward trend in energy costs concerns the agency. While NASA reduced consumption 13%, energy unit costs have risen 63%. Energy cost increases counteract the effects of energy conservation, which results in NASA buying less yet spending more. The second factor is federal energy legislation. The National Energy Conservation Policy Act, as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Executive Order (EO) 13423 (January, 2007), and the Energy Independence and Security Act (December, 2007), mandates energy/water conservation goals for all federal agencies, including NASA. There are also reporting requirements associated with this legislation. The Energy/Water Management Task was created to support NASA Headquarters Environmental Management Division (HO EMD) in meeting these requirements. With assistance from TEERM, HQ EMD compiled and submitted the NASA Annual Report to the Department of Energy FY 2007. The report contains information on how NASA is meeting federally mandated energy and water management goals. TEERM monitored input for timeliness, errors, and conformity to the new energy/water reporting guidelines and helped compile the information into the final report. TEERM also assists NASA Energy/Water Management with proposal and award calls, updates to the energy/water management database, and facilitating communication within the energy/water management community. TEERM is also supporting NASA and the Interagency Working Group (IWG) on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells. Established shortly after the President announced the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in 2003, this IWG serves as the mechanism for collaboration among the Federal agencies

  12. Water pollution effects of metals on fresh water fish. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning laboratory and field studies regarding effects of metals on fresh water fish. Topics include toxicity effects on fish species, bioaccumulation, fish physiology, acidification and detoxification, aquatic ecosystems, and water quality management. Environmental monitoring systems and pollution effects on food chains are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. [Microbial source tracking of water fecal pollution: a review].

    PubMed

    Feng, Guan-da; Deng, Ming-rong; Zhu, Hong-hui; Guo, Jun; Zhang, Xi; Zhu, Chang-xiong; Liang, Hao-liang

    2010-12-01

    Livestock feces and domestic sewage are the one of the main factors inducing water pollution, while the identification of the pollution source is particularly important in pollution control and management. Because of this, microbial source tracking (MST) has recently been paid more and more attention by the related researchers around the world. In this paper, the research progress of two types of MST methods, their advantages and disadvantages, and existing problems in application were reviewed and discussed. It was considered that in the library- and culture-dependent MST methods, PCR genotyping based on repetitive sequences was most practicable, while in the library- and culture-independent MST methods, PCR-DGGE based on the gene of specificity in Escherichia coli had a very glaring sight. Future researches should be more focused on the library- and culture-independent MST, and the combination of library- and culture-dependent MST with library- and culture-independent MST could make the tracking results more credible. PMID:21443019

  14. Impact of land-use on water pollution in a rapidly urbanizing catchment in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khu, Soon-Thiam; Qin, Huapeng

    2010-05-01

    Many catchments in developing countries are undergoing fast urbanization which is usually characterized by population increase, economic growth as well as drastic changes of land-use from natural/rural to urban area. During the urbanization process, some catchments experience water quality deterioration due to rapid increase of pollution loads. Nonpoint source pollution resulting from storm water runoff has been recognized as one of the major causes of pollutants in many cities in developing countries. The composition of land-use for a rapidly urbanizing catchment is usually heterogeneous, and this may result in significant spatial variations of storm runoff pollution and increase the difficulties of water quality management in the catchment. The Shiyan Reservoir catchment, a typical rapidly urbanizing area in China, is chosen as the study area, and temporary monitoring sites were set at the outlets of its 6 sub-catchments to synchronously measured rainfall, runoff and water quality during 4 storm events. Three indicators, event pollutant loads per unit area (EPL), event mean concentration (EMC) and pollutant loads transported by the first 50% of runoff volume (FF50), were used to describe the runoff pollution for different pollutants (such as COD, BOD, NH3-N, TN, TP and SS) in each sub-catchment during the storm events; and the correlations between runoff pollution spatial variations and land-use patterns were tested by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The results indicated that similar spatial variation trends were found for different pollutants (EPL or EMC) in light storm events, which strongly correlate with the proportion of residential land-use; however, they have different trends in heavy storm events, which correlate with the different proportional combination of residential, industrial, agricultural and bare land-use. It is also shown that it is necessary to consider some pervious land-use types in runoff pollution monitoring or management for a

  15. Combining Watershed Variables with PCR-based Methods for Better Characterization and Management of Fecal Pollution in Small Streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ability to distinguish between human and animal fecal pollution is important for risk assessment and watershed management, particularly in bodies of water used as sources of drinking water or for recreation. PCR-based methods were used to determine the source of fecal pollution ...

  16. [Safety concentration of genotoxic carcinogens in water pollution accident based on human health risk].

    PubMed

    Luo, Jin-Hong; Zheng, Bing-Hui; Fu, Qing; Hung, Min-Sheng

    2012-02-01

    It was an urgent problem to determine short-term exposure safety concentration of genetic carcinogens in water pollution accident in China. Based on the hypothesis that the relationship between exposure dosage and carcinogenic risk was linear, the calculation process of genetic carcinogens safety concentration was put forwarded, and the method using life-time exposed safety concentration to calculate short-term exposure safety concentration was set up. Based on the statistical result of water pollution accident occurred in china during 2000-2010, arsenic was a major characteristic contaminate in water pollution accident. According to the method of short-term exposure safety concentration of genotoxic carcinogens, the safety concentration of arsenic was 0.5 mg x L(-1), it showed that the method was feasible in emergence management of water pollution accident. PMID:22509565

  17. RESEARCH AREA -- POLLUTION PREVENTION (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The strategy of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Indoor Environment Management Branch (IEMB) is to apply IEMB's expertise in indoor air quality (i.e., source characterization, ventilation, filtration, modeling, biocontaminants, and sustainable buildings) to...

  18. The latent causal chain of industrial water pollution in China.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xin; Tang, Yanhong; Wong, Christina W Y; Zang, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discover the latent causal chain of industrial water pollution in China and find ways to cure the want on discharge of toxic waste from industries. It draws evidences from the past pollution incidents in China. Through further digging the back interests and relations by analyzing representative cases, extended theory about loophole derivations and causal chain effect is drawn. This theoretical breakthrough reflects deeper causality. Institutional defect instead of human error is confirmed as the deeper reason of frequent outbreaks of water pollution incidents in China. Ways for collaborative environmental governance are proposed. This paper contributes to a better understanding about the deep inducements of industrial water pollution in China, and, is meaningful for ensuring future prevention and mitigation of environmental pollution. It illuminates multiple dimensions for collaborative environmental governance to cure the stubborn problem. PMID:25467695

  19. An Innovative Partnership Approach for Environmental Management and Pollution Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erten-Unal, Mujde; Aydlett, Guy M.

    1997-01-01

    A partnership between a university and a government regulatory agency sought to assist industries with pollution prevention and waste management. Economic incentives were developed to promote waste minimization. (SK)

  20. IMPROVED POLLUTANT MANAGEMENT IN URBAN STORMWATER BMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased urbanization has resulted in a larger percentage of impervious areas that produce large quantities of stormwater runoff and contribute significant amounts of debris and pollutants (e.g., litter, oils, heavy metals, sediments, nutrients, organic matter, and microorganism...

  1. Seeking More Effective Management of Freshwater Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    The atmosphere contains airborne pollutants such as mercury, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides released from automobiles, factories, and power plants. Similarly, land surfaces such as croplands, feedlots, logged forests, construction sites, and urban land surfaces may be reserv...

  2. The impact of different reference panels on spectral reflectance coefficients of some biological water pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenerowicz, Agnieszka; Walczykowski, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring of water environment and ecosystem, detecting water contaminants and understanding water quality parameters are most important tasks in water management and protection of whole aquatic environment. Detection of biological contaminants play a very important role in preserving human health and water management. To obtain accurate and precise results of determination of the level of biological contamination and to distinguish its type it is necessary to determine precisely spectral reflectance coefficients of several water biological pollutants with inter alia spectroradiometer. This paper presents a methodology and preliminary results of acquisition of spectral reflectance coefficients with different reference panels (e.g. with 5%, 20%, 50%, 80% and 96% of reflectivity) of several biological pollutants. The authors' main task was to measure spectral reflectance coefficients of different biological water pollutants with several reference panels and to select optimal reference standard, which would allow for distinguish different types of several biological contaminants. Moreover it was necessary to indicate the spectral range in which it is possible to discriminate investigated samples of biological contaminants. By conducting many series of measurements of several samples of different types of biological pollutants, authors had concluded how the reflectivity of reference panel influences the accuracy of acquisition of spectral reflectance coefficients. This research was crucial in order to be able to distinguish several types of biological pollutants and to determine the useful spectral range for detection of different kinds of biological contaminants with multispectral and hyperspectral imagery.

  3. Stable Isotope Mixing Models as a Tool for Tracking Sources of Water and Water Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    One goal of monitoring pollutants is to be able to trace the pollutant to its source. Here we review how mixing models using stable isotope information on water and water pollutants can help accomplish this goal. A number of elements exist in multiple stable (non-radioactive) i...

  4. An Integrated Risk Management Model for Source Water Protection Areas

    PubMed Central

    Chiueh, Pei-Te; Shang, Wei-Ting; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2012-01-01

    Watersheds are recognized as the most effective management unit for the protection of water resources. For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans. The aim of this article is to establish a risk assessment model that provides basic information for identifying critical pollutants and areas at high risk for degraded water quality. In this study, a quantitative risk model that uses hazard quotients for each water quality parameter was combined with a qualitative risk model that uses the relative risk level of potential pollution events in order to characterize the current condition and potential risk of watersheds providing drinking water. In a case study of Taipei Source Water Area in northern Taiwan, total coliforms and total phosphorus were the top two pollutants of concern. Intensive tea-growing and recreational activities around the riparian zone may contribute the greatest pollution to the watershed. Our risk assessment tool may be enhanced by developing, recording, and updating information on pollution sources in the water supply watersheds. Moreover, management authorities could use the resultant information to create watershed risk management plans. PMID:23202770

  5. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: WATER POLLUTANTS FROM COAL STORAGE AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a study of water pollution levels that result from coal stockpiles maintained outdoors. A representative source was defined to characterize the pollution levels. Effluent data was obtained by placing coals, collected from various regions in the U.S., under a...

  6. ALTERNATIVE POLICIES FOR CONTROLLING NONPOINT AGRICULTURAL SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study of policies for controlling water pollution from nonpoint agricultural sources includes a survey of existing state and Federal programs, agencies, and laws directed to the control of soil erosion. Six policies representing a variety of approaches to this pollution prob...

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF FECAL POLLUTION IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of Microbial Source Tracking (MST) methods are currently used to determine the origin of fecal pollution impacting environmental waters. MST is based on the assumption that given the appropriate method and indicator organism, the source of fecal microbial pollution can ...

  8. Water quality management library. 2. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenfelder, W.W.; Malina, J.F.; Patterson, J.W.

    1998-12-31

    A series of ten books offered in conjunction with Water Quality International, the Biennial Conference and Exposition of the International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control (IAWPRC). Volume 1, Activated Sludge Process, Design and Control, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 2, Upgrading Wastewater Treatment Plants, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 3, Toxicity Reduction, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 4, Municipal Sewage Sludge Management, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 5, Design and Retrofit of Wastewater Treatment Plants for Biological Nutrient Removal, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 6, Dynamics and Control of the Activated Sludge Process, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 7: Design of Anaerobic Processes for the Treatment of Industrial and Municipal Wastes, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 8, Groundwater Remediation, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 9, Nonpoint Pollution and Urban Stormwater Management, 1st edition, 1995: Volume 10, Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse, 1st edition, 1998.

  9. Assessment of Water Quality and Identification of Polluted Risky Regions Based on Field Observations & GIS in the Honghe River Watershed, China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chang-An; Zhang, Wanchang; Zhang, Zhijie; Liu, Yuanmin; Deng, Cai; Nie, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Water quality assessment at the watershed scale requires not only an investigation of water pollution and the recognition of main pollution factors, but also the identification of polluted risky regions resulted in polluted surrounding river sections. To realize this objective, we collected water samplings from 67 sampling sites in the Honghe River watershed of China with Grid GIS method to analyze six parameters including dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). Single factor pollution index and comprehensive pollution index were adopted to explore main water pollutants and evaluate water quality pollution level. Based on two evaluate methods, Geo-statistical analysis and Geographical Information System (GIS) were used to visualize the spatial pollution characteristics and identifying potential polluted risky regions. The results indicated that the general water quality in the watershed has been exposed to various pollutants, in which TP, NO2-N and TN were the main pollutants and seriously exceeded the standard of Category III. The zones of TP, TN, DO, NO2-N and NH3-N pollution covered 99.07%, 62.22%, 59.72%, 37.34% and 13.82% of the watershed respectively, and they were from medium to serious polluted. 83.27% of the watershed in total was polluted by comprehensive pollutants. These conclusions may provide useful and effective information for watershed water pollution control and management. PMID:25768942

  10. Water pollution control technology and strategy for river-lake systems: a case study in Gehu Lake and Taige Canal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yimin; Zhang, Yongchun; Gao, Yuexiang; Zhang, Houhu; Cao, Jianying; Cai, Jinbang; Kong, Xiangji

    2011-07-01

    The Taoge water system is located in the upstream of Taihu Lake basin and is characterized by its multi-connected rivers and lakes. In this paper, current analyses of hydrology, hydrodynamics and water pollution of Gehu Lake and Taige Canal are presented. Several technologies are proposed for pollution prevention and control, and water environmental protection in the Taihu Lake basin. These included water pollution control integration technology for the water systems of Gehu Lake, Taige Canal and Caoqiao River. Additionally, river-lake water quality and quantity regulation technology, ecological restoration technology for polluted and degraded water bodies, and water environmental integration management and optimization strategies were also examined. The main objectives of these strategies are to: (a) improve environmental quality of relative water bodies, prevent pollutants from entering Gehu Lake and Taige Canal, and ensure that the clean water after the pre-treatment through Gehu Lake is not polluted before entering the Taihu Lake through Taige Canal; (b) stably and efficiently intercept and decrease the pollution load entering the lake through enhancing the river outlet ecological system structure function and water self-purifying capacity, and (c) designate Gehu Lake as a regulation system for water quality and water quantity in the Taoge water system and thus guarantee the improvement of the water quality of the inflow into Taihu Lake. PMID:21516445

  11. Assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    Remote measurement of chlorophyll concentrations to determine extent of water pollution is discussed. Construction and operation of radiometer to provide measurement capability are explained. Diagram of equipment is provided.

  12. A Philosophy of Water Pollution Control--Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeffer, George J.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of water pollution control in the U.S. is given, leading to an analysis of present policy trends. A "rational environmental program" is called for to provide economic growth and environmental quality. (MDR)

  13. Recruitment and Employment of the Water Pollution Control Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrard, J. H.; Sherrard, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the basic principles of personnel recruitment and employment for the water pollution control field. Attention is given to determination of staffing requirements, effective planning, labor sources, affirmative action, and staffing policies. (CS)

  14. Water quality . . . potential sources of pollution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank, (artist)

    1996-01-01

    What is water quality? To most students, water quality may suggest only "clean" water for drinking, swimming, and fishing. But to the farmer or manufacturer, water quality may have an entirely different meaning. One of the most important issues concerning the quality of water is how that water will be used. Water that is perfectly fine for irrigation might not be suitable for drinking or swimming.

  15. [Spatio-temporal characteristics and source identification of water pollutants in Wenruitang River watershed].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-xue; Wang, La-chun; Liao, Ling-ling

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the temp-spatial distribution and sources of water pollutants is of great significance for efficient water quality management pollution control in Wenruitang River watershed, China. A total of twelve water quality parameters, including temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+ -N), electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity (Turb), nitrite-N (NO2-), nitrate-N(NO3-), phosphate-P(PO4(3-), total organic carbon (TOC) and silicate (SiO3(2-)), were analyzed from September, 2008 to October, 2009. Geographic information system(GIS) and principal component analysis(PCA) were used to determine the spatial distribution and to apportion the sources of pollutants. The results demonstrated that TN, NH4+ -N, PO4(3-) were the main pollutants during flow period, wet period, dry period, respectively, which was mainly caused by urban point sources and agricultural and rural non-point sources. In spatial terms, the order of pollution was tertiary river > secondary river > primary river, while the water quality was worse in city zones than in the suburb and wetland zone regardless of the river classification. In temporal terms, the order of pollution was dry period > wet period > flow period. Population density, land use type and water transfer affected the water quality in Wenruitang River. PMID:25898648

  16. Water pollution in the USSR and other Eastern European countries*

    PubMed Central

    Litvinov, N.

    1962-01-01

    The condition of water bodies and measures taken to prevent their pollution in the USSR, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Bulgaria and Romania are the main subjects of this paper. For each of these countries information is given on population and area, physical features, rain-fall and rivers, the distribution of population and industry, water supply and sewerage, the condition of surface and ground waters, the authorities and legislation concerned with the protection of water resources, and research on pollution. The author draws attention to the experience gained in these countries in the setting up of special State bodies to take charge of water resources and in classifying rivers according to the uses to which they are put, a factor which determines the regulations governing the discharge of effluent into them. A plea is also made for the convening of specialized international conferences on problems connected with the protection of European water resources from pollution. PMID:14465925

  17. Indoor Air Pollution: An Energy Management Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, David M.; Kulba, John W.

    1987-01-01

    Energy conservation measures have led to airtight buildings and reduced levels of ventilation resulting in indoor air pollution. Five kinds of contaminants--tobacco smoke, combustion products, microorganisms, organic compounds, and radon--are described, their hazards considered, and countermeasures outlined. (MLF)

  18. Water hyacinth as indicator of heavy metal pollution the tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, H.; Otero, M. ); Lodenius, M. )

    1989-12-01

    The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a common aquatic plant in many tropical countries. Its ability absorb nutrients and other elements from the water has made it possible to use it for water purification purposes. Eichhornia, especially stems and leaves, have been successfully used as indicators of heavy metal pollution in tropical countries. The uptake of heavy metals in this plant is stronger in the roots than in the floating shoots. Metallothionein-like compounds have been found from roots of this species after cadmium exposure. The purpose of this investigation was to study the possibilities of using roots of water hyacinth as a biological indicator of metal pollution in tropical aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Salmonella pollution in ground and surface waters. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the contamination of ground waters and surface waters by Salmonella bacteria. Articles discuss the occurence, survival, origin, and control of these bacteria in water sources including rivers, reservoirs, swimming pools, wastewater, aquifers, and ground water. Citations also address the use of Salmonella populations as biological indicators of pollution in aquatic systems. (Contains a minimum of 102 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Scientific basis of water-resource management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This volume contains 11 reports regarding water-resource management. Topics include: long-term and large-scale problems of water management, such as groundwater contamination due to toxic and nuclear-waste disposal; nonpoint sources of pollution on our stream systems; impacts of changes in both flow and water quality on the aquatic ecosystem; the frequency, duration, and impacts of droughts including long-term trends toward desertification; long-term hydrologic budgets for assessing the adequacy of regional or national water resources; global geochemical cycles such as the fate of nitrogen and sulfur; and protection of engineered systems against hydrologic extrema. These macroscale and long-term problems, involving large investments and the health and well-being of much of the world's population, demand increasingly precise and accurate predictive statements. Individual reports are indexed separately on the energy data base.

  1. Water management tools for Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our goal is to equip crop producers in the Southeast with tools to improve crop production and management including: • Knowledge of crop and soil water relations • Irrigation scheduling tools for better water management, and • Economic benefits of water conservation technologies Crop performance can...

  2. Management of an Abandoned River Channel Wetland for Mitigation of Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduction of nonpoint source pollutants, principally sediment and nutrients moving from cultivated fields to surface waters, is a major challenge. Remnants of once-extensive natural wetlands occur across the agricultural landscape, and some workers have suggested that these areas might be managed t...

  3. MANAGEMENT OF DIFFUSE POLLUTION IN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS: LESSONS FROM THE MINNESOTA RIVER BASIN. (R825290)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The Minnesota River (Minnesota, USA) receives large non-point source pollutant loads. Complex interactions between agricultural, state agency, environmental groups, and issues of scale make watershed management difficult. Subdividing the basin's 12 major water...

  4. Nonpoint Source Pollution: Agriculture, Forestry, and Mining. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskirk, E. Drannon, Jr.

    Nonpoint sources of pollution have diffuse origins and are major contributors to water quality problems in both urban and rural areas. Addressed in this instructor's manual are the identification, assessment, and management of nonpoint source pollutants resulting from mining, agriculture, and forestry. The unit, part of the Working for Clean Water…

  5. Development and application of a water pollution emergency response system for the Three Gorges Reservoir in the Yangtze River, China.

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Peng, Shujuan; Zhai, Jun; Xiao, Haiwen

    2011-01-01

    There are many watercraft and production accidents in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) of the Yangtze River in China every year. Accidents threaten the water quality of the 1085 km2 surface area of the TGRA and millions of local people if oil and chemical leakage were to occur. A water pollution management system for emergency response (WPMS_ER) was therefore designed for the management of pollution in this area. An integrated geographic information system (GIS)-based water pollution management information system for the TGRA, called WPMS_ER_TGRA, was developed in this study. ArcGIS engine was used as the system development platform, and Visual Basic as the programming language. The models for hydraulic and water quality simulation and the generation of body-fitted coordinates were developed and programmed as a dynamically linked library file using Visual Basic, and they can be launched by other computer programs. Subsequently, the GIS-based information system was applied to the emergency water pollution management of a shipwreck releasing 10 tons of phenol into the Yangtze River during two hours. The results showed that WPMS_ER_TGRA can assist with emergency water pollution management and simulate the transfer and diffusion of accidental pollutants in the river. Furthermore, it can quickly identify the affected area and how it will change over time within a few minutes of an accident occurring. PMID:21793401

  6. River Pollution: Part II. Biological Methods for Assessing Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods used in the biological assessment of river quality and such indicators of clean and polluted waters as the Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score System, and species diversity indexes. Includes a summary of a river classification scheme based on quality criteria related to water use. (JN)

  7. Identification and Control of Pollution from Salt Water Intrusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This document contains informational guidelines for identifying and evaluating the nature and extent of pollution from salt water intrusion. The intent of these guidelines is to provide a basic framework for assessing salt water intrusion problems and their relationship to the total hydrologic system, and to provide assistance in developing…

  8. Models of Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Surface Waters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okome, Gloria Eloho

    2013-01-01

    There is the need to answer very crucial questions of "what happens to pollutants in surface waters?" This question must be answered to determine the factors controlling fate and transport of chemicals and their evolutionary state in surface waters. Monitoring and experimental methods are used in establishing the environmental states.…

  9. Spectral reflectance and radiance characteristics of water pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wezernak, C. T.; Turner, R. E.; Lyzenga, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    Spectral reflectance characteristics of water pollutants and water bodies were compiled using the existing literature. Radiance calculations were performed at satellite altitude for selected illumination angles and atmospheric conditions. The work described in this report was limited to the reflective portion of the spectrum between 0.40 micrometer to 1.0 micrometer.

  10. [Pollution hazard for water bodies at oil production].

    PubMed

    Zholdakova, Z I; Beliaeva, N I

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there have been summarizes the concepts of the danger of the pollution ofwater bodies in oil production (the most dangerous are reagents used in the drilling, drilling waste, oil and petrochemicals, oil biodestructors. There was shown the danger of the spread of oil pollution. New indices, presenting a hazard during drilling and oil production have been substantiated The tasks aimed to the improvement of the standards and methods of the control of the water pollution by oil, as well as of the documents regulating the conditions of environmental protection during the drilling have been conceived. PMID:26031037

  11. Assessment and management of water quality of Kshipra River in Ujjain City (Madhya Pradesh), India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R C; Gupta, Ajay K; Shrivastava, R K

    2013-04-01

    This paper shows the water quality status and its assessment through Water Quality Index (WQI), various sources of pollution in the river and the possible strategies to restore the water quality of River Kshipra to its pristine status. The data procured from M.P. Pollution Control Board and WQI reveals that its water quality ranges from medium to bad. The study reveals that Khan River water is a major source of pollution to the River Kshipra. Implementation of sustainable management plan along with proper sewerage planning, watershed management and maintaining sufficient dilution flow will control the pollution in the River Kshipra. PMID:25464695

  12. Assessment and management of water quality of Kshipra River in Ujjain City (Madhya Pradesh), India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R C; Gupta, Ajay K; Shrivastava, R K

    2013-04-01

    This paper shows the water quality status and its assessment through Water Quality Index (WQI), various sources of pollution in the river and the possible strategies to restore the water quality of River Kshipra to its pristine status. The data procured from M.P. Pollution Control Board and WQI reveals that its water quality ranges from medium to bad. The study reveals that Khan River water is a major source of pollution to the River Kshipra. Implementation of sustainable management plan along with proper sewerage planning, watershed management and maintaining sufficient dilution flow will control the pollution in the River Kshipra. PMID:25508326

  13. Needed: Clean Water. Problems of Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet utilizes illustrations and captions to indicate the demands currently made on our water resources and the problems associated with that demand. Current and future solutions are described with suggestions for personal conservation efforts to help provide enough clean water for everyone in the future. (CS)

  14. MERCURY SEPARATION FROM POLLUTANT WATER USING ZEOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water has been examined at room temperature. Experiments have...

  15. Can control of soil erosion mitigate water pollution by sediments?

    PubMed

    Rickson, R J

    2014-01-15

    The detrimental impact of sediment and associated pollutants on water quality is widely acknowledged, with many watercourses in the UK failing to meet the standard of 'good ecological status'. Catchment sediment budgets show that hill slope erosion processes can be significant sources of waterborne sediment, with rates of erosion likely to increase given predicted future weather patterns. However, linking on-site erosion rates with off-site impacts is complicated because of the limited data on soil erosion rates in the UK and the dynamic nature of the source-pathway-receptor continuum over space and time. Even so, soil erosion control measures are designed to reduce sediment production (source) and mobilisation/transport (pathway) on hill slopes, with consequent mitigation of pollution incidents in watercourses (receptors). The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific evidence of the effectiveness of erosion control measures used in the UK to reduce sediment loads of hill slope origin in watercourses. Although over 73 soil erosion mitigation measures have been identified from the literature, empirical data on erosion control effectiveness are limited. Baseline comparisons for the 18 measures where data do exist reveal erosion control effectiveness is highly variable over time and between study locations. Given the limitations of the evidence base in terms of geographical coverage and duration of monitoring, performance of the different measures cannot be extrapolated to other areas. This uncertainty in effectiveness has implications for implementing erosion/sediment risk reduction policies, where quantified targets are stipulated, as is the case in the EU Freshwater Fish and draft Soil Framework Directives. Also, demonstrating technical effectiveness of erosion control measures alone will not encourage uptake by land managers: quantifying the costs and benefits of adopting erosion mitigation is equally important, but these are uncertain and difficult to

  16. Temporal trend and source apportionment of water pollution in different functional zones of Qiantang River, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Shiliang; Li, Dan; Zhang, Qi; Xiao, Rui; Huang, Fang; Wu, Jiaping

    2011-02-01

    The increasingly serious river water pollution in developing countries poses great threat to environmental health and human welfare. The assignment of river function to specific uses, known as zoning, is a useful tool to reveal variations of water environmental adaptability to human impact. Therefore, characterizing the temporal trend and identifying responsible pollution sources in different functional zones could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river water environment. The aim of this study is to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal trends and sources of water pollution in different functional zones with a case study of the Qiantang River, China. Measurement data were obtained and pretreated for 13 variables from 41 monitoring sites in four categories of functional zones during the period 1996-2004. An exploratory approach, which combines smoothing and non-parametric statistical tests, was applied to characterize trends of four significant parameters (permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen, total cadmium and fluoride) accounting for differences among different functional zones identified by discriminant analysis. Aided by GIS, yearly pollution index (PI) for each monitoring site was further mapped to compare the within-group variations in temporal dynamics for different functional zones. Rotated principal component analysis and receptor model (absolute principle component score-multiple linear regression, APCS-MLR) revealed that potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions varied among the four functional zones. Variations of APCS values for each site of one functional zone as well as their annual average values highlighted the uncertainties associated with cross space-time effects in source apportionment. All these results reinforce the notion that the concept of zoning should be taken seriously in water pollution control. Being applicable to other rivers, the framework of management-oriented source apportionment

  17. Towards Sustainable Water Management in a Country that Faces Extreme Water Scarcity and Dependency: Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schyns, J.; Hamaideh, A.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Schyns, M.

    2015-12-01

    Jordan faces a great variety of water-related challenges: domestic water resources are scarce and polluted; the sharing of transboundary waters has led to tensions and conflicts; and Jordan is extremely dependent of foreign water resources through trade. Therefore, sustainable water management in Jordan is a challenging task, which has not yet been accomplished. The objective of this study was to analyse Jordan's domestic water scarcity and pollution and the country's external water dependency, and subsequently review sustainable solutions that reduce the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency. We have estimated the green, blue and grey water footprint of five different sectors in Jordan: crop production, grazing, animal water supply, industrial production and domestic water supply. Next, we assessed the blue water scarcity ratio for the sum of surface- and groundwater and for groundwater separately, and calculated the water pollution level. Finally, we reviewed the sustainability of proposed solutions to Jordan's domestic water problems and external water dependency in literature, while involving the results and conclusions from our analysis. We have quantified that: even while taking into account the return flows, blue water scarcity in Jordan is severe; groundwater consumption is nearly double the sustainable yield; water pollution aggravates blue water scarcity; and Jordan's external virtual water dependency is 86%. Our review yields ten essential ingredients that a sustainable water management strategy for Jordan, that reduces the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency, should involve. With respect to these, Jordan's current water policy requires a strong redirection towards water demand management. Especially, more attention should be paid to reducing water demand by changing the consumption patterns of Jordan consumers. Moreover, exploitation of fossil groundwater should soon be halted and planned desalination projects require careful

  18. VOLATILIZATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS FROM WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volatilization of organic environmental contaminants from water bodies to the atmosphere was investigated. The general aim was to elucidate the factors that control the volatilization process and develop predictive methods for calculating volatilization rates for various comp...

  19. Stormwater Management Criteria for On-Site Pollution Control: A Comparative Assessment of International Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, Jérémie; Berthier, Emmanuel; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2015-07-01

    Over the last decade, a growing interest has been shown toward innovative stormwater management practices, breaking away from conventional "end of pipe" approaches (based on conveying water offsite to centralized detention facilities). Innovative strategies, referred to as sustainable urban drainage systems, low impact development (LID) or green infrastructures, advocating for management of runoff as close to its origin as possible, have therefore gained a lot of popularity among practitioners and public authorities. However, while the need for pollution control is generally well accepted, there is no wide agreement about management criteria to be given to developers. This article hence aims to compare these criteria through literature analysis of different state or local stormwater management manuals or guidelines, investigating both their suitability for pollution control and their influence on best management practices selection and design. Four categories of criteria were identified: flow-rate limitations, "water quality volumes" (to be treated), volume reduction (through infiltration or evapotranspiration), and non-hydrologic criteria (such as loads reduction targets or maximum effluent concentrations). This study suggests that hydrologic criteria based on volume reduction (rather than treatment) might generally be preferable for on-site control of diffuse stormwater pollution. Nonetheless, determination of an appropriate management approach for a specific site is generally not straightforward and presents a variety of challenges for site designers seeking to satisfy local requirements in addressing stormwater quantity and quality issues. The adoption of efficient LID solution may therefore strongly depend on the guidance given to practitioners to account for these management criteria.

  20. Stormwater management criteria for on-site pollution control: a comparative assessment of international practices.

    PubMed

    Sage, Jérémie; Berthier, Emmanuel; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2015-07-01

    Over the last decade, a growing interest has been shown toward innovative stormwater management practices, breaking away from conventional "end of pipe" approaches (based on conveying water offsite to centralized detention facilities). Innovative strategies, referred to as sustainable urban drainage systems, low impact development (LID) or green infrastructures, advocating for management of runoff as close to its origin as possible, have therefore gained a lot of popularity among practitioners and public authorities. However, while the need for pollution control is generally well accepted, there is no wide agreement about management criteria to be given to developers. This article hence aims to compare these criteria through literature analysis of different state or local stormwater management manuals or guidelines, investigating both their suitability for pollution control and their influence on best management practices selection and design. Four categories of criteria were identified: flow-rate limitations, "water quality volumes" (to be treated), volume reduction (through infiltration or evapotranspiration), and non-hydrologic criteria (such as loads reduction targets or maximum effluent concentrations). This study suggests that hydrologic criteria based on volume reduction (rather than treatment) might generally be preferable for on-site control of diffuse stormwater pollution. Nonetheless, determination of an appropriate management approach for a specific site is generally not straightforward and presents a variety of challenges for site designers seeking to satisfy local requirements in addressing stormwater quantity and quality issues. The adoption of efficient LID solution may therefore strongly depend on the guidance given to practitioners to account for these management criteria. PMID:25855072

  1. Water pollution in Pakistan and its impact on public health--a review.

    PubMed

    Azizullah, Azizullah; Khattak, Muhammad Nasir Khan; Richter, Peter; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2011-02-01

    Water pollution is one of the major threats to public health in Pakistan. Drinking water quality is poorly managed and monitored. Pakistan ranks at number 80 among 122 nations regarding drinking water quality. Drinking water sources, both surface and groundwater are contaminated with coliforms, toxic metals and pesticides throughout the country. Various drinking water quality parameters set by WHO are frequently violated. Human activities like improper disposal of municipal and industrial effluents and indiscriminate applications of agrochemicals in agriculture are the main factors contributing to the deterioration of water quality. Microbial and chemical pollutants are the main factors responsible exclusively or in combination for various public health problems. This review discusses a detailed layout of drinking water quality in Pakistan with special emphasis on major pollutants, sources of pollution and the consequent health problems. The data presented in this review are extracted from various studies published in national and international journals. Also reports released by the government and non-governmental organizations are included. PMID:21087795

  2. On the scope and management of pesticide pollution of Swedish groundwater resources: The Scanian example.

    PubMed

    Åkesson, Maria; Sparrenbom, Charlotte J; Dahlqvist, Peter; Fraser, Stephen J

    2015-04-01

    Twenty-three south-Swedish public supply wells were studied to assess pesticide pollution of regional groundwater resources. Relations between pesticide occurrence, hydrogeology, and land use were analyzed using Kohonen's Self-Organizing Maps approach. Pesticides are demonstrated to be substantially present in regional groundwater, with detections in 18 wells. Concentrations above the drinking water threshold are confirmed for nine wells. Observations indicate considerable urban influence, and lagged effects of past, less restricted use. Modern, oxic waters from shallow, unconfined, unconsolidated or fracture-type bedrock aquifers appear particularly vulnerable. Least affected waters appear primarily associated with deeper wells, anoxic conditions, and more confined sediment aquifers lacking urban influence. Comprehensive, standardized monitoring of pesticides in groundwater need to be implemented nationwide to enable sound assessments of pollution status and trends, and to develop sound groundwater management plans in accordance with the Water Framework Directive. Further, existing water protection areas and associated regulations need to be reassessed. PMID:25168463

  3. Water Pollution Detection by Reflectance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goolsby, A. D.

    1971-01-01

    Measurement of the intensity of light reflected from various planar liquid surfaces has been performed. The results of this brief study show that the presence of a film of foreign material floating on a reference substrate is easily detected by reflectance measurement if the two liquids possess significantly different refractive indices, for example, oil (n = 1.40) and water (n = 1.33). Additional study of various optical configurations, and the building and testing of a prototype monitoring device revealed that the method is sufficiently practical for application to continuous water quality monitoring.

  4. Biodetention: A best management practice for nonpoint source pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Murfee, G.; Scaief, J.; Whelan, M.

    1998-07-01

    Biodetention is an innovative nonpoint source (NPS) pollution control best management practice (BMP) developed as an alternative to sedimentation/filtration ponds. Biodetention is applicable as a runoff treatment system for concentrated point discharges from stormwater collection facilities. Treatment is facilitated by vegetative filter strips and stiff grass hedges.

  5. Development of a water quality modeling system for river pollution index and suspended solid loading evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Y. C.; Tu, Y. T.; Yang, C. P.; Surampalli, R. Y.; Kao, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    SummaryThe Kaoping River Basin is the largest and most extensively used watershed in Taiwan. In the upper catchment, the non-point source (NPS) pollutants including suspended solid (SS) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) are two major water pollutants causing the deterioration of Kaoping River water quality. Because SS is one of the four parameters involving in the River Pollution Index (RPI) calculation, it needs to be carefully evaluated to obtain the representative water quality index. The main objective of this study was to develop a water quality modeling system to obtain representative SS and RPI values for water quality evaluation. In this study, a direct linkage between the RPI calculation and a water quality model [Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP)] has been developed. Correlation equations between Kaoping River flow rates and SS concentrations were developed using the field data collected during the high and low flows of the Kaoping River. Investigation results show that the SS concentrations were highly correlated with the flow rates. The obtained SS equation and RPI calculation package were embedded into the WASP model to improve interactive transfers of required data for water quality modeling and RPI calculation. Results indicate that SS played an important role in RPI calculation and SS was a critical factor during the RPI calculation especially for the upper catchment in the wet seasons. This was due to the fact that the soil erosion caused the increase in the SS concentrations after storms. In the wet seasons, higher river flow rates caused the discharges of NPS pollutants (NH3-N and SS) into the upper sections of the river. Results demonstrate that the integral approach could develop a direct linkage among river flow rate, water quality, and pollution index. The introduction of the integrated system showed a significant advance in water quality evaluation and river management strategy development.

  6. Pollutant source identification model for water pollution incidents in small straight rivers based on genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shou-ping; Xin, Xiao-kang

    2016-01-01

    Identification of pollutant sources for river pollution incidents is an important and difficult task in the emergency rescue, and an intelligent optimization method can effectively compensate for the weakness of traditional methods. An intelligent model for pollutant source identification has been established using the basic genetic algorithm (BGA) as an optimization search tool and applying an analytic solution formula of one-dimensional unsteady water quality equation to construct the objective function. Experimental tests show that the identification model is effective and efficient: the model can accurately figure out the pollutant amounts or positions no matter single pollution source or multiple sources. Especially when the population size of BGA is set as 10, the computing results are sound agree with analytic results for a single source amount and position identification, the relative errors are no more than 5 %. For cases of multi-point sources and multi-variable, there are some errors in computing results for the reasons that there exist many possible combinations of the pollution sources. But, with the help of previous experience to narrow the search scope, the relative errors of the identification results are less than 5 %, which proves the established source identification model can be used to direct emergency responses.

  7. Managing Multimedia Pollution for a Multimedia World

    EPA Science Inventory

    Through modest attention to the information highway we ride upon each day, we are increasingly aware of the intent, actions, and reactions of local, state and Federal governments, regional compacts, and international organizations to protect the quality of the water we drink, th...

  8. Acrylamide encephaloneuropathy due to well water pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Igisu, H; Goto, I; Kawamura, Y; Kato, M; Izumi, K

    1975-01-01

    All five members of a family developed subacutely mental confusion and/or truncal ataxia. Symptoms and signs of polyneuropathy were seen later. The well water in the patients' home contained 400 ppm acrylamide. The present cases are unique in that they are cases of acrylamide poisoning induced by oral intake and percutaneous penetration, and that central nervous system symptoms were prominent. PMID:168322

  9. Analysis of seasonal water pollution based on rainfall feature at Anyang river basin in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J. G.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, T. H.; Hwang, E. J.

    2005-08-01

    To determine selected water pollution parameters of the Anyang River (one of the biggest contributory branches of the Han River in Korea) and its main tributaries, the geological and topographical and rainfall features in its basin were investigated, and the resulting data were tabulated. Samples were collected at the upper, mid and down parts of the Anyang River and its branches and were analyzed based on biochemical and chemical methods, Korean biotic index (KBI) and Saprobien systems. Selected parameters of concern include BOD, heavy metals, nonpoint pollution and sewage discharge. The Anyang River basin has a torrential heavy rainfall; however, the rate of rainfall significantly varies from season to season. Water pollution levels in the dry season increase dramatically. The mainstream of the Anyang River is classified as fifth grade polysaprobic water according to Saprobien system. In addition, the biotic index is over 2.5 in overall. General pollution at the junction of the Anyang River and each branch stream varies. Possible countermeasures to improve the water quality of the river include intercept the non-treated waste water and sewage at the Anyang River junction and each branch stream, enforcement of water management during the rainy season, and continuous investment on environmental restoration.

  10. Pollution prevention: Avoiding the need to manage wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Meltzer, M.

    1993-12-01

    Today`s industrial processes generate many types of waste products that constitute risks to human health and the surrounding environment. While proper waste management procedures can lower this risk, prevention of the waste`s generation will eliminate the risk. For this reason, the United States has established pollution prevention as a national objective, through the passage of its Pollution Prevention Act of 1990. Pollution prevention involves a wide range of approaches, all with the same objective: to reduce or eliminate the creation of waste at its source in other words, within the process that generates it. This objective, so beneficial to the environment, also coincides with industrial economic interests. Pollution prevention measures and greater process efficiency go hand in hand, and typically result in lower operating costs as well as greatly reduced waste management expenses. The US Environmental Protection Agency defines pollution prevention as the maximum feasible reduction of all wastes generated at production sites. This objective is accomplished largely through source reduction and reuse of input materials during production.

  11. Sources and management of urban stormwater pollution in rural catchments, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Bakri, Dhia; Rahman, Sadequr; Bowling, Lee

    2008-07-01

    SummaryThis paper assesses the impact and quantifies the relative contribution of stormwater runoff (diffuse pollution sources) and point pollution sources on the quality of receiving water in the urban catchment of Orange. The study results were employed to develop management strategies to control stormwater pollution at the catchment level. The Orange urban catchment has experienced moderate to high levels of pollution in terms of nutrients (P and N), suspended solids (SS), heavy metals, fecal coliforms, and, to a lesser extent, salinity (TDS). Treated sewage effluent (point source) contributed, on average, 5% SS, 29% total nitrogen (TN) and 41% total phosphorous (TP). The nutrient yield per unit area was 2-31-folds higher than those reported for other Australian urban catchments. The overall contribution of the urban sources accounted for 93% and 94% of the TP and TN mass loads, respectively. In contrast, stormwater pollution in coastal urban catchments, that have similar population and land use, is dominated by rural diffuse sources contributing 81-99% of nutrient mass loads. This striking difference is attributed largely to the position of the catchment with respect to the hydrological system. Orange urban catchment is situated at the headwater of its river system and as such rural runoff into the urban part of the catchment was limited. The coastal catchments, on the other hand, are located at the end of their river systems and thus rural inflow into the urban area is substantially higher than those in upland catchments. This comparative assessment may suggest that the relative impact, per capita , of urban stormwater pollution on the receiving water is more significant in the upland catchments than in the coastal catchments. A stormwater management plan (SMP), consisting of structural and non-structural strategies, was developed to control stormwater pollution and enhance the quality of receiving water.

  12. 33 CFR 151.1515 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR part 160. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water management... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS...

  13. 33 CFR 151.1515 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 160. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water management... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS...

  14. 33 CFR 151.1515 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 160. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water management... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS...

  15. Salmonellae as an Index of Pollution of Surface Waters

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, William B.; Hanks, John B.; Thomason, Berenice M.; Murlin, Alma M.; Biddle, James W.; Croom, John M.

    1972-01-01

    Screening enrichments of surface water specimens by means of a polyvalent fluorescent antibody reagent for the salmonellae yielded approximately 60% more positive specimens than was obtained by cultural procedures. It is not known what fraction of the excess of fluorescent antibody-positive over culturally positive specimens represents staining of non-salmonellae or non-arizonae as opposed to the staining of non-cultivatable organisms of these two genera. Cotton gauze and rayon-polypropylene fiber swabs were equally sensitive for collecting salmonellae from the streams examined. Tetrathionate enrichment incubated at 41.5 C appeared to be superior to selenite-cystine for isolation of salmonellae from surface waters. Twenty-eight serotypes of Salmonella and two serotypes of Arizona were identified in the 121 positive specimens. In water rated moderately polluted, 65% of all specimens tested were positive; in minimally polluted waters, 38% were positive; and in unpolluted streams, 44% were positive. PMID:4562473

  16. Identification, distribution, and toxigenicity of obligate anaerobes in polluted waters.

    PubMed Central

    Daily, O P; Joseph, S W; Gillmore, J D; Colwell, R R; Seidler, R J

    1981-01-01

    A seasonal occurrence of obligately anaerobic bacteria, predominantly of the genera Bacteroides and Clostridium, in a polluted water site has been observed. The number of anaerobes varied from 1.8 X 10(3) cells/ml in the warmer months to 10 cells/ml in winter. Several isolates were toxigenic, indicating a potential human health hazard. PMID:7235706

  17. Introduction to Instrumental Analysis of Water Pollutants. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This course is designed for those requiring an introduction to instruments commonly used in water pollution analyses. Examples are: pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen meters, spectrophotometers, turbidimeters, carbon analyzer, and gas chromatographs. Students should have a basic knowledge of analytical chemistry. (CO)

  18. Water Pollution, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, George G.

    Analyzed are the reasons why present mechanisms for the control of water purity are inadequate. The control of waterborne epidemics is discussed to illustrate a problem which has been solved, then degradation of the environment is presented as an unsolved problem. Case histories are given of pollution and attempts at control in rivers, lakes,…

  19. Retrofit conserves energy at a water pollution control facility

    SciTech Connect

    Haimes, A.S.; Dedyo, J.

    1980-01-01

    A major retrofit of process structures and incorporation of additional mechanical equipment was undertaken to replace the existing chemical phosphorus removal process with a biological phosphorus removal process. The new process will reduce energy use up to 81% and lime use up to 86% at the Amherst, New York water pollution control facility.

  20. The Role of Monitoring in Controlling Water Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, Allan

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of trends in the national water pollution control effort and to describe the role of monitoring in that effort, particularly in relation to the responsibilities of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). I hope the paper will serve as a useful framework for the more specific discussions of monitoring technology to follow.

  1. Conceptualizing and communicating management effects on forest water quality.

    PubMed

    Futter, Martyn N; Högbom, Lars; Valinia, Salar; Sponseller, Ryan A; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2016-02-01

    We present a framework for evaluating and communicating effects of human activity on water quality in managed forests. The framework is based on the following processes: atmospheric deposition, weathering, accumulation, recirculation and flux. Impairments to water quality are characterized in terms of their extent, longevity and frequency. Impacts are communicated using a "traffic lights" metaphor for characterizing severity of water quality impairments arising from forestry and other anthropogenic pressures. The most serious impairments to water quality in managed boreal forests include (i) forestry activities causing excessive sediment mobilization and extirpation of aquatic species and (ii) other anthropogenic pressures caused by long-range transport of mercury and acidifying pollutants. The framework and tool presented here can help evaluate, summarize and communicate the most important issues in circumstances where land management and other anthropogenic pressures combine to impair water quality and may also assist in implementing the "polluter pays" principle. PMID:26744053

  2. Health hazards associated with windsurfing on polluted water

    SciTech Connect

    Dewailly, E.; Poirier, C.; Meyer, F.M.

    1986-06-01

    We documented the risks associated with windsurfing on sewage polluted water. Seventy-nine windsurfers and 41 controls were studied over a nine-day period for occurrence of symptoms of gastroenteritis, otitis, conjunctivitis, and skin infection. Relative risks were 2.9 for occurrence of one or more of these symptoms and 5.5 for symptoms of gastroenteritis. Relative risk increased with the reported number of falls into the water.

  3. New technological methods for protecting underground waters from agricultural pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavlyanov, Gani

    2015-04-01

    The agricultural production on the irrigated grounds can not carry on without mineral fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Especially it is shown in Uzbekistan, in cultivation of cotton. There is an increase in mineralization, rigidity, quantity of heavy metals, phenols and other pollutions in the cotton fields. Thus there is an exhaustion of stocks of fresh underground waters. In the year 2003 we were offered to create the ecological board to prevent pollution to get up to a level of subsoil waters in the top 30 centimeter layer of the ground. We carried out an accumulation and pollution processing. This layer possesses a high adsorbing ability for heavy metals, mineral oil, mineral fertilizers remnants, defoliants and pesticides. In order to remediate a biological pollution treatment processing should be take into account. The idea is consisted in the following. The adsorption properties of coal is all well-known that the Angren coal washing factories in Tashkent area have collected more than 10 million tons of the coal dust to mix with clays. We have picked up association of anaerobic microorganisms which, using for development, destroys nutrients of coal waste pollutions to a harmless content for people. Coal waste inoculation also are scattered by these microorganisms on the field before plowing. Deep (up to 30 cm) plowing brings them on depth from 5 up to 30 cm. Is created by a plough a layer with necessary protective properties. The norm of entering depends on the structure of ground and the intensity of pollutions. Laboratory experiments have shown that 50% of pollutions can be treated by the ecological board and are processed up to safe limit.

  4. Water pollution control in river basin by interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective programming

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, N.B.; Chen, H.W.; Shaw, D.G.; Yang, C.H.

    1997-12-01

    The potential conflict between protection of water quality and economic development by different uses of land within river basins is a common problem in regional planning. Many studies have applied multiobjective decision analysis under uncertainty to problems of this kind. This paper presents the interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming (IFIMOMIP) model to evaluate optimal strategies of wastewater treatment levels within a river system by considering the uncertainties in decision analysis. The interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming approach is illustrated in a case study for the evaluation of optimal wastewater treatment strategies for water pollution control in a river basin. In particular, it demonstrates how different types of uncertainty in a water pollution control system can be quantified and combined through the use of interval numbers and membership functions. The results indicate that such an approach is useful for handling system complexity and generating more flexible policies for water quality management in river basins.

  5. A simulation of water pollution model parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibler, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    A parameter estimation procedure for a water pollution transport model is elaborated. A two-dimensional instantaneous-release shear-diffusion model serves as representative of a simple transport process. Pollution concentration levels are arrived at via modeling of a remote-sensing system. The remote-sensed data are simulated by adding Gaussian noise to the concentration level values generated via the transport model. Model parameters are estimated from the simulated data using a least-squares batch processor. Resolution, sensor array size, and number and location of sensor readings can be found from the accuracies of the parameter estimates.

  6. Technical management techniques for identification and control of industrial safety and pollution hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R.; Dyer, M. K.; Hoard, E. G.; Little, D. G.; Taylor, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    Constructive recommendations are suggested for pollution problems from offshore energy resources industries on outer continental shelf. Technical management techniques for pollution identification and control offer possible applications to space engineering and management.

  7. MANAGING EXPOSURE TO INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS IN RESIDENTIAL AND OFFICE ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the factors to be considered in managing indoor air pollutants in residential and office environments to reduce occupant exposures. Techniques for managing indoor air pollution sources include: source elimination, substitution, modification, and pretreatment a...

  8. Improving Forecasts for Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugam, Sankar; Wood, Andy; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Schaake, John

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in seasonal to interannual hydroclimate predictions provide an opportunity for developing a proactive approach toward water management. This motivated a recent AGU Chapman Conference (see program details at http://chapman.agu.org/watermanagement/). Approximately 85 participants from the United States, Oceania, Asia, Europe, and South America presented and discussed the current state of successes, challenges, and opportunities in seasonal to interannual hydroclimate forecasts and water management, and a number of key messages emerged.

  9. Technology for Water Treatment (National Water Management)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

  10. Self-Propelled Micromotors for Cleaning Polluted Water

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We describe the use of catalytically self-propelled microjets (dubbed micromotors) for degrading organic pollutants in water via the Fenton oxidation process. The tubular micromotors are composed of rolled-up functional nanomembranes consisting of Fe/Pt bilayers. The micromotors contain double functionality within their architecture, i.e., the inner Pt for the self-propulsion and the outer Fe for the in situ generation of ferrous ions boosting the remediation of contaminated water.The degradation of organic pollutants takes place in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which acts as a reagent for the Fenton reaction and as main fuel to propel the micromotors. Factors influencing the efficiency of the Fenton oxidation process, including thickness of the Fe layer, pH, and concentration of hydrogen peroxide, are investigated. The ability of these catalytically self-propelled micromotors to improve intermixing in liquids results in the removal of organic pollutants ca. 12 times faster than when the Fenton oxidation process is carried out without catalytically active micromotors. The enhanced reaction–diffusion provided by micromotors has been theoretically modeled. The synergy between the internal and external functionalities of the micromotors, without the need of further functionalization, results into an enhanced degradation of nonbiodegradable and dangerous organic pollutants at small-scale environments and holds considerable promise for the remediation of contaminated water. PMID:24180623

  11. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... such safe water and such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in the...

  12. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... such safe water and such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in the...

  13. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... such safe water and such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in the...

  14. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... such safe water and such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in the...

  15. 33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ballast water management. 151.1518 Section 151.1518 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  16. 33 CFR 151.2035 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... approved ballast water management methods. 151.2035 Section 151.2035 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  17. 33 CFR 151.2035 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... approved ballast water management methods. 151.2035 Section 151.2035 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  18. 33 CFR 151.2035 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... approved ballast water management methods. 151.2035 Section 151.2035 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  19. 33 CFR 151.1512 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... approved ballast water management methods. 151.1512 Section 151.1512 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  20. 33 CFR 151.1512 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... approved ballast water management methods. 151.1512 Section 151.1512 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  1. 33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ballast water management. 151.1518 Section 151.1518 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  2. 33 CFR 151.2035 - What are the required ballast water management practices for my vessel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... water management practices for my vessel? 151.2035 Section 151.2035 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  3. 33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ballast water management. 151.1518 Section 151.1518 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  4. 33 CFR 151.1512 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... approved ballast water management methods. 151.1512 Section 151.1512 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  5. 33 CFR 151.1514 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ballast water management... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  6. 33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ballast water management. 151.1518 Section 151.1518 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  7. 33 CFR 151.2035 - What are the required ballast water management practices for my vessel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... water management practices for my vessel? 151.2035 Section 151.2035 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  8. 33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ballast water management. 151.1518 Section 151.1518 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  9. 33 CFR 151.1514 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water management... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control...

  10. Bacterial pollution of Messina coastal waters: a one year study.

    PubMed

    Caruso, G; Zaccone, R; Monticelli, L; Crisafi, E; Zampino, D

    2000-07-01

    A year's monitoring of faecal pollution of marine coastal waters surrounding Messina was carried out in 1996/97. The distribution of faecal coliforms was evaluated in 15 stations located along the Sicilian coastline, sampled monthly in coincidence of the two opposing current phases ("montante" and "scendente" currents) which characterise the Straits of Messina. The data obtained provided a complete picture of hygienic-sanitary conditions of the area and highlighted the presence of heavily polluted sites in correspondence with river outflows. Higher bacterial counts were associated with lower salinity values and higher ammonia concentrations; over an annual study, they occurred during the coldest months, showing the negative impact of continental water inputs on the bacteriological quality of coastal waters. PMID:10939045

  11. Global Gray Water Footprint and Water Pollution Levels Related to Anthropogenic Nitrogen Loads to Fresh Water.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2015-11-01

    This is the first global assessment of nitrogen-related water pollution in river basins with a specification of the pollution by economic sector, and by crop for the agricultural sector. At a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minute, we estimate anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loads to freshwater, calculate the resultant gray water footprints (GWFs), and relate the GWFs per river basin to runoff to calculate the N-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment. The accumulated global GWF related to anthropogenic N loads in the period 2002-2010 was 13×10(12) m3/y. China contributed about 45% to the global total. Three quarters of the GWF related to N loads came from diffuse sources (agriculture), 23% from domestic point sources and 2% from industrial point sources. Among the crops, production of cereals had the largest contribution to the N-related GWF (18%), followed by vegetables (15%) and oil crops (11%). The river basins with WPL>1 (where the N load exceeds the basin's assimilation capacity), cover about 17% of the global land area, contribute about 9% of the global river discharge, and provide residence to 48% of the global population. PMID:26440220

  12. Storm water pollutant removal performance of compost filter socks.

    PubMed

    Faucette, L B; Cardoso-Gendreau, F A; Codling, E; Sadeghi, A M; Pachepsky, Y A; Shelton, D R

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Menu of Best Management Practices (BMPs) listed compost filter socks (FS) as an approved BMP for controlling sediment in storm runoff on construction sites. The objectives of this study were to determine if FS with or without the addition of a flocculation agent to the FS system can significantly remove (i) suspended clay and silt particulates, (ii) ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)-N) and nitrate-nitrite nitrogen (NO(3)-N), (iii) fecal bacteria, (iv) heavy metals, and (v) petroleum hydrocarbons from storm water runoff. Five separate (I-V) 30-min simulated rainfall-runoff events were applied to soil chambers packed with Hartboro silt loam (fine-loamy, mixed, active, nonacid, mesic fluvaquentic Endoaquepts) or a 6-mm concrete veneer on a 10% slope, and all runoff was collected and analyzed for hydraulic flow rate, volume, pollutant concentrations, pollutant loads, and removal efficiencies. In corresponding experiments, runoff was analyzed for (i) size of sediment particles, (ii) NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N, (iii) total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli, (iv) Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, and (v) gasoline, diesel, and motor oil, respectively. Results showed that: (i) FS removed 65% and 66% of clay (<0.002 mm) and silt (0.002-0.05 mm), respectively; (ii) FS removed 17%, and 11% of NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N, respectively and when NitroLoxx was added to the FS, removal of NH(4)-N load increased to 27%; (iii) total coliform and E. coli removal efficiencies were 74 and 75%, respectively, however, when BactoLoxx was added, removal efficiency increased to 87 and 99% for TC and 89 and 99% for E. coli, respectively; (iv) FS removal efficiency for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn ranged from 37 to 72%, and, when MetalLoxx was added, removal efficiency ranged from 47 to 74%; and (v) FS removal efficiency for the three petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 43 to 99% and the addition of PetroLoxx increased motor oil and gasoline removal

  13. Experimental infrared measurements for hydrocarbon pollutant determination in subterranean waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay-Ekuakille, A.; Palamara, I.; Caratelli, D.; Morabito, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Subterranean waters are often polluted by industrial and anthropic effluents that are drained in subsoil. To prevent and control pollution, legislations of different developed countries require an online monitoring measurement, especially for detecting organic solvents (chlorinated and unchlorinated ones). Online measurements include both real-time and no real-time measurements. In general, it is difficult to implement real-time measurements in stricto sensu for online acquisitions on aqueous effluents since they need to be processed by a modeling. This research presents an experimental measurement system based on infrared (IR) spectroscopy for aqueous effluents containing hydrocarbons and capable of displaying excellent values of pollutant concentrations even in instable conditions; the system is able to detect pollutants either in laminar or turbulent flow. The results show the possibility of avoiding the use of "Pitot tube" that is employed to create a stagnation point in order to convert kinetic energy into potential one. This conversion allows the transformation of a turbulent flow in a laminar flow making easy measurement of pollutants included in an aqueous effluent. Obviously, "Pitot tube" is also used for other fluid effluents. The obtained results have been compared with those produced by means of sophisticated IR instrumentation for laboratory applications.

  14. Phenolic water pollutants in a Malaysian River basin.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, P; Nainggolan, H

    1991-10-01

    Phenolic chemicals with their very low taste and odour thresholds, high persistence and toxicity, are of growing concern as water pollutants. The compounds are known to exist in raw water as well as in treated water. The level of phenolic priority pollutants in water within the catchment area of the Linggi River Treatment Plant in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, which includes the Linggi river basin, was monitored. The 4-aminoantipyrin colourimetric method was used to determine total phenols whereas capillary column gas chromatography was used to determine the individual compounds. The results show that at most sampling stations, particularly those within the Seremban municipality, the level of phenols was found to exceed the recommended Malaysian standard of 2.0 μg/L(-1) for raw water. This is seen as the direct impact of industrial and urbanization of the area and clearly indicates the unhealthy state of the Linggi river. The results also indicate the need to improve the water quality if the river is going to be used as a source of raw water. PMID:24233958

  15. Water quality management and sustainability: the experience of Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project (LVEMP)??Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machiwa, Praxeda K.

    Human health and development are threatened in many parts of the world either from lack of water or poor water quality. Human development has partially contributed to water quality deterioration. In Tanzania, for instance, rapid population growth that caused expansion of agricultural activities, livestock keeping, deforestation, biomass burning and human settlement have exerted pressures within the Lake Victoria Basin. These developments have led to land degradation and increased levels of pollution mainly from non-point sources. The Governments of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda initiated the program of Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project, (LVEMP), in 1994 to rehabilitate the Lake Ecosystem through restoration and conservation of biodiversity in the lake as well as within the catchment. This paper presents the five years (1997-2002) experience of LVEMP in Tanzania on the issues of water quality; focusing on water pollution, water quality monitoring and LVEMP strategies to accomplish water quality management in the Lake Zone (Kagera, Mara and Mwanza regions). The findings show that non-point source pollution from agricultural practices; as well as unplanned urban settlements contribute more to siltation and eutrophication of the of Lake Victoria than that from point source pollution. Recommendations for water quality management and sustainability are presented.

  16. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of water pollution in different administrative zones of Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liping; Mei, Kun; Liu, Xingmei; Wu, Laosheng; Zhang, Minghua; Xu, Jianming; Wang, Fan

    2013-08-01

    Water quality degradation in river systems has caused great concerns all over the world. Identifying the spatial distribution and sources of water pollutants is the very first step for efficient water quality management. A set of water samples collected bimonthly at 12 monitoring sites in 2009 and 2010 were analyzed to determine the spatial distribution of critical parameters and to apportion the sources of pollutants in Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, near the East China Sea. The 12 monitoring sites were divided into three administrative zones of urban, suburban, and rural zones considering differences in land use and population density. Multivariate statistical methods [one-way analysis of variance, principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) methods] were used to investigate the spatial distribution of water quality and to apportion the pollution sources. Results showed that most water quality parameters had no significant difference between the urban and suburban zones, whereas these two zones showed worse water quality than the rural zone. Based on PCA and APCS-MLR analysis, urban domestic sewage and commercial/service pollution, suburban domestic sewage along with fluorine point source pollution, and agricultural nonpoint source pollution with rural domestic sewage pollution were identified to the main pollution sources in urban, suburban, and rural zones, respectively. Understanding the water pollution characteristics of different administrative zones could put insights into effective water management policy-making especially in the area across various administrative zones. PMID:23404042

  17. Models of Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Surface Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okome, Gloria Eloho

    There is the need to answer very crucial questions of "what happens to pollutants in surface waters?" This question must be answered to determine the factors controlling fate and transport of chemicals and their evolutionary state in surface waters. Monitoring and experimental methods are used in establishing the environmental states. These measurements are used with the known scientific principles to identify processes and to estimate the future environmental conditions. Conceptual and computational models are needed to analyze environmental processes by applying the knowledge gained from experimentation and theory. Usually, a computational framework includes the mathematics and the physics of the phenomenon, and the measured characteristics to model pollutants interactions and transport in surface water. However, under certain conditions, the complexity of the situation in the actual environment precludes the utilization of these techniques. Pollutants in several forms: Nitrogen (Nitrate, Nitrite, Kjeldhal Nitrogen and Ammonia), Phosphorus (orthophosphate and total phosphorus), bacteria (E-coli and Fecal coliform), Salts (Chloride and Sulfate) are chosen to follow for this research. The objective of this research is to model the fate and transport of these pollutants in non-ideal conditions of surface water measurements and to develop computational methods to forecast their fate and transport. In an environment of extreme drought such as in the Brazos River basin, where small streams flow intermittently, there is added complexity due to the absence of regularly sampled data. The usual modeling techniques are no longer applicable because of sparse measurements in space and time. Still, there is a need to estimate the conditions of the environment from the information that is present. Alternative methods for this estimation must be devised and applied to this situation, which is the task of this dissertation. This research devices a forecasting technique that is

  18. Managing agricultural phosphorus for water quality protection: principles for progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The eutrophication of aquatic systems due to diffuse pollution of agricultural phosphorus (P) is a local, even regional, water quality problem that can be found world-wide. Sustainable management of P requires prudent tempering of agronomic practices, recognizing that additional steps are often requ...

  19. Estimation of contribution ratios of pollutant sources to a specific section based on an enhanced water quality model.

    PubMed

    Cao, Bibo; Li, Chuan; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Yue; Sha, Jian; Wang, Yuqiu

    2015-05-01

    Because water quality monitoring sections or sites could reflect the water quality status of rivers, surface water quality management based on water quality monitoring sections or sites would be effective. For the purpose of improving water quality of rivers, quantifying the contribution ratios of pollutant resources to a specific section is necessary. Because physical and chemical processes of nutrient pollutants are complex in water bodies, it is difficult to quantitatively compute the contribution ratios. However, water quality models have proved to be effective tools to estimate surface water quality. In this project, an enhanced QUAL2Kw model with an added module was applied to the Xin'anjiang Watershed, to obtain water quality information along the river and to assess the contribution ratios of each pollutant source to a certain section (the Jiekou state-controlled section). Model validation indicated that the results were reliable. Then, contribution ratios were analyzed through the added module. Results show that among the pollutant sources, the Lianjiang tributary contributes the largest part of total nitrogen (50.43%), total phosphorus (45.60%), ammonia nitrogen (32.90%), nitrate (nitrite + nitrate) nitrogen (47.73%), and organic nitrogen (37.87%). Furthermore, contribution ratios in different reaches varied along the river. Compared with pollutant loads ratios of different sources in the watershed, an analysis of contribution ratios of pollutant sources for each specific section, which takes the localized chemical and physical processes into consideration, was more suitable for local-regional water quality management. In summary, this method of analyzing the contribution ratios of pollutant sources to a specific section based on the QUAL2Kw model was found to support the improvement of the local environment. PMID:25779107

  20. Urban surface water pollution problems arising from misconnections.

    PubMed

    Revitt, D Michael; Ellis, J Bryan

    2016-05-01

    The impacts of misconnections on the organic and nutrient loadings to surface waters are assessed using specific household appliance data for two urban sub-catchments located in the London metropolitan region and the city of Swansea. Potential loadings of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), soluble reactive phosphorus (PO4-P) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N) due to misconnections are calculated for three different scenarios based on the measured daily flows from specific appliances and either measured daily pollutant concentrations or average pollutant concentrations for relevant greywater and black water sources obtained from an extensive review of the literature. Downstream receiving water concentrations, together with the associated uncertainties, are predicted from derived misconnection discharge concentrations and compared to existing freshwater standards for comparable river types. Consideration of dilution ratios indicates that these would need to be of the order of 50-100:1 to maintain high water quality with respect to BOD and NH4-N following typical misconnection discharges but only poor quality for PO4-P is likely to be achievable. The main pollutant loading contributions to misconnections arise from toilets (NH4-N and BOD), kitchen sinks (BOD and PO4-P) washing machines (PO4-P and BOD) and, to a lesser extent, dishwashers (PO4-P). By completely eliminating toilet misconnections and ensuring misconnections from all other appliances do not exceed 2%, the potential pollution problems due to BOD and NH4-N discharges would be alleviated but this would not be the case for PO4-P. In the event of a treatment option being preferred to solve the misconnection problem, it is shown that for an area the size of metropolitan Greater London, a sewage treatment plant with a Population Equivalent value approaching 900,000 would be required to efficiently remove BOD and NH4-N to safely dischargeable levels but such a plant is unlikely to have the capacity to deal

  1. Diffuse pollution of soil and water: Long term trends at large scales?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grathwohl, P.

    2012-04-01

    Industrialization and urbanization, which consequently increased pressure on the environment to cause degradation of soil and water quality over more than a century, is still ongoing. The number of potential environmental contaminants detected in surface and groundwater is continuously increasing; from classical industrial and agricultural chemicals, to flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. While point sources of pollution can be managed in principle, diffuse pollution is only reversible at very long time scales if at all. Compounds which were phased out many decades ago such as PCBs or DDT are still abundant in soils, sediments and biota. How diffuse pollution is processed at large scales in space (e.g. catchments) and time (centuries) is unknown. The relevance to the field of processes well investigated at the laboratory scale (e.g. sorption/desorption and (bio)degradation kinetics) is not clear. Transport of compounds is often coupled to the water cycle and in order to assess trends in diffuse pollution, detailed knowledge about the hydrology and the solute fluxes at the catchment scale is required (e.g. input/output fluxes, transformation rates at the field scale). This is also a prerequisite in assessing management options for reversal of adverse trends.

  2. Study of Water Pollution Early Warning Framework Based on Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chengfang, H.; Xiao, X.; Dingtao, S.; Bo, C.; Xiongfei, W.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, with the increasing world environmental pollution happening, sudden water pollution incident has become more and more frequently in China. It has posed a serious threat to water safety of the people living in the water source area. Conventional water pollution monitoring method is manual periodic testing, it maybe miss the best time to find that pollution incident. This paper proposes a water pollution warning framework to change this state. On the basis of the Internet of things, we uses automatic water quality monitoring technology to realize monitoring. We calculate the monitoring data with water pollution model to judge whether the water pollution incident is happen or not. Water pollution warning framework is divided into three layers: terminal as the sensing layer, it with the deployment of the automatic water quality pollution monitoring sensor. The middle layer is the transfer network layer, data information implementation is based on GPRS wireless network transmission. The upper one is the application layer. With these application systems, early warning information of water pollution will realize the high-speed transmission between grassroots units and superior units. The paper finally gives an example that applying this pollution warning framework to water quality monitoring of Beijing, China, it greatly improves the speed of the pollution warning responding of Beijing.

  3. 40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State shall provide legal...

  4. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  5. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  6. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  7. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  8. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... Violating Facilities” published pursuant to 40 CFR 15.20. By acceptance of a cooperative agreement in...

  9. 40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State shall provide legal...

  10. 14 CFR § 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Â...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... Violating Facilities” published pursuant to 40 CFR 15.20. By acceptance of a cooperative agreement in...

  11. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274... AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative agreement or...

  12. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... Violating Facilities” published pursuant to 40 CFR 15.20. By acceptance of a cooperative agreement in...

  13. 40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State shall provide legal...

  14. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  15. 40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State shall provide legal...

  16. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment: Foundation of pollution prevention for waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Damewood, R.W.

    1994-03-24

    The objective of this paper is to promote the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) technique as a fundamental of pollution prevention for waste management. All key elements of an effective PPOA program are presented. These key elements include impacts of environmental laws on pollution prevention, PPOA concepts and overview, waste minimization opportunities assessment, reporting and monitoring waste minimization progress, and PPOA program implementation. As environmental laws evolve the focus is shifting from end-of-pipe pollution control to front-end source reduction. Waste minimization was mistakenly interpreted to mean the reduction of hazardous waste after generation in the past. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 has clearly defined its requirement on resource reduction. Waste reduction can be viewed as a criterion to assess all industrial processes and operations. The fundamental approach of PPOA focuses on a mass balance concept. This concept deals with tracking of chemicals from the point of purchase, through storage, utilization in the process, and waste generation at the end of process. In other words, PPOA is a technique to analyze this input/output process. By applying PPOA techniques, the framework of applicable compliance requirements to the current operation process is established. Furthermore, documentation of PPOA itself can meet as documentation requirements for environmental compliance. In general, the PPOA process consists of two phases. The first phase involves input and output process description and waste characterization. The second phase is an opportunities assessment for waste minimization from input/output waste characterization. These two phases are explained in detail in the paper.

  17. Modelling Regional Hotspots of Water Pollution Induced by Salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malsy, M.; Floerke, M.

    2014-12-01

    Insufficient water quality is one of the main global topics causing risk to human health, biodiversity, and food security. At this, salinization of water and land resources is widely spread especially in arid to semi-arid climates, where salinization, often induced by irrigation agriculture, is a fundamental aspect of land degradation. High salinity is crucial to water use for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes, and therefore poses a risk to human health and ecosystem status. However, salinization is also an economic problem, in particular in those regions where agriculture makes a significant contribution to the economy and/or where agriculture is mainly based on irrigation. Agricultural production is exposed to high salinity of irrigation water resulting in lower yields. Hence, not only the quantity of irrigation water is of importance for growing cops but also its quality, which may further reduce the available resources. Thereby a major concern for food production and security persists, as irrigated agriculture accounts for over 30% of the total agricultural production. In this study, the large scale water quality model WorldQual was applied to simulate recent total dissolved solids (TDS) loadings and in-stream concentrations from point and diffuse sources to get an insight on potential environmental impacts as well as risks to food security. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries, as these are most threatened by water pollution. Furthermore, insufficient water quality for irrigation and therefore restrictions in irrigation water use were examined, indicating limitations to crop production. For this purpose, model simulations were conducted for the year 2010 to show the recent status of surface water quality and to identify hotspots and main causes of pollution. Our results show that salinity hotspots mainly occur in peak irrigation regions as irrigated agriculture is by far the dominant sector contributing to water abstractions as

  18. Pollution prevention and water conservation in metals finishing operations

    SciTech Connect

    O`Shaughnessy, J.; Clark, W.; Lizotte, R.P. Jr.; Mikutel, D.

    1996-11-01

    Attleboro, Massachusetts is the headquarters of the Materials and Controls Group of Texas Instruments Incorporated (Texas Instruments). In support of their activities, Texas Instruments operates a number of metal finishing and electroplating processes. The water supply and the wastewater treatment requirements are supplied throughout the facility from a central location. Water supply quality requirements varies with each manufacturing operation. As a result, manufacturing operations are classified as either high level or a lower water quality. The facility has two methods of wastewater treatment and disposal. The first method involves hydroxide and sulfide metals precipitation prior to discharge to a surface water. The second method involves metals precipitation, filtration, and discharge via sewer to the Attleboro WTF. The facility is limited to a maximum wastewater discharge of 460,000 gallons per day to surface water under the existing National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. There is also a hydraulic flow restriction on pretreated wastewater that is discharged to the Attleboro WTF. Both of these restrictions combined with increased production could cause the facility to reach the treatment capacity. The net effect is that wastewater discharge problems are becoming restrictive to the company`s growth. This paper reviews Texas Instruments efforts to overcome these restrictions through pollution prevention and reuse practices rather than expansion of end of pipe treatment methods.

  19. The impact of land use on microbial surface water pollution.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Christiane; Rechenburg, Andrea; Rind, Esther; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Our knowledge relating to water contamination from point and diffuse sources has increased in recent years and there have been many studies undertaken focusing on effluent from sewage plants or combined sewer overflows. However, there is still only a limited amount of microbial data on non-point sources leading to diffuse pollution of surface waters. In this study, the concentrations of several indicator micro-organisms and pathogens in the upper reaches of a river system were examined over a period of 16 months. In addition to bacteria, diffuse pollution caused by Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. was analysed. A single land use type predestined to cause high concentrations of all microbial parameters could not be identified. The influence of different land use types varies between microbial species. The microbial concentration in river water cannot be explained by stable non-point effluent concentrations from different land use types. There is variation in the ranking of the potential of different land use types resulting in surface water contamination with regard to minimum, median and maximum effects. These differences between median and maximum impact indicate that small-scale events like spreading manure substantially influence the general contamination potential of a land use type and may cause increasing micro-organism concentrations in the river water by mobilisation during the next rainfall event. PMID:25456147

  20. Classification of river water pollution using Hyperion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Soumyashree; Rathore, V. S.; Champati ray, P. K.; Sharma, Richa; Swain, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    A novel attempt is made to use hyperspectral remote sensing to identify the spatial variability of metal pollutants present in river water. It was also attempted to classify the hyperspectral image - Earth Observation-1 (EO-1) Hyperion data of an 8 km stretch of the river Yamuna, near Allahabad city in India depending on its chemical composition. For validating image analysis results, a total of 10 water samples were collected and chemically analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Two different spectral libraries from field and image data were generated for the 10 sample locations. Advanced per-pixel supervised classifications such as Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), SAM target finder using BandMax and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were carried out along with the unsupervised clustering procedure - Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Technique (ISODATA). The results were compared and assessed with respect to ground data. Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD), Inc. spectroradiometer, FieldSpec 4 was used to generate the spectra of the water samples which were compiled into a spectral library and used for Spectral Absorption Depth (SAD) analysis. The spectral depth pattern of image and field spectral libraries was found to be highly correlated (correlation coefficient, R2 = 0.99) which validated the image analysis results with respect to the ground data. Further, we carried out a multivariate regression analysis to assess the varying concentrations of metal ions present in water based on the spectral depth of the corresponding absorption feature. Spectral Absorption Depth (SAD) analysis along with metal analysis of field data revealed the order in which the metals affected the river pollution, which was in conformity with the findings of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). Therefore, it is concluded that hyperspectral imaging provides opportunity that can be used for satellite based remote monitoring of water quality from

  1. Spatial and temporal variability of surface water pollution in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Wilbers, Gert-Jan; Becker, Mathias; Nga, La Thi; Sebesvari, Zita; Renaud, Fabrice G

    2014-07-01

    Surface water pollution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (MD) could threaten human, animal and ecosystem health given the fact that this water source is intensively used for drinking, irrigation and domestic services. We therefore determined the levels of pollution by organic pollutants, salts, metals and microbial indicators by (bi)monthly monitoring of canals between November 2011 and July 2012 at 32 sampling locations, representing fresh and saline/brackish environments. The results were compared with national water quality guidelines, between the studied regions and with water quality data from main waterways. Key factors explaining the observed levels of pollution in surface water were identified through principal component analysis (PCA). Temporal variations due to tidal regime and seasonality were also assessed. Based on regression models, the spatial variability of five water quality parameters was visualized using GIS based maps. Results indicate that pH (max. 8.6), turbidity (max. 461 FTU), maximum concentrations of ammonium (14.7 mg L(-1)), arsenic (44.1 μg L(-1)), barium (157.5 μg L(-1)), chromium (84.7 μg L(-1)), mercury (45.5 μg L(-1)), manganese (1659.7 μg L(-1)), aluminum (14.5 mg L(-1)), iron (17.0 mg L(-1)) and the number of Escherichia coli (87,000 CFU 100 mL(-1)) and total coliforms (2,500,000 CFU 100 mL(-1)) in canals exceed the thresholds set by Vietnamese quality guidelines for drinking and domestic purposes. The PCA showed that i) urbanization; ii) metal leaching from soils; iii) aquaculture; and iv) tidal regime explain 85% of the variance of surface water quality attributes. Significant differences in water quality were found due to daily tidal regime and as a result of seasonality. Surface water quality maps for dissolved oxygen, ammonium, ortho-phosphate, manganese and total coliforms were developed to highlight hot-spot areas of pollution. The results of this study can assist policy makers in developing water management strategies

  2. [Water pollution and health risks at Yaoundé, Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Youmbi, Jean Ghislain Tabué; Feumba, Roger; Njitat, Valérie Tsama; de Marsily, Ghislain; Ekodeck, Georges Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article consists of developing an ecosystemic approach to collect information about groundwater pollution in order to determine its origin and infer the health risks in Mingoa's watershed through the study of 12 spontaneous settlements. From an environmental point of view, family interviews and direct observations allowed us to inventory springs, wells and latrines, and to collect information. So, we have selected, on the basis of predefined criteria, 21 wells and springs for physico-chemical and bacteriological laboratory analyses. Two hundred children aged less than 5 years were subjected to KOAP examination. A number of 1224 latrines were inventoried, for an average use of 15 people per latrine, producing 913.3 kg/year of excreta. Most of 91% of people use these latrines. The superficial aquifers, connected to the wells and springs, present high values of nitrogen, phosphorous pollutant and fecal contamination indicators (coliforms and fecal streptococcus), which make water inappropriate to human consumption. PCA analysis establishes that water pollution comes mainly from traditional pit latrines. The overall prevalence of diarrhea and parasite infestation was important (=40%). The presence of cysts of Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris limbricoides, and Entamoeba coli confirms this high prevalence and testify to very approximate hygiene and environment conditions. PMID:23916209

  3. Total Water Management: A Watershed Based Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this urbanizing world, municipal water managers need to develop planning and management frameworks to meet challenges such as limiting fresh water supplies, degrading receiving waters, increasing regulatory requirements, flooding, aging infrastructure, rising utility (energy) ...

  4. SD-GIS-based temporal-spatial simulation of water quality in sudden water pollution accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Qin, Yu; Huang, Mingxiang; Sun, Qiang; Li, Shun; Wang, Liqiang; Yu, Chaohui

    2011-07-01

    System dynamics (SD) is well suited for studying dynamic nonlinear complex systems. In this paper, SD is applied to a rapid-onset water pollution accident using a 1-D water quality model and a conceptual GIS-SD framework is constructed to simulate the temporal-spatial changes of pollutant concentration. Based on the component GIS and the SD model, a prototype system of water quality simulation in water pollution accidents is developed. The data collected on the spot in the Songhua River water pollution accident in November 2005 were used for model parameter calibration and model validation. The results showed that: (1) the constructed model could simulate the changes of nitrobenzene concentration with time in the Songhua River water pollution accident, especially during the peak concentration and at the arrival time of peak concentration, and that the simulated values and the on-the-spot monitored values corresponded with each other well; (2) the scenario simulation could be made by adjusting parameters u (longitudinal current velocity), E (longitudinal diffusion coefficient), and k (decay rate coefficient). Such a model can provide decision makers with quantitative information to optimize related emergency response measures.

  5. Investigating the effects of point source and nonpoint source pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang) in South China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the physical processes of point source (PS) and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is critical to evaluate river water quality and identify major pollutant sources in a watershed. In this study, we used the physically-based hydrological/water quality model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool, to investigate the influence of PS and NPS pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang in Chinese) in southern China. Our results indicate that NPS pollution was the dominant contribution (>94%) to nutrient loads except for mineral phosphorus (50%). A comprehensive Water Quality Index (WQI) computed using eight key water quality variables demonstrates that water quality is better upstream than downstream despite the higher level of ammonium nitrogen found in upstream waters. Also, the temporal (seasonal) and spatial distributions of nutrient loads clearly indicate the critical time period (from late dry season to early wet season) and pollution source areas within the basin (middle and downstream agricultural lands), which resource managers can use to accomplish substantial reduction of NPS pollutant loadings. Overall, this study helps our understanding of the relationship between human activities and pollutant loads and further contributes to decision support for local watershed managers to protect water quality in this region. In particular, the methods presented such as integrating WQI with watershed modeling and identifying the critical time period and pollutions source areas can be valuable for other researchers worldwide.

  6. Identification and spatial patterns of coastal water pollution sources based on GIS and chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feng; Guo, Huai-Cheng; Liu, Yong; Hao, Ze-Jia

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive and joint applications of GIS and chemometric approach were applied in identification and spatial patterns of coastal water pollution sources with a large data set (5 years (2000-2004), 17 parameters) obtained through coastal water monitoring of Southern Water Control Zone in Hong Kong. According to cluster analysis the pollution degree was significantly different between September-next May (the 1st period) and June-August (the 2nd period). Based on these results, four potential pollution sources, such as organic/eutrophication pollution, natural pollution, mineral/anthropic pollution and fecal pollution were identified by factor analysis/principal component analysis. Then the factor scores of each monitoring site were analyzed using inverse distance weighting method, and the results indicated degree of the influence by various potential pollution sources differed among the monitoring sites. This study indicated that hybrid approach was useful and effective for identification of coastal water pollution source and spatial patterns. PMID:17966867

  7. Effects of long term irrigation with polluted water and sludge amendment on some soil enzyme activities

    SciTech Connect

    Topac, F.O.; Baskaya, H.S.; Alkan, U.; Katkat, A.V.

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of wastewater sludge-fly ash mixtures on urease, dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and beta-glucosidase activities in soils. In order to evaluate the probable effects of previous soil management practices (irrigation with polluted water) on soil enzymes, two different soil samples which were similar in physical properties, but different in irrigation practice were used. The application of wastewater sludges supplemented with varying doses of fly ash increased potential enzyme activities for a short period of time (3 months) in comparison to unamended soils. However, the activity levels generally showed a decreasing trend with increasing ash ratios indicating the inhibitory effect of fly ash. The urease and dehydrogenase activities were particularly lower in soils irrigated from a polluted stream, indicating the negative effects of the previous soil management on soil microbial activity.

  8. Fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identification, evaluation and characterization of fecal contamination in receiving urban surface waters and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2015-12-15

    The quality of surface waters/groundwater of a geographical region can be affected by anthropogenic activities, land use patterns and fecal pollution sources from humans and animals. Therefore, the development of an efficient fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identifying the origin of the fecal pollution sources in surface waters/groundwater is especially helpful for improving management efforts and remediation actions of water resources in a more cost-effective and efficient manner. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the use of fecal pollution source tracking markers for detecting, evaluating and characterizing fecal pollution sources in receiving surface waters and groundwater. The suitability of using chemical markers (i.e. fecal sterols, fluorescent whitening agents, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and artificial sweeteners) and/or microbial markers (e.g. F+RNA coliphages, enteric viruses, and host-specific anaerobic bacterial 16S rDNA genetic markers) for tracking fecal pollution sources in receiving water bodies is discussed. In addition, this review also provides a comprehensive approach, which is based on the detection ratios (DR), detection frequencies (DF), and fate of potential microbial and chemical markers. DR and DF are considered as the key criteria for selecting appropriate markers for identifying and evaluating the impacts of fecal contamination in surface waters/groundwater. PMID:26298247

  9. Pecos River Water Management Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J. D.; James, S. C.

    2003-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is providing technical assistance to farmer members of the Carlsbad Irrigation District (CID) to better plan the storage, delivery, and application of water to the Carlsbad Project. The surface waters along the Pecos River are allocated by the State of New Mexico to three major entities: 1) The State of Texas - each year a percentage of water from the natural river flow must be delivered to Texas as governed by the Interstate Streams Commission; 2) CID farmer members - a fixed portion of water must be delivered to the farming members of the CID; and 3) wildlife - an amount of water must be allocated to support the wildlife habitat in the Pecos River, most notably, the endangered Pecos Bluntnose Shiner Minnow. The Pecos Bluntnose Shiner Minnow habitat preference is under investigation by other state and national agencies and preliminary work has established that water depth, water velocity, and sediment activity (dunes, ripples, etc.) are the key parameters influencing minnow habitat preference. The amount of water (river flow rate) necessary to maintain a preferable habitat to support this species has yet to be determined. With a limited amount of water in the Pecos River and its reservoirs, it is critical to allocate water efficiently such that habitat is maintained, the farmers of the CID are supported, and New Mexico meets its commitments to the State of Texas. This study investigates the relationship between flow rate in the river and water depth, water velocity, and sediment activity. The goal is to establish a predictive tool that supports informed decisions about water management practices along the Pecos River that will maximize water available for agriculture and the State of Texas while maintaining the aquatic habitat.

  10. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A.; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A.

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt. PMID:26798844

  11. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt. PMID:26798844

  12. Effect of soil pollution on water for mixing of concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, M. Cecilia Soto; Tapia Alvarez, Carolina; Decinti Weiss, Alejandra; Zamorano Vargas, Macarena; Corail Sanchez, Camila; Hurtado Nuñez, Camilo; Guzman Hermosilla, Matías; Pardo Fabregat, Francisco; Vidal, Manuel Miguel Jordan; Borras, Jaume Bech; Roca, Nuria

    2016-04-01

    ISO 12439, in addition to chemical and physical requirements, establishes maximum levels for harmful substances that may be present in the mixing water of concrete, when they come from natural sources from contaminated soils. These harmful substances considered in the ISO are sugars, phosphates (P2O5), nitrate (NO3-), lead (P2+) and zinc (Zn2+). As an alternative to the maximum values, ISO verifies the effect of these substances in water from contaminated soils. This measurement is made on the effect on the mechanical strength of the concrete (compression at 7 and 28 days) and the setting times (start and end setting). This paper presents the results obtained on samples of concrete made with smaller, similar and more content to the maximum levels set by ISO 12439 are presented. The results establish that in the case of nitrate, a substance present in many contaminated soils margins resistance variation or setting times allowed by ISO 12439 are not met. Finally, it is concluded that in case of presence of these pollutants should be performed strength tests and setting times before authorizing the use of water. Keywords: Harmful substances, contaminated soils, water pollution.

  13. In Hot Water: Thermoelectric Power and Thermal Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, N. T.

    2010-12-01

    The use of surface water for thermoelectric power plant cooling significantly impacts river water temperatures, posing risks to aquatic ecosystems. In addition, surface water temperatures in summer can exceed limits for power plant compliance with thermal effluent limitations, jeopardizing energy security during periods of peak power demand. For example, Brown's Ferry Nuclear Plant in Alabama curtailed power production by 50% for over 40 days in July-August of 2010 when river temperatures exceeded 90°F. Future increases in surface water temperatures due to climate change may further endanger energy security. This study examines summer intake and outflow water temperature data reported by power plants during peak production months across the United States to determine the impact of thermoelectric power plants on surface water temperatures in the summer. Initial results indicate that U.S. coal plants (n= 625) raised water temperatures by an average of 17°F (± 12°F) and discharged cooling water with median peak temperatures of 100°F (± 13°F) in the summer of 2005, the last year when this data was reliably reported. Further analysis will extend the time period of this study from 2000-2005 and expand the scope to various energy sources and cooling technologies. In addition, we explore regional variation to assess the relative threat that thermal pollution poses to energy security across the U.S.

  14. Management of the water balance and quality in mining areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasanen, Antti; Krogerus, Kirsti; Mroueh, Ulla-Maija; Turunen, Kaisa; Backnäs, Soile; Vento, Tiia; Veijalainen, Noora; Hentinen, Kimmo; Korkealaakso, Juhani

    2015-04-01

    Although mining companies have long been conscious of water related risks they still face environmental management problems. These problems mainly emerge because mine sites' water balances have not been adequately assessed in the stage of the planning of mines. More consistent approach is required to help mining companies identify risks and opportunities related to the management of water resources in all stages of mining. This approach requires that the water cycle of a mine site is interconnected with the general hydrologic water cycle. In addition to knowledge on hydrological conditions, the control of the water balance in the mining processes require knowledge of mining processes, the ability to adjust process parameters to variable hydrological conditions, adaptation of suitable water management tools and systems, systematic monitoring of amounts and quality of water, adequate capacity in water management infrastructure to handle the variable water flows, best practices to assess the dispersion, mixing and dilution of mine water and pollutant loading to receiving water bodies, and dewatering and separation of water from tailing and precipitates. WaterSmart project aims to improve the awareness of actual quantities of water, and water balances in mine areas to improve the forecasting and the management of the water volumes. The study is executed through hydrogeological and hydrological surveys and online monitoring procedures. One of the aims is to exploit on-line water quantity and quality monitoring for the better management of the water balances. The target is to develop a practical and end-user-specific on-line input and output procedures. The second objective is to develop mathematical models to calculate combined water balances including the surface, ground and process waters. WSFS, the Hydrological Modeling and Forecasting System of SYKE is being modified for mining areas. New modelling tools are developed on spreadsheet and system dynamics platforms to

  15. Managing water quality of River Yamuna in NCR Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Rahul; Dasgupta, Niladri; Hasan, Aziz; Upadhyay, S. K.

    River Yamuna is a typical example of degraded lotic ecosystem which has been turns into a sewage drain in Delhi National capital region due to anthropogenic pressure and aggravating pollution load. Delhi is alone responsible for 79% of the entire pollution load in the said river. The drain discharges exerting a massive BOD load of hundreds of tons per day into the river. The pollutants could not get diluted as the river has very little or no flow in non-monsoon months due to lack of indigenous water. Water quality index reveal that before entering Delhi, river water has the medium water quality, gets severely polluted in Delhi, shows very bad water quality which continues till Agra Canal. Improper location of STPs and mismatch between the available treatment capacities of STPs with the actual sewage generation results muddle up of “approx” 60% untreated wastewater into the River Yamuna. Implementation of sustainable management plan with already available facilities, proper sewerage planning and maintaining the minimum ecological flow will control the pollution in River Yamuna.

  16. Assessing the well water pollution problem by nitrates in the small scale farming systems of the Niayes region, Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamadou, S.; Vanclooster, M.

    2009-04-01

    Human activities exert many pressures on the quality of groundwater, and advanced assessment programmes are needed to design sustainable water management strategies. To contribute to this challenge, we assessed the nitrate pollution problem of groundwater wells in the small scale farming systems of the Niayes region in Senegal and explained this water pollution problem in terms of well characteristics and land use properties. A fast rural appraisal was performed in 2007 to collect basic back ground data of the small scale farming systems and well water was analysed in 131 wells for nitrate content, pH and electrical conductivity. For a subset of wells, soil analyses were made of the well environment for assessing the attenuation properties of the protecting soil. Cluster analysis was used to define a well typology, while principal component and multiple correspondence analysis was used to explain the nitrate pollution in terms of well characteristics and other physico-chemical properties of the wells, and land use. The study confirms that the wells are seriously affected by the nitrate pollution problem. Wells can be classified in three well classes, which are characterized by a geographical gradient. Nitrate pollution increases from north to south, while the salinity affects particularly the wells in the northern area of the region. The nitrate levels exceeding 50 ppm are more common in residential areas than in the horticultural fields. The results further show that, even if direct pollution problem of wells cannot be excluded, pollution from leaching out of the root zone of vegetable crops to the groundwater is likely. This is confirmed by the assessment of the farming activities in this area and this is consistent with the low attenuation properties of the soils characterizing this region. Considering the nitrate pollution threshold, we further distinguish very few non-polluting crops in this region, which calls for an urgent adoption of agriculture management

  17. Can mussels be used as sentinel organisms for characterization of pollution in urban water systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichwaldt, Elke S.; Ghadouani, Anas

    2016-07-01

    Urbanization strongly impacts aquatic ecosystems by decreasing water quality and altering water cycles. Today, much effort is put towards the restoration and conservation of urban waterbodies to enhance ecosystem service provision, leading to liveable and sustainable cities. To enable a sustainable management of waterbodies, the quantification of the temporal and spatial variability of pollution levels and biogeochemical processes is essential. Stable isotopes have widely been used to identify sources of pollution in ecosystems. For example, increased nitrogen levels in waterbodies are often accompanied with a higher nitrogen stable isotope signature (δ15N), which can then be detected in higher trophic levels such as mussels. The main aim of this study was to assess the suitability of nitrogen stable isotopes as measured in mussels (Mytilus edulis), as an indicator able to resolve spatial and temporal variability of nitrogen pollution in an urban, tidally influenced estuary (Swan River estuary in Western Australia). Nitrogen concentrations were generally low and nitrogen stable isotope values of nitrate throughout the estuary were well within natural values of uncontaminated groundwater, organic nitrate from soils, or marine-derived sources, indicating groundwater inflow rather than pollution by human activity was responsible for differences between sites. The δ15N signature in mussels was very stable over time within each site which indicated that mussels can be used as time-integrated sentinel organisms in urban systems. In addition, our study shows that the nature of the relationship between δ15N in the mussels and the nitrate in the water can provide insights into site-specific biogeochemical transformation of nutrients. We suggest that mussels and other sentinel organisms can become a robust tool for the detection and characterization of the dynamics of a number of emerging anthropogenic pollutants of concern in urban water systems.

  18. [Water quality forewarning model in the framework of water pollution forewarning DSS].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Jia, Hai-Feng

    2010-12-01

    In order to deal with the water pollution accident and take emergency measures effectively, water pollution forewarning decision support systems (DSS) is important to be established and water quality forewarning model is one of the hard points of DSS. Miyun Reservoir is the most important surface water sources of Beijing. Baihe River, which is the upstream river of Miyun Reservoir, is selected as the case study in this paper. The three-layer frame of the water pollution forewarning DSS is proposed with the core of mathematical model; then model development and parameterization are studied. Finally, a typical accident of NaCN pollution is taken for instance; the scenario of the accident is simulated and analyzed by DSS. The case study shows that the DSS could precisely analyze and forecast the pollution development trend, and simulate the different impact of emergency proposal. The result could support the primary decision of the emergency proposal to meet the functional requirement of the system. PMID:21360873

  19. Pollution: A Selected Bibliography of U.S. Government Publications on Air, Water, and Land Pollution 1965-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiraldi, Louis, Comp.; Burk, Janet L., Comp.

    Materials on environmental pollution published by the various offices of the federal government are presented in this select bibliography. Limited in scope to publications on air, water, and land pollution, the document is designed to serve teachers and researchers working in the field of environmental problems who wish reference to public…

  20. Questionable Specificity of Genetic Total Faecal Pollution Markers for Integrated Water Quality Monitoring and Source Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierheilig, Julia; Reischer, Georg H.; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

    2010-05-01

    Characterisation of microbial faecal hazards in water is a fundamental aspect for target-orientated water resources management to achieve appropriate water quality for various purposes like water supply or agriculture and thus to minimize related health risks. Nowadays the management of water resources increasingly demands detailed knowledge on the extent and the origin of microbial pollution. Cultivation of standard faecal indicator bacteria, which has been used for over a century to test the microbiological water quality, cannot sufficiently meet these challenges. The abundant intestinal bacterial populations are very promising alternative targets for modern faecal indication systems. Numerous assays for the detection of genetic markers targeting source-specific populations of the phylum Bacteroidetes have been developed in recent years. In some cases markers for total faecal pollution were also proposed in order to relate source-specific marker concentrations to general faecal pollution levels. However, microbial populations in intestinal and non-intestinal systems exhibit a dazzling array of diversity and molecular analysis of microbial faecal pollution has been based on a fragmentary puzzle of very limited sequence information. The aim of this study was to test the available qPCR-based methods detecting genetic Bacteroidetes markers for total faecal pollution in terms of their value and specificity as indicators of faecal pollution. We applied the AllBac (Layton et al., 2006) the BacUni (Kildare et al., 2007) and the Bacteroidetes (Dick and Field, 2004) assays on soil DNA samples. Samples were collected in well characterised karst spring catchments in Austria's Eastern Calcareous Alps. They were at various levels of altitude between 800 and 1800 meters above sea level and from several different habitats (woodland, alpine pastures, krummholz). In addition we tried to choose sampling sites representing a presumptive gradient of faecal pollution levels. For

  1. Applicability of modelling tools in watershed management for controlling diffuse pollution.

    PubMed

    Erturk, A; Gurel, M; Baloch, M A; Dikerler, T; Ekdal, A; Tanik, A; Seker, D Z

    2007-01-01

    Diffuse pollution is hard to analyze, control and manage by its nature. Watershed models and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are recently developed tools that aid analysis of diffuse sources of pollution. However, their applications are not always easy and straightforward. Turkey is a typical example of a mountainous country rich in rivers and streams. Due to the complex geomorphology, land-use and agricultural practices in most of the watersheds in Turkey, modelling, analyzing and managing diffuse pollution has been a challenge. The complex watershed structure forces the modellers to work with spatially high resolution data. Apart from the data, the models themselves may also cause operational problems. These issues and their probable solutions form the basis of the discussions in this paper. It acts as a guideline for modelling and analyzing diffuse pollution by emphasizing the referred problems and difficulties. Design of an Information Technology-based system tool for watershed and/or water quality modelling, which would be suitable for countries having watersheds with similar structure and problems to those of Turkey, is also outlined. PMID:17711010

  2. Total Water Management, the New Paradigm for Urban Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current resource management practices put different stresses on local water resources and urban infrastructure. Total Water Manag...

  3. 75 FR 43554 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (“Clean Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (``Clean Water Act... Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311 and 1318, at thirteen of its facilities in Massachusetts by discharging pollutants in storm water associated with construction activity without a permit, failing to timely ]...

  4. Water Quality Assessment of River Soan (Pakistan) and Source Apportionment of Pollution Sources Through Receptor Modeling.

    PubMed

    Nazeer, Summya; Ali, Zeshan; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-07-01

    The present study was designed to determine the spatiotemporal patterns in water quality of River Soan using multivariate statistics. A total of 26 sites were surveyed along River Soan and its associated tributaries during pre- and post-monsoon seasons in 2008. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (HACA) classified sampling sites into three groups according to their degree of pollution, which ranged from least to high degradation of water quality. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) revealed that alkalinity, orthophosphates, nitrates, ammonia, salinity, and Cd were variables that significantly discriminate among three groups identified by HACA. Temporal trends as identified through DFA revealed that COD, DO, pH, Cu, Cd, and Cr could be attributed for major seasonal variations in water quality. PCA/FA identified six factors as potential sources of pollution of River Soan. Absolute principal component scores using multiple regression method (APCS-MLR) further explained the percent contribution from each source. Heavy metals were largely added through industrial activities (28 %) and sewage waste (28 %), nutrients through agriculture runoff (35 %) and sewage waste (28 %), organic pollution through sewage waste (27 %) and urban runoff (17 %) and macroelements through urban runoff (39 %), and mineralization and sewage waste (30 %). The present study showed that anthropogenic activities are the major source of variations in River Soan. In order to address the water quality issues, implementation of effective waste management measures are needed. PMID:27000830

  5. Natural Wetlands Mediate Non-point Source Water Pollution From Irrigated Pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, K.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Tate, K. W.

    2005-12-01

    Non-point source discharge from grazed pastures may be high in nutrients, sediment, and pathogens, three major contributors to water quality impairment in California. Intercepting pollution at its source and managing water quality within the landscape are essential to maintaining healthy downstream waters. We investigated the efficacy of flow-through wetlands interspersed throughout the agricultural landscape to reduce non-point source pollution of tailwater from cattle-grazed, irrigated pastures in the Sierra Nevada Foothills of California. Wetlands are known to positively impact water quality through ecological processes such as filtration, sedimentation, microbial transformations and plant uptake of nutrients. Influent and effluent water of small (0.25 ha), natural wetlands located downstream from flood irrigated pastures was analyzed for Escherichia coli, NO3-N, total N, total suspended solids (TSS), total P, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) throughout two summer irrigation seasons (June to October). We compared reductions of sediment, nutrients and E. coli provided by a healthy, non-degraded wetland with reductions from flow through a channelized, degraded wetland. Large reductions in E. coli (>75%) and TSS (>50%) were observed in water exiting the healthy wetland while nutrient and DOC (~ 20%) concentrations were less affected by flow through the wetland. The channelized wetland provided smaller reductions in all constituents than did the non-degraded wetland. Results from this study demonstrate that small flow-through wetlands can improve water quality through the attenuation of E. coli and suspended sediments, and to a lesser degree DOC and nutrients.

  6. Water hyacinths for removal of cadmium and nickel from polluted waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Removal of cadmium and nickel from static water systems utilizing water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) was investigated. This aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to rapidly remove heavy metals from aqueous systems by root absorption and concentration. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to absorb and concentrate up to 0.67 mg of cadmium and 0.50 mg of nickel per gram of dry plant material when exposed for a 24-hour period to waters polluted with from 0.578 to 2.00 ppm of these toxic metals. It is found that one hectare of water hyacinths has the potential of removing 300 g of cadmium or nickel from 240,000 liters of water polluted with these metals during a 24-hour period.

  7. Optical multiple-analyte immunosensor for water pollution control.

    PubMed

    Barzen, Claudia; Brecht, Andreas; Gauglitz, Guenter

    2002-04-01

    A prototype of a portable optical immunosensor (called river analyser) has been developed. It can be applied for the monitoring of surface water quality. Antibodies carrying a fluorescent label are used for the specific recognition of pollutants, such as frequently applied pesticides. The transduction principle is based on total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF). The outstanding advantage of the river analyser is, that at least three analytes can be detected simultaneously in one sample. Test cycles and fluid handling are automated and enable unattended measuring. PMID:11849925

  8. New Photocatalysis for Effective Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarei Chaleshtori, M.; Saupe, G. B.; Masoud, S.

    2009-12-01

    The presence of harmful compounds in water supplies and in the discharge of wastewater from chemical industries, power plants, and agricultural sources is a topic of global concern. The processes and technologies available at the present time for the treatment of polluted water are varied that include traditional water treatment processes such as biological, thermal and chemical treatment. All these water treatment processes, have limitations of their own and none is cost effective. Advanced oxidation processes have been proposed as an alternative for the treatment of this kind of wastewater. Heterogeneous photocatalysis has recently emerged as an efficient method for purifying water. TiO2 has generally been demonstrated to be the most active semiconductor material for decontamination water. One significant factor is the cost of separation TiO2, which is generally a powder having a very small particle size from the water after treatment by either sedimentation or ultrafiltration. The new photocatalyst, HTiNbO5, has been tested to determine whether its photocatalytic efficiency is good enough for use in photocatalytic water purification since it has high surface area and relatively large particle size. The larger particle sizes of the porous materials facilitate catalyst removal from a solution, after purification has taken place. It can be separated from water easily than TiO2, a significant technical improvement that might eliminate the tedious final filtration necessary with a slurry. These materials are characterized and tested as water decontamination photocatalysts. The new catalyst exhibited excellent catalytic activity, but with a strong pH dependence on the photo efficiency. These results suggest that elimination of the ion exchange character of the catalyst may greatly improve its performance at various pHs. This new research proposes to study the effects of a topotactic dehydration reaction on these new porous material catalysts.

  9. 9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... water; procedure for handling. 318.14 Section 318.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.14 Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. (a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited to flood water)...

  10. 9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... water; procedure for handling. 381.151 Section 381.151 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...; Processing Requirements § 381.151 Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. (a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited to flood water) in an...

  11. [Method for environmental management in paper industry based on pollution control technology simulation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Ying; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the reduction potential of industrial water pollutant emissions and to study the application of technology simulation in pollutant control and environment management, an Industrial Reduction Potential Analysis and Environment Management (IRPAEM) model was developed based on coupling of "material-process-technology-product". The model integrated bottom-up modeling and scenario analysis method, and was applied to China's paper industry. Results showed that under CM scenario, the reduction potentials of waster water, COD and ammonia nitrogen would reach 7 x 10(8) t, 39 x 10(4) t and 0.3 x 10(4) t, respectively in 2015, 13.8 x 10(8) t, 56 x 10(4) t and 0.5 x 10(4) t, respectively in 2020. Strengthening the end-treatment would still be the key method to reduce emissions during 2010-2020, while the reduction effect of structure adjustment would be more obvious during 2015-2020. Pollution production could basically reach the domestic or international advanced level of clean production in 2015 and 2020; the index of wastewater and ammonia nitrogen would basically meet the emission standards in 2015 and 2020 while COD would not. PMID:25639122

  12. Achieving multiple compliance objectives through a storm water pollution prevention plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, K.J.; Cataldo, R.

    1997-09-01

    All across the US, facility managers and environmental staff are trying to keep up with proliferating regulations and associated filing and reporting requirements. Added to the already full plate of regulations is the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program for storm water management. The NPDES program requires a permit for the discharge of runoff from facilities based on Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code. Some businesses do not yet need to comply with NPDES, as not all types of facilities were included in the Phase 1 list of regulated activities (September 1992). However, most businesses will be included as part of Phase 2 by 2002. Furthermore, states adopting administration of the NPDES program have the option of accelerating the process. In addition to filing for a permit, the NPDES storm water program requires the preparation and implementation of a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP). A properly prepared SWPPP can help facilities more easily comply with regulatory requirements and serve as an overall facility management tool.

  13. UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN REMOVAL OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange, adsorption and acid catalysis properties. Different inorganic and organic pollutants have been removed from water at room temperature using various zeolites. Synthetic zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove inorganic pollutants...

  14. Investigation of formaldehyde pollution of tap water and rain water using a novel visual colorimetry.

    PubMed

    Murai, K; Okano, M; Kuramitz, H; Hata, N; Kawakami, T; Taguchi, S

    2008-01-01

    The pollution of tap water and rain water with formaldehyde in Toyama Pref., Japan was investigated by means of a simple, rapid and cost-effective visual colorimetry developed by us. The levels of formaldehyde in three tap waters from different sources of dams on mountainside and a well-water pumped in urban area in Toyama Pref. were lower than 0.01 mg L(-1) that was the detection limit of the colorimetry. On the other hand, rain waters were seriously polluted with formaldehyde. Rain waters were sampled from three different sites (urban area, top of hill and industrial area) in Toyama Pref. from autumn to winter in 2006. The levels of formaldehyde in the rain waters ranged from 0.07 to 0.30 mg L(-1). The analytical results by the visual colorimetry were in good agreement with those obtained by GC-MS method. It was confirmed that the colorimetry is excellent for practical use for the determination of formaldehyde. It must be concerned about the pollution of rainwater with formaldehyde, when rain water is applied for tap water and miscellaneous purpose. PMID:18824804

  15. Managing Nonpoint Source Pollution in Western Washington: Landowner Learning Methods and Motivations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Clare M.

    2009-06-01

    States, territories, and tribes identify nonpoint source pollution as responsible for more than half of the Nation’s existing and threatened water quality impairments, making it the principal remaining cause of water quality problems across the United States. Combinations of education, technical and financial assistance, and regulatory measures are used to inform landowners about nonpoint source pollution issues, and to stimulate the use of best management practices. A mail survey of non-commercial riparian landowners investigated how they learn about best management practices, the efficacy of different educational techniques, and what motivates them to implement land management activities. Landowners experience a variety of educational techniques, and rank those that include direct personal contact as more effective than brochures, advertisements, radio, internet, or television. The most important motivations for implementing best management practices were linked with elements of a personal stewardship ethic, accountability, personal commitment, and feasibility. Nonpoint source education and social marketing campaigns should include direct interpersonal contacts, and appeal to landowner motivations of caring, responsibility, and personal commitment.

  16. The economics of water reuse and implications for joint water quality-quantity management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwayama, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Traditionally, economists have treated the management of water quality and water quantity as separate problems. However, there are some water management issues for which economic analysis requires the simultaneous consideration of water quality and quantity policies and outcomes. Water reuse, which has expanded significantly over the last several decades, is one of these issues. Analyzing the cost effectiveness and social welfare outcomes of adopting water reuse requires a joint water quality-quantity optimization framework because, at its most basic level, water reuse requires decision makers to consider (a) its potential for alleviating water scarcity, (b) the quality to which the water should be treated prior to reuse, and (c) the benefits of discharging less wastewater into the environment. In this project, we develop a theoretical model of water reuse management to illustrate how the availability of water reuse technologies and practices can lead to a departure from established rules in the water resource economics literature for the optimal allocation of freshwater and water pollution abatement. We also conduct an econometric analysis of a unique dataset of county-level water reuse from the state of Florida over the seventeen-year period between 1996 and 2012 in order to determine whether water quality or scarcity concerns drive greater adoption of water reuse practices.

  17. Detection of Catabacter hongkongensis in polluted European water samples *

    PubMed Central

    Codony, Francesc; Adrados, Bárbara; Pérez, Leonardo Martín; Fittipaldi, Mariana; Morató, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    The Catabacteriaceae is a new bacterial family with a unique member: Catabacter hongkongensis is a strictly anaerobic, non-sporulating, Gram-positive coccobacillus that is phylogenetically related to some clostridial clusters. Little is known of its epidemiology and environmental distribution, but the inclusion of its 16S rRNA gene sequence in GenBank has allowed it to be detected qualitatively. As a first approach for prospective surveys, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure to identify C. hongkongensis has been developed. The presence of Catabacteriaceae in 29 water bodies subjected to possible human or animal impact has been investigated. Four of them were positive. The results confirm that highly polluted water can contain C. hongkongensis. PMID:19946949

  18. REMOVAL OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS FROM SUBCRITICAL WATER WITH ACTIVATED CARBON

    SciTech Connect

    Steven B. Hawthorne; Arnaud J. Lagadec

    1999-08-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has demonstrated that controlling the temperature (and to a lesser extent, the pressure) of water can dramatically change its ability to extract organics and inorganics from matrices ranging from soils and sediments to waste sludges and coal. The dielectric constant of water can be changed from about 80 (a very polar solvent) to <5 (similar to a nonpolar organic solvent) by controlling the temperature (from ambient to about 400 C) and pressure (from about 5 to 350 bar). The EERC has shown that hazardous organic pollutants such as pesticides, PACS (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) can be completely removed from soils, sludges, and sediments at temperatures (250 C) and pressures (<50 atm) that are much milder than typically used for supercritical water processes (temperature >374 C, pressure >221 atm). In addition, the process has been demonstrated to be particularly effective for samples containing very high levels of contaminants (e.g., part per thousand). Current projects include demonstrating the subcritical water remediation process at the pilot scale using an 8-liter system constructed under separate funding during 1997. To date, subcritical water has been shown to be an effective extraction fluid for removing a variety of organic pollutants from soils and sludges contaminated with fossil fuel products and waste products, including PACS from soil (e.g., town gas sites), refining catalysts, and petroleum tank bottom sludges; PCBs from soil and sediments; toxic gasoline components (e.g., benzene) from soil and waste sludge; and phenols from petroleum refinery sludges. The obvious need to clean the wastewater from subcritical water processes led to preliminary experiments with activated carbon placed in line after the extractor. Initial experiments were performed before and after cooling the extractant water (e.g., with water at 200 C and with water cooled to 25 C

  19. Hydroeconomic optimization of reservoir management under downstream water quality constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo; Holm, Peter E.; Trapp, Stefan; Rosbjerg, Dan; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2015-10-01

    A hydroeconomic optimization approach is used to guide water management in a Chinese river basin with the objectives of meeting water quantity and water quality constraints, in line with the China 2011 No. 1 Policy Document and 2015 Ten-point Water Plan. The proposed modeling framework couples water quantity and water quality management and minimizes the total costs over a planning period assuming stochastic future runoff. The outcome includes cost-optimal reservoir releases, groundwater pumping, water allocation, wastewater treatments and water curtailments. The optimization model uses a variant of stochastic dynamic programming known as the water value method. Nonlinearity arising from the water quality constraints is handled with an effective hybrid method combining genetic algorithms and linear programming. Untreated pollutant loads are represented by biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and the resulting minimum dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration is computed with the Streeter-Phelps equation and constrained to match Chinese water quality targets. The baseline water scarcity and operational costs are estimated to 15.6 billion CNY/year. Compliance to water quality grade III causes a relatively low increase to 16.4 billion CNY/year. Dilution plays an important role and increases the share of surface water allocations to users situated furthest downstream in the system. The modeling framework generates decision rules that result in the economically efficient strategy for complying with both water quantity and water quality constraints.

  20. Water Quality Improvement through Reductions of Pollutant Loads on Small Scale of Bioretention System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elyza Muha, Norshafa; Mohd Sidek, Lariyah; Jajarmizadeh, Milad

    2016-03-01

    Bioretention system is introduced as an important topic namely Urban Storm Water Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA) by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia (DID) in May 2012. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of water quality for small scale bioretention system under tropical climate via MUSIC model. Two bioretention systems 1 and 2 are observed based on the difference media depth. The result of bioretention system is compared with a reference model which has infrastructure with Urban Stormwater Improvement Conceptualisation (MUSIC) for pollutants load reduction and water quality results. Assessment of results via MUSIC software indicates a significant percentage of reduction for Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Total Phosphorus (TP) and Total Nitrogen (TN). The prediction of pollutant reduction via using MUSIC has the harmony for requirement in MSMA. TSS pollutant reduction is more than 80%, while for TP and TN more than 50%. The outcome of this study can be helpful for improvement of the existing MSMA guidelines for application of bioretention systems in Malaysia.

  1. Allocating anthropogenic pollutant emissions over space: application to ozone pollution management.

    PubMed

    Diem, J E; Comrie, A C

    2001-12-01

    An inventory of volatile organic compound (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions is an important tool for the management of ground-level ozone pollution. This paper has two broad aims: it illustrates the potential of a geographic information system (GIS) for enhancing an existing spatially-aggregated, anthropogenic emissions inventory (EI) for Tucson, AZ, and it discusses the ozone-specific management implications of the resulting spatially-disaggregated EI. The main GIS-related methods include calculating emissions for specific features, spatially disaggregating region-wide emissions totals for area sources, and adding emissions from various point sources. In addition, temporal allocation factors enable the addition of a multi-temporal component to the inventory. The resulting inventory reveals that on-road motor vehicles account for approximately 50% of VOC and NOx emissions annually. On-road motor vehicles and residential wood combustion are the largest VOC sources in the summer and winter months, respectively. On-road motor vehicles are always the largest NOx sources. The most noticeable weekday vs. weekend VOC emissions differences are triggered by increased residential wood combustion and increased lawn and garden equipment use on weekends. Concerning the EI's uncertainties and errors, on-road mobile, construction equipment, and lawn and garden equipment are identified as sources in the most need of further investigation. Overall, the EIs spatial component increases its utility as a management tool, which might involve visualization-driven analyses and air quality modeling. PMID:11826724

  2. Using molecular-scale tracers to investigate transport of agricultural pollutants in soil and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, C.; Michaelides, K.; Chadwick, D.; Dungait, J.; Evershed, R. P.

    2012-12-01

    unique to ruminant faeces, were used to trace the transport of sediment-bound pollutants from the slurry which could be transported into water bodies via erosion processes. The results showed that contributions of potential pollutants from the surface and subsurface flow pathways and from the eroded sediment differ according to slope gradient and rainfall intensity. Therefore, as the contribution of each of these pathways changes in response to rainfall and slope gradient, the pollution risk also changes accordingly, as different organic compounds are mobilised at varying rates. Rapid hydrological response to rainfall results in erosion and surface transport of sediment-bound and dissolved pollutants, creating an immediate contamination threat. However, conditions resulting in a slower hydrological response and the predominance of flow percolation over surface runoff results in higher rates of dissolved pollutant transport through the soil layers which risks contamination of subsurface and deeper ground-water systems. These experiments provide insight into the pathways and timing of contaminant transport with potential implications for understanding contamination risk from the transfer of slurry from land to water bodies. Understanding this threat is critical at a time when pressure is on to develop land-management strategies to reduce pollution alongside maintaining food security.

  3. Climate Teleconnections and Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abtew, Wossenu; Melesse, Assefa M.

    2014-02-01

    Advancements have been made in identifying teleconnection between various climate phenomena and regional hydrometeorology. This knowledge can be systematically applied to predict regional hydrometeorology to gain lead time for resource and risk management decision making. Adaptations for droughts, floods, and cold and warm weather conditions are necessary for optimal food production and, in many cases, for survival. The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climatic phenomenon has been linked to seasonal weather of many regions mainly through rainfall and temperature. The development of El Niño or La Niña has usually opposing regional effects. Its effects are manifested in regional droughts and crop yield reduction, loss of livestock feed, water supply shortage or floods and flood damages, insect population and pathogens, wildfires, etc. A new method has been used to track ENSO development using cumulative sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly and cumulative Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) from freely available data. The relationships of ENSO indices and the Blue Nile hydrology have been shown using an index that tracks cumulative SST anomaly. It has been shown that the Upper Blue Nile basin rainfall and flows have teleconnection to ENSO. Dry years are likely to occur during El Niño years at a confidence level of 90 % and La Niña years favor wetter condition. The results of this study can be applied to resource management decision making to mitigate drought or flood impacts with a lead time of at least few months. ENSO tracking and forecasting helps prediction of approaching hydrologic conditions to make early water management decisions. A case study with organizational structure and decision making process is presented where ENSO conditions are tracked weekly and results are applied for water management decision making.

  4. Multicriteria methodological approach to manage urban air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachokostas, Ch.; Achillas, Ch.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Banias, G.

    2011-08-01

    Managing urban air pollution necessitates a feasible and efficient abatement strategy which is characterised as a defined set of specific control measures. In practice, hard budget constraints are present in any decision-making process and therefore available alternatives need to be hierarchised in a fast but still reliable manner. Moreover, realistic strategies require adequate information on the available control measures, taking also into account the area's special characteristics. The selection of the most applicable bundle of measures rests in achieving stakeholders' consensus, while taking into consideration mutually conflicting views and criteria. A preliminary qualitative comparison of alternative control measures would be most handy for decision-makers, forming the grounds for an in-depth analysis of the most promising ones. This paper presents an easy-to-follow multicriteria methodological approach in order to include and synthesise multi-disciplinary knowledge from various stakeholders so as to result into a priority list of abatement options, achieve consensus and secure the adoption of the resulting optimal solution. The approach relies on the active involvement of public authorities and local stakeholders in order to incorporate their environmental, economic and social preferences. The methodological scheme is implemented for the case of Thessaloniki, Greece, an area considered among the most polluted cities within Europe, especially with respect to airborne particles. Intense police control, natural gas penetration in buildings and metro construction equally result into the most "promising" alternatives in order to control air pollution in the GTA. The three optimal alternatives belong to different thematic areas, namely road transport, thermal heating and infrastructure. Thus, it is obvious that efforts should spread throughout all thematic areas. Natural gas penetration in industrial units, intense monitoring of environmental standards and regular

  5. Recommendations on methods for the detection and control of biological pollution in marine coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Olenin, Sergej; Elliott, Michael; Bysveen, Ingrid; Culverhouse, Phil F; Daunys, Darius; Dubelaar, George B J; Gollasch, Stephan; Goulletquer, Philippe; Jelmert, Anders; Kantor, Yuri; Mézeth, Kjersti Bringsvor; Minchin, Dan; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Olenina, Irina; Vandekerkhove, Jochen

    2011-12-01

    Adverse effects of invasive alien species (IAS), or biological pollution, is an increasing problem in marine coastal waters, which remains high on the environmental management agenda. All maritime countries need to assess the size of this problem and consider effective mechanisms to prevent introductions, and if necessary and where possible to monitor, contain, control or eradicate the introduced impacting organisms. Despite this, and in contrast to more enclosed water bodies, the openness of marine systems indicates that once species are in an area then eradication is usually impossible. Most institutions in countries are aware of the problem and have sufficient governance in place for management. However, there is still a general lack of commitment and concerted action plans are needed to address this problem. This paper provides recommendations resulting from an international workshop based upon a large amount of experience relating to the assessment and control of biopollution. PMID:21889171

  6. Draft Guidelines for State and Areawide Water Quality Management Program Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This document discusses the draft guidelines formulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist the states in establishing a management program to integrate water quality and other resource management decisions. These guidelines are pfovided so that the long range goals of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972…

  7. Spectroscopic analyses of pollutants in water, sediment and fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh.; Ibrahim, Hanan S.; Ammar, Nabila S.; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2012-11-01

    Water ways in Egypt is suffering from continual discharge without adequate treatment especially in the Delta and greater Cairo area. Accordingly water, sediments and catfishes were collected from El Mouheet El Youmna drain in Giza. Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn were determined furthermore the molecular structure of sediment and catfish were conducted with FTIR spectroscopy. Although studied metals were lower in water, higher values are recorded in sediment and catfish samples. FTIR shows possible interaction among metals and organic structures mainly proteins. The bioaccumulation of Pb and Cd proportion was significantly increased in the liver tissues of catfish. A correlation coefficient among sediment and fish liver metals accumulation exist. This infers that the waste assimilation capacity for the drain is high, a phenomena that could be ascribed to dilution, sedimentation and continual water exchange. Furthermore, the genotoxicity affect in catfish genomic corroborates the genus diagnostic markers which attributed to long pollution. This is an indication that agriculture and industrial wastes discharged into the drain has badly a significant effect on the ecological balance.

  8. Blautia and Prevotella sequences distinguish human and animal fecal pollution in Brazil surface waters.

    PubMed

    Koskey, Amber M; Fisher, Jenny C; Eren, A Murat; Ponce-Terashima, Rafael; Reis, Mitermayer G; Blanton, Ronald E; McLellan, Sandra L

    2014-12-01

    Untreated sewage discharges and limited agricultural manure management practices contribute to fecal pollution in rural Brazilian waterways. Most microbial source tracking studies have focused on Bacteroidales, and few have tested host-specific indicators in underdeveloped regions. Sequencing of sewage and human and animal feces with Illumina HiSeq revealed Prevotellaceae as the most abundant family in humans, with Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae also comprising a large proportion of the microbiome. These same families were also dominant in animals. Bacteroides, the genus containing the most commonly utilized human-specific marker in the United States was present in very low abundance. We used oligotyping to identify Prevotella and Blautia sequences that can distinguish human fecal contamination. Thirty-five of 61 Blautia oligotypes and 13 of 108 Prevotella oligotypes in humans were host-specific or highly abundant (i.e. host-preferred) compared to pig, dog, horse and cow sources. Certain human Prevotella and Blautia oligotypes increased more than an order of magnitude along a polluted river transect in rural Brazil, but traditional fecal indicator levels followed a steady or even decreasing trend. While both Prevotella and Blautia oligotypes distinguished human and animal fecal pollution in Brazil surface waters, Blautia appears to contain more discriminatory and globally applicable markers for tracking sources of fecal pollution. PMID:25360571

  9. An novel identification method of the environmental risk sources for surface water pollution accidents in chemical industrial parks.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jianfeng; Song, Yonghui; Yuan, Peng; Xiao, Shuhu; Han, Lu

    2013-07-01

    The chemical industry is a major source of various pollution accidents. Improving the management level of risk sources for pollution accidents has become an urgent demand for most industrialized countries. In pollution accidents, the released chemicals harm the receptors to some extent depending on their sensitivity or susceptibility. Therefore, identifying the potential risk sources from such a large number of chemical enterprises has become pressingly urgent. Based on the simulation of the whole accident process, a novel and expandable identification method for risk sources causing water pollution accidents is presented. The newly developed approach, by analyzing and stimulating the whole process of a pollution accident between sources and receptors, can be applied to identify risk sources, especially on the nationwide scale. Three major types of losses, such as social, economic and ecological losses, were normalized, analyzed and used for overall consequence modeling. A specific case study area, located in a chemical industry park (CIP) along the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province, China, was selected to test the potential of the identification method. The results showed that there were four risk sources for pollution accidents in this CIP. Aniline leakage in the HS Chemical Plant would lead to the most serious impact on the surrounding water environment. This potential accident would severely damage the ecosystem up to 3.8 km downstream of Yangtze River, and lead to pollution over a distance stretching to 73.7 km downstream. The proposed method is easily extended to the nationwide identification of potential risk sources. PMID:24218858

  10. DEVELOPMENTS AT FOURTEENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WATER POLLUTION RESEARCH - BRIGHTON, ENGLAND, JULY 17-22, 1988

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this report is to provide a mechanism whereby current water research developments from around the world as reported at the 14th International Conference on Water Pollution Research of the International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control can be high...

  11. 19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of... shorelines, or into or upon the waters of the contiguous zone in violation of the Federal Water...

  12. 19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of... shorelines, or into or upon the waters of the contiguous zone in violation of the Federal Water...

  13. 19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of... shorelines, or into or upon the waters of the contiguous zone in violation of the Federal Water...

  14. 19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of... shorelines, or into or upon the waters of the contiguous zone in violation of the Federal Water...

  15. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  16. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  17. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  18. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  19. 19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.66b Pollution of... shorelines, or into or upon the waters of the contiguous zone in violation of the Federal Water...

  20. [Method of ecological risk assessment for risk pollutants under short-term and high dose exposure in water pollution accident].

    PubMed

    Lei, Bing-Li; Sun, Yan-Feng; Liu, Qian; Yu, Zhi-Qiang; Zeng, Xiang-Ying

    2011-11-01

    In recent years, water pollution accidents resulting in acute aquatic ecological risk and security issues become a research focus. However, in our country, the surface water quality standards and drinking water health standards were used to determine the safety of waters or not in pollution incidents due to lacking safety effect threshold or risk value for protection of aquatic life. In foreign countries, although predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) or risk value (R) of pollutants were provided for protection of aquatic organisms, the PNECs or risk values were derived based on long-term exposure toxicity data NOECs (no observed effect concentrations) and lack of short-term exposure risk or threshold values. For the short-term and high dose exposure in pollution incident, ecological risk assessment methods were discussed according to the procedures of the conventional ecological risk assessment and the water quality criteria establishment of the U.S. EPA for the protection of aquatic organisms in short-term exposure, and had a case study. At the same time, we provide some suggestions for the establishment of ecological risk assessment system in water pollution incidents. PMID:22295619

  1. Environmental management intentions: an empirical investigation of Argentina's polluting firms.

    PubMed

    Vazquez Brust, Diego Alfonso; Liston-Heyes, Catherine

    2010-05-01

    This paper builds on past behavioural research which explicitly recognises that 'actions' are preceded by 'intentions' which are in turn determined by individual mindsets, locus of control, principles of governances and context factors. More concretely, it presents a model that investigates the extent to which environmental behavioural intentions are explained by i) managers' core values, basic assumptions, and beliefs, ii) individual and socio-cognitive frames, iii) principles of governance, and iv) context factors. Context factors include obstacles and drivers of greener behaviours, market pressures, and firm demographics. The resulting theoretical framework is tested empirically through regression analyses that use data gathered from a survey of 536 Argentinean firms in polluting industries. The model performs well, explaining approximately 50% of the variations in the (pro) environmental behaviour of firms. Policy implications are briefly discussed. PMID:20110148

  2. Fish discards management: pollution levels and best available removal techniques.

    PubMed

    Antelo, Luis T; Lopes, Carla; Franco-Uría, Amaya; Alonso, Antonio A

    2012-07-01

    Fish discards and by-catch issues are highly topical subjects that are permanently under a social focus. Two main approaches are being considered to address this discard problem: reducing the by-catch and increasing by-catch utilization. Interest in increased by-catch valorization may arise from a greater demand for fish products, such as the development of new markets for previously discarded species, the use of low-value specimens for aquaculture or the creation of value-added fish products for the food, pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries. However, contaminants present in fish discards may be transferred to their valorized products, leading to possible long-term bioaccumulation and subsequent adverse health effects. In this valorization framework, the aim is to promote responsible and sustainable management of marine resources. The pollutant levels in catches from European fisheries and the best available decontamination techniques for marine valorized discards/by-products are compiled and analyzed in this work. PMID:22542692

  3. A hydro-economic modelling framework for optimal management of groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Haro, Salvador; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Sahuquillo, Andrés

    2009-06-01

    SummaryA hydro-economic modelling framework is developed for determining optimal management of groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture. A holistic optimization model determines the spatial and temporal fertilizer application rate that maximizes the net benefits in agriculture constrained by the quality requirements in groundwater at various control sites. Since emissions (nitrogen loading rates) are what can be controlled, but the concentrations are the policy targets, we need to relate both. Agronomic simulations are used to obtain the nitrate leached, while numerical groundwater flow and solute transport simulation models were used to develop unit source solutions that were assembled into a pollutant concentration response matrix. The integration of the response matrix in the constraints of the management model allows simulating by superposition the evolution of groundwater nitrate concentration over time at different points of interest throughout the aquifer resulting from multiple pollutant sources distributed over time and space. In this way, the modelling framework relates the fertilizer loads with the nitrate concentration at the control sites. The benefits in agriculture were determined through crop prices and crop production functions. This research aims to contribute to the ongoing policy process in the Europe Union (the Water Framework Directive) providing a tool for analyzing the opportunity cost of measures for reducing nitrogen loadings and assessing their effectiveness for maintaining groundwater nitrate concentration within the target levels. The management model was applied to a hypothetical groundwater system. Optimal solutions of fertilizer use to problems with different initial conditions, planning horizons, and recovery times were determined. The illustrative example shows the importance of the location of the pollution sources in relation to the control sites, and how both the selected planning horizon and the target recovery time can

  4. Quantifying the role of immobile water on pollutant fluxes in double-permeable media under dynamic flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Bastian; Krämer, Florian; Stumpp, Christine; Maloszewski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    inhibited the back-diffusion from immobile water to mobile water zones. Mathematical models based on analytical and numerical models have to be further developed to describe and quantify these observed processes. A better understanding about the influence of immobile water and dynamic flow conditions on pollutant transport will help to improve prediction of pollutant fluxes and site remediation techniques and management.

  5. 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase: a new biomarker of fish exposure to water pollution.

    PubMed

    Pallottini, Valentina; Scalici, Massimiliano; Gibertini, Giancarlo; Marino, Maria; Trentalance, Anna

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a new putative biomarker in Salmo trutta exposed to water pollution. Variations in the levels of hepatic 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR), the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis, were compared to heat shock protein 70 and hypoxia inducible factor α, biomarkers of pollution exposure and lowered O₂, respectively. The results confirm that HMG-CoAR levels increase in polluted water irrespective of water temperature or O₂ content, indicating that HMG-CoAR could be used as a specific biomarker for water pollution. PMID:20835703

  6. Operation and Maintenance of Water Pollution Control Facilities: A WPCF White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, William R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the recommendations of the Water Pollution Control Federation for operation and maintenance consideration during the planning design, construction, and operation of wastewater treatment facilities. (CS)

  7. Remote sensing in the mixing zone. [water pollution in Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villemonte, J. R.; Hoopes, J. A.; Wu, D. S.; Lillesand, T. M.

    1973-01-01

    Characteristics of dispersion and diffusion as the mechanisms by which pollutants are transported in natural river courses were studied with the view of providing additional data for the establishment of water quality guidelines and effluent outfall design protocols. Work has been divided into four basic categories which are directed at the basic goal of developing relationships which will permit the estimation of the nature and extent of the mixing zone as a function of those variables which characterize the outfall structure, the effluent, and the river, as well as climatological conditions. The four basic categories of effort are: (1) the development of mathematical models; (2) laboratory studies of physical models; (3) field surveys involving ground and aerial sensing; and (4) correlation between aerial photographic imagery and mixing zone characteristics.

  8. Advancing towards universal screening for organic pollutants in waters.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Félix; Ibáñez, María; Portolés, Tania; Cervera, María I; Sancho, Juan V; López, Francisco J

    2015-01-23

    Environmental analytical chemists face the challenge of investigating thousands of potential organic pollutants that may be present in the aquatic environment. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) hyphenated to chromatography offers the possibility of detecting a large number of contaminants without pre-selection of analytes due to its accurate-mass full-spectrum acquisition at good sensitivity. Interestingly, large screening can be made even without reference standards, as the valuable information provided by HRMS allows the tentative identification of the compound detected. In this work, hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) MS was combined with both liquid and gas chromatography (using a single instrument) for screening of around 2000 compounds in waters. This was feasible thanks to the use of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source in GC. The screening was qualitatively validated for around 300 compounds at three levels (0.02, 0.1, 0.5μg/L), and screening detection limits were established. Surface, ground water and effluent wastewater samples were analyzed, detecting and identifying a notable number of pesticides and transformation products, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and illicit drugs, among others. This is one of the most universal approaches in terms of comprehensive measurement for broad screening of organic contaminants within a large range of polarity and volatility in waters. PMID:25204505

  9. Using devitalized moss for active biomonitoring of water pollution.

    PubMed

    Debén, S; Fernández, J A; Carballeira, A; Aboal, J R

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an experiment carried out for the first time in situ to select a treatment to devitalize mosses for use in active biomonitoring of water pollution. Three devitalizing treatments for the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica were tested (i.e. oven-drying at 100 °C, oven-drying with a 50-80-100 °C temperature ramp, and boiling in water), and the effects of these on loss of material during exposure of the transplants and on the accumulation of different heavy metals and metalloids were determined. The suitability of using devitalized samples of the terrestrial moss Sphagnum denticulatum to biomonitor aquatic environments was also tested. The structure of mosses was altered in different ways by the devitalizing treatments. Devitalization by boiling water led to significantly less loss of material (p < 0.01) than the oven-drying treatments. However, devitalization by oven-drying with a temperature ramp yielded more stable results in relation to both loss of material and accumulation of elements. With the aim of standardizing the moss bag technique, the use of F. antipyretica devitalized by oven-drying with a temperature ramp is recommended, rather than other devitalization treatments or use of S. denticulatum. PMID:26803787

  10. Water management by early people in the Yucatan, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Back, W.

    1995-01-01

    The Yucatan Peninsula is a coastal plain underlain by permeable limestone and receives abundant rainfall. Such hydrogeologic conditions should provide major supplies of water; however, factors of climate and hydrogeology have combined to form a hydrologic system with chemical boundaries that limits the amount of fresh water available. Management of water resources has long had a major influence on the cultural and economic development of the Yucatan. The Mayan culture of the northern Yucatan developed on extensive use of groundwater. The religion was water oriented and the Mayan priests prayed to Chac, the water god, for assistance in water management, primarily to decrease the severity of droughts. The Spaniards arrived in 1517 and augmented the supply by digging wells, which remained the common practice for more than 300 years. Many wells now have been abandoned because of serious problems of pollution. A historical perspective of a paper such as this provides insight into the attitudes concerning water of early people and perhaps provides insight into current attitudes concerning water. Hydrogeologists possess the expertise to generate relevant information required by water managers to arrive at management programs to achieve sustainable development. ?? 1995 Springer-Verlag.

  11. GIS-based emergency response system for sudden water pollution accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Yikang; Shen, Dingtao; Khalid, Shoaib; Yang, Zaigui; Wang, Jiechen

    The frequent occurrence of sudden water pollution accidents brings enormous risks to water environment safety. Therefore, there is great need for the modeling and development of early warning systems and rapid response procedures for current water pollution situation in China. This paper proposes an emergency response system based on the integration of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology and a hydraulic/water-quality model. Using the spatial analysis and three-dimensional visualization capabilities of GIS technology, we calculated pollutant diffusion measures, and visualized and analyzed the simulation results, in order to provide the services of early warning and emergency response for sudden water pollution accidents in the Xiangjia Dam area on the Yangtze River. The results show that the proposed system offers reliable technological support for emergency response to sudden water pollution events, and it shows good potential for wide applications in various aspects of water resources protection.

  12. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid

    PubMed Central

    Van Dijk, Tessa C.; Van Staalduinen, Marja A.; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l−1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l−1 (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

  13. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Van Dijk, Tessa C; Van Staalduinen, Marja A; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1). For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1) (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

  14. Spreadsheet WATERSHED modeling for nonpoint-source pollution management in a Wisconsin basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, J.F.; Pickard, S.A.; Sonzogni, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    Although several sophisticated nonpoint pollution models exist, few are available that are easy to use, cover a variety of conditions, and integrate a wide range of information to allow managers and planners to assess different control strategies. Here, a straightforward pollutant input accounting approach is presented in the form of an existing model (WATERSHED) that has been adapted to run on modern electronic spreadsheets. As an application, WATERSHED is used to assess options to improve the quality of highly eutrophic Delavan Lake in Wisconsin. WATERSHED is flexible in that several techniques, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation or unit-area loadings, can be used to estimate nonpoint-source inputs. Once the model parameters are determined (and calibrated, if possible), the spreadsheet features can be used to conduct a sensitivity analysis of management options. In the case of Delavan Lake, it was concluded that, although some nonpoint controls were cost-effective, the overall reduction in phosphorus would be insufficient to measurably improve water quality.A straightforward pollutant input accounting approach is presented in the form of an existing model (WATERSHED) that has been adapted to run on modern electronic spreadsheets. As an application, WATERSHED is used to assess options to improve the quality of highly eutrophic Delavan Lake in Wisconsin. WATERSHED is flexible in that several techniques, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation or unit-area loadings, can be used to estimate nonpoint-source inputs. Once the model parameters are determined (and calibrated, if possible), the spreadsheet features can be used to conduct a sensitivity analysis of management options. In the case of Delavan Lake, it was concluded that, although some nonpoint controls were cost-effective, the overall reduction in phosphorus would be insufficient to measurably improve water quality.

  15. Feasibility of using the MIRADS data management system for a state air pollution agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    The MIRADS is a generalized data management system. The feasibility of using MIRADS by the State of Alabama Air Pollution Control Commission is explored. The State's enforcement management system and the emission inventory system were implemented into MIRADS.

  16. Propagation of uncertainty in diffuse pollution into water quality predictions: application to the River Dender in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vandenberghe, V; van Griensven, A; Bauwens, W; Vanrolleghem, P A

    2005-01-01

    The uncertainty of water quality predictions caused by uncertainty in the inputs related to emissions of diffuse pollution is analysed. An uncertainty analysis of the effects of diffuse pollution is essential to compare the cost and benefits of measures to lower those emissions. We focus on diffuse nitrate pollution due to fertiliser use. Using an efficient Monte Carlo method and Latin Hypercube sampling, the contribution to the overall uncertainty by each of the inputs is calculated. The modelling environment is ESWAT, an extension of SWAT, which allows for integral modelling of the water quantity and quality processes in river basins. The diffuse pollution sources are assessed by considering crop and soil processes. The crop simulations include growth, uptake of water and nutrients and several land management practices. The in-stream water quality model is based on QUAL2E. The spatial variability of the terrain strongly affects the non-point source pollution processes. The methodology is applied to the Dender basin in Belgium. Eight inputs have significant influence on the time that the nitrate content in the river is higher than 3 mg/l. The uncertainty analysis indicated wide uncertainty bounds (95% percentile bounds differ up to +/-50% from the average NO3 predictions). PMID:15850208

  17. Linking Near Real-Time Water Quality Measurements to Fecal Coliforms and Trace Organic Pollutants in Urban Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henjum, M.; Wennen, C.; Hondzo, M.; Hozalski, R. M.; Novak, P. J.; Arnold, W. A.

    2009-05-01

    Anthropogenic pollutants, including pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, and estrogens are detected in urban water bodies. Effective examination of dilute organic and microbial pollutant loading rates within surface waters is currently prohibitively expensive and labor intensive. Effort is being placed on the development of improved monitoring methodologies to more accurately assess surface water quality and evaluate the effectiveness of water quality management practices. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008 a "real-time" wireless network equipped with high frequency fundamental water quality parameter sensors measured turbidity, conductivity, pH, depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen and nitrate above and below stormwater inputs at two urban stream locations. At each location one liter grab samples were concurrently collected by ISCO automatic samplers at two hour intervals for 24 hour durations during three dry periods and five rain events. Grab samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms, atrazine (agricultural herbicide), prometon (residential herbicide) and caffeine (wastewater indicator). Surrogate relationships between easy-to-measure water quality parameters and difficult-to-measure pollutants were developed, subsequently facilitating monitoring of these pollutants without the development of new, and likely costly, technologies. Additionally, comparisons were made between traditional grab sampling techniques and the "real-time" monitoring to assess the accuracy of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) calculations.

  18. A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection in a chemical factory.

    PubMed

    Pu, J P; Pu, P M; Hu, C H; Qian, J L; Pu, J X; Hua, J K

    2001-04-01

    A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection was developed. It is based on the enhanced evaporation by using solar, wind and air temperature energy and additional heat-electric energy. It consists of four parts: (1) evaporation carrier system (evaporation carrier and frame for evaporation carrier) for polluted water; (2) polluted water circulating system (pumping-spraying-collecting); (3) heating system; (4) workshop with polluted water reservoir-tanks and rainfall prevention roof. The polluted water was (heated in case necessary) sprayed to the evaporation carrier system and the water was evaporated when it moved in the space and downward along the carrier mainly by using natural (solar, wind and air temperature energy). In case, when there is no roof for the carrier system, the polluted water can be stored in the reservoirs (storage volume for about 20 days). The first 10-25 mm rainfall also need to be stored in the reservoirs to meet the state standard for discharging wastewater. The dye may be collected at the surface in the reservoir-tanks and the crystallized salt may be collected at the bottom plate. The black-color wastewater released by the factory is no more discharged to the surface water system of Taihu Lake Basin. About 2 kg dye and 200 kg industrial salt may be collected from each tone of the polluted water. The non-pollution production of dye may be realized by using this technology with environmental, economical and social benefits. PMID:11590742

  19. Water resource management: an Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Khadse, G K; Labhasetwar, P K; Wate, S R

    2012-10-01

    Water is precious natural resource for sustaining life and environment. Effective and sustainable management of water resources is vital for ensuring sustainable development. In view of the vital importance of water for human and animal life, for maintaining ecological balance and for economic and developmental activities of all kinds, and considering its increasing scarcity, the planning and management of water resource and its optimal, economical and equitable use has become a matter of the utmost urgency. Management of water resources in India is of paramount importance to sustain one billion plus population. Water management is a composite area with linkage to various sectors of Indian economy including the agricultural, industrial, domestic and household, power, environment, fisheries and transportation sector. The water resources management practices should be based on increasing the water supply and managing the water demand under the stressed water availability conditions. For maintaining the quality of freshwater, water quality management strategies are required to be evolved and implemented. Decision support systems are required to be developed for planning and management of the water resources project. There is interplay of various factors that govern access and utilization of water resources and in light of the increasing demand for water it becomes important to look for holistic and people-centered approaches for water management. Clearly, drinking water is too fundamental and serious an issue to be left to one institution alone. It needs the combined initiative and action of all, if at all we are serious in socioeconomic development. Safe drinking water can be assured, provided we set our mind to address it. The present article deals with the review of various options for sustainable water resource management in India. PMID:25151722

  20. Farmers, Trust, and the Market Solution to Water Pollution: The Role of Social Embeddedness in Water Quality Trading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariola, Matt J.

    2012-01-01

    Water quality trading (WQT) is a market arrangement in which a point-source water polluter pays farmers to implement conservation practices and claims the resulting benefits as credits toward meeting a pollution permit. Success rates of WQT programs nationwide are highly variable. Most of the literature on WQT is from an economic perspective…

  1. Health effects of beach water pollution in Hong Kong.

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, W. H.; Chang, K. C.; Hung, R. P.; Kleevens, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    Prospective epidemiological studies of beach water pollution were conducted in Hong Kong in the summers of 1986 and 1987. For the main study in 1987, a total of 18741 usable responses were obtained from beachgoers on nine beaches at weekends. The study indicated the overall perceived symptom rates for gastrointestinal, ear, eye, skin, respiratory, fever and total illness were significantly higher for swimmers than non-swimmers; and the swimming-associated symptom rates for gastrointestinal, skin, respiratory and total illness were higher at 'barely acceptable' beaches than at 'relatively unpolluted' ones. Escherichia coli was found to be the best indicator of the health effects associated with swimming in the beaches of Hong Kong. It showed the highest correlation with combined swimming-associated gastroenteritis and skin symptom rates when compared with other microbial indicators. A linear relationship between E. coli and the combined symptom rates was established. Staphylococci were correlated with ear, respiratory and total illness, but could not be used for predicting swimming-associated health risks. They should be used to complement E. coli. The setting of health-related bathing-water quality standards based on such a study is discussed. PMID:2384140

  2. Combined multivariate statistical techniques, Water Pollution Index (WPI) and Daniel Trend Test methods to evaluate temporal and spatial variations and trends of water quality at Shanchong River in the Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quan; Wu, Xianhua; Zhao, Bin; Qin, Jie; Peng, Tingchun

    2015-01-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal variations in river water quality and quantitatively evaluating the trend of changes are important in order to study and efficiently manage water resources. In this study, an analysis of Water Pollution Index (WPI), Daniel Trend Test, Cluster Analysis and Discriminant Analysis are applied as an integrated approach to quantitatively explore the spatial and temporal variations and the latent sources of water pollution in the Shanchong River basin, Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China. We group all field surveys into 2 clusters (dry season and rainy season). Moreover, 14 sampling sites have been grouped into 3 clusters for the rainy season (highly polluted, moderately polluted and less polluted sites) and 2 clusters for the dry season (highly polluted and less polluted sites) based on their similarities and the level of pollution during the two seasons. The results show that the main trend of pollution was aggravated during the transition from the dry to the rainy season. The Water Pollution Index of Total Nitrogen is the highest of all pollution parameters, whereas the Chemical Oxygen Demand (Chromium) is the lowest. Our results also show that the main sources of pollution are farming activities alongside the Shanchong River, soil erosion and fish culture at Shanchong River reservoir area and domestic sewage from scattered rural residential area. Our results suggest that strategies to prevent water pollutionat the Shanchong River basin need to focus on non-point pollution control by employing appropriate fertilizer formulas in farming, and take the measures of soil and water conservation at Shanchong reservoir area, and purifying sewage from scattered villages. PMID:25837673

  3. Combined Multivariate Statistical Techniques, Water Pollution Index (WPI) and Daniel Trend Test Methods to Evaluate Temporal and Spatial Variations and Trends of Water Quality at Shanchong River in the Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Quan; Wu, Xianhua; Zhao, Bin; Qin, Jie; Peng, Tingchun

    2015-01-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal variations in river water quality and quantitatively evaluating the trend of changes are important in order to study and efficiently manage water resources. In this study, an analysis of Water Pollution Index (WPI), Daniel Trend Test, Cluster Analysis and Discriminant Analysis are applied as an integrated approach to quantitatively explore the spatial and temporal variations and the latent sources of water pollution in the Shanchong River basin, Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China. We group all field surveys into 2 clusters (dry season and rainy season). Moreover, 14 sampling sites have been grouped into 3 clusters for the rainy season (highly polluted, moderately polluted and less polluted sites) and 2 clusters for the dry season (highly polluted and less polluted sites) based on their similarities and the level of pollution during the two seasons. The results show that the main trend of pollution was aggravated during the transition from the dry to the rainy season. The Water Pollution Index of Total Nitrogen is the highest of all pollution parameters, whereas the Chemical Oxygen Demand (Chromium) is the lowest. Our results also show that the main sources of pollution are farming activities alongside the Shanchong River, soil erosion and fish culture at Shanchong River reservoir area and domestic sewage from scattered rural residential area. Our results suggest that strategies to prevent water pollutionat the Shanchong River basin need to focus on non-point pollution control by employing appropriate fertilizer formulas in farming, and take the measures of soil and water conservation at Shanchong reservoir area, and purifying sewage from scattered villages. PMID:25837673

  4. GIS-based source identification and apportionment of diffuse water pollution: perfluorinated compound pollution in the Tokyo Bay basin.

    PubMed

    Zushi, Yasuyuki; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2011-11-01

    To efficiently reduce perfluorinated compound (PFC) pollution, it is important to have an understanding of PFC sources and their contribution to the pollution. In this study, source identification of diffuse water pollution by PFCs was conducted using a GIS-based approach. Major components of the source identification were collection of the monitoring data and preparation of the corresponding geographic information that was extracted from a constructed GIS database. The spatially distributed pollution factors were then explored by multiple linear regression analysis, after which they were visually expressed using GIS. Among the 35 PFC homologues measured in a survey of the Tokyo Bay basin, 18 homologues were analyzed. Pollution by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was explained well by the percentage of arterial traffic area in the basin, and the 84% variance of the measured PFOS concentration was explained by two geographic variables, arterial traffic area and population. Source apportionment between point and nonpoint sources was conducted based on the results of the analysis. The contribution of PFOS from nonpoint sources was comparable to that from point sources in several major rivers flowing into Tokyo Bay. Source identification and apportionment using the GIS-based approach was shown to be effective, especially for ubiquitous types of pollution, such as PFC pollution. PMID:21885084

  5. 9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. 381.151 Section 381.151 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...; Processing Requirements § 381.151 Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. (a)...

  6. 9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. 318.14 Section 318.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.14 Adulteration of product by polluted water;...

  7. Bacterial community composition in low-flowing river water with different sources of pollutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollution of water resources is a major risk to human health and water quality throughout the world. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of pollutant sources from agricultural activities, urban runoffs, and runoffs from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on bacterial communitie...

  8. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3 Section 40.140-3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All applications for grants under section...

  9. 40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.145-2 Section 40.145-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) No person in the United States shall on...

  10. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274.926 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean...

  11. The Potential Importance of Conservation, Restoration, and Altered Management Practices for Water Quality in the Wabash River Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution is one of the leading causes of water quality impairment within the United States. Conservation, restoration and altered management (CRAM) practices may effectively reduce NPS pollutants discharge into receiving water bodies and enhance local and ...

  12. New soil water sensors for irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective irrigation management is key to obtaining the most crop production per unit of water applied and increasing production in the face of competing demands on water resources. Management methods have included calculating crop water needs based on weather station measurements, calculating soil ...

  13. Real-time management of an urban groundwater well field threatened by pollution.

    PubMed

    Bauser, Gero; Franssen, Harrie-Jan Hendricks; Kaiser, Hans-Peter; Kuhlmann, Ulrich; Stauffer, Fritz; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2010-09-01

    We present an optimal real-time control approach for the management of drinking water well fields. The methodology is applied to the Hardhof field in the city of Zurich, Switzerland, which is threatened by diffuse pollution. The risk of attracting pollutants is higher if the pumping rate is increased and can be reduced by increasing artificial recharge (AR) or by adaptive allocation of the AR. The method was first tested in offline simulations with a three-dimensional finite element variably saturated subsurface flow model for the period January 2004-August 2005. The simulations revealed that (1) optimal control results were more effective than the historical control results and (2) the spatial distribution of AR should be different from the historical one. Next, the methodology was extended to a real-time control method based on the Ensemble Kalman Filter method, using 87 online groundwater head measurements, and tested at the site. The real-time control of the well field resulted in a decrease of the electrical conductivity of the water at critical measurement points which indicates a reduced inflow of water originating from contaminated sites. It can be concluded that the simulation and the application confirm the feasibility of the real-time control concept. PMID:20695465

  14. Water Source Pollution and Disease Diagnosis in a Nigerian Rural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangodoyin, A. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Samples from five water sources (spring, borehole, pond, stream, and well) in rural Nigerian communities were tested. Results include source reliabilities in terms of water quality and quantity, pollution effects upon water quality, epidemiological effects related to water quantity and waste disposal, and impact of water quality improvement upon…

  15. Contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and relevant management in China.

    PubMed

    Tieyu, Wang; Yonglong, Lu; Hong, Zhang; Yajuan, Shi

    2005-08-01

    The status of typical persistent organic pollutant (POP) contamination in many media (e.g., farm produce, soil, human milk, water, and sediments) was surveyed and China's relevant countermeasures for controlling POPs were analyzed in this paper. The results showed that the proportion of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) to all kinds of pesticides has descended significantly since 1983 when the OCPs were forbidden from being used. The spatial distribution characteristic of pesticide application in the whole country was as follows: southeast>central>northwest. The pesticide residues in food with high fat and high protein content were more than that in foodstuffs. The residual concentration in soil in the whole country was as follows: south>central>north. Furthermore, in vegetable fields, the residual concentration was higher than that in crop fields. As for human milk, the retained amount tended to decrease. In the recent two decades, although the reduction was 81.5%, it was still higher than that in some developed European and American countries. The rank of the residual concentrations of OCPs in different media was: human milk>animal foodstuff>soil>vegetable food>water and sediment. The initial relevant POP management in China can be traced back to 1982 when the Ordinance of Pesticide Management was enacted. Now, environmental control of POPs in China is close to the international level. The legal management system of POPs can be divided into four facets, including 3 regulations, 6 ordinances, and 20 standards. However, on the whole, most of the existing regulations do not refer to POPs directly. Only some clauses mention POPs and lack pertinent, explicit statements on POP pollution and control. Legislation is urgently needed for more effective environmental management to enhance POP control. PMID:15982740

  16. Effective management for acidic pollution in the canal network of the Mekong Delta of Vietnam: a modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Phong, Ngo Dang; Hoanh, Chu Thai; Tuong, To Phuc; Malano, Hector

    2014-07-01

    Acidic pollution can cause severe environmental consequences annually in coastal areas overlain with acid sulfate soils (ASS). A water quality model was used as an analytical tool for exploring the effects of water management options and other interventions on acidic pollution and salinity in Bac Lieu, a coastal province of the Mekong Delta. Fifty eight percent of the provincial area is covered by ASS, and more than three-fourths (approximately 175,000 ha) are used for brackish-water shrimp culture. Simulations of acid water propagation in the canal network indicate that the combination of opening the two main sluices along the East Sea of the study area at high tide for one day every week in May and June and widening the canals that connect these sluices to the West Sea allows for adequate saline water intake and minimizes the acidic pollution in the study area. On the other hand, canal dredging in the freshwater ASS area should be done properly as it can create severe acidic pollution. PMID:24726961

  17. Concept of an innovative water management system with decentralized water reclamation and cascading material-cycle for agricultural areas.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, T

    2012-01-01

    Unlike in urban areas where intensive water reclamation systems are available, development of decentralized technologies and systems is required for water use to be sustainable in agricultural areas. To overcome various water quality issues in those areas, a research project entitled 'Development of an innovative water management system with decentralized water reclamation and cascading material-cycle for agricultural areas under the consideration of climate change' was launched in 2009. This paper introduces the concept of this research and provides detailed information on each of its research areas: (1) development of a diffuse agricultural pollution control technology using catch crops; (2) development of a decentralized differentiable treatment system for livestock and human excreta; and (3) development of a cascading material-cycle system for water pollution control and value-added production. The author also emphasizes that the innovative water management system for agricultural areas should incorporate a strategy for the voluntary collection of bio-resources. PMID:22828292

  18. Environmental management/pollution prevention/environmental electrochemistry opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Nosenchuck, N.H.

    1994-12-31

    Thank you for inviting me to be your keynoter. I`m impressed by what you`ve accomplished through the years and the program that you`ve put together for this International Forum on Environmental Electrochemistry. Above all, we must remember what has brought us together. We must be aware of the challenge, the need, the opportunity we have before us. Sustainable economic development that is responsive to environmental concerns is vital to continued national prosperity. Coincidentally, there are boundless environmental electrochemistry opportunities in environmental management and pollution prevention. The basic approach to environmental protection in this country, for far too many years, has been, for the most part, reactive. As a society, we react to crisis; and in the environmental business, we react to environmental crisis. We react to problems that already were posing substantial ecological and human health risks and problems that already were causing significant public concern. We need both a quality and results-oriented national environmental electrochemistry program.

  19. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as an integrated toxicological tool to assess water quality and pollution.

    PubMed

    Clavijo, Araceli; Kronberg, María Florencia; Rossen, Ariana; Moya, Aldana; Calvo, Daniel; Salatino, Santa Esmeralda; Pagano, Eduardo Antonio; Morábito, José Antonio; Munarriz, Eliana Rosa

    2016-11-01

    Determination of water quality status in rivers is critical to establish a sustainable water management policy. For this reason, over the last decades it has been recommended to perform integrated water assessments that include water quantities and physicochemical, ecological and toxicological tests. However, sometimes resources are limited and it is not possible to perform large-scale chemical determinations of pollutants or conduct numerous ecotoxicological tests. To overcome this problem we use and measure the growth, as a response parameter, of the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to assess water quality in rivers. The C. elegans is a ubiquitous organism that has emerged as an important model organism in aquatic and soil toxicology research. The Tunuyán River Basin (Province of Mendoza, Argentina) has been selected as a representative traditional water monitoring system to test the applicability of the C. elegans toxicological bioassay to generate an integrated water quality evaluation. Jointly with the C. elegans toxic assays, physicochemical and bacteriological parameters were determined for each monitoring site. C. elegans bioassays help to identify different water qualities in the river basin. Multivariate statistical analysis (PCA and linear regression models) has allowed us to confirm that traditional water quality studies do not predict potential toxic effects on living organisms. On the contrary, physicochemical and bacteriological analyzes explain <62% of the C. elegans growth response variability, showing that ecotoxicological bioassays are important to obtain a realistic scenario of water quality threats. Our results confirm that the C. elegans bioassay is a sensible and suitable tool to assess toxicity and should be implemented in routine water quality monitoring. PMID:27343944

  20. A rapid approach to rational water pollution control strategies.

    PubMed

    Economopoulos, A P

    1996-10-01

    The formulation of rational wastewater control strategies is becoming increasingly important in many countries where, exploding urbanization, industrialization and/or tourism, often combined with improved standards of living and better awareness of the environmental problems, are resulting in enlarged pollution problems, but also in the availability of expanding financial resources for environmental protection. However, more often than one tends to believe, lack of planning, or planning with limited understanding of the principles involved, has resulted in solutions that are both expensive and incapable of addressing the key problems.As rigorous planning is extremely resource intensive, and for this reason impractical for most study areas, the development of a much simplified analysis procedure, capable of generating rational, near-optimum, strategies and detailed action programs, is required, if proper environmental management is to be widely practiced.In an effort to achieve the above objectives, a systems analysis approach is selected as the most suitable at rationalizing the allocation of available resources and at producing detailed action programs that promote implementation. In the context of this approach, new, easy to use models have been developed, while others, have been selected, adapted and streamlined in their use. The entire problem analysis and strategy synthesis procedures have thus been simplified and defined to a degree appropriate for widespread use, and the resultant procedure is actively promoted by WHO and UNEP. PMID:24193733

  1. Sustainable Water Management & Satellite Remote Sensing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eutrophication assessment frameworks such as the Australian National Water Quality Management Strategy, Oslo Paris (OSPAR) Commission Common Procedure, Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Union, Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) from the European Commission, ...

  2. Water relations and photosynthesis in pine trees exposed to industrial pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Kaipianen, L.K.; Bolondinskii, V.K.; Sazonova, T.A.; Sofronova, G.I.

    1995-05-01

    The temporal and spatial variability of the shoot water potential, a sensitive characteristic of plant water relations, was investigated in common pine growing under conditions of industrial pollution. The alterations in the xylem structure that made the plants more susceptible to water deficit were revealed. It is concluded that water stress, enhanced by pollutants, negatively affects the diurnal pattern and light curves of CO{sub 2}-gas exchange; this additional factor, along the damage to assimilatory apparatus and stomata, accounts for photosynthesis decline in the pollutant-exposed pine trees. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Economic resilience through "One-Water" management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Randall T.; Schmid, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of water availability leads to food scarcity and loss of economic opportunity. Development of effective water-resource policies and management strategies could provide resiliance to local economies in the face of water disruptions such as drought, flood, and climate change. To accomplish this, a detailed understanding of human water use and natural water resource availability is needed. A hydrologic model is a computer software system that simulates the movement and use of water in a geographic area. It takes into account all components of the water cycle--“One Water”--and helps estimate water budgets for groundwater, surface water, and landscape features. The U.S. Geological Survey MODFLOW One-Water Integrated Hydrologic Model (MODFLOWOWHM) software and scientific methods can provide water managers and political leaders with hydrologic information they need to help ensure water security and economic resilience.

  4. Drinking water quality management: a holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Rizak, S; Cunliffe, D; Sinclair, M; Vulcano, R; Howard, J; Hrudey, S; Callan, P

    2003-01-01

    A growing list of water contaminants has led to some water suppliers relying primarily on compliance monitoring as a mechanism for managing drinking water quality. While such monitoring is a necessary part of drinking water quality management, experiences with waterborne disease threats and outbreaks have shown that compliance monitoring for numerical limits is not, in itself, sufficient to guarantee the safety and quality of drinking water supplies. To address these issues, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) has developed a Framework for Management of Drinking Water Quality (the Framework) for incorporation in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines, the primary reference on drinking water quality in Australia. The Framework was developed specifically for drinking water supplies and provides a comprehensive and preventive risk management approach from catchment to consumer. It includes holistic guidance on a range of issues considered good practice for system management. The Framework addresses four key areas: Commitment to Drinking Water Quality Management, System Analysis and System Management, Supporting Requirements, and Review. The Framework represents a significantly enhanced approach to the management and regulation of drinking water quality and offers a flexible and proactive means of optimising drinking water quality and protecting public health. Rather than the primary reliance on compliance monitoring, the Framework emphasises prevention, the importance of risk assessment, maintaining the integrity of water supply systems and application of multiple barriers to assure protection of public health. Development of the Framework was undertaken in collaboration with the water industry, regulators and other stakeholder, and will promote a common and unified approach to drinking water quality management throughout Australia. The Framework has attracted international interest. PMID:12830937

  5. Water pollution and water quality in Massachusetts' coastal zone: A municipal official's primer

    SciTech Connect

    Hall-Arber, M.

    1992-01-01

    Conservation commissions, boards of selectmen and other municipal agencies are the first line of defense against a multitude of assaults on water quality in the rapidly developing Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Maintaining a community's water quality is a daunting task, faced, in many cases, by volunteers whose primary qualification is a devotion to their town or city and a willingness to spend a large part of their 'leisure' time working to improve and protect their community. This manual is a reference guide to problems, causes, solutions, experts and bibliographic references in the field of water pollution and water quality. With overviews of the main issues and suggestions for coping mechanisms, as well as listings of pertinent legislation and responsible government agencies, the manual should be a time saver for both experienced and novice decision-makers. It will not answer every question in detail, but will serve as a starting point for the seeker.

  6. Emergency drinking water treatment during source water pollution accidents in China: origin analysis, framework and technologies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Chen, Chao; Lin, Peng-Fei; Hou, Ai-Xin; Niu, Zhang-Bin; Wang, Jun

    2011-01-01

    China has suffered frequent source water contamination accidents in the past decade, which has resulted in severe consequences to the water supply of millions of residents. The origins of typical cases of contamination are discussed in this paper as well as the emergency response to these accidents. In general, excessive pursuit of rapid industrialization and the unreasonable location of factories are responsible for the increasing frequency of accidental pollution events. Moreover, insufficient attention to environmental protection and rudimentary emergency response capability has exacerbated the consequences of such accidents. These environmental accidents triggered or accelerated the promulgation of stricter environmental protection policy and the shift from economic development mode to a more sustainable direction, which should be regarded as the turning point of environmental protection in China. To guarantee water security, China is trying to establish a rapid and effective emergency response framework, build up the capability of early accident detection, and develop efficient technologies to remove contaminants from water. PMID:21133359

  7. Simulation Games: The Future of Water Resources Education and Management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castilla Rho, J. C.; Mariethoz, G.; Rojas, R. F.; Andersen, M. S.; Kelly, B. F.; Holley, C.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists rely on models of the water cycle to describe and predict problems of water scarcity in a changing climate, and to suggest adaptation strategies for securing future water needs. Yet these models are too often complicated for managers, the general public and for students to understand. Simpler modelling environments will help with finding solutions by engaging a broader segment of the population. Such environments will enable education at the earliest stages and collective action. I propose that simulation games can be an effective communication platform between scientists and 'non-experts' and that such games will shed light on problems of pollution and overuse of water resources. In the same way as pilots use flight simulators to become proficient at flying aircraft, simulation games—if underpinned by good science—can be used to educate the public, students and managers about how to best manage our water resources. I aim to motivate young scientists to think about using games to advance water education and management.

  8. Water quality management of rooftop rainwater harvesting systems.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

    2009-10-01

    The ancient technique of harvesting rainwater falling on rooftops, which had been forgotten after the advent of large-scale centralized water resource systems like dam-based reservoirs, has staged a global comeback in the post-modern era. It is expected that in the near future all dwellings everywhere will be equipped to harvest and use rainwater. Such widespread use of rooftop rainwater harvesting makes it very important that the water quality aspects associated with it are clearly understood and managed. The present paper addresses the related issues. The pathways by which pollutants can enter in a rainwater harvest have been traced and the strategies to manage the water quality, at pre-harvest as well as post-harvest stages, have been discussed. PMID:21117427

  9. New insight into the correlations between land use and water quality in a coastal watershed of China: Does point source pollution weaken it?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pei; Huang, Jinliang; Pontius, Robert Gilmore; Hong, Huasheng

    2016-02-01

    Uncovering the associations between land use and river water quality is useful for managing land-based pollution in the catchment-coast continuum. However, it is not clear how land use affects water quality in the context of simultaneous point source (PS) pollution. In this study, we develop a self-organizing map (SOM)-based approach to explore the relationship between land use and water quality in the Minjiang River Watershed, Southeast China. Water samples from 139 headwater sub-watersheds were associated with six land use categories, namely, Woodland, Agriculture, Orchard, Built-up, Unused land and Water. Sampling sites are delineated into six clusters based on six water quality parameters: ammonium-N, nitrate-N, total nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphate, total phosphate and potassium permanganate index. Local relationships between land use and water quality among four clusters that have sufficient sample sizes are further identified. There is no significant land use-water quality correlation in one of the four clusters (including 37 sub-watersheds). And the greater the PS pollution is, the less significant the land use-water quality correlations are in clusters. The results demonstrate how PS pollution weakens the land use-water quality correlation. Our method can help to determine whether non-point source or PS pollution exerts greater influence on the quality of the water coming from watershed. PMID:26615482

  10. Frameworks for amending reservoir water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mower, Ethan; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2013-01-01

    Managing water storage and withdrawals in many reservoirs requires establishing seasonal targets for water levels (i.e., rule curves) that are influenced by regional precipitation and diverse water demands. Rule curves are established as an attempt to balance various water needs such as flood control, irrigation, and environmental benefits such as fish and wildlife management. The processes and challenges associated with amending rule curves to balance multiuse needs are complicated and mostly unfamiliar to non-US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) natural resource managers and to the public. To inform natural resource managers and the public we describe the policies and process involved in amending rule curves in USACE reservoirs, including 3 frameworks: a general investigation, a continuing authority program, and the water control plan. Our review suggests that water management in reservoirs can be amended, but generally a multitude of constraints and competing demands must be addressed before such a change can be realized.

  11. Paying for Pollution: Water Quality and Effluent Charges. Proceedings from a Conference (Chicago, Illinois, May 19, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This publication gives the proceedings from a 1977 conference sponsored by the Conservation Foundation. Participants discuss the appropriate means to control water pollution, emphasizing the use of effluent charges as economic incentive for polluters to clean up their waters. (MA)

  12. An evaluation of free water surface wetlands as tertiary sewage water treatment of micro-pollutants.

    PubMed

    Breitholtz, Magnus; Näslund, Maria; Stråe, Daniel; Borg, Hans; Grabic, Roman; Fick, Jerker

    2012-04-01

    Increased attention is currently directed towards potential negative effects of pharmaceuticals and other micro-pollutants discharged into the aquatic environment via municipal sewage water. A number of additional treatment technologies, such as ozonation, have therefore been suggested as promising tools for improving the removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in existing Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs). Constructed wetlands are also capable of removing a variety of micro-pollutants, including some pharmaceuticals, and could hence be a resource efficient complement to more advanced treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was therefore to increase the knowledge base concerning the potential use of constructed wetlands as a treatment step to reduce emissions of organic micro-pollutants from municipal sewage effluents. Under cold winter conditions, incoming and outgoing waters from four Swedish free water surface wetlands, operated as final treatment steps of sewage effluent from municipal STPs, were sampled and analyzed for levels of a set of 92 pharmaceuticals and 22 inorganic components as well as assessed using subchronic ecotoxicity tests with a macro-alga and a crustacean. Sixty-five pharmaceuticals were detected in the range from 1 ng L(-1) to 7.6 μg L(-1) in incoming and outgoing waters from the four investigated wetlands. Although the sampling design used in the present study lacks the robustness of volume proportional to 24h composite samples, the average estimated removal rates ranged from 42% to 52%, which correlates to previous published values. The effects observed in the ecotoxicity tests with the macro-alga (EC(50)s in the range of 7.5-46%) and the crustacean (LOECs in the range of 11.25-90%) could not be assigned to either pharmaceutical residues or metals, but in general showed that these treatment facilities release water with a relatively low toxic potential, comparable to water that has been treated with advanced tertiary

  13. [Analysis of pollution levels of 16 antibiotics in the river water of Daliao River water system].

    PubMed

    Yang, Changqing; Wang, Longxing; Hou, Xiaohong; Chen, Jiping

    2012-08-01

    The detection of the pollution level of antibiotics in Daliao River system is a meaningful work. Sixteen antibiotics (6 sulfonamides, 5 fluoroquinolones, 3 tetracyclines and 2 chloramphenicols) were simultaneously quantified with solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In the SPE procedure, methanol and 2% (v/v) ammonia/methanol were used as the elution solvents in sequence to reduce the elution volume and improve the recovery. The results showed that this method have good sensitivity and enrichment effect for the target antibiotics in aqueous water, the recoveries ranged from 69.5% to 122.6%, the detection limits ranged from 0.05 ng/L to 0.32 ng/L. Thirteen antibiotics were found in the river water of Daliao River water system. Sulfa antibiotics were widely distributed, in which sulfamethoxazole was detected in all the sampling sites. The concentration of fluoroquinolones was relatively high in some sampling sites. The highest detection concentration of enoxacin was 41.3 ng/L. The frequencies and concentrations of tetracyclines and chloramphenicols were lower. In the upper reaches of the river, the concentrations of the 4 types of antibiotics appeared lower, but around the large cities such as Shenyang City, Benxi City, Liaoyang City, the concentrations showed higher levels. The study indicated that the Daliao River water system suffered from the pollution of antibiotics to a certain extent. PMID:23256376

  14. Risk analysis of emergent water pollution accidents based on a Bayesian Network.

    PubMed

    Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To guarantee the security of water quality in water transfer channels, especially in open channels, analysis of potential emergent pollution sources in the water transfer process is critical. It is also indispensable for forewarnings and protection from emergent pollution accidents. Bridges above open channels with large amounts of truck traffic are the main locations where emergent accidents could occur. A Bayesian Network model, which consists of six root nodes and three middle layer nodes, was developed in this paper, and was employed to identify the possibility of potential pollution risk. Dianbei Bridge is reviewed as a typical bridge on an open channel of the Middle Route of the South to North Water Transfer Project where emergent traffic accidents could occur. Risk of water pollutions caused by leakage of pollutants into water is focused in this study. The risk for potential traffic accidents at the Dianbei Bridge implies a risk for water pollution in the canal. Based on survey data, statistical analysis, and domain specialist knowledge, a Bayesian Network model was established. The human factor of emergent accidents has been considered in this model. Additionally, this model has been employed to describe the probability of accidents and the risk level. The sensitive reasons for pollution accidents have been deduced. The case has also been simulated that sensitive factors are in a state of most likely to lead to accidents. PMID:26433361

  15. Observed Increase of TTL Temperature and Water Vapor in Polluted Couds over Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Hui; Jiang, Jonathan; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, J.; Read, William G.; Massie, Steven T.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Colarco, Peter; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Santee, Michelle L.

    2011-06-01

    Aerosols can affect cloud particle size and lifetime, which impacts precipitation, radiation and climate. Previous studies1-4 suggested that reduced ice cloud particle size and fall speed due to the influence of aerosols may increase evaporation of ice crystals and/or cloud radiative heating in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), leading to higher water vapor abundance in air entering the stratosphere. Observational substantiation of such processes is still lacking. Here, we analyze new observations from multiple NASA satellites to show the imprint of pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. We focus our analysis on the highly-polluted South and East Asia region during boreal summer. We find that "polluted" ice clouds have smaller ice effective radius than "clean" clouds. In the TTL, the polluted clouds are associated with warmer temperature and higher specific humidity than the clean clouds. The water vapor difference between the polluted and clean clouds cannot be explained by other meteorological factors, such as updraft and detrainment strength. Therefore, the observed higher water vapor entry value into the stratosphere in the polluted clouds than in the clean clouds is likely a manifestation of aerosol pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. Given the radiative and chemical importance of stratospheric water vapor, the increasing emission of aerosols over Asia may have profound impacts on stratospheric chemistry and global energy balance and water cycle.

  16. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Wilson, Laura Labuda; Orozco, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2011, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  17. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Brown, Christopher; Orozco, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2013, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  18. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Pruitt, Jennifer; Brown, Christopher A.; Bazley, Jesse; Gazda, Daniel; Schaezler, Ryan; Bankers, Lyndsey

    2016-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2016 and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  19. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Pruitt, Jennifer; Brown, Christopher A.; Schaezler, Ryan; Bankers, Lyndsey

    2015-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2015 and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past two years.

  20. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Tobias, Barry; Orozco, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2012, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  1. A review of ion and metal pollutants in urban green water infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Md Imran; Daly, Edoardo; Maggi, Federico

    2014-02-01

    In urban environments, the breakdown of chemicals and pollutants, especially ions and metal compounds, can be favoured by green water infrastructures (GWIs). The overall aim of this review is to set the basis to model GWIs using deterministic approaches in contrast to empirical ones. If a better picture of chemicals and pollutant input and an improved understanding of hydrological and biogeochemical processes affecting these pollutants were known, GWIs could be designed to efficiently retain these pollutants for site-specific meteorological patterns and pollutant load. To this end, we surveyed the existing literature to retrieve a comprehensive dataset of anions and cations, and alkaline and transition metal pollutants incoming to urban environments. Based on this survey, we assessed the pollution load and ecological risk indexes for metals. The existing literature was then surveyed to review the metal retention efficiency of GWIs, and possible biogeochemical processes related to inorganic metal compounds were proposed that could be integrated in biogeochemical models of GWIs. PMID:24184546

  2. Modelling mitigation options to reduce diffuse nitrogen water pollution from agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bouraoui, Fayçal; Grizzetti, Bruna

    2014-01-15

    Agriculture is responsible for large scale water quality degradation and is estimated to contribute around 55% of the nitrogen entering the European Seas. The key policy instrument for protecting inland, transitional and coastal water resources is the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Reducing nutrient losses from agriculture is crucial to the successful implementation of the WFD. There are several mitigation measures that can be implemented to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural areas to surface and ground waters. For the selection of appropriate measures, models are useful for quantifying the expected impacts and the associated costs. In this article we review some of the models used in Europe to assess the effectiveness of nitrogen mitigation measures, ranging from fertilizer management to the construction of riparian areas and wetlands. We highlight how the complexity of models is correlated with the type of scenarios that can be tested, with conceptual models mostly used to evaluate the impact of reduced fertilizer application, and the physically-based models used to evaluate the timing and location of mitigation options and the response times. We underline the importance of considering the lag time between the implementation of measures and effects on water quality. Models can be effective tools for targeting mitigation measures (identifying critical areas and timing), for evaluating their cost effectiveness, for taking into consideration pollution swapping and considering potential trade-offs in contrasting environmental objectives. Models are also useful for involving stakeholders during the development of catchments mitigation plans, increasing their acceptability. PMID:23998504

  3. Hydrochemical evaluation of surface water quality and pollution source apportionment in the Luan River basin, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiliang; Li, Xuyong; Xie, Ying

    2011-01-01

    In the context of rapid economic growth in China, hydrochemical characteristics of stream water quality are being influenced by a variety of natural and anthropogenic inputs. We determined 10 hydrochemical parameters of the surface water at 29 monitoring sites in the Luan River basin of northern China during 2007-2009. Water quality hydrochemistry was evaluated using fuzzy comprehensive analysis based on the National Surface Water Environmental Quality Standards of China. Our results showed that 14 sites were classified as 'meeting standard (MS)' while the other 15 sites were classified 'non-meeting standard (NS)'. According to principal component analysis, four potential pollution sources were identified that explained 80.6% of the total variance among these MS sites, and three potential pollution sources that explained 78.3% of the total variance among these NS sites. Furthermore, multi-linear regression of the absolute principal component scores was used to estimate contributions from identified pollution sources. Most water pollution variables were influenced primarily by municipal sewage and non-point pollution in MS sites. In NS sites, chemical industry wastewater pollution dominated. Pollution in the main stream was more serious than that in the small tributaries. Our findings provide useful information for developing better pollution control strategies for the Luan River. PMID:22105137

  4. The identification and analysis of risk for sudden accidental water pollution events based on the water resources monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiannan

    2016-04-01

    There are always various types of sudden accidental Water Pollution Events under the development of modern Chinese economy society, leading to serious economic losses and casualties. Water resources monitoring system, a real-time monitoring system, was built to monitor water quantity and quality of the important rivers and lakes over the country. Based on the system, we had brought up an idea to calculate the possibility of pollution and the risk of pollution in the watershed, and to deal with the threat of water pollution incidents effectively. It was proposed to build the greatest possible contamination with the most serious pollution values over the past years, and similarity test was carried on over the real-time monitoring of possible contamination value and the calculated value. In our study, taking Taihu River Basin as an example, we detailed the application progress of this method in water pollution incidents, the result shows that the method has a certain timeliness for the early warning of sudden water pollution incidents.

  5. Method of and device for detecting oil pollutions on water surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Belov, Michael Leonidovich; Gorodnichev, Victor Aleksandrovich; Kozintsev, Valentin Ivanovich; Smimova, Olga Alekseevna; Fedotov, Yurii Victorovich; Khroustaleva, Anastasiva Michailovnan

    2008-08-26

    Detection of oil pollution on water surfaces includes providing echo signals obtained from optical radiation of a clean water area at two wavelengths, optically radiating an investigated water area at two wavelengths and obtaining echo signals from the optical radiation of the investigated water area at the two wavelengths, comparing the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the investigated area at two wavelengths with the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the clean water area, and based on the comparison, determining presence or absence of oil pollution in the investigated water area.

  6. WQM: A Water Quality Management Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharda, Ramesh; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Description of WQM, a simulation game designed to introduce students to the water quality management function, emphasizes the decision-making process involved in various facets of business. The simulation model is described, computer support is explained, and issues in water resource management are discussed. (13 references) (LRW)

  7. Fungal pollution of indoor environments and its management.

    PubMed

    Haleem Khan, A A; Mohan Karuppayil, S

    2012-10-01

    Indoor environments play important roles in human health. The health hazards posed by polluted indoor environments include allergy, infections and toxicity. Life style changes have resulted in a shift from open air environments to air tight, energy efficient, environments, in which people spend a substantial portion of their time. Most indoor air pollution comes from the hazardous non biological agents and biological agents. Fungi are ubiquitous in distribution and are a serious threat to public health in indoor environments. In this communication, we have reviewed the current status on biotic indoor air pollution, role of fungi as biological contaminants and their impact on human health. PMID:23961203

  8. Fungal pollution of indoor environments and its management

    PubMed Central

    Haleem Khan, A.A.; Mohan Karuppayil, S.

    2012-01-01

    Indoor environments play important roles in human health. The health hazards posed by polluted indoor environments include allergy, infections and toxicity. Life style changes have resulted in a shift from open air environments to air tight, energy efficient, environments, in which people spend a substantial portion of their time. Most indoor air pollution comes from the hazardous non biological agents and biological agents. Fungi are ubiquitous in distribution and are a serious threat to public health in indoor environments. In this communication, we have reviewed the current status on biotic indoor air pollution, role of fungi as biological contaminants and their impact on human health. PMID:23961203

  9. 40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water. 129.6 Section 129.6 Protection of Environment... in the intake water. (a) Upon the request of the owner or operator of a facility discharging a...) that the toxic pollutant(s) present in the owner's or operator's intake water will not be removed...

  10. 40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water. 129.6 Section 129.6 Protection of Environment... in the intake water. (a) Upon the request of the owner or operator of a facility discharging a...) that the toxic pollutant(s) present in the owner's or operator's intake water will not be removed...

  11. 40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water. 129.6 Section 129.6 Protection of Environment... in the intake water. (a) Upon the request of the owner or operator of a facility discharging a...) that the toxic pollutant(s) present in the owner's or operator's intake water will not be removed...

  12. 40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water. 129.6 Section 129.6 Protection of Environment... in the intake water. (a) Upon the request of the owner or operator of a facility discharging a...) that the toxic pollutant(s) present in the owner's or operator's intake water will not be removed...

  13. Raman scattering of water and photoluminescence of pollutants arising from solid?water interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallée, Ph.; Lafait, J.; Ghomi, M.; Jouanne, M.; Morhange, J. F.

    2003-06-01

    Systematic Raman experiments performed on water and water-ethanol samples, stored in different containers (fused silica, polypropylene, soda-lime glass type III) for several hours, have shown that the luminescence contribution to the Raman signal fluctuations is directly related to the container composition. Intensity fluctuations as large as 98%, have been observed in the spectral regions corresponding to the both water intramolecular and intermolecular vibrations, despite the fact that the wavenumbers of the modes remained unchanged. We undoubtedly attribute these fluctuations to a luminescence phenomenon on the basis of: (i) the absence of such effect in the anti-Stokes domain, (ii) its dependence on the excitation laser wavelength, (iii) other relevant photoluminescence experiments. This luminescence is attributed to pollutants at ultra-low concentration coming from the different containers.

  14. Water pollutant fingerprinting tracks recent industrial transfer from coastal to inland China: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Tian, Dajun; Jiang, Songhui; Andersen, Melvin E.; He, Genhsjeng; Crabbe, M. James C.; Zheng, Yuxin; Zhong, Yang; Qu, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, China’s developed regions have transferred industries to undeveloped regions. Large numbers of unlicensed or unregistered enterprises are widespread in these undeveloped regions and they are subject to minimal regulation. Current methods for tracing industrial transfers in these areas, based on enterprise registration information or economic surveys, do not work. We have developed an analytical framework combining water fingerprinting and evolutionary analysis to trace the pollution transfer features between water sources. We collected samples in Eastern China (industrial export) and Central China (industrial acceptance) separately from two water systems. Based on the water pollutant fingerprints and evolutionary trees, we traced the pollution transfer associated with industrial transfer between the two areas. The results are consistent with four episodes of industrial transfers over the past decade. Our results also show likely types of the transferred industries - electronics, plastics, and biomedicines - that contribute to the water pollution transfer. PMID:23301152

  15. Water pollutant fingerprinting tracks recent industrial transfer from coastal to inland China: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Tian, Dajun; Jiang, Songhui; Andersen, Melvin E.; He, Genhsjeng; Crabbe, M. James C.; Zheng, Yuxin; Zhong, Yang; Qu, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, China's developed regions have transferred industries to undeveloped regions. Large numbers of unlicensed or unregistered enterprises are widespread in these undeveloped regions and they are subject to minimal regulation. Current methods for tracing industrial transfers in these areas, based on enterprise registration information or economic surveys, do not work. We have developed an analytical framework combining water fingerprinting and evolutionary analysis to trace the pollution transfer features between water sources. We collected samples in Eastern China (industrial export) and Central China (industrial acceptance) separately from two water systems. Based on the water pollutant fingerprints and evolutionary trees, we traced the pollution transfer associated with industrial transfer between the two areas. The results are consistent with four episodes of industrial transfers over the past decade. Our results also show likely types of the transferred industries - electronics, plastics, and biomedicines - that contribute to the water pollution transfer.

  16. Water Availability and Management of Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most pressing national and global issues is the availability of freshwater due to global climate change, energy scarcity issues and the increase in world population and accompanying economic growth. Estimates of water supplies and flows through the world's hydrologic c...

  17. Natural water purification and water management by artificial groundwater recharge

    PubMed Central

    Balke, Klaus-Dieter; Zhu, Yan

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, several regions suffer from water scarcity and contamination. The infiltration and subsurface storage of rain and river water can reduce water stress. Artificial groundwater recharge, possibly combined with bank filtration, plant purification and/or the use of subsurface dams and artificial aquifers, is especially advantageous in areas where layers of gravel and sand exist below the earth’s surface. Artificial infiltration of surface water into the uppermost aquifer has qualitative and quantitative advantages. The contamination of infiltrated river water will be reduced by natural attenuation. Clay minerals, iron hydroxide and humic matter as well as microorganisms located in the subsurface have high decontamination capacities. By this, a final water treatment, if necessary, becomes much easier and cheaper. The quantitative effect concerns the seasonally changing river discharge that influences the possibility of water extraction for drinking water purposes. Such changes can be equalised by seasonally adapted infiltration/extraction of water in/out of the aquifer according to the river discharge and the water need. This method enables a continuous water supply over the whole year. Generally, artificially recharged groundwater is better protected against pollution than surface water, and the delimitation of water protection zones makes it even more save. PMID:18357624

  18. INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH (AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research conducted by NRMRL's Air pollution Prevention and Control Division's Indoor Environment Management Branch in Research Triangle Park, NC, has been the basis for developing a better understanding of the relationship between indoor air quality (IAQ) and emissions sources, h...

  19. POINTS-OF-CONTACT (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of research conducted by the Indoor Environment Management Branch (IEMB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, can provide practical methods that architects, design engineers, builders, manufacturers, suppliers and the gen...

  20. HEALTH CARE GUIDE TO POLLUTION PREVENTION IMPLEMENTATION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health Care Guide to Pollution Prevention Implementation through Environmental Management Systems provides example EMS procedures and forms used in four ISO 14001 EMS certified hospitals. The latest revisions include more EMS hospital case studies, more compliance resources, ...

  1. VERIFICATION TESTING OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is the basis for quality assurance for the Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center (APCT Center) operated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It describes the policies, organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, and qualit...

  2. Application of enteric viruses for fecal pollution source tracking in environmental waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial source tracking (MST) tools are used to identify sources of fecal pollution for accurately assessing public health risk and implementing best management practices (BMPs). This review focuses on the potential of enteric viruses for MST applications. Following host infect...

  3. THE USE OF WETLANDS FOR WATER POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands such as marshes, swamps and artificial wetlands, have been shown to remove selected pollutants from urban stormwater runoff and treated municipal wastewaters. Wetlands have produced reduction in BOD, pathogens, and some hydrocarbons, and excel in nitrogen removal. They h...

  4. Wastewater reuse potential analysis: implications for China's water resources management.

    PubMed

    Chu, Junying; Chen, Jining; Wang, Can; Fu, Ping

    2004-06-01

    It has been recognized that wastewater reuse or reclamation serves as an efficient and valuable way to cope with the scarcity of water resources and severity of water pollution. This paper presents the systematic framework of wastewater reuse potential estimation. Based on the regional disparities in China, a linear programming optimization model is developed to explore the potential wastewater reuse quantities, under physical and economic constraints. Sensitivity analysis and Robust Counterpart (RC) optimization are performed to discuss the influences of key parameters and the reuse quantity's decision making under uncertainty. Based on the model, effectiveness of different policy scenarios of water price changes are simulated and evaluated, providing information regarding China's water and wastewater management. PMID:15207605

  5. LINEAR MODELS FOR MANAGING SOURCES OF GROUNDWATER POLLUTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorelick, Steven M.; Gustafson, Sven-Ake

    1984-01-01

    Mathematical models for the problem of maintaining a specified groundwater quality while permitting solute waste disposal at various facilities distributed over space are discussed. The pollutants are assumed to be chemically inert and their concentrations in the groundwater are governed by linear equations for advection and diffusion. The aim is to determine a disposal policy which maximises the total amount of pollutants released during a fixed time T while meeting the condition that the concentration everywhere is below prescribed levels.

  6. Effects of urban stormwater-management strategies on stream-water quantity and quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loperfido, J.V.; Hogan, Dianna M.

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization results in elevated stormwater runoff, greater and more intense streamflow, and increased delivery of pollutants to local streams and downstream aquatic systems such as the Chesapeake Bay. Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) are used to mitigate these effects of urban land use by retaining large volumes of stormwater runoff (water quantity) and removing pollutants in the runoff (water quality). Current USGS research aims to understand how the spatial pattern and connectivity of stormwater BMPs affect water quantity and water quality in urban areas.

  7. OPTIMAL MANAGEMENT OF NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION FROM AGRICULTURE: AN APPLICATION OF DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural non-point source pollution is a major source of water quality impairment. When considering responses to non-point source pollution, several policy options have been considered historically, including reducing inputs (e.g. fertilizers) altering technologies on the landscape (e.g. conserv...

  8. Water reuse introduces the need to integrate both water supply and wastewater management at local and regulatory levels.

    PubMed

    Okun, D A

    2002-01-01

    Growing population and increasing urbanization is resulting in shortages of water supply for communities even in water-rich areas of the world. An approach to addressing this problem has been the introduction of wastewater reclamation and reuse for nonpotable purposes through dual distribution systems in municipalities in the United States on a significant scale in the 1970s and more recently in Japan and Australia. Many hundreds of communities, some very small and others very large, have adopted dual systems to add to their water resources and to reduce the burden of water pollution. Two issues deserve attention. The first is that the provision of water supply and its regulation by government is generally entirely separated from the provision of sewerage and wastewater treatment, so that the management of a reclaimed water service requires new arrangements both on the part of communities and of the government agencies that are concerned with the oversight of water supply and pollution control. The second issue is that the availability of new technology for treating waters drawn from polluted sources has led to proposals for purposefully using reclaimed water for potable purposes. The integration of water supply and wastewater disposal functions in professional organizations, such as IWA, is a useful step towards integrating water management in practice. PMID:12381001

  9. 33 CFR 151.2040 - What are the mandatory ballast water management requirements for vessels equipped with ballast...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the provisions of 15 CFR 754.2(j)(1)(iii). Section 15 CFR 754.2(j)(1)(iii) requires a mandatory... waters of the United States under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 to 1376). ... water management requirements for vessels equipped with ballast tanks that operate in the waters of...

  10. 33 CFR 151.2040 - What are the mandatory ballast water management requirements for vessels equipped with ballast...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the provisions of 15 CFR 754.2(j)(1)(iii). Section 15 CFR 754.2(j)(1)(iii) requires a mandatory... waters of the United States under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 to 1376). ... water management requirements for vessels equipped with ballast tanks that operate in the waters of...

  11. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution abatement cost functions in central portugal.

    PubMed

    Roebeling, P C; Rocha, J; Nunes, J P; Fidélis, T; Alves, H; Fonseca, S

    2014-01-01

    Coastal aquatic ecosystems are increasingly affected by diffuse source nutrient water pollution from agricultural activities in coastal catchments, even though these ecosystems are important from a social, environmental and economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance marginal costs from coastal catchment water pollution abatement and associated marginal benefits from coastal resource appreciation. Diffuse-source water pollution abatement costs across agricultural sectors are not easily determined given the spatial heterogeneity in biophysical and agro-ecological conditions as well as the available range of best agricultural practices (BAPs) for water quality improvement. We demonstrate how the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) can be used to estimate diffuse-source water pollution abatement cost functions across agricultural land use categories based on a stepwise adoption of identified BAPs for water quality improvement and corresponding SWAT-based estimates for agricultural production, agricultural incomes, and water pollution deliveries. Results for the case of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) surface water pollution by the key agricultural land use categories ("annual crops," "vineyards," and "mixed annual crops & vineyards") in the Vouga catchment in central Portugal show that no win-win agricultural practices are available within the assessed BAPs for DIN water quality improvement. Estimated abatement costs increase quadratically in the rate of water pollution abatement, with largest abatement costs for the "mixed annual crops & vineyards" land use category (between 41,900 and 51,900 € tDIN yr) and fairly similar abatement costs across the "vineyards" and "annual crops" land use categories (between 7300 and 15,200 € tDIN yr). PMID:25602550

  12. Waste water treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment of industrial pollutants. The use and effectiveness of biological treatments and carbon additives are examined. References also discuss problems and recommendations for the removal of mercury and its compounds, fertilizers, and pesticides from polluted waste water. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Field Studies for Key Stage 4 on Mine Water Pollution: A University and Museum Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, Jeremy D.; Berry, Stuart D.; Ambrose, Jayne L.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how a university and a museum have worked together to create a "How science works" workshop entitled "What's in our water?" The workshop teaches students about the continuing pollution from a disused coal mine, how the pollution is cleaned up using a state-of-the-art treatment works and how…

  14. An Instructors Guide to Water Pollution. Test Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, David E.

    This is one of several study guides on contemporary problems produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science with support of the National Science Foundation. This study guide on water pollution includes the following units: (1) Overview of World Pollution; (2) History, Definition, Criteria; (3) Ecosystem Theory; (4) Biological…

  15. ANALYSIS OF EXTRACTABLE PRIORITY POLLUTANTS IN WATER BY GC/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following the June 1976 Consent Decree (NRDC et al. vs. EPA), there has been a continuously increasing demand for the analysis of water samples for the 129 priority pollutants. The protocol originally designed for the analysis of the priority pollutants that are extractable into ...

  16. The uncertainty effects of design flow on water quality management.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Feng; Ma, Hwong-Wen

    2008-09-01

    In water quality management, pollution control strategies have been sought to accord with the assimilative capacity of water bodies so as to preserve water quality. The waste load allocation (WLA) is a useful approach to determine the allowable loading of pollution sources in water quality management. For any WLA, a particular water body condition is needed as a basic scenario under which the relevant parameters are fixed. The particular flow rate is known as design flow and usually set at low flow in order to be protective. The design flow is traditionally a particular deterministic value, such as Q (75), implying that it is expected that the probability of water quality violation is 25% in the long run. However, this long-term expectation might not be realized in individual years due to variability of natural flow. The flow variability will make a WLA plan overoptimistic or over-conservative in different years, suggesting that the deterministic design flow without uncertainty consideration might lead to an ineffective or inefficient decision-making. To address the problem, we explicate the relationship between flow variability, design flow and water quality with different flow distributions to facilitate the understanding of the process of a WLA. In order to manifest the uncertainty effects of design flow, the results from the annual flow duration curve (AFDC) is compared with the conventional flow duration curve (FDC). The AFDC approach is capable of obtaining the uncertainty level of the design flow by generating the confidence interval rather than a fixed value. The effect of different record lengths on design flow determination is estimated as well. Finally, a refined WLA process is proposed with a re-examination of water quality violation to improve the allocation decision under uncertainty. TaHan River Basin in northern Taiwan is used as a case study. PMID:17891466

  17. Application of Ion Exchange Technique to Decontamination of Polluted Water Generated by Fukushima Nuclear Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshita, Kenji; Ogata, Takeshi

    By the Fukushima nuclear disaster, large amounts of water and sea water polluted mainly with radioactive Cs were generated and the environment around the nuclear site was contaminated by the fallout from the nuclear site. The coagulation settling process using ferric ferrocyanide and an inorganic coagulant and the adsorption process using ferric ferrocyanide granulated by silica binder were applied to the treatment of polluted water. In the coagulation settling process, Cs was removed completely from polluted water and sea water (DF∼104). In the adsorption process, the recovery of trace Cs (10 ppb) in sea water, which was not suitable for the use of zeolite, was attained successfully. Finally, the recovery of Cs from sewage sludge was tested by a combined process with the hydrothermal process using subcritical water and the coagulation settling process using ferric ferrocyanide. 96% of radioactive Cs was recovered successfully from sewage sludge with the radioactivity of 10,000 Bq/kg.

  18. Pathologic Analysis of Control Plans for Air Pollution Management in Tehran Metropolis: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Shahrabi, Narges Salehi; Pourezzat, Aliasghar; Fayaz-Bakhsh, Ahmad; Mafimoradi, Shiva; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2013-01-01

    Background: Regarding the importance of air pollution issue for large cities, as Tehran metropolis, many plans, programs, projects and regulations have been developed to manage urban air pollution. However, most of them failed to decline the pollution. The purpose of this study is to pathologically analyze air-pollution control plans in order to offer effective solutions for Tehran metropolis. Methods: A qualitative content analysis and a semi-structured interview with 14 practicing professionals were used to identify key causes and sources of Tehran's air pollution, to recognize challenges and obstacles towards effective performance of air-pollution control plans in this metropolitan area, and to suggest the most effective controlling solutions. Results: Challenges related to air-pollution control plans can be divided into two major categories: Firstly lack of integrated and organized stewardship and secondly those related to political, economical, social and technical environmental abbreviated as PEST, challenges. For effective control of the Tehran air pollution, the following eight controlling alternatives were identified: Systematization of plan preparation process, organizing the stewardship, standardization and utilization of new technologies and professional experts, cultural and infrastructural development, realization of social justice, developing coordination and controlling mechanisms, improving citizen's participatory capacity, and focusing on effective management of fuel and energy. Conclusions: Controlling air pollution in Tehran should be considered as a priority for policymakers to make enforcements through applying a systemic cycle of preparation effective and comprehensive plans. Further, implement the enforcements and evaluate the environmental impact of the plans through involving all stakeholders. PMID:24130939

  19. STORM WATER MANAGEMENT MODEL (SWMM) MODERNIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Water Supply and Water Resources Division in partnership with the consulting firm of CDM to redevelop and modernize the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). In the initial phase of this project EPA rewrote SWMM's computational engine usi...

  20. Guide to Managing Pasture Water: Streamside Buffers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Properly managed pasture water not only provides high-quality water which promotes healthy and productive livestock, but also contributes to maintaining water quality downstream. Riparian (streamside) areas serve as a transition between upland pastures and waterways. In other words, they link pastur...

  1. Seeking sustainability: Israel's evolving water management strategy.

    PubMed

    Tal, Alon

    2006-08-25

    The water management policies adopted to address Israel's chronic scarcity have not been without environmental consequences. Yet, through a trial-and-error process, a combined strategy of water transport, rainwater harvesting, and wastewater reuse and desalination, along with a variety of water conservation measures, have put the country on a more sustainable path for the future. PMID:16931752

  2. Water quality management plan for Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The management plan provides an assessment of Cherokee Reservoir's current water quality, identifies those factors which affect reservoir water quality, and develops recommendations aimed at restoring or maintaining water quality at levels sufficient to support diverse beneficial uses. 20 references, 8 figures, 15 tables. (ACR)

  3. Drainage Water Management for the Midwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface tile drainage is an essential water management practice on many highly productive fields in the Midwest. However, nitrate carried in drainage water can lead to local water quality problems and contribute to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico, so strategies are needed to reduce the nitrate load...

  4. NONPOTABLE WATER REUSE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Globally, the need for water reuse is increasing due to rising water demands and finite water resources. In addition, certain regulations and policies, such as zero discharge initiatives or limited new dam construction, may indirectly contribute to the need for reuse. Also, with ...

  5. NONPOTABLE WATER REUSE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Globally, the need for water reuse is increasing due to rising water demands and finite water resources. In addition, certain regulations and policies, such as zero discharge initiatives or limited new dam construction, may indirectly contribute to the need for reuse. With growin...

  6. Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loenen, A.; van Dijk, M.; van Verseveld, W.; Berger, H.

    2012-04-01

    Most of the Dutch large rivers, canals and lakes are controlled by the Dutch water authorities. The main reasons concern safety, navigation and fresh water supply. Historically the separate water bodies have been controlled locally. For optimizating management of these water systems an integrated approach was required. Presented is a platform which integrates data from all control objects for monitoring and control purposes. The Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems (IWP) is an implementation of Delft-FEWS which supports operational control of water systems and actively gives advice. One of the main characteristics of IWP is that is real-time collects, transforms and presents different types of data, which all add to the operational water management. Next to that, hydrodynamic models and intelligent decision support tools are added to support the water managers during their daily control activities. An important advantage of IWP is that it uses the Delft-FEWS framework, therefore processes like central data collection, transformations, data processing and presentation are simply configured. At all control locations the same information is readily available. The operational water management itself gains from this information, but it can also contribute to cost efficiency (no unnecessary pumping), better use of available storage and advise during (water polution) calamities.

  7. Risk assessment of surface water and groundwater pollution through agricultural activity on the catchment area of the Shelek River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubairov, Bulat; Dautova, Assel

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural activity in rural areas of Kazakhstan can create a potential risk of surface and groundwater pollution. In our contribution, we will focus on the risk assessment of surface water and groundwater pollution in the catchment area of the Shelek River basin in southeast Kazakhstan. Since soviet time, in the research area an intensive cultivation of tobacco was performed which means to use a big amount of pesticides during the growing-process. Therefore, this research was conducted in order to receive reliable data for management decisions justification and for practical testing of approach which is recommended by WHO for drinking water supply based on risks mapping. For our study, the soil and water samples from tobacco fields, artesian spring, and surface water source were taken for analysis on pesticides content. The samples were investigated in laboratory of Centre of Sanitary and Epidemiological Expertise of Almaty city (CSEE) according to approved methods from the national standards which are accepted in Kazakhstan. For the first time, in artesian spring small amount of nitrate pollution was found whose groundwater is one of the drinking water supplies of the region.

  8. OVERALL MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FOR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM SMALL WATER POOLS UNDER SIMULATED INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small chamber tests were conducted to experimentally determine the overall mass transfer coefficient for pollutant emissions from still water under simulated indoor-residential or occupational-environmental conditions. Fourteen tests were conducted in small environmental chambers...

  9. Setting Up a Special Collection on Water Pollution in a University Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Janet

    1974-01-01

    The establishment of a special collection within the university library, the complexities of identifying and collecting reports in the environmental area, locating agencies concerned with water pollution, and recording the location of other local collections of data are described. (Author)

  10. Analysis of River Water Quality and its influencing factors for the Effective Management of Water Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, G.; Sadohara, S.; Yoshida, S.; Yuichi, S.

    2011-12-01

    In Japan, remarkable improvements in water quality have been observed over recent years because of regulations imposed on industrial wastewater and development of sewerage system. However, pollution loads from agricultural lands are still high and coverage ratio of sewerage system is still low in small and medium cities. In present context, nonpoint source pollution such as runoff from unsewered developments, urban and agricultural runoffs could be main water quality impacting factors. Further, atmospheric nitrogen (N) is the complex nonpoint source than can seriously affect river water environment. This study was undertaken to spatially investigate the present status of river water quality of Hadano Basin located in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Water quality of six rivers was investigated and its relationship with nonpoint pollution sources was analyzed. This study, with inclusion of ground water circulation and atmospheric N, can be effectively employed for water quality management of other watersheds also, both with and without influence of ground water circulation. Hence, as a research area of this study, it is significant in terms of water quality management. Total nitrogen (TN) was found consistently higher in urbanized basins indicating that atmospheric N might be influencing TN of river water. Ground water circulation influenced both water quality and quantity. In downstream basins of Muro and Kuzuha rivers, Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phosphorus (TP) were diluted by ground water inflow. In Mizunashi River and the upstream of Kuzuha River, surface water infiltrated to the subsurface due to higher river bed permeability. Influencing factors considered in the analysis were unsewered population, agricultural land, urban area, forest and atmospheric N. COD and TP showed good correlation with unsewered population and agricultural land. While TN had good correlation with atmospheric N deposition. Multiple regression analysis between water quality

  11. Techniques for integrated water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The course, Decision Support Techniques for Integrated Water Resources Management, is designed mainly for technical managers and staff of water resources management agencies at the international, national, regional, and local water board level, as well as consultants in other professions working in or interested in the field of water resources development, planning, and operation. It will be held in Wageningen, The Netherlands, June 10-15, 1991.The course objective is to promote better understanding and dissemination of techniques to be applied in “real-world” integrated water resources management. The course offers an introduction to the concepts of decision modeling, plus ample case studies to demonstrate their applicability. It covers decision theory, operations research and simulation methods, as well as certain aspects of law and psychology. Selected multiple objective techniques will be presented, followed by an overview of recent trends in the field. Computer-based techniques will be demonstrated.

  12. NATIONAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ASSESSMENT MODEL, VERSION 2.0 (NWPCAM 2.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    NWPCAM 2.0 is a national-level water quality modeling system that can be used to simulate the water quality changes and economic benefits that result from various pollution control policies. It builds and significantly improves on an earlier model the Clean Water Act Effects Mode...

  13. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume II - Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of water pollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…

  14. Better Insight Into Water Resources Management With Integrated Hydrodynamic And Water Quality Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debele, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Parlange, J.

    2004-12-01

    Models have long been used in water resources management to guide decision making and improve understanding of the system. Numerous models of different scales -spatial and temporal - are available. Yet, very few models manage to bridge simulations of hydrological and water quality parameters from both upland watershed and riverine system. Most water quality models, such as QUAL2E and EPD-RIV1 concentrate on the riverine system while CE-QUAL-W2 and WASP models focus on larger waterbodies, such as lakes and reservoirs. On the other hand, the original SWAT model, HSPF and other upland watershed hydrological models simulate agricultural (diffuse) pollution sources with limited number of processes incorporated to handle point source pollutions that emanate from industrial sectors. Such limitations, which are common in most hydrodynamic and water quality models undermine better understanding that otherwise could be uncovered by employing integrated hydrological and water quality models for both upland watershed and riverine system. The SWAT model is a well documented and verified hydrological and water quality model that has been developed to simulate the effects of various management scenarios on the health of the environment in terms of water quantity and quality. Recently, the SWAT model has been extended to include the simulation of hydrodynamic and water quality parameters in the river system. The extended SWAT model (ESWAT) has been further extended to run using diurnally varying (hourly) weather data and produce outputs at hourly timescales. This and other improvements in the ESWAT model have been documented in the current work. Besides, the results from two case studies in Texas will be reported.

  15. Artificial recharge of groundwater and its role in water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimrey, J.O.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes and discusses the various aspects and methods of artificial recharge with particular emphasis on its uses and potential role in water management in the Arabian Gulf region. Artificial recharge occurs when man's activities cause more water to enter an aquifer, either under pumping or non-pumping conditions, than otherwise would enter the aquifer. Use of artificial recharge can be a practical means of dealing with problems of overdraft of groundwater. Methods of artificial recharge may be grouped under two broad types: (a) water spreading techniques, and (b) well-injection techniques. Successful use of artificial recharge requires a thorough knowledge of the physical and chemical characteristics of the aquifier system, and extensive onsite experimentation and tailoring of the artificial-recharge technique to fit the local or areal conditions. In general, water spreading techniques are less expensive than well injection and large quantities of water can be handled. Water spreading can also result in significant improvement in quality of recharge waters during infiltration and movement through the unsaturated zone and the receiving aquifer. In comparison, well-injection techniques are often used for emplacement of fresh recharge water into saline aquifer zones to form a manageable lens of fresher water, which may later be partially withdrawn for use or continue to be maintained as a barrier against salt-water encroachment. A major advantage in use of groundwater is its availability, on demand to wells, from a natural storage reservoir that is relatively safe from pollution and from damage by sabotage or other hostile action. However, fresh groundwater occurs only in limited quantities in most of the Arabian Gulf region; also, it is heavily overdrafted in many areas, and receives very little natural recharge. Good use could be made of artificial recharge by well injection in replenishing and managing aquifers in strategic locations if sources of

  16. Psychological testing on schoolchildren before and after pollution of drinking water in North Cornwall.

    PubMed

    McMillan, T M; Dunn, G; Colwill, S J

    1993-11-01

    The tap water supply in Camelford, North Cornwall and environs was contaminated by aluminium and other metals in 1988. Richmond tests were routinely given before and after the pollution and here scores are compared between 39 children from schools in the contaminated area and 64 children from Cornish schools outside the polluted area. The study was retrospective and it was not possible to determine whether or how much polluted water individuals had consumed. No differences were found between groups either before or after the pollution accident nor was there any evidence for any sub-group of the polluted group which had been affected. The limits of conclusions which can be drawn from data available are discussed. PMID:8294530

  17. DNA adducts in marine mussel and fresh water fishes living in polluted and unpolluted environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kurelec, B.; Checko, M.; Krca, S.; Garg, A.; Gupta, R.C. Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX )

    1988-09-01

    {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in the digestive gland of marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from polluted and unpolluted sites near Rovinj, Northern Adriatic, revealed that majority of adducts are caused by natural environmental factors rather than by man-made chemicals. The only pollutant-specific adducts were observed in a mussel exposed to seawater experimentally polluted with aminofluorene, and in a population of mussel living at a site heavily polluted with a waste waters of an oil refinery. Fresh water fish species Leuciscus cephalus, Barbus barbus, Abramis brama and Rutilus pigus virgo living in a polluted Sava River, Yugoslavia, or in its unpolluted tributary Korana River, have induced in their livers qualitatively identical and quantitatively similar DNA adducts. These DNA adducts had a species-specific patterns and their appearance was seasonally-dependent.

  18. Political economy of transnational water pollution: what do the LMB data (1985-2000) say?

    PubMed

    Guo, Rongxing; Yang, Kaizhong

    2003-10-01

    On the basis of the cross-section and time-series data of the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB)--including large sections of Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam, and Cambodia, we find little evidence in support of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. Instead, our regressions support the general views that water pollution had been positively related to income level and that, as a result of the end of the Cold War era, it had been significantly reduced in the 1990s vis-à-vis the 1980s. In most circumstances, water resources were more seriously polluted in the transnational border areas than in the other areas. Specifically, the estimated coefficients on the political boundary dummies show that political influence on transnational water pollution was more significant in areas near "the international border along which the river runs" (denoted by BORDER2) than in places near "the international border across which the river runs" (denoted by BORDER1). The estimated coefficients on the ASEAN dummy present some information about the positive role of the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) membership in the reduction of transnational water pollution. Finally, the country-specific dummies are found to present conflicting information about the transnational differences of water pollution, although Thailand is found to have the least water pollution in the LMB. PMID:14986893

  19. Spatial dynamics of water management in irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralidharan, Daya; Knapp, Keith C.

    2009-05-01

    Irrigated agriculture provides 40% of worldwide food supplies but uses large amounts of scarce freshwater and contributes to environmental degradation. At the very core of this problem lie decisions made by irrigators subject to biophysical relations. This research develops a microeconomic model of irrigation management taking into account the dynamics of plant growth over the season, spatial variability in infiltration of applied irrigation water, and fundamental principles from subsurface hydrology. The analysis shows that spatial variability in water infiltration common to traditional irrigation systems increases both applied irrigation water and deep percolation flows by very substantial amounts compared to uniform infiltration. The analysis demonstrates that efficient irrigation management can significantly reduce both applied water and deep percolation at relatively low costs, at least up to a certain level. A long-run analysis of optimal irrigation systems including capital costs indicates that traditional furrow systems are economically efficient over a wide range of water prices and deep percolation costs. Overall, the results indicate that optimal irrigation management can achieve significant resource conservation and pollution control with low loss in agricultural net benefits and without land retirement, investment in capital-intensive systems, or crop switching.

  20. Water pollution risk simulation and prediction in the main canal of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Cheng, Xi

    2014-11-01

    The middle route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (MRP) will divert water to Beijing Tuancheng Lake from Taocha in the Danjiangkou reservoir located in the Hubei province of China. The MRP is composed of a long canal and complex hydraulic structures and will transfer water in open channel areas to provide drinking water for Beijing, Shijiazhuang and other cities under extremely strict water quality requirements. A large number of vehicular accidents, occurred on the many highway bridges across the main canal would cause significant water pollution in the main canal. To ensure that water quality is maintained during the diversion process, the effects of pollutants on water quality due to sudden pollution accidents were simulated and analyzed in this paper. The MIKE11 HD module was used to calculate the hydraulic characteristics of the 42-km Xishi-to-Beijuma River channel of the MRP. Six types of hydraulic structures, including inverted siphons, gates, highway bridges, culverts and tunnels, were included in this model. Based on the hydrodynamic model, the MIKE11 AD module, which is one-dimensional advection dispersion model, was built for TP, NH3-N, CODMn and F. The validated results showed that the computed values agreed well with the measured values. In accordance with transportation data across the Dianbei Highway Bridge, the effects of traffic accidents on the bridge on water quality were analyzed. Based on simulated scenarios with three discharge rates (ranged from 12 m3/s to 17 m3/s, 40 m3/s, and 60 m3/s) and three pollution loading concentration levels (5 t, 10 t and 20 t) when trucks spill their contents (i.e., phosphate fertilizer, cyanide, oil and chromium solution) into the channel, emergency measures were proposed. Reasonable solutions to ensure the water quality with regard to the various types of pollutants were proposed, including treating polluted water, maintaining materials, and personnel reserves.

  1. Fluorescent diagnostics of organic pollution in natural waters: A neural network approach

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, Y.V.; Persiantsev, I.G.; Rebrik, S.P.

    1995-12-31

    Rapid diagnosis of pollution is one of the key tasks in the field of ecological monitoring of natural and technogeneous environment. One of the promising methods of fluorescent diagnosis of organic pollution of water environment is the registration and analysis of two-dimensional Spectral Fluorescent Signatures (SFS). The neural networks - based system suggested in this paper is intended for solving the problem of detection, identification, and concentration measurement of water environmental pollution. The suggested system uses SFS as input pattern and allows one to build a rapid diagnosis system for ecological monitoring.

  2. Comparison of seven water quality assessment methods for the characterization and management of highly impaired river systems.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaoliang; Dahlgren, Randy A; Zhang, Minghua

    2016-01-01

    In the context of water resource management and pollution control, the characterization of water quality impairments and identification of dominant pollutants are of critical importance. In this study, water quality impairment was assessed on the basis of 7 hydrochemical variables that were monitored bimonthly at 17 sites in 2010 along the rural-suburban-urban portion of the Wen-Rui Tang River in eastern China. Seven methods were used to assess water quality in the river system. These methods included single-factor assessment, water quality grading, comprehensive pollution index, the Nemerow pollution index, principle component analysis, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, and comprehensive water quality identification index. Our analysis showed that the comprehensive water quality identification index was the best method for assessing water quality in the Wen-Rui Tang River due to its ability to effectively characterize highly polluted waters with multiple impairments. Furthermore, a guideline for the applications of these methods was presented based on their characteristics and efficacy. Results indicated that the dominant pollutant impairing water quality was total nitrogen comprised mainly of ammonium. The temporal variation of water quality was closely related to precipitation as a result of dilution. The spatial variation of water quality was associated with anthropogenic influences (urban, industrial, and agriculture activities) and water flow direction (downstream segments experiencing cumulative effects of upstream inputs). These findings provide valuable information and guidance for water pollution control and water resource management in highly polluted surface waters with multiple water quality impairments in areas with rapid industrial growth and urbanization. PMID:26643812

  3. Storm water pollution prevention plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. An NPDES permit was issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and was effective on July 1, 1995. The permit requires that a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3) be developed by December 28, 1995, and be fully implemented by July 1, 1996; this plan has been developed to fulfill that requirement. The outfalls and monitoring points described in this plan contain storm water discharges associated with industrial activities as defined in the NPDES regulations. For storm water discharges associated with industrial activity, including storm water discharges associated with construction activity, that are not specifically monitored or limited in this permit, Y-12 Plant personnel will meet conditions of the General Storm Water Rule 1200-4-10. This document presents the programs and physical controls that are in place to achieve the following objectives: ensure compliance with Section 1200-4-10-.04(5) of the TDEC Water Quality Control Regulations and Part 4 of the Y-12 Plant NPDES Permit (TN0002968); provide operating personnel with guidance relevant to storm water pollution prevention and control requirements for their facility and/or project; and prevent or reduce pollutant discharge to the environment, in accordance with the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Tennessee Water Quality Control Act.

  4. URBAN WET-WEATHER FLOW POLLUTION MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the challenges in protecting urban watersheds lies in effectively controlling the contaminants in both overland runoff and sewerage system overflows during wet-weather events. Abatement of wet-weather flow (WWF) pollution can be implemented at the source by land managemen...

  5. Indian water rights settlements and water management innovations: The role of the Arizona Water Settlements Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bark, Rosalind H.; Jacobs, Katharine L.

    2009-05-01

    In the American southwest, over-allocated water supplies, groundwater depletion, and potential climate change impacts are major water management concerns. It may therefore seem counterintuitive that the resolution of outstanding senior tribal water claims, essentially reallocating finite water supplies to tribes, could support improved water supply reliability for many water users as is the case with the 2004 Arizona Water Settlements Act. The large size of the settlement and its multiple components translate to significant impacts on water policy in Arizona. Key water management solutions incorporated into the settlement and associated legislation have expanded the water manager's "toolbox" and are expected to enhance water supply reliability both within and outside Arizona's active management areas. Many of these new tools are transferable to water management applications in other states.

  6. Horse paddocks - an emerging source of agricultural water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masud Parvage, Mohammed; Ulén, Barbro; Kirchmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Horse farms occupy about 4% of the total agricultural land in the EU but are not well investigated with regard to their impact on water quality. Horse paddocks commonly hold horses on a limited space and the animal density often exceeds the recommended density. Therefore, paddock soils receive significant amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) through feed residues and deposition of faeces and urine, which can lead to nutrient build-up in the soil and subsequent losses to aquatic systems. This study characterized the potential risk of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) leaching losses from Swedish horse paddocks through three stage examination of soil and water P and N status. The experiment began with a pilot study where surface soil P status and eight years of drainage P data were examined from a paddock catchment and an adjacent arable catchment both receiving similar amount of P and N over years. Results showed that there were no signi?cant differences in water-soluble P (WSP) or total P data in soils but the drainage water P concentrations, being higher in the paddock catchment (0.33 mg P l-1, mainly in dissolved reactive form) than the arable catchment (0.10 mg P l-1). In the second experiment, soil P and N status were examined in different parts of horse paddocks (feeding, grazing, and excretion areas) to identify existence of any potential hotspots for losses within the paddock. In total, seven horse farms, covering different grazing densities and soil textures representative of Swedish horse paddocks were examined. The results showed that concentrations of WSP, plant available P or P-AL (P extracted in ammonium acetate lactate solution at pH 3.75), and total N were highest in feeding and excretion areas within the paddocks. It was also observed that the WSP concentration in the paddocks was strongly correlated with horse density (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.001) and P-AL with years of paddock management (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.001). In the final experiment, topsoil

  7. Investigation of ground-water pollution at Air Force Plant Number 4, Fort Worth Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    Beginning in December 1982, an extensive investigation was conducted to determine the presence and extent of industrial chemical pollution at Air Force Plant No. 4. A major portion of this work was devoted to the testing of ground water flowing within the overburden. In addition, 16 wells were drilled to monitor for polluted ground water in the upper and middle zones of the Paluxy Formation. Paluxy ground water was monitored; trichloroethylene, 1,2-trans-dichloroethylene, and lesser amounts of other chlorinated hydrocarbons, and the existence of abnormally high water levels in the upper zone of the Paluxy Formation in well P-8(U) were discovered.

  8. Moving towards Total Water Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation will discuss the following topics: Stormwater Best Management Practice (BMP) Placement (SUSTAIN); Sanitary Sewer Overflow Toolbox (SSOAP); BMP and Low Impact Development (LID) Performance; Green/Grey Infrastructure for Stormwater; Combined Sewers and Reuse; Infra...

  9. Valorization of solid waste products from olive oil industry as potential adsorbents for water pollution control--a review.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Hogland, William; Marques, Marcia; Paraskeva, Christakis A; Papadakis, Vagelis G; Sillanpää, Mika

    2014-01-01

    The global olive oil production for 2010 is estimated to be 2,881,500 metric tons. The European Union countries produce 78.5% of the total olive oil, which stands for an average production of 2,136,000 tons. The worldwide consumption of olive oil increased of 78% between 1990 and 2010. The increase in olive oil production implies a proportional increase in olive mill wastes. As a consequence of such increasing trend, olive mills are facing severe environmental problems due to lack of feasible and/or cost-effective solutions to olive-mill waste management. Therefore, immediate attention is required to find a proper way of management to deal with olive mill waste materials in order to minimize environmental pollution and associated health risks. One of the interesting uses of solid wastes generated from olive mills is to convert them as inexpensive adsorbents for water pollution control. In this review paper, an extensive list of adsorbents (prepared by utilizing different types of olive mill solid waste materials) from vast literature has been compiled, and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants removal are presented. Different physicochemical methods that have been used to convert olive mill solid wastes into efficient adsorbents have also been discussed. Characterization of olive-based adsorbents and adsorption mechanisms of various aquatic pollutants on these developed olive-based adsorbents have also been discussed in detail. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed, and suggestions for future research are proposed. PMID:24068561

  10. 40 CFR 129.6 - Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water. 129.6 Section 129.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS TOXIC POLLUTANT EFFLUENT STANDARDS Toxic Pollutant Effluent Standards and Prohibitions § 129.6 Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic...

  11. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 15) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION,...

  12. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 15) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION,...

  13. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 15) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION,...

  14. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 15) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION,...

  15. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 15) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION,...

  16. Reducing urban diffuse pollution and surface water flooding using retrofit street trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothwell, James; Stringer, Pete; Causer, Katherine; Ryan, Matt; Mangan, Steve; Appleton, Ian; Savage, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Nature-based solutions for the management of urban stormwater have been growing in popularity, but there is a lack of empirical performance data for field-scale installations, especially in a UK context. To address this deficiency, a novel retrofit street tree demonstration project was commissioned in the City of Salford, near Manchester (UK). Three fifteen year-old London Plane trees were planted within a large roadside tree trench on an urban residential street. The DeepRoot Silvia Cell modular suspended pavement system was used to maximise soil volume, avoid compaction and support large tree growth. Road runoff is directed to the tree trench via AKO Slot Kerbs. Water is then distributed evenly throughout the whole system via a perforated pipe. Excess water is conveyed out of the system via an underdrain, which is subsequently connected to the sewer network. The tree trench is lined with an impermeable membrane. Access chambers are positioned on the inflow and outflow of the tree trench to facilitate hydrological and water quality monitoring. Installation was completed in autumn 2015 and monitoring will be conducted over a three year period. This paper will provide an overview of the installation process and present initial results on the pollutant removal performance and hydrological functioning of the system.

  17. "Upstream Thinking": the catchment management approach of a water provider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand-Clement, E.; Ross, M.; Smith, D.; Anderson, K.; Luscombe, D.; Le Feuvre, N.; Brazier, R. E.

    2012-04-01

    Human activities have large impacts on water quality and provision. Water companies throughout the UK are faced with the consequences of poor land management and need to find appropriate solutions to decreasing water quality. This is particularly true in the South West of England, where 93% of the drinking water is sourced from rivers and reservoirs: large areas of drained peatlands (i.e. Exmoor and Dartmoor National Parks) are responsible for a significant input of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) discolouring the water, whilst poorly managed farming activities can lead to diffuse pollution. Alongside the direct environmental implications, poor water quality is partly increasing water treatment costs and will drive significant future investment in additional water treatment, with further repercussions on customers. This highlights the need for water companies throughout the UK, and further afield, to be more involved in catchment management. "Upstream Thinking" is South West Water's (SWW) approach to catchment management, where working with stakeholders to improve water quality upstream aims to avoid increasingly costly solutions downstream. This approach has led the company to invest in two major areas of work: (1) The Farmland programme where problematic farm management practices and potential solutions are identified, typically 40% of the required investment is then offered in exchange for a legal undertaking to maintain the new farm assets in good condition for 25 years; (2) The Mires programme which involves heavy investment in peatland restoration through the blocking of open ditches in order to improve water storage and quality in the long term. From these two projects, it has been clear that stakeholder involvement of groups such as local farmers, the Westcountry Rivers Trust, the Exmoor National Park Authority, the Environment Agency, Natural England and the Exmoor Society is essential, first because it draws in catchment improvement expertise which is not

  18. WASTE AND WATER MANAGEMENT FOR CONVENTIONAL COAL COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT REPORT - 1979; VOLUME II. WATER MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, the second of five volumes, describes water management for conventional combustion sources and assesses the current status of various studies and programs in water management and trends in water recycle/reuse. A coal-fired boiler produces both chemical and thermal pol...

  19. Water governance across competing scales: Coupling land and water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, Katherine A.; Barreteau, Olivier

    2014-11-01

    Water governance is becoming an increasingly important area of study for hydrologists, as the impacts of human decisions on water flows and their various management scales are recognised. Hydrology has long tackled issues of water flow and quality across basins-from rain to soil and sub-soil, from upstream to downstream, between surface water and groundwater systems, and through interlinked watersheds-with the understanding that these stocks and flows can be modified en-route due to the actions of people, including through organised water management and governance processes. In this setting, one common aim of water governance is to develop management processes and infrastructure systems that can control hydrological variability at different levels of spatial and temporal scales. For example, water storages, distribution systems and drainage networks are developed for long-term seasonal and inter-decadal variability-in the case of large dams and irrigation systems-as well as shorter-term variability, such as flooding events, that may take place over hours (e.g. urban flash floods), days (e.g. catchment-based river flooding) or months (e.g. basin-wide flood-plain inundation events). Particularly when looking at water supply issues, water allocation rules are elaborated and negotiated in order to provide water to people when and where they most need it, rather than when and where it would naturally be available.

  20. Effects of ecological factors and human activities on nonpoint source pollution in the upper reach of the Yangtze River and its management strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, X. W.; Shen, Z. Y.; Liu, R. M.; Chen, L.; Lin, M.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of ecological and human activities on nonpoint source (NPS) pollution are key issues for sustainable water resources management. In this study, the Improved Export Coefficient Model and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation were adopted to estimate the annual loads of NPS pollutants during the period from 1960 through 2003 in the upper reach of the Yangtze River (URYR). Ecological factors and human activities affecting NPS pollution were distinguished and their respective effects were assessed. Variations of the dominant cause (between ecological factors and human activities) were presented. Furthermore, the combined effect of them on NPS pollution were successfully revealed. The results showed that the annual loads raised from ecological factors of dissolved nitrogen (DN) and dissolved phosphorus (DP) were relatively steady from 1960 to 2003. But those of sediment, absorbed nitrogen (AN) and absorbed phosphorus (AP) decreased during that period. In terms of the annual loads caused by human activities, those of dissolved pollutants increased from 1960 to 2000 and then fell. Those of sediment as well as absorbed pollutants peaked in 1980 and then decreased. Simultaneously, the dominant cause of DN loads shifted from ecological factors to human activities after 1980 while DP loads were mainly contributed by human activities. However, sediment, dissolved pollutants were primarily exported by ecological factors. Finally, strategies for managing anthropogenic activities were proposed and their effects on NPS pollution reduction were also depicted quantitatively.

  1. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    SciTech Connect

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  2. Water management in the Roman world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermody, Brian J.; van Beek, Rens L. P. H.; Meeks, Elijah; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; Scheidel, Walter; Wassen, Martin J.; van der Velde, Ype; Dekker, Stefan C.

    2014-05-01

    Climate variability can have extreme impacts on societies in regions that are water-limited for agriculture. A society's ability to manage its water resources in such environments is critical to its long-term viability. Water management can involve improving agricultural yields through in-situ irrigation or redistributing water resources through trade in food. Here, we explore how such water management strategies affected the resilience of the Roman Empire to climate variability in the water-limited region of the Mediterranean. Using the large-scale hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB and estimates of landcover based on the Historical Database of the Global Environment (HYDE) we generate potential agricultural yield maps under variable climate. HYDE maps of population density in conjunction with potential yield estimates are used to develop maps of agricultural surplus and deficit. The surplus and deficit regions are abstracted to nodes on a water redistribution network based on the Stanford Geospatial Network Model of the Roman World (ORBIS). This demand-driven, water redistribution network allows us to quantitatively explore how water management strategies such as irrigation and food trade improved the resilience of the Roman Empire to climate variability.

  3. Municipal Water Demand: Statistical and Management Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, William E.

    In the foreword to this volume, Charles W. Howe, general editor of the Westview Press series on water policy and management, states that the goal of this book is to emphasize “the potential for improved water management with reduced economic and environmental costs by utilizing modern methods of demand estimation that take into account user responsiveness to price, conservation measures, and economic-demographic changes.” The authors accomplish their purpose, but the book itself leaves much to be desired.

  4. Perspectives of phytoremediation using water hyacinth for removal of heavy metals, organic and inorganic pollutants in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Ponraj, Mohanadoss; Talaiekhozani, Amirreza; Mohamad, Shaza Eva; Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Sabbagh, Farzaneh; Sairan, Fadzlin Md

    2015-11-01

    The development of eco-friendly and efficient technologies for treating wastewater is one of the attractive research area. Phytoremediation is considered to be a possible method for the removal of pollutants present in wastewater and recognized as a better green remediation technology. Nowadays the focus is to look for a sustainable approach in developing wastewater treatment capability. Water hyacinth is one of the ancient technology that has been still used in the modern era. Although, many papers in relation to wastewater treatment using water hyacinth have been published, recently removal of organic, inorganic and heavy metal have not been reviewed extensively. The main objective of this paper is to review the possibility of using water hyacinth for the removal of pollutants present in different types of wastewater. Water hyacinth is although reported to be as one of the most problematic plants worldwide due to its uncontrollable growth in water bodies but its quest for nutrient absorption has provided way for its usage in phytoremediation, along with the combination of herbicidal control, integratated biological control and watershed management controlling nutrient supply to control its growth. Moreover as a part of solving wastewater treatment problems in urban or industrial areas using this plant, a large number of useful byproducts can be developed like animal and fish feed, power plant energy (briquette), ethanol, biogas, composting and fiber board making. In focus to the future aspects of phytoremediation, the utilization of invasive plants in pollution abatement phytotechnologies can certainly assist for their sustainable management in treating waste water. PMID:26311085

  5. A Methodological Approach for Spatiotemporally Analyzing Water-Polluting Effluents in Agricultural Landscapes Using Partial Triadic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, J J; Darwiche-Criado, N; Sorando, R; Comín, F A; Sánchez-Pérez, J M

    2015-09-01

    Multivariate techniques for two-dimensional data matrices are normally used in water quality studies. However, if the temporal dimension is included in the analysis, other statistical techniques are recommended. In this study, partial triadic analysis was used to investigate the spatial and temporal variability in water quality variables sampled in a northeastern Spain river basin. The results highlight the spatiality of the physical and chemical properties of water at different sites along a river over 1 yr. Partial triadic analysis allowed us to clearly identify the presence of a stable spatial structure that was common to all sampling dates across the entire catchment. Variables such as electrical conductivity and Na and Cl ions were associated with agricultural sources, whereas total dissolved nitrogen, NH-N concentrations, and NO-N concentrations were linked to polluted urban sites; differences were observed between irrigated and nonirrigated periods. The concentration of NO-N was associated with both agricultural and urban land uses. Variables associated with urban and agricultural pollution sources were highly influenced by the seasonality of different activities conducted in the study area. In analyzing the impact of land use and fertilization management on water runoff and effluents, powerful statistical tools that can properly identify the causes of pollution in watersheds are important. Partial triadic analysis can efficiently summarize site-specific water chemistry patterns in an applied setting for land- and water-monitoring schemes at the landscape level. The method is recommended for land-use decision-making processes to reduce harmful environmental effects and promote sustainable watershed management. PMID:26436278

  6. Gulls identified as major source of fecal pollution in coastal waters: a microbial source tracking study.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Susana; Henriques, Isabel S; Leandro, Sérgio Miguel; Alves, Artur; Pereira, Anabela; Correia, António

    2014-02-01

    Gulls were reported as sources of fecal pollution in coastal environments and potential vectors of human infections. Microbial source tracking (MST) methods were rarely tested to identify this pollution origin. This study was conducted to ascertain the source of water fecal contamination in the Berlenga Island, Portugal. A total of 169 Escherichia coli isolates from human sewage, 423 isolates from gull feces and 334 water isolates were analyzed by BOX-PCR. An average correct classification of 79.3% was achieved. When an 85% similarity cutoff was applied 24% of water isolates were present in gull feces against 2.7% detected in sewage. Jackknifing resulted in 29.3% of water isolates classified as gull, and 10.8% classified as human. Results indicate that gulls constitute a major source of water contamination in the Berlenga Island. This study validated a methodology to differentiate human and gull fecal pollution sources in a real case of a contaminated beach. PMID:24140684

  7. Water supply: Yield relationships developed for study of water management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USA's west-central Great Plains is a semiarid region with irrigation largely from the Ogallala Aquifer, which has experienced extensive water-level declines. Farmers respond to reduced water supplies with alternative management, irrigation equipment, and crops; and, it is imperative the economic...

  8. Water Security - science and management challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.

    2015-04-01

    This paper briefly reviews the contemporary issues of Water Security, noting that current and prospective pressures represent major challenges for society. It is argued that, given the complex interdependencies and multi-faceted nature of these challenges, new trans-disciplinary science is needed to support the development of science-based policy and management. The effects of human society on land and water are now large and extensive. Hence we conclude that: (a) the management of water involves the management of a complex human-natural system, and (b) potential impacts of the human footprint on land and water systems can influence not only water quantity and quality, but also local and regional climate. We note, however, that research to quantify impacts of human activities is, in many respects, in its infancy. The development of the science base requires a trans-disciplinary place-based focus that must include the natural sciences, social sciences and engineering, and address management challenges at scales that range from local to large river basin scale, and may include trans-boundary issues. Large basin scale studies can provide the focus to address these science and management challenges, including the feedbacks associated with man's impact from land and water management on regional climate systems.

  9. Optimizing basin-scale coupled water quantity and water quality man-agement with stochastic dynamic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo; Engelund Holm, Peter; Trapp, Stefan; Rosbjerg, Dan; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Few studies address water quality in hydro-economic models, which often focus primarily on optimal allocation of water quantities. Water quality and water quantity are closely coupled, and optimal management with focus solely on either quantity or quality may cause large costs in terms of the oth-er component. In this study, we couple water quality and water quantity in a joint hydro-economic catchment-scale optimization problem. Stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) is used to minimize the basin-wide total costs arising from water allocation, water curtailment and water treatment. The simple water quality module can handle conservative pollutants, first order depletion and non-linear reactions. For demonstration purposes, we model pollutant releases as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and use the Streeter-Phelps equation for oxygen deficit to compute the resulting min-imum dissolved oxygen concentrations. Inelastic water demands, fixed water allocation curtailment costs and fixed wastewater treatment costs (before and after use) are estimated for the water users (agriculture, industry and domestic). If the BOD concentration exceeds a given user pollution thresh-old, the user will need to pay for pre-treatment of the water before use. Similarly, treatment of the return flow can reduce the BOD load to the river. A traditional SDP approach is used to solve one-step-ahead sub-problems for all combinations of discrete reservoir storage, Markov Chain inflow clas-ses and monthly time steps. Pollution concentration nodes are introduced for each user group and untreated return flow from the users contribute to increased BOD concentrations in the river. The pollutant concentrations in each node depend on multiple decision variables (allocation and wastewater treatment) rendering the objective function non-linear. Therefore, the pollution concen-tration decisions are outsourced to a genetic algorithm, which calls a linear program to determine the remainder of the decision

  10. Development of a Coupled Ocean-Hydrologic Model to Simulate Pollutant Transport in Singapore Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, V. P.

    2015-12-01

    Intensive agricultural, economic and industrial activities in Singapore and Malaysia have made our coastal areas under high risk of water pollution. A coupled ocean-hydrologic model is employed to perform three-dimensional simulations of flow and pollutant transport in Singapore coastal waters. The hydrologic SWAT model is coupled with the coastal ocean SUNTANS model by outputting streamflow and pollutant concentrations from the SWAT model and using them as inputs for the SUNTANS model at common boundary points. The coupled model is calibrated with observed sea surface elevations and velocities, and high correlation coefficients that exceed 0.97 and 0.91 are found for sea surface elevations and velocities, respectively. The pollutants are modeled as Gaussian passive tracers, and are released at five upstream locations in Singapore coastal waters. During the Northeast monsoon, pollutants released in Source 1 (Johor River), Source 2 (Tiram River), Source 3 (Layang River) and Source 4 (Layau River) enter the Singapore Strait after 4 days of release and reach Sentosa Island within 9 days. Meanwhile, pollutants released in Source 5 (Kallang River) reach Sentosa Island after 4 days. During the Southwest monsoon, the dispersion time is roughly doubled, with pollutants from Sources 1 - 4 entering the Singapore Strait only after 12 days of release due to weak currents.

  11. Remote measurements of water pollution with a lidar polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheives, T. C.; Rouse, J. W., Jr.; Mayo, W. T., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    This paper examines a dual polarization laser backscatter system as a method for remote measurements of certain water quality parameters. Analytical models for describing the backscatter from turbid water and oil on turbid water are presented and compared with experimental data. Laser backscatter field measurements from natural waterways are presented and compared with simultaneous ground observations of the water quality parameters: turbidity, suspended solids, and transmittance. The results of this study show that the analytical models appear valid and that the sensor investigated is applicable to remote measurements of these water quality parameters and oil spills on water.-

  12. [Spatiotemporal variation analysis and identification of water pollution sources in the Zhangweinan River basin].

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua-Shan; Xu, Zong-Xue; Tang, Fang-Fang; Yu, Wei-Dong; Cheng, Yan-Ping

    2012-02-01

    In this study, several statistical methods including cluster analysis, seasonal Kendall test, factor analysis/principal component analysis and principal component regression were used to evaluate the spatiotemporal variation of water quality and identify the sources of water pollution in the Zhangweinan River basin. Results of spatial cluster analysis and principal component analysis indicated that the Zhangweinan River basin can be classified into two regions. One is the Zhang River upstream located in the northwest of the Zhangweinan River basin where water quality is good. The other one covers the Wei River and eastern plain of the Zhangweinan River basin, where water is seriously polluted. In this region, pollutants from point sources flow into the river and the water quality changes greatly. Results of temporal cluster analysis and seasonal Kendall test indicated that the study periods may be classified into three periods and two different trends were detected during the period of 2002-2009. The first period was the year of 2002-2003, during which water quality had deteriorated and serious pollution was observed in the Wei river basin and eastern plain of the Zhangweinan River basin. The second period was the year of 2004-2006, during which water quality became better. The year of 2007-2009 is the third period, during which water quality had been improved greatly. Despite that water quality in the Zhangweinan River basin had been improved during the period of 2004-2009, the water quality in the Wei River (southwestern part of the basin), the Wei Canal River and the Zhangweixin River (eastern plain of the basin) is still poor. Principal component analysis and multi-linear regression of the absolute principal component scores showed that the main pollutants of the Zhangweinan River basin came from point source discharge such as heavy industrial wastewater, municipal sewage, chemical industries wasterwater and mine drainage in upstream. Non-point source pollution

  13. Geospatial Investigation into Groundwater Pollution and Water Quality Supported by Satellite Data: A Case Study from the Evros River (Eastern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Dimitriou; Angeliki, Mentzafou; Vasiliki, Markogianni; Maria, Tzortziou; Christina, Zeri

    2014-06-01

    Managing water resources, in terms of both quality and quantity, in transboundary rivers is a difficult and challenging task that requires efficient cross-border cooperation and transparency. Groundwater pollution risk assessment and mapping techniques over the full catchment area are important tools that could be used as part of these water resource management efforts, to estimate pollution pressures and optimize land planning processes. The Evros river catchment is the second largest river in Eastern Europe and sustains a population of 3.6 million people in three different countries (Bulgaria, Turkey and Greece). This study provides detailed information on the main pollution sources and pressures in the Evros catchment and, for the first time, applies, assesses and evaluates a groundwater pollution risk mapping technique using satellite observations (Landsat NDVI) and an extensive dataset of field measurements covering different seasons and multiple years. We found that approximately 40 % of the Greek part of the Evros catchment is characterized as of high and very high pollution risk, while 14 % of the study area is classified as of moderate risk. Both the modeled and measured water quality status of the river showed large spatiotemporal variations consistent with the strong anthropogenic pressures in this system, especially on the northern and central segments of the catchment. The pollutants identified illustrate inputs of agrochemicals and urban wastes in the river. High correlation coefficients ( R between 0.79 and 0.85) were found between estimated pollution risks and measured concentrations of those chemical parameters that are mainly attributed to anthropogenic activities rather than in situ biogeochemical processes. The pollution risk method described here could be used elsewhere as a decision support tool for mitigating the impact of hazardous human activities and improving management of groundwater resources.

  14. Water Management in England: A Regional Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okun, Daniel A.

    1975-01-01

    Reorganization of authorities resulting in sound direction, greater flexibility, and more attention to cost effectiveness has helped the British achieve a high quality of water service. The history and development of British water management are reviewed and more cooperation between federal and state agencies is encouraged. (BT)

  15. Troubled waters: managing our vital resources.

    PubMed

    1999-03-01

    Presented are articles from Global Issues, an electronic journal of the US Information Agency that focuses on managing the water resources of the world. The three main articles are as follows: 1) ¿The Quiet Revolution to Restore Our Aquatic Ecosystems¿, 2) ¿Charting a New Course to Save America's Waters¿, and 3) ¿Freshwater: Will the World's Future Needs be Met?¿ The journal also presents commentaries on the age-old water shortage in the Middle East; solutions to water waste on the farm and in cities; managing water scarcity in the driest region of the US; and a new approach to environmental management in the Bermejo River in Argentina and Bolivia. Furthermore, this issue contains statistics on water usage and supplies and a report that examines proposals for policies that could set the world on a better course for water management. Lastly, this issue provides a bibliography of books, documents, and articles on freshwater issues as well as a list of Internet sites offering further information on water quality, supplies, and conservation. PMID:12290381

  16. Crop water productivity and irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern irrigation systems offer large increases in crop water productivity compared with rainfed or gravity irrigation, but require different management approaches to achieve this. Flood, sprinkler, low-energy precision application, LEPA, and subsurface drip irrigation methods vary widely in water a...

  17. Terrestrial pollutant runoff to the Great Barrier Reef: An update of issues, priorities and management responses.

    PubMed

    Brodie, J E; Kroon, F J; Schaffelke, B; Wolanski, E C; Lewis, S E; Devlin, M J; Bohnet, I C; Bainbridge, Z T; Waterhouse, J; Davis, A M

    2012-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is a World Heritage Area and contains extensive areas of coral reef, seagrass meadows and fisheries resources. From adjacent catchments, numerous rivers discharge pollutants from agricultural, urban, mining and industrial activity. Pollutant sources have been identified and include suspended sediment from erosion in cattle grazing areas; nitrate from fertiliser application on crop lands; and herbicides from various land uses. The fate and effects of these pollutants in the receiving marine environment are relatively well understood. The Australian and Queensland Governments responded to the concerns of pollution of the GBR from catchment runoff with a plan to address this issue in 2003 (Reef Plan; updated 2009), incentive-based voluntary management initiatives in 2007 (Reef Rescue) and a State regulatory approach in 2009, the Reef Protection Package. This paper reviews new research relevant to the catchment to GBR continuum and evaluates the appropriateness of current management responses. PMID:22257553

  18. Predicting indoor pollutant concentrations, and applications to air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzetti, David M.

    2002-10-01

    Because most people spend more than 90% of their time indoors, predicting exposure to airborne pollutants requires models that incorporate the effect of buildings. Buildings affect the exposure of their occupants in a number of ways, both by design (for example, filters in ventilation systems remove particles) and incidentally (for example, sorption on walls can reduce peak concentrations, but prolong exposure to semivolatile organic compounds). Furthermore, building materials and occupant activities can generate pollutants. Indoor air quality depends not only on outdoor air quality, but also on the design, maintenance, and use of the building. For example, ''sick building'' symptoms such as respiratory problems and headaches have been related to the presence of air-conditioning systems, to carpeting, to low ventilation rates, and to high occupant density (1). The physical processes of interest apply even in simple structures such as homes. Indoor air quality models simulate the processes, such as ventilation and filtration, that control pollutant concentrations in a building. Section 2 describes the modeling approach, and the important transport processes in buildings. Because advection usually dominates among the transport processes, Sections 3 and 4 describe methods for predicting airflows. The concluding section summarizes the application of these models.

  19. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  20. Drinking Water Supplies: Protection Through Watershed Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, G. William

    1984-04-01

    The practice of purchasing land to protect surface water supply sources is rarely practical today. This is particularly true near urban areas. Therefore, Drinking Water Supplies attempts to provide an action-oriented guidebook on how to develop and implement watershed management strategies to protect surface water supplies from contamination under the constraints of today's economic, legal, institutional, and political conditions. The book succeeds in providing a very clear and useful guide to the process of developing such a strategy. It should be helpful to small and moderate-sized water supply systems and local governments interested in taking action to protect their surface water supply sources.

  1. Alternative approaches to pollution control and waste management: Regulatory and economic instruments. Planteamientos alternos para el control de la contaminacion y el manejo de desechos: instrumentos regulatorios y economicos

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The paper examines ways in which developed and developing countries control pollution and manage urban wastes. It addresses pollution issues of concern to local, provincial, and national governments, as well as nongovernmental organizations. Two approaches to pollution management are discussed: direct regulation and economic incentives. Direct regulation sets standards and enforces them through permits, licenses, and controls on land or water use. Economic incentives encourage polluters to adopt control measures and are more flexible and cost effective. Such incentives include charging fees to enterprises for pollution discharges or providing government subsidies for pollution control technology. The author tells how economic incentives can supplement direct regulation and why such incentives, when properly used, offer advantages over direct regulation. The author discusses how governments have used economic incentives to deal with specific environmental issues and what factors policymakers must address when they plan pollution controls.

  2. Global Anthropogenic Phosphorus Loads to Fresh Water, Grey Water Footprint and Water Pollution Levels: A High-Resolution Global Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y. Y.

    2014-12-01

    We estimated anthropogenic phosphorus (P) loads to freshwater, globally at a spatial resolution level of 5 by 5 arc minute. The global anthropogenic P load to freshwater systems from both diffuse and point sources in the period 2002-2010 was 1.5 million tonnes per year. China contributed about 30% to this global anthropogenic P load. India was the second largest contributor (8%), followed by the USA (7%), Spain and Brazil each contributing 6% to the total. The domestic sector contributed the largest share (54%) to this total followed by agriculture (38%) and industry (8%). Among the crops, production of cereals had the largest contribution to the P loads (32%), followed by fruits, vegetables, and oil crops, each contributing about 15% to the total. We also calculated the resultant grey water footprints, and relate the grey water footprints per river basin to runoff to calculate the P-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment.

  3. Solar-Enhanced Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water Treatment: Simultaneous Removal of Pathogens and Chemical Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Tsydenova, Oyuna; Batoev, Valeriy; Batoeva, Agniya

    2015-01-01

    The review explores the feasibility of simultaneous removal of pathogens and chemical pollutants by solar-enhanced advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). The AOPs are based on in-situ generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), most notably hydroxyl radicals •OH, that are capable of destroying both pollutant molecules and pathogen cells. The review presents evidence of simultaneous removal of pathogens and chemical pollutants by photocatalytic processes, namely TiO2 photocatalysis and photo-Fenton. Complex water matrices with high loads of pathogens and chemical pollutants negatively affect the efficiency of disinfection and pollutant removal. This is due to competition between chemical substances and pathogens for generated ROS. Other possible negative effects include light screening, competitive photon absorption, adsorption on the catalyst surface (thereby inhibiting its photocatalytic activity), etc. Besides, some matrix components may serve as nutrients for pathogens, thus hindering the disinfection process. Each type of water/wastewater would require a tailor-made approach and the variables that were shown to influence the processes—catalyst/oxidant concentrations, incident radiation flux, and pH—need to be adjusted in order to achieve the required degree of pollutant and pathogen removal. Overall, the solar-enhanced AOPs hold promise as an environmentally-friendly way to substitute or supplement conventional water/wastewater treatment, particularly in areas without access to centralized drinking water or sewage/wastewater treatment facilities. PMID:26287222

  4. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management (WQM) plans. WQM plans consist of...

  5. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management (WQM) plans. WQM plans consist of...

  6. Impact of riverbank filtration on treatment of polluted river water.

    PubMed

    Singh, P; Kumar, P; Mehrotra, I; Grischek, T

    2010-05-01

    The impact of riverbank filtration (RBF) on the treatment of water from the River Yamuna at Mathura, which has disagreeable visual properties, has been investigated. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and colour of the river water were 4.0-6.8mg/L and 40-65 colour units (CU), respectively. Pre-chlorination is in practice to improve raw water quality. Chlorine doses as high as 60mg/L ahead of the water treatment units reduced colour by about 78%. Removal of DOC and UV-absorbance was less than 18%. In comparison to direct pumping of the river water, collection of water through RBF resulted in the reduction of DOC, colour, UV-absorbance and fecal coliforms by around 50%. However, riverbank filtrate did not conform to the drinking water quality standards. Therefore, riverbank-filtered water along with the Yamuna water were ozonated for different durations. To reduce DOC to the desired level, the dose of ozone required for the riverbank filtrate was found to be considerably less than the ozone required for the river water. RBF as compared to direct pumping of Yamuna water appears to be effective in improving the quality of the raw water. PMID:20089349

  7. WATER POLLUTION POTENTIAL OF COAL-SLURRY PIPELINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report characterizes those contaminants associated with transport waters from coal-slurry pipelines. This was accomplished through tests using a rotating bench scale reactor. Tests consisted of coal mixed with (1) tap water, (2) tap water with additives, (3) synthetic saline...

  8. Water Budgets: Foundations for Effective Water-Resources and Environmental Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Richard W.; Winter, Thomas C.; LaBaugh, James W.; Franke, O. Lehn

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Water budgets provide a means for evaluating availability and sustainability of a water supply. A water budget simply states that the rate of change in water stored in an area, such as a watershed, is balanced by the rate at which water flows into and out of the area. An understanding of water budgets and underlying hydrologic processes provides a foundation for effective water-resource and environmental planning and management. Observed changes in water budgets of an area over time can be used to assess the effects of climate variability and human activities on water resources. Comparison of water budgets from different areas allows the effects of factors such as geology, soils, vegetation, and land use on the hydrologic cycle to be quantified. Human activities affect the natural hydrologic cycle in many ways. Modifications of the land to accommodate agriculture, such as installation of drainage and irrigation systems, alter infiltration, runoff, evaporation, and plant transpiration rates. Buildings, roads, and parking lots in urban areas tend to increase runoff and decrease infiltration. Dams reduce flooding in many areas. Water budgets provide a basis for assessing how a natural or human-induced change in one part of the hydrologic cycle may affect other aspects of the cycle. This report provides an overview and qualitative description of water budgets as foundations for effective water-resources and environmental management of freshwater hydrologic systems. Perhaps of most interest to the hydrologic community, the concepts presented are also relevant to the fields of agriculture, atmospheric studies, meteorology, climatology, ecology, limnology, mining, water supply, flood control, reservoir management, wetland studies, pollution control, and other areas of science, society, and industry. The first part of the report describes water storage and movement in the atmosphere, on land surface, and in the subsurface, as well as water exchange among these

  9. Potato Nitrogen and Water Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tuber yields and quality are extremely sensitive to adequate availability of water and nitrogen, particularly at some growth stages. Irrigation to replenish 70% of evapotranspiration (ET) as compared to that of full ET, resulted in about 18% reduction in tuber yield. However, 20% deficit irri...

  10. Radioactive pollution of the waters of the baltic sea during 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarev, L.N.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Gavrilov, V.M.; Gritchenko, Z.G.; Ivanova, L.M.; Orlova, T.E.; Tishkova, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from an investigation of radioactive pollution of the waters of the Baltic Sea during 1986. Inhomogeneities in the pollution of this area of water, due to varying density of atmospheric radioactive fallout, are detected. It is found that among the radionuclides entering the surface of the Baltic Sea in 1986 as a result of atmospheric transport, the main one in terms of radiation dose is cesium-137. Comparisons are made of the level of cesium-137 content in the waters of the Baltic Sea in 1986 and in preceding years. It is noted that even in the most polluted regions of the sea the cesium-137 content was 500 times less than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) in the USSR for drinking water. The first results of the determination of plutonium-239 and 240 in the Baltic Sea are presented.

  11. Surface water sewer misconnections in England and Wales: Pollution sources and impacts.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J B; Butler, D

    2015-09-01

    In urban areas served by separate sewerage consisting of separate pipe systems it is not uncommon for misconnections to be made either accidentally or deliberately, whereby the wrong effluent is connected to the wrong sewer. The main focus of this problem has been on in-household appliances that are wrongly connected to separate surface water sewers, potentially leading to pollution of receiving waters and non-compliance with statutory water quality standards. This paper examines the available evidence to evaluate the potential scale, severity and cost of the problem in England and Wales in comparison to that reported from investigations in the United States. The particular difficulties associated with distinguishing specific sewage sources in the wastewater "cocktail" discharged at polluted surface water outfalls are reviewed. The deficiencies of existing legislation and enforcing compliance with respect to misconnections are also discussed and the pollution potential resulting from domestic misconnections is explored based on sampled data. PMID:25918897

  12. Joint management of water and electricity in State Water Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between California's water and electrical power is important for improving the management and planning of these two vital resources to the state's economy development and people's well-being. It is often unclear for consumers, managers and decision-makers that water and electricity in California are inextricably connected. In the past, insufficient considerations of electricity production, consumption and cost in the State Water Project (SWP) - the world's largest publicly built and operated water and power development and conveyance system-has led to significant water rate and electricity rate increase. An innovative concept of this proposed study is developing new technology capable of managing and planning water and power jointly in SWP to promote its operation efficiency, sustainability and resilience to potential water shortage caused by climate change and population increase. To achieve this goal, a nonlinear, two-fold network model describing water delivery in company with power consumption and generation will be constructed, and a multi-objective optimization scheme is to be used to resolve this complex nonlinear network problem.

  13. Manpower and Training Needs in Water Pollution Control. Senate Document No. 49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

    To determine trained manpower needs and training resources in the clean water field, data were gathered from interviews with state and federal agencies as well as the Water Pollution Control Federation, from prior manpower reports, and from Bureau of Census employment data. After analysis of present manpower resources and future requirements,…

  14. Social Status Variations in Attitudes and Conceptualization Pertaining to Water Pollution and Supply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Irving A.

    Data, secured by questionnaire from single household dwelling units in Warwick, Rhode Island, were used to ascertain differences among social status groups with respect to attitudes and conceptualization pertaining to water pollution and water supply. A social status index was used to delineate three status groups having high, middle, and low rank…

  15. We All Live Downstream. A Guide to Waste Treatment That Stops Water Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costner, Pat; And Others

    Based on the idea that the prevention and treatment of water pollution should begin at its source, this document focuses on some methods that individuals can use in their homes and businesses to treat wastewater. Chapter one, "What Is the Water Crisis?" explains the basic concepts of the hydrologic cycle, evapotranspiration, and the quantity of…

  16. Laboratory simulation of spontaneous breakup of polluted water drops in the horizontal electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalwankar, Rohini; Subramanian, Subashini; Kamra, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    A laboratory simulation experiment to study the spontaneous breakup of distilled and polluted water drops suspended in horizontal electric field of 0, 100, 300, 500 kV m-1 has been performed in a small vertical wind tunnel. Water drops are formed from distilled water and from 100 ppm solution of ammonium sulfate and potassium nitrate. Results show that the life time of the both distilled and polluted water drops decreases with the increase in electric field. The water drops formed from both distilled and polluted water become more oblate as the electric field is increased. The results have been interpreted in terms of enhanced instability of water drops due to the changes in surface tension, viscosity, conductivity and hydro-dynamics of the water drop. Significance of the results is discussed in view of the possible modification of the drop size distribution and consequent growth of raindrops and lightning activity due to the combined effect of pollutants and electrical forces in clouds formed over big cities.

  17. Water Pollution Control Training: The Educational Role of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Frederick D.

    Presented are the results of a study to determine the perceived needs of environmental control education programs as seen by students, instructors, deans or program directors, and field-related employers in the field of water pollution control. Data were collected utilizing three approaches: survey instruments, information from Water Quality…

  18. Oil palm biomass-based adsorbents for the removal of water pollutants--a review.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Tanweer; Rafatullah, Mohd; Ghazali, Arniza; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah

    2011-07-01

    This article presents a review on the role of oil palm biomass (trunks, fronds, leaves, empty fruit bunches, shells, etc.) as adsorbents in the removal of water pollutants such as acid and basic dyes, heavy metals, phenolic compounds, various gaseous pollutants, and so on. Numerous studies on adsorption properties of various low-cost adsorbents, such as agricultural wastes and its based activated carbons, have been reported in recent years. Studies have shown that oil palm-based adsorbent, among the low-cost adsorbents mentioned, is the most promising adsorbent for removing water pollutants. Further, these bioadsorbents can be chemically modified for better efficiency and can undergo multiple reuses to enhance their applicability at an industrial scale. It is evident from a literature survey of more than 100 recent papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for various pollutants. The conclusion is been drawn from the reviewed literature, and suggestions for future research are proposed. PMID:21929380

  19. Soil pollution at outdoor shooting ranges: Health effects, bioavailability and best management practices.

    PubMed

    Fayiga, A O; Saha, U K

    2016-09-01

    The total lead (Pb) concentrations of the surface soil, sub surface soil, vegetation and surface waters of outdoor shooting ranges are extremely high and above regulatory limits. Lead is dangerous at high concentrations and can cause a variety of serious health problems. Shooters and range workers are exposed to lead dust and can even take Pb dust home to their families while some animals around the shooting range can ingest the Pb bullets. The toxicity of Pb depends on its bioavailability which has been determined to be influenced greatly by the geochemical properties of each site. The bioavailability of Pb in shooting ranges has been found to be higher than other metal contaminated soils probably because of its very low residual Pb (<1%). Despite being an immobile element in the soil, migration of Pb within shooting ranges and offsite has been reported in literature. Best management practices to reduce mobility of Pb in shooting ranges involve an integrated Pb management program which has been described in the paper. The adoption of the non-toxic "green bullet" which has been developed to replace Pb bullets may reduce or prevent environmental pollution at shooting ranges. However, the contaminated soil resulting from decades of operation of several shooting ranges still needs to be restored to its natural state. PMID:27254770

  20. Management and modeling: Tools to improve water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural, urban and suburban sources contribute to the contamination of surface waters, which has been observed by the detection of pesticides, excess nutrients, industrial pollutants, antibiotics, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products in both natural waters and treated wastewaters. The us...