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This is the official waterpollution site for Canada. In the introduction, the problem is stated with reference to pollutants of the Great Lakes over 360 chemical compounds have been identified. Many are persistent toxic chemicals - alkylated lead, benzo(a)pyrene, DDT, mercury and mirex - potentially dangerous to humans and already destructive to the aquatic ecosystems. In referring to water quality, pollutants, toxic substances, and acid rain in the aquatic environment are discussed along with long-range transport of airborne pollutants and toxic chemicals said to be the legacy of a chemical society. Efforts to control waterpollution include a multi-barrier approach to protecting drinking water, stated water quality objectives and guidelines, regulations, and advice on how to be a responsible consumer. Other sections include the effects of pollution and groundwater pollution.
|This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National WaterPollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)|
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.
Deals with waterpollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for waterpollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)
|Deals with waterpollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for waterpollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)|
This set of activities is designed to help students understand waterpollution and its potential effects on human and wildlife habitats. They will understand that pollutants can be divided into three groups: chemical, thermal, and biological. Learning objectives include identification of two or more pollutants in a bog, marsh, stream or other wetland area, using words and art to relate a message about pollution, and understanding that some pollutants cannot be seen.
|Nonpoint source pollution, waterpollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's waterpollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of…
The technique of dewatering soils with electrical currents (electroosmosis) has been known since World War II, and has been used since to desalinate water and to extract solvents and other toic organic chemicals from groundwater. However, some researchers feel that the technology can be extended to battle friction and pollution on agricultural land. In addition, work has been done on the lubricating effects of electroosmosis on drill bits and other equipment. This article describes recent work in the area.
An integrated ground-watermanagement model is formulated as a multivariable constrained nonlinear optimization problem. To simulate the physical and chemical processes occurring within a leaky confined aquifer system, the finite-difference forms of the flow and transport equations are embedded in the management model. The Hooke-Jeeves method, a nonlinear programming technique, in conjunction with the exterior penalty function method is used to solve this management model. The suitability and capability of this method to solve the management problems for study areas of different sizes and different numbers of management periods are demonstrated. The performance evaluation of this proposed methodology establishes its potential applicability for the solutions of different kinds of ground-watermanagement problems. The developed methodology also demonstrates the suitability of the embedding technique to solve a dimensionally large nonlinear ground-watermanagement problem. The proposed methodology does not require the linking of simulation and optimization models externally. It is shown that global optimality of obtained solutions is dependent on the extensive identification of local optimal solutions and the accuracy in prescribed aquifer characteristics.
Keshari, A.K.; Datta, B. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Kanpur (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering
|This is an introductory program on waterpollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of waterpollution, sources of waterpollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our waterpollution problems. Included is background information on waterpollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…
SCIENCE OF INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT: LINKING POLLUTANT CONTROL PRACTICES WITH WATER QUALITY M. Morrison (NRMRL), C. Nietch (NRMRL), 1. Schubauer-Berigan (NRMRL), M. Hantush (NRMRL), D. Lai (NRMRL), B. Daniel (NERL), M. Griffith (NCEA) Science Questions LTG 3. MYP Sc...
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) general permit applications for industrial storm water discharge were to have been filed by October 1992. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies are now issuing permits based on these applications. One compliance aspect of the permits is the Storm WaterPollution Prevention Plan (SWP3). The plan must identify the facility's potential sources of storm waterpollution and develop and implement best management practices (BMPs) to reduce pollutants in storm water runoff. The objectives of the NPDES storm water program are to eliminate illegal dumping and illicit connections, and to reduce pollutants in industrial storm water discharge. These regulations require industry to develop detailed facility site maps, and describe the types, amounts and locations of potential pollutants. Based on this information, industry can develop and implement best management practices to reduce pollutants in storm water runoff.
Rossmiller, R.L. (HDR Engineering, Inc., Bellevue, WA (United States))
BACKGROUND Investigate the issues of waterpollution in the world. TASK - What is making the water so polluted? How bad is it? How does nature clean its own water? Who are the worst polluters? What can be done to stop so much pollution? What is the water cycle? What can be done to fix the problem? Explain all this, and 5 ...
Protecting the environment and achieving water security, and taking the road of sustainable development, which is the necessary request for fulfilling the scientific outlook on development fully, and the fundamental guarantee for establishing harmonious society. We should explore a new idea of controlling pollution which can integrate the administrative measures, market forces and public participation. This paper studies the limitations
The Section 208 areawide planning and management program for solving waterpollution problems is perhaps the most comprehensive program that the Congress has established to bring about environmental quality. This program ties together the various federal ...
The success of America's agricultural achievement must be balanced with the cost in erosion and waterpollution from a runoff of animal and chemical wastes. Farm economics and government policies that encourage large farms contribute to a problem which is difficult to see because its effects are so widely dispersed. The Environmental Protection Agency is promoting an approach of Best Management Practices (BMPs), using new management and husbandry techniques. The farming community can participate in any of several cost-sharing and technical assistance programs on a voluntary basis. The early response is encouraging, but unless a partnership of farmers, the agriculture industry, and government can reverse the rate of soil loss and waterpollution, more regulation will be necessary. (DCK)
|One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on waterpollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of waterpollution and involves students in processes of…
Despite posted warnings and educational campaigns warning about the health risks associated with storm waterpollution, swimmers continue to swim in coastal areas polluted by storm water run-off. This study uses a simple spatial model of beach visitation to show how beach amenities and storm drains influence the way in which beach goers choose to locate themselves at beaches in
The report reviews, organizes, and analyzes information on waste generation and disposal for use in pollutionmanagement in New England. The contents include the following topics: (I) Solid waste management (Incineration, landfills, open burning, waste co...
\\u000a Most current pollutionmanagement in cities is based on treating pollution at the end-of-the pipe, after pollution is generated.\\u000a This paradigm worked well for treating municipal sewage and industrial effluents – point sources of pollutants. Pollution from these sources has been greatly reduced since passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972. However,\\u000a the remaining pollution problem in post-industrial cities
|This commentary on sources of waterpollution and waterpollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…
This paper is about the development of a decision?support system for water?pollutionmanagement and environmental planning. More specifically, the paper first presents the overall concept and the system architecture of a generic environmental decision?support system (EDSS) and then develops an EDSS especially for analysing the tidal flow pattern and water quality of China's Pearl River Delta. The EDSS developed here
A literature review dealing with the process of eutrophication with respect to the sources and transport of pollutants is presented. Topics include the mathematical modeling of nutrient loading, eutrophication, and aquatic ecosystems. Biological and environmental indicators of eutrophication are reviewed, and the interactions between various chemical and biological pollutants are considered. Several lake management projects are discussed. (KRM)
The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in surface water is an emerging problem in developed countries. If such pollution is transferred to drinking water, the resulting involuntary low-dose medication of large population groups may compromise public health. In addition, aquatic life may be compromised. The Stockholm County Council, the provider of public healthcare in the Stockholm, Sweden region, has introduced a classification
Colorado has institutionalized an innovative method for managing reservoir water quality which allows for point\\/nonpoint source phosphorus trading and for point sources to obtain phosphorus “credit” for controlling nonpoint source phosphorus. The State Water Quality Control Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency have approved this method for use at Dillon Reservoir, a high-altitude water body located in the heart of
Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...
Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...
Over the period from 1970 to 1972, the Canadian government enacted seven pieces of legislation to manage and control water resources and water quality at the national level. The purpose of these papers is to present an inside view of the formation of the Canada Water Act as it evolved from its earliest conception as a multi-purpose water development strategy in the late 1950's into a comprehensive water resource and water quality management strategy in the late 1960's and early 1970's, under the impetus of unprecedented public demand for government action to protect the environment. In the first paper (Part I), the formation of Parts I and II of the Canada Water Act which deal with Comprehensive Water Resources Management and Water Quality Management respectively are examined. The second paper (Part II) is concerned solely with the Nutrient Control provisions included under Part III of the Act. These papers provide the first public account of the political aspects of a large-scale study of the socio-political response to waterpollution problems in Canada over the period from 1945 to 1972. This study, carried out under the auspices of the Canadian Ministry of State for Urban Affairs, was completed in 1974. These papers complement earlier papers on the role of environmental pressure groups (Schatzow, 1974), the mass media (Parlour and Schatzow, 1978; Parlour, 1980), environmental specialists and the development of environmental information (Parlour, 1978) which have been published since 1974; a report on the complete study was published by the author in 1977.
This lesson plan is designed to help students apply the pollution prevention (P2) concept to water. It contains the needed background information about waterpollution and provides guidance and activities to help students describe water uses and sources, explain why water conservation is important, and explain how pollution prevention concepts can be used to conserve water and prevent waterpollution. The preceding pages of the fact sheet contain background information and the definitions necessary to implement this lesson plan.
|A special report on the state of the waterpollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)|
In compliance with the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive, monitoring of the ecological and chemical status of Catalan river basins (NE Spain) is carried out by the Catalan Water Agency. The large amount of data collected and the complex relationships among the environmental variables monitored often mislead data interpretation in terms of toxic impact, especially considering that even pollutants at very low concentrations might contribute to the total toxicity. The total dataset of chemical monitoring carried out between 2007 and 2008 (232 sampling stations and 60 pollutants) has been analyzed using sequential advanced modeling techniques. Data on concentrations of contaminants in water were pre-treated in order to calculate the bioavailable fraction, depending on substance properties and local environmental conditions. The resulting values were used to predict the potential impact of toxic substances in complex mixtures on aquatic biota and to identify hot spots. Exposure assessment with Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) and mixture toxicity rules were used to compute the multi-substances Potentially Affected Fraction (msPAF). The combined toxicity of the pollutants analyzed in the Catalan surface waters might potentially impact more than 50% of the species in 10% of the sites. In order to understand and visualize the spatial distribution of the toxic risk, Self Organising Map (SOM), based on the Kohonen's Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm, was applied on the output data of these models. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed on top of Neural Network results in order to identify main influential variables which account for the pollution trends. Finally, predicted toxic impacts on biota have been linked and correlated to field data on biological quality indexes using macroinvertebrate and diatom communities (IBMWP and IPS). The methodology presented could represent a suitable tool for watermanagers in environmental risk assessment and management. PMID:21794894
Carafa, Roberta; Faggiano, Leslie; Real, Montserrat; Munné, Antoni; Ginebreda, Antoni; Guasch, Helena; Flo, Monica; Tirapu, Luís; von der Ohe, Peter Carsten
This is the waterpollution portal for the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). NRDC works to continue reductions in industrial waterpollution while pressing for effective pollution controls on agriculture, logging and other sources previously exempt from them. They help develop and promote strong federal laws and regulations to address polluted runoff, raw sewage discharges, and factory farm wastes and to sue polluters when the Clean Water Act is violated. This site contains simple issue overviews, news, how-to guides, frequently asked questions, photo essays and more in a section called In Brief. The In Depth section offers reports, white papers, policy analyses and other materials by NRDCs lawyers, scientists and analysts.
|Lists over 30 outdoor science activities dealing with water formation, erosion, pollution, and other water-related topics. Provides, in addition, a selected bibliography of films, tapes, booklets and pamphlets, and filmstrips as additional reference materials. (CP)|
There has been an increasing awareness among environmental scientists in recent years of the presence and potential impacts of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (“PPCPs”) in environmental compartments including surface water, groundwater, soil, bed sediment, and in tissue. This work highlights some of the research developments over approximately the last decade regarding pharmacological pollution in water including pollution characterization, analytical
|Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in waterpollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the waterpollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…
|Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of waterpollution. Waterpollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show…
Runoff waters from airport areas constitute a serious environmental problem. It is essential to monitor levels of pollutants emitted into the environment and measure their toxicity on a continuous basis. The authors’ aim was to critically review data on pollution from aviation fuel combustion, aviation fuel spillage, the washing and cleaning of aircraft and airport service equipment, and the use
Anna Maria Sulej; ?aneta Polkowska; Jacek Namie?nik
Water, gravel, sand, rhizosphere and rhizoplane samples, were collected seasonally for over one year from treatment beds in the BIOWATSYST treatment station. Samples were, subjected to microbiological and physicochemical analyses. Results showed that the maximum counts of total viable bacteria (TVB), actinomycetes (ACTI), total coliform (TC), fecal coliforms (FC) and fecal streptococci (FS) were 11.2 x 10 6 , 37.5
A. DEWEDAR; A. ISMAIL; I. KHAFAGI; S. E. L. SHATOURY; M. TALAAT
Wayne County's Rouge River National Wet Weather Demonstration Project (Rouge Project) is a comprehensive program to restore the water quality and beneficial uses of the Rouge River, a tributary to the Detroit River in southeast Michigan which has been designated as a significant source of pollution to the Great Lakes system along the border between the United States and Canada.
James E. Murray; Kelly A. Cave; Dale S. Bryson; Jack D. Bails
Management of ocean pollution must be based on the best available scientific information, with adequate consideration of economic, social, and political realities. Unfortunately, the best available scientific information about pollution effects on fisheries is often fragmentary, and often conjectural; therefore a primary concern of management should be a critical review and assessment of available factual information about effects of pollutants on fish and shellfish stocks. A major problem in any such review and assessment is the separation of pollutant effects from the effects of all the other environmental factors that influence survival and well-being of marine animals. Data from long-term monitoring of resource abundance, and from monitoring of all determinant environmental variables, will be required for analyses that lead to resolution of the problem. Information must also be acquired about fluxes of contaminants through resource-related ecosystems, and about contaminant effects on resource species as demonstrated in field and laboratory experiments. Other possible management activities include: (1) encouragement of continued efforts to document clearly the localized and general effects of pollution on living resources; (2) continued pressure to identify and use reliable biological indicators of environmental degradation (indicators of choice at present are: unusually high levels of genetic and other anomalies in the earliest life history stages; presence of pollution-associated disease signs, particularly fin erosion and ulcers, in fish; and biochemical/physiological changes); and (3) major efforts to reduce inputs of pollutants clearly demonstrated to be harmful to living resources, from point sources as well as ocean dumping. Such pollutionmanagement activities, based on continuous efforts in stock assessment, environmental assessment, and experimental studies, can help to insure that rational decisions will be made about uses and abuses of coastal/estuarine waters.
Available data were reviewed to assess the status of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in drinking water sources and coastal waters of China. The levels of POPs in China's waters were generally at the high end of the global range. A comparison of China's regulatory limits indicated that PCBs in rivers and coastal water may pose potential human health risk. Occurrence of DDTs in some rivers of China may also pose health risk to humans using the regulatory limits of DDTs recommended by the European Union. Future monitoring of POPs in China's waters should be directed towards analytes of concern (e.g. PCBs and PCDD/Fs) and to fill data gaps for analytes (e.g. PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, and chlordane) and in watersheds/regions (e.g. West China) where data are scarce. PMID:22325437
Bao, Lian-Jun; Maruya, Keith A; Snyder, Shane A; Zeng, Eddy Y
The study used interviews of management personnel in 28 companies and of state and Federal waterpollution control officials to assess the economic impact of existing waterpollution control programs upon Georgia's large water-using industries including p...
|A laboratory activity caused students to think actively about waterpollution. The students realized that it would be easier to keep water clean than to remove pollutants. They created a water scrubbing system allowing them to pour water in one end and have it emerge clean at the other end. (JOW)|
Worldwide, the oil and gas industry generates more than 70 billion barrels of produced water per year. Within the US alone, between 15 and 20 billion barrels of produced water are generated each year. Management of these large quantities of water can be costly, and can determine whether wells are profitable or not. Companies must consider many different options for managing produced water. Produced watermanagement technologies and strategies are described here in terms of a three-tiered watermanagement or pollution prevention hierarchy--i.e. minimization, recycle/reuse and disposal.
|Described are the activities, responsibilities, and educational and training requirements of the major occupations directly concerned with waterpollution control. Also provided is an overview of employment trends, salaries, and projected demand for employees. Included in the appendix is a list of colleges and universities which offer…
Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.
|This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on waterpollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)|
|Waterpollution curriculum units of four environmental secondary science programs in Britain, Germany, Israel, and the United States are examined. Comparisons reveal the use of quite different approaches in central topic selection, use of the laboratory and other media, controversial issues, and teacher-student roles. (CS)|
|This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of waterpollution control. It is a learning activity directed toward high school students of biology and/or ecology. A general knowledge of microbiology techniques is regarded as a prerequisite for the lesson. Behavioral objectives are given. Emphasis is placed on use of techniques and materials…
As a group, learners consider sources of waterpollution to understand where pollution starts and where it ends up. Also explored are the natural and human-made options for cleaning up our water supply. This activity encourages learners to use their powers of observation, imagination, and public speaking skills as they describe possible pollution stories and scenarios, and brainstorm pollution prevention efforts.
Management of ocean pollution must be based on the best available scientific information, with adequate consideration of economic, social, and political realities. Unfortunately, the best available scientific information about pollution effects on fisheries is often fragmentary, and often conjectural; therefore a primary concern of management should be a critical review and assessment of available factual information about effects of pollutants
This revised edition of the waterpollution study of the Great Lakes area identifies various physical problems: biological imbalance; buildup of dissolved solids; bacterial contamination; chemical contamination; and oxygen depletion. Management problems a...
In the UK and Europe mine watermanagement has, to date, focused almost exclusively on addressing point sources of pollution. However, with the introduction of the EU Water Framework Directive (2000\\/60\\/EC), there is a need to address mine waterpollution from a catchment management perspective. For this reason it is necessary to investigate diffuse sources of mining pollution. This paper
Goal 8.4 Improve Environmental Systems Management (Formally Pollution Prevention and New Technology) Background The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed and evaluated tools and technologies to monitor, prevent, control, and clean-up pollution through...
A new AGU book, Water:Science, Management and Policy, edited by Richard Lawford, Denise Fort, Holly Hartmann, and Susanna Eden, explores the scientific and political issues behind water use and sustainability worldwide. The book investigates critical issues facing watermanagers, policy makers, and scientists in the 21st century, examining specific examples of water planning and decision-making. Among the topics discussed by the authors are the current state of water engineering, sharing resources across state and international borders, and the best methods for managing the resource with the future impact of climate change and additional pollution.
|This is a book about air and waterpollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and waterpollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…
The report presents a methodology for evaluating the economic costs of nonstructural pollution control techniques such as land use control. Used instead of or as a complement to structural pollution controls, nonstructural alternatives can increase the ef...
An Ocean Pollution Data and Information Network (OPDIN), composed of a central office in Washington, D.C. and five regional offices in key coastal locations, has been proposed to ensure timely and useful availability of marine pollution data and information. The National Oceanographic Data Center recently convened the Workshop on Marine Pollution Information Management as a first step in defining system
Total WaterManagement (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...
|Water is one of the most polluted resources in our environment. Since everyone has the same basic need for pure water, it follows that all people should have a basic knowledge of the causes, results and solutions to the waterpollution problem. This unit is designed for use with Level II and III educable mentally retarded students to present…
As part of implementing the watershed approach for waterpollution control, interest is being focused on pollutant trading. The pollutant trading programs that have been developed thus far are based on total chemical constituent concentrations and fail to properly consider that for many chemical constituent sources and types of chemical constituents the total chemical constituent concentration in a source or
|Expresses concern over the amounts of toxic chemical pollutants being discharged into fresh water supplies. Analyzes the role of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in establishing and enforcing water quality standards. (CP)|
This book contains science activities that are designed to make learning and demonstrating nonpoint source pollution concepts exciting and fun. These activities can either be used alone or with an existing water resources education curricula. Activities include: Water Tasting, Acting Out the Hydrologic Cycle, Concentration of Chemical Pollutants…
|Waterpollution techniques and practices, including data analysis, interpretation and display are described in this book intended primarily for the biologist inexperienced in this work, and for sanitary engineers, chemists, and waterpollution control administrators. The characteristics of aquatic environments, their biota, and the effects of…
|This book contains science activities that are designed to make learning and demonstrating nonpoint source pollution concepts exciting and fun. These activities can either be used alone or with an existing water resources education curricula. Activities include: Water Tasting, Acting Out the Hydrologic Cycle, Concentration of Chemical Pollutants…
This seminar publication is addressed to managers and supervisors who have some responsibility for their plant's pollution control measures. The information and guidance provided to these decision personnel are drawn from case histories of working plants and include laws, regulat...
Waterpollution from point sources has been considerably reduced over the last few decades. Nevertheless, some water quality problems remain, which can be attributed to non-point pollution sources, and in particular to agriculture. In this paper the results of a study intended to assess the consequences, in terms of NO3 waterpollution, of growing a crop, whose impact in terms of P pollution is already well known, are presented. The potential consequences, in terms of waterpollution from nitrates of a BMP expressly applied to reduce P pollution are also discussed. The study site is the Lake Vico basin, Central Italy, which has suffered a shift in trophic state since the mid 1990s, caused by P compounds used for intensive cultivation of hazelnut trees. The results of the monitoring campaign described in this paper allow to assert that hazelnut tree cropping has probably caused a considerable increase in nitrate concentration in the groundwater, although not in the lake water, because of the specific hydrogeological characteristics of the basin. The main conclusion is that monitoring is essential to single out environmental characteristics peculiar of a specific area, which even the most sophisticated model would not have been able to highlight. This is why monitoring and model simulations should be integrated. PMID:19911291
Garnier, Monica; Recanatesi, Fabio; Ripa, Maria Nicoletta; Leone, Antonio
A literature review dealing with the occurrences, extent, and sampling of groundwater pollution is presented. Groundwater sampling procedures for various contaminants, and geophysical methods designed to investigate groundwater pollution are reviewed. (KRM)
... Basics Water Properties Water Cycle Surface Water Groundwater Water Quality Water Use Activities Photos Q&A Teachers Contact ... explore other water-science topic areas, such as water quality, urbanization and water, saline water, watersheds, runoff, and ...
There is a growing need for urban watermanagers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current o perations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total WaterManag...
Two catchment studies were undertaken in Argyll, West Scotland to test the efficacy of the Forestry Commission’s Forests and Water Guidelines in controlling diffuse pollution from forestry. The first involved the peaty catchment of the Clachaig Water, which provides the potable supply for the villages of Muasdale and Glenbarr. Thirty-five percent of the area was ploughed and drained in spring
The Tweed River Purification Board's objective of reducing the numbers and significance of waterpollution incidents by a proactive approach based on persuasion and education is described. This has consisted of prioritising potential pollutant sources which have then been investigated in detail followed by discussion and agreement with discharges as to remedial measures. The paper describes in detail the Board's
The decline in Japan's fish catch that started in 1989 can be attributed mainly to stock depletions due to overfishing in deep seas and offshore waters and polluting of water in inland and coastal waters. Animal wastes, nitrogen, phosphate fertilizer, and...
This paper explains how the pipeline industry can avoid violating the Clean Water Act (PL 92-500, Federal WaterPollution Control Act), which states that pollution of US waters from any cause other than an act of God, war or Government negligence is the responsibility of the owner or operator of the facility. Reporting pollution to the National Response Center will limit the maximum penalty to $5,000 Rectifiers must be kept in top operating condition, and visual inspections of the right-of-way by aerial or ground patrols must detect construction of new pipelines or other facilities. Accidental damage by third parties is the major cause of failures in pipeline systems, which can be prevented by periodic contact with landowners. Conclusion is that if a pipeline operator follows good operating and maintenance practices, his exposure to effects of the Clean Water Act will be minimal.
A study of the protection of ground water from oil pollution, conducted by CONCAWE, showed that for neither preventive nor remedial measures is it possible to lay down rules that can be applied to all cases. The technical data required includes a knowledge of the nature of the subsoil, aquifer characteristics, the depth of the ground-water surface, the aquifer velocity
T. L. D. Postrovich; Y. Bardat; R. Barthel; A. Chiarelli; D. R. Fussel
|Reviewed in this report is a study concerned with waterpollution as it relates to urbanization within the Regional Plan Association's set of 21 contiguous New York, New Jersey and Connecticut counties centered upon the numerous bay and estuarial reaches of the Port of New York and New Jersey. With a time frame covering a decade of water quality…
Mathematical models are well known as useful tools for watermanagement practices, directly or i ndirectly related to the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in European countries. They can be applied to solve or understand either simple water quality problems or complex watermanagement problems of trans-boundary rivers or multiple-purpose and stratified reservoirs. Accidental spills of pollutants are
Land drainage has been central to the development of North America since colonial times. Increasingly, agricultural drainage is being targeted as a conduit for pollution, particularly nutrient pollution. The export of agricultural drainage water and associated pollutants to surface water can be mana...
Urban stormwater runoff is the primary source of many pollutants to Santa Monica Bay, but its monitoring and modeling is inherently difficult and often requires land use information as an intermediate process. Many approaches have been developed to estimate stormwater pollutant loading from land use. This research investigates an alternative approach, which estimates stormwater pollutant loadings directly from satellite imagery. We proposed a Bayesian network approach to classify a Landsat ETM(+) image of the Marina del Rey area in the Santa Monica Bay watershed. Eight water quality parameters were examined, including: total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, nutrients, heavy metals, and oil and grease. The pollutant loads for each parameter were classified into six levels: very low, low, medium low, medium high, high, and very high. The results provided spatial estimates of each pollutant load as thematic maps from which the greatest pollutant loading areas were identified. These results may be useful in developing best management strategies for stormwater pollution at regional and global scales and in establishing total maximum daily loads in the watershed. The approach can also be used for areas without ground-survey land use data. PMID:16956642
Behavioural early warning responses to polluted surface water from an industrial effluent have been measured in two freshwater\\u000a macroinvertebrate species using the four electrode impedance conversion technique. Specimens ofGammarus pulex (L.) andHydropsycho angustipennis (Curtis) were caught from reference streams and exposed to water from above and below the factory and to reference water\\u000a for about 1 h with different kinds
The bibliography contains citations concerning the studies of waterpollution in estuaries and coastal zones. Citations examine the development, management, and protection of estuary and coastal resources. Topics include pollution sources, environmental monitoring, water chemistry, eutrophication, models, land use, government policy, and laws and regulations. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)
Planning for pollution control is generally confined to a specific medium such as water or air. However, this approach fails to recognize the problem of intermedia transfers of pollutants. The concept of residuals management recognizes the need for an integrated approach to controlling air, water, and solid wastes in a region. An environmental management model, structured as a linear programming
The management of hazardous wastes is one of the most critical environmental issues that faces many developing countries. It is one of the areas where institutional control and treatment and disposal technology has not kept pace with economic development. This paper reviews the development of hazardous waste management methods over the past decades, and provides the information on the status and trends of hazardous waste management strategy in selected western nations. Several issues pertinent to hazardous waste management will be reviewed, including: (1) definition of hazard; (2) why are we concerned with hazardous wastes; (3) aspects of hazardous waste management system; and (4) prioritization of hazardous waste management options. Due to regulatory and economic pressure on hazardous waste management, pollution prevention has become a very important environmental strategy in many developed countries. In many developed countries, industry is increasingly considering such alternative approaches, and finding many opportunities for their cost effective implementation. This paper provides a review of the status and trends of pollution prevention in selected western nations.
The management of hazardous wastes is one of the most critical environmental issues that faces many developing countries. It is one of the areas where institutional control and treatment and disposal technology has not kept pace with economic development. This paper reviews the development of hazardous waste management methods over the past decades, and provides the information on the status and trends of hazardous waste management strategy in selected western nations. Several issues pertinent to hazardous waste management will be reviewed, including: (1) definition of hazard; (2) why are we concerned with hazardous wastes; (3) aspects of hazardous waste management system; and (4) prioritization of hazardous waste management options. Due to regulatory and economic pressure on hazardous waste management, pollution prevention has become a very important environmental strategy in many developed countries. In many developed countries, industry is increasingly considering such alternative approaches, and finding many opportunities for their cost effective implementation. This paper provides a review of the status and trends of pollution prevention in selected western nations.
|This curriculum guide is a 40-day unit plan on waterpollution developed, in part, from the National Science Foundation Environmental Science Institutes' Ninth Grade Environmental Science Curriculum Guide. This unit contains teacher lesson plans, suggested teacher and student modules, case studies, and activities to be developed by teachers…
|This publication is a handbook for waterpollution control personnel to guide them towards a successful public relations program. This handbook was written to incorporate the latest methods of teaching basic public information techniques to the non-professional in this area. Contents include: (1) a rationale for a public information program; (2)…
Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.
|Reviewed are accomplishments, problems, and frustrations faced by individual states in meeting requirements of P.L. 92-500, Federal WaterPollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. State Environmental officials complain the new law may be a hindrance to established cleanup programs. Statistics and charts are given. (BL)|
Magnetic separation as applied to waterborne contaminants is successful in reducing the solids content of a water sample and in removing the dissolved orthophosphate from the aqueous slurry. The contaminants are chemically associated with a magnetic seeding material, and subsequent removal of this seed sweeps the pollutants from the system. The advantage of this form of treatment over conventional techniques
This article advises the pipeline industry on how to comply with the Federal WaterPollution Control Act (PL 92-500), which states that pollution of US waters by any cause other than an ''Act of God,'' ''Act of War,'' or US Government negligence is the responsibility of the owner or operator of the facility. Points out that the actions of third parties do not relieve owners or operators of liability unless they are the sole cause of pollution. Emphasizes that liability can be reduced by prompt reporting of pollution to the National Response Center. Reveals that the major cause of failures in pipeline systems is accidental damage by third parties. Proposes tha the best defense against pipeline damage resulting from landowner activity is periodic contact of the landowner by the operator. Recommends aerial and ground patrols as sources of information on construction activities. Concludes that assessing a penalty against the party causing the pollution would be better than merely penalizing the pipeline operator.
Abstract The Minnesota River (Minnesota, USA) receives large non-point source pollutant loads. Complex interactions between agricultural, state agency, environmental groups, and issues of scale make watershed management difficult. Subdividing the basin's 12 major water...
Anthropogenic pollutants, including pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, and estrogens are detected in urban water bodies. Effective examination of dilute organic and microbial pollutant loading rates within surface waters is currently prohibitively expensive and labor intensive. Effort is being placed on the development of improved monitoring methodologies to more accurately assess surface water quality and evaluate the effectiveness of water quality management
M. Henjum; C. Wennen; M. Hondzo; R. M. Hozalski; P. J. Novak; W. A. Arnold
... or conduit. Tackling the more pervasive nonpoint sources - runoff from major urban areas and agricultural fields - has ... pollution. Potentially harmful chemical pollution and excess nutrient runoff remain top concerns for environmental and land managers ...
\\u000a The growing vertical integration of the agricultural sector presents opportunities for flexible incentives to reduce nonpoint-source\\u000a pollution (NSP) of water. Some agricultural production contracts offer farmers incentives that may lead to environmental degradation\\u000a due to high rates of agrochemical use. At the same time, some businesses are recognizing the advantages of using environmental\\u000a responsibility for competitive advantage and are taking
|Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, waterpollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)|
14 articles related to watershed management comprise this special advertising section of the Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies. Subtopics include water quality, regulations, US Environmental Protection Agency activities, analysis tools, economics, flooding and erosions, and non-point source pollutions. Articles on arid and coastal are included. Several articles describe municipal watershed programs being planned or in place.
Hite, R.W. [Metro Wastewater Reclamation District, Denver, CO (United States)
The chemical impact of urban runoff water on water quality beneath five retention/recharge basins was investigated as part of the US EPA's Nationwide Urban Runoff Program in Fresno, California. Soil water percolating through alluvium soils and the ground water at the top of the water table were sampled with ceramic/Teflon vacuum water extractors at depths up to 26 m during the two-year investigation. Inorganic and organic pollutants are present in the runoff water delivered to the basins. No significant contamination of percolating soil water or ground water underlying any of the five retention/recharge basins has occurred for constituents monitored in the study. The oldest basin was constructed in 1962. The concentration of selected trace elements in the ground water samples was similar to the levels reported in the regional ground water. None of the pesticides or other organic priority pollutants, for which water samples were analyzed, was detected except diazinon which was found in trace amounts (0.3 g/L or less) in only three soil water samples. These results are important to the continued conservation of storm water and the development of a best management practice for storm-watermanagement using retention/recharge basins in a semi-arid climate.
Characterizing water quality and identifying potential pollution sources could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river ecosystem. In this study, fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA), pollution index (PI), principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) were combined to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal-spatial characterization and sources of waterpollution with a case study of the Jinjiang River, China. Measurement data were obtained with 17 water quality variables from 20 sampling sites in the December 2010 (withered water period) and June 2011 (high flow period). FCA and PI were used to comprehensively estimate the water quality variables and compare temporal-spatial variations, respectively. Rotated PCA and receptor model (APCS-MLR) revealed potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions. Application results showed that comprehensive application of various multivariate methods were effective for water quality assessment and management. In the withered water period, most sampling sites were assessed as low or moderate pollution with characteristics pollutants of permanganate index and total nitrogen (TN), whereas 90 % sites were classified as high pollution in the high flow period with higher TN and total phosphorus. Agricultural non-point sources, industrial wastewater discharge, and domestic sewage were identified as major pollution sources. Apportionment results revealed that most variables were complicatedly influenced by industrial wastewater discharge and agricultural activities in withered water period and primarily dominated by agricultural runoff in high flow period. PMID:23737126
Rivers are rich ecosystems and sources of life, providing many functions for the survival of natural and human systems. In Malaysia, due to poor management and public apathy, they are severely degraded. Rapid development and urbanization have also overstressed and polluted them, and governance practices are mostly focused on managingwater shortages, floods, and pollution. Limitations include low priority in
An optimal pollution control (OPC) model for interceptor sewer systems has been developed to minimize total pollution overspill load to receiving waters. This derives from a formal optimization applied to a simplistic hydraulic representation of the sewer, under a so-called 'slug flow' approach. Combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures are represented and the model tracks the pollution concentrations in the CSOs
Certain trace elements which are strongly associated with air pollution sources in the Lake Michigan basin may be contributing significantly to lake waterpollution by an atmospheric fallout route. In this paper a partial inventory of air pollution emissions for 30 trace elements is presented for the Chicago, Milwaukee, and northwest Indiana metropolitan areas, based on available published information. The
The recognition of the intercontinental transport of air pollution continues a historic trend towards greater awareness and management of air pollution over larger spatial scales. Intercontinental transport contributes to a “tightening vise” on air quality management in industrialized nations with background concentrations rising, standards becoming more stringent, local controls becoming more difficult to achieve, and emissions in other parts of
Terry J. Keating; J. Jason West; Alexander E. Farrell
The papers presents studies regarding the pollution of the ground water, in a rural area. Samples of drinking water from 10 wells have been analyzed in order to evaluate if their quality was affected as result of farming activities. We find out that the water from some of the wells in polluted, the values of some of the quality parameters
Cornelia Muntean; Petru Negre; Mihaela Ciopec; Lavinia Lup; Ioan Ursoiu; Giannin Mosoarca; Ramona Ghiga
Examples of the elimination or reduction of pollution in lakes and rivers during recent years are given. A shift in emphasis from visible to nonvisible chemical pollution of surface waters was the result of release of the report on the EPA study on New Orleans drinking water in 1974. Passage of the Safe Drinking Water Act followed. Toxic chemicals in
The Urban Water Resources Management Web site is maintained by the Global Development Research Center. The center "carries out initiatives in education, research and practice, in the spheres of environment, urban, community, economy and information, and at scales that are effective." The site contains information and links to topics such as understanding the importance of water; organizations and institutions; documents and information repositories; initiatives, programs, and projects; and more.
Ability to distinguish between human and animal fecal pollution is important for risk assessment and watershed management, particularly in bodies of water used as sources of drinking water or for recreation. PCR-based methods were used to determine the source of fecal pollution ...
Storm WaterManagement Model (SWMM) is a comprehensive model for analysis of quantity and quality problems associated with urban runoff. Both single-event and continuous simulation may be performed on catchments having storm sewers, combined sewers, and natural drainage, for pred...
Oil spillages are prominent features of petroleum exploitation in Nigeria. For instance, within the decade 1970-1980, the country experienced 18 major spills. Oil pollution adversely affects the water and soil resources of the petroleum-producing Niger Delta. There have been attempts to manage the increasing menace of oil spills, and two strategies may be identified. These are the legislative and the project implementation approaches. The first approach relies on preventative laws, while the second, more or less curative, depends on the implementation of projects for the monitoring, control, and clearance of spilled oil. There are various problems in the effective operation of both strategies, and the persistence of spills, many of them avoidable, tends to indicate lapses in the management attempts. 12 references, 4 tables.
Forests and forest management practices have been identified as potentially important non-point sources of waterpollution in upland areas of the United Kingdom. The major water quality concerns are recognised as being: increased turbidity and sedimentation due to the soil disturbance accompanying cultivation, drainage, road construction and harvesting operations; increased phosphate concentrations following aerial applications of fertiliser leading to eutrophication
The GEF\\/UNDP\\/IMO Regional Programme on Marine Pollution Prevention and Management in the East Asian Seas (MPP-EAS) conducts annually a regional training course on the application of the integrated coastal management (ICM) system for addressing marine pollution problems. The training initiative is unique in that: (a) the training curriculum is tailored for strengthening environmental protection and management capacity in the developing
Landscape lakes in the city suffer high eutrophication risk because of their special characters and functions in the water circulation system. Using a landscape lake HMLA located in Tianjin City, North China, with a mixture of point source (PS) pollution and non-point source (NPS) pollution, we explored the methodology of Fluent and AQUATOX to simulate and predict the state of HMLA, and trophic index was used to assess the eutrophication state. Then, we use water compensation optimization and three scenarios to determine the optimal management methodology. Three scenarios include ecological restoration scenario, best management practices (BMPs) scenario, and a scenario combining both. Our results suggest that the maintenance of a healthy ecosystem with ecoremediation is necessary and the BMPs have a far-reaching effect on water reusing and NPS pollution control. This study has implications for eutrophication control and management under development for urbanization in China. PMID:23184129
Started during the Great Depression, the National Resources Conservation Service has "provided leadership in a partnership effort to help America's private land owners and managers to conserve their soil, water, and other natural resources." One of their outreach projects includes the National WaterManagement Center (NWMC) website. Persons with an interest in water-related issues and resource conservation will find the site most useful, and they can use the site to learn about water resource planning, watershed assessments, water policy implementations, and other topics. On the NWMC homepage visitors can look at the right hand side of the page to learn more about their work on environmental compliance, stream restoration, and water resource partnering. Visitors won't want to miss their special "Mississippi River Basin" area. Here, they can learn about the difficult conditions facing the Basin, including the persistent low oxygen conditions which affect about 15000 square kilometers. The site also includes an "Information For" area which contains thematic resources organized specifically for engineers, watershed planners, and policy makers.
Chongqing is a heavily polluted industrial megacity in China. We have estimated the environmental cost of waterpollution in Chongqing. Limiting our inquiry to the resource cost, i.e. real resources spent or production possibilities foregone because of waterpollution, our estimate equals 1.2 per cent of Chongqing gross product, with a subjective 95 per cent confidence interval of (0.9 1.5).
Studies of the survival of pollution indicator organisms (coliforms, fecal coliforms, and enterococci) in untreated estuarine waters gave rates agreeing with those of other workers. In estuarine waters passed through a 0.45 micrometer membrane filter, col...
The potential water quality effects and economic implications of soil and water conservation practices (SWCPs) are identified. Method for estimating the effects of SWCPs on pollutant losses from croplands are presented. Mathematical simulation and linear programming models were u...
The main economy branch in the Province of Vojvodina is agriculture, which has significantly influenced water quality of watercourses as well as groundwater. Both nonpoint and point source of pollution are present in the form of agricultural runoff from arable land and point sources from farm wastewater discharges. Pollution assessment stated by the EU Water Framework Directive requires the application
Jasna Piperski; Pavel Benka; Atila Bezdan; Atila Salvai
Methods for evaluating the quantity of waterpollutants generated from nonpoint sources including agriculture, silviculture, construction, mining, runoff from urban areas and rural roads, and terrestrial disposal are developed and compiled for use in water quality planning. The loading functions, plus in some instances emission values, permit calculation of nonpoint source pollutants from available data and information. Natural background was
A. D. McElroy; S. Y. Chiu; J. W. Nebgen; A. Aleti; F. W. Bennett
|This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of pollutedwaters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of pollutedwater,…
This paper discusses some possible roles for emergency pollution accident in drinking water sources. Different procedures have been developed to measure the pollutants content of drinking water both in normal and in emergency situations, such as those arising from accidental and terrorist events. The authors analyze the primary factor of emergency pollution incident in drinking water sources and give general
The problems in drinking watermanagement are complex and often solutions must be reached under strict time constrains. This is especially distinct in case of environmental accidents in the catchment areas of the wells that are used for drinking water supply. The beneficial tools that can help decision makers and make program of activities more efficient are decision support systems (DSS). In general they are defined as computer-based support systems that help decision makers utilize data and models to solve unstructured problems. The presented DSS was developed in the frame of INCOME project which is focused on the long-term stable and safe drinking water supply in Ljubljana. The two main water resources Ljubljana polje and Barje alluvial aquifers are characterized by a strong interconnection of surface and groundwater, high vulnerability, high velocities of groundwater flow and pollutant transport. In case of sudden pollution, reactions should be very fast to avoid serious impact to the water supply. In the area high pressures arising from urbanization, industry, traffic, agriculture and old environmental burdens. The aim of the developed DSS is to optimize the activities in cases of emergency watermanagement and to optimize the administrative work regarding the activities that can improve groundwater quality status. The DSS is an interactive computer system that utilizes data base, hydrological modelling, and experts' and stakeholders' knowledge. It consists of three components, tackling the different abovementioned issues in watermanagement. The first one utilizes the work on identification, cleaning up and restoration of illegal dumpsites that are a serious threat to the qualitative status of groundwater. The other two components utilize the predictive capability of the hydrological model and scenario analysis. The user interacts with the system by a graphical interface that guides the user step-by-step to the recommended remedial measures. Consequently, the acquisition of information to support the watermanagement's decisions is simplified and faster, thus contributing to more efficient watermanagement and a safer supply of drinking water.
The strategy of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Indoor Environment Management Branch (IEMB) is to apply IEMB's expertise in indoor air quality (i.e., source characterization, ventilation, filtration, modeling, biocontaminants, and sustainable buildings) to...
This document states South Dakota's strategy for correcting waterpollution and thereby improving and maintaining water quality in the Niobrara River Basin. It specifies the process of planning and managingpollution abatement operations to achieve South ...
A partnership between a university and a government regulatory agency sought to assist industries with pollution prevention and waste management. Economic incentives were developed to promote waste minimization. (SK)
...Clean Air Act and the Federal WaterPollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal WaterPollution Control Act. Contracts and...et seq.) and the Federal WaterPollution Control Act as amended (33...
...Clean Air Act and the Federal WaterPollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal WaterPollution Control Act. Contracts and...et seq.) and the Federal WaterPollution Control Act as amended (33...
...2010-01-01 false Air and waterpollution control requirements. 923.45...Organization Â§ 923.45 Air and waterpollution control requirements. The program...established by the Federal WaterPollution Control Act, as amended...
...2009-01-01 false Air and waterpollution control requirements. 923.45...Organization Â§ 923.45 Air and waterpollution control requirements. The program...established by the Federal WaterPollution Control Act, as amended...
...2013-07-01 false Federal WaterPollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS Â§ 40.140-3 Federal WaterPollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of waterpollution for all native villages in...
...2009-07-01 false Federal WaterPollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS Â§ 40.140-3 Federal WaterPollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of waterpollution for all native villages in...
...2013-01-01 false Air and waterpollution control requirements. 923...Organization Â§ 923.45 Air and waterpollution control requirements. The...requirements established by the Federal WaterPollution Control Act, as amended...
...2010-07-01 false Federal WaterPollution Control Act. 40.140-3...GRANTS Â§ 40.140-3 Federal WaterPollution Control Act. (a) All...such elimination or control of waterpollution for all native villages in...
The Taoge water system is located in the upstream of Taihu Lake basin and is characterized by its multi-connected rivers and lakes. In this paper, current analyses of hydrology, hydrodynamics and waterpollution of Gehu Lake and Taige Canal are presented. Several technologies are proposed for pollution prevention and control, and water environmental protection in the Taihu Lake basin. These included waterpollution control integration technology for the water systems of Gehu Lake, Taige Canal and Caoqiao River. Additionally, river-lake water quality and quantity regulation technology, ecological restoration technology for polluted and degraded water bodies, and water environmental integration management and optimization strategies were also examined. The main objectives of these strategies are to: (a) improve environmental quality of relative water bodies, prevent pollutants from entering Gehu Lake and Taige Canal, and ensure that the clean water after the pre-treatment through Gehu Lake is not polluted before entering the Taihu Lake through Taige Canal; (b) stably and efficiently intercept and decrease the pollution load entering the lake through enhancing the river outlet ecological system structure function and water self-purifying capacity, and (c) designate Gehu Lake as a regulation system for water quality and water quantity in the Taoge water system and thus guarantee the improvement of the water quality of the inflow into Taihu Lake. PMID:21516445
Scotland was one of the world's first industrialised countries, and has therefore also been one of the first countries to experience wholesale post-industrial dereliction. Waterpollution arising from abandoned mines, particularly abandoned coal mines, is second only to sewage as a source of freshwater pollution nation-wide, and in many coalfield catchments it is the pre-eminent source. Most of the pollution
We are living daily more than 22 hours into occupational/domestic building. Consequently, the exposure to indoor pollutants could play a major role in human health. The main indoor pollutants are the allergens, CO, NO2 and fine particles. A body of data suggests that the ventilation of the indoor air, by opening the windows, could limit the risk to develop health problems. The last conclusion is supported by the data reported in this short review on indoor/outdoor pollution. PMID:19899390
The atmosphere contains airborne pollutants such as mercury, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides released from automobiles, factories, and power plants. Similarly, land surfaces such as croplands, feedlots, logged forests, construction sites, and urban land surfaces may be reserv...
This volume contains 11 reports regarding water-resource management. Topics include: long-term and large-scale problems of watermanagement, such as groundwater contamination due to toxic and nuclear-waste disposal; nonpoint sources of pollution on our stream systems; impacts of changes in both flow and water quality on the aquatic ecosystem; the frequency, duration, and impacts of droughts including long-term trends toward desertification; long-term hydrologic budgets for assessing the adequacy of regional or national water resources; global geochemical cycles such as the fate of nitrogen and sulfur; and protection of engineered systems against hydrologic extrema. These macroscale and long-term problems, involving large investments and the health and well-being of much of the world's population, demand increasingly precise and accurate predictive statements. Individual reports are indexed separately on the energy data base.
Different flowsheets (batch and continuous) of photocatalytic membrane reactors, to be used for degradation of organic pollutants present in water, together to some experimental results, are reported. 4-Nitrophenol (4NP) was used as a probe polluting agent and titanium dioxide in suspension was the catalyst. The photodegradation tests in the batch system were carried out without membrane changing the characteristic variables
Raffaele Molinari; Cesare Grande; Enrico Drioli; Leonardo Palmisano; Mario Schiavello
Assessments of the efficiency of waterpollution control allocations are usually based on abatement cost comparisons. The general rule is that efficiency is improved by reallocating abatement from sources with high marginal costs to low-cost sources. The welfare-theoretic foundation of this rule is well established for situations with nonstochastic emissions. In situations with stochastic emissions, pollution control involves improving the
This study of policies for controlling waterpollution from nonpoint agricultural sources includes a survey of existing state and Federal programs, agencies, and laws directed to the control of soil erosion. Six policies representing a variety of approaches to this pollution prob...
Reduction of nonpoint source pollutants, principally sediment and nutrients moving from cultivated fields to surface waters, is a major challenge. Remnants of once-extensive natural wetlands occur across the agricultural landscape, and some workers have suggested that these areas might be managed t...
Variations in surface water S chemistry were investigated at a waterlogged raised peatland in the NE of England from 1994 to 2000. While S inputs were important, below-ground cycling of S, dependent upon water table height, played a dominant role in affecting SO4 concentration of the surface waters. Evaporative concentration of SO4 during drought played only a subordinate role in
Simon Bottrell; Jonathan Coulson; Michael Spence; Peter Roworth; Martin Novak; Linda Forbes
The paper summarizes the results of the studies on radiation purification of pollutedwater and wastewater conducted in the author's laboratory in cooperation with other institutions. The removal of heavy metals (cadmium, lead, chromium and mercury) from water and wastewater, the purification of wastewater from surfactant and petroleum products, molasses distillery slops, municipal wastewater in the aerosol flow, river water from colored natural organic pollutants, wastewater of dyeing complex and paper mill, the decomposition of some dyes, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine-containing organic compounds, formic acid, etc. were investigated in detail. As a rule, electron-beam treatment in combination with ordinary methods (biological, coagulation, adsorption, flotation, etc.) was used. The main attention is paid to the mechanism of purification of the studied systems. The role of redox reactions of primary products of water radiolysis and secondary short-lived species formed from pollutants, formation of precipitates capturing the pollutants etc. is discussed. PMID:11695450
|Presented are the basic principles of personnel recruitment and employment for the waterpollution control field. Attention is given to determination of staffing requirements, effective planning, labor sources, affirmative action, and staffing policies. (CS)|
|An overview of waterpollution control in the U.S. is given, leading to an analysis of present policy trends. A "rational environmental program" is called for to provide economic growth and environmental quality. (MDR)|
Summary The zinc content of various organs of newts kept in zinc-pollutedwater was estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Histological examination revealed the presence of zinc-rich, unusual cells in the primordium hippocampi of chronically poisoned animals.
Our goal is to equip crop producers in the Southeast with tools to improve crop production and management including: • Knowledge of crop and soil water relations • Irrigation scheduling tools for better watermanagement, and • Economic benefits of water conservation technologies Crop performance can...
Most potentially toxic chemicals eventually find their way into waterways. The most common source of this pollution is from the air. More than 50 percent of the chemical pollution of the Great Lakes is believed to come from airborne pollutants, and the main sources of this pollution are smokestacks (energy plants, nuclear or conventional; trash-to-steam incinerators; industrial factories, chemical and wood pulp) and road traffic exhaust. Chemicals may reach waterways directly through partially filtered or untreated sewage and waterway traffic, both industrial and pleasure; or they may be deposited into the soil and reach rivers and estuaries through leakage (PCBs on cables, landfills, and regular or low-level nuclear waste) or locally from fields (fertilizers, herbicides, phosphates, and other chemicals. PMID:1560988
Most potentially toxic chemicals eventually find their way into waterways. The most common source of this pollution is from the air. More than 50 percent of the chemical pollution of the Great Lakes is believed to come from airborne pollutants, and the main sources of this pollution are smokestacks (energy plants, nuclear or conventional; trash-to-steam incinerators; industrial factories, chemical and wood pulp) and road traffic exhaust. Chemicals may reach waterways directly through partially filtered or untreated sewage and waterway traffic, both industrial and pleasure; or they may be deposited into the soil and reach rivers and estuaries through leakage (PCBs on cables, landfills, and regular or low-level nuclear waste) or locally from fields (fertilizers, herbicides, phosphates, and other chemicals). 26 references.
Lumb, G.; Clare, A.S. (Department of Pathology, Duke University NC (United States))
Sixteen cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome occurred in the third week of a diarrhoea epidemic caused by waterpollution in EL-Sult, Jordan. Of 30 000 people exposed to pollutedwater, 5000 developed diarrhoea, 74 typhoid, and 30 infectious hepatitis. Thirteen of the 16 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had been mildly affected by diarrhoea 8-24 days before the onset of peripheral neuropathy.
There are many watercraft and production accidents in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) of the Yangtze River in China every year. Accidents threaten the water quality of the 1085 km2 surface area of the TGRA and millions of local people if oil and chemical leakage were to occur. A waterpollutionmanagement system for emergency response (WPMS_ER) was therefore designed for the management of pollution in this area. An integrated geographic information system (GIS)-based waterpollutionmanagement information system for the TGRA, called WPMS_ER_TGRA, was developed in this study. ArcGIS engine was used as the system development platform, and Visual Basic as the programming language. The models for hydraulic and water quality simulation and the generation of body-fitted coordinates were developed and programmed as a dynamically linked library file using Visual Basic, and they can be launched by other computer programs. Subsequently, the GIS-based information system was applied to the emergency waterpollutionmanagement of a shipwreck releasing 10 tons of phenol into the Yangtze River during two hours. The results showed that WPMS_ER_TGRA can assist with emergency waterpollutionmanagement and simulate the transfer and diffusion of accidental pollutants in the river. Furthermore, it can quickly identify the affected area and how it will change over time within a few minutes of an accident occurring. PMID:21793401
The condition of water bodies and measures taken to prevent their pollution in the USSR, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Bulgaria and Romania are the main subjects of this paper. For each of these countries information is given on population and area, physical features, rain-fall and rivers, the distribution of population and industry, water supply and sewerage, the condition of surface and ground waters, the authorities and legislation concerned with the protection of water resources, and research on pollution. The author draws attention to the experience gained in these countries in the setting up of special State bodies to take charge of water resources and in classifying rivers according to the uses to which they are put, a factor which determines the regulations governing the discharge of effluent into them. A plea is also made for the convening of specialized international conferences on problems connected with the protection of European water resources from pollution.
Focusing on the recent explosion in the use of bottled water, this article—originally written for my NASTS conference presentation—will examine the rhetoric used by the bottled water industry and home purification system providers to affect the public’s idea of clean, pure, dirty, and pollutedwater. Bottlers argue that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides better regulation of bottled water
This article introduces a practical method to investigate thermal pollution in coastal water from satellite data. The intensity and distribution areas of thermal pollution by the heated effluent discharge from the nuclear power plant on Daya Bay, southern China were investigated by using Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) thermal band data from 1994 to 2001. A local algorithm was developed, based on sea-truth data of water surface temperature measured when the satellite passed over the study area. The local algorithm was then applied to estimate water temperature from TM data. It shows that the remote sensing technique provides an effective means to quantitatively monitor the intensity of thermal pollution and to retrieve a very detailed distribution pattern of thermal pollution in coastal waters. The remotely-sensed results of the thermal pollution can be used for environmental management of coastal waters. PMID:12929815
|Energy conservation measures have led to airtight buildings and reduced levels of ventilation resulting in indoor air pollution. Five kinds of contaminants--tobacco smoke, combustion products, microorganisms, organic compounds, and radon--are described, their hazards considered, and countermeasures outlined. (MLF)|
The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a common aquatic plant in many tropical countries. Its ability absorb nutrients and other elements from the water has made it possible to use it for water purification purposes. Eichhornia, especially stems and leaves, have been successfully used as indicators of heavy metal pollution in tropical countries. The uptake of heavy metals in this plant is stronger in the roots than in the floating shoots. Metallothionein-like compounds have been found from roots of this species after cadmium exposure. The purpose of this investigation was to study the possibilities of using roots of water hyacinth as a biological indicator of metal pollution in tropical aquatic ecosystems.
Gonzalez, H.; Otero, M. (Institute of Transport Investigations, Havana (Cuba)); Lodenius, M. (Univ. of Helsinki (Finland))
The bibliography contains citations concerning the contamination of ground waters and surface waters by Salmonella bacteria. Articles discuss the occurence, survival, origin, and control of these bacteria in water sources including rivers, reservoirs, swimming pools, wastewater, aquifers, and ground water. Citations also address the use of Salmonella populations as biological indicators of pollution in aquatic systems. (Contains a minimum of 102 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)
The methods to assess waterpollution risk for medium water transfer are gradually being explored. The event-nature-proportion method was developed to evaluate the probability of the single event. Fault tree analysis on the basis of calculation on single event was employed to evaluate the extent of whole waterpollution risk for the channel water body. The result indicates, that the risk of pollutants from towns and villages along the line of water transfer project to the channel water body is at high level with the probability of 0.373, which will increase pollution to the channel water body at the rate of 64.53 mg/L COD, 4.57 mg/L NH4(+) -N and 0.066 mg/L volatilization hydroxybenzene, respectively. The measurement of fault probability on the basis of proportion method is proved to be useful in assessing waterpollution risk under much uncertainty. PMID:19927799
What is water quality? To most students, water quality may suggest only "clean" water for drinking, swimming, and fishing. But to the farmer or manufacturer, water quality may have an entirely different meaning. One of the most important issues concerning the quality of water is how that water will be used. Water that is perfectly fine for irrigation might not be suitable for drinking or swimming.
Waterpollution caused by tourism development not only occurs in water-scarce areas but also exists in the areas where water resource is relatively abundant. In this paper, the relationship between waterpollution and tourism development in the Lijiang Ancient Town was discussed because there were no industrial or agricultural pollutant sources except the tourism pollution. Meanwhile, questionnaires survey was adopted
The objective of this study is the estimation of the polluting load generated by domestic effluents added to those of various industries in one of the most important industrial zone in Africa. Analysis of waste water showed strong and irregular pollution which is prejudicial for the aquatic receiving medium (river, sea). This pollution is confirmed among others by COD\\/BOD ratio
The aquatic systems studied in this project included (1) a well defined basin forming a part of Lake Hartwell, (2) a well defined basin forming part of Lake Keowee, (3) a non-polluted natural stream, three artificial ponds, and six artificial streams at t...
|This document contains informational guidelines for identifying and evaluating the nature and extent of pollution from salt water intrusion. The intent of these guidelines is to provide a basic framework for assessing salt water intrusion problems and their relationship to the total hydrologic system, and to provide assistance in developing…
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.
The Waste Management and Environmental Compliance Group within the Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is responsible for managing all waste generated in NMT facilities from operations with, or that support, actinide processing. These operations result in the generation of a variety of waste forms, from sanitary and salvage to radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste.
A unique electrochemical reactor was used for batch treatment of metal finishing waste water. Using low DC currents, waste water containing copper, nickel or zinc, or cadmium with cyanide, and chromium could be removed successfully to meet the federal eff...
The mission of the Southwest Florida WaterManagement District is to manage the water and water-related resources within its boundaries. Central to the mission is maintaining the balance between the water needs of current and future users while protecting and maintaining the natural systems that provide the District with its existing and future water supply. The website includes an Information and Education page, which offers activities, newsletters, virtual field trips, and other resources for K-12 students and teachers. Also provided on the site are various datasets, brochures, publications, reports, textual references and links.
Organic pollutants, especially persistent organic pollutants were examined in the water and surface sediments of Taihu Lake, China. Both 12 water and 12 sediment samples were collected over the lake. C-18 solid-phase extraction technique was applied to extract organic pollutants in collected water samples. Soxhlet extraction procedure was used to extract organic pollutants in sediment samples. The analysis was performed
Hai Wang; Chunxia Wang; Wenzhong Wu; Zheng Mo; Zijian Wang
Octanol/water distribution coefficients, water solubilities, and sediment/water partition coefficients are basic to any assessment of transport or dispersion of organic pollutants. In addition, these determinations are prerequisites for many chemical or biological process studies...
Chemical properties and pollution of water resources were studied in the Hunchun basin, which is located in northeast China and borders directly North Korea and Russia along the Tumen river. Water quality was characterised according to its major constituents and geological features. Ground waters could generally be grouped into (Ca+Mg)-HCO3 type and (Ca+Mg)-(SO3+Cl) type in first and the second terrace
To determine selected waterpollution parameters of the Anyang River (one of the biggest contributory branches of the Han River in Korea) and its main tributaries, the geological and topographical and rainfall features in its basin were investigated, and the resulting data were tabulated. Samples were collected at the upper, mid and down parts of the Anyang River and its branches and were analyzed based on biochemical and chemical methods, Korean biotic index (KBI) and Saprobien systems. Selected parameters of concern include BOD, heavy metals, nonpoint pollution and sewage discharge. The Anyang River basin has a torrential heavy rainfall; however, the rate of rainfall significantly varies from season to season. Waterpollution levels in the dry season increase dramatically. The mainstream of the Anyang River is classified as fifth grade polysaprobic water according to Saprobien system. In addition, the biotic index is over 2.5 in overall. General pollution at the junction of the Anyang River and each branch stream varies. Possible countermeasures to improve the water quality of the river include intercept the non-treated waste water and sewage at the Anyang River junction and each branch stream, enforcement of watermanagement during the rainy season, and continuous investment on environmental restoration.
Today`s industrial processes generate many types of waste products that constitute risks to human health and the surrounding environment. While proper waste management procedures can lower this risk, prevention of the waste`s generation will eliminate the risk. For this reason, the United States has established pollution prevention as a national objective, through the passage of its Pollution Prevention Act of 1990. Pollution prevention involves a wide range of approaches, all with the same objective: to reduce or eliminate the creation of waste at its source in other words, within the process that generates it. This objective, so beneficial to the environment, also coincides with industrial economic interests. Pollution prevention measures and greater process efficiency go hand in hand, and typically result in lower operating costs as well as greatly reduced waste management expenses. The US Environmental Protection Agency defines pollution prevention as the maximum feasible reduction of all wastes generated at production sites. This objective is accomplished largely through source reduction and reuse of input materials during production.
Following discovery by the EPA of trichloroethylene (TCE) in water samples taken from the Kent County municipal water system at Smyrna in Dec. 1977, the amount of aeration at two wells was increased to reduce TCE contamination since the contamination source could not be determined. Samples taken from an aerated water well at 77.8 and 39.7Vertical Bar3< flow showed 9.7
The water allocations made to the lower Colorado River Basin under the 1922 Colorado River Compact. as well as the later contractual allocations made by the Secretary of the Interior under the Boulder Canyon Project Act to the States of Arizona, California, and Nevada, and water agencies in those states, were based on significant overestimates offuture water supply. Based on
This report focusses attention on known sources of pollution and provides a priority for action to correct existing waterpollution problems and prevent future problems in the Verdigris River, an interstate stream, and its tributaries. Pollution problems ...
This site describes oil spill disasters and their environmental consequences and provides some details of the Exxon Valdez oil tanker that ran into a submerged reef on the night of March 23, 1989 and spilled eleven million gallons of oil into the waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska. The types of emissions that cause air pollution are also discussed.
The importance of our ground water resources and their susceptibility to contamination from anthropogenic inputs have only recently come to be appreciated. However, studies have now established the existence of an indigenous microbial community in the ground water environment that is capable of degrading many of these contaminants. By understanding how to control the factors that limit biodegradation in the
Water quality, flux and temperature of polluted river in northern China fluctuate a lot in a year around, which is disadvantageous for sustainable operation of subsurface constructed wetland treating polluted river water. A pilot system of subsurface constructed wetland treating polluted river water was operated for one year to study the sustainable operation of the process. The results show that ammonia removal performance fluctuated a lot according to different seasons. At the hydraulic loading of 15 cm/d, ammonia nitrogen removal rates were above 70% in summer, however, below 30% in winter when water temperature was below 15 degrees C. Changes of water temperature had little influence on COD removal performance. In the wet season of summer, the pilot wetland system could bear a short-period flood hydraulic loading, and ammonia nitrogen and COD removal rates were 52% and 36% respectively at the hydraulic loading of 100 cm/d. The activity of soil dehydrogenase had a positive correlation with seasonal changes of temperature and pollution removal performance. PMID:17117628
Snow samples obtained from snow removal dump sites were analyzed to determine the level of contamination. This snow, removed from roads, highways, and parking areas, contained high levels of total solids, suspended solids, chlorides, COD, and lead. During a two year period, the mean concentrations of these five pollutants were 5080 mg/l, 1570 mg/l, 2470 mg/l, 281 mg/l, and 3.4 mg/l respectively. The high lead concentration presumably originated from automobile exhaust. Analysis performed on sediment samples from the river into which the dumped snow is pushed indicate that the lead from the snow may become trapped in the river sediment near the dump site. (1 map, 15 references, 3 tables)
Through modest attention to the information highway we ride upon each day, we are increasingly aware of the intent, actions, and reactions of local, state and Federal governments, regional compacts, and international organizations to protect the quality of the water we drink, th...
The Salt-water River watershed is one of the major river watersheds in the Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Water quality and sediment investigation results show that the river water contained high concentrations of organics and ammonia-nitrogen, and sediments contained high concentrations of heavy metals and organic contaminants. The main pollution sources were municipal and industrial wastewaters. Results from the enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) analyses imply that the sediments can be characterized as heavily polluted in regard to Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cu. The water quality analysis simulation program (WASP) model was applied for water quality evaluation and carrying capacity calculation. Modeling results show that the daily pollutant inputs were much higher than the calculated carrying capacity (1050 kg day(-1) for biochemical oxygen demand and 420 kg day(-1) for ammonia-nitrogen). The proposed watershed management strategies included river water dilution, intercepting sewer system construction and sediment dredging. PMID:21392809
To efficiently reduce perfluorinated compound (PFC) pollution, it is important to have an understanding of PFC sources and their contribution to the pollution. In this study, source identification of diffuse waterpollution by PFCs was conducted using a GIS-based approach. Major components of the source identification were collection of the monitoring data and preparation of the corresponding geographic information that
The volatilization of organic environmental contaminants from water bodies to the atmosphere was investigated. The general aim was to elucidate the factors that control the volatilization process and develop predictive methods for calculating volatilization rates for various comp...
The volatilization of organic environmental contaminants from water bodies to the atmosphere was investigated. The general aim was to elucidate the factors that control the volatilization process and develop predictive methods for calculating volatilizati...
A. Bobra D. Mackay E. Chau J. Billington W. Yang Shiu
The objective of this project was to determine the identities of the haloforms (THMs) in ground recharged water as well as the concentrations and identities of the haloform precursors (THMPs). A second objective was the determination of these compounds in...
C. Steelink H. Bohn M. A. Mikita K. Thorn J. Hobson
Water resource management must strive to link catchment information with water quality monitoring. The present study attempted this for the field of microbial fecal source tracking (MST). A fecal pollution source profile based on catchment data (e.g., prevalence of fecal sources) was used to formulate a hypothesis about the dominant sources of pollution in an Austrian mountainous karst spring catchment. This allowed a statistical definition of methodical requirements necessary for an informed choice of MST methods. The hypothesis was tested in a 17-month investigation of spring water quality. The study followed a nested sampling design in order to cover the hydrological and pollution dynamics of the spring and to assess effects such as differential persistence between parameters. Genetic markers for the potential fecal sources as well as microbiological, hydrological, and chemo-physical parameters were measured. The hypothesis that ruminant animals were the dominant sources of fecal pollution in the catchment was clearly confirmed. It was also shown that the concentration of ruminant markers in feces was equally distributed in different ruminant source groups. The developed approach provides a tool for careful decision-making in MST study design and might be applied on various types of catchments and pollution situations. PMID:21466151
Reischer, G H; Kollanur, D; Vierheilig, J; Wehrspaun, C; Mach, R L; Sommer, R; Stadler, H; Farnleitner, A H
Twelve strains of different Bacteroides species were tested for their efficiency of detection of bacteriophages from sewage. The host range of several isolated phages was investigated. The results indicated that there was a high degree of strain specificity. Then, by using Bacteroides fragilis HSP 40 as the host, which proved to be the most efficient for the detection of phages, feces from humans and several animal species and raw sewage, river water, water from lagoons, seawater, groundwater, and sediments were tested for the presence of bacteriophages that were active against B. fragilis HSP 40. Phages were detected in feces of 10% of the human fecal samples tested and was never detected in feces of the other animal species studied. Moreover, bacteriophages were always recovered from sewage and sewage-polluted samples of waters and sediments, but not from nonpolluted samples. The titers recovered were dependent on the degree of pollution in analyzed waters and sediments.
The report describes the location and goals of new research and field laboratories for waterpollution control. These laboratories will be in Boston, Mass.; Athens, Ga.; Ann Arbor, Mich.; Ada, Okla.; Covallis, Ore.; College, Alaska; Kingston, R.I.; and Du...
The Gulf of Thailand has been a major marine resource for Thai people for a long time. However, recent industrialization and community development have exerted considerable stress on the marine environments and provoked habitat degradation. The following pollution problems in the Gulf have been prioritized and are discussed in details: (1) Untreated municipal and industrial waste water are considered to
Nonpoint pollution resulting from urban surface runoff is recognized as one of the major causes of quality deterioration in the receiving water bodies. In order to investigate the first flush phenomenon connected to different types of urban surfaces, two monitoring systems have been installed in the experimental catchment of Villa Cambiaso, University of Genoa (Italy), to sample separately roof and
I. Gnecco; C. Berretta; L. G. Lanza; P. La Barbera
A prototype of a portable optical immunosensor (called river analyser) has been developed. It can be applied for the monitoring of surface water quality. Antibodies carrying a fluorescent label are used for the specific recognition of pollutants, such as frequently applied pesticides. The transduction principle is based on total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF). The outstanding advantage of the river analyser
A study of the lower Genesse River in Monroe County, New York was conducted to investigate the impact of pollution sources, both point and non-point, on the water quality of the Genesee River. It was determined that four major point-source discharges have...
|This course is designed for those requiring an introduction to instruments commonly used in waterpollution analyses. Examples are: pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen meters, spectrophotometers, turbidimeters, carbon analyzer, and gas chromatographs. Students should have a basic knowledge of analytical chemistry. (CO)|
Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.
Opportunities and problems in application of catalytic hydrotreating processes, which are presented a viable approach in the abatement of waterpollutants, are discussed. Analysis of the hydrodechlorination (HDC) and hydrodenitrification (HDN) using Pd-based catalysts supported on various materials like granulated activated carbon (GAC), fibrous activated carbon cloths (ACCs) or glass fiber cloths (GFCs) studied recently in our laboratory suggests the
The electrochemical oxidation of oxalic acid (OA) was performed in a micro flow cell equipped with a boron doped diamond (BDD) anode. This preliminary study demonstrates that a flow cell with a micrometric distance between the cathode and the anode can be used to perform the electrochemical treatment of waters contaminated by organic pollutants in the absence of added supporting
Onofrio Scialdone; Chiara Guarisco; Alessandro Galia; Giuseppe Filardo; Giuseppe Silvestri; Christian Amatore; Catherine Sella; Laurent Thouin
The waterpollution problems of the Great Lakes area are reviewed in terms of their various effects and what is being done to correct them. Problems are identified as: over-enrichment of the lakes; build-up of dissolved solids; bacterial contamination of ...
|Analyzed are the reasons why present mechanisms for the control of water purity are inadequate. The control of waterborne epidemics is discussed to illustrate a problem which has been solved, then degradation of the environment is presented as an unsolved problem. Case histories are given of pollution and attempts at control in rivers, lakes,…
Underground mining operations across the United States produce a number of environmental problems. The foremost of these environmental concerns is acid discharges from inactive and abandoned underground mines that deteriorate streams, lakes and impoundments. Waters affected by mine drainage are altered both chemically and physically. This report discusses in Part I the chemistry and geographic extent of mine drainage pollution
Chile has posted the highest average economic growth rate in Latin America during the past 8 years. In 1992, Chile's economy grew 9.7 percent, while unemployment fell to under 5 percent. Air, water and soil pollution are common in both industrial areas an...
Analysis of silage effluent identified glucose and lactic acid as suitable markers for diagnosis of silage effluent pollution in river water. The use of biosensors, utilising the reactions of glucose oxidase and lactate oxidase to detect glucose and lactic acid respectively, in silage effluent, was investigated. The lactate sensor was able to detect effluent from mature silage at 11000 dilution,
S. K. Stephens; I. E. Tothill; P. J. Warner; A. P. F. Turner
Now some drinking water sources are polluted slightly. The conventional water treatment processes can no longer fulfill the requirement for micro-pollutedwater treatment, which poses not only a threat to human health but a challenge to traditional treatment process. This thesis has a research on micro-pollutedwater pretreatment effect by utilizing electrocoagulation method. The result demonstrates that, under the optimal
The quantification of point and non-point losses of Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) to surface waters is currently a major\\u000a issue for the implementation of Environmental Directives, such as the Water Framework Directive in Europe. However, the drivers\\u000a behind nutrient pollution are location specific and are affected by regional hydroclimatic and geomorphological characteristics.\\u000a In this study the river basin model
Yiannis Panagopoulos; Christos Makropoulos; Maria Mimikou
The UV-visible photolysis of ferrioxalate in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (the UV-vis\\/ferrioxalate\\/H2O2 process) is investigated for the treatment of contaminated groundwater and industrial wastewater. This process generates the hydroxyl radical, which is a strong oxidant and reacts rapidly with most organic compounds present in solution. Tap water spiked with various organic pollutants, a process water containing chlorobenzene, a tank-bottom
Ali Safarzadeh-Amiri; James R. Bolton; Stephen R. Cater
Scotland was one of the world's first industrialised countries, and has therefore also been one of the first countries to experience wholesale post-industrial dereliction. Waterpollution arising from abandoned mines, particularly abandoned coal mines, is second only to sewage as a source of freshwater pollution nation-wide, and in many coalfield catchments it is the pre-eminent source. Most of the pollution is due to net-alkaline ferruginous waters emerging from deep mines. Scrutiny of records from 80 deep mine discharges reveals that iron concentrations in these waters are only likely to exceed 20 mg/l, and the pH to be below 6.5, where the discharge emerges within 0.5 km of the outcrop of the shallowest mined seam. The bulk of mature near-outcrop mine water discharges in Scotland have < 50 mg/l total Fe, and concentrations > 100 mg/l are only likely where a marine bed lies within 25 m of the worked seam. Where the nearest marine bed is more than 80 m above or below the seam, then the total iron will be less than 4 mg/l, and in most cases less than 1 mg/l. Net-acidic mine waters are far more rare than net-alkaline waters in Scotland, and are most commonly associated with unreclaimed spoil heaps (bings). Both net-alkaline and net-acidic discharges have detrimental effects on the hydrochemistry and biological integrity of receiving waters. Scotland has recently pioneered the use of pre-emptive pump-and-treat solutions to prevent mine waterpollution, and has also experienced the successful introduction of passive treatment technology for both abandoned and active workings. PMID:11227275
The Lower St. Louis River Basin from Brookston to Lake Superior was sampled in late 1973. The resultant data were combined with historical data for verification of a water quality model--the St. Louis River Basin Model. The model was used to evaluate the ...
Public concern over major oil spills tends to center on the damage to beaches and recreational areas that has resulted from shipwrecked ocean-going tankers. The waterworks industry is more vulnerable to inland spills. Water utilities must ready themselves for quick action against such spills, which often find operators inexperienced in handling them.
All five members of a family developed subacutely mental confusion and\\/or truncal ataxia. Symptoms and signs of polyneuropathy were seen later. The well water in the patients' home contained 400 ppm acrylamide. The present cases are unique in that they are cases of acrylamide poisoning induced by oral intake and percutaneous penetration, and that central nervous system symptoms were prominent.
Changing climate has implications for land use and the fate and behaviour of anthropogenic and natural chemicals particularly with respect to their interaction with the hydrological cycle. Climate change may influence mobilisation and fate of chemicals applied to land, increasing discharge to surface and groundwater. Discharge volumes of storm water containing various contaminants may also increase. The bioavailability of sediment-
This report fulfills the requirements of the EPA General Permit for storm water discharge that facilities requiring NPDES storm water permits prepare a Storm WaterPollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP). Facilities requiring permits are those classified as industrial under one of eleven categories as defined in 40 CFR I 22.26(b)(14)-(O)-(xi). EPA has ruled that military bases are subject to storm water regulations based on secondary activities such as hazardous waste storage (category iv), installation Restoration Program (IRP) sites (category v), aircraft maintenance/refueling (category viii), and waste water treatment (category ix). The relevant activity at Peterson AFB that makes the base industrial under the NPDES program is the aircraft maintenance/refueling that takes place there. The purpose of the SWPPP is to (1) identify potential sources of pollution which may reasonably be expected to affect the quality of storm water discharge associated with industrial activity from the facility; (2) implement best management practices (BMPs) to minimize storm waterpollution; and (3) assure compliance with all terms and conditions of the Permit.
A new neural network-based multiobjective optimization of water quality management for waterpollution control and river basin planning is presented. Past research on water quality management problems has shown that traditional multiobjective decision making does not provide an adequate solution since it depends directly on the decision maker's (DM's) preferences, which may not be clearly defined. In order to overcome
Profuse numbers of Enterobacteriaceae were found in samples of surface waters from the Ciliwung River and adjoining canals which criss-cross metropolitan Jakarta and are used widely for domestic purposes by the poorer sections of its population. 15 of the 20 specimens gres E. coli, Klebsiella were isolated from seven and Citrobacter from four. Using enrichment culture procedures, Salmonella sp. were grown from 10 (48%) of 21 water samples examined, and 12 (63%) of aquatic sediments collected at the same sites. Altogether 14 serotypes and 37 Salmonella isolations were recorded. This high degree of faecal contamination of the environment is a major cause of the immense problem of gastro-intestinal infections in that city and probably in many similar cities in developing countries in the tropics. PMID:473327
The report summarizes the waterpollution problems of the United States water of Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River and their tributaries. It identifies the causes of these problems or sources of pollution, discusses the improvements needed, and pres...
Water quality was measured in 42 streams in the Colebrooke and Upper Bann catchments in Northern Ireland over the period 1990–1998. Despite ongoing pollution control measures, biological water quality, as determined by the invertebrate average score per taxon (ASPT) index, did not improve and there was no appreciable decline in recorded farm pollution incidents. However, the lack of decline in
Urban and suburban development changes land surface thermal, radiative, porous, and roughness properties and pollutant loading rates, with the combined effect leading to increased air, water, and heat pollution (e.g., urban heat islands). In this research we present the USDA Forest Service urban forest ecosystem and hydrology model, iTree Eco and Hydro, used to analyze how tree cover can deliver valuable ecosystem services to mitigate air, water, and heat pollution. Air pollution mitigation is simulated by dry deposition processes based on detected pollutant levels for CO, NO2, SO2, O3 and atmospheric stability and leaf area indices. Water quality mitigation is simulated with event mean concentration loading algorithms for N, P, metals, and TSS, and by green infrastructure pollutant filtering algorithms that consider flow path dispersal areas. Urban cooling considers direct shading and indirect evapotranspiration. Spatially distributed estimates of hourly tree evapotranspiration during the growing season are used to estimate human thermal comfort. Two main factors regulating evapotranspiration are soil moisture and canopy radiation. Spatial variation of soil moisture is represented by a modified urban topographic index and radiation for each tree is modified by considering aspect, slope and shade from surrounding buildings or hills. We compare the urban cooling algorithms used in iTree-Hydro with the urban canopy and land surface physics schemes used in the Weather Research and Forecasting model. We conclude by identifying biophysical feedbacks between tree-modulated air and water quality environmental services and how these may respond to urban heating and cooling. Improvements to this iTree model are intended to assist managers identify valuable tree services for urban living.
Water-related hazards, such as drought, floods, erosion, and various kinds of pollution, should be factored into any integrated approach to water-resource management. This research attempt has been made to assess the process of waterpollution in the Dareh Morad Beik (DMB) River, whose length is about 18 km and whose average flow rate is 250 L/s. The quality of river water, including chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate, fecal coliform, and total coliform, were all measured and evaluated at three different sampling stations within different months of the year. The information was gathered by conducting experiments and through field visits, as well as by library study. The results of this research showed that, from a microbiological point of view, the water of the DMB was polluted during the year. Based on the results obtained it was determined that the amount of COD and BOD at station 1 was negligible. Also the influx of qantas waters from Hamadan City into the DMB has caused dilution of COD, BOD, and nitrate of that river at station 3. PMID:18991905
In 2005, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Menu of Best Management Practices (BMPs) listed compost filter socks (FS) as an approved BMP for controlling sediment in storm runoff on construction sites. The objectives of this study were to determine if FS with or without the addition of a flocculation agent to the FS system can significantly remove (i) suspended clay and silt particulates, (ii) ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)-N) and nitrate-nitrite nitrogen (NO(3)-N), (iii) fecal bacteria, (iv) heavy metals, and (v) petroleum hydrocarbons from storm water runoff. Five separate (I-V) 30-min simulated rainfall-runoff events were applied to soil chambers packed with Hartboro silt loam (fine-loamy, mixed, active, nonacid, mesic fluvaquentic Endoaquepts) or a 6-mm concrete veneer on a 10% slope, and all runoff was collected and analyzed for hydraulic flow rate, volume, pollutant concentrations, pollutant loads, and removal efficiencies. In corresponding experiments, runoff was analyzed for (i) size of sediment particles, (ii) NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N, (iii) total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli, (iv) Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, and (v) gasoline, diesel, and motor oil, respectively. Results showed that: (i) FS removed 65% and 66% of clay (<0.002 mm) and silt (0.002-0.05 mm), respectively; (ii) FS removed 17%, and 11% of NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N, respectively and when NitroLoxx was added to the FS, removal of NH(4)-N load increased to 27%; (iii) total coliform and E. coli removal efficiencies were 74 and 75%, respectively, however, when BactoLoxx was added, removal efficiency increased to 87 and 99% for TC and 89 and 99% for E. coli, respectively; (iv) FS removal efficiency for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn ranged from 37 to 72%, and, when MetalLoxx was added, removal efficiency ranged from 47 to 74%; and (v) FS removal efficiency for the three petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 43 to 99% and the addition of PetroLoxx increased motor oil and gasoline removal efficiency in the FS system. PMID:19398521
Faucette, L B; Cardoso-Gendreau, F A; Codling, E; Sadeghi, A M; Pachepsky, Y A; Shelton, D R
Welcome to WaterManagement: A Comprehensive Approach for Facilities Managers. This handbook explains the new water-conservation requirements under Executive Order (EO 13123), Greening the Government Through Efficient Energy Management, signed by Presiden...
Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with recycled water or other alternative resources is one of the most rapidly growing techniques that is viewed as a necessity in water-short areas. In order to better control health and environmental effects of MAR, this paper presents two case studies demonstrating how to improve water quality, enable reliable tracing of injected water and better control and manage MAR operation in the case of indirect and direct aquifer recharge. Two water quality management strategies are illustrated on two full-scale case studies, including the results of the combination of non conventional and advanced technologies for water quality improvement, comprehensive sampling and monitoring programs including emerging pollutants, tracer studies using boron isotopes and integrative aquifer 3D GIS hydraulic and hydrodispersive modelling. PMID:22214066
Lazarova, Valentina; Emsellem, Yves; Paille, Julie; Glucina, Karl; Gislette, Philippe
The objective of this paper is to study the probabilistic cost-effectiveness of the farm management practices supported by the European Union for reducing nitrate pollution. Our method consists in using a bio-physical model to evaluate the environmental and economic impacts of various scenarios characterized by a set of farm practices. The cost-effectiveness of each scenario is calculated for a catchment
To find out an approach to water quality management through correlation studies between various water quality parameters, the statistical regression analysis for six data points of underground drinking water of different hand pumps at J. P. Nagar was carried out. The comparison of estimated values with W.H.O drinking water standards revealed that water of the study area is polluted with reference to a number of physico-chemical parameters studied. Regression analysis suggests that conductivity of underground water is found to be significantly correlated with eight out of twelve water quality parameters studied. It may be suggested that the underground drinking water quality at J. P. Nagar can be checked very effectively by controlling the conductivity of water. The present study may be treated one step forward towards the water quality management. PMID:21114164
Copper based alloys are frequently used in marine water systems. They have indeed an attractive price and offer interesting mechanical characteristics associated to a relatively good resistance to corrosion in sea water. Nevertheless, they can suffer from certain forms of corrosion such as localised corrosion with sulphides pollution, crevice corrosion, or stress corrosion cracking in sea water more or less
H. Le Guyader; A. M. Grolleau; V. Debout; J. L. Heuzé; J. P Pautasso
The availability of portable water is often taken for granted and water allowed to get polluted. Industries, settlements, farms, markets, leaking sewer lines, poor hygiene practices are all potential sources of pollution. Each pollutant has its own effect on water and the environment. A study was conducted in Kitwe Stream in order to establish whether engineering and other human activities
...2009-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances Â§ 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal WaterPollution Control Act,...
...2013-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances Â§ 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal WaterPollution Control Act,...
...2010-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b Section...Clearances Â§ 4.66b Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any...violation of the Federal WaterPollution Control Act,...
...2013-07-01 false Federal WaterPollution Control Act. 40.145-2 Section...GRANTS Â§ 40.145-2 Federal WaterPollution Control Act. (a) No person...or control of acid or other mine waterpollution; and (2) That the State...
Earlier work on the standards and prices approach to pollution control is extended by considering simultaneously spatial considerations, interactive pollutants, and joint-abatement costs. The form of environmental constraints appropriate to water-pollution problems is discussed in detail, and the implications for the standards and prices approach to water-pollution control are assessed. The presence of interactive pollutants and joint-abatement costs is shown
The performance and feasibility of immobilization biological activated carbon (IBAC) were investigated to treat micro-pollutantwater containing nitrobenzene. IBAC has been developed on the granular activated carbon by immobilization of selected and acclimated species of engineering bacteria to treat the micro-pollutantwater containing nitrobenzene. The IBAC removal efficiencies for nitrobenzene, permanganate index, turbidity, UV, ammonia and nitrite were compared with granular activated carbon (GAC) process. Biological toxicity of influent and effluent of filter were determined. Amount of bacteria in carbon was measured when carbon filter was inoculated and circulated stably. The results showed that compared with GAC, it took short time for IABC to startup and recover to normal after impact burden. In addition, IBAC was more effective to treat micro-pollutants. In order to ensure security of drinking water, the influent nitrobenzene should be controlled below 26 microg/L. Effluent biological toxicity treated with IBAC was less than that with GAC. The performance of IBAC was much better than that of GAC. Amount of bacteria in both activated carbon filter increased first and then declined from inlet to outlet. PMID:17891957
In this urbanizing world, municipal watermanagers need to develop planning and management frameworks to meet challenges such as limiting fresh water supplies, degrading receiving waters, increasing regulatory requirements, flooding, aging infrastructure, rising utility (energy) ...
Removal of phenol by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in static water was investigated. 2.75 g dry weight of this aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to absorb 100 mg of phenol per plant per 72 hours from distilled water, river wate...
The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) on waterpollution was investigated with both semiparametric and parametric models using watershed level data for the state of Louisiana, USA. The parametric model indicated the turning points within the range $10241–$12993, $6636–$13877, and $6467–$12758 for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and dissolved oxygen (DO), respectively. However, only the parameters associated with N EKC were found
Aquatic plants have potential as feedstuffs in certain nations, but the economics of harvesting and processing would prohibit\\u000a their direct utilization as a forage in technologically advanced nations. However, nutrient pollution is accelerating rates\\u000a of eutrophication of natural waters in many areas. Aquatic plants produce large standing crops and accumulate large amounts\\u000a of nutrients. Systems based on the harvest of
In pyritic environments, the bacteriaThiobacillus ferrooxidans catalyze acid formation by increasing the oxidation rate of pyrite by a factor of one million. This acid solubilizes metals\\u000a and pollutes adjacent streams and lands. Bactericide sprays during mining and waste disposal operations attack the source\\u000a of the problem by preventing acid formation and metals solubilization. Used in conjunction with current water treatment
Andrew A. Sobek; Vijay Rastogi; Donald A. Benedetti
Planning and management of water resources has always been a difficult problem, since water resources are highly sensitive to the nonlinear nature of hydrologic processes and their complex feedback mechanisms. Population explosion and its many associated effects (e.g. urbanization, waterpollution, deforestation) have already caused enormous stress on the world's fresh water resources, especially in the developing world. According to
Aquatic plants can be used for treating eutrophicated water in a simple and cost-effective manner, but many such plant systems remain to be characterized. The effects of growing Eichhornia crassipes on removal of nitrogen (N) from the eutrophicated water were investigated in a large-scale enclosure system installed in hyper-eutrophicated water in Hua-jia-chi pond, Hangzhou city, China. Total N concentration in
Yun Ying Fang; Xiao E Yang; Hui Qing Chang; Pei Min Pu; Xue Feng Ding; Zed Rengel
Diffuse pollution is hard to analyze, control and manage by its nature. Watershed models and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are recently developed tools that aid analysis of diffuse sources of pollution. However, their applications are not always easy and straightforward. Turkey is a typical example of a mountainous country rich in rivers and streams. Due to the complex geomorphology, land-use and agricultural practices in most of the watersheds in Turkey, modelling, analyzing and managing diffuse pollution has been a challenge. The complex watershed structure forces the modellers to work with spatially high resolution data. Apart from the data, the models themselves may also cause operational problems. These issues and their probable solutions form the basis of the discussions in this paper. It acts as a guideline for modelling and analyzing diffuse pollution by emphasizing the referred problems and difficulties. Design of an Information Technology-based system tool for watershed and/or water quality modelling, which would be suitable for countries having watersheds with similar structure and problems to those of Turkey, is also outlined. PMID:17711010
Erturk, A; Gurel, M; Baloch, M A; Dikerler, T; Ekdal, A; Tanik, A; Seker, D Z
This document provides information for small system owners, operators, managers, and local decision makers, such as town officials, regarding drinking water treatment requirements and the treatment technologies suitable for small systems. t is not intended to be a comprehensive m...
There is a growing need for urban watermanagers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current resource management practices put different stresses on local water resources and urban infrastructure. Total WaterManag...
Faced with limited water supply and increasing water demands, how to deal with the serious conflict between the agricultural and ecological sector has become one big challenge in the Zhangye Irrigation District in the Heihe River Basin in Northwest China. Managing agricultural water demand and increasing agricultural water use efficiency are considered the main policy options to ease the water use conflict. In this paper we explore some practical water demand management measures and their impact on increasing water use efficiency. For this purpose, we conducted a field survey in the Zhangye Irrigation Districts in July 2009, covering 40 villages, 160 households and 95 surface and groundwater managers. Survey results show that from 2001 to 2008, collectively managed villages have been substituted by Water User Associations (WUAs). By 2008, 98 percent of villages were managed WUAs. In addition to this institutional change, Zhangye irrigation District also adopted several other measures, including water pricing policy, water tickets and water rights. Quantitative analysis show that among all these demand management measures, changing management institution, implementing water pricing and water rights policies have played significant role in increasing agricultural water use efficiency. How to extend the experiences and lessons on water demand management from Heihe River Basin to other regions is another challenge policy makers are facing. Key words Water demand management measures; agricultural water use efficiency; institutional change, water pricing, water rights, water tickets
Wang, Jinxia; van den Boom, Bart; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Yumin
Based on the results and lessons learned from the TOPPS project (Training the Operators to prevent Pollution from Point Sources), a proposal on a sustainable strategy to avoid point source pollution from Plant Protection Products (PPPs) was made. Within this TOPPS project (2005-2008), stakeholders were interviewed and research and analysis were done in 6 pilot catchment areas (BE, FR, DE, DK, IT, PL). Next, there was a repeated survey on operators' perception and opinion to measure changes resulting from TOPPS activities and good and bad practices were defined based on the Best Management Practices (risk analysis). Aim of the proposal is to suggest a strategy considering the differences between countries which can be implemented on Member State level in order to avoid PPP pollution of water through point sources. The methodology used for the up-scaLing proposal consists of the analysis of the current situation, a gap analysis, a consistency analysis and organisational structures for implementation. The up-scaling proposal focuses on the behaviour of the operators, on the equipment and infrastructure available with the operators. The proposal defines implementation structures to support correct behaviour through the development and updating of Best Management Practices (BMPs) and through the transfer and the implementation of these BMPs. Next, the proposal also defines requirements for the improvement of equipment and infrastructure based on the defined key factors related to point source pollution. It also contains cost estimates for technical and infrastructure upgrades to comply with BMPs. PMID:20218516
Waterpollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) led to revised federal regulations in the United States. The regulations provide for the greater management of potential sources of agricultural contamination and impose additional financial costs on producers. Along with a duty to secure a permit, significant changes address coverage of pollutants, separation of production and land application areas, effluent limitation guidelines, and differentiating agricultural storm water discharges from other discharges. The revised provisions require more producers to secure National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits and mandate that large CAFOs develop technology-based effluent discharge limitations involving best management practices. Medium- and small-sized CAFOs need to adopt technology-based effluent discharge requirements employing best professional judgment. For farms raising animals that are not CAFOs, voluntary management practices may be employed to intercept pollutants before they enter waterbodies. Additional educational efforts promoting the implementation of further management practices that address the agricultural impairment of water resources may be needed. PMID:15031014
Scope and method of study. Solutions addressing the dilemma of nonpoint source [NPS] pollution are dependent on education, assessment, and best management practices [BMP]. Educational programs must provide and simplify complex relationships between NPS and water quality. This study evaluates the impact of a geographical information system [GIS] methodology and its instruction to watermanagers by assessing changes in their attitude, perceived knowledge, and planned management practices. Findings and conclusion. Watermanagers knowledge and behavior were not found significantly different between the GIS and without-GIS courses. There was a significant difference between the courses for attitude. However, the significance was in favor of the without-GIS workshop. The pre- then post-survey was inadequate to establish reliable baseline data for the watermanagers. Over estimation to pre-survey questions generated inaccuracies in the post-survey data. The result of the course presentation had an impact on the watermanagers perceived knowledge, attitude and planned behavior toward water quality. GIS methodology has potential for enhances educational material for watermanagers.
States, territories, and tribes identify nonpoint source pollution as responsible for more than half of the Nation’s existing and threatened water quality impairments, making it the principal remaining cause of water quality problems across the United States. Combinations of education, technical and financial assistance, and regulatory measures are used to inform landowners about nonpoint source pollution issues, and to stimulate the use of best management practices. A mail survey of non-commercial riparian landowners investigated how they learn about best management practices, the efficacy of different educational techniques, and what motivates them to implement land management activities. Landowners experience a variety of educational techniques, and rank those that include direct personal contact as more effective than brochures, advertisements, radio, internet, or television. The most important motivations for implementing best management practices were linked with elements of a personal stewardship ethic, accountability, personal commitment, and feasibility. Nonpoint source education and social marketing campaigns should include direct interpersonal contacts, and appeal to landowner motivations of caring, responsibility, and personal commitment.
Human activities exert many pressures on the quality of groundwater, and advanced assessment programmes are needed to design sustainable watermanagement strategies. To contribute to this challenge, the nitrate pollution problem of groundwater wells in the small scale farming systems of the Niayes region in Senegal is assessed and explained in terms of well characteristics and land use properties. A
Agricultural non-point source pollution is one of severe problems for water environment of agricultural area in China. The effects of near-surface soil water conditions on agricultural non-point source pollutant (AGNSP) transport during soil erosion processes, especially antecedent soil moisture was saturated, was developed by using artificial simulation rainfall experiment. The results showed that antecedent soil water content had great impact on AGNSP transport during soil erosive processes. Under the same soil texture, the AGNSP concentration and loading with runoff and sediment when the antecedent soil water content was saturated were greater than that of soil moisture un-saturated condition, and they would be increased as antecedent soil moisture increased. The approach of soil nitrogen loss was rainfall runoff; nitrogen loss with runoff was about 90.4% to 99.8% of total loss. The approaches of soil phosphorus were runoff and soil loss (sediment), the loss with runoff was about 2.67% to 23.5%, and the loss with sediment was about 76.5% to 97.3%. Soil texture had great influence on soil phosphorus loss; the concentration and loading of dissolved phosphorus (DP) with sediment from Yangling Loutu were greater than that of Ansai Loess. Some pertinence suggestions were given to control agricultural non-point source pollution, such as the best management practices. PMID:19402484
The aim of this article consists of developing an ecosystemic approach to collect information about groundwater pollution in order to determine its origin and infer the health risks in Mingoa's watershed through the study of 12 spontaneous settlements. From an environmental point of view, family interviews and direct observations allowed us to inventory springs, wells and latrines, and to collect information. So, we have selected, on the basis of predefined criteria, 21 wells and springs for physico-chemical and bacteriological laboratory analyses. Two hundred children aged less than 5 years were subjected to KOAP examination. A number of 1224 latrines were inventoried, for an average use of 15 people per latrine, producing 913.3 kg/year of excreta. Most of 91% of people use these latrines. The superficial aquifers, connected to the wells and springs, present high values of nitrogen, phosphorous pollutant and fecal contamination indicators (coliforms and fecal streptococcus), which make water inappropriate to human consumption. PCA analysis establishes that waterpollution comes mainly from traditional pit latrines. The overall prevalence of diarrhea and parasite infestation was important (=40%). The presence of cysts of Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris limbricoides, and Entamoeba coli confirms this high prevalence and testify to very approximate hygiene and environment conditions. PMID:23916209
Youmbi, Jean Ghislain Tabué; Feumba, Roger; Njitat, Valérie Tsama; de Marsily, Ghislain; Ekodeck, Georges Emmanuel
Non-point source discharge from grazed pastures may be high in nutrients, sediment, and pathogens, three major contributors to water quality impairment in California. Intercepting pollution at its source and managingwater quality within the landscape are essential to maintaining healthy downstream waters. We investigated the efficacy of flow-through wetlands interspersed throughout the agricultural landscape to reduce non-point source pollution of tailwater from cattle-grazed, irrigated pastures in the Sierra Nevada Foothills of California. Wetlands are known to positively impact water quality through ecological processes such as filtration, sedimentation, microbial transformations and plant uptake of nutrients. Influent and effluent water of small (0.25 ha), natural wetlands located downstream from flood irrigated pastures was analyzed for Escherichia coli, NO3-N, total N, total suspended solids (TSS), total P, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) throughout two summer irrigation seasons (June to October). We compared reductions of sediment, nutrients and E. coli provided by a healthy, non-degraded wetland with reductions from flow through a channelized, degraded wetland. Large reductions in E. coli (>75%) and TSS (>50%) were observed in water exiting the healthy wetland while nutrient and DOC (~ 20%) concentrations were less affected by flow through the wetland. The channelized wetland provided smaller reductions in all constituents than did the non-degraded wetland. Results from this study demonstrate that small flow-through wetlands can improve water quality through the attenuation of E. coli and suspended sediments, and to a lesser degree DOC and nutrients.
Many investigators have identified the urban environments as those producing high levels of waterpollutants relative to other land uses. In a 59 hectare (146 acre) urban watershed in Orlando, Florida, the stormwater system discharges to an 11 hectare (27...
...Adjustment of effluent standard for presence of toxic pollutant in the intake water. 129.6 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS TOXIC POLLUTANT EFFLUENT STANDARDS Toxic Pollutant Effluent Standards and Prohibitions...
Pollution prevention is one of the few areas in which environmental goals and economic interests clearly coincide. Benefits include reduced costs, liabilities and regulatory burdens, and an improved environment. Minimizing the quantity and toxicity of waste also reduces the need for waste treatment operations. Because economics is one of the factors weighed when adopting pollution prevent technologies, economic analysis based on equipment's payback period is important to determine whether a system should be adopted and, if so, what equipment should be selected. Many air pollution control methods, wastewater treatment systems and sludge dewatering processes can be used for materials recovery and water reuse. Factors to consider when selecting a waste treatment system include legal limitations or effluent criteria imposed for public protection, social limitations imposed by the community in which the pollution source is or will be located, and economic limitations. The latter two factors are critical for small businesses, which typically are located in or near metropolitan areas, and often have limited financial resources. Another factor to consider is whether a waste treatment system can be designed to accommodate future expansion or operational modifications. Although small businesses tend to prefer traditional, proven environmental technologies, some new technologies can be adopted easily to reduce waste generation and costs. In addition, several relatively simple and inexpensive practices have proven successful in eliminating or minimizing wastes. These include: improving housekeeping practices; segregating wastes; changing materials purchasing and inventory control procedures; substituting less toxic materials; recycling and reusing wastes; reducing wastewater flows; changing production methods or modifying production processes; and training employees in pollution prevention.
Huang, C.S. (Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States))
Materials on environmental pollution published by the various offices of the federal government are presented in this select bibliography. Limited in scope to publications on air, water, and land pollution, the document is designed to serve teachers and researchers working in the field of environmental problems who wish reference to public…
The Erh-Ren River is one of the most polluted rivers in Taiwan. Although its flow rate is relatively low, the rate is still beyond the capacity of any traditional water treatment facility. A pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) is the attempt used to purify the highly polluted river water and to collect data for the construction and operation of a full-scale system in the future. This article reports the results from this initial stage of our research work. During the study, the most efficient nutrient removal occurred between April and October. The monthly average removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD) ranged from 13-51% of ammonia-N (AN) from 78-100%, and of orthophosphate (OP) from 52-85%. After November, input COD levels increased, and the monthly average removal rates of ammonia-N dropped to 16% and of orthophosphate to 13%. The dramatic changes in removal efficiency suggest that the macrophytes in the CW had a direct influence on the water treatment and that the change of seasons and the quality of the river water inhibited the growth of the macrophytes. PMID:11131796
The use of surface water for thermoelectric power plant cooling significantly impacts river water temperatures, posing risks to aquatic ecosystems. In addition, surface water temperatures in summer can exceed limits for power plant compliance with thermal effluent limitations, jeopardizing energy security during periods of peak power demand. For example, Brown's Ferry Nuclear Plant in Alabama curtailed power production by 50% for over 40 days in July-August of 2010 when river temperatures exceeded 90°F. Future increases in surface water temperatures due to climate change may further endanger energy security. This study examines summer intake and outflow water temperature data reported by power plants during peak production months across the United States to determine the impact of thermoelectric power plants on surface water temperatures in the summer. Initial results indicate that U.S. coal plants (n= 625) raised water temperatures by an average of 17°F (± 12°F) and discharged cooling water with median peak temperatures of 100°F (± 13°F) in the summer of 2005, the last year when this data was reliably reported. Further analysis will extend the time period of this study from 2000-2005 and expand the scope to various energy sources and cooling technologies. In addition, we explore regional variation to assess the relative threat that thermal pollution poses to energy security across the U.S.
Eutrophication is a worldwide pollution problem, when the point source pollution is efficiently controlled, pollution load from non-point source has the increasing proportion in the total load. Xiangxi River is selected as the research demonstration area to conduct preliminary study on non-point source pollution for frequent water bloom. Non-point source pollution factors are analyzed in Xiangxi River such as precipitation,
Aldehyde and carboxylic acid compounds are known as volatile substances with bad smell. It is also said to cause bad smell of tap water. In this study, we tried to detect and analyse aldehyde and carboxylic acid dissolved in water, using a surface-polarity controlled sensor. The sensor measures electrochemical impedance of the electrode surface whose electric potential is dynamically controlled. Adsorption and desorption of target chemicals cause changes in impedance which has constant phase element (CPE) characteristics. The impedance changes depending on the electrode potential are used as a chemical sensor output. As a result, we could detect and distinguish many kinds of aldehyde and carboxylic acids. Furthermore various waterpollutant can be detected with high sensitivity. The results suggest that a simple and multi-purposed sensor can be constructed for environmental analysis using the proposed method.
This book is divided in three parts and contains the following: PART I: ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTS. Environmental conditions for water resource projects. Characteristics of some large scale reservoirs. Biological parameters of the TVA Eurasian watermilfoil management program. Ecological parameters influencing aquatic plant growth. Biological parameters influencing growth and reproduction of hydrilla. PART II: EVALUATION OF SELECTED AQUATIC HERBICIDES. Technical review of the factors affecting 2,4-D for aquatic use. Technical review of the factors affecting endothall for aquatic use. Technical review of factors affecting diquat for aquatic use. Technical review of the factors affecting use of dicamba. Technical review of the factors affecting aquatic use of dichlobenil. PART III: EVALUATION OF VEGETATION MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS. Strategies for aquatic vegetation management. (A) conversion of factors for U.S. and metric units. (B) Glossary of terms. Index.
Most environmental waters are susceptible to fecal contamination from animal and\\/or human pollution sources. To attenuate\\u000a or eliminate such contamination, it is often critical that the pollution sources are rapidly and correctly identified. Fecal\\u000a pollution source tracking (FST) is a promising research area that aims to identify the origin(s) of fecal pollution in water.\\u000a This mini-review focuses on the potentials
Hyperspectral sensing opens up great possibilities for future remote sensing. In particular, high-resolution hyperspectral analysis will be an indispensable tool for agricultural applications, hydrodynamics and ocean physics, and polarimetric analysis of solar radiation reflected from rivers, lakes and marshes is expected to play an important role in environmental observation. In conventional multispectral analysis, detailed information has not been able to be used because each pixel includes much mixed spectral radiometric information, so it is difficult to obtain high classification accuracy in the analysis. To address this problem, the authors have been investigating some experimental analysis schemes using a hyperspectral imaging spectropolarimeter with selectable plane of polarization developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), and these investigations have yielded some remarkable results in the observation of pollutedwater in laboratory models and field experiments. These results indicate the possibility of applying the imaging spectropolarimeter to wide area environmental observation. This paper describes preliminary experiments for detecting concentration of suspended solid in water using the hyperspectral imaging spectropolarimeter with multi-polarization. Several hyperspectral analysis schemes for detecting such waterpollution and analysis results of the observation data are presented.
In this study, benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) removal from contaminated water by physical, chemical, and biological processes was studied. Results showed that air sparging in pollutedwater can reduce monoaromatic compounds from 140,000 to about 5 microg/l in only 1 h process with a gassing rate of 0.33 VVM. This method cannot be considered as a green technology as pollutants are only transferred from the liquid phase to the gas phase The ultimate objective of this research was thus to evaluate the efficiency of a strategy involving BTX adsorption by granular-activated charcoal (GAC) and subsequent regeneration of this support by a bioleaching process. Analysis of such processes requires the building of analytical tools able to accurately determine the contents of the contaminants in samples containing biomass to make possible the calculation of reliable material balances. Current investigation showed that BTX are readily trapped by GAC particles with low further release in the liquid medium whereas they remain at least partially available for in situ biodegradation. BTX adsorption onto the GAC was shown to reach maximum solute retention close to 350, 250, and 150 (as mg/g GAC) for xylenes, toluene, and benzene, respectively. This approach, which could afford efficient biological active carbon regeneration, is very promising for the removal of BTX compounds from water without any further environment damage. PMID:18427740
Farhadian, Mehrdad; Duchez, David; Vachelard, Cédric; Larroche, Christian
Royal Commission Environmental Control Department (RC-ECD) at Yanbu industrial city in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has established a well-defined monitoring program to control the pollution from industrial effluents. The quality of effluent from each facility is monitored round the clock. Different strategic measures have been taken by the RC-ECD to implement the zero discharge policy of RC. Industries are required to pre-treat the effluent to conform pretreatment standards before discharging to central biological treatment plant. Industries are not allowed to discharge any treated or untreated effluent in open channels. After treatment, reclaimed water must have to comply with direct discharge standards before discharge to the sea. Data of industrial wastewater collected from five major industries and central industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP) is summarized in this report. During 5-year period, 3,705 samples were collected and analyzed for 43,436 parameters. There were 1,377 violations from pretreatment standards from all the industries. Overall violation percentage was 3.17%. Maximum violations were recorded from one of the petrochemical plants. The results show no significant pollution due to heavy metals. Almost all heavy metals were within RC pretreatment standards. High COD and TOC indicates that major pollution was due to hydrocarbons. Typical compounds identified by GC-MS were branched alkanes, branched alkenes, aliphatic ketones, substituted thiophenes, substituted phenols, aromatics and aromatic alcohols. Quality of treated water was also in compliance with RC direct discharge standards. In order to achieve the zero discharge goal, further studies and measures are in progress. PMID:18228156
Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S; Hammad, Waleed S
A decision-support system for produced watermanagement (DISSPROWM) in offshore operations is being developed. The system determines the risk and hazards to human and marine species from non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic pollutants, including radionuclides present in produced water. The DISSPROWM also evaluates the best available treatment technology for treating the produced water whose properties are in the database. The system consists
Niaz Mohammed; Tahir Husain; Neil Bose; Brian Veitch; Kelly Hawboldt
Two-thirds of the coastal rivers and bays in the United States are degraded from nutrient pollution, and nitrogen inputs these waters continue to increase. The nitrogen comes from a variety of sources, including runoff from agricultural fields, concentrated animal feeding operations, atmospheric deposition from fossil fuel combustion, and sewage and septic wastes. Technical solutions for nitrogen pollution exist at reasonable cost. That most of these solutions have not yet been implemented to any significant extent across the United States suggests that new policy approaches are necessary. The best solution may involve a combination of voluntary and mandatory approaches, applying different approaches to different sources of nitrogen pollution. A watershed-based approach that relies heavily on voluntary mechanisms (such as crop-yield insurance to reduce over-fertilization) is likely to be the most effective for some sources of nitrogen (such as runoff from agricultural fields), while a uniform national regulatory approach may be better for others (such as NO(x) emissions from fossil fuel combustion). Implementation of management strategies should be carefully coupled to monitoring programs to assess the effectiveness of these strategies. While both nitrogen and phosphorus are important to control, the focus should be on nitrogen management, in part because nitrogen is more generally the causal agent of coastal eutrophication. Also, while nitrogen-control practices tend to also reduce phosphorus pollution, phosphorus-control practices often have little effect on nitrogen. Although current scientific and technical knowledge is sufficient to begin to make substantial progress toward solving coastal nitrogen pollution, progress will be made more quickly and more cost effectively with increased investment in appropriate scientific research. PMID:20549435
Remediation of ground waterpollution at old landfills with no engineered leachate collection system is a demanding and costly operation. It requires control of the landfill body, since the majority of the pollutants are still present in the landfilled waste for decades after the site has been closed. However, natural attenuation of the plume without removing the source is an attractive approach to managing leachate plumes. Natural attenuation has been implemented for petroleum hydrocarbon plumes and for chlorinated solvent plumes, primarily in the US. Natural attenuation has not yet gained a foothold with respect to leachate plumes, however. Based on the experiences gained from 10 years of research on two Danish landfills, it is suggested that natural attenuation is a feasible approach but is more complicated and demanding than in the case of petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvent.
An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more
Most of the projected global population increases will take place in Third World Countries that already suffer from water, food, and health problems. Increasingly, agricultural watermanagement must be coordinated with, and integrated into, the overall watermanagement of the region. Sustainability, public health, and environmental protection are key factors. More storage of water behind dams and especially in aquifers
Aspects of water demand and supply conditions for two municipal water systems in Delaware, those of Wilmington and Newark, were investigated. Watermanagement practices were evaluated by a structure of analysis based on microeconomics. The theory suggests...
Natural gas is produced throughout the central and W. part of New York State; whereas, oil production has been limited mainly to Allegheny and Cattaraugus counties. Oil production, and particularly secondary recovery by the water-flooding method, has resulted in pollution of ground- and surface-water supplies with oil and salt water. Pollution from active oil fields has been caused by separator
At present, many metropolitan sewer systems do not meet existing and proposed standards on waterpollution. Existing systems were designed to overflow at prescribed locations in order to protect the sewage treatment plants whenever severe overload conditions exist (usually during storms). This discharge of untreated overflows into natural receiving waters is of growing concern to waterpollution control authorities. The
Assessments of the Great Lakes' water quality and chemical loadings have not considered present and future air pollution sources within the Great Lakes' water basin as waterpollution contributors. Yet, according to recent estimates, aerosols from the Chicago area alone may be the main source of Lake Michigan's concentration of almost one dozen trace elements. Mesoscale circulation patterns and a
A vast number of persistent organic pollutants have been found in wastewater effluent, surface water, and drinking water around the world. This indicates their ineffective removal from water and wastewater using conventional treatment technologies. In addition to classical persistent organics such as organochlorine insecticides, solvents, and polychlorinated biphenyls, a growing number of emerging pollutants of both synthetic and natural origins
Keisuke Ikehata; Mohamed Gamal El-Din; Shane A. Snyder
On the basis of investigation and research on the pollution source and pollution pathway of Yujiagou area, by the ground water\\u000a quality analysis and the leaching and soaking experiments of the gangue, reliable data were obtained. The experiment results\\u000a prove that these inorganic salt elements are easily dissolved by the water. The main pollution factors in the ground water\\u000a are
Applying actual cooling tower water analyses together with air pollution and meteorological records to the theoretical equation calculating M-alkalinity of cooling tower water which is formulated in consideration of air pollution, capture efficiencies of typical air-conditioning cooling tower for each air pollutant have been estimated approximately as 25% for SO2, 30% for NO2, and 40% for NO. Using the equation, the method to establish adequate cycles of concentration of a cooling tower water is explained.
As an important industrial city, Chongqing has experienced rapid economic growth in recent years, but at the same time the\\u000a growth has been accompanied by serious pollution problems. Water quality monitoring shows that the waters of Chongqing are\\u000a widely polluted. In this paper, the human capital approach is applied to assessing the economic losses and damages caused\\u000a by waterpollution
Summary and conclusions In an important percentage of stools of healthy persons Shiga bacteriophage occurs.The Shiga bacteriophage occurs during some lapse of time in water which has been polluted by human faeces. The Shiga bacteriophage could be ascertained in water by means of the enrichment method ofNyberg.The Shiga bacteriophage method for indicating the pollution of strongly pollutedwater is as sensitive
Fish discards and by-catch issues are highly topical subjects that are permanently under a social focus. Two main approaches are being considered to address this discard problem: reducing the by-catch and increasing by-catch utilization. Interest in increased by-catch valorization may arise from a greater demand for fish products, such as the development of new markets for previously discarded species, the use of low-value specimens for aquaculture or the creation of value-added fish products for the food, pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries. However, contaminants present in fish discards may be transferred to their valorized products, leading to possible long-term bioaccumulation and subsequent adverse health effects. In this valorization framework, the aim is to promote responsible and sustainable management of marine resources. The pollutant levels in catches from European fisheries and the best available decontamination techniques for marine valorized discards/by-products are compiled and analyzed in this work. PMID:22542692
Antelo, Luis T; Lopes, Carla; Franco-Uría, Amaya; Alonso, Antonio A
Six storm-water best management practices BMPs for treating urban rainwater runoff were evaluated for cost and effective- ness in removing suspended sediments and total phosphorus. Construction and annual operating and maintenance O and M cost data were collected and analyzed for dry extended detention basins, wet basins, sand filters, constructed wetlands, bioretention filters, and infiltration trenches using literature that reported
Peter T. Weiss; John S. Gulliver; Andrew J. Erickson
Storm water best management practices (BMPs) have been historically evaluated for effectiveness and selected based on their ability to remove total suspended solids (TSS). EPA and a number of states and local agencies have adopted a criterion of 80% removal of TSS for BMPs and for determining acceptance of manufactured structural BMPs. Many agencies use TSS as a surrogate for
|Presented are the recommendations of the WaterPollution Control Federation for operation and maintenance consideration during the planning design, construction, and operation of wastewater treatment facilities. (CS)|
In recent years, waterpollution accidents resulting in acute aquatic ecological risk and security issues become a research focus. However, in our country, the surface water quality standards and drinking water health standards were used to determine the safety of waters or not in pollution incidents due to lacking safety effect threshold or risk value for protection of aquatic life. In foreign countries, although predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) or risk value (R) of pollutants were provided for protection of aquatic organisms, the PNECs or risk values were derived based on long-term exposure toxicity data NOECs (no observed effect concentrations) and lack of short-term exposure risk or threshold values. For the short-term and high dose exposure in pollution incident, ecological risk assessment methods were discussed according to the procedures of the conventional ecological risk assessment and the water quality criteria establishment of the U.S. EPA for the protection of aquatic organisms in short-term exposure, and had a case study. At the same time, we provide some suggestions for the establishment of ecological risk assessment system in waterpollution incidents. PMID:22295619
Best management practices (BMPs) are effective in reducing the transport of agricultural nonpoint source pollutants to receiving water bodies. However, selection of BMPs for placement in a watershed requires optimization of the available resources to obtain maximum possible pollution reduction. In this study, an optimization methodology is developed to select and place BMPs in a watershed to provide solutions that are both economically and ecologically effective. This novel approach develops and utilizes a BMP tool, a database that stores the pollution reduction and cost information of different BMPs under consideration. The BMP tool replaces the dynamic linkage of the distributed parameter watershed model during optimization and therefore reduces the computation time considerably. Total pollutant load from the watershed, and net cost increase from the baseline, were the two objective functions minimized during the optimization process. The optimization model, consisting of a multiobjective genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) in combination with a watershed simulation tool (Soil Water and Assessment Tool (SWAT)), was developed and tested for nonpoint source pollution control in the L'Anguille River watershed located in eastern Arkansas. The optimized solutions provided a trade-off between the two objective functions for sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen reduction. The results indicated that buffer strips were very effective in controlling the nonpoint source pollutants from leaving the croplands. The optimized BMP plans resulted in potential reductions of 33%, 32%, and 13% in sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen loads, respectively, from the watershed.
Anthropogenic pollutants, including pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, and estrogens are detected in urban water bodies. Effective examination of dilute organic and microbial pollutant loading rates within surface waters is currently prohibitively expensive and labor intensive. Effort is being placed on the development of improved monitoring methodologies to more accurately assess surface water quality and evaluate the effectiveness of water quality management practices. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008 a "real-time" wireless network equipped with high frequency fundamental water quality parameter sensors measured turbidity, conductivity, pH, depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen and nitrate above and below stormwater inputs at two urban stream locations. At each location one liter grab samples were concurrently collected by ISCO automatic samplers at two hour intervals for 24 hour durations during three dry periods and five rain events. Grab samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms, atrazine (agricultural herbicide), prometon (residential herbicide) and caffeine (wastewater indicator). Surrogate relationships between easy-to-measure water quality parameters and difficult-to-measure pollutants were developed, subsequently facilitating monitoring of these pollutants without the development of new, and likely costly, technologies. Additionally, comparisons were made between traditional grab sampling techniques and the "real-time" monitoring to assess the accuracy of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) calculations.
Henjum, M.; Wennen, C.; Hondzo, M.; Hozalski, R. M.; Novak, P. J.; Arnold, W. A.
\\u000a To implement effective watermanagement, institutional and organizational arrangements must be developed to deal with market\\u000a and government failures. The major types of market failure are: the positive and negative externalities, which lead to non-optimal\\u000a resource provision; nonexcludability and nonsubtractability, which contribute to the under-provision of goods or services;\\u000a and natural monopolies, which result in non-competitive pricing. Nonexcludability refers to
In the European Alps water has been perceived as ubiquitous and not the subject of management. Climate change and anthropogenic pressures have changed demand and supply relations rapidly and over the last 10 years, water problems have increasingly become apparent over temporal and spatial hotspots. Stakeholders in the Alpine Space have been confronted with watermanagement problems in agriculture, tourism
Changing into slippers when entering the nuclear medicine management district prevented pollution expansion. Accidents involving patients falling occurred in university facilities. It was thought that changing slippers was the cause. The pollution situation was measured in three facilities by using the smear method and the direct technique to examine the effect of changing slippers. The current state was measured. After pollution prevention guidance was continuously done, pollution expansion was measured; three weeks of measurements were compared. Pollution was detected in the first period of weeks at a frequency of 19 times. For the latter period, it was detected 6 times. Half the pollution was in the restroom. Pollution was reduced by doing pollution prevention guidance for the restroom. Patients' falls occur even if they change slippers. Falling accidents can be decreased. PMID:22277821
This work investigated sediment samples collected from Dapeng Bay and three neighboring rivers (Kaoping River, Tungkang River, and Lingbeng River) in southwestern Taiwan, Republic of China. Multivariate statistical analysis techniques, i.e., factor analysis, cluster analysis, and canonical discriminant analysis were used for the evaluation of spatial variations to determine the types of pollution and to identify pollutant sources from neighboring rivers. Factor analysis results showed that the most important latent factors in Dapeng Bay are soil texture, heavy metals, organic matter, and nutrients factors. Contour maps incorporating the factor scores showed heavy metals accumulate along the lakesides, especially on the southeastern banks of the lakes. A cluster analysis was performed using factor scores computed from these latent factors. We then classified these areas into five distinct classes using sampling stations, and we illustrate that in the three river classes, the sediment properties are influenced by industrial and domestic wastewater and agricultural activities (including livestock rearing and farm activities). However, in Dapeng Bay, the rivers were influenced more by complicated biogeochemical processes; these could be identified as a type of pollution. Canonical discriminant analysis illustrated that two constructed discriminant functions made a marked contribution to most of the discriminant variables, and the significant parameters of porosity and Cd, Cr, Al, and Pb content were combined as the "heavy metal factor". The recognition capacities of the two discriminant functions were 82.6% and 17.4%, respectively. It is also likely that the annual mean of the water exchange rate is insufficient (taking about 7 days to eliminate pollutants) and therefore has significantly influenced the carbon and nutrient biogeochemical processes and budgets in the semi-enclosed ecosystem. Thus, the sediment properties are not similar between the lagoon and the neighboring rivers. Our results yield useful information concerning estuary recovery and water resources management and may be applicable to other basins with similar characteristics that are experiencing similar coastal environmental issues. PMID:20195746
Over the past decades, the Dutch people have been confronted with severe water-related problems, which are the result of an unsustainable water system, arising from human interventions in the physical infrastructure of the water system and the watermanagement style. The claims of housing, industry, infrastructure and agriculture have resulted in increasing pressure on the water system. The continuous subsidence
Neutron scattering and complementary techniques are extremely useful in the investigation of pollutant speciation in water and aqueous environments, as is shown in this chapter for both heavy metal and organic contaminants. The use of neutron diffraction, in conjunction with isotopic substitution and difference analysis, makes it possible to study the local structure developed around ions and other species in solution and in the pore spaces of minerals such as natural clays. As illustrations, the first-order difference method is applied to the hydration of mercury in aqueous solution, and the second-order difference method is used to determine the solvation of lanthanides in clay minerals. The isotopic substitution of hydrogen for deuterium is a powerful method with which to study both the structure and the dynamics of, for example, organic pollutants. In many cases the combination of neutron and X-ray diffraction is necessary, as shown for the incorporation of arsenic into the structures of minerals such as gypsum and calcite. Finally, some general conclusions and perspectives regarding the application of neutron techniques in environmental issues are drawn.
Cuello, Gabriel J.; Román-Ross, Gabriela; Fernández-Martínez, Alejandro; Sobolev, Oleg; Charlet, Laurent; Skipper, Neal T.
This paper describes the methodology of building a predictive model for the purpose of marine pollution monitoring, based on low quality biomarker data. A step-by-step, systematic data analysis approach is presented, resulting in design of a purely data-driven model, able to accurately discriminate between various coastal waterpollution levels. The environmental scientists often try to apply various machine learning techniques to their data without much success, mostly because of the lack of experience with different methods and required 'under the hood' knowledge. Thus this paper is a result of a collaboration between the machine learning and environmental science communities, presenting a predictive model development workflow, as well as discussing and addressing potential pitfalls and difficulties. The novelty of the modelling approach presented lays in successful application of machine learning techniques to high dimensional, incomplete biomarker data, which to our knowledge has not been done before and is the result of close collaboration between machine learning and environmental science communities. PMID:20362318
This study examines the development of safeguards against marine oil pollution in Alaska since the 1989 Exxon Valdez disaster, in which oil spilled from the tanker Exxon Valdez polluted more than 2,000 kilometers of Alaskan coastline. Since 1989, a series of enduring institutional reforms have contributed to major enhancements in the safeguards against the continuing hazard of marine oil pollution
We present an optimal real-time control approach for the management of drinking water well fields. The methodology is applied to the Hardhof field in the city of Zurich, Switzerland, which is threatened by diffuse pollution. The risk of attracting pollutants is higher if the pumping rate is increased and can be reduced by increasing artificial recharge (AR) or by adaptive allocation of the AR. The method was first tested in offline simulations with a three-dimensional finite element variably saturated subsurface flow model for the period January 2004-August 2005. The simulations revealed that (1) optimal control results were more effective than the historical control results and (2) the spatial distribution of AR should be different from the historical one. Next, the methodology was extended to a real-time control method based on the Ensemble Kalman Filter method, using 87 online groundwater head measurements, and tested at the site. The real-time control of the well field resulted in a decrease of the electrical conductivity of the water at critical measurement points which indicates a reduced inflow of water originating from contaminated sites. It can be concluded that the simulation and the application confirm the feasibility of the real-time control concept. PMID:20695465
Organic pollutants could be degraded by using bubble discharge in water with gas aeration in the discharge reactor and more plasma can be generated in the discharge process. When pulsed high voltage was applied between electrodes with gas aerated into the reactor, it showed that bubbles were broken, which meant that breakdown took place. It could also be observed that the removal rate of phenol increased with increasing discharge voltage or pulse frequency, and with reducing initial phenol concentration or solution electric conductivity. It could remove more amount of phenol by oxygen aeration. With increasing oxygen flow rate, the removal rate increased. There was little difference with air or nitrogen aeration for phenol removal. The solution temperature after discharge increased to a great extent. However, this part of energy consumption did not contribute to the reaction, which led to a reduction in the energy utilization efficiency.
Zhu, Linan; Wang, Yongjun; Ren, Zhijun; Liu, Guifang; Kang, Kai
Problems regarding pollution must be handled very carefully and precisely, which requires a well-organized and accurate program. In this article, we suggest that different programs should be used for different time scales (short-term or long-term programs) to manage and control the pollution, which we call multiscale programs. Here, we follow the level crossing (LC) method to introduce an optimum program for different time scales to managepollution. It might be useful to mention that we have used the historical pollution data available for Tehran.
Models can help planners assess the potential impacts of planned land development. However, pollutant yield results from common watershed water quality models are inadequate and must be coupled with other important ecosystem component models to assess the overall impact of land development and management. For example, golf course development typically replaces agricultural or native lands with intensively managed grassland with
A new technology for harnessing the dye pollutedwater and dye collection was developed. It is based on the enhanced evaporation by using solar, wind and air temperature energy and additional heat-electric energy. It consists of four parts: (1) evaporation carrier system (evaporation carrier and frame for evaporation carrier) for pollutedwater; (2) pollutedwater circulating system (pumping-spraying-collecting); (3) heating system; (4) workshop with pollutedwater reservoir-tanks and rainfall prevention roof. The pollutedwater was (heated in case necessary) sprayed to the evaporation carrier system and the water was evaporated when it moved in the space and downward along the carrier mainly by using natural (solar, wind and air temperature energy). In case, when there is no roof for the carrier system, the pollutedwater can be stored in the reservoirs (storage volume for about 20 days). The first 10-25 mm rainfall also need to be stored in the reservoirs to meet the state standard for discharging wastewater. The dye may be collected at the surface in the reservoir-tanks and the crystallized salt may be collected at the bottom plate. The black-color wastewater released by the factory is no more discharged to the surface water system of Taihu Lake Basin. About 2 kg dye and 200 kg industrial salt may be collected from each tone of the pollutedwater. The non-pollution production of dye may be realized by using this technology with environmental, economical and social benefits. PMID:11590742
Pu, J P; Pu, P M; Hu, C H; Qian, J L; Pu, J X; Hua, J K
Water quality trading (WQT) is a market arrangement in which a point-source waterpolluter pays farmers to implement conservation practices and claims the resulting benefits as credits toward meeting a pollution permit. Success rates of WQT programs nationwide are highly variable. Most of the literature on WQT is from an economic perspective…
|Water quality trading (WQT) is a market arrangement in which a point-source waterpolluter pays farmers to implement conservation practices and claims the resulting benefits as credits toward meeting a pollution permit. Success rates of WQT programs nationwide are highly variable. Most of the literature on WQT is from an economic perspective…
An experiment was designed to examine microbiology of water samples of Gölbasi lake and to assess the occurence of multiple antibiotic resistances in Escherichia coli from them. Total aerobic bacteria number in the lake was determined as 20x10(3) cfu ml(-1) and fecal coliforms were determined >1100 MPN/100 ml. Collected water samples from four geographically dispersed stations were screened for the E. coli and assessed for their resistance to twelve different antibiotics, which are commonly encountered in the lake. Of the total 13 E. coli isolates, 0% were susceptible to all antibiotics. All of isolates were found resistant to Penicillin (P) (100%). Among the twelve antibiotics tested, four patterns of antibiotic resistance were obtained and all of them were multiple antibiotic resistance with the number of antibiotics ranging from 2 to 5. Three isolates had beta-lactamase detected by iodometric slide test. The results indicated that persistent use of antibiotics against human diseases and other life forms may pollute the lake water and their impact on developing antibiotic resistant E. coli may be a serious threat in both health and environment. PMID:20112860
The pamphlet is intended to help citizens, like those participating in water quality monitoring programs, who want to understand the complex nature of state, federal, and local laws that apply to the chief sources of coastal waterpollution: point source pollution--pollution discharged from pipes which require state and federal permits; and nonpoint source pollution--generally unregulated runoff from agricultural operations and urban land uses, timber harvesting (silviculture), and construction activities. The pamphlet explains the legal standards and penalties established by coastal water quality laws so that citizens can better participate in the implementation and enforcement of these laws.
Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface waterpollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1). For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1) (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513
Van Dijk, Tessa C; Van Staalduinen, Marja A; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P
Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface waterpollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P?=?0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l?1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l?1 (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified.
Van Dijk, Tessa C.; Van Staalduinen, Marja A.; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.
There has been a promulgation of many regulatory rules, laws, acts, and statutes at different governmental and administrative levels, especially State and Federal, aimed at controlling pollution in general and maritime pollution in particular. This paper ...
Part One of this study, which included an inventory of Palm Beach County's water resources, water supply systems, sewerage systems, solid wastes systems, and air pollution control systems, and the legal and administrative aspects of each, was completed an...
Pollution of water resources is a major risk to human health and water quality throughout the world. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of pollutant sources from agricultural activities, urban runoffs, and runoffs from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on bacterial communitie...
Mine-waterpollution is a wide problem, very often studied because it is generally associated with acid sulfate waters (ASW), contamination due to dissolved pollutants (As, S, Zn, Pb…) in surface and groundwaters, to the precipitation of these potentially toxic elements in stream sediments…(Schwertmann et al., 1995; Bigham et al., 1996). In an abandoned mine of tungsten in the French Massif
Alexandra COURTIN-NOMADE; Hubert BRIL; Cécile GROSBOIS; Christophe ROUSSEL
A detailed study on the calculation of pollution loads and surface water quality classification was one of the most important outputs of the project on the preparation of watershed protection plans for the K?z?l?rmak Basin. For this purpose, the pollution loads for chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus (TP) were calculated. The water quality
S. Ç. Ayaz; Ö. Akta?; S. Da?l?; C. Aydöner; E. Atasoy Ayt??; L. Akça
Environmental pollution that renders waters along the coastline and beaches unsatisfactory for use by the general public has become a global health problem. This study was conducted to examine the effects of pollution of beach waters and sediment at seven selected locations receiving land drainage along a 45-km stretch of the east coast near Visakhapatnam, India. Pathogenic bacteria were identified
April Clark; Torrey Turner; K. Padma Dorothy; J. Goutham; C. Kalavati; Bettaiya Rajanna
Fecal pollution is a serious environmental problem that affects many coastal and inland waters worldwide. Both human and animal fecal pollution impose risks to human health from exposure to pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. To assist authorities with the implementation of the changes suggested by more restricted legislation concerning water quality in Europe, methods are needed which can identify more
Every substance has its own feature Raman spectroscopy (RS), which intensity is proportional to its concentration under certain condition. This is the basis of Raman spectroscopy to analyze the structure, components, concentrations and some other properties of samples. In order to research how to build up a Raman database of waterpollutants, we detected some waterpollutants and obtained their
A process of powdered activated carbon?ƒ PAC?? - coagulation sedimentation - Ultrafiltration?ƒ UF ?? was used to investigate the effect of removing organic matter in micro- pollutedwater. The results showed that the PAC-coagulation sedimentation - UF combined process could remove effectively dissolved organic matter in micro-pollutedwater. After pre- dosing 15mg \\/ L PAC, the whole removal of CODMn,
The decision in Union Petroleum Corp. v. United States reaffirms the Federal judiciary's commitment to control waterpollution under the Federal WaterPollution Control Act. Those in charge of oil terminals who have taken reasonable precautions to prevent vandalism and oil spills into navigable rivers will be reimbursed when vandals spill oil from tank cars parked at the terminal. Awarding
... 2009-01-01 false Adulteration of product by pollutedwater...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...PRODUCTS General Â§ 318.14 Adulteration of product by pollutedwater...Poultry Inspection Program, Food Safety and Inspection...
... 2013-01-01 false Adulteration of product by pollutedwater...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...PRODUCTS General Â§ 318.14 Adulteration of product by pollutedwater...Poultry Inspection Program, Food Safety and Inspection...
... 2013-01-01 false Adulteration of product by pollutedwater...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...Requirements Â§ 381.151 Adulteration of product by pollutedwater...Poultry Inspection Program, Food Safety and Inspection...
... 2010-01-01 false Adulteration of product by pollutedwater...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...Requirements Â§ 381.151 Adulteration of product by pollutedwater...Poultry Inspection Program, Food Safety and Inspection...
Geographically?related information is needed for several elements of an integrated ground water quality management programme, including ground water monitoring planning, prioritization of pollution sources, usage of permits and inspections for source control, and planning and completion of remedial actions. Geographic Information Systems (GISs) can be used to support these elements along with delineating wellhead protection areas (WHPAs), prioritizing existing contaminant
A fuzzy waste-load allocation model, FWLAM, is developed for water quality management of a river system using fuzzy multiple-objective optimization. An important feature of this model is its capability to incorporate the aspirations and conflicting objectives of the pollution control agency and dischargers. The vague- ness associated with specifying the water quality criteria and fraction removal levels is modeled in
This report addresses pollution of aquatic ecosystems that originate from multiple unidentified sources or non point sources. Non point sources of phosphorus and nitrogen are of concern as they cause eutrophication or excessive enrichment of surface waters. Effects and remediation strategies are discussed. Non point sources, such as agricultural, urban and atmospheric ones are discussed. Management techniques to reduce excess nutrient transport across landscapes and into bodies of water are explained. The report discusses the need to establish controversial Thresholds of unacceptable soil contamination. Issues in Ecology is an ongoing series of reports designed to present major ecological issues in an easy-to-read manner. This Issue summarizes the consensus of a panel of scientific experts based on the information that was current and available at the time of its publication in 1998.
This guidebook provides a step-by-step method to help local officials and concerned citizens solve their water resources problems by developing a community water resources management plan. Five specific steps are outlined in the planning process (1) defin...
To efficiently reduce perfluorinated compound (PFC) pollution, it is important to have an understanding of PFC sources and their contribution to the pollution. In this study, source identification of diffuse waterpollution by PFCs was conducted using a GIS-based approach. Major components of the source identification were collection of the monitoring data and preparation of the corresponding geographic information that was extracted from a constructed GIS database. The spatially distributed pollution factors were then explored by multiple linear regression analysis, after which they were visually expressed using GIS. Among the 35 PFC homologues measured in a survey of the Tokyo Bay basin, 18 homologues were analyzed. Pollution by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was explained well by the percentage of arterial traffic area in the basin, and the 84% variance of the measured PFOS concentration was explained by two geographic variables, arterial traffic area and population. Source apportionment between point and nonpoint sources was conducted based on the results of the analysis. The contribution of PFOS from nonpoint sources was comparable to that from point sources in several major rivers flowing into Tokyo Bay. Source identification and apportionment using the GIS-based approach was shown to be effective, especially for ubiquitous types of pollution, such as PFC pollution. PMID:21885084
UV\\/VIS spectroscopy has been proved to be an effective way for monitoring water quality non-invasively. However, the present method can only provide the synthesized information of the waterpollution by using the sum parameters like TOC, DOC or TSS. The changes in the composition of the water cannot be detected. For monitoring waterpolluters, a UV\\/VIS spectrometer for in-situ and
The fact that water flows to the lowest level uni-directionally is a very specific and useful property of water. By utilizing this property, we design a trading-ratio system (TRS) of tradable discharge permits for waterpollution control. Such a trading-ratio system has three main characteristics: (1) the zonal effluent cap is set by taking into account the waterpollutant loads
Samples from five water sources (spring, borehole, pond, stream, and well) in rural Nigerian communities were tested. Results include source reliabilities in terms of water quality and quantity, pollution effects upon water quality, epidemiological effects related to water quantity and waste disposal, and impact of water quality improvement upon…
|Samples from five water sources (spring, borehole, pond, stream, and well) in rural Nigerian communities were tested. Results include source reliabilities in terms of water quality and quantity, pollution effects upon water quality, epidemiological effects related to water quantity and waste disposal, and impact of water quality improvement upon…
Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate watermanagement strategies.
Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback
Water, due to its high specific heat capacity is considered to be an extremely attractive means for heat transfer (cooling) in industrial processes. A total watermanagement plan for steel industry is presented here, taking into account local conditions, legal requirements and above all the availability of fresh water. The alternative water inlets which may also be used are presented
V. Tryfona-Panagopoulou; S. Panagopoulos; C. Panagopoulou; ?. ?ungolos
This paper analysed and determined the total waterpollution load of Tianxi catchment area in Shenyang city systematically; by giving the reliability measurement to the total pollution load, put forward the suggestions to improve the system information reliability. It was found that to strengthen monitoring and investigation for the pumping station is of great advantage to control the pollutants of heavy metals, moreover, by adding monitoring to the Huanglatuozi section of Xi river, not only can the pollution load be identified clearly but also organic pollutants can be controlled more accurately and timely. PMID:11507903
Many investigators have identified the urban environments as those producing high levels of waterpollutants relative to other land uses. In a 59 hectare (146 acre) urban watershed in Orlando, Florida, the stormwater system discharges to an 11 hectare (27 acre) lake. The lake wat...
Urbanization results in elevated stormwater runoff, greater and more intense streamflow, and increased delivery of pollutants to local streams and downstream aquatic systems such as the Chesapeake Bay. Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) are used to mitigate these effects of urban land use by retaining large volumes of stormwater runoff (water quantity) and removing pollutants in the runoff (water quality). Current USGS research aims to understand how the spatial pattern and connectivity of stormwater BMPs affect water quantity and water quality in urban areas.
Sorptive behaviors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as other classes of hydrophobic pollutants (i.e., n-alkanes and linear alkylbenzenes: LABs) were investigated for street runoff and for particle-size segregated river water samples. PAHs, except for 3-ring aromatics, were mostly transported with particles >1.2?m. In all the environmental samples PAHs were more hydrophobic than expected from their Kow; whereas vigorous
Water hyacinth(Eichhornia crassipes.(Mart.) Solms) grows abunduntly throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world (PENFOUND & EARLE 1948), and is also widely distributed in the southwest regions in Japan(UEKl et ai.1976). Recently, this plant has received attention because of its potential for removal of pollutants when utilized as a biological filtration system(WOLVERTON ~t al. 1978). There are many reports
...2010-07-01 false Ballast watermanagement. 151.1510 Section 151...AND BALLAST WATER Ballast WaterManagement for Control of Nonindigenous...River Â§ 151.1510 Ballast watermanagement. (a) The master of...
...2009-07-01 false Ballast watermanagement. 151.1510 Section 151...AND BALLAST WATER Ballast WaterManagement for Control of Nonindigenous...River Â§ 151.1510 Ballast watermanagement. (a) The master of...
The purpose of the Great Waters program is to evaluate the atmospheric deposition of air pollutants to the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, Chesapeake Bay, and coastal waters. The report to Congress is to include information on the contribution of atmospheric deposition to pollutant loadings, the environmental or public health effects of such pollution, the source or sources of such pollution, and a description of any regulatory revisions under applicable Federal laws that may be necessary to assure protection of human health and the environment. The scientific information currently available is summarized in this report, and recommended actions are described.
|This publication gives the proceedings from a 1977 conference sponsored by the Conservation Foundation. Participants discuss the appropriate means to control waterpollution, emphasizing the use of effluent charges as economic incentive for polluters to clean up their waters. (MA)|
WaterPollution sources dissection has important guiding significance for drinking water sources protection. Focused on QingShuiHai valley, the research investigated water quality by uniform distribution sampling in the area in 2007?? 2008,and analyzed pollution sources characteristics. The results showed that the concentration of Total Nitrogen (TN )(0.15-7.99 mg L -1 )w as 0.3 ~ 15.98 times higher than the national
Results of research conducted by the Indoor Environment Management Branch (IEMB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, can provide practical methods that architects, design engineers, builders, manufacturers, suppliers and the gen...
This document provides guidance to States, Territories, authorized Tribes, and the public regarding management measures that may be used to reduce nonpoint source pollution from urban areas. It is intended to provide technical assistance to state and loca...
The Health Care Guide to Pollution Prevention Implementation through Environmental Management Systems provides example EMS procedures and forms used in four ISO 14001 EMS certified hospitals. The latest revisions include more EMS hospital case studies, more compliance resources, ...
The bioremediation of waterspolluted by Bisphenol A, taken as a model for endocrine disruptors, has been pursued by means of catalytic membranes in bioreactors operating under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was immobilized on nylon membranes grafted with Glycidyl Methacrylate and using Phenylendiamine as spacer. The behaviour of the catalytic membrane was studied as a function
N. Diano; V. Grano; L. Fraconte; P. Caputo; A. Ricupito; A. Attanasio; M. Bianco; U. Bencivenga; S. Rossi; I. Manco; L. Mita; G. Del Pozzo; D. G. Mita
Attempts to quantify the benefits of controlling air and waterpollution arising from the production and consumption of energy are discussed. Methods for evaluating benefits, intended primarily as instructional to members of the Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission staff involved in evaluating the benefits of environmental controls in California, are presented. One distinctive aspect of the report is its
In 1980-1981 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration set out to determine the potential role of the federal government in ocean pollution monitoring. A series of monitoring workshops were conducted and the results are being analyzed to determine a suitable role for the Federal Goverment. By using the preliminary findings from the workshops, a summary of prior and ongoing pollution
This study included the layout characterization for the production process of a poultry slaughterhouse using qualitative and quantitative flow charts for watermanagement; analysis of general parameters for pollution load in the wastewater produced in critical stages of the production process and assessment of environmental impact indicators. Prognoses for cleaner production based on watermanagement were established. The diagnostic stage
Lourdes Teresinha Kist; Said El Moutaqi; Ênio Leandro Machado
The study presented focuses on treatment and recycling facilities of highly pollutedwater-based paint wastewater from electronics industry, using coagulation-flocculation, Fenton’s oxidation and membrane processes. The treated water is sought after for recycling purposes within the painting unit and the water quality is negligible except suspended solids. The wastewater used in this study was characterized as highly polluted wastewater with
Although ozone was widely used before coagulation in water treatment, the influence of pre-ozonation on the coagulation for removal of particle and natural organic matter (NOM) from micro-polluted surface water is still unclear. A pilot investigation of the influence of pre-ozonation on coagulation of the micro-polluted surface water from Queshan reservoir which derived from Yellow River was carried out in
The micro-polluted river water was treated by using integrated horizontal-flow constructed wetland. The micro- polluted river water was mixed up by effluent from wastewater treatment plant in west of Changchun City and Leijia river water. The experimental results show that integrated horizontal-flow constructed wetland has better treatment effect on COD, TP, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate nitrogen. Meanwhile, the average removal
Results of regular (for the last 10 years) observations at marine and coastal hydrometeorological posts are analyzed. These are observations of volumes and concentrations of pollutants entering the sea with the flow of the Danube and Dnieper rivers and wastewaters of coastal industrial enterprises, as a result of oil spills caused by ship accidents, pipeline damage, and sea shipping. An integral criterion used to estimate the overall specific anthropogenic load of pollutants in the coastal zone is calculated. The pollutants were compared with regard to their overall specific load, taking into account the percentage of each of them. A waterpollution index is calculated for 19 regions of the sea; water quality is evaluated for three types of pollutants and oxygen content. Pollution structure is revealed, physical and dynamic causes of its changes are investigated.
Fashchuk, D.Ya.; Shaporenko, S.I. [Institute of Geography, Moscow (Russian Federation)
China has suffered frequent source water contamination accidents in the past decade, which has resulted in severe consequences to the water supply of millions of residents. The origins of typical cases of contamination are discussed in this paper as well as the emergency response to these accidents. In general, excessive pursuit of rapid industrialization and the unreasonable location of factories are responsible for the increasing frequency of accidental pollution events. Moreover, insufficient attention to environmental protection and rudimentary emergency response capability has exacerbated the consequences of such accidents. These environmental accidents triggered or accelerated the promulgation of stricter environmental protection policy and the shift from economic development mode to a more sustainable direction, which should be regarded as the turning point of environmental protection in China. To guarantee water security, China is trying to establish a rapid and effective emergency response framework, build up the capability of early accident detection, and develop efficient technologies to remove contaminants from water. PMID:21133359
...Clean Air Act and the Federal WaterPollution Control Act. 633.211 Section...Clean Air Act and the Federal WaterPollution Control Act. Pursuant to...Clean Air Act and the Federal WaterPollution Control Act are included in...
Tourism development results in waterpollution not only in water-scarce areas, but also in areas with relatively abundant water resources, such as Lijiang Ancient Town (LAT). In this article, LAT is described for its use of the freshwater resource, on account of its attractive landscaping. Tourism here has grown rapidly in recent years and at the same time the water
A systems model was developed to help cities, planners and engineers to decide whether the multiple supply approach to urban watermanagement is beneficial in long-term planning of water resources. Three grades of water were considered in developing the m...
Agricultural non-point source pollution is a major source of water quality impairment. When considering responses to non-point source pollution, several policy options have been considered historically, including reducing inputs (e.g. fertilizers) altering technologies on the landscape (e.g. conserv...
Background: Regarding the importance of air pollution issue for large cities, as Tehran metropolis, many plans, programs, projects and regulations have been developed to manage urban air pollution. However, most of them failed to decline the pollution. The purpose of this study is to pathologically analyze air-pollution control plans in order to offer effective solutions for Tehran metropolis. Methods: A qualitative content analysis and a semi-structured interview with 14 practicing professionals were used to identify key causes and sources of Tehran's air pollution, to recognize challenges and obstacles towards effective performance of air-pollution control plans in this metropolitan area, and to suggest the most effective controlling solutions. Results: Challenges related to air-pollution control plans can be divided into two major categories: Firstly lack of integrated and organized stewardship and secondly those related to political, economical, social and technical environmental abbreviated as PEST, challenges. For effective control of the Tehran air pollution, the following eight controlling alternatives were identified: Systematization of plan preparation process, organizing the stewardship, standardization and utilization of new technologies and professional experts, cultural and infrastructural development, realization of social justice, developing coordination and controlling mechanisms, improving citizen's participatory capacity, and focusing on effective management of fuel and energy. Conclusions: Controlling air pollution in Tehran should be considered as a priority for policymakers to make enforcements through applying a systemic cycle of preparation effective and comprehensive plans. Further, implement the enforcements and evaluate the environmental impact of the plans through involving all stakeholders.
Environmental pollution affects the quality of pedosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Great efforts\\u000a have been made in the last two decades to reduce pollution sources and remedy the polluted soil and water resources. Phytoremediation,\\u000a being more cost-effective and fewer side effects than physical and chemical approaches, has gained increasing popularity in\\u000a both academic and practical circles. More than 400
Mohammad Iqbal Lone; Zhen-li He; Peter J. Stoffella; Xiao-e Yang
Detection of oil pollution on water surfaces includes providing echo signals obtained from optical radiation of a clean water area at two wavelengths, optically radiating an investigated water area at two wavelengths and obtaining echo signals from the optical radiation of the investigated water area at the two wavelengths, comparing the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the investigated area at two wavelengths with the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the clean water area, and based on the comparison, determining presence or absence of oil pollution in the investigated water area.
Belov, Michael Leonidovich (Moscow, RU); Gorodnichev, Victor Aleksandrovich (Moscow, RU); Kozintsev, Valentin Ivanovich (Moscow, RU); Smimova, Olga Alekseevna (Moscow, RU); Fedotov, Yurii Victorovich (Moscow, RU); Khroustaleva, Anastasiva Michailovnan (Moscow, RU)
Water supplies and allocations for the Klamath River, OR and CA were evaluated using SIAM (Systems Impact Assessment Model), a decision support system developed by U.S. Geological Survey. SIAM is a set of models in a windows interface that provides water supply and delivery in a managed river system, predicts water quality and simulates fish production. SIAM was used to
Sharon G. Campbell; Marshall Flug; R. Blair Hanna; Fort Collins
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Water Supply and Water Resources Division in partnership with the consulting firm of CDM to redevelop and modernize the Storm WaterManagement Model (SWMM). In the initial phase of this project EPA rewrote SWMM's computational engine usi...
Increased attention is currently directed towards potential negative effects of pharmaceuticals and other micro-pollutants discharged into the aquatic environment via municipal sewage water. A number of additional treatment technologies, such as ozonation, have therefore been suggested as promising tools for improving the removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in existing Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs). Constructed wetlands are also capable of removing a variety of micro-pollutants, including some pharmaceuticals, and could hence be a resource efficient complement to more advanced treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was therefore to increase the knowledge base concerning the potential use of constructed wetlands as a treatment step to reduce emissions of organic micro-pollutants from municipal sewage effluents. Under cold winter conditions, incoming and outgoing waters from four Swedish free water surface wetlands, operated as final treatment steps of sewage effluent from municipal STPs, were sampled and analyzed for levels of a set of 92 pharmaceuticals and 22 inorganic components as well as assessed using subchronic ecotoxicity tests with a macro-alga and a crustacean. Sixty-five pharmaceuticals were detected in the range from 1 ng L(-1) to 7.6 ?g L(-1) in incoming and outgoing waters from the four investigated wetlands. Although the sampling design used in the present study lacks the robustness of volume proportional to 24h composite samples, the average estimated removal rates ranged from 42% to 52%, which correlates to previous published values. The effects observed in the ecotoxicity tests with the macro-alga (EC(50)s in the range of 7.5-46%) and the crustacean (LOECs in the range of 11.25-90%) could not be assigned to either pharmaceutical residues or metals, but in general showed that these treatment facilities release water with a relatively low toxic potential, comparable to water that has been treated with advanced tertiary treatments. From the present study it can be concluded that constructed wetlands may provide a complementary sewage treatment option, especially where other treatment is lacking today. To fully remove micro-pollutants from sewage effluent, however, other more advanced treatment technologies are likely needed. PMID:22192709
Indoor environments play important roles in human health. The health hazards posed by polluted indoor environments include allergy, infections and toxicity. Life style changes have resulted in a shift from open air environments to air tight, energy efficient, environments, in which people spend a substantial portion of their time. Most indoor air pollution comes from the hazardous non biological agents and biological agents. Fungi are ubiquitous in distribution and are a serious threat to public health in indoor environments. In this communication, we have reviewed the current status on biotic indoor air pollution, role of fungi as biological contaminants and their impact on human health.
Indoor environments play important roles in human health. The health hazards posed by polluted indoor environments include allergy, infections and toxicity. Life style changes have resulted in a shift from open air environments to air tight, energy efficient, environments, in which people spend a substantial portion of their time. Most indoor air pollution comes from the hazardous non biological agents and biological agents. Fungi are ubiquitous in distribution and are a serious threat to public health in indoor environments. In this communication, we have reviewed the current status on biotic indoor air pollution, role of fungi as biological contaminants and their impact on human health. PMID:23961203
The detection of the pollution level of antibiotics in Daliao River system is a meaningful work. Sixteen antibiotics (6 sulfonamides, 5 fluoroquinolones, 3 tetracyclines and 2 chloramphenicols) were simultaneously quantified with solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In the SPE procedure, methanol and 2% (v/v) ammonia/methanol were used as the elution solvents in sequence to reduce the elution volume and improve the recovery. The results showed that this method have good sensitivity and enrichment effect for the target antibiotics in aqueous water, the recoveries ranged from 69.5% to 122.6%, the detection limits ranged from 0.05 ng/L to 0.32 ng/L. Thirteen antibiotics were found in the river water of Daliao River water system. Sulfa antibiotics were widely distributed, in which sulfamethoxazole was detected in all the sampling sites. The concentration of fluoroquinolones was relatively high in some sampling sites. The highest detection concentration of enoxacin was 41.3 ng/L. The frequencies and concentrations of tetracyclines and chloramphenicols were lower. In the upper reaches of the river, the concentrations of the 4 types of antibiotics appeared lower, but around the large cities such as Shenyang City, Benxi City, Liaoyang City, the concentrations showed higher levels. The study indicated that the Daliao River water system suffered from the pollution of antibiotics to a certain extent. PMID:23256376
Most of the Dutch large rivers, canals and lakes are controlled by the Dutch water authorities. The main reasons concern safety, navigation and fresh water supply. Historically the separate water bodies have been controlled locally. For optimizating management of these water systems an integrated approach was required. Presented is a platform which integrates data from all control objects for monitoring and control purposes. The Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems (IWP) is an implementation of Delft-FEWS which supports operational control of water systems and actively gives advice. One of the main characteristics of IWP is that is real-time collects, transforms and presents different types of data, which all add to the operational watermanagement. Next to that, hydrodynamic models and intelligent decision support tools are added to support the watermanagers during their daily control activities. An important advantage of IWP is that it uses the Delft-FEWS framework, therefore processes like central data collection, transformations, data processing and presentation are simply configured. At all control locations the same information is readily available. The operational watermanagement itself gains from this information, but it can also contribute to cost efficiency (no unnecessary pumping), better use of available storage and advise during (water polution) calamities.
van Loenen, A.; van Dijk, M.; van Verseveld, W.; Berger, H.
In recent years, China's developed regions have transferred industries to undeveloped regions. Large numbers of unlicensed or unregistered enterprises are widespread in these undeveloped regions and they are subject to minimal regulation. Current methods for tracing industrial transfers in these areas, based on enterprise registration information or economic surveys, do not work. We have developed an analytical framework combining water fingerprinting and evolutionary analysis to trace the pollution transfer features between water sources. We collected samples in Eastern China (industrial export) and Central China (industrial acceptance) separately from two water systems. Based on the waterpollutant fingerprints and evolutionary trees, we traced the pollution transfer associated with industrial transfer between the two areas. The results are consistent with four episodes of industrial transfers over the past decade. Our results also show likely types of the transferred industries - electronics, plastics, and biomedicines - that contribute to the waterpollution transfer.
In recent years, China's developed regions have transferred industries to undeveloped regions. Large numbers of unlicensed or unregistered enterprises are widespread in these undeveloped regions and they are subject to minimal regulation. Current methods for tracing industrial transfers in these areas, based on enterprise registration information or economic surveys, do not work. We have developed an analytical framework combining water fingerprinting and evolutionary analysis to trace the pollution transfer features between water sources. We collected samples in Eastern China (industrial export) and Central China (industrial acceptance) separately from two water systems. Based on the waterpollutant fingerprints and evolutionary trees, we traced the pollution transfer associated with industrial transfer between the two areas. The results are consistent with four episodes of industrial transfers over the past decade. Our results also show likely types of the transferred industries - electronics, plastics, and biomedicines - that contribute to the waterpollution transfer. PMID:23301152
Irrigated agriculture provides 40% of worldwide food supplies but uses large amounts of scarce freshwater and contributes to environmental degradation. At the very core of this problem lie decisions made by irrigators subject to biophysical relations. This research develops a microeconomic model of irrigation management taking into account the dynamics of plant growth over the season, spatial variability in infiltration of applied irrigation water, and fundamental principles from subsurface hydrology. The analysis shows that spatial variability in water infiltration common to traditional irrigation systems increases both applied irrigation water and deep percolation flows by very substantial amounts compared to uniform infiltration. The analysis demonstrates that efficient irrigation management can significantly reduce both applied water and deep percolation at relatively low costs, at least up to a certain level. A long-run analysis of optimal irrigation systems including capital costs indicates that traditional furrow systems are economically efficient over a wide range of water prices and deep percolation costs. Overall, the results indicate that optimal irrigation management can achieve significant resource conservation and pollution control with low loss in agricultural net benefits and without land retirement, investment in capital-intensive systems, or crop switching.
In the mining of mineral resources, pollution problems are created with adverse effects on the already scarce water resources. Discharge of gypsum-rich waters from mining operations in an environmentally acceptable manner is of importance to the country as a whole to allow the utilisation of mineral resources. Controlled irrigation with gypsiferous water is an option to deal with the pollution
J. J. B. Pretorius; O. T. Doyer; J. G. Annandale; N. Z. Jovanovic
The development of water quality assessment strategies investigating spatial and temporal changes caused by natural and anthropogenic phenomena is an important tool in management practices. This paper used cluster analysis, water quality index method, sensitivity analysis and canonical correlation analysis to investigate priorities in pollution control activities. Data sets representing 22 surface water quality parameters were subject to analysis. Results revealed that organic pollution was serious threat for overall water quality in the region. Besides, oil and grease, lead and mercury were the critical variables violating the standard. In contrast to inorganic variables, organic and physical-inorganic chemical parameters were influenced by variations in physical conditions (discharge, temperature). This study showed that information produced based on the variations and correlations in water quality data sets can be helpful to investigate priorities in watermanagement activities. Moreover statistical techniques and index methods are useful tools in data - information transformation process. PMID:23422063
This document is the basis for quality assurance for the Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center (APCT Center) operated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It describes the policies, organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, and qualit...
This article presents a review on the role of oil palm biomass (trunks, fronds, leaves, empty fruit bunches, shells, etc.) as adsorbents in the removal of waterpollutants such as acid and basic dyes, heavy metals, phenolic compounds, various gaseous pollutants, and so on. Numerous studies on adsorption properties of various low-cost adsorbents, such as agricultural wastes and its based
TANWEER AHMAD; MOHD RAFATULLAH; ARNIZA GHAZALI; OTHMAN SULAIMAN; ROKIAH HASHIM
The term “priority pollutants” is used to define chemicals hazardous to aquatic life or human health. Thus, it is essential to remove such pollutants from water and try to reduce their impact. Clay minerals might be helpful in the removal of hazardous chemicals, due to impressive adsorption properties. Natural clay minerals adsorb cations and non-charged hydrophilic compounds, but almost do
Giora Rytwo; Ynon Kohavi; Ilan Botnick; Yotam Gonen
|This is one of several study guides on contemporary problems produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science with support of the National Science Foundation. This study guide on waterpollution includes the following units: (1) Overview of World Pollution; (2) History, Definition, Criteria; (3) Ecosystem Theory; (4) Biological…
Factory-level data are used to estimate waterpollution abatement costs for Chinese industry. Joint abatement cost functions are utilized which relate total costs to treatment volume and the simultaneous effect of reductions in suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand and other pollutants. Tests of alternative functional forms suggest that a very simple (constant elasticity) model fits the data
Susmita Dasgupta; Mainul Huq; David Wheeler; Chonghua Zhang
The assumption that waterpollution causes a depression in the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates as measured by the Shannon index and similar diversity indices is questioned. An interpretation of the community response of benthic macroinvertebrates to pollution in the Millers River, Massachusetts is developed from species presence-absence and abundance data in conjunction with published information on the species' environmental tolerances
The Illinois Mine Related Pollution Task Force is a joint activity of the Illinois Coal Association and the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. The Task Force's activities are coordinated by the Illinois Institute of Natural Resources. The Task Force decided that the achievement of their goal would be furthered by surveying rules and regulations governing mine related waterpollution in other
Heated mountain slopes sometimes vent air pollutants out of the boundary layer over the slope top and at other times trap pollutants in closed circulations. Field, numerical, and water tank studies of fair weather atmospheric conditions over complex terrain have shown more complicated vertical distributions of temperature, moisture, and aerosols than over horizontal terrain. To study these phenomena, we analyze
Plant materials were found useful in the decontamination of waterpolluted with phenolic compounds. The detoxification effect was due to peroxidases contained in the plant tissue. The enzymes mediated oxidative coupling of the pollutants, followed by precipitation of the formed polymers from the aqueous phase. An industrial wastewater contaminated with 2,4-dichlorophenol (up to 850 ppm) and other chlorinated phenols was
The various steps to be undertaken for a comprehensive application of engineering risk assessment to coastal pollution and chemical contamination problems are first summarized in this paper. These are (a) identification of hazards (b) uncertainty analysis and (c) risk quantification. Methods and tools to be used in environmental waterpollution problems such as uncertainty analysis and frequency assessment of time
This reference work is both a data source and a compendium of principles basic to the science of freshwater toxicology. The core of the ten chapters is a complex and fairly extensive review of the types of responses exhibited by aquatic indicators subjected to natural and artificial environmental pollutants. Also included are laboratory techniques for the biological evaluation of pollutants and field assessments of environmental quality. 1065 references, 89 figures, 82 tables.
A new biomimetic absorbent, cellulose acetate (CA) embedded with triolein (CA-triolein), was prepared and applied for the removal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from micro-polluted aqueous solution. The comparison of CA-triolein, CA and granular activated carbon (GAC) for dieldrin removal was investigated. Results showed that CA-triolein absorbent gave a lowest residual concentration after 24h although GAC had high removal rate
Huijuan Liu; Jia Ru; Jiuhui Qu; Ruihua Dai; Zijian Wang; Chun Hu
Changes in land-use or management strategies may affect water outflow, sediment and nutrients loads. Thus, there is an increasing demand for quantitative information at the catchment scale that would help decision makers or planners to take appropriate decisions. The characterisation of water status, the description of pollution sources impact, the establishment of monitoring programs and the implementation of river basin management plans require an analysis of the current basin status and estimates of the relative significance of the different sources of pollution. Particularly, in this study the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT2000) model was considered since it is an integrated hydrological model that simulates both the qualitative as well as quantitative terms of hydrological balances. It is a spatially distributed hydrological model that operates on a daily time step at catchment scale developed by the Agricultural Research Service at the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Its purpose is to simulate water sediment and chemical yields on large river basins and possible impacts of land use, climate changes and watershed management. Integrated hydrological models are, nowadays, needed to support the implementation of integrated watermanagement plans and to comply with the current requirements of the European Water Directive. Actually, they can help in evaluating current water resources, identify pollution sources, evaluate alternative management policies. More specifically, the analysis has been applied to the Oreto catchment (77 Km2), an agricultural and urbanised catchment located in Sicily (Italy). Residential, commercial, farm and industrial settlements cover almost the entire area. The climate is Mediterranean with hot dry summer and rainy winter season. The hydrological response of this basin is dominated by long dry seasons and following wetting-up periods, during which even large inputs of rainfall may produce little or no response at the basin outlet. Regarding the inventory of point and non-point pollutants sources, the river receives a number of point source pollutants from small villages and some outskirts of Palermo, most of them untreated, and non point source pollutants from agricultural cropland and zoo-technical farms. In particular, the Oreto river receives untreated wastewater and stormwater from Altofonte (8200 inhabitants) and Pioppo (2500 inhabitants) . The model was first calibrated using meteorological, flow and water quality data collected at various stations through-out the catchment, in order to predict water and nutrient concentrations at the catchment outlet and then was used to evaluate the potential impact of various management strategies on surface water quality. The results demonstrates that point and non-point polluting sources have to be contiguously analysed because they concur to the definition of river water quality both during wet and dry periods.
Today we face the challenges ofproviding goodfood, good air, and good water for a humanpopulation that is doubling every 40-50 years. The challenges are real and were evident enough during 1988 for Time magazine to dedicate its first 1989 issue to „Planet of the Year….Endangered Earth”.Great technological progress has been made over the past few years, enabling many industries and
This paper analyzes evolution and efficiency of water governance in Bulgarian agriculture during post-communist transition and EU integration. First, it defines the water governance and the scope of analysis. Next, it presents the process of transformation of agricultural water governance embracing all mechanisms and modes – institutional environment, market, private, public, and hybrid. Third, it assesses impacts of newly evolved
This economic analysis of farmers' voluntary adoption of water quality management alternatives integrates three biophysical simulators to predict crop yields and soil erosion\\/water quality impacts under uncertain weather and market conditions. Farmers' willingness to cost-share was used to estimate expectations of net returns and associated water and soil pollution based upon government cost-share scenarios. Simulations integrated into mathematical programming results
Treatment of slightly-polluted surface water by Electrocoagulation-Microfiltration (EC-MF) was studied. The factors influences on removal efficiencies of TOC, NH3-N and oil, such as current density, electrolytic time and pH value had been investigated. Based on the optimize experiments on the single factor, Xuzhou section of Beijing-Hangzhou Canal water was cleaned by EC-MF. The results showed that the above pollutants decreased
Feng Qiyan; Lu Ping; Li Xiangdong; Meng Qingjun; Sun Yue
...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35.2023...Treatment Works Â§ 35.2023 Water quality management planning. (a...grants to the States to carry out water quality management planning...
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...2009-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35.2102 Section...Works Â§ 35.2102 Water quality management planning. Before grant...a) Included in any water quality management plan being implemented...
...2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35.2102 Section...Works Â§ 35.2102 Water quality management planning. Before grant...a) Included in any water quality management plan being implemented...
Nonpoint source pollution (NPSP) is the export to receiving waters of nutrients originating from diffuse sources. This research documents a methodology for confirming reductions in NPSP resulting from implementation of agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs). It employs that methodology to confirm the success of BMPs implemented in Graywood Gully, a study sub-watershed that drains into Conesus Lake, NY. Evaluating the
In the American southwest, over-allocated water supplies, groundwater depletion, and potential climate change impacts are major watermanagement concerns. It may therefore seem counterintuitive that the resolution of outstanding senior tribal water claims, essentially reallocating finite water supplies to tribes, could support improved water supply reliability for many water users as is the case with the 2004 Arizona Water Settlements
The economic impact of the Federal WaterPollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 on the tomato processing industry is examined. The 1972 Act calls for uniform effluent limitations, and requires that municipalities establish pretreatment standards for was...
This report describes a characterization study of pollutants in waste water generated in manufacture of TNT (Trinitrotoluene) at Volunteer Army Ammunition Plant in Tennessee. The major portion of the study was devoted to separation and identification of d...
Different biological systems, most frequently used in waterpollution control, are reviewed. Photosynthetic bacteria and microalgae have been considered both for their theoretical potentiality and the possibility of practical applications. Among the macro...
|The establishment of a special collection within the university library, the complexities of identifying and collecting reports in the environmental area, locating agencies concerned with waterpollution, and recording the location of other local collections of data are described. (Author)|
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Regulations and Standards, is conducting a program to evaluate exposure and associated risk from the presence of toxic pollutants in our nation's aquatic environment. The program addresses the goal...
...Pollutant Discharge Elimination System--Cooling Water Intake Structures at Existing Facilities and Phase I Facilities AGENCY: Environmental...comment. Electronic files should avoid the use of special characters, any form of encryption, and be free of any defects or...
Small chamber tests were conducted to experimentally determine the overall mass transfer coefficient for pollutant emissions from still water under simulated indoor-residential or occupational-environmental conditions. Fourteen tests were conducted in small environmental chambers...
The purpose was to observe some of the more subtle effects of pollutants on the gill blood-water barrier using gill epithelia as the target organ. Electron microscopic techniques, including Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microsc...
In the American southwest, over-allocated water supplies, groundwater depletion, and potential climate change impacts are major watermanagement concerns. It may therefore seem counterintuitive that the resolution of outstanding senior tribal water claims, essentially reallocating finite water supplies to tribes, could support improved water supply reliability for many water users as is the case with the 2004 Arizona Water Settlements Act. The large size of the settlement and its multiple components translate to significant impacts on water policy in Arizona. Key watermanagement solutions incorporated into the settlement and associated legislation have expanded the watermanager's "toolbox" and are expected to enhance water supply reliability both within and outside Arizona's active management areas. Many of these new tools are transferable to watermanagement applications in other states.
A study was conducted to determine the groundwater pollution problems in the states of Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Information was obtained through review of the literature and through interviews with engineers, scientists, and g...
The Bulletin includes the papers presented at a conference on 'Nutrient Pollution - Sources, Effects and Control' held in Minneapolis, Minnesota on January 8, 1969. The conference was planned as the Annual Meeting of the Minnesota Chapter, Soil Conservati...
The current nuclear methods which can be used for the analysis of inorganic pollutants or tracers, including radioactive species in sediments and in their associated atmospheric and aqueous media are summarized. Nuclear techniques allow many trace element...
A data management system is presented that will aid planners in the implementation of a decision support system which addresses the technical aspects of areawide water quality planning. The basis is the systematic study of the information flows and their ...
The purpose of the study is to (1) analyze main break failures and (2) incorporate other drinking water distribution system components into a data base management structure for reliability analyses. Reliability analysis should be a part of an overall oper...
J. A. Goodrich C. P. S. Frebis E. J. Read R. M. Clark
The purpose of the study is to identify public preferences for alternative watermanagement institutions, policies, and programs. Survey procedures including a questionnaire, a telephone survey and site visits, were designed to ensure representation of al...
For watermanagement activities runoff is the most important component of the hydrological cycle, and remote sensing applications serve to increase knowledge of the temporal and spatial distribution of runoff from rain and snow. A review on the methods an...
In order to understand the mechanism and regularity of the groundwater contamination from mine water of abandoned mines, experiments\\u000a were conducted on an abandoned coal mine in Fuxin, a representative city with lots of mine water in northeast China. The groundwater\\u000a pollution from different contaminants of coal-mining voids (total hardness, SO42?, Cl? and total Fe) and pollution factors transportation situation
Present investigation deals with the evaluation of DO, BOD and COD of six surface water resources of Bikaner district which fall in arid region of Rajasthan - a part of Great Indian Desert, to determine pollution status. Water sample analysed for two years 2008-2009 showed these parameters beyond the limit of standard prescribed by WHO. These parameters also showed great seasonal fluctuation, indicating the degree of organic pollution more during summer season and least during winter season.
The river watershed is one of the main drinking water resources. In addition it provides many recreational usages. Knowledge about the composition of waste water is of paramount importance viewing the fact that these wastes are generally discharged into the rivers. Algae which thrive well in wastes not only reduce the pollution potential of the waste water by cleaning nutrients
|This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of waterpollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…
The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a common aquatic plant in many tropical countries. Its ability absorb nutrients and other elements from the water has made it possible to use it for water purification purposes. Eichhornia, especially stems and leaves, have been successfully used as indicators of heavy metal pollution in tropical countries. The uptake of heavy metals in this
The status report on metal pollution in tropical estuaries and coastal waters is important to understand potential environmental health hazards. Detailed baseline measurements were made on physicochemical parameters (pH, temperature, redox potential, electrical conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solid), major ions (Na, Ca, Mg, K, HCO3, Cl, SO4 and NO3) and metals concentrations ((27)Al, (75)As, (138)Ba, (9)Be, (111)Cd, (59)Co, (63)Cu, (52)Cr, (57)Fe, (55)Mn, (60)Ni, (208)Pb, (80)Se, (66)Zn) at estuaries and coastal waters along the Straits of Malacca. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to reveal potential pollution sources. Seven principal components were extracted with relation to pollution contribution from minerals-related parameters, natural and anthropogenic sources. The output from this study will generate a profound understanding on the metal pollution status and pollution risk of the estuaries and coastal system. PMID:23809293
Looi, Ley Juen; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Wan Johari, Wan Lutfi; Md Yusoff, Fatimah; Hashim, Zailina
Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate watermanagement strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of watermanagement options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.
Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback
Managingwater resources, in terms of both quality and quantity, in transboundary rivers is a difficult and challenging task that requires efficient cross-border cooperation and transparency. Groundwater pollution risk assessment and mapping techniques over the full catchment area are important tools that could be used as part of these water resource management efforts, to estimate pollution pressures and optimize land planning processes. The Evros river catchment is the second largest river in Eastern Europe and sustains a population of 3.6 million people in three different countries (Bulgaria, Turkey and Greece). This study provides detailed information on the main pollution sources and pressures in the Evros catchment and, for the first time, applies, assesses and evaluates a groundwater pollution risk mapping technique using satellite observations (Landsat NDVI) and an extensive dataset of field measurements covering different seasons and multiple years. We found that approximately 40 % of the Greek part of the Evros catchment is characterized as of high and very high pollution risk, while 14 % of the study area is classified as of moderate risk. Both the modeled and measured water quality status of the river showed large spatiotemporal variations consistent with the strong anthropogenic pressures in this system, especially on the northern and central segments of the catchment. The pollutants identified illustrate inputs of agrochemicals and urban wastes in the river. High correlation coefficients (R between 0.79 and 0.85) were found between estimated pollution risks and measured concentrations of those chemical parameters that are mainly attributed to anthropogenic activities rather than in situ biogeochemical processes. The pollution risk method described here could be used elsewhere as a decision support tool for mitigating the impact of hazardous human activities and improving management of groundwater resources.
The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn-bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha?¹week?¹ for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the main metabolite ethylenethiourea was near the detection limit. Surface and subsurface water was highly polluted with ethylenethiourea, the main metabolite of Mancozeb (22.5 and 4.3 ?g L?¹, respectively), but not with manganese. In deep ground water, no ethylenethiourea was detected. The level of pollution in the region presents a worrisome risk for aquatic life and for human health. PMID:20734023
Geissen, Violette; Ramos, Franzisco Que; de J Bastidas-Bastidas, Pedro; Díaz-González, Gilberto; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo; Huerta-Lwanga, Esperanza; Ruiz-Suárez, Luz E
There is now much interest in comprehensive watershed-based approaches to water quality protection. While there is much to be said in favor of such an approach, it is also clear that implementation requires information that is often lacking. Given that information acquisition is costly, decisions are required about the types and amounts of information that should be sought. We examine the expected value of different types of information for price and quantity instruments for agricultural nitrogen pollution control in the Susquehanna River Basin. We also compare the ex ante economic efficiency of price and quantity instruments. The analysis explicitly accounts for public sector uncertainty about the benefits and costs of pollution reductions, with economic efficiency measured as the expected benefits less the expected costs of pollution reductions. We find optimized price controls to outperform optimized quantity controls under a range of possible information structures. For both instruments, information collection improves policy performance, with information about the benefits of pollution reductions having the greatest impact. The performance of the quantity instrument is more sensitive to information than is the price instrument. In consequence, the value of information to reduce benefit and cost uncertainty is greater for the quantity control.
Borisova, Tatiana; Shortle, James; Horan, Richard D.; Abler, David
The presentation will discuss the following topics: Stormwater Best Management Practice (BMP) Placement (SUSTAIN); Sanitary Sewer Overflow Toolbox (SSOAP); BMP and Low Impact Development (LID) Performance; Green/Grey Infrastructure for Stormwater; Combined Sewers and Reuse; Infra...
The management of water quality for Lake Erie looms as a major challenge to society, particularly to government at all levels, if the lake is to survive and recover from severe pollution and eutrophication. Most experts agree that one major barrier to ach...
Abstract Objective To rank pollutants in two Nigerian water supply schemes according to their effect on human health using a risk-based approach. Methods Hazardous pollutants in drinking-water in the study area were identified from a literature search and selected pollutants were monitored from April 2010 to December 2011 in catchments, treatment works and consumer taps. The disease burden due to each pollutant was estimated in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) using data on the pollutant’s concentration, exposure to the pollutant, the severity of its health effects and the consumer population. Findings The pollutants identified were microbial organisms, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc. All were detected in the catchments but only cadmium, cobalt, chromium, manganese and lead exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) guideline values after water treatment. Post-treatment contamination was observed. The estimated disease burden was greatest for chromium in both schemes, followed in decreasing order by cadmium, lead, manganese and cobalt. The total disease burden of all pollutants in the two schemes was 46?000 and 9500 DALYs per year or 0.14 and 0.088 DALYs per person per year, respectively, much higher than the WHO reference level of 1?×?10?6 DALYs per person per year. For each metal, the disease burden exceeded the reference level and was comparable with that due to microbial contamination reported elsewhere in Africa. Conclusion The estimated disease burden of metal contamination of two Nigerian water supply systems was high. It could best be reduced by protection of water catchment and pretreatment by electrocoagulation.
The aim of this paper is to assess the role of greywater reuse in sustainable watermanagement in arid regions. Moreover, it intends to document the experience of greywater reuse in Jordan. Greywater (GW) is the water collected separately from sewage flow that originates from clothes washers, bathtubs, showers and sinks, but does not include wastewater from kitchen sinks, dishwashers,
The availability of fresh water for human consumption is a critical global issue and one that will be exacerbated by the impacts of climate change. Water demand management has an important role to play in reducing the vulnerability of freshwater supplies to climate change impacts. In this paper, we argue that the field of psychology and environmental psychology in particular
The alpine areas of Australia contain ski resorts which are mini-urban areas nestled within sensitive National Park ecosystems. There are numerous examples of WSUD to manage surface runoff impacts in Australia's ski resorts. To date, however, none of these WSUD projects has intervened in the water cycle to decrease demand on potable water supplies. In the Perisher Range Resorts of
\\u000a WaterManagement in Austria is based on a real abundance of water in great parts of the country. Related to the water availability\\u000a per capita, Austria is ranked in the upper range in Europe. However, the distribution of precipitation and thus the availability\\u000a of the resource is not even. In the eastern and south-eastern regions of the country, temporal problems
Fuel treatments (prescribed fire and mechanical removal) on public lands in California are critical for reducing fuel accumulation and wildfire frequency and severity and protecting private property located in the wildland–urban interface. Treatments are especially needed in forests impacted by air pollution and subject to climate change. High ambient ozone (O3) concentration and elevated nitrogen (N) deposition weakens and predisposes
Michael J. Arbaugh; Trent Procter; Annie Esperanza
Water services are a strategic sector of large social and economic relevance. It is therefore essential that they are managed rationally and efficiently. Advanced water supply and wastewater infrastructure asset management (IAM) is key in achieving adequate levels of service in the future, particularly with regard to reliable and high quality drinking water supply, prevention of urban flooding, efficient use of natural resources and prevention of pollution. This paper presents a methodology for supporting the development of urban water IAM, developed during the AWARE-P project as well as an appraisal of its implementation in four water utilities. Both water supply and wastewater systems were considered. Due to the different contexts and features of the utilities, the main concerns vary from case to case; some problems essentially are related to performance, others to risk. Cost is a common deciding factor. The paper describes the procedure applied, focusing on the diversity of drivers, constraints, benefits and outcomes. It also points out the main challenges and the results obtained through the implementation of a structured procedure for supporting urban water IAM. PMID:23109589
Cardoso, M A; Silva, M Santos; Coelho, S T; Almeida, M C; Covas, D I C
The purpose of the report is to direct attention to existing and potential waterpollution problems in the Annapolis Metropolitan Area. This report is intended to summarize immediate pollution control problems and needs and to provide a framework for the ...
Released on June 8 2000, this report is the third in a series from the Environmental protection Agency (EPA) "to Congress on atmospheric deposition of pollution to the Great Waters, which include the Great Lakes, Chesapeake Bay and several other major U.S. water bodies." This report focuses on fifteen "pollutants of concern," offering updated scientific information about these pollutants and the Great Waters and discussing programs implemented by the EPA, states, tribes, and others to address them. It also describes "recent advancements in scientific research and tools used to improve our understanding of atmospheric deposition to the Great Waters." Background information and an executive summary are offered in HTML format, while the full text is provided by chapter in .pdf format. The previous two reports may be accessed from the Great Waters Program homepage.
...identifying the changes made to each...outreach. B. Water Quality Concerns...floatables (U.S. EPA. 1992...rivers, lakes, estuaries...discharge of storm water. If the NPDES...circumstances change. (See also...NPDES storm water program...waters of the U.S., including...tributaries, lakes, and...
The status of water quality in Minnesota was examined in relation to the chemical data available on public water supplies based upon sample analyses by the Minnesota Department of Health, reported in 1971 and upgraded in 1972. Information presented includ...
The report describes a feasibility study on reducing the pollution characteristics of spent sulfite liquor (SSL) by using the SSL as a substrate for the growth of the bacteria, Desulforibrio. Total sulfur content and COD of the SSL were used to measure th...
The Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that the cause of an oil spill is the polluting enterprise rather than the conduct of a third party. Two judges gave a reluctant concurrence with the court's analysis of the applicable law. A basic unfairness may exist when an agency can penalize a business engaged in an enterprise essential to the well-being
This review of the literature with 152 references deals with methods of pollution control and wastewater treatment of chemicals and allied products.Wastewater treatment is reviewed for various product types such as PCB's, pesticides, heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and detergents. In addition, biological and physical\\/chemical methods of waste treatment are outlined in separate sections.
This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.
Albaiges, J. (Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo, CSIC, Barcelona (ES))
The problem of waterpollution from small livestock producers (non-concentrated animal feeding operations) could be addressed through water quality regulations that apply to additional livestock producers. However, in adopting modified federal water quality regulations, the costs of mandatory controls led to the decision to exempt small producers. Thus, alternative non-water-quality state regulations may offer the best mechanism to address the
Terence J. Centner; Michael E. Wetzstein; Jeffrey D. Mullen
Because most people spend more than 90% of their time indoors, predicting exposure to airborne pollutants requires models that incorporate the effect of buildings. Buildings affect the exposure of their occupants in a number of ways, both by design (for example, filters in ventilation systems remove particles) and incidentally (for example, sorption on walls can reduce peak concentrations, but prolong exposure to semivolatile organic compounds). Furthermore, building materials and occupant activities can generate pollutants. Indoor air quality depends not only on outdoor air quality, but also on the design, maintenance, and use of the building. For example, ''sick building'' symptoms such as respiratory problems and headaches have been related to the presence of air-conditioning systems, to carpeting, to low ventilation rates, and to high occupant density (1). The physical processes of interest apply even in simple structures such as homes. Indoor air quality models simulate the processes, such as ventilation and filtration, that control pollutant concentrations in a building. Section 2 describes the modeling approach, and the important transport processes in buildings. Because advection usually dominates among the transport processes, Sections 3 and 4 describe methods for predicting airflows. The concluding section summarizes the application of these models.
As part of its Civil works mission, the US Army Corps of Engineers designs, builds and operates a variety of water resources projects. Projects include, multi-use storage reservoirs, navigation dams and locks, and levee systems with closure structures. Co...
Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities.
The watermanagement system in France is described, with primary emphasis on water quality management and with an analysis of the relationship between the economic and regulatory aspects of the system. The effluent fee/charge system itself is described, g...
Many states throughout the United States are now concerned about the impact of non-point source pollution on the declining quality of water in their watersheds. In 1998, the state of Maryland adopted one of the toughest nutrient management planning laws in the nation, requiring virtually all agricultural operations to write and implement nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) based management plans
This paper gives an account of the implementation of a decision support system for assessing aquifer pollution hazard and prioritizing subwatersheds for groundwater resources management in the southeastern Pampa plain of Argentina. The use of this system is demonstrated with an example from Dulce Stream Basin (1,000 km(2) encompassing 27 subwatersheds), which has high level of agricultural activities and extensive available data regarding aquifer geology. In the logic model, aquifer pollution hazard is assessed as a function of two primary topics: groundwater and soil conditions. This logic model shows the state of each evaluated landscape with respect to aquifer pollution hazard based mainly on the parameters of the DRASTIC and GOD models. The decision model allows prioritizing subwatersheds for groundwater resources management according to three main criteria including farming activities, agrochemical application, and irrigation use. Stakeholder participation, through interviews, in combination with expert judgment was used to select and weight each criterion. The resulting subwatershed priority map, by combining the logic and decision models, allowed identifying five subwatersheds in the upper and middle basin as the main aquifer protection areas. The results reasonably fit the natural conditions of the basin, identifying those subwatersheds with shallow water depth, loam-loam silt texture soil media and pasture land cover in the middle basin, and others with intensive agricultural activity, coinciding with the natural recharge area to the aquifer system. Major difficulties and some recommendations of applying this methodology in real-world situations are discussed. PMID:23054292
Lima, M Lourdes; Romanelli, Asunción; Massone, Héctor E
This work investigated water samples collected from Tapeng Lagoon, Taiwan. Factor analysis was conducted to explain the characteristics and the variation in the quality of water during the disassembly of oyster frames and fishery boxes. The result shows that the most important latent factors in Tapeng Lagoon are the ocean factor, primary productivity factor, and the fishery pollution factor. Canonical
Shao-Wei Liao; Wen-Liang Lai; Jen-Jeng Chen; Jia-Yuh Sheu; Chang-Gai Lee
The radiation induced decomposition of biological resistant pollutants in drinking as well as in wastewater is shortly reviewed. First, some important units, deffinitions etc., radiation sources as well as dose depth curves in water as function of the electron energy and 60Co-?-rays are mentioned. It follows schematical presentation of water rediolysis and of characteristics of primary free radicals. After that
Dredging a polluted harbor using confined spoil disposal did not degrade water quality. Quality of water returned to the waterway was better than that in the stream before or during dredging due to an increase in dissolved oxygen and removal of solids and...
Vascular aquatic plants have demonstrated their ability to remove pollutants from domestic and chemical wastewaters. Plants such as the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweed (Lemna sp., Spirodela sp., and Wolffia sp.), and cattail (Typha sp.) thrive in nutrient-rich waters and produce tremendous quantities of biomass under favorable climatic conditions. This method of wastewater treatment is currently being used exclusively at
The presence and survival of coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci were studied in sewage treatment plants, heavily polluted rivers, a lake, and other drinking water sources. In all cases the fecal streptococci were generally more resistant to the natural water environment and to purification processes than the other indicator organisms and, at points distant from the original source of
|Presented are the results of a study to determine the perceived needs of environmental control education programs as seen by students, instructors, deans or program directors, and field-related employers in the field of waterpollution control. Data were collected utilizing three approaches: survey instruments, information from Water Quality…
The environmental, social and institutional impacts of the Federal WaterPollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (P.L. 92-500) on the Lake Erie region are reviewed. Water quality changes as a result of the Act's 1977 (best practicable treatment technolog...
A continuous gravitational process to separate oil pollutant from ships' bilge water using simple and compact equipment is proposed. The principle of the process is discussed. For an oil-water mixture of known concentration and density, the location of th...
This study provides the first EU-wide reconnaissance of the occurrence of polar organic persistent pollutants in European river waters. More than 100 individual water samples from over 100 European rivers from 27 European Countries were analysed for 35 selected compounds, comprising pharmaceuticals, pesticides, PFOS, PFOA, benzotriazoles, hormones, and endocrine disrupters. Around 40 laboratories participated in this sampling exercise. The most
Robert Loos; Bernd Manfred Gawlik; Giovanni Locoro; Erika Rimaviciute; Serafino Contini; Giovanni Bidoglio
The bibliography contains citations concerning waterpollution analysis, detection, monitoring, and regulation. Citations review online systems, bioassay monitoring, laser-based detection, sensor and biosensor systems, metabolic analyzers, and microsystem techniques. References cover fiber-optic portable detection instruments and rapid detection of toxicants in drinking water. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)
The use of the water quality index (WQI) and the dissolved oxygen deficit (D) as simple indicators of the watersheds pollution was investigated and compared in the Municipality of Las Rozas (north-west of Madrid, Spain). The quality of the water in Guadarrama and Manzanares rivers and Paris Park ponds, the main watersheds of this area was investigated during 2 years
Enrique Sánchez; Manuel F. Colmenarejo; Juan Vicente; Angel Rubio; María G. García; Lissette Travieso; Rafael Borja
|Based on the idea that the prevention and treatment of waterpollution should begin at its source, this document focuses on some methods that individuals can use in their homes and businesses to treat wastewater. Chapter one, "What Is the Water Crisis?" explains the basic concepts of the hydrologic cycle, evapotranspiration, and the quantity of…
The aim of this study was to identify a new putative biomarker in Salmo trutta exposed to waterpollution. Variations in the levels of hepatic 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR),\\u000a the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis, were compared to heat shock protein 70 and hypoxia inducible factor\\u000a ?, biomarkers of pollution exposure and lowered O2, respectively. The results confirm
Valentina Pallottini; Massimiliano Scalici; Giancarlo Gibertini; Maria Marino; Anna Trentalance
Two-thirds of the coastal rivers and bays in the United States are degraded from nutrient pollution, and nitrogen inputs these\\u000a waters continue to increase. The nitrogen comes from a variety of sources, including runoff from agricultural fields, concentrated\\u000a animal feeding operations, atmospheric deposition from fossil fuel combustion, and sewage and septic wastes. Technical solutions\\u000a for nitrogen pollution exist at reasonable
The effects of the warm water discharged by a nuclear power plant (NPP) into a small reservoir are studied. A case study is presented (José Cabrera NPP-Zorita Hidráulica Reservoir) with experimental data of the reservoir stratification and predicted data of the dispersion of radioactive pollutants from operative or accidental releases. The vertical and longitudinal temperature profiles, electrical conductivity and transparency of the reservoir water were measured for an annual cycle. The results indicate that the continuous warm water discharge from the NPP causes permanent and artificial reservoir stratification. The stratification is significant within 1500 m upstream and 1000 m downstream from the warm water outfall. The pollutant dispersion has been predicted by using a flow model based on N(T) perfect-mixing compartments in series with feedback. The model parameter, N(T), is calculated from the longitudinal diffusion coefficient. The prediction of pollutant dispersion by means of this model shows that the stratification slows down the vertical mixing in the whole water body, and reduces the reservoir volume that is effective for the dilution and dispersion of pollutants. This means that, in the case of a radioactive pollutant release, the reservoir radioactivity level could increase significantly. PMID:16574305
Palancar, María C; Aragón, José M; Sánchez, Fernando; Gil, Roberto
Background, Aims and Scope It is well known that the composition of petroleum or some of its processing products changes in the environment mostly under\\u000a the influence of microorganisms. A series of experiments was conducted in order to define the optimum conditions for an efficient\\u000a biodegradation of petroleum pollutant, or bioremediation of different segments of the environment. The aim of
Mališa P. Anti?; Branimir Jovancicevic; Miroslav M. Vrvi?; Jan Schwarzbauer
ABSTRACT In this urbanizing world, municipal watermanagers need to develop planning and management frameworks to meet challenges such as limiting fresh water supplies, degrading receiving waters, increasing regulatory requirements, flooding, aging infrastructure, rising utility...
... (3) Describe the major elements of the State watermanagement program, which should address but not be limited to: (i) The integration of water quantity and water quality planning and management; (ii) The...
The challenges of addressing the needs of aging water and wastewater infrastructure require new management approaches. Benefits including water savings, cost savings, and reduced wastewater production may be realized through the adoption of new integrated watermanagement concep...
Since early 1980s, chemical pollution has become a serious environmental problem in rapidly developing China. This study reviewed the policy and legal framework for monitoring and management of chemical pollutants in China, with reference to the relevant experience in other jurisdictions. Although efforts in environmental monitoring of chemical contamination have been substantially increased over the last decade, China is lagging behind in terms of nationwide monitoring of chemical contamination in human population, and standardization of sampling and analytical protocols. While actively participating in various international treaties and conventions related to pollution control, China also has a very comprehensive set of environmental laws and policies. These include the newly enacted legislation on the control of new chemicals (i.e., China REACH) and the development of a set of National Environmental Standards. In addition to environmental education, these new measures will further enhance the control of chemical pollutants and facilitate effective law enforcement. PMID:22285063
Waterpollution and water heavily shortage are both main environmental conflicts in China. Reclaimed water reuse is an important approach to lessen waterpollution and solve the water shortage crisis in the city. The heath risk of reclaimed water has become the focus of the public. It is impending to evaluate the health risk of reclaimed water with risk assessment technique. Considering the ways of the reclaimed water reused, it is studied that health risk produced by toxic pollutants and pathogenic microbes in the processes of reclaimed water reused in landscape water system. The pathogenic microbes monitoring techniques in wastewater and reclaimed water are discussed and the hygienic indicators, risk assessment methods, concentration limitations of pathogenic microbes for various reclaimed water uses are studied. The principle of health risk assessment is used to research the exposure level and the health risk of concerned people in a wastewater reuse project where the reclaimed water is applied for green area irrigation in a public park in Beijing. The exposure assessment method and model of various reclaimed water uses are built combining with Beijing reclaimed water project. Firstly the daily ingesting dose and lifetime average daily dose(LADD) of exposure people are provided via field work and monitoring analysis, which could be used in health risk assessment as quantitative reference. The result shows that the main risk comes from the pathology pollutants, the toxic pollutants, the eutrophication pollutants, pathogenic microbes and the secondary pollutants when municipal wastewater is reclaimed for landscape water. The major water quality limited should include pathogenic microbes, toxic pollutants, and heavy metals. Keywords: municipal wastewater, reclaimed water, landscape water, health risk
The Yellow River in China is being polluted with artifi cial pollution, which brings great chal- lenges to drinking water treatment plants (DWTP) along the Yellow River. The conventional treatment processes could not ensure satisfactory quality of drinking water, and innovative processes are crucial for the achievement of the newly issued drinking water standard (GB5749- 2006). The DWTP in Zhengzhou
The Yellow River in China is being polluted with artificial pollution, which brings great challenges to drinking water treatment plants (DWTP) along the Yellow River. The conventional treatment processes could not ensure satisfactory quality of drinking water, and innovative processes are crucial for the achievement of the newly issued drinking water standard (GB5749- 2006). The DWTP in Zhengzhou City takes
Recent catchment initiatives have highlighted the need for new holistic approaches to sustainable watermanagement. Here, a catchment engineering approach seeks to describe catchment 'function' (or role) as the principal driver for evaluating how it should be managed in the future. Catchment engineering does not seek to re-establish a natural system but seeks to work with natural processes in order to engineer landscapes so that multiple benefits accrue. This approach involves quantifying and assessing catchment change and impacts but most importantly suggests an urgent and proactive agenda for future planning. In particular, an interventionist approach to managing hydrological flow pathways across scale is proposed. It is already accepted that future management will require a range of scientific expertise and full engagement with stakeholders, namely the general public and policy makers. This inclusive concept under a catchment engineering agenda forces any consortia to commit to actively changing and perturbing the catchment system and thus learn, in situ, how to manage the environment for collective benefits. The shared cost, the design, the implementation, the evaluation and any subsequent modifications should involve all relevant parties in the consortia. This joint ownership of a 'hands on' interventionist agenda to catchment change is at the core of catchment engineering. In this paper we show a range of catchment engineering projects from the UK that have addressed multi-disciplinary approaches to flooding, pollution and ecosystem management whilst maintaining economic food production. Local scale demonstration activities, led by local champions, have proven to be an effective means of encouraging wider uptake. Catchment engineering is a concept that relies on all relevant parties within a catchment to take responsibility for the water quantity and quality that arises from the catchment. Further, any holistic solution requires a bottom up, problem solving agenda which is facilitated by policy makers and is underpinned by scientific knowledge.
Quinn, P. F.; Burke, S.; O'Donnell, G. M.; Wilkinson, M.; Jonczyk, J.; Barber, N.; Nicholson, A.; Proactive Team
The report gives results of a study to determine water consumption and environmental impacts of coal conversion processes in Western states. Part 1 gives brief descriptions and process water requirements for nine conversion processes. Detailed designs and...
Ambient air pollution is always encountered as a complex mixture, but past regulatory and research strategies largely focused on single pollutants, pollutant classes, and sources one-at-a-time. There is a trend toward managing air quality in a progressively "multipollutant" manner, with the idealized goal of controlling as many air contaminants as possible in an integrated manner to achieve the greatest total reduction of adverse health and environmental impacts. This commentary considers the current ability of the environmental air pollution exposure and health research communities to provide evidence to inform the development of multipollutant air quality management strategies and assess their effectiveness. The commentary is not a literature review, but a summary of key issues and information gaps, strategies for filling the gaps, and realistic expectations for progress that could be made during the next decade. The greatest need is for researchers and sponsors to address air quality health impacts from a truly multipollutant perspective, and the most limiting current information gap is knowledge of personal exposures of different subpopulations, considering activities and microenvironments. Emphasis is needed on clarifying the roles of a broader range of pollutants and their combinations in a more forward-looking manner; that is not driven by current regulatory structures. Although advances in research tools and outcome data will enhance progress, the greater need is to direct existing capabilities toward strategies aimed at placing into proper context the contributions of multiple pollutants and their combinations to the health burdens, and the relative contributions of pollutants and other factors influencing the same outcomes. The authors conclude that the research community has very limited ability to advise multipollutant air quality management and assess its effectiveness at this time, but that considerable progress can be made in a decade, even at current funding levels, if resources and incentives are shifted appropriately. PMID:20462389
Mauderly, Joe L; Burnett, Richard T; Castillejos, Margarita; Ozkaynak, Halûk; Samet, Jonathan M; Stieb, David M; Vedal, Sverre; Wyzga, Ronald E
The Clean Water Act of 1977 grants U.S. Environmental Protection Agency authority to extend some of the more onerous deadlines given in the 1972 act for installation of water cleanup facilities; requires Best Available Technology only for toxic pollutants; puts off ''pollution tax'' moves, takes interim steps on oil spills (e.g., extends the pollution control jurisdiction of the U.S. out
Watershed information systems that integrate data and analytical tools are critical enabling technologies to support Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) by converting data into information, and information into knowledge. Many factors bring people to the table to participate in an IWRM fra...
Human demands on the world's available freshwater supplies continue to grow as the global population increases. In the endeavor to managewater to meet human needs, the needs of freshwater species and ecosystems have largely been neglected, and the ecological consequences have been tragic. Healthy freshwater ecosystems provide a wealth of goods and services for society, but our appropriation of
Brian D. Richter; Ruth Mathews; David L. Harrison; Robert Wigington
An evaluation of ground-water problems has been carried out in six states in the northwest: Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming. There is a need for baseline water quality data and systematic evaluation of overall ground-water conditi...
An evaluation of ground-water problems has been carried out in six states in the northwest: Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming. There is a need for baseline water quality data and systematic evaluation of overall ground-water conditions, especially in urban zones, in areas of petroleum exploration and development, and at locations of mining and industrial activity. The most common
The impact of riverbank filtration (RBF) on the treatment of water from the River Yamuna at Mathura, which has disagreeable visual properties, has been investigated. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and colour of the river water were 4.0-6.8mg/L and 40-65 colour units (CU), respectively. Pre-chlorination is in practice to improve raw water quality. Chlorine doses as high as 60mg/L ahead of the water treatment units reduced colour by about 78%. Removal of DOC and UV-absorbance was less than 18%. In comparison to direct pumping of the river water, collection of water through RBF resulted in the reduction of DOC, colour, UV-absorbance and fecal coliforms by around 50%. However, riverbank filtrate did not conform to the drinking water quality standards. Therefore, riverbank-filtered water along with the Yamuna water were ozonated for different durations. To reduce DOC to the desired level, the dose of ozone required for the riverbank filtrate was found to be considerably less than the ozone required for the river water. RBF as compared to direct pumping of Yamuna water appears to be effective in improving the quality of the raw water. PMID:20089349
Pharmaceutical products for humans or animals, as well as their related metabolites (degradation products) end up in the aquatic environment after use. Recent investigations from abroad show that low concentrations of pharmaceuticals are detectable in municipal waste water, surface water, groundwater and even drinking water. Little is known about the effects, and with that the risk, of long term exposure
Increasing crop production to meet the food requirements of the world's growing population will put great pressure on global water resources. Given that the vast freshwater resources that are available in the world are far from fully exploited, globally there should be sufficient water for future agricultural requirements. However, there are large areas where low water supply and high human demand may lead to regional shortages of water for future food production. In these arid and semi-arid areas, where water is a major constraint on production, improving water resource management is crucial if Malthusian disasters are to be avoided. There is considerable scope for improvement, since in both dryland and irrigated agriculture only about one-third of the available water (as rainfall, surface, or groundwater) is used to grow useful plants. This paper illustrates a range of techniques that could lead to increased crop production by improving agricultural water use efficiency. This may be achieved by increasing the total amount of water available to plants or by increasing the efficiency with which that water is used to produce biomass. Although the crash from the Malthusian precipice may ultimately be inevitable if population growth is not addressed, the time taken to reach the edge of the precipice could be lengthened by more efficient use of existing water resources.
A comprehensive field investigation in several parts of India has revealed that the presence of coliforms in drinking water is associated with hydrogen sulfide-producing organisms. This paper describes a simple, rapid, and inexpensive field test for the screening of drinking water for faecal pollution, based on the detection of hydrogen sulfide. The new test showed good agreement with the standard most probable number (MPN) test. It proved highly successful in the field when it was used to detect faecal pollution and to monitor water quality during an outbreak of water-borne hepatitis A infection in the city of Gwalior. The test is reliable and simple to perform, and will be especially useful for screening rural water supplies and for large-scale screening of urban water supplies where resources, time, manpower, and laboratory facilities are limited.
Extensive effort through point source controls, such as the construction of wastewater treatment plants, has been continuously made not only to improve the water quality but also to protect the water resources since 1990 in the Han River basin, Korea. However, it is difficult to maintain biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentration below 1.0 mg\\/L and not able to meet the
Y. J. Jung; M. K. Stenstrom; D. I. Jung; L. H. Kim; K. S. Min
Environmental pollution affects the quality of pedosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Great efforts have been made in the last two decades to reduce pollution sources and remedy the polluted soil and water resources. Phytoremediation, being more cost-effective and fewer side effects than physical and chemical approaches, has gained increasing popularity in both academic and practical circles. More than 400 plant species have been identified to have potential for soil and water remediation. Among them, Thlaspi, Brassica, Sedum alfredii H., and Arabidopsis species have been mostly studied. It is also expected that recent advances in biotechnology will play a promising role in the development of new hyperaccumulators by transferring metal hyperaccumulating genes from low biomass wild species to the higher biomass producing cultivated species in the times to come. This paper attempted to provide a brief review on recent progresses in research and practical applications of phytoremediation for soil and water resources.
Lone, Mohammad Iqbal; He, Zhen-li; Stoffella, Peter J.; Yang, Xiao-e
The article discusses implementation of Russia's international obligations in fisheries management, nuclear safety and air pollution control. Empirical evidence is taken from the country's northwestern region. A main theoretical question is to what extent the observed level of compliance with international agreements can be explained by the nature of the problem and agreements at hand, and by the implementation activities
Best management practices (BMPs) provide a viable option, when implemented properly at a farm level, for reduction of nonpoint source (NPS) pollutant loads at a watershed scale. However, the watershed model used to simulate the BMPs is prone to several uncertainties. The important sources of uncertainty are the uncertainty in the estimation of the hydrologic model parameters, uncertainties in the
The Department of Energy`s (DOE) national role and overall mission has been undergoing significant change. In the post-Cold War era, a new emphasis on cleaning up the wastes from the past has emerged. These changes provide both significant challenges as well as new opportunities for DOE. While the challenges may seem overwhelming as DOE realizes the magnitude of its environmental problems, its network of national laboratories and sites provide the resources to become a leader in environmental management through the development of new technologies and management practices. Because of the growing importance of pollution prevention in the United States and more specifically to DOE`s environmental management strategy, the Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24) identified this as an area worthy of a Special Issue Review. A Special Issue Review is not an audit but rather an in-depth review of key environmental programs or activities which cut across organizational boundaries. The purpose of a Special Issue Review is to identify strengths and weaknesses of a program as well as significant crosscutting issues or challenges that are important to the future success of that program. The scope of the review included an assessment of pollution prevention program activities at Headquarters, selected operations offices, and selected sites offices and contractor organizations. All aspects of a pollution prevention program were considered including program strategy, infrastructure, management systems, and implementation practices. Also summarized are future pollution prevention challenges and recommendations.
Low-polarity organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) typically have very low solubilities (e.g., ppb) in water at ambient conditions because of water's high polarity (dielectric constant, [epsilon] = 80). However, the dielectric constant can be drastically lowered by raising the temperature of the water under moderate pressure with dramatic increases (e.g., to percent levels) in the solubility of
The surface water quality for the Liu River within the boundaries of Zhangwu was evaluated using single factor pollution index, single factor water quality identification index and comprehensive water quality identification index. Permanganate index (CODMn), ammonium nitrogen(NH4-N), dissolved oxygen (DO), 5-days biochemical oxygen demand(BOD5), petroleum and chemical oxygen demand(COD) from 2001 to 2009 were selected for analysis. All the parameters
Monitoring studies and thermodynamic modeling were used to reveal the changes of inorganic chemical species of some water\\u000a pollutants (nutrients and trace metals such as Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb) in the river–estuary–sea water system. The case studies were two rivers, Kamchiya and Ropotamo, representing part of the Bulgarian Black Sea water\\u000a catchment area, and having different flow
In the past three decades, the fast development of economy and urbanization has caused increasingly severe pollutions of urban water bodies in China. Consequently, eutrophication and deterioration of aquatic ecosystem, which is especially significant for aquatic vegetation, inevitably became a pervasive problem across the Yangtze River Basin. To rehabilitate the degraded urban water bodies, vegetation replanting is an important issue to improve water quality and to rehabilitate ecosystem. As a case study, a representative polluted urban river, Nanfeihe River, in Hefei City, Anhui Province, was chosen to be a rehabilitation target. In October 2009 and May 2010, 13 species of indigenous and prevalent macrophytes, including seven species emergent, one species floating leaved, and five species submersed macrophytes, were planted along the bank slopes and in the river. Through 1.5 years' replanting practice, the water quality and biodiversity of the river had been improved. The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) declined by 46.0, 39.5, and 60.4 %, respectively. The species of macrophytes increased from 14 to 60, and the biodiversity of phytoplankton rose significantly in the river (p?0.05). The biomasses of zooplankton and benthos were also improved after the vegetation replanting. The study confirmed that vegetation replanting could alleviate the increasing waterpollution and rehabilitate the degraded aquatic ecosystem. The case study would be an example for polluted urban waters restoration in the middle-downstream area of Yangtze River Base. PMID:23247519
A new biomimetic absorbent, cellulose acetate (CA) embedded with triolein (CA-triolein), was prepared and applied for the removal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from micro-polluted aqueous solution. The comparison of CA-triolein, CA and granular activated carbon (GAC) for dieldrin removal was investigated. Results showed that CA-triolein absorbent gave a lowest residual concentration after 24 h although GAC had high removal rate in the first 4 h adsorption. Then the removal efficiency of mixed POPs (e.g. aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor epoxide), absorption isotherm, absorbent regeneration and initial column experiments of CA-triolein were studied in detail. The linear absorption isotherm and the independent absorption in binary isotherm indicated that the selected POPs are mainly absorbed onto CA-triolein absorbent by a partition mechanism. The absorption constant, K, was closely related to the hydrophobic property of the compound. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the absorption was spontaneous, with a high affinity and the absorption was an endothermic reaction. Rinsing with hexane the CA-triolein absorbent can be regenerated after absorption of POPs. No significant decrease in the dieldrin removal efficiency was observed even when the absorption-regeneration process was repeated for five times. The results of initial column experiments showed that the CA-triolein absorbent did not reach the breakthrough point at a breakthrough empty-bed volume (BV) of 3200 when the influent concentration was 1-1.5 microg/L and the empty-bed contact time (EBCT) was 20 min. PMID:19246190
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a three dimensional (3D) geological model, based on geographic information system (GIS), of the Barwon Downs Graben aquifer system in Victoria, Australia, and to visualize the complex geometry as a decision support tool for sustainable watermanagement. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A 3D visualization of the aquifer is completed, based on subsurface
Sultana Nasrin Nury; Xuan Zhu; Ian Cartwright; Laurent Ailleres
The High Plains is a temperate semi-arid region with highly variable rainfall. Extended periods of drought are common. In general, crop management strategies attempt to maximize the total water available to the crop and to maximize transpiration by minimizing soil evaporation. Summer fallow, the pra...
Available literature sources were reviewed to locate references to the theory, documentation, use, or other activities related to the EPA Storm WaterManagement Model (SWMM). Listed in the annotated bibliography are 237 such citations, along with keywords and brief abstracts. The...
Weather and climate dictate which crops can be grown in a region and are mainly responsible for the yearly variation in yields. Related to watermanagement the climate in the world can be divided into three main agro climatic zones, which are: temperate humid, humid tropical and arid and semi-arid. Netherlands has a temperate humid climate, with a rather even
The purpose of the study is to (1) analyze main break failures and (2) incorporate other drinking water distribution system components into a data base management structure for reliability analyses. Reliability analysis should be a part of an overall operation and maintenance str...
The concept of integrated water resources management (IWRM) has been around for some 60 years. It was rediscovered by some in the 1990s. While at a first glance, the concept of IWRM looks attractive, a deeper analysis brings out many problems, both in concept and implementation, especially for meso- to macro-scale projects. The definition of IWRM continues to be amorphous,
The major purpose of the study was to indicate that the goals of urban watermanagement, with respect to the use and further development of systems analysis tools explored, are attainable. It was primarily a technical enterprise to demonstrate that a comp...
W. C. Ackermann J. C. Geyer C. F. Izzard S. W. Jens D. E. Jones
Studies of waterborne diseases are reported in this literature review. Contaminated water is a major source of exposure to bacterial pathogens for both humans and animals. Legionella, an aquatic organism, is of special interest because of its importance as a respiratory pathogen and the human disease outbreaks associated with contaminated air conditioning cooling tower waters and contaminated shower heads in health care institutions. The occurrence and detection of Legionella in water is presented in one of seven tables. Included are 147 references. (JMT)
A PCR-based assay (Mrnif) targeting the nifH gene of Methanobrevibacter ruminantium was developed to detect fecal pollution from domesticated ruminants in environmental water samples. The assay produced the expected amplification product only when the reaction mixture contained DNA extracted from M. ruminantium culture, bovine (80%), sheep (100%), and goat (75%) feces, and water samples from a bovine waste lagoon (100%) and a creek contaminated with bovine lagoon waste (100%). The assay appears to be specific and sensitive and can distinguish between domesticated- and nondomesticated-ruminant fecal pollution in environmental samples.
Ufnar, Jennifer A.; Wang, Shiao Y.; Ufnar, David F.; Ellender, R. D.
... increases foliar senescence and fuel build-up, and increases water stress during ... Smoke from prescribed fires can adversely affect local and regional air quality ... by expanding beyond the boundaries of their historical job responsibilities.
The removal of toxic contaminants from water remains a huge challenge for water supplying companies and municipalities. Both\\u000a organic and inorganic (especially heavy metals) pollutants are often present in water distribution networks. There is at present\\u000a no water treatment intervention that simultaneously removes both organic and inorganic pollutants from water to desirable\\u000a levels. In our laboratories, recent studies have shown
Mphilisi M. Mahlambi; Tshepo J. Malefetse; Bhekie B. Mamba; Rui W. Krause
Monitoring results are presented as an annual water balance from the pioneering Landcare Research green building containing commercial laboratory and office space. The building makes use of harvested roof runoff to flush toilets and urinals and irrigate glasshouse experiments, reducing the demand for city-supplied water and stormwater runoff. Stormwater treatment devices also manage the runoff from the carpark, helping curb stream degradation. Composting toilets and low-flow tap fittings further reduce the water demand. Despite research activities requiring the use of large volumes of water, the demand for city-supplied water is less than has been measured in many other green buildings. In line with the principles of sustainability, the composting toilets produce a useable product from wastes and internalise the wastewater treatment process. PMID:21411934
In this 4:15 video adapted from Pathways to Technology, learn how one person turned a job-ending injury into an opportunity to build a new career. When Richard Guider lost his arm in an industrial accident, he needed to find new career opportunities. He began by attending community college, where he studied agricultural technology and watermanagement. In school, he learned that a job can be more than just a way to earn a paycheckÃ¢ÂÂit can help make a difference in the world, for example, by keeping the fishing holes he loves free of pollution. The video is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can download the video as well.
Water scarcity in the Sevier River Basin in south-central Utah has led watermanagers to seek advanced techniques for identifying optimal forecasting and management measures. To more efficiently use the limited quantity of water in the basin, better methods for control and forecasting are imperative. Basin scale management requires advanced forecasts of the availability of water. Information about long term
Abedalrazq F. Khalil; Mac McKee; Mariush Kemblowski; Tirusew Asefa
Rational management of the environment requires evaluation of environmental impacts and the associated costs. The logically correct way to quantify environmental impacts is the impact pathway methodology which traces the fate of each pollutant or other burden, from the source to the receptors, using dose-response functions to evaluate the damage. The present chapter describes the methodology and discusses key issues.
Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water below the current and proposed EPA MCL has been examined at room temperature. Experiments have been conducted to examine the extent of arsenic