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1

Use of Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms in Water Resources Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Engineering, and more specifically in water resources, the need of representation of complex natural phenomena through\\u000a models is of crucial importance for water resources planning and management. Through the use of these models, it is possible\\u000a to understand the natural processes and to evaluate the system response to different scenarios, providing support to the decision\\u000a making process. In this

Francisco Venícius Fernandes Barros; Eduardo Sávio Passos Rodrigues Martins; Luiz Sérgio Vasconcelos Nascimento; Dirceu Silveira Reis

2010-01-01

2

Remote sensing programs and courses in engineering and water resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The content of typical basic and advanced remote sensing and image interpretation courses are described and typical remote sensing graduate programs of study in civil engineering and in interdisciplinary environmental remote sensing and water resources management programs are outlined. Ideally, graduate programs with an emphasis on remote sensing and image interpretation should be built around a core of five courses: (1) a basic course in fundamentals of remote sensing upon which the more specialized advanced remote sensing courses can build; (2) a course dealing with visual image interpretation; (3) a course dealing with quantitative (computer-based) image interpretation; (4) a basic photogrammetry course; and (5) a basic surveying course. These five courses comprise up to one-half of the course work required for the M.S. degree. The nature of other course work and thesis requirements vary greatly, depending on the department in which the degree is being awarded.

Kiefer, R. W.

1981-01-01

3

Bridging Water Resources Policy and Environmental Engineering in the Classroom at Cornell University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current university undergraduate students in environmental sciences and engineering are the next generation of environmental protection practitioners. Recognizing this, Cornell's Biological and Environmental Engineering department has developed a popular class, Watershed Engineering (BEE 473), specifically designed to bridge the too-common gap between water resources policy and state-of-art science and technology. Weekly homework assignments are to design real-life solutions to actual water resources problems, often with the objective of applying storm water policies to local situations. Where appropriate, usually in conjunction with recent amendments to the Federal Clean Water Act, this course introduces water resource protection tools and concepts developed in the Cornell Soil and Water Lab. Here we present several examples of how we build bridges between university classrooms and the complex world of water resources policy.

Walter, M. T.; Shaw, S. B.; Seifert, S.; Schwarz, T.

2006-12-01

4

ERTS program of the US Army Corps of Engineers. [water resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Army Corps of Engineers research and development efforts associated with the ERTS Program are confined to applications of investigation, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of water resource projects. Problems investigated covered: (1) resource inventory; (2) environmental impact; (3) pollution monitoring; (4) water circulation; (5) sediment transport; (6) data collection systems; (7) engineering; and (8) model verification. These problem areas were investigated in relation to bays, reservoirs, lakes, rivers, coasts, and regions. ERTS-1 imagery has been extremely valuable in developing techniques and is now being used in everyday applications.

Jarman, J. W.

1974-01-01

5

A Survey of Indexing and Abstracting Services for Water Resources Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides a complete and up-to-date review of the abstracting and indexing services available in water resources engineering. Between 1955 and 1970 the number of services in this field increased from about 20 to 40. This exponential growth or doubling every 15 years suggests that by 1985 there will be 80 abstracting services in…

Wellisch, Hans (Hanan)

6

A computer-aided visualization tool for stochastic theory education in water resources engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose and demonstrate the proof-of-concept for a computer-aided visualization tool for stochastic theory education in water resources engineering. Using Java Native Interfacing, the tool can wrap a space-time stochastic model written in any computer language and also not require any specific language compiler during tool usage. This feature also allows the tool to be implemented very

Jonathan Schwenk; Faisal Hossain; David Huddleston

2009-01-01

7

Water resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of ERTS-1 imagery to the conservation and control of water resources is discussed. The effects of exisiting geology and land use in the water shed area on the hydrologic cycle and the general characteristics of runoff are described. The effects of floods, snowcover, and glaciers are analyzed. The use of ERTS-1 imagery to map surface water and wetland areas to provide rapid inventorying over large regions of water bodies is reported.

Salomonson, V. V.; Rango, A.

1973-01-01

8

Scientific Allocation of Water Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oriented for higher education students, researchers, practicing engineers and planners, this book surveys the state of the art of water resources engineering. A broad spectrum of issues is embraced in the treatment of water resources: quantity aspects as well as quality aspects within a systems approach. Using a rational mode for water resources

Buras, Nathan

9

Reformulation of Engineering Education at Undergraduate Level in the Faculdad de Ingenieria y Ciencias Hidricas Universidad Nacional del Litoral--Water Resources and Engineering Degrees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explains the educational changes in the Water Resources Engineering program offered by the Universidad Nacional del Litoral in Santa Fe, Argentina, for the last 20 years at the undergraduate level. The need for modernizing the engineering teaching program occurred due to changes in the social system in which the concepts of development…

Theiler, Julio; Isla, Miguel; Arrillaga, Hugo; Ceirano, Eduardo; Lozeco, Cristobal

10

An Integrated Database System at the National Level for Water Resource Engineers and Planners of Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses practical issues of developing and implementing an integrated database system that contains water resources data having both space and time varying characteristics. This database has been the National Databank for all the data sets relating water resources planning. The logical inter-dependencies between temporal and spatial data sets have been modelled exploiting RDBMS techniques, but with an unusual

S. M. Shah-newaz

2000-01-01

11

Sustainable Natural Resource Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Natural Resources figure centrally in the understanding of Sustainability and the Professional responsibility of engineers. A teaching approach is outlined that a) utilizes standard Engineering preparation in applied mathematics; b) applies it as a unifying theme across the natural resource field; c) embeds basic undergraduate exposure to ecological and economic concepts; and d) operates via desktop simulation tools accessible to all university students. The approach suggested is related to the new American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Body of Knowledge (BOK2) requirement of Sustainability.

Lynch, Daniel

2009-09-08

12

Postgraduate Programmes on Environmental Water Resources Engineering and Management in Greek Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The management of complex water problems is nowadays being practised through new ways and approaches. Therefore, water engineers, planners and managers should be appropriately educated through modern undergraduate curricula and by well-designed postgraduate specialisation programmes. Within this framework, a study of the specific characteristics…

Latinopoulos, Pericles; Angelidis, Panagiotis

2014-01-01

13

RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT AND MEASURES FOR RESOURCE-SAVING IN WATER LIFTING ENGINE SYSTEMS IN UZBEKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper observes the current state of water pumping stations in Uzbekistan. More than 50% of irrigated land is provided with machine water lifting systems in the country. However, more than 50% of pumping aggregates and constructions have used up their capacities that leads to high operational expenses of energy. The authors suggest develop energy- and resource saving technologies. As

OLEG GLOVATSKY; RUSTAM ERGASHEV; BAKHTIER URALOV; HOLMATZHAN ISAKOV

2010-01-01

14

System International d'Unites: Metric Measurement in Water Resources Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet gives definitions and symbols for the basic and derived metric units, prefixes, and conversion factors for units frequently used in water resources. Included are conversion factors for units of area, work, heat, power, pressure, viscosity, flow rate, and others. (BB)

Klingeman, Peter C.

15

Discrete-Time Optimal Control for Water Resources Engineering and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid population growth and a rising public awareness concerning environmental issues over the last few decades have caused a demand for improved performance in water resources management. These demands will likely grow and evolve into increasingly severe constraints for managers throughout the 21 century. Unfortunately, decision makers will be less able to rely on previous experiences in adapting to these

John W. Nicklow

2000-01-01

16

Resources on Engineering Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On this website, Dr. Richard M. Felder, the Hoechst Celanese Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineering at North Carolina State University, offers guidance, tips and resources for using techniques that he has found effective in teaching college level engineering courses. Numerous articles on learning styles, assessment, and instructional techniques are available here to download free of charge. Topics include active learning, cooperative learning and an Index of Learning Styles, which is "an on-line instrument used to assess preferences on four dimensions (active/reflective, sensing/intuitive, visual/verbal, and sequential/global) of a learning style model formulated by Richard M. Felder and Linda K. Silverman." Also posted here are some handouts for students with titles such as "How to Survive Engineering School" and "Tips on Test-Taking."

17

Water Resources Georgia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water Resources Georgia: From the USGS web site comes the Georgia Water Information Network (GWIN)which offers water information for thousands of surface-water, ground-water, and water-quality measurement sites in Georgia.

2008-05-28

18

Water Resource Adaptation Program  

EPA Science Inventory

The Water Resource Adaptation Program (WRAP) contributes to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (U.S. EPA) efforts to provide water resource managers and decision makers with the tools needed to adapt water resources to demographic and economic development, and future clim...

19

WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION - HOME PAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) conducts research to help prepare the primary and secondary regulations for drinking water and to develop technologies and strategies for controlling waterborne contaminants. The program integrates chemistry, engineering, micr...

20

An open-source software for interactive visualization using C++ and OpenGL: Applications to stochastic theory education in water resources engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to explain the design and implementation of an open-source engineering education software called Stochastic Theory Education through Visualization Environment (STEVE), version 2.0. In an earlier article, a proof-of-concept for a computer-aided visualization tool (also named STEVE, version 1.0) for stochastic theory education in water resources engineering was articulatedQ2 (see, Schwenk et al. Comput. Appl.

Robby Florence; Faisal Hossain; David Huddleston

2009-01-01

21

Developing Our Water Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Only very recently developed as a refined scientific discipline, hydrology has to cope with a complexity of problems concerning the present and future management of a vital natural resource, water. This article examines available water supplies and the problems and prospects of water resource development. (Author/MA)

Volker, Adriaan

1977-01-01

22

Water Resources Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water resources have been one of the most important areas of World Bank lending during the past three decades. Through its support for sector work and investments in irrigation, water supply, sanitation, flood control, and hydropower, the Bank has contrib...

K. W. Easter G. Feder G. Le Moigne A. M. Duda E. Forsyth

1993-01-01

23

Water Resources of Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S. Geological Survey website provides real-time streamflow, surface-water, ground-water, and water-quality data; information on water resource programs of Utah such as the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study; maps and graphs of current U.S. water resource conditions; and USGS - Utah reports. The site also features a drought watch section for Utah containing drought definitions and more streamflow conditions; a section on the Upper Arkansas River Basin Toxic-Substances Hydrology Project; and information on contamination in ground water at Fry Canyon, Utah.

24

NASA Water Resources Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. In addition to the numerous water availability issues, water quality related problems are seriously affecting human health and our environment. The potential crises and conflicts especially arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. and also in numerous parts of the world. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands and needs requires using existing water resources more efficiently. The NASA Water Resources Program Element works to use NASA products and technology to address these critical water issues. The primary goal of the Water Resources is to facilitate application of NASA Earth science products as a routine use in integrated water resources management for the sustainable use of water. This also includes the extreme events of drought and floods and the adaptation to the impacts from climate change. NASA satellite and Earth system observations of water and related data provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as precipitation, snow, soil moisture, water levels, land cover type, vegetation type, and health. NASA Water Resources Program works closely to use NASA and Earth science data with other U.S. government agencies, universities, and non-profit and private sector organizations both domestically and internationally. The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its projects under five functional themes. I) Streamflow and Flood Forecasting 2) Water Supply and Irrigation (includes evapotranspiration) 3) Drought 4) Water Quality 5) Climate and Water Resources. To maximize this activity NASA Water Resources Program works closely with other government agencies (e.g., the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA); the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), USAID, the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA)), universities, non-profit national and international organizations, and the private sector. The NASA Water Resources program currently is funding 21 active projects under the functional themes (http://wmp.gsfc.nasa.gov & http://science.nasa.gov/earth-science/applied-sciences/).

Toll, David L.

2011-01-01

25

Water Resources Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors can access information on a variety of water issues in Arizona, including the Colorado River, riparian areas, water conservation, water rights, and recreation. The Arizona Water Resources Research Center (WRRC) provides FAQâs, a stream gauge map and a directory of water-related agencies and organizations. Real-time temperature, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and humidity readouts are available via the new WRRC weather station. Other materials include news articles, research reports, presentations, and links to other water-related sites.

26

Water Resources of Wyoming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S Geological Survey (USGS) website contains water data including water quality samples and water use data, information on USGS projects, links to USGS educational sites, and a bibliography of USGS water resource publications. Projects and studies covered include: the Wyoming Drought Watch, which contains maps of daily streamflow conditions and historical streamflow data; algal-nutrient relations in the Yellowstone River; county water resource studies; estimating peak-streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites; the Integrating Aquatic Ecosystem Data project of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP); an aquifer; water-quality issues associated with irrigation drainage; watershed delineation; urban hydrology; and a pathogen indicator synoptic study.

27

Water Resources Penn.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water Resources Penn.: The Office of Water Management plans, directs and coordinates departmental programs associated with the management and protection of the CommonwealthÃÂs water resources; administers and oversees departmental programs involving surface and groundwater quantity and quality planning, and soil and water conservation; coordinates policies, procedures and regulations which influence public water supply withdrawals and quality, sewage facilities planning, point source municipal and industrial discharges, encroachments upon waterways and wetlands, dam safety, earth disturbance activities and control of storm water and nonpoint source pollution; and coordinates the planning, design and construction of flood protection and stream improvement projects.

2008-09-22

28

Water Resource Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal, published by the University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Science (IFAS) Extension, offers a selection of links to information about water management issues. There is a 'Beginner's Guide to Water Management', which provides a basic introduction to the terminology and concepts used in water management. Other links access information on management in coastal waters, the impact of climate change on water resources, the use of stormwater as an alternative supply, wastewater management, and many others.

29

GROW: A National Civil Engineering Education Resource Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Geotechnical, Rock & Water (GROW) Digital Library consists of geotechnical, rock & water engineering resources harvested from the web and elsewhere, and resources developed by the GROW team. The items developed by the GROW team focus on interactive educational resources for active learning that are "story-booked" to emphasize active learning and provide a learning experience.

Budhu, Muniram

2001-12-01

30

Water resources in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the limited data available, the components of the hydrologic cycle of which Nigeria's water resources form a part cannot be adequately quantified. However, some assessment of the water “reserves” of the surface and underground water sources indicate that there are large supplies that can be developed in Nigeria. The exploitation of Nigeria's water resources is in an early stage. Despite the progress that has been made in water supply development since the first waterworks in Nigeria was commissioned in Lagos in 1915, many Nigerians still have no access to a modern water supply. Water shortages exist periodically in almost every major town and are present in many rural areas of the country much of each year. New water laws are needed, as is the definition of the powers of the different water authorities, viz., the Federal Ministry of Water Resources, the River Basin Authorities, and the States' Water Boards. The goals of the water policy must be to make available enough good quality water for domestic uses and to exploit enough water for the use of rapidly growing industries and the year-round needs of agriculture, thereby lessening the adverse effect of the dry season.

Oteze, G. E.

1981-07-01

31

Water resources, summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of remote sensing products to the development and understanding of water resources problems is considered. Geology and hydrogeology, analysis of watersheds, snow and ice, prediction of runoff from snowmelt, hydrologic land use classifications, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, flood hazards, and water quality surveys are among the topics discussed. Suggestions for further use of remotely sensed data are given along with increased user requirements.

Simons, D. B.

1975-01-01

32

Lunar Water Resource Demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

Muscatello, Anthony C.

2008-01-01

33

Water Resources Data Utah, Water Year 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water-resources data for the year 2001 water year for Utah consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water.

D. E. Wilberg J. R. Tibbetts L. R. Herbert

2002-01-01

34

A Test of Proposed Procedures for Evaluation of Water and Related Land Resources Projects. A Special Study of the Poteau River Watershed Project Prepared by the Staffs of the Southwestern Division and Tulsa District Corps of Engineers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is the product of studies made by a Corps of Engineers Test Team, which was instituted to test proposed Water Resources Council evaluation procedures as outlined in 'Procedures for Evaluation of Water and Related Land Resource Projects'. An exi...

1970-01-01

35

Engineering and Technology Gateways and Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Engineering and Technology Gateways and Resources collection is comprised of web portals, web sites, and resources in many areas of engineering and technology, including mechanical, civil, chemical, electrical, industrial, environmental, and nuclear engineering; biotechnology and nanotechnology; chemical, environmental, manufacturing, and process technologies; and other areas. Here may be found materials for educators and learners (early childhood through graduate school), resources intended for the general public, and materials aimed at communities devoted to engineering and technology research and practice.

2008-03-14

36

Global Water Resource Issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world's water resources are coming under increasing stress, a stress that will become critical globally sometime during the next century. This is due to the rapidly rising population demanding more and more water and an increasing level of affluence. The book discusses the background to this issue and the measures to be taken over the next 20-30 years to overcome some of the difficulties that can be foreseen, and the means of avoiding others, such as the hazard of floods. It looks at the water resource and its assessment and management in an integrated fashion. It deals with the requirements of agriculture and of rural and urban societies and to a lesser extent with those of industry and power, against the background of the needs of the natural environment. It presents a number of ways and means of improving the management of national and international affairs involving fresh water. It highlights the importance of fresh water as a major issue for the environment and for development.

Young, Gordon J.; Dooge, James C. I.; Rodda, John C.

2004-01-01

37

PLANNED UTILIZATION OF WATER RESOURCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY California's semi-arid San Bernardino Valley, which relies heavily on ground water, is experiencing a rapid growth in the face of diminishing water resources. To avert critical water shortages in the future, the State of California is engaged in a massive effort (the California Water Project) which includes the redistribution of the state's water resources. However, mass redistribution (diverting Northern

M. L. FRANKEL

38

USGS Water Resources of Pennsylvania  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Resources of Pennsylvania provides information on current hydrologic conditions in Pennsylvania, including streamflow, ground-water, lake and reservoir, and drought conditions. There is also project information on water resources investigations and a watershed assistance program; USGS publications such as hydrologic data reports; maps and GIS data; and educational water science links.

39

California Department of Water Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the California Legislature in 1956, the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) was designed "to plan and guide" the development of the State's water resources. The site serves as an information hub covering recent news, state water projects, a listing of water conditions and reports, and monthly activity reports for the very curious. In addition to supplying general information on California's water resources, this site provides access to the CALFED Bay-Delta Program (CALFED), the California Data Exchange Center hydrologic data (CDEC), and the California Environmental Resources Evaluation System (CERES).

40

OFFICE OF WATER RESOURCE CENTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: The Resource Center provides support to the management of the Immediate Office, Office of Groundwater and Drinking Water, Office of Science and Technology, Office of Wastewater Management, and Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds. Support includes: ...

41

USGS Water Resources of Missouri  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Resources of Missouri contains real-time water data; USGS publications; information on the USGS in Missouri; and an education/outreach section. Hydrologic investigations include surface-water data and analysis, water-quality data and analysis, current studies and research, and hydrologic investigations of Kansas City. The data includes stage and streamflow data; ground water, surface water, water-quality and precipitation data; daily Missouri and national streamflow conditions maps; and current water resources conditions of Missouri.

42

Water Resources in North Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Water Resources Institute supported 35 research projects during the year covering topics such as algal blooms on the Chowan River, the effects of large-scale agricultural development, the quality of the planned B. Everett Jordan Reservoir, water conse...

1980-01-01

43

USGS Water Resources of Nebraska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Resources of Nebraska provides hydrologic information, real-time water data, publications on water resources and USGS projects of Nebraska, an outreach section, and a Water Jeopardy game and coloring book that can be ordered. Publications include: Republican River Basin Project; Areas of Gain and Loss Along the Platte River; Peak-Flow Frequency Relations and Evaluation of the Peak-Flow Gaging Network in Nebraska; and High Plains Aquifer reports.

44

Teach Engineering Resources for K-12  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introducing engineering into the K-12 classroom. K-12 classroom connects science and math concepts to the everyday engineering that surrounds us. This teacher resource, TeachEngineering.org, helps teachers enhance learning, excite students and stimulate interest in science and math through the use of hands-on engineering. The TeachEngineering digital library provides teacher-tested, standards-based engineering content for K-12 teachers engineering content for K12 teachers to use in science and math classrooms. Engineering lessons connect real-world experiences with curricular content already taught in K-12 classrooms. Mapped to educational content standards, TeachEngineering's comprehensive curricula are hands-on, inexpensive, and relevant to children's daily lives.

2012-07-12

45

Environmental Engineering and Water Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the fundamentals of environmental engineering as well as the global air, land and water quality concerns facing today's environmental engineers. After a lesson and activity to introduce environmental engineering, students learn more about water chemistry aspects of environmental engineering. Specifically, they focus on groundwater contamination and remediation, including sources of contamination, adverse health effects of contaminated drinking water, and current and new remediation techniques. Several lab activities provide hands-on experiences with topics relevant to environmental engineering concerns and technologies, including removal efficiencies of activated carbon in water filtration, measuring pH, chromatography as a physical separation method, density and miscibility.

GK-12 Program,

46

EAWAG: An Environmental Science and Engineering Resource.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviewed is the director of a Swiss research and teaching institute in the field of water resources, water pollution control, and waste management. Topics include lake studies, research programs and priorities, advisory services, and the organizational structure of EAWAG. (BT)

Miller, Stanton

1980-01-01

47

Sanitary engineering and water economy in Europe  

PubMed Central

The author deals with a wide variety of aspects of water economy and the development of water resources, relating them to the sanitary engineering problems they give rise to. Among those aspects are the balance between available resources and water needs for various purposes; accumulation and storage of surface and ground water, and methods of replenishing ground water supplies; pollution and purification; and organizational measures to deal with the urgent problems raised by the heavy demands on the world's water supply as a result of both increased population and the increased need for agricultural and industrial development. The author considers that at the national level over-all plans for developing the water economy of countries might well be drawn up by national water boards and that the economy of inter-State river basins should receive international study. In such work the United Nations and its specialized agencies might be of assistance.

Krul, W. F. J. M.

1957-01-01

48

Water, Society and the future of water resources research (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject of water and society is broad, but at heart is the study of water as a resource, essential to human activities, a vital input to food and energy production, the sustaining medium for ecosystems and yet also a destructive hazard. Society demands, withdraws, competes, uses and wastes the resource in dynamic counterpart. The science of water management emerges from this interface, a field at the nexus of engineering and geoscience, with substantial influence from economics and other social sciences. Within this purview are some of the most pressing environmental questions of our time, such as adaptation to climate change, direct and indirect connections between water and energy policy, the continuing dependence of agriculture on depletion of the world's aquifers, the conservation or preservation of ecosystems within increasingly human-influenced river systems, and food security and poverty reduction for the earth's poorest inhabitants. This presentation will present and support the hypothesis that water resources research is a scientific enterprise separate from, yet closely interrelated to, hydrologic science. We will explore the scientific basis of water resources research, review pressing research questions and opportunities, and propose an action plan for the advancement of the science of water management. Finally, the presentation will propose a Chapman Conference on Water and Society: The Future of Water Resources Research in the spring of 2015.

Brown, C. M.

2013-12-01

49

Water resources data, Arkansas, 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey Arkansas Water Science Center, in cooperation with State, Federal, and other local governmental agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Arkansas each year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable database for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. Water resources data reported for the 2004 water year for Arkansas consist of records of discharge and water quality (physical measurements and chemical concentrations) of streams, water quality of lakes, and ground-water levels and ground-water quality. Data from selected sites in Louisiana, Missouri, and Oklahoma also are included. This report contains daily discharge records for 104 surface-water gaging stations, 82 peak-discharge partial-record stations, 8 stage-only stations, water-quality data for 79 surface-water stations and 16 wells, and water levels for 47 observation wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements.

Brossett, T. H.; Schrader, T. P.; Evans, D. A.

2005-01-01

50

Water resources data, Louisiana, water year 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Louisiana consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 77 gaging stations; stage only for 86 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 60 surface-water stations (including 42 gaging stations) and 112 wells; and water levels for 304 observation wells. Also included are data for 158 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.

Baumann, Todd; Goree, B. B.; Lovelace, W. M.; Montogmery, P. A.; Resweber, J. C.; Ross, Garron B.; Ward, Aub N.; Walters, David J.

2005-01-01

51

Water Conservation Resource List.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

NJEA Review, 1981

1981-01-01

52

Water Resources Data - Wisconsin, Water Year 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for Wisconsin include records of streamflow at gaging stations, partialrecord stations, and miscellaneous sites, records of precipitation, and records of chemical, biological, and physical characteristics of surface water. In addition, water levels in observation wells are reported. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State and local agencies and other Federal agencies in Wisconsin.

Waschbusch, R. J.; Olson, D. L.; Ellefson, B. R.; Stark, P. A.

2004-01-01

53

Water Resources Data - Wisconsin, Water Year 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for Wisconsin include records of streamflow at gaging stations, partial record stations, and miscellaneous sites, records of precipitation, and records of chemical, biological, and physical characteristics of surface water. In addition, water levels in observation wells are reported. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State and local agencies and other Federal agencies in Wisconsin.

Waschbusch, R. J.; Olson, D. L.; Ellefson, B. R.; Stark P. A.

2003-01-01

54

Water resources data, Nebraska, water year 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Nebraska water resources data report for water year 2004 includes records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; water elevation and/or contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and quality of ground water in wells. This report contains records of stream stage for 3 stations; stream discharge for 101 continuous and 5 crest-stage gaging stations, and 6 miscellaneous sites; stream water quality for 7 gaging stations and 40 miscellaneous sites; water elevation and/or contents for 2 lakes and 1 reservoir; ground-water levels for 74 observation wells; and ground-water quality for 200 wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected in and near Nebraska by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies.

compiled by Hitch, D. E.; Soensken, P. J.; Sebree, S. K.; Wilson, K. E.; Walczyk, V. C.; Drudik, R. A.; Miller, J. D.; Hull, S. H.

2005-01-01

55

Water Resources Data, Nebraska, Water Year 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Nebraska water resources data report for water year 2003 includes records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; water elevation and/or contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and quality of ground water in wells. This report contains records of stream stage for 3 stations; stream discharge for 103 continuous and 5 crest-stage gaging stations, and 5 miscellaneous sites; stream water quality for 14 gaging stations and 5 miscellaneous sites; water elevation and/or contents for 2 lakes and 1 reservoir; ground-water levels for 40 observation wells; and ground-water quality for 132 wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected in and near Nebraska by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies.

Hitch, D. E.; Hull, S. H.; Walczyk, V. C.; Miller, J. D.; Drudik, R. A.

2004-01-01

56

Water resources data, Kansas, water year 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for Kansas consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; elevation and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels of ground-water wells. This report contains records for water discharge at 155 complete-record gaging stations; elevation and contents at 17 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality records at 2 precipitation stations, water-level data at 14 observation wells; and records of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity at 16 gaging stations and 2 lakes with water-quality monitors. Also included are discharge data for 29 high-flow partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Information System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with local, State, and Federal agencies in Kansas.

Putnam, J. E.; Schneider, D. R.

2005-01-01

57

Water Quality Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here are some resources about the Malad River to help you build your argument. You will likely need more information than is provided here, but this should get you started. Normal 0 7.8 ? 0 2 false false false EN-US ZH-CN X-NONE ...

River, Malad

2011-08-17

58

Scientific basis of water-resource management  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains 11 reports regarding water-resource management. Topics include: long-term and large-scale problems of water management, such as groundwater contamination due to toxic and nuclear-waste disposal; nonpoint sources of pollution on our stream systems; impacts of changes in both flow and water quality on the aquatic ecosystem; the frequency, duration, and impacts of droughts including long-term trends toward desertification; long-term hydrologic budgets for assessing the adequacy of regional or national water resources; global geochemical cycles such as the fate of nitrogen and sulfur; and protection of engineered systems against hydrologic extrema. These macroscale and long-term problems, involving large investments and the health and well-being of much of the world's population, demand increasingly precise and accurate predictive statements. Individual reports are indexed separately on the energy data base.

Not Available

1982-01-01

59

Glaciers: A water resource  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most Americans have never seen a glacier, and most would say that glaciers are rare features found only in inaccessible, isolated wilderness mountains. Are they really so rare? Or are they really potentially important sources of water supply?

Meier, Mark; Post, Austin

1995-01-01

60

Water Resources of Ouachita Parish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ouachita Parish, located in north-central Louisiana, contains fresh groundwater and surface-water resources. In 2005, about 152 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) were withdrawn from water sources in Ouachita Parish. About 84 percent (128 Mgal/d) was withdrawn from surface water, and 16 percent (24 Mgal/d) was withdrawn from groundwater. Power generation (87 Mgal/d) accounted for 58 percent of the total water withdrawn. Withdrawals for other uses included public supply (22 Mgal/d), industrial (24 Mgal/d), and irrigation (18 Mgal/d). This fact sheet summarizes basic information on the water resources of Ouachita Parish, La. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports.

Tomaszewski, Dan J.; Lovelace, John K.; Griffith, Jason M.

2009-01-01

61

Virtual water trade and world water resources.  

PubMed

Global virtual water trade was quantitatively estimated and evaluated. The basic idea of how to estimate unit requirement of water resources to produce each commodity is introduced and values for major agricultural and stock products are presented. The concept of virtual water and the quantitative estimates can help in assessing a more realistic water scarcity index in each country, projecting future water demand for food supply, increasing public awareness on water, and identifying the processes wasting water in the production. Really required water in exporting countries is generally smaller than virtually required water in importing countries, reflecting the comparative advantage of water use efficiency, and it is estimated to be 680 km3/y for 2000. On the contrary the virtually required water for the same year is estimated to be 1,130 km3/y, and the difference of 450 km3/y is virtually saved by global trade. However, solely virtual water should not be used for any decision making since the idea of virtual water implies only the usage and influence of water and no concerns on social, cultural, and environmental implications. Virtual water trade also does not consider other limiting factors than water. PMID:15195440

Oki, T; Kanae, S

2004-01-01

62

Human Resources as Engineering Design Criteria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report summarizes the results of a number of studies which have been performed in an attempt to develop a technology for using human resources data as criteria in engineering design studies. Eight investigations conducted during the period 1966-1975 are briefly described. The results of the eight studies are integrated around six topics of:…

Askren, William B.

63

An online teaching resource for acoustical engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In producing online teaching resources for acoustical engineering students, an applet shell is a fast and effective choice in order to produce a wide range of programs. This online material is not intended as a substitute for traditional classes, the applets can act as supplementary material to help strengthen a student's understanding of the subject area. The online format of

Andrew Hore; Brian J. Stone

64

Water resources, geography, and law  

SciTech Connect

Geographers have paid too little attention to law as a guiding element in many facets of natural resource use and landscape evolution. This book illustrates how the law interacts with natural and cultural processes related to water resources, and demonstrates the value of paying attention to legal dimensions. The chapters summarize water law in three areas of geographical interest: public use, allocation of rights, and boundary changes. Separate abstracts were prepared for two chapters selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).

Matthews, O.P.

1984-01-01

65

Water Resources Data, Mississippi, Water Year 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Mississippi consist of records of surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 91 streamflow-gaging stations, stage records for 22 of these gaging stations, discharge records for 91 partial-record stations or miscellaneous streamflow sites, including 13 flood hydrograph partial-record stations, 78 crest-stage partial-record stations, and 0 special study and miscellaneous sites; (2) stage only at 9 gaging stations; (3) water-quality records for 13 streamflow-gaging stations, 7 stage-only stations, and 3 water-quality monitor stations, 0 partial-record stations or miscellaneous sites, 97 short-term study sites, and 39 wells; and (4) water-level records for 18 observation wells. Records obtained from water-resources investigations are also included in special sections of the report. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in Mississippi.

Morris, F., III; Turnipseed, D. P.; Storm, J. B.

2003-01-01

66

Canadian Education And Research For Water Resources Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responsibility for water resources is shared between the federal and provincial governments. Education is primarily a provincial responsibility, but the federal government does provide financial support to colleges and universities and is a major source of research funds for the Universities.Training for water technicians is provided at community colleges. In universities, education programs oriented to water are available in engineering,

E. A. McBean; B. Mitchell; G. Mulamoottil

1987-01-01

67

Water resources of Vernon Parish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2005, about 6.67 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water were withdrawn in Vernon Parish, Louisiana, including about 6.46 Mgal/d from groundwater sources and 0.21 Mgal/d from surface-water sources. Public-supply use accounted for about 76 percent (5.06 Mgal/d) of the total water withdrawn. Other categories of use included rural domestic, livestock, general irrigation, and aquaculture. Based on water-use data collected at 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2005, water withdrawals in the parish peaked in 1990 at about 10.4 Mgal/d. This fact sheet summarizes basic information on the water resources of Vernon Parish, La. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the Selected References section.

Prakken, Lawrence B.; Griffith, Jason M.; Fendick, Robert B., Jr.

2012-01-01

68

Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is part of RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction). RESOLVE is an ISRU ground demonstration: (1) A rover to explore a permanently shadowed crater at the south or north pole of the Moon (2) Drill core samples down to 1 meter (3) Heat the core samples to 150C (4) Analyze gases and capture water and/or hydrogen evolved (5) Use hydrogen reduction to extract oxygen from regolith

Muscatello, Anthony C.

2009-01-01

69

USGS Water Resources of North Carolina  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Resources of North Carolina provides water data, maps and graphs of current water resource conditions, information on research and scientific activities, and USGS publications. The water data includes surface water, real time, current streamflow, ground water, water quality, and precipitation data. There is also flood and drought information.

70

Water Resources of Ascension Parish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ascension Parish, located along the banks of the Mississippi River in south-central Louisiana, contains fresh groundwater and surface-water resources. In 2005, about 202 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) were withdrawn from water sources in Ascension Parish. About 94 percent (190 Mgal/d) was withdrawn from surface water, and 6 percent (12 Mgal/d) was withdrawn from groundwater. Additional water is supplied to Ascension Parish for public-supply use from East Baton Rouge Parish. Withdrawals for industrial use accounted for 95 percent (192 Mgal/d) of the total water withdrawn. Withdrawals for other uses included public-supply (4 Mgal/d), rural-domestic (3 Mgal/d), and aquaculture (3 Mgal/d). Water withdrawals in the parish generally increased from 1960 to 1995 and decreased from 1995 to 2005. This fact sheet summarizes basic information on the water resources of Ascension Parish, La. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the references section.

Griffith, J. M.; Fendick, R. B.

2009-01-01

71

Water Resources Research supports water economics submissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGU's international interdisciplinary journal Water Resources Research (WRR) publishes original contributions in hydrology; the physical, chemical, and biological sciences; and the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. With the rising relevance of water economics and related social sciences, the editors of WRR continue to encourage submissions on economics and policy. WRR was originally founded in the mid 1960s by Walter Langbein and economist Allen Kneese. Several former WRR editors have been economists—including David Brookshire, Ron Cummings, and Chuck Howe—and many landmark articles in water economics have been published in WRR.

Griffin, Ronald C.

2012-09-01

72

New England's Ground Water Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides a detailed description of the ground water system in New England. Although it was written specifically for New England, most or all of it applies to other parts of the country also. The liberal use of diagrams helps to explain terms such as saturated and unsaturated zones, bedrock, water table, and zones of aeration and contribution. Types of aquifers are discussed as to their porosity, permeability and hydraulic conductivity. They include bedrock, soil, stratified drift, superficial deposits, unconsolidated materials, and confined aquifers along with discharge and recharge areas. There is also an explanation of a water budget including precipitation, evapotranspiration, infiltration and runoff.

73

Water Resources of Lafayette Parish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fresh groundwater and surface water resources are available in Lafayette Parish, which is located in south-central Louisiana. In 2005, more than 47 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) were withdrawn from water sources in Lafayette Parish. About 92 percent (43.7 Mgal/d) of withdrawals was groundwater, and 8 percent (3.6 Mgal/d) was surface water. Public-supply withdrawals accounted for nearly 49 percent (23 Mgal/d) of the total groundwater use, with the cities of Lafayette and Carencro using about 21 Mgal/d. Withdrawals for other uses included about 10.4 Mgal/d for rice irrigation and about 8.4 Mgal/d for aquaculture. Water withdrawals in Lafayette Parish increased from 33 Mgal/d in 1995 to about 47 Mgal/d in 2005. This fact sheet summarizes information on the water resources of Lafayette Parish, La. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the references section.

Fendick, Robert B. Jr.; Griffith, Jason M.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

2011-01-01

74

Water Resources of Caddo Parish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2005, about 72.9 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water were withdrawn in Caddo Parish, Louisiana, including about 7.70 Mgal/d from groundwater sources and 65.2 Mgal/d from surface-water sources. Public-supply use accounted for about 71 percent, and power generation accounted for about 19 percent of the total water withdrawn. Other categories of use included general irrigation, rural domestic, aquaculture, livestock, and industrial. Water-use data collected at 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2005 indicate water withdrawals in the parish peaked in 1965 and generally decreased afterwards, primarily because of reduced surface-water withdrawals for power generation. From 1965 to 2005, surface-water withdrawals for power generation declined from 419 to 14.2 Mgal/d. This fact sheet summarizes basic information on the water resources of Caddo Parish, La. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the references section.

Prakken, Lawrence B.; Griffith, Jason M.

2011-01-01

75

Water Resources Division training catalog  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Training Center provides technical and management sessions nesessary for the conductance of the U.S. Geological Survey 's training programs. This catalog describes the facilities and staff at the Lakewood Training Center and describes Water Resources Division training courses available through the center. In addition, the catalog describes the procedures for gaining admission, formulas for calculating fees, and discussion of course evaluations. (USGS)

Hotchkiss, W. R.; Foxhoven, L. A.

1984-01-01

76

USGS Water Resources of Georgia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Resources of Georgia contains a map of current streamflow conditions; Georgia HydroWatch, a portal to hydrologic data and related information for Georgia; a listing of projects being conducted by the USGS in Georgia; and publications such as abstracts and full reports for USGS projects in Georgia. The water data includes flood-frequency information, low-flow frequency statistics, a drought watch, information on the Chattahoochee BacteriALERT program, and a Flint River Flood tracking chart.

77

Water resources of Allen Parish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2005, approximately 29.2 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water were withdrawn in Allen Parish, Louisiana, including about 26.8 Mgal/d from groundwater sources and 2.45 Mgal/d from surface-water sources. Rice irrigation accounted for 74 percent (21.7 Mgal/d) of the total water withdrawn. Other categories of use included public supply, industrial, rural domestic, livestock, general irrigation, and aquaculture. Water-use data collected at 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2005 indicate water withdrawals in the parish were greatest in 1960 (119 Mgal/d) and 1980 (98.7 Mgal/d). The substantial decrease in surface-water use between 1960 and 1965 is primarily attributable to rice-irrigation withdrawals declining from 61.2 to 6.74 Mgal/d. This fact sheet summarizes information on the water resources of Allen Parish, La. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the Selected References section.

Prakken, Lawrence B.; Griffith, Jason M.; Fendick, Robert B., Jr.

2012-01-01

78

Water resources in the Japanese Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to its limited land area and limited range of natural resources (particularly fuel), Japan has developed a highly efficient economy in terms of resource utilization. This also applies to water resources. For sustainable use of water resources in the Japanese Islands, integrated and unified analyses of the data of groundwater by the nation and local governments have been needed.

T. Takagi

2005-01-01

79

Florida Water Resources Law. A Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, containing 290 abstracts, is another in a series of planned bibliographies in water resources produced from the information base comprising Selected Water Resources Abstracts (SWRA). At the time of search for this bibliography, the data base ...

R. H. Lasris

1977-01-01

80

Water Resources of Beauregard Parish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2005, about 30.6 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water was withdrawn in Beauregard Parish, Louisiana, including about 30.4 Mgal/d from groundwater sources and 0.1 Mgal/d from surface water sources. Industrial use, primarily for wood products, accounted for about 72 percent (22.0 Mgal/d) of the total water withdrawn. Other categories of use included public supply, rural domestic, livestock, rice irrigation, general irrigation, and aquaculture. Water-use data collected at 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2005 indicate water withdrawals in the parish peaked at about 43.5 Mgal/d in 1985. The large increase in groundwater usage from 1970 to 1975 was primarily due to industrial withdrawals, which increased from 3.64 Mgl/d in 1970 to 29.0 Mgal/d in 1975. This fact sheet summarizes information on the water resources of Beauregard Parish, La. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the Selected References section.

Prakken, Lawrence B.; Griffith, Jason M.; Fendick, Robert B., Jr.

2012-01-01

81

Nigerian Water Resources and Their Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nigeria had no real water resources development management programme until 1976 when twelve River Basin Development Authorities (RBDA) were established and charged with functions that covered all the facets in the resources development, utilisation and conservation. Her immense natural water resources are evident in annual heavy rainfall, numerous large rivers and great ground water reserves. Many government agencies and mining

G. U. Ojiako

1985-01-01

82

Water resources information systems for regional planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water resources information system is an important tool for regional planning of natural resources and, more specifically, for the identification, selection, implementation and evaluation of projects. It should include data on the availability and accessibility of water, on its utilization by human beings and economic activities, and on the organization of water resources management. Main components of such an

Rob Koudstaal; Lawrence M. Nyongesa

83

OVERVIEW OF USEPA'S WATER SUPPLY & WATER RESOURCES DIVISION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) conducts a wide range of research on regulated and unregulated contaminants in drinking water, water distribution systems, homeland security, source water protection, and...

84

Water resources in unified accounting for natural resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to incorporate the water resources into the unified resources accounting based on scientific objectivity so as to present a brief portrait of the significance of water for the resource conversion and management of the national-scale society in a systems ecological perspective. The water resources in sustaining the human society are incorporated into the total exergy budget and national-scale social exergy accounting framework, not only by accounting the conventionally usable water flowing through society regarding seawater as reference environment, but also by introducing the evaporation exergy of freshwater as essential investment from the hydrological cycle. A case study of the Chinese society 2001-2005 is conducted, with the societal system broken down into seven sectors, i.e., extraction, conversion, agriculture, industry, transportation, tertiary and households sectors, to explore the resource utilization structure based on the proposed accounting method. Typical results for China 2005 showed that the total net input of the societal conventional resource exergy was 87.9 EJ, of which 75.4 EJ was from mineral resources and 22.6 EJ from other resources, while the water resource exergy input amounted to 105.1 EJ, which contributed 54.5% of the total resources exergy investment to the total society. Finally, the exergetic resource use intensities (RUIs) for six sectors were calculated, with the results that RUIs of agriculture and conversion sectors are much higher than those derived from conventional resource accounting.

Cai, Z. F.; Yang, Q.; Zhang, B.; Chen, H.; Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.

2009-09-01

85

NASA Earth Resources Survey Symposium. Volume 1-D: Water resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conference papers on water resources and management are summarized. Summaries cover land use, flood control and prediction, watersheds and the effects of snow melt, soil moisture content, and the usefulness of satellite remote sensors in detecting ground and surface water.

1975-01-01

86

18 CFR 701.76 - The Water Resources Council Staff.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The Water Resources Council Staff. 701.76 Section 701.76 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL...

2014-04-01

87

Contamination of water resources by pathogenic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Water-borne pathogen contamination in water resources and related diseases are a major water quality concern throughout the world. Increasing interest in controlling water-borne pathogens in water resources evidenced by a large number of recent publications clearly attests to the need for studies that synthesize knowledge from multiple fields covering comparative aspects of pathogen contamination, and unify them in a single place in order to present and address the problem as a whole. Providing a broader perceptive of pathogen contamination in freshwater (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, groundwater) and saline water (estuaries and coastal waters) resources, this review paper attempts to develop the first comprehensive single source of existing information on pathogen contamination in multiple types of water resources. In addition, a comprehensive discussion describes the challenges associated with using indicator organisms. Potential impacts of water resources development on pathogen contamination as well as challenges that lie ahead for addressing pathogen contamination are also discussed.

2014-01-01

88

Slowflow Signatures of Sustainable Water Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land transformation changes the sustainability of water resources by (a) altering the vegetation, impervious landcover, and drainage of the land surface hydrology system; (b) increasing withdrawals from surface and groundwater systems to support human water use; and (c) re-engineering the water budget through water and wastewater infrastructure that conveys interbasin water transfers and modifies both recharge and subsurface drainage. Slowflow derived from observed streamflow integrates watershed-scale hydrologic forcings and cumulative landscape changes. Multiple slowflow indices derived from USGS streamflow records are used to frame an endpoint mixing model of dominant hydrologic processes and human hydrologic alteration. Multimetric slowflow fingerprints can support more refined process-based inferences, distinguishing, e.g., changes in hydrologic response - (runoff and recharge) from changes in hydraulic response (effective aquifer drainage) in regional streamflow analysis. Examples drawn from USGS streamflow records along the urban-rural landuse gradient in the watersheds of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (an NSF Urban Long Term Ecological Research site in the Baltimore Metropolitan area) and piedmont Hydroclimatic Data Network (HCDN) basins in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, are used to illustrate multimetric fingerprinting of slowflow response. Within the inherent limits of equifinality in observed streamflow response, multimetric slowflow analysis can refine the signature and attribution of hydroclimatic variability and human hydrologic alteration inferred from regional streamflow information.

Schwartz, S. S.; Smith, B.

2012-12-01

89

Multi-National Collaborative Modeling of Water Dependent Resources in the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A team of scientists and engineers from the Iraq Ministry of Water Resources, the Iraq Transition Assistance Office of the U.S. Department of State, UNESCO, and Sandia National Laboratories collaborated to build a systems model of Iraqi water resources and related systems, including transboundary water systems, surface water and reservoirs, agriculture, salinity, municipal and industrial uses, and issues related to

H. Passell; J. D. Roach; M. D. Reno; G. T. Klise; V. C. Tidwell

2010-01-01

90

Water Resources Information Systems for Regional Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A water resources information system is an important tool for regional planning of natural resources and, more specifically, for the identification, selection, implementation and evaluation of projects. It should include data on the availability and acces...

J. P. van der Linden R. Koudstaal L. M. Nyongesa

1989-01-01

91

Water Resources of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage for the Water Resources Division of the United States Geological Survey. It offers links to a variety of issues concerning water resources. The main links include: news, features, water data, publications and products, technical resources, programs, local information, and contacts. Also featured are links to other divisions within the United States Geological Survey, and FirstGov, a clearinghouse for all branches of the federal government.

92

Water Resources Data for Alaska, Water Year 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Alaska consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stages of lakes; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. The volume contains records for water discharge at 82 ...

R. D. Lamke R. T. Kemnitz M. R. Carr D. S. Thomas K. M. Novcaski

1992-01-01

93

Water Resources Data for Alaska, Water Year 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water resources data for the 1990 water year for Alaska consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage of lakes; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. The volume contains records for water discharge at 85 g...

R. D. Lamke B. B. Bigelow J. L. VanMaanen R. T. Kemnitz K. M. Novcaski

1991-01-01

94

Water Resources Data for Alaska, Water Year 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water resources data for the 1992 water year for Alaska consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stages of lakes; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. The volume contains records for water discharge at 10...

R. T. Kemnitz K. M. Novcaski R. L. Rickman W. C. Swanner K. R. Linn

1993-01-01

95

Water Resources Data for Alaska, Water Year 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water resources data for the 1993 water year for Alaska consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stages of lakes; and water levels and water quality of ground water wells. This volume contains records for water discharge at 9...

K. R. Linn R. T. Kemnitz B. J. Bailey R. L. Rickman W. C. Swanner

1994-01-01

96

Water Resources Data for Kansas, Water Year 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water-resources data for the 1993 water year for Kansas consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; elevation, contents, and water quality of lakes or reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This rep...

C. O. Geiger D. L. Lacock D. R. Schneider M. D. Carlson B. J. Dague

1994-01-01

97

Water Resources and Supply Adaptation: A paradigm Shifting for Future Climate?  

EPA Science Inventory

Climate change adds another layer of complexity in planning, engineering and management of water resources and urban water infrastructures. Yet our current practice is confined to the traditional approach that evaluates developmental scenarios and their sustainability mostly by a...

98

Water-Resources Manpower: Supply and Demand Patterns to 1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relating the supply of scientific manpower to the educational potential of the general population and the productive capacity of the educational system, this study disaggregates independent projections of scientific manpower supply and demand to yield projections for water resources manpower. This supply of engineers, natural scientists, and…

Lewis, James E.

99

Risk-Based Decision Support of Water Resource Management Alternatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a risk-based decision support system for designing and managing large-scale water resource projects. A model is presented that combines a new risk assessment methodology with traditional decision-making tools to enable systems engine...

P. D. West T. E. Trainor

2006-01-01

100

Morristown National Historical Park Water Resources Scoping Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water resource inventory and monitoring activities are integral components of resource management at Morristown National Historical Park. The Water Resources Scoping Report assists park management by: (1) providing an overview of existing water resource i...

1993-01-01

101

California State Water Resources Control Board  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From this website one can link to laws and regulations related to water and water issues in California, as well as to the state's nine regional control boards. Topics covered include water education, water quality and water rights, as well as various programs such as blue-green algae, environmental justice, irrigated agriculture, septic, and storm water, among others. This website is a good source of California-based policy on water resource issues.

Board, State W.; California, State O.

102

Water Resources, Development and Management Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world's food production depends on the availability of water, a precious but finite resource. Users can learn about the need for more efficient usage of water for irrigation, and about the activities of the Water Resources Development and Management Service, which is concerned with sustainable use and conservation of water in agriculture. Links to other sites related to irrigation practices and food production are also provided.

2004-05-10

103

Water Resources, Development and Management Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world\\'s food production depends on the availability of water, a precious but finite resource. Users can learn about the need for more efficient usage of water for irrigation, and about the activities of the Water Resources Development and Management Service, which is concerned with sustainable use and conservation of water in agriculture. Links to other sites related to irrigation practices and food production are also provided.

2007-02-10

104

Water Resources Data for New Mexico, Water Year 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water resources data for the 1978 water year for New Mexico consist of records of discharge and water quality of streams; stage, contents and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells and springs. This report conta...

1979-01-01

105

Water Resources Data for Wyoming, Water Year 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water resources data for the 1984 water year for Wyoming consists of records of stage, discharge and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains discharge r...

S. A. Druse S. J. Rucker

1985-01-01

106

International cooperation in water resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Advancements in hydrology proceeded slowly until the late 1800's when new ventures created a surge of interest and accomplishment. Progress waned again until the middle 20th century when an International Hydrological Decade was conceived, eventually receiving wide multinational support from governmental agencies and nongovernmental institutions. Organized by UNESCO, the Decade program was launched January 1, 1965. Participation included 107 nations, six United Nations agencies, and more than a dozen international scientific organizations. The initial program emphasized scientific research, and international cooperation; the second half of the Decade, emphasized technical assistance and technology transfer, largerly through education, training and demonstration. The success of the Decade led to the establishment of the International Hydrological Program, again under the aegis of UNESCO, to continue the work of the Decade indefinitely. The five major program activities, now involving about 90 countries and several international organizations, include: the scientific program, the promotion of education and training, the enhancement of information exchange, support of technical assistance, and the enlargement of regional cooperation. A significant amount of activity related to hydrological data networks and forecasting is carried on in an Operational Hydrology Programme by the WMO, chiefly through its Commission for Hydrology. Other international governmental organizations with a strong interest in water include the UN, the UN Development Programme, the FAO, the WHO, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the UN Environment Programme, the International Standardization Organization, and developmental institutions such as the World Bank. The specialized interests of researchers outside of the governmental structure, are met through association in various scientific and technical organizations which are world wide in scope and membership. Notwithstanding a sometimes bewildering variety of organizations, there certainly exists, for any nation, group, or individual, a demonstrated mechanism for almost any conceivable form of international cooperation in hydrology and water resources. ?? 1979 Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft.

Jones, J. R.; Beall, R. M.; Giusti, E. V.

1979-01-01

107

Overview of the Environmental and Water Resources Institute's "Guidelines For Integrated Water Resources Management" Project  

SciTech Connect

Integrated Water Resources Management is a systematic approach to optimizing our understanding, control and management of water resources within a basin to meet multiple objectives. Recognition of the need for integrating water resources within basins is not unique to the Environmental and Water Resources Institute’s Integrated Water Resources Management Task Committee. Many individuals, governments and other organizations have attempted to develop holistic water resources management programs. In some cases, the results have been very effective and in other cases, valiant attempts have fallen far short of their initial goals. The intent of this Task Committee is to provide a set of guidelines that discusses the concepts, methods and tools necessary for integrating and optimizing the management of the physical resources and to optimize and integrate programs, organizations, infrastructure, and socioeconomic institutions into comprehensive water resources management programs.

Gerald Sehlke

2005-03-01

108

How predictable are water resources?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peter Mason, technical director of international dams and hydropower at MWH, explains how some water resources might be more predictable than generally supposed. Some years ago the writer examined the levels of Lake Victoria in east Africa as part of a major refurbishment project. This revealed a clear cyclic behavior in lake level and hence in discharges from the lake down the Nile system and up into Egypt. A recent study by the writer demonstrated that 20-year mean flows in the Kafue River in Zambia corresponded well to reconstructed rainfall records based on regional tree ring records. The Rio Parana has a catchment area of 3,100,000km 2 and a mean stream flow of 21,300m 3/sec. In the wider context an improved understanding of apparent periodicities in the natural record would seem to offer at least one planning scenario to be considered in terms of investment and even for the long term planning of aid and famine relief.

Mason, P.

2010-10-01

109

Environmental Indicators for Water Resources Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is a vital substance, essential for most life processes and as a liquid flow resource is the connector of all components\\u000a of ecological and life systems. It is the environmental integrator. As a resource, water is both a natural component of nature\\u000a and a commodity, or resource, that may be used by people for the benefit of society. This

Elisa Ulazzi

110

Central Valley Water Resource Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is growing concern over water quality in the Central Valley of California, particularly in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Federal actions on both water quality standards and water project development are of major significance in future water mana...

1970-01-01

111

Water resources of Duval County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The report describes the hydrology and water resources of Duval County, the development of its water supplies, and water use within the county. Also included are descriptions of various natural features of the county (such as topography and geology), an explanation of the hydrologic cycle, and an interpretation of the relationship between them. Ground-water and surface-water resources and principal water-quality features within the county are also discussed. The report is intended to provide the general public with an overview of the water resources Of Duval County, and to increase public awareness of water issues. Information is presented in nontechnical language to enable the general reader to understand facts about water as a part of nature, and the problems associated with its development and use.

Phelps, G. G.

1994-01-01

112

Water Resources Availability in Kabul, Afghanistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of water resources is vital to the rebuilding of Kabul, Afghanistan. In recent years, droughts and increased water use for drinking water and agriculture have resulted in widespread drying of wells. Increasing numbers of returning refugees, rapid population growth, and potential climate change have led to heightened concerns for future water availability. The U.S. Geological Survey, with support

A. M. Akbari; M. P. Chornack; T. B. Coplen; D. G. Emerson; D. W. Litke; T. J. Mack; N. Plummer; J. P. Verdin; I. M. Verstraeten

2008-01-01

113

Water Resources Data for Kentucky, Water Year 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water resources data for the 1976 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes; and water levels and water quality of wells and springs. This report contains discharge records fo...

1977-01-01

114

Water Resources Data for Kentucky, Water Year 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water resources data for the 1979 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes; and water levels and water quality of wells and springs. This report contains discharge records fr...

1980-01-01

115

Water Resources Data for Maine, Water Year 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water-resources data for the 1994 water year for Maine consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; water levels of ground-water wells; and precipitation amounts at selected sites. This...

J. P. Nielsen W. B. Higgins R. G. Lippert

1995-01-01

116

Water Resources Data--Nebraska, Water Year 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State and local agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Nebraska each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series entitled ?Water Resources Data - Nebraska.' The Nebraska water resources data report for water year 2002 includes records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and/or contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and quality of ground water in wells. This report contains records of stream stage for 3 stations; stream discharge for 96 continuous and 5 crest-state gaging stations, and 3 miscellaneous and 55 low-flow sites; stream water quality for 23 gaging stations and 5 miscellaneous sites; water elevation and/or contents for 1 lake and 1 reservoir; ground-water levels for 43 observation wells; and ground-water quality for 115 wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected in and near Nebraska by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state and Federal agencies.

Hitch, D. E.; Hull, S. H.; Walczyk, V. C.

2002-01-01

117

Advancing Cyberinfrastructure to support high resolution water resources modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Addressing the problem of how the availability and quality of water resources at large scales are sensitive to climate variability, watershed alterations and management activities requires computational resources that combine data from multiple sources and support integrated modeling. Related cyberinfrastructure challenges include: 1) how can we best structure data and computer models to address this scientific problem through the use of high-performance and data-intensive computing, and 2) how can we do this in a way that discipline scientists without extensive computational and algorithmic knowledge and experience can take advantage of advances in cyberinfrastructure? This presentation will describe a new system called CI-WATER that is being developed to address these challenges and advance high resolution water resources modeling in the Western U.S. We are building on existing tools that enable collaboration to develop model and data interfaces that link integrated system models running within an HPC environment to multiple data sources. Our goal is to enhance the use of computational simulation and data-intensive modeling to better understand water resources. Addressing water resource problems in the Western U.S. requires simulation of natural and engineered systems, as well as representation of legal (water rights) and institutional constraints alongside the representation of physical processes. We are establishing data services to represent the engineered infrastructure and legal and institutional systems in a way that they can be used with high resolution multi-physics watershed modeling at high spatial resolution. These services will enable incorporation of location-specific information on water management infrastructure and systems into the assessment of regional water availability in the face of growing demands, uncertain future meteorological forcings, and existing prior-appropriations water rights. This presentation will discuss the informatics challenges involved with data management and easy-to-use access to high performance computing being tackled in this project.

Tarboton, D. G.; Ogden, F. L.; Jones, N.; Horsburgh, J. S.

2012-12-01

118

Assessing Water and Carbon Footprints for Sustainable Water Resource Management  

EPA Science Inventory

The key points of this presentation are: (1) Water footprint and carbon footprint as two sustainability attributes in adaptations to climate and socioeconomic changes, (2) Necessary to evaluate carbon and water footprints relative to constraints in resource capacity, (3) Critical...

119

Environmental geophysics mapping salinity and water resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinity and fresh water are two sides of the same coin, most conveniently measured by electrical conductivity; they can now be mapped rapidly in three dimensions using airborne electromagnetics (AEM). Recent developments in the calibration of airborne data against in-field measurements and additional information from radiometrics, magnetics and digital elevation models lend new insights into salinity, groundwater flow systems and water resources. Freshwater resources can be mapped, and salinity risk and the outcome of management interventions may be forecast, on the basis of the specific architecture of complete groundwater flow systems-enabling practical, cost-effective protection and development of water resources.

Dent, David

2007-05-01

120

KE Basin water dispositioning engineering study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This engineering study is a feasibility study of KE Basin water treatment to an acceptable level and dispositioning the treated water to Columbia River, ground through ETF or to air through evaporation.

G. S. Hunacek; S. S. Gahir

1994-01-01

121

Managing water resources for crop production  

PubMed Central

Increasing crop production to meet the food requirements of the world's growing population will put great pressure on global water resources. Given that the vast freshwater resources that are available in the world are far from fully exploited, globally there should be sufficient water for future agricultural requirements. However, there are large areas where low water supply and high human demand may lead to regional shortages of water for future food production. In these arid and semi-arid areas, where water is a major constraint on production, improving water resource management is crucial if Malthusian disasters are to be avoided. There is considerable scope for improvement, since in both dryland and irrigated agriculture only about one-third of the available water (as rainfall, surface, or groundwater) is used to grow useful plants. This paper illustrates a range of techniques that could lead to increased crop production by improving agricultural water use efficiency. This may be achieved by increasing the total amount of water available to plants or by increasing the efficiency with which that water is used to produce biomass. Although the crash from the Malthusian precipice may ultimately be inevitable if population growth is not addressed, the time taken to reach the edge of the precipice could be lengthened by more efficient use of existing water resources.

Wallace, J. S.; Batchelor, C. H.

1997-01-01

122

A DEMONSTRATION OF AREAWIDE WATER RESOURCES PLANNING. USERS MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents a demonstration of areawide water resources planning by the Metropolitan Washington, DC. Council of Governments (MWCOG). The MWCOG Framework Water Resources Planning Model is a comprehensive analytical tool for use in areawide water resources management plan...

123

30 CFR 402.6 - Water-Resources Research Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water-Resources Research Program. 402.6 Section...GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE WATER-RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM...

2013-07-01

124

30 CFR 402.6 - Water-Resources Research Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water-Resources Research Program. 402.6 Section...GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE WATER-RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM...

2011-07-01

125

30 CFR 402.6 - Water-Resources Research Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water-Resources Research Program. 402.6 Section...GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE WATER-RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM...

2012-07-01

126

Identification of Publics in Water Resources Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The state-of-the-art of identifying publics for water resources studies was surveyed. Identification of appropriate audience segments includes location these publics, determining their interests and their social and demographic characteristics, and establ...

G. E. Willeke

1974-01-01

127

Digital Resource Package for Teaching Water Quality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This digital resource package is a collection of online sources to help K-12 teachers create lessons on the Geology subject of water quality. Topics include Field Trips and Labs, Simulations and Media, Case Studies, Lesson Plans, and Reference Material.

Moin, Laura

128

Transient engine performance with water ingestion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The immediate effects on the transient performance of a generic, high bypass ratio jet engine on account of water ingestion are discussed. The air compression subsystem has been analyzed with respect to four aerothermodynamic and mechanical processes associated with two-phase fluid flow and the engine simulation has been carried out under three limiting cases of interest in practice, one pertaining to draining of water at the end of compression and the other two, to partial evaporation at two different locations in the burner. General observations are made on engine operability as a function of engine and control design under various engine and (control input) sensor operating conditions, with various mass fractions of water in the air-water mixture entering the engine, during various pilot-initiated power demand changes.

Haykin, T.; Murthy, S. N. B.

1986-01-01

129

PIV Measurements within a Water Analog Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic flow in a water analog engine with two circular valved inlets has been investigated with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). A unique triggering and data collection system was developed, allowing a CCD to acquire two consecutive images at a specific crank angle. An optical water analog engine, operating at 15 RPM with a square cross-section and two circular valved inlets

D. Fetter; E. Suk; P. Sullivan

2000-01-01

130

USGS Water Resources of New York  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Resources of New York provides drought information for New York State, water reports and past news items, water data including streamflow and ground-water conditions, maps and publications, and an education section with water science links. There is also information on current water studies and research, including the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) programs for the Hudson River Basin, Delaware River Basin, Lake Erie/Lake St. Clair Basin, and the Long Island-New Jersey coast.

131

USGS Water Resources Maps and GIS Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal, sponsored by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), provides access to maps and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) datasets for water resources in the United States. There is an extensive selection of datasets on irrigation, groundwater resources and issues, surficial and subsurface geology, hydrology, water contaminants, stream flow, and many other topics. There are also links to the Geospatial Data Clearinghouse, the EarthExplorer Landsat imagery site, the National Map Seamless Server, and other mapping and data download sites.

132

Water resources of Sedgwick County, Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrologic data from streams, impoundments, and wells are interpreted to: (1) document water resources characteristics; (2) describe causes and extent of changes in water resources characteristics; and (3) evaluate water resources as sources of supply. During 1985, about 134,200 acre-ft of water (84% groundwater) were used for public (42%), irrigation, (40%), industrial (14%), and domestic (4%) supplies. Streamflow and groundwater levels are related directly to precipitation, and major rivers are sustained by groundwater inflow. Significant groundwater level declines have occurred only in the Wichita well field. The Arkansas and Ninnescah Rivers have sodium chloride type water; the Little Arkansas River, calcium bicarbonate type water. Water quality characteristics of water in small streams and wells depend primarily on local geology. The Wellington Formation commonly yields calcium sulfate type water; Ninnescah Shale and unconsolidated deposits generally yield calcium bicarbonate type water. Sodium chloride and calcium sulfate type water in the area often have dissolved-solids concentrations exceeding 1,000 mg/L. Water contamination by treated sewage effluent was detected inparts of the Arkansas River, Little Arkansas River, and Cowskin Creek. Nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen contamination was detected in 11 of 101 wells; oilfield brine was detected in the Wichita-Valley Center Floodway, Prairie Creek, Whitewater Creek, and 16 of 101 wells; and agricultural pesticides were detected in 8 of 14 impoundments and 5 of 19 wells. Generally, the water is acceptable for most uses. (USGS)

Bevans, H. E.

1989-01-01

133

Water resources data-Maine water year 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Water Resources Dicipline of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State, Federal,and other local governmental agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Maine each year. These data, accumulated during the many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for Maine consists of records of stage, discharge, ground water levels, water quality of streams and ground-water wells, precipitation quantity, and snow quantity. This report contains discharge records for: 6 gage-height stations, 62 discharge gaging stations, stream water-quality data for 6 stations, water level for 23 ground-water wells, water-quality data for 24 ground-water wells, precipitation quantity data for 15 stations, and snow quantity data for 80 stations, Additional water data were collected at other sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as special study and miscellaneous record sections.

Stewart, G. J.; Caldwell, J. M.; Cloutier, A. R.; Flight, L. E.

2005-01-01

134

Water Resource System modeling for the US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a water resource system model of the US (WRS-US) that identifies 99 river basins. The model is built on river basin-specific estimates of water requirements for thermoelectric cooling, irrigation, public supply, self-supply and mining. WRS-US allocates water resources across uses in order to minimize water stress over the year in each river basin. We use the model to predict water stress through to 2050 under two climate policies and two climate models. The largest water stresses are predicted to occur in the South West of the US. Average water stress is not expected to be alleviated by a constrained GHG emission policy by 2050. However, the mitigation policy will reduce inter-annual variability of water stress.

Blanc, E.; Strzepek, K. S.; Schlosser, C. A.; Jacoby, H.; Gueneau, A.; Fant, C.; Rausch, S.; Awadalla, S.

2012-12-01

135

Engineering Education: Web-Based Interactive Learning Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a study that aimed to determine engineering students' preferred way of learning and to provide additional learning resources to support their methods of learning. The population for this study was drawn from electrical, civil, and mechanical engineering programs at an urban university. Overall, the results of the study…

Ndahi, Hassan B.; Charturvedi, Sushil; Akan, A. Osman; Pickering, J. Worth

2007-01-01

136

Quality-assurance plan and field methods for quality-of-water activities, U.S. Geological Survey, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water-quality activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Project Office are part of the US Geological Survey's (USGS) Water Resources Division (WRD) mission of appraising the quantity and quality of the Nation's water resources. The pu...

L. J. Mann

1996-01-01

137

Electric Power Engineering Education Resources - 1979-80  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sixth biennial (1,2,3,4,5,6) committee report compiles the results of a survey of Electric Power Engineering Education Resources at ECPD\\/ABET (Engineers Council for Professional Development\\/Accreditation Board for Engineering anid Technology) accredited universities in the United States of America for the academic year 1979-80. The report contains a list of faculty active during the subject year, their level of academic participation

1981-01-01

138

New Jersey Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report, FY 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The New Jersey Water Resources Research Institute program for 2002 supported a wide range of research, student training, and information transfer activities. Research was conducted on soil hydraulic properties and pollutant transfer, engineering of system...

2002-01-01

139

Black Hills Water Resources Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The amount of surface-water runoff and ground-water recharge from Black Hills watersheds depends primarily on natural factors such as precipitation and geology but also is influenced by human factors such as dam construction and changes of forest cover fr...

P. H. Rahn A. D. Davis T. P. Propson

1990-01-01

140

Water resources of Acadia Parish, Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in Acadia Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

Prakken, Larry B.; White, Vincent E.

2014-01-01

141

Performance study of a water ramjet engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A performance study of a water ramjet engine is described. The engine is powered by the reaction of a magnesium-based propellant\\u000a and ingested water. In this study, a solid propellant, which consisted of a large percentage of magnesium, a binder and a\\u000a small amount of oxidant, was used as a hydro reactive fuel. Cold water was injected into the combustion

LiYa Huang; ZhiXun Xia; JianXin Hu; QianWen Zhu

2011-01-01

142

The Electronic Clearinghouse for Exemplary Engineering Technology Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Electronic Clearinghouse for Exemplary Engineering Technology Resources (or NETEC) is a site created with substantial funding from the National Science Foundation. Drawing on the teaching experiences and resources developed by many concerned persons in industry and academic settings, the Clearinghouse contains everything from course materials for material engineering to journal articles that deal with the science (and art) of teaching in the subfields of engineering. First-time visitors may wish to register on the homepage, and then proceed to browse through the âÂÂClearinghouse Resourcesâ area. Here they can click on an alphabetized list of terms, such as digital electronics and skill standards, and look through the available materials. Of course, there is a great deal more available here than the very fine educational resources, as visitors can also look over online job boards and mentorship opportunities.

143

Water Resources of New Mexico  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) site provides water data for New Mexico, a map of New Mexico basins, and publications. Descriptions of the following USGS investigations are provided: the Rio Grande National Water-Quality Assessment, the Middle Rio Grande Basin Study, USGS measurements of a century of floods, Rio Puerco Basin Studies, Monitoring of Piezometers in the Middle Rio Grande Basin, and Ground Water Monitoring and Pumpage in the Albuquerque Area. An education section includes general information on hydrology and a New Mexico fact sheet. There is a section monitoring drought conditions and a collection of photographs of drought.

144

Water-Resources Investigations, Collier County, Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water-resources investigations in Collier County, Florida began in the early 1950's and were concerned with availability of ground-water supplies and the problem of saltwater intrusion in the Naples area on the Gulf of Mexico coast. With the advent of can...

1980-01-01

145

Water resources management. World Bank policy paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resources have been one of the most important areas of World Bank lending during the past three decades. Through its support for sector work and investments in irrigation, water supply, sanitation, flood control, and hydropower, the Bank has contributed to the development of many countries and helped provide essential services to many communities. Moreover, the Bank and governments have

K. W. Easter; G. Feder; G. Le Moigne; A. M. Duda; E. Forsyth

1993-01-01

146

Environmental resource document for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This document contains information related to the environmental characterization of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL is a major US Department of Energy facility in southeastern Idaho dedicated to nuclear research, waste management, environmental restoration, and other activities related to the development of technology. Environmental information covered in this document includes land, air, water, and ecological resources; socioeconomic characteristics and land use; and cultural, aesthetic, and scenic resources.

Irving, J.S.

1993-07-01

147

Observing Changes in Water Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from the College of Menominee Nation, tribal members observe lower water levels in lakes and streams and call for global, collaborative solutions to address climate change.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2012-03-23

148

Glossary of Water Resource Terms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rapidly developing field of water pollution control already has stimulated its own special language through origination of new terminology and popularization of other vocabulary formerly reserved for highly technical study. Understanding of this langu...

O. A. Titelbaum

1970-01-01

149

Glossary of Water Resource Terms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve reference sources were used in the compilation of this glossary of water pollution control terminology. Definitions for 364 words, acronyms, and phrases are included with cross references. (KP)

Titelbaum, Olga Adler

150

Water resources management. World Bank policy paper  

SciTech Connect

Water resources have been one of the most important areas of World Bank lending during the past three decades. Through its support for sector work and investments in irrigation, water supply, sanitation, flood control, and hydropower, the Bank has contributed to the development of many countries and helped provide essential services to many communities. Moreover, the Bank and governments have not taken sufficient account of environmental concerns in the management of water resources. (Copyright (c) 1993 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.)

Easter, K.W.; Feder, G.; Le Moigne, G.; Duda, A.M.; Forsyth, E.

1993-01-01

151

Water resources in the next millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As pressures from an exponentially increasing population and economic expectations rise against a finite water resource, how do we address management? This was the main focus of the Dubai International Conference on Water Resources and Integrated Management in the Third Millennium in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 2-6 February 2002. The invited forum attracted an eclectic mix of international thinkers from five continents. Presentations and discussions on hydrology policy/property rights, and management strategies focused mainly on problems of water supply, irrigation, and/or ecosystems.

Wood, Warren

152

Water-resources investigations, Collier County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Early water-resources investigations in Collier County, Fla., were related to saltwater intrusion in Naples. With the advent of canal drainage and land reclamation farther inland, investigations were directed at effects of canals on water resources and the environment. High on the list of investigative needs are: (1) areal and vertical delineation of the shallow aquifer, the prime source of freshwater; (2) delineation of areas of poor quality ground water and the sources of the poor quality; (3) establishment of network of hydrologic data stations; and (4) determination of the relation between canals and the shallow aquifer. (USGS)

Klein, Howard

1980-01-01

153

Water Resources Availability in Kabul, Afghanistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of water resources is vital to the rebuilding of Kabul, Afghanistan. In recent years, droughts and increased water use for drinking water and agriculture have resulted in widespread drying of wells. Increasing numbers of returning refugees, rapid population growth, and potential climate change have led to heightened concerns for future water availability. The U.S. Geological Survey, with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development, began collaboration with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resource investigations in the Kabul Basin in 2004. This has led to the compilation of historic and recent water- resources data, creation of monitoring networks, analyses of geologic, geophysical, and remotely sensed data. The study presented herein provides an assessment of ground-water availability through the use of multidisciplinary hydrogeologic data analysis. Data elements include population density, climate, snowpack, geology, mineralogy, surface water, ground water, water quality, isotopic information, and water use. Data were integrated through the use of conceptual ground-water-flow model analysis and provide information necessary to make improved water-resource planning and management decisions in the Kabul Basin. Ground water is currently obtained from a shallow, less than 100-m thick, highly productive aquifer. CFC, tritium, and stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic analyses indicate that most water in the shallow aquifer appears to be recharged post 1970 by snowmelt-supplied river leakage and secondarily by late winter precipitation. Analyses indicate that increasing withdrawals are likely to result in declining water levels and may cause more than 50 percent of shallow supply wells to become dry or inoperative particularly in urbanized areas. The water quality in the shallow aquifer is deteriorated in urban areas by poor sanitation and water availability concerns may be compounded by poor well construction practices and little planning. By 2050, the available water resources in the Kabul Basin may be reduced as a result of Central Asian climate changes. Increasing air temperatures associated with climate change are likely to lead to a decreasing snowpack and an earlier growing season, resulting in less recharge from river leakage. As a result, more than 60 percent of existing supply wells may become dry or inoperative. The impacts of climate change would likely be greatest in the agricultural regions in the western areas of the basin. Water resources in the in northern areas of the basin may meet future water needs. However, in other areas of the basin, particularly the more urbanized southern areas adjacent to and including the city of Kabul, water resources may be stressed. Ground water in deep aquifers, more than 100 m below land surface, is presently unused. Conceptual ground-water-flow simulations indicate that ground water in deep aquifers may be thousands of years old. The deep aquifer may sustain limited increases in municipal water use, but may not support increased agricultural use which is much greater than municipal use. However, the hydraulic feasibility and quality of deep ground-water extractions are not well known and are being investigated.

Akbari, A. M.; Chornack, M. P.; Coplen, T. B.; Emerson, D. G.; Litke, D. W.; Mack, T. J.; Plummer, N.; Verdin, J. P.; Verstraeten, I. M.

2008-12-01

154

SMALL SYSTEM STUDIES (WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION)  

EPA Science Inventory

To support and help in the struggle to improve the quality of drinking water in the U.S. and abroad (China and South America), the National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) uses the USEPA Test and Evaluation (T&E) Facility lo...

155

Water Availability and Management of Water Resources  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the most pressing national and global issues is the availability of freshwater due to global climate change, energy scarcity issues and the increase in world population and accompanying economic growth. Estimates of water supplies and flows through the world's hydrologic c...

156

Undergraduate Program Focuses on International Issues in Water Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past two summers, faculty from the University of Notre Dame, the University of Nevada, Reno, and the University of New Mexico have directed a National Science Foundation (NSF) Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) site focusing on issues in international water resources. (See REU Site on Water Resources in Developing Countries, www.nd.edu/~reuwater/). The overarching objective of this project is to engage and educate U.S. students in the issues and problems facing the world's nations in water resource development and potable water supply. The stated goals of NSF's Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program are to expand student participation in all areas of research, and specifically, to attract a diverse group of students into the fields of science and engineering, including graduate-level studies. In addition, international REU sites often seek to develop students who can be ``globally competen;'' that is, understand science and engineering in frameworks other than a North American perspective. (More information on international REU sites and site development can be found at www.nsftokyo.org/REU/ and www.nsf.gov/sbe/int/.)

Tyler, Scott W.; Silliman, Stephen E.; Campana, Michael E.

2004-03-01

157

University of Wisconsin Extension: Water Resources Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Wisconsin Extension provides "information about water quality and natural resources education programs in Wisconsin." Users can find out about monitoring the water quality of streams, river cleanups, and other volunteer projects. Teachers can learn how to educate their students about runoff pollution through the construction of a watershed model. The website presents numerous water related initiatives including the Multi-Agency Land and Water Education Grant Program, Give Water a Hand for young people taking action in their community, and the Landowner Assessment and Project Evaluation (LOAPE) Program.

158

WATER USE IMPACTS ON GEORGIA'S WATER RESOURCES AND THREATS FROM INCREASED WATER INTENSIVE ENERGY PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Georgia faces serious challenges in managing water resources and irreversible impacts to aquatic ecology. Georgia's fisheries and aquatic resources are in peril due to habitat degradation caused by water use for energy production, domestic purposes, agriculture, and industry. Water resources and the quality of aquatic life in Georgia's rivers are expected to degrade significantly with future water demands from a

Sara Barczak; Shawn P. Young

2009-01-01

159

Water resource management planning guide for Savannah River Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Water Resource Management Planning Guide provides an outline for the development of a Savannah River Plant Water Resource Management Plan (WRMP) to protect, manage, and monitor the site's water resources. The management plan is based on three principle elements: (1) protection of the water quality, (2) management of the water quantity, and (3) monitoring of the water quality and

J. E. Hubbard; D. E. Stephenson; J. L. Steele; D. E. Gordon

1988-01-01

160

Native Waters: An American Indian Water Resource Education Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This community education initiative supports the efforts of Native American tribal leaders, educators, and students to develop contemporary, scientifically accurate, and culturally sensitive water education resources, programs, and networking opportunities. A traveling exhibit provides a Native American point of view on protection and conservation of water resources. A teachers' guide is provided to accompany the exhibit. Other materials include learning opportunities for students and educators, news articles, publications, scholarship information, and links to related information.

2004-01-01

161

Water Intensity of Electricity from Geothermal Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BACKGROUND Electricity from geothermal resources could play a significant role in the United States over the next few decades; a 2006 study by MIT expects a capacity of 100GWe by 2050 as feasible; approximately 10% of total electricity generating capacity up from less than 1% today. However, there is limited research on the water requirements and impacts of generating electricity from geothermal resources - conventional as well as enhanced. To the best of our knowledge, there is no baseline exists for water requirements of geothermal electricity. Water is primarily required for cooling and dissipation of waste heat in the power plants, and to account for fluid losses during heat mining of enhanced geothermal resources. MODEL DESCRIPTION We have developed a model to assess and characterize water requirements of electricity from hydrothermal resources and enhanced geothermal resources (EGS). Our model also considers a host of factors that influence cooling water requirements ; these include the temperature and chemical composition of geothermal resource; installed power generation technology - flash, organic rankine cycle and the various configurations of these technologies; cooling technologies including air cooled condensers, wet recirculating cooling, and hybrid cooling; and finally water treatment and recycling installations. We expect to identify critical factors and technologies. Requirements for freshwater, degraded water and geothermal fluid are separately estimated. METHODOLOGY We have adopted a lifecycle analysis perspective that estimates water consumption at the goethermal field and power plant, and accounts for transmission and distribution losses before reaching the end user. Our model depends upon an extensive literature review to determine various relationships necessary to determine water usage - for example relationship between thermal efficiency and temperature of a binary power plant, or differences in efficiency between various ORC configurations, or differences in efficiency of a plant with a wet cooled system and one with dry cooled system. There are a number of factors that we do not consider; most of these factors are location specific. These include ambient temperature and humidity, specific design parameters of the power plant, and dissolved solids and chemical composition of freshwater withdrawn from ground or surface sources. Even for a specific plant, water intensity will vary over time due to fluctuations in ambient temperature and humidity, and in temperature of the geothermal fluid. Thus the model’s water usage estimates should be treated as “first order” or “preliminary” estimates. This paper is part of a series exploring the water footprint of future transportation fuels including biofuels and electricity. The paper's broader objective is to highlight limitations imposed by water shortages to achieve higher penetration of various alternative fuels.

Mishra, G. S.; Glassley, W. E.

2010-12-01

162

NASA's Applied Sciences for Water Resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Systems Division within NASA has the primary responsibility for the Earth Science Applied Science Program and the objective to accelerate the use of NASA science results in applications to help solve problems important to society and the economy. The primary goal of the Earth Science Applied Science Program is to improve future and current operational systems by infusing them with scientific knowledge of the Earth system gained through space-based observation, assimilation of new observations, and development and deployment of enabling technologies, systems, and capabilities. This paper discusses one of the major problems facing water resources managers, that of having timely and accurate data to drive their decision support tools. It then describes how NASA?s science and space based satellites may be used to overcome this problem. Opportunities for the water resources community to participate in NASA?s Water Resources Applications Program are described.

Doorn, Bradley; Toll, David; Engman, Ted

2011-01-01

163

Engineering aspects of water pollution control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of proper engineering when providing pollution control systems is emphasized. Organization of engineering projects is described in detail. Included are discussions of: (1) collection and evaluation of available data; (2) establishment of survey and test program; (3) integration and evaluation of findings; (4) establishment of pollution control and water utilization systems; and (5) specification and detailed design preparation.

R. G. Dalbke; A. J. Turk

1967-01-01

164

Quantitative Determination of Engine Water Ingestion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A nonintrusive optical technique is described for determination of liquid mass flux in a droplet laden airstream. The techniques were developed for quantitative determination of engine water ingestion resulting from heavy rain or wheel spray. Independent ...

P. Parikh, M. Hernan, V. Sarohia

1986-01-01

165

Quantitative Determination of Engine Water Ingestion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a non-intrusive optical technique for determination of liquid mass flux in a droplet laden airstream. The technique was developed for quantitative determination of engine water ingestion resulting from heavy rain or wheel spray. Inde...

P. Parikh, M. Hernan, V. Sarohia

1986-01-01

166

Rocket Engine Jet Blast Attenuation in Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of launching missiles and superboosters from overwater sites. Information is needed to predict the depth of liquid-propellant rocket engine exhaust gas penetration into water. Methods will be re...

G. W. Leese

1967-01-01

167

A systems engineering management approach to resource management applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author presents a program management response to the following question: How can the traditional practice of systems engineering management, including requirements specification, be adapted, enhanced, or modified to build future planning and scheduling systems for effective operations? The systems engineering management process, as traditionally practiced, is examined. Extensible resource management systems are discussed. It is concluded that extensible systems are a partial solution to problems presented by requirements that are incomplete, partially immeasurable, and often dynamic. There are positive indications that resource management systems have been characterized and modeled sufficiently to allow their implementation as extensible systems.

Hornstein, Rhoda Shaller

1989-01-01

168

Architecture of a federated query engine for heterogeneous resources.  

PubMed

The Federated Utah Research and Translational Health e-Repository (FURTHeR) is a Utah statewide informatics platform for the new Center for Clinical and Translational Science at the University of Utah. We have been working on one of FURTHeR's key components, a federated query engine for heterogeneous resources, that we believe has the potential to meet some of the fundamental needs of translational science to access and integrate diverse biomedical data and promote discovery of new knowledge. The architecture of the federated query engine for heterogeneous resources is described and demonstrated. PMID:20351825

Bradshaw, Richard L; Matney, Susan; Livne, Oren E; Bray, Bruce E; Mitchell, Joyce A; Narus, Scott P

2009-01-01

169

Linking water resources to food security through virtual water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest use of global freshwater resources is related to food production. While each day we drink about 2 liters of water, we consume (eating) about 4000 liters of ''virtual water'', which represents the freshwater used to produce crop-based and livestock-based food. Considering human water consumption as a whole, most part originates from agriculture (85.8%), and only minor parts come from industry (9.6%) or households (4.6%). These numbers shed light on the great pressure of humanity on global freshwater resources and justify the increasing interest towards this form of environmental impact, usually known as ''water footprint''. Virtual water is a key variable in establishing the nexus between water and food. In fact, water resources used for agricultural production determine local food availability, and impact the international trade of agricultural goods. Trade, in turn, makes food commodities available to nations which are not otherwise self-sufficient, in terms of water resources or food, and it establishes an equilibrium between food demand and production at the global scale. Therefore, food security strongly relies on international food trade, but also on the use of distant and foreign water resources, which need to be acknowledged and investigated. Virtual water embedded in production and international trade follows the fate of food on the trade network, generating virtual flows of great magnitude (e.g., 2800 km3 in 2010) and defining local and global virtual water balances worldwide. The resulting water-food nexus is critical for the societal and economic development, and it has several implications ranging from population dynamics to the competing use of freshwater resources, from dietary guidelines to globalization of trade, from externalization of pollution to policy making and to socio-economic wealth. All these implications represent a great challenge for future research, not only in hydrology but in the many fields related to this interdisciplinary topic. Virtual water and water footprint accounting provide the tools for understanding such implications and to describe, quantify, and investigate the inextricable link existing between water resources and food security.

Tamea, Stefania

2014-05-01

170

Water engineering for the promotion of peace  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a world of limited resources, limited sympathy and limited rationality, competition leading to tensions and conflict can arise. In such circumstances, a key responsibility of any society is to ensure the security of its citizens. The role of engineering in contributing to such security is most usually considered to be the development, manufacture and use of military equipment so

W. Richard. Bowen

2009-01-01

171

Water resources of Claiborne Parish, Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This fact sheet summarizes basic information on the water resources of Claiborne Parish. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the Cited References section. In 2010, about 2.60 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water were withdrawn in Claiborne Parish, Louisiana, including about 2.42 Mgal/d from groundwater sources and 0.18 Mgal/d from surface-water sources. Public-supply use accounted for about 84 percent of the total water withdrawn. Other categories of use included industrial, rural domestic, livestock, and general irrigation. Water-use data collected at 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2010 indicated that total water withdrawals in the parish have ranged from about 2.6 to 3.9 Mgal/d.

Fendick, Robert B., Jr.; Prakken, Lawrence B.; Griffith, Jason M.

2013-01-01

172

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM RESEARCH (WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Two water distribution system simulators(DSSs)are now in operation at the USEPA Test and Evaluation (T&E) Facility in Cincinnati, OH. EPA's T&E Facility is a multifaceted research resource in which a wide variety of water treatment and other environmental protection technologies ...

173

WATER: Water Activities Teaching Environmental Responsibility: Teacher Resource, Environmental Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity book was developed as part of an effort to protect water quality of the Stillwater River, Ohio, through a Watershed Protection Project. It is designed to raise teachers' and students' awareness and trigger a sense of stewardship towards the preservation of water resources. The activities are generally appropriate for elementary age…

Kramer, Ed, Ed.; And Others

174

Oregon Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report, FY 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2003, Oregons Center for Water and Environmental Sustainability (CWESt) focused efforts on three programs: (1) The Water Resources Program administers interdisciplinary and multi-agency watershed education and water resources research programs in Orego...

2003-01-01

175

Climate change and global water resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

By 2025, it is estimated that around 5 billion people, out of a total population of around 8 billion, will be living in countries experiencing water stress (using more than 20% of their available resources). Climate change has the potential to impose additional pressures in some regions. This paper describes an assessment of the implications of climate change for global

Nigel W. Arnell

1999-01-01

176

USGS Water Resources of North Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Resources of North Dakota contains current streamflow conditions and other hydrologic data, a drought watch section, publications, and an education section. There is information on: the connection between Lewis and Clark and the USGS; canoeing the rivers of North Dakota; and the Missouri River streamflow-gaging station and how the USGS collects streamflow data.

177

GIS and Water Resources Modeling Workshop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Venkatesh Merwade of Purdue university offers tutorials relating to GIS and water resources modeling. Topic areas covered are hydraulic and hydrologic modeling, GIS and hydrologic modeling and downloading geospatial and temporal data for hydroloic/hydraulic modeling. All tutorials have links for necessary datasets.

Merwade, Venkatesh

2013-01-14

178

The water resources information system for Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives a detailed account of the motivation for and the design and implementation of a computer?based system for managing the water resources in Thailand. The problems and difficulties encountered are discussed and lessons are drawn which can help to guide such undertakings in the future.

Anumongkol Sirivedhin; Vichit Lorchirachoonkul; Somboonwan Satayarakvit

1987-01-01

179

Conceptual Patterns for Water Resources Information Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water Resources Information Systems (WRIS) present different types of problems during the data storage and analysis phases, related with the complex nature of the environmental data spacio-temporal phenomena. There are many questions to deal with, such as geographic representation of environmental variables, large time- series management, measurements and observations related with different hydrologic phenomena recording and the integration of simulations

Adriana B. Urciuolo; Rodolfo J. Iturraspe

2003-01-01

180

Water resources in the Japanese Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to its limited land area and limited range of natural resources (particularly fuel), Japan has developed a highly efficient economy in terms of resource utilization. This also applies to water resources. For sustainable use of water resources in the Japanese Islands, integrated and unified analyses of the data of groundwater by the nation and local governments have been needed. Land area of the Japanese Islands is 377,000 square kilometers, which is equivalent to the area of the state of Montana, but extends for 3,600 kilometers along the margin of the Eurasian continent. Mountainous areas separated by isolated, narrow plains make up 80 % of the land area. Due to the topography of Japan, rivers are generally short with steep grades, the longest being only 367 kilometers in length. Average annual precipitation is 1,600 millimeters but is highly seasonal. The annual water demand was approximately 87 billion cubic meters during the past 25 years, which represents 21 % of the total usable water. The water demand for agriculture makes up 66 % of the total water demand, and 96 % of the water for agricultural uses is used for the irrigation of rice paddies. Municipal and industrial uses make up 15.4 and 18.9 % of the demand, respectively (as of 2000). Nearly 80 % of the water used by industry in recycled. Approximately 87 % of the water demand is supplied from surface water with the rest from ground water. Because of its mountainous topography, the extent of individual aquifers is far smaller than in United States. Groundwater basins in the Japanese Islands are classified into the following six types: plain type (thick Quaternary strata); basin type (intermontane terraces and fans; hill type (highly eroded old volcanoes); volcano type (permeable lava and pyroclasitc flows comprising Quaternary strato volcanoes); pyroclastic type (thick tuff associated with large caldera formations); and limestone type (limestone blocks with karsts). Of the above types, the only major groundwater aquifers are the plain type (e.g., Kanto plain) and the volcano type (e.g., Mount Fuji). Ground water usage in 1998 was divided between 28 % domestic, 31 % industrial, and 23 % agricultural, and 18 % other. In the Japanese Islands, due to the small drainage areas of rivers, limited storage volume of aquifers, and variable seasonal and annual precipitation, droughts are common in some regions. Excessive pumping of groundwater in the 1950s to 1970s caused local land subsidence and salt water intrusion.

Takagi, T.

2005-12-01

181

Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework  

DOE Data Explorer

This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

Jenna N. Schroeder

182

Wentworth Institute Resource Guide for Mechanical Engineering Laboratory Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a resource guide designed primarly as an aid to the instructor. All of the experiments contained in the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory Manual have been successfully completed under laboratory conditions by both staff and students. The results of these experiments have been computed and are presented in this publication. The…

Avakian, Harry; And Others

183

Injected Water Augments Cooling In Turboshaft Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes experiments in which water injected into compressor-bleed cooling air of aircraft turboshaft engine. Injection of water previously suggested as way to provide additional cooling needed to sustain operation at power levels higher than usual. Involves turbine-inlet temperatures high enough to shorten lives of first-stage high-pressure turbine blades. Latent heat of vaporization of injected water serves as additional heat sink to maintain blades at design operating temperatures during high-power operation.

Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

1989-01-01

184

Entropy, recycling and macroeconomics of water resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a macroeconomic model for water quantity and quality supply multipliers derived by water recycling (Karakatsanis et al. 2013). Macroeconomic models that incorporate natural resource conservation have become increasingly important (European Commission et al. 2012). In addition, as an estimated 80% of globally used freshwater is not reused (United Nations 2012), under increasing population trends, water recycling becomes a solution of high priority. Recycling of water resources creates two major conservation effects: (1) conservation of water in reservoirs and aquifers and (2) conservation of ecosystem carrying capacity due to wastewater flux reduction. Statistical distribution properties of the recycling efficiencies -on both water quantity and quality- for each sector are of vital economic importance. Uncertainty and complexity of water reuse in sectors are statistically quantified by entropy. High entropy of recycling efficiency values signifies greater efficiency dispersion; which -in turn- may indicate the need for additional infrastructure for the statistical distribution's both shifting and concentration towards higher efficiencies that lead to higher supply multipliers. Keywords: Entropy, water recycling, water supply multipliers, conservation, recycling efficiencies, macroeconomics References 1. European Commission (EC), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), United Nations (UN) and World Bank (2012), System of Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) Central Framework (White cover publication), United Nations Statistics Division 2. Karakatsanis, G., N. Mamassis, D. Koutsoyiannis and A. Efstratiades (2013), Entropy and reliability of water use via a statistical approach of scarcity, 5th EGU Leonardo Conference - Hydrofractals 2013 - STAHY '13, Kos Island, Greece, European Geosciences Union, International Association of Hydrological Sciences, International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics 3. United Nations (UN) (2012), World Water Development Report 4, UNESCO Publishing

Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

2014-05-01

185

Modeling U.S. water resources under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is at the center of a complex and dynamic system involving climatic, biological, hydrological, physical, and human interactions. We demonstrate a new modeling system that integrates climatic and hydrological determinants of water supply with economic and biological drivers of sectoral and regional water requirement while taking into account constraints of engineered water storage and transport systems. This modeling system is an extension of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Integrated Global System Model framework and is unique in its consistent treatment of factors affecting water resources and water requirements. Irrigation demand, for example, is driven by the same climatic conditions that drive evapotranspiration in natural systems and runoff, and future scenarios of water demand for power plant cooling are consistent with energy scenarios driving climate change. To illustrate the modeling system we select "wet" and "dry" patterns of precipitation for the United States from general circulation models used in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3). Results suggest that population and economic growth alone would increase water stress in the United States through mid-century. Climate change generally increases water stress with the largest increases in the Southwest. By identifying areas of potential stress in the absence of specific adaptation responses, the modeling system can help direct attention to water planning that might then limit use or add storage in potentially stressed regions, while illustrating how avoiding climate change through mitigation could change likely outcomes.

Blanc, Elodie; Strzepek, Kenneth; Schlosser, Adam; Jacoby, Henry; Gueneau, Arthur; Fant, Charles; Rausch, Sebastian; Reilly, John

2014-04-01

186

``Virtual water'': An unfolding concept in integrated water resources management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In its broadest sense, virtual water refers to the water required for the production of food commodities. Issues relating to virtual water have drawn much attention in scientific communities and the political sphere since the mid 1990s. This paper provides a critical review of major research issues and results in the virtual water literature and pinpoints the remaining questions and the direction of research in future virtual water studies. We conclude that virtual water studies have helped to raise the awareness of water scarcity and its impact on food security and to improve the understanding of the role of food trade in compensating for water deficit. However, the studies so far have been overwhelmingly concerned with the international food trade, and many solely quantified virtual water flows associated with food trade. There is a general lack of direct policy relevance to the solutions to water scarcity and food insecurity, which are often local, regional, and river basin issues. The obscurity in the conceptual basis of virtual water also entails some confusion. The methodologies and databases of the studies are often crude, affecting the robustness and reliability of the results. Looking ahead, future virtual water studies need to enhance the policy relevance by strengthening their linkages with national and regional water resources management. Meanwhile, integrated approaches taking into consideration the spatial and temporal variations of blue and green water resources availability and the complexity of natural, socioeconomic, and political conditions are necessary in assessing the trade-offs of the virtual water strategy in dealing with water scarcity. To this end, interdisciplinary efforts and quantitative methods supported by improved data availability are greatly important.

Yang, Hong; Zehnder, Alexander

2007-12-01

187

Uncertainty Management in Urban Water Engineering Adaptation to Climate Change - abstract  

EPA Science Inventory

Current water resource planning and engineering assume a stationary climate, in which the observed historical water flow rate and water quality variations are often used to define the technical basis. When the non-stationarity is considered, however, climate change projection co...

188

Water resources review: Wheeler Reservoir, 1990  

SciTech Connect

Protection and enhancement of water quality is essential for attaining the full complement of beneficial uses of TVA reservoirs. The responsibility for improving and protecting TVA reservoir water quality is shared by various federal, state, and local agencies, as well as the thousands of corporations and property owners whose individual decisions affect water quality. TVA's role in this shared responsibility includes collecting and evaluating water resources data, disseminating water resources information, and acting as a catalyst to bring together agencies and individuals that have a responsibility or vested interest in correcting problems that have been identified. This report is one in a series of status reports that will be prepared for each of TVA's reservoirs. The purpose of this status report is to provide an up-to-date overview of the characteristics and conditions of Wheeler Reservoir, including: reservoir purposes and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and the watershed; water quality conditions: aquatic biological conditions: designated, actual, and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those uses; ongoing or planned reservoir management activities. Information and data presented here are form the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. 21 refs., 8 figs., 29 tabs.

Wallus, R.; Cox, J.P.

1990-09-01

189

Water resources data, Idaho, 2003; Volume 3. Ground water records  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The three volumes of this report contain discharge records for 208 stream-gaging stations and 14 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 6 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 50 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 3 lakes sites, and 398 groundwater wells; and water levels for 427 observation network wells and 900 special project wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. Volumes 1 & 2 contain the surface-water and surface-water-quality records. Volume 3 contains the ground-water and ground-water-quality records. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

Campbell, A. M.; Conti, S. N.; O'Dell, I.

2003-01-01

190

Water resources data, Idaho, 2004; Volume 3. Ground water records  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The three volumes of this report contain discharge records for 209 stream-gaging stations and 8 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 6 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 39 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 18 lakes sites, and 395 groundwater wells; and water levels for 425 observation network wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. Volumes 1 & 2 contain the surface-water and surface-water-quality records. Volume 3 contains the ground-water and ground-water-quality records. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

Campbell, A. M.; Conti, S. N.; O'Dell, I.

2005-01-01

191

Water resources of Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2005, about 33.8 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) was withdrawn from water sources in Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana. Surface water sources accounted for about 86 percent (29.2 Mgal/d) of all withdrawals whereas groundwater sources accounted for about 14 percent (4.62 Mgal/d). Withdrawals for industrial use accounted for about 42 percent (14.1 Mgal/d) of the total water withdrawn (table 2). Other categories of use included public supply, rural domestic, livestock, rice irrigation, general irrigation, and aquaculture. The city of Natchitoches used almost 5.6 Mgal/d (about 5.2 Mgal/d of surface water and 0.4 Mgal/d of ground water) for public supply. Water-use data collected at 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2005 indicated that total water withdrawals increased from about 3.5 Mgal/d in 1960 to a peak of almost 35 Mgal/d in 2000. This fact sheet summarizes basic information on the water resources of Natchitoches Parish. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the Selected References section.

Fendick, Robert B., Jr.; Prakken, Larry B.; Griffith, Jason M.

2013-01-01

192

Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (lSRU) project called RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction). This project is an Earth-based lunar precursor demonstration of a system that could be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, where it would drill into regolith, quantify the volatiles that are present, and extract oxygen by hydrogen reduction of iron oxides. The RESOLVE chemical processing system was mounted within the CMU rover "Scarab" and successfully demonstrated on Hawaii's Mauna Kea volcano in November 2008. This technology could be used on Mars as well. As described at the 2008 Mars Society Convention, the Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) supports the objectives of the RESOLVE project by capturing and quantifying water and hydrogen released by regolith upon heating. Field test results for the quantification of water using LWRD showed that the volcanic ash (tephra) samples contained 0.15-0.41% water, in agreement with GC water measurements. Reduction of the RH in the surge tank to near zero during recirculation show that the water is captured by the water beds as desired. The water can be recovered by heating the Water Beds to 230 C or higher. Test results for the capture and quantification of pure hydrogen have shown that over 90% of the hydrogen can be captured and 98% of the absorbed hydrogen can be recovered upon heating the hydride to 400 C and desorbing the hydrogen several times into the evacuated surge tank. Thus, the essential requirement of capturing hydrogen and recovering it has been demonstrated. ,

Muscatello, Anthony C.; Captain, Janine E.; Quinn, Jacqueline W.; Gibson, Tracy L.; Perusich, Stephen A.; Weis, Kyle H.

2009-01-01

193

Climate change, water resources and child health.  

PubMed

Climate change is occurring and has tremendous consequences for children's health worldwide. This article describes how the rise in temperature, precipitation, droughts, floods, glacier melt and sea levels resulting from human-induced climate change is affecting the quantity, quality and flow of water resources worldwide and impacting child health through dangerous effects on water supply and sanitation, food production and human migration. It argues that paediatricians and healthcare professionals have a critical leadership role to play in motivating and sustaining efforts for policy change and programme implementation at the local, national and international level. PMID:20403822

Kistin, Elizabeth J; Fogarty, John; Pokrasso, Ryan Shaening; McCally, Michael; McCornick, Peter G

2010-07-01

194

Florida Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report, FY 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mission of the Florida Water Resources Research Center at the University of Florida is to facilitate communication and collaboration between Florida's Universities and the state agencies that are responsible for managing Florida's water resources. A p...

2007-01-01

195

Fiscal Year 1984 Program Report: Illinois Water Resources Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The University of Illinois Water Resources Center was established in 1963 to encourage and coordinate university-wide planning and implementation of interdisciplinary programs for research and graduate education in water resources. Since designation by th...

G. E. Stout

1985-01-01

196

TEPCO's Approach to Power-Engineer Human Resource Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We think 'human resources and technology' is developed only by self-training continuously, keeping higher motivation and practicing repeatedly. Moreover it is indispensable for sustainable development of company. Management vision, top-down message with vertical communication, and bottom-up systematic approaches are necessary for sustainable human resource development, sharing the value with coordination, and in addition, OJT and Off-JT method should be used effectively. This paper shows TEPCO's attempts to develop engineers' technical skills as a reference of a in-company continuing professional development.

Sato, Masaki

197

Increasing Awareness of Sustainable Water Management for Future Civil Engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are more than 1.2 billion people around the world that do not have access to drinking water. While there are plans under the United Nations Millennium Development Goals to halve this number by 2015, there are a number of regions that will be exposed to water scarcity in the coming future. Providing sufficient water for future development is a great challenge for planners and designers of water supply systems. In order to design sustainable water supplies for the future, it is important to learn how people consume water and how water consumption can be reduced. The education of future civil engineers should take into account not only technical aspects of the water supply but also the accompanying social and economical issues, and appreciated the strengths and weaknesses of traditional solutions. The Faculty of Civil Engineering, at the University of Rijeka, has begun incorporating a series of activities that engage undergraduate students and the local community to develop a mutual understanding of the future needs for sustainable management. We present one of the activities, collaboration with the Lancaster Environment Centre at Lancaster University in the UK through the field course Water and environmental management in Mediterranean context. The course, which is designed for the Lancaster University geography students, features a combination of field trips and visits to provide an understanding of the socio-economic and environmental context of water management in two counties (Istra and Primorsko-Goranska). Students from Lancaster visit the Croatian water authority and a regional water company, where they learn about current management practices and problems in managing water supplies and demand through the year. They make their own observations of current management practices in the field and learn about water consumption from the end users. One day field visit to a village in the area that is still not connected to the main water supply system is organised together with civil engineering students from the University of Rijeka. The aims of this field visit are: to learn about traditional water supply from an underground storage of rain water called cisterna; and to find out from inhabitants about their current water usage habits and expectations, and how these might change when they get water from the main water supply system. This joint activity has been beneficial for both groups of students. The engineering students become aware of the importance of the social aspects in designing the water supply system, while the geography students learn about the engineering challenges entailed. Both groups learn that water consumption increases with the provision of water through pipeline systems and that this needs to be taken into account in the design of water supply and management of water resources. Importantly, they learn the benefits of traditional sustainable water supply methods, which could be implemented as primary or additional sources of water supply in other areas.In summary, both groups of students develop their professional knowledge and skills as well as generic and transferable skills, which are very important for those who will continue to a career in the design and management of water systems.

Ilic, Suzana; Karleusa, Barbara; Deluka-Tibljas, Aleksandra

2010-05-01

198

WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS IN SOUTH CAUCASUS REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an attempts to reveal the main problems of the transboundary water resource management in the South Caucasus region\\u000a taking into consideration that single country oriented management of water resources does not solve the problems of transboundary\\u000a water resources. Only integrated planning and management of water resources at the basin level can address the environmental\\u000a and social-economic development needs

Marine Ghazaryan

199

Water resources management by a flexible wireless broadband network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scarcity of water around the world is forcing the water authorities to use water resources which are scattered in remote areas with low accessibility and impossible permanent wire connections. On the other hand, the water resources are generally in long distances between each other and all of them are very far from the water consumption area. This constrains the

S. A. Avlonitis; M. Pappas; K. Moutesidis; M. Pavlou; P. Tsarouhas; V. N. Vlachakis

2007-01-01

200

A new modeling approach for water resources policy analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resources policy analysis deals with the protection of people from the harmful effects of water and assurance of a consistent, adequate supply of usable water. Population and regulatory pressures, political and economic instabilities, and climatic variations can all be expected to further stress water supply resources. Developing policy for managing water systems for human needs in such an environment

Slobodan P. Simonovic; Hussam Fahmy

1999-01-01

201

Water permeability of engineered cementitious composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water permeability of a unique class of high performance fiber reinforced cementitious composites (HPFRCC) called engineered cementitious composites (ECC) is investigated. These composites are deliberately tailored using microcmechanical design principles to exhibit pseudo-strain-hardening characteristics in uniaxial tension, up to greater than 4% strain. While undergoing tensile deformation, microcracks are designed to saturate the specimen rather than localize into large

Michael D. Lepech; Victor C. Li

2009-01-01

202

Sustainable Water Resources in Semiarid Agroecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing sustainable water resources management in agroecosystems is difficult in semiarid regions with limited or sporadic water inputs and heavy reliance on irrigation. Sustainable water management needs to consider both water quantity and water quality. Conversion of natural ecosystems to rain-fed agroecosystems has increased groundwater recharge in many semiarid regions in Australia, SW US, and W. Africa; however, such changes are not sustainable because rising water tables may ultimately reach the land surface and direct evaporation would cause salinization, as found in dryland salinity in Australia. In addition, increased recharge mobilizes pre-existing salt reservoirs that accumulated in soil profiles over millennia since the previous glaciation in Australia and the SW US. Increased recharge can also mobilize pre-existing nutrient reservoirs to underlying aquifers or create new reservoirs from soil organic nitrogen as in SW US and W. Africa. It is much more difficult to develop sustainable water management in irrigated agroecosystems as shown by water table declines of up to 1 m/yr in the north China Plain and up to 1.4 m/yr in the US High Plains. In addition to mobilizing pre-existing salts, irrigation also adds salts and nutrients to the system through irrigation water and fertilizers as seen in the US High Plains and Rajasthan, India. Various approaches are being considered to make agricultural water management more sustainable. Approaches include switching from rain-fed to groundwater fed irrigated agriculture in the US High Plains to prevent water tables from reaching the land surface, proposed expansion of irrigation with fresh groundwater in west Africa to reduce water tables, deficit irrigation and rotation of irrigation with rain-fed agriculture to reduce overexploitation of aquifers in irrigated areas in the US High Plains and parts of India, improved timing of fertilizer applications to reduce leaching, and consideration of nutrients in irrigation water and from soil organic nitrogen in recommended fertilizer application rates in the US High Plains and W. Africa. Quantification of increased recharge under agroecosystems relative to natural ecosystems can be used to estimate the level of irrigation that can be supported sustainably. Deficit irrigation in parts of the US High Plains has resulted in incipient soil salinization because of insufficient water to flush salts through the system. Proposed programs to achieve sustainability need to consider tradeoffs between water quantity and water quality.

Reedy, R. C.; Favreau, G.; Gates, J. B.; Mukherjee, A.; Scanlon, B. R.; Zheng, C.

2009-12-01

203

Water Resources Data, New Jersey, Water Year 2004. Volume 3. Water Quality Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, collects a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of New Jersey each water year. These data, accumulated over many w...

B. J. Gray E. L. Melvin H. A. Heckathorn J. M. Lewis M. J. DeLuca M. L. Riskin N. A. Liu

2005-01-01

204

Water Resources Data Massachusetts and Rhode Island Water Year 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTRODUCTION The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Massachusetts and Rhode Island each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the States. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data-Massachusetts and Rhode Island.' Hydrologic data are also available through the Massachusetts-Rhode Island District Home Page on the world-wide web (http://ma.water.usgs.gov). Historical data and real-time data (for sites equipped with satellite gage-height telemeter) are also available. The home page also contains a link to the U.S. Geological Survey National Home Page where streamflow data from locations throughout the United States can be retrieved. This report series includes records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; contents of lakes and reservoirs; water levels of ground-water wells; and water quality of ground-water wells. This volume contains discharge records at 90 gaging stations; stage records at 2 gaging stations; monthend contents of 4 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 31 gaging stations; water quality at 27 observation wells; and water levels for 139 observation wells. Locations of these sites are shown in figures 1 and 2. Short-term water-quality data were collected at 21 gaging stations and 27 observation wells and are shown in figure 3. Miscellaneous hydrologic data were collected at various sites that were not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous discharge measurements. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. This series of annual reports for Massachusetts and Rhode Island began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report format was changed to present, in one volume, data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels. Prior to introduction of this series and for several water years concurrent with it, water-resources data for Massachusetts and Rhode Island were published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers. Data on stream discharge and stage and on lake or reservoir contents and stage, through September 1960, were published annually under the title 'Surface-Water Supply of the United States, Parts 1A and 1B.' For the 1961 through 1970 water years, the data were published in two 5-year reports. Data on chemical quality, temperature, and suspended sediment for the 1941 through 1970 water years were published annually under the title 'Quality of Surface Waters of the United States,' and water levels for the 1939 through 1974 water years were published under the title 'Ground-Water Levels in the United States.' The above mentioned Water-Supply Papers may be consulted in the libraries of the principal cities of the United States and may be purchased from U.S. Geological Survey, Information Services, Box 25286, Denver Federal Center, Box 25425, Denver, CO 80225-0286. Publications similar to this report are published annually by the Geological Survey for all States. These official Survey reports have an identification number consisting of the two-letter State abbreviation, the last two digits of the water year, and the volume number. For example, this volume is identified as 'U.S. Geological Survey Water-Data Report MARI-98-1.' For archiving and general d

Socolow, R. S.; Zanca, J. L.; Murino, Domenic, Jr.; Ramsbey, L. R.

2000-01-01

205

Engineered lumber: An alternative to old-growth resources  

SciTech Connect

People and the environment both have a stake in the future of our forest. Any solution that doesn't consider the two will not resolve the current conflicts such as those occurring in the Pacific Northwest. One answer to the threatened shortage of dimension lumber, and the possibility of reduced harvests in many areas throughout the nation, comes from new-generation technology that can turn logs from young, fast-growing trees into high-quality framing lumber -- the kind that is traditionally obtained from the embattled old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest. Used primarily in residential construction, [open quotes]engineered lumber[close quotes] is made from strands of wood or veneer generally cut from small-diameter, plentiful trees. High-tech processes bond these wood fibers together with adhesives under heat and pressure to produce structurally engineered lumber. Engineered lumber also has applications in commercial and industrial construction, both as a structural material and as a decorative product. For instance, engineered lumber products were used to create a curved roof truss system on a factory in Austria, while exposed engineered beams adorn the lobbies of office buildings worldwide. Unlike alternative material such as plastic and steel, engineered lumber products are made from a renewable resource and their manufacture consumes far less energy.

Ryan, D. (Trus Joist MacMillan, Boise, ID (United States))

1993-11-01

206

Water resources inventory of northwest Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources of the 16 counties of the northwest Florida appear adequate unitl at least 2020. In the 4 westernmost counties, the sand-and-gravel aquifer and streams combined could provide 2,200 to 3,600 million gallons per day of water. Streams outside these counties could provide 5,600 million gallons per day. The Floridan aquifer could provide 220 million gallons per day. Generally, water of quality suitable for most purposes is available throughout the area, although water in smaller streams and in the sand-and-gravel aquifer is acidic and locally contains excessive iron. Water in the upper part of the Floridan aquifer is generally fresh, but saline at depth and in some coastal areas. The quantity of water available in the study area is about 8,020 to 9,420 million gallons per day and projected needs for the year 2020 range from 2,520 to 4,130 million gallons per day. ' Approximate method ' flood-prone area maps cover most of the area. (Woodard-USGS)

Dysart, J. E.; Pascale, C. A.; Trapp, Henry

1977-01-01

207

Mineral and water resources of Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The mineral and water resources of Nevada are summarily described in this report. Following a general description of the mineral industry and of the geology of the State as a whole, the occurrence, distribution, and relative importance of individual commodities are discussed in some detail. All mineral commodities are described that are known to occur in Nevada and that might have economic significance in the foreseeable future, whether or not they have been mined. In the description of the geology of the State, a section on economic geology describes the distribution of the metallic and nonmetallic mineral deposits both areally and with respect to the general geologic features. A knowledge of the pattern of distribution of known mineral deposits of various types is essential to the successful search for new ore bodies. A section on mineral exploration discusses the methods and problems of exploration, and also considers which commodities in Nevada offer the greatest promise of new discoveries in the future. Water resources are described rather fully in this report; water in this generally arid part of the Great Basin is vital to the economy of the State and to the well-being of its people. Sources of waterpower and geothermal power are also discussed. (auth)

None

1974-01-01

208

Cooling apparatus for water-cooled engines  

SciTech Connect

A cooling apparatus is described for a water-cooled internal combustion engine including a shaft that rotates when the engine is running, the apparatus comprising a centrifugal fan adapted to be connected to and rotated by the shaft, the fan having an intake air port and a discharge air opening, a rotary screen adapted to be operatively connected to and rotated by the shaft, the screen being disposed in the intake air port, a cooling radiator, a spiral-shaped duct connecting the radiator with the discharge air opening, and separating means on the duct, the separating means comprising an opening formed in the outer wall of the duct.

Fujikawa, T.; Tamba, S.

1986-05-20

209

Optimality versus stability in water resource allocation.  

PubMed

Water allocation is a growing concern in a developing world where limited resources like fresh water are in greater demand by more parties. Negotiations over allocations often involve multiple groups with disparate social, economic, and political status and needs, who are seeking a management solution for a wide range of demands. Optimization techniques for identifying the Pareto-optimal (social planner solution) to multi-criteria multi-participant problems are commonly implemented, although often reaching agreement for this solution is difficult. In negotiations with multiple-decision makers, parties who base decisions on individual rationality may find the social planner solution to be unfair, thus creating a need to evaluate the willingness to cooperate and practicality of a cooperative allocation solution, i.e., the solution's stability. This paper suggests seeking solutions for multi-participant resource allocation problems through an economics-based power index allocation method. This method can inform on allocation schemes that quantify a party's willingness to participate in a negotiation rather than opt for no agreement. Through comparison of the suggested method with a range of distance-based multi-criteria decision making rules, namely, least squares, MAXIMIN, MINIMAX, and compromise programming, this paper shows that optimality and stability can produce different allocation solutions. The mismatch between the socially-optimal alternative and the most stable alternative can potentially result in parties leaving the negotiation as they may be too dissatisfied with their resource share. This finding has important policy implications as it justifies why stakeholders may not accept the socially optimal solution in practice, and underlies the necessity of considering stability where it may be more appropriate to give up an unstable Pareto-optimal solution for an inferior stable one. Authors suggest assessing the stability of an allocation solution as an additional component to an analysis that seeks to distribute water in a negotiated process. PMID:24412983

Read, Laura; Madani, Kaveh; Inanloo, Bahareh

2014-01-15

210

AOIPS water resources data management system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A geocoded data management system applicable for hydrological applications was designed to demonstrate the utility of the Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System (AOIPS) for hydrological applications. Within that context, the geocoded hydrology data management system was designed to take advantage of the interactive capability of the AOIPS hardware. Portions of the Water Resource Data Management System which best demonstrate the interactive nature of the hydrology data management system were implemented on the AOIPS. A hydrological case study was prepared using all data supplied for the Bear River watershed located in northwest Utah, southeast Idaho, and western Wyoming.

Merritt, E. S.; Shotwell, R. L.; Place, M. C.; Belknap, N. J.

1976-01-01

211

AOIPS water resources data management system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The text and computer-generated displays used to demonstrate the AOIPS (Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System) water resources data management system are investigated. The system was developed to assist hydrologists in analyzing the physical processes occurring in watersheds. It was designed to alleviate some of the problems encountered while investigating the complex interrelationships of variables such as land-cover type, topography, precipitation, snow melt, surface runoff, evapotranspiration, and streamflow rates. The system has an interactive image processing capability and a color video display to display results as they are obtained.

Vanwie, P.

1977-01-01

212

ANALYTICAL CAPABILITY - ISOTOPE HYDROLOGY LABORATORY (WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT BRANCH, WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The mission of NRMRL's Water Supply and Water Resources Division's Isotope Hydrology Laboratory is to resolve environmental hydrology problems through research and application of naturally occurring isotopes. Analytical capabilities at IHL include light stable isotope radio mass...

213

Water--1970. Chemical Engineering Progress Symposium Series No. 107, Volume 67, 1971.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to the tremendous interest in all phases of environmental control, particularly with reference to water pollution control, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) is attempting to provide the lay public with accurate information about water resources so they may react with proper knowledge and constructive activity. This anthology…

Cecil, Lawrence K., Ed.

214

Water resource management planning guide for Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Water Resource Management Planning Guide provides an outline for the development of a Savannah River Plant Water Resource Management Plan (WRMP) to protect, manage, and monitor the site's water resources. The management plan is based on three principle elements: (1) protection of the water quality, (2) management of the water quantity, and (3) monitoring of the water quality and quantity. The plan will assure that changes in water quality and quantity are identified and that corrective action is implemented as needed. In addition, water management activities within and between Savannah River Plant (SRP) organizations and departments will be coordinated to ensure the proper management of water resources. This document is intended as a guide to suggest goals and objectives that will provide a basis for the development of a water resource plan for SRP. Planning should be flexible rather than rigid, and the plan outlines in this document was prepared to be modified or updated as conditions necessitate. 16 refs., 12 figs.

Hubbard, J.E.; Stephenson, D.E.; Steele, J.L. (Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Lab.); Gordon, D.E. (Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Plant)

1988-10-01

215

Scenario Planning of California Water Resources with Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several advances have been made in using climate change projection information in water resources planning in California. Since there is uncertainty about future climate, 12 climate change projections were used to assess impacts on SWP and CVP operations. Average results for the 12 projections are presented in this summary. Current SWP and CVP infrastructure, regulations and operating rules were assumed. These studies indicate that climate change is expected to reduce the reliability of the SWP and CVP water supply systems. Annual Delta exports are expected to be reduced by 8% by mid-century and 15% by the end of the century. This would lead to reduced water deliveries south of the Delta. Decreases in reservoir carryover storage of 16% by mid-century and 28% by the end of the century would reduce the system's flexibility during water shortages. Groundwater pumping in the Sacramento Valley is expected to increase by 8% by mid-century and by 13% at the end of the century to augment surface water supplies. Power supply from the combined SWP and CVP is expected to decrease by 5% at mid-century and 8% by the end of the century. It is anticipated that the SWP and CVP will become vulnerable to operational interruption in about 10% of the years by mid-century and 15% of the years at the end of the century. To meet current regulatory requirements and to maintain minimum system operations during the vulnerable years, an additional 420 TAF/year of water by mid-century and an additional 610 TAF/year of water by the end of the century would be needed. This water could be obtained through additional water supplies, reductions in water demands, or a combination of the two. These results indicate a need to explore adaptation measures to improve the reliability of future water supplies in California. Because uncertainties associated with impacts analyses increase as the projection moves further into the future, and because a practical engineering planning horizon for most facilities is less than 50 years, DWR believes that the mid-century analyses are more relevant to water resources planning and management. However, the end of the century analyses will serve as a useful reference guide since many water facilities are expected to have useful lives into the next century.

Yin, H.; Chung, F. I.; Anderson, J.

2008-12-01

216

Mine waste management: A resource for mining industry professionals, regulators and consulting engineers  

SciTech Connect

Mine Waste Management is a valuable resource for mining industry professionals, regulators, and consulting engineers. This book deals with many of the important water quality and design issues at mine waste management units. Topics include an evaluation of the performance of waste containment at modern mining operations, the philosophy of waste containment, mine waste characterization, disposal facility liner and closure designs, ground water monitoring, heap leach operations, and an analysis of the cost impacts of mine waste disposal. The material presented includes technical discussions and information, as well as recommendations on how the technical issues can be accommodated in mine waste regulations.

Hutchison, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D. (eds.)

1992-01-01

217

Assessment and Recommendations for Community Water Resources Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examined local planning in response to water supply shortages and related water quality and land management factors in a case study suburban town (Stoughton) near Boston, Massachusetts. Following initial survey of local water resource issues in...

1980-01-01

218

Optimization in water distribution systems engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and operation of water distribution systems is explained briefly, and the basic mathematical tools used to analyze\\u000a their physical behaviour are outlined. Methods for optimal planning, design and operation are presented and discussed. They\\u000a are grouped according to the engineering problem which they address and to the method of solution. This survey is given at\\u000a a level of

Uri Shamir

219

Clean option: Berkeley Pit water treatment and resource recovery strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development, established the Resource Recovery Project (RRP) in 1992 as a five-year effort to evaluate and demonstrate multiple technologies for recovering water, metals, and other industrial resources from contaminated surface and groundwater. Natural water resources located throughout the DOE complex and the and western states have been rendered unusable because of

M. A. Gerber; R. J. Orth; M. R. Elmore; B. F. Monzyk

1995-01-01

220

Integrated Water Resources Simulation Model for Rural Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to develop several water resources simulation models for residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms and then integrate these models for a rural community. Domestic and irrigation water uses are the major water demand in rural community. To build up a model estimating domestic water demand for residence houses, the average water use per person per day should be accounted first, including water uses of kitchen, bathroom, toilet and laundry. On the other hand, rice is the major crop in the study region, and its productive efficiency sometimes depends on the quantity of irrigation water. The water demand can be estimated by crop water use, field leakage and water distribution loss. Irrigation water comes from rainfall, water supply system and reclaimed water which treated by constructed wetland. In recent years, constructed wetlands play an important role in water resources recycle. They can purify domestic wastewater for water recycling and reuse. After treating from constructed wetlands, the reclaimed water can be reused in washing toilets, watering gardens and irrigating farms. Constructed wetland is one of highly economic benefits for treating wastewater through imitating the processing mechanism of natural wetlands. In general, the treatment efficiency of constructed wetlands is determined by evapotranspiration, inflow, and water temperature. This study uses system dynamics modeling to develop models for different water resource components in a rural community. Furthermore, these models are integrated into a whole system. The model not only is utilized to simulate how water moves through different components, including residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms, but also evaluates the efficiency of water use. By analyzing the flow of water, the water resource simulation model can optimizes water resource distribution under different scenarios, and the result can provide suggestions for designing water resource system of a rural community. Keywords: Water Resources, Simulation Model, Domestic Water, Irrigation, Constructed Wetland, Rural Community

Li, Y.-H.; Liao, W.-T.; Tung, C.-P.

2012-04-01

221

Water Resources Management Issues in Turkey and Recommendations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prevailing trends towards rising population, increasing urbanization, spread of more water intensive life styles as well as widespread use of water intensive agriculture sweeping around the world are going to make water resources even scarcer especially in countries like Turkey with scarce water resources and high development and population growth rate, economic and social aspects of water resources become even more important. Turkey, like many countries today, faces challenges in efficiently developing and managing its limited water resources while maintaining water quality and protecting the environment. To add to the challenge, Turkey will need to continue to develop its water resources in order for its economic and social development to keep pace with its rapidly growing and urbanizing population. This article deals with water resources management problems in Turkey and provides recommendations on water resources management issues at the country level. Its objectives are to summarize key water resources management issues to review institutional and legal framework and to provide suggestions for effective water resources management in Turkey.

Emin Baris, Mehmet; Ayfer Karadag, Aybike

222

18 CFR 701.3 - Purpose of the Water Resources Council.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purpose of the Water Resources Council. 701.3 Section 701.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL...

2014-04-01

223

Water resources of the Southeast Lowlands, Missouri  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Southeast Lowlands of Missouri occupies 4,000 square miles of prime agricultural land of the Coastal Plain in the extreme southeastern corner of Missouri. Even though this area receives about 4 feet of rainfall per year, there is a rapidly increasing demand for water for irrigation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the water resources of this area with particular emphasis on the extent of irrigation and the potential of the groundwater system to support further irrigation development. The area is underlain by consolidated aquifers of Paleozoic age and unconsolidated aquifers of Mesozoic and Cenozoic age. The consolidated aquifers, although possessing the potential to yield large quantities of water, generally are not used throughout much of the area because they lie at considerable death and alternate supplies are readily available. The McNairy aquifer, which underlies about three-fourths of the area, ranges from 0 to 600 feet in thickness with the top lying from 0 to more than 2,200 feet below land surface. This system is attractive as a municipal water supply because of its large artesian head and the small iron and hardness concentrations of the water. Although this system is now used exclusively for municipal water supplies, the McNairy may become more important in the future as a heat source. The Wilcox Group (undivided), which underlies more than one-half of the area and almost always lies less than 300 feet below land surface, is as much as 1,400 feet thick. However, usually only the basal 250 to 500 feet of this group is used as an aquifer. This system, which in some areas is capable of yielding as much as 1,500 gallons per minute to properly constructed wells, is now primarily used for municipal supplies. The alluvial aquifer underlies most of the area and is locally capable of yielding more than 3,000 gallons per minute. This aquifer generally is 100 to 200 feet thick, but in several places more than 250 feet of alluvium has been reported. Irrigation wells withdraw an estimated 95,000 acre-feet per year from this aquifer, whereas municipal, industrial, and domestic wells withdraw an estimated additional 17,000 acre-feet per year. This compares to nearly 6 million acre-feet per year natural discharge and a total storage of 60 million acre feet. The surface-water system in the area consists of a few natural rivers and many manmade ditches. Although a considerable quantity of water is available from the surface-water system, this system is not extensively used because attractive alternative sources are readily available. (USGS)

Luckey, R. R.; Fuller, D. L.

1985-01-01

224

Clean option: Berkeley Pit water treatment and resource recovery strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development, established the Resource Recovery Project (RRP) in 1992 as a five-year effort to evaluate and demonstrate multiple technologies for recovering water, metals, and other industrial resourc...

M. A. Gerber R. J. Orth M. R. Elmore B. F. Monzyk

1995-01-01

225

Total Water Management: The New Paradigm for Urban Water Resources Planning  

EPA Science Inventory

There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current resource management practices put different stresses on local water resources and urban infrastructure. Total Water Manag...

226

WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING TOOLS FOR GEORGIA RIVER BASINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents water resources management and planning tools proposed for Georgia watersheds. The proposed water resources management and planning tools consist of a hydrologic model, a water management model, and a cumulative hydrologic impact assessment or scenario analysis tool. The Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF) is selected to model streamflow data for Georgia watersheds (Bicknell et al., 2001).

Yusuf Mohamoud

227

Water resources management: case study of Sharkia governorate, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ministry of water resources and irrigation in Egypt is currently implementing projects that expand new cultivated area, and accordingly the supplies of Nile River to the Nile Delta will be negatively affected. So, Enormous interest toward water resources management has been taken in the Egyptian water sector. Conveyance infrastructure and irrigation technology has been gradually improved to ensure efficient distribution and utilization of scarce water resources. The present study is focused on the optimum utilization of water resources in Sharkia governorate, Egypt. Operational and planning distribution model is implemented on the selected case study (Sharkia governorate) to develop appropriate water plan. The gross revenue of all crops is correlated to surface water discharge, ground water discharge, surface water salinity, and ground water salinity. In addition, the effect of varying both surface and groundwater quantities and qualities on the gross revenue has been investigated. Moreover, the effect of limiting rice production on the gross revenue is allocated.

Mohamed, Y. A.; Rashad, M.

2012-06-01

228

Integrating Economics into Water Resources Systems Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need to integrate economic and hydro-engineering models has been long recognized and is the subject of several articles and literature surveys. However difficulties of obtaining sufficient precision of economic data to span the significant differences in both spatial and temporal scales presents challenges, and opportunities for the use of new technologies. Most hydrologic models run on a daily time step, or at a minimum, monthly, whereas many economic models, particularly of agriculture, are estimated on an annual time step. The asymmetry in difficulty of downscaling versus aggregating is briefly reviewed, and an example of down-scaling irrigation water value functions to a monthly time step, using information from crop water use models is presented. Similarly, the spatial cell resolution of hydro-engineering models is usually much finer than economic models, which are usually aggregated at the level that prices or production quantities are reported. A method of downscaling regional measures of crop production and water use to the field level using the additional information from remote sensing measurements is demonstrated in the context of agricultural production in California's central valley. A problem that arises is that for spatial crop production the available data from Landsat measurements processed by NAAS in pixel form is very noisy when overlaid onto a field level boundary GIS layer. For complex cropping systems such as those found in California, it is not uncommon to have three different categories of pixel identification in the same field. The approach discussed uses a cross-entropy approach and additional data from locally measured sources, to estimate the most likely uniform crop in any given field. In addition, constraints on the combination of different sized fields and the total regional acreage measured by local county commissioners provides additional information and structure on the estimates. Initial results show significant noise in the estimates, but given the consistency of the sampling method and relative stability of crop types grown in a given region, this seems a natural application for improved estimates from sequential filtering. Over time with improved ground-truthing, we can expect steadily improving precision of field level crop estimates. Using these approaches, economic analysts can construct models of water value functions that are able to be empirically estimated on spatial and temporal scales that are compatible with hydro-economic models.

Howitt, R.

2012-12-01

229

Bibliography of selected water-resources publications by the U.S. Geological Survey for North Carolina, 1886-1995  

USGS Publications Warehouse

More than 660 selected publications, written by scientists, engineers, and technicians of the U.S. Geological Survey during the period 1886-1995, compose the bulk of information about North Carolina?s water resources. The bibliography includes interpretive reports on water resources, ground water, surface water, water quality, and public-water supply and water use, as well as data reports on the same subjects. The interpretive reports are organized by geographic areas of the State. These areas include statewide, physiographic province, major river basin, and county. The data reports are listed by water-resource topic, and the introduction to each topic provides historical notes for data-collection and publication activities. Summary tables list Water-Supply Paper numbers for reports containing ground-water, surface-water, and water-quality data by calendar year or water year. A concluding section discusses the availability of U.S. Geological Survey publications.

Winner, M. D., Jr.

1996-01-01

230

Environmental Tracers for Determining Water Resource Vulnerability to Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Predicted changes in the climate will have profound impacts on water availability in the Western US, but large uncertainties exist in our ability to predict how natural and engineered hydrological systems will respond. Most predictions suggest that the impacts of climate change on California water resources are likely to include a decrease in the percentage of precipitation that falls as snow, earlier onset of snow-pack melting, and an increase in the number of rain on snow events. These processes will require changes in infrastructure for water storage and flood control, since much of our current water supply system is built around the storage of winter precipitation as mountain snow pack. Alpine aquifers play a critical role by storing and releasing snowmelt as baseflow to streams long after seasonal precipitation and the disappearance of the snow pack, and in this manner significantly impact the stream flow that drives our water distribution systems. Mountain groundwater recharge and, in particular, the contribution of snowmelt to recharge and baseflow, has been identified as a potentially significant effect missing from current climate change impact studies. The goal of this work is to understand the behavior of critical hydrologic systems, with an emphasis on providing ground truth for next generation models of climate-water system interactions by implementing LLNL capabilities in environmental tracer and isotopic science. We are using noble gas concentrations and multiple isotopic tracers ({sup 3}H/{sup 3}He, {sup 35}S, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H, {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O, and {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C) in groundwater and stream water in a small alpine catchment to (1) provide a snapshot of temperature, altitude, and physical processes at the time of recharge, (2) determine subsurface residence times (over time scales ranging from months to decades) of different groundwater age components, and (3) deconvolve the contribution of these different groundwater components to alpine stream baseflow. This research is showing that groundwater in alpine areas spends between a few years to several decades in the saturated zone below the surface, before feeding into streams or being pumped for use. This lag time may act to reduce the impact on water resources from extreme wet or dry years. Furthermore, our measurements show that the temperature of water when it reaches the water table during recharge is 4 to 9 degrees higher than would be expected for direct influx of snowmelt, and that recharge likely occurs over diffuse vegetated areas, rather than along exposed rock faces and fractures. These discoveries have implications for how alpine basins will respond to climate effects that lead to more rain than snow and earlier snow pack melting.

Singleton, M

2009-07-08

231

Water resources by orbital remote sensing: Examples of applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Selected applications of orbital remote sensing to water resources undertaken by INPE are described. General specifications of Earth application satellites and technical characteristics of LANDSAT 1, 2, 3, and 4 subsystems are described. Spatial, temporal and spectral image attributes of water as well as methods of image analysis for applications to water resources are discussed. Selected examples are referred to flood monitoring, analysis of water suspended sediments, spatial distribution of pollutants, inventory of surface water bodies and mapping of alluvial aquifers.

Martini, P. R. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

232

Quantitative determination of engine water ingestion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a novel non-intrusive optical technique for determination of liquid mass flux in a droplet laden airstream. The technique was developed for quantitative determination of engine water ingestion resulting from heavy rain or wheel spray. Independent measurements of the liquid water content (LWC) of the droplet laden aircraft and of the droplet velocities were made at the simulated nacelle inlet plane for the liquid mass flux determination. The liquid water content was measured by illuminating and photographing the droplets contained within a thin slice of the flow field by means of a sheet of light from a pulsed YAG laser. A fluorescent dye introduced in the water greatly improved the droplet image definition. The droplet velocities were determined from double exposed photographs of the moving droplet field. The technique was initially applied to a steady spray generated in a wind tunnel. It was found that although the spray was initially steady, the aerodynamic breakup process was inherently unsteady. This resulted in a wide variation of the instantaneous liquid water content of the droplet laden airstream. The standard deviation of ten separate LWC measurements was 31 percent of the average. However, the liquid mass flux calculated from the average LWC and droplet velocities came within 10 percent of the known water ingestion rate.

Parikh, P.; Hernan, M.; Sarohia, V.

1986-01-01

233

A stochastic optimization approach for integrated urban water resource planning.  

PubMed

Urban water is facing the challenges of both scarcity and water quality deterioration. Consideration of nonconventional water resources has increasingly become essential over the last decade in urban water resource planning. In addition, rapid urbanization and economic development has led to an increasing uncertain water demand and fragile water infrastructures. Planning of urban water resources is thus in need of not only an integrated consideration of both conventional and nonconventional urban water resources including reclaimed wastewater and harvested rainwater, but also the ability to design under gross future uncertainties for better reliability. This paper developed an integrated nonlinear stochastic optimization model for urban water resource evaluation and planning in order to optimize urban water flows. It accounted for not only water quantity but also water quality from different sources and for different uses with different costs. The model successfully applied to a case study in Beijing, which is facing a significant water shortage. The results reveal how various urban water resources could be cost-effectively allocated by different planning alternatives and how their reliabilities would change. PMID:23552255

Huang, Y; Chen, J; Zeng, S; Sun, F; Dong, X

2013-01-01

234

Human Resource Contributions to U.S. Science and Engineering from China  

NSF Publications Database

Human Resource Contributions to U.S. Science and Engineering From China (January 12, 2001) This ... issue brief presents trends in the flow of Chinese graduate students in science and engineering to U ...

235

Multi-agent Water Resources Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing environmental awareness and emerging trends such as water trading, energy market, deregulation and democratization of water-related services are challenging integrated water resources planning and management worldwide. The traditional approach to water management design based on sector-by-sector optimization has to be reshaped to account for multiple interrelated decision-makers and many stakeholders with increasing decision power. Centralized management, though interesting from a conceptual point of view, is unfeasible in most of the modern social and institutional contexts, and often economically inefficient. Coordinated management, where different actors interact within a full open trust exchange paradigm under some institutional supervision is a promising alternative to the ideal centralized solution and the actual uncoordinated practices. This is a significant issue in most of the Southern Alps regulated lakes, where upstream hydropower reservoirs maximize their benefit independently form downstream users; it becomes even more relevant in the case of transboundary systems, where water management upstream affects water availability downstream (e.g. the River Zambesi flowing through Zambia, Zimbabwe and Mozambique or the Red River flowing from South-Western China through Northern Vietnam. In this study we apply Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) theory to design an optimal management in a decentralized way, considering a set of multiple autonomous agents acting in the same environment and taking into account the pay-off of individual water users, which are inherently distributed along the river and need to coordinate to jointly reach their objectives. In this way each real-world actor, representing the decision-making entity (e.g. the operator of a reservoir or a diversion dam) can be represented one-to-one by a computer agent, defined as a computer system that is situated in some environment and that is capable of autonomous action in this environment in order to meet its design objectives. The proposed approach is numerically tested on a synthetic case study, characterized by two multi-purpose reservoirs in cascade, two diversion dams and four different conflicting water uses: hydropower energy production, drinking supply, flooding prevention along the reservoir shores and irrigation supply. The system is therefore composed by four agents: the two operators of the diversion dams, which are purely reactive agents since they simply respond directly to the environment, and the operators of the two reservoirs, which are more complex agents because they have an internal state and their decisions are taken according to a closed-loop control scheme. In particular, the set of agents can act considering only their own objectives or they can coordinate to jointly reach better compromise solutions. Different interaction scenarios between the two extreme behaviours of centralized management and completely non-cooperation are simulated and analysed.

Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.

2011-12-01

236

USEPA?s Water Resource Adaptation Program (WRAP) ? Drinking Water Research and Global Climate Change  

EPA Science Inventory

The Water Resource Adaptation Program (WRAP) contributes to EPA?s efforts to provide water resource managers and decision makers with the tools they need to adapt water resources (e.g., watersheds and infrastructure) to future climate change and demographic and economic developme...

237

Developing Economic Arrangements for Water Resources Management : The potential of stakeholder oriented Water Valuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As water is increasingly recognized as a scarce resource, the use of economic arrangements for water resources management seems increasingly promising. Experiences show that economic arrangements can contribute to a more efficient use of water resources but only if specific conditions are met, related to a well-functioning institutional framework and regulations that ensure that the use of economic arrangements is

Leon Hermans; Halsema van G. E; Daniel Renault

2006-01-01

238

Water resource management in Kabul river basin, eastern Afghanistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe drinking water shortage affects all resident of the Kabul river basin. Two and a half decades of civil war in Afghanistan\\u000a (it began in late 1978) have resulted in widespread environmental degradation and water resource development throughout the\\u000a country. The war has already finished and, therefore, water resource management for supplying water is one of the most important\\u000a tasks

G. R. Lashkaripour; S. A. Hussaini

2008-01-01

239

Global Review of Resource and Environmental Policies: Water Resource Development and Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews how 30 countries develop and manage their water resources. Because the focus of the report is on agriculture, particular attention is given to irrigation. The study found that differing climatic conditions, demand for water, and histor...

G. Vocke

1994-01-01

240

U.S. Geological Survey - Water Resources of Virginia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can access information on Virginia water resources, including real-time streamflow and ground water data, water quality data, and water use data. Interactive streamflow and groundwater level maps allow the user to locate recent data on stream discharge, gage height,and water level. Annual surface water and ground water reports are available from 1995. Other materials include information on the Chesapeake Bay river input monitoring program, links to U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) publications and information on USGS projects in Virginia; and links to USGS outreach and educational resources. Weather information is also available.

241

Towards sustainable water resources management : A case study from Saxony-Anhalt, Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Water Framework Directive is the basis of sustainable water resources management in the European Union. The required “good status” of waterbodies can be achieved only by encouraging the application of natural renewable-energy-driven ecological engineering. Ecotechnological methods in wastewater treatment (e.g. constructed wetlands) can remove more than 90 per cent of total N and P, and organic load. These

Volker Lüderitz

2004-01-01

242

THE TOURISTIC POTENTIAL OF WATER RESOURCES IN SUCEAVA DISTRICT  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was realised a map of the touristic potential of the water resources in Suceava District and various aspects of this potential are discussed. Rivers, lakes, swamps, springs and other forms of water which represents a touristic resource are detailed by functional domains; from these, the mineral springs and the presence of the snow are the most important elements of

Andrei-Emil BRICIU; Dinu OPREA-GANCEVICI

2011-01-01

243

Water Resource Planning in the Urban-Metropolitan Contex.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water resource planning theory and practice in the United States are examined in terms of their suitability to deal with current and future urban-metropolitan water resource problems and needs. A criticism of current theory and practice suggests an analys...

M. M. Hufschmidt K. Elfer

1971-01-01

244

Trend detection in seasonal data: from hydrology to water resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a tool (MASH) for Exploratory Data Analysis and trend detection in climate, hydrology and water resources.MASH can effectively handle time series with seasonality and interannual variability.Significant hydrological trends do not necessarily reflect into water resources.

Anghileri, Daniela; Pianosi, Francesca; Soncini-Sessa, Rodolfo

2014-04-01

245

International Framework for the Management of Transboundary Water Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is increasingly perceived as a strategic resource for the twenty-first century. A new framework for the management of water resources in international river basins is necessary to overcome some of the persistent conflicts related to international rivers. This article provides a general description of transboundary issues related to international watercourses, with a focus on situations involving European Union Member

Francisco Nunes Correia; Joaquim Evaristo da Silva

1999-01-01

246

Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo.  

PubMed

Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage. PMID:21870064

Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor

2012-04-01

247

Natural resources accounting: A tool for water resources management in Botswana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural Resource Accounting (NRA) has become an important environmental/natural resources management tool in recent years. It provides information on stocks of a resource available at a particular point in time and what activities the resource is being used for. The conventional System of National Income Accounts (SNA) normally does not capture the cost of depletion, degradation or pollution of natural resources. This encourages unsustainable use of natural resources since the costs are not reflected when assessing the country’s economic performance or development progress. NRA is thus an attempt to integrate environmental issues into the conventional national accounts. The water sector is one sector that could greatly benefit from this natural resource management tool. Botswana has adopted NRA as a natural resource management tool and has so far developed accounts for minerals, livestock and water. The focus of this paper is on Water Accounting (WA) in relation to Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). IWRM is concerned with coordinated development and management of water in order to maximise economic and social welfare without compromising the sustainability of ecosystems. WA helps fill data gaps since it provides the required information for IWRM to be achieved. The aim of this paper therefore is to evaluate the Water Accounts of Botswana Report of 2006 to determine the extent to which it can contribute to integrated water resources management. The paper is based on literature review and the results show that: the available water stocks vary depending on rainfall patterns, well fields are over utilised, there has been growth in consumption, and more than 80% of the waste water produced is not being put to use. These results calls for changes in policies, role of institutions and practices pertaining to water resources management which is what IWRM is all about hence the paper concludes that indeed WA can contribute to the realisation of IWRM.

Hambira, Wame L.

248

The Wealth of Water: The Value of an Essential Resource  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students take water availability for granted and yet, by 2025, two-thirds of the world will not have access to clean drinking water. This case study is designed to encourage students to think about water as a limited natural resource and is used to highlight how the exploitation of water can have far-reaching social, political, and economic…

Rathburn, Melanie K.; Baum, Karina J.

2011-01-01

249

Competition for water resources of the Rio Guayas, Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing demands on limited water resources have led to increased salt water intrusion hazards in many estuaries. A particular example from Ecuador is examined in this paper. Guayaquil obtains its water supply from the Rio Daule, one of the tributaries of the Rio Guayas. The river also supplies water for irrigation and other uses. Increasing use of the limited fresh

J. WAITE

250

WATERS Network: An Initiative of the U.S. National Science Foundation Engineering and Geosciences Directorates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degradation of our nation's water resources is occurring at an unprecedented rate as a result of changes in the ways in which we interact with our environment. Unfortunately engineers, scientists, and policy makers have been hampered in their ability to respond to these rapid changes because we lack sufficient knowledge on the dynamics and spatial variability of environmental processes, and

J. L. Montgomery; B. Minsker; C. N. Haas; J. Schnoor; R. Hooper; W. Graham; K. Dressler; T. Harmon; D. Maidment; D. Reible; C. Welty; J. L. Wilson

2006-01-01

251

Technologies for water resources management: an integrated approach to manage global and regional water resources  

SciTech Connect

Recent droughts in California have highlighted and refocused attention on the problem of providing reliable sources of water to sustain the State`s future economic development. Specific elements of concern include not only the stability and availability of future water supplies in the State, but also how current surface and groundwater storage and distribution systems may be more effectively managed and upgraded, how treated wastewater may be more widely recycled, and how legislative and regulatory processes may be used or modified to address conflicts between advocates of urban growth, industrial, agricultural, and environmental concerns. California is not alone with respect to these issues. They are clearly relevant throughout the West, and are becoming more so in other parts of the US. They have become increasingly important in developing and highly populated nations such as China, India, and Mexico. They are critically important in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, especially as they relate to regional stability and security issues. Indeed, in almost all cases, there are underlying themes of `reliability` and `sustainability` that pertain to the assurance of current and future water supplies, as well as a broader set of `stability` and `security` issues that relate to these assurances--or lack thereof--to the political and economic future of various countries and regions. In this latter sense, and with respect to regions such as China, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia, water resource issues may take on a very serious strategic nature, one that is most illustrative and central to the emerging notion of `environmental security.` In this report, we have identified a suite of technical tools that, when developed and integrated together, may prove effective in providing regional governments the ability to manage their water resources. Our goal is to formulate a framework for an Integrated Systems Analysis (ISA): As a strategic planning tool for managing regional water resources; As an evaluation tool for selecting appropriate remediation technologies for reclaiming water; and As an assessment tool for determining the effectiveness of implementing the remediation technologies. We have included a discussion on the appropriate strategy for LLNL to integrate its technical tools into the global business, geopolitical, and academic communities, whereby LLNL can form partnerships with technology proponents in the commercial, industrial, and public sectors.

Tao, W. C., LLNL

1998-03-23

252

Non-conventional water resources and opportunities for water augmentation to achieve food security in water scarce countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given current demographic trends and future growth projections, as much as 60% of the global population may suffer water scarcity by the year 2025. The water-use efficiency techniques used with conventional resources have been improved. However, water-scarce countries will have to rely more on the use of non-conventional water resources to partly alleviate water scarcity. Non-conventional water resources are either

M. Qadir; B. R. Sharma; A. Bruggeman; R. Choukr-Allah; F. Karajeh

2007-01-01

253

The Concept of 'Peak Water' for Managing Water Resources in a Rapidly Changing World (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing water resources, and new threats to those resources, will require new thinking, strategies, and tools. Part of the inability to successfully address water problems is the result of traditional approaches to water management that fail to integrate economic, social, and political considerations into technology- and science-based strategies. In particular, human uses of water have consistently come at the expense

P. H. Gleick

2010-01-01

254

Experience in using the water resources of the Novosibirsk reservoir  

SciTech Connect

With the creation of the Novosibirsk hydrodevelopment a water-management complex was formed on its basis, which unites water users and water consumers such as hydropower, water transport, irrigation, municipal services, agriculture, forestry, and fishery. During the 30-year operation of the hydrodevelopment changes have occurred in the natural conditions on the stretch of the Ob river adjacent to the development which was the cause of the occurrence of a considerable shortage of water resources in years with a low runoff of the river. To increase the effectiveness of using water resources of the Novosibirsk reservoir, organizational and technical measures on providing the normal activities of the water-management complex under conditions of a water resource shortage have partially been and will be carried out in the near future.

Bityukov, V.P.

1988-07-01

255

Water Resources: Agricultural and Environmental Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing demands placed on the global water supply threaten biodiversity and the supply of water for food production and other vital human needs. Water shortages already exist in many regions, with more than one billion people without adequate drinking water. In addition, 90% of the infectious diseases in developing countries are transmitted from polluted water. Agriculture consumes about 70%

DAVID PIMENTEL; BONNIE BERGER; DAVID FILIBERTO; MICHELLE NEWTON; BENJAMIN WOLFE; ELIZABETH KARABINAKIS; STEVEN CLARK; ELAINE POON; ELIZABETH ABBETT; SUDHA NANDAGOPAL

2004-01-01

256

Sustainable Development and Integrated Management of Water Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter presents the principles of sustainable development and integrated management of water resources in the context\\u000a of water sharing between society and nature as well as in transboundary systems. The concept of sustainable development of\\u000a water resources is presented with a focus on the model elements and directionality, the perspective of ecological economics,\\u000a as well as the development of

Christophe J. G. Darnault

257

Evaluating participation in water resource management: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key documents such as the European Water Framework Directive and the U.S. Clean Water Act state that public and stakeholder participation in water resource management is required. Participation aims to enhance resource management and involve individuals and groups in a democratic way. Evaluation of participatory programs and projects is necessary to assess whether these objectives are being achieved and to identify how participatory programs and projects can be improved. The different methods of evaluation can be classified into three groups: (i) process evaluation assesses the quality of participation process, for example, whether it is legitimate and promotes equal power between participants, (ii) intermediary outcome evaluation assesses the achievement of mainly nontangible outcomes, such as trust and communication, as well as short- to medium-term tangible outcomes, such as agreements and institutional change, and (iii) resource management outcome evaluation assesses the achievement of changes in resource management, such as water quality improvements. Process evaluation forms a major component of the literature but can rarely indicate whether a participation program improves water resource management. Resource management outcome evaluation is challenging because resource changes often emerge beyond the typical period covered by the evaluation and because changes cannot always be clearly related to participation activities. Intermediary outcome evaluation has been given less attention than process evaluation but can identify some real achievements and side benefits that emerge through participation. This review suggests that intermediary outcome evaluation should play a more important role in evaluating participation in water resource management.

Carr, G.; BlöSchl, G.; Loucks, D. P.

2012-11-01

258

How WATERS Network Scientific and Engineering Research Will Benefit Science Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The WATERS Network will be a national cadre of environmental field facilities working to promote multidisciplinary research on critical environmental challenges. WATERS Network will enable the formulation and development of engineering solutions and policy options for the restoration and protection of water resources. This session will provide participants with an overview of the cyberinfrastructure of WATERS Network and its potential use by many audiences. The session will also serve as an pportunity to solicit feedback from the community regarding the structure and goals of the WATERS Network project. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators

2009-11-26

259

Engineered photocatalysts for detoxification of waste water  

SciTech Connect

This report describes progress on the development of engineered photocatalysts for the detoxification of water polluted with toxic organic compounds and heavy metals. We examined a range of different oxide supports (titania, alumina, magnesia and manganese dioxide) for tin uroporphyrin and investigated the efficacy of a few different porphyrins. A water-soluble octaacetic-acid-tetraphenylporphyrin and its derivatives have been synthesized and characterized in an attempt to design a porphyrin catalyst with a larger binding pocket. We have also investigated photocatalytic processes on both single crystal and powder forms of semiconducting SiC with an ultimate goal of developing a dual-semiconductor system combining TiO{sub 2} and SiC. Mathematical modeling was also performed to identify parameters that can improve the efficiency of SiC-based photocatalytic systems. Although the conceptual TiO{sub 2}/SiC photodiode shows some promises for photoreduction processes, SiC itself was found to be an inefficient photocatalyst when combined with TiO{sub 2}. Alternative semiconductors with bandgap and band potentials similar to SiC should be tested in the future for further development and a practical utilization of the dual photodiode concept.

Majumder, S.A.; Prairie, M.R.; Shelnutt, J.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Khan, S.U.M. [Duquesne Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry] [and others

1996-12-01

260

Assessment of Water Addition to Spark Ignition Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents an assessment of water addition to spark ignition engines based on data available in the open literature and on information obtained through communication with university, industrial, and government personnel. Water addition technique...

R. R. Covey, J. J. Donnelly

1982-01-01

261

Current water resources activities in Arkansas, 1984-85  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes water resources activities conducted by the Arkansas District of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, during fiscal years 1984 and 1985. Activities included surface water, groundwater, water quality, and water-use investigations. Twenty-five projects were funded during 1984 and 1985. For each project, a description of the project objectives, approach, plans and reports is included. Lists are included of reports completed during the period and of reports previously published by, or in conjunction with the Geological Survey. (USGS)

Louthian, B. L.; Gann, E. E.

1985-01-01

262

Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection  

DOEpatents

A six-stroke engine cycle having improved efficiency. Heat is recovered from the engine combustion gases by using a 6-stroke engine cycle in which combustion gases are partially vented proximate the bottom-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle, and water is injected proximate the top-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle.

Szybist, James P; Conklin, James C

2012-10-23

263

Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2001, Volume 3B. Southwest Florida Ground Water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2001 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 406 streams, periodic discharge for 12 streams, continuous daily stage for 142 streams, periodic stage for 12 streams, peak stage and discharge for 37 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 11 lakes, periodic elevations for 30 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 424 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,426 wells, and quality-of-water data for 80 surface-water sites and 245 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 128 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 33 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 347 wells; and water quality at 25 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

Stoker, Y. E.; Kane, R. L.; Fletcher, W. L.

2002-01-01

264

What about tomorrow. [Water resources and usage  

SciTech Connect

Our major national problems with water concern the distribution and use of water. Major conceptual plans to augment present water supplies are discussed, including the damming of Long Island Sound and towing icebergs from the Arctic. New and improved methods of irrigation are described, along with pricing incentives to encourage water conservation. The need for and general goals of a national water plan are outlined.

Tufty, B.

1984-08-01

265

Water resources. [monitoring and management from ERTS-1 data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ERTS-1 applications in snow and ice monitoring, surface water monitoring, including monitoring of wetland areas and flood inundated area mapping, and also watershed monitoring for runoff prediction are discussed. Results also indicate that geological features can be noted which relate to ground water. ERTS-1 data can be used successfully in operational situations by water resources management agencies.

Salomonson, V. V.

1974-01-01

266

Bibliography: Climate Change and Impact on US Water Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security has compiled a comprehensive and searchable (keyword) bibliography of "the peer-reviewed literature dealing with climate change and its effects on water resources and water systems of the United States." The bibliography currently contains over 750 citations, ranging from Regional Impact Assessments to Theoretical Studies on Climate and Water.

267

Water Resources Data for Georgia, 2002 (on CD-ROM).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2002 Water Resources Data CDROM includes the ability to delineate drainage areas for selected surface water stations; the ability to perform a radial search of USGS stations and wells by latitude and longitude; and the incorporation of 10-digit waters...

2002-01-01

268

The Concept of 'Peak Water' for Managing Water Resources in a Rapidly Changing World (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managing water resources, and new threats to those resources, will require new thinking, strategies, and tools. Part of the inability to successfully address water problems is the result of traditional approaches to water management that fail to integrate economic, social, and political considerations into technology- and science-based strategies. In particular, human uses of water have consistently come at the expense of ecosystems because of, initially, a lack of knowledge of the links between human and environmental water needs, and later, an inability to integrate the two. This talk will introduce the concept of "Peak Water," recently defined in three ways: peak renewable water resources, peak non-renewable water resources, and peak ecological water. Each of these terms offers the opportunity to help reshape water management decisions in particular regions in ways that can reduce risks to water systems and help managers develop adaptation strategies that meet multiple objectives.

Gleick, P. H.

2010-12-01

269

Resource Management and Contingencies in Aerospace Concurrent Engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

significant concern in designing complex systems implementing new technologies is that while knowledge about the system is acquired incrementally, substantial financial commitments, even make-or-break decisions, must be made upfront, essentially in the unknown. One practice that helps in dealing with this dichotomy is the smart embedding of contingencies and margins in the design to serve as buffers against surprises. This issue presents itself in full force in the aerospace industry, where unprecedented systems are formulated and committed to as a matter of routine. As more and more aerospace mission concepts are generated by concurrent design laboratories, it is imperative that such laboratories apply well thought-out contingency and margin structures to their designs. The first part of this publication provides an overview of resource management techniques and standards used in the aerospace industry. That is followed by a thought provoking treatise on margin policies. The expose presents the actual flight telemetry data recorded by the thermal discipline during several recent NASA Goddard Space Flight Center missions. The margins actually achieved in flight are compared against pre-flight predictions, and the appropriateness and the ramifications of having designed with rigid margins to bounding stacked worst case conditions are assessed. The second half of the paper examines the particular issues associated with the application of contingencies and margins in the concurrent engineering environment. In closure, a discipline-by-discipline disclosure of the contingency and margin policies in use at the Integrated Design Center at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center is made.

Karpati, Gabe; Hyde, Tupper; Peabody, Hume; Garrison, Matthew

2012-01-01

270

Standard Technical Specifications for Combustion Engineering Pressurized Water Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Standard Technical Specifications for Combustion Engineering Pressurized Water Reactors (CE-STS) is a generic document prepared by the U.S. NRC for use in the licensing process of current Combustion Engineering Pressurized Water Reactors. The CE-STS s...

D. J. Vito

1980-01-01

271

Water resources activities in Kentucky, 1993-94  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is the principal Federal water-resources data collection and investigation agency. Through the Water Resources Division District Office in Kentucky, the USGS investigates the occurrence, distribution, quantity, movement, and chemical and biological quality of surface and ground water in the State. The mission of this program is to collect, interpret, and publish information on water resources. Almost all research and data collection is a cooperative effort in which planning and financial support are shared by State and local agencies and governments. Other activities are funded by other Federal agencies or by direct Congressional appropriation. This report is intended to inform the public and cooperating agencies, vitally interested in the water resources of Kentucky, as to the current status of the Distfict's data collection and investigation program. Included in the report are summaries of water-resources activities in Kentucky conducted by the USGS. Also included is a description of the USGS mission and program, District organization, funding sources and cooperating agencies, and a list of USGS publications relevant to the water resources of the State.

compiled by Maglothin, L. S.; Forbes, R. W.

1994-01-01

272

PERCEPTION OF LAKE WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Lakes, impoundments, and reservoirs are complex environments. Many interacting factors determine water quality and recreational use potential. Each lake or reservoir is different and presents unique problems to water supply treatment operation and to full enjoyment by the public....

273

Impact of remote sensing upon the planning, management and development of water resources, appendix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lists are presented of water resource agencies from the federal, state, Water Resources Research Institute, university, local, and private sectors. Information is provided on their water resource activities, computers, and models used. For Basic doc., see N75-25263.

Castruccio, P. A.; Loats, H. L.; Fowler, T. R.; Frech, S. L.

1975-01-01

274

76 FR 50494 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...8381-1001-NZW] Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave...Scoping Period for Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for Mojave...Service is preparing a Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement...

2011-08-15

275

76 FR 27344 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NPS-PWR-PWRO-0215-6786; 8381-1001-NZW] Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental...ACTION: Notice of Intent to Prepare a Water Resources Management Plan/ Environmental...process needed to inform preparation of a Water Resources Management...

2011-05-11

276

18 CFR 701.3 - Purpose of the Water Resources Council.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...purpose of the Water Resources Council to effectuate...States in the Water Resources Planning Act (hereinafter...water and related land resources of the United States...localities, and private enterprise with the...

2010-04-01

277

18 CFR 701.3 - Purpose of the Water Resources Council.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...purpose of the Water Resources Council to effectuate...States in the Water Resources Planning Act (hereinafter...water and related land resources of the United States...localities, and private enterprise with the...

2009-04-01

278

30 CFR 402.7 - Water-Resources Technology Development Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Water-Resources Technology Development Program. 402.7 Section...RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE WATER-RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Description of...Programs § 402.7 Water-Resources Technology Development Program. (a)...

2011-07-01

279

30 CFR 402.7 - Water-Resources Technology Development Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Water-Resources Technology Development Program. 402.7 Section...RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE WATER-RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Description of...Programs § 402.7 Water-Resources Technology Development Program. (a)...

2012-07-01

280

Fiscal Year 1984 Program Report: Kentucky Water Resources Research Institute.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Kentucky Water Resources Research Institute Annual Report for Fiscal Year 1984 describes the problems and issues for the Commonwealth as determined by the State Advisory Council. The program goals and priorities of the Institute describe the areas of ...

1985-01-01

281

Chemical quality of water resources of the Conewango Creek basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report incorporates the data obtained in a study of the chemical quality of the water resources in the Conewango Creek basin, New York. The study was made during the period October 1951 to September 1952.

Beetem, W. A.

1954-01-01

282

Georgia Water Resources Institute Annual Technical Report, FY 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Fiscal Year 1998, the Georgia Water Resources Institute (GWRI) was involved in a wide range of activities. This report summarizes research, education, technology transfer, and information dissemination activities supported through the WRRI Competitive ...

1998-01-01

283

Methodical approaches in the Norwegian Master Plan for Water Resources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Norwegian Master Plan for Water Resources instructs the management not to consider applications for concession to develop hydroelectric projects in the so called category II of the plan. These are the environmentally most controversial projects or the...

E. Bowitz

1997-01-01

284

Bibliography of Water Resources of the Hawaiian Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bibliography is a comprehensive compilation of approximately 1,500 publications of studies on water resources of the Hawaiian Islands up to the Year 1966 collated by the IBM KWIC (keyword in context) program.

R. T. Pfund D. L. Steller

1971-01-01

285

The Optimal Expansion of a Water Resources System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the proposed research has been to develop a practical and effective strategy for the optimal expansion of a complex deterministic water resources system. Certain linear and nonlinear programming techniques have been combined and extended ...

D. M. Himmelblau

1973-01-01

286

Using NASA Products of the Water Cycle for Improved Water Resources Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA Water Resources works within the Earth sciences and GEO community to leverage investments of space-based observation and modeling results including components of the hydrologic cycle into water resources management decision support tools for the goal towards the sustainable use of water. These Earth science hydrologic related observations and modeling products provide a huge volume of valuable data in both

D. L. Toll; B. Doorn; E. T. Engman; R. G. Lawford

2010-01-01

287

Water resources data for montana, water year 1994. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1993-30 September 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resources data for Montana for the 1994 water year consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels in wells. This report contains discharge records for 224 gaging stations; stage\\/contents for 9 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 63 gaging stations, 39 water-quality stations, and

R. R. Shields; M. K. White; P. B. Ladd; C. L. Chambers

1995-01-01

288

Water resources data for Montana, water year 1992. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1991-30 September 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resources data for the water year 1992 for Montana consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels in wells. The report contains discharge records for 235 gaging stations; stage\\/contents for 9 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 99 stations, 3 lake stations; water levels

R. R. Shields; J. R. Knapton; M. K. White; T. M. Brosten; C. L. Chambers

1993-01-01

289

The science, information, and engineering needed to manage water availability and quality in 2050: Chapter 23  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This chapter explores four water resources issues: 1) hydrologic variability, hazards, water supply and ecosystem preservation; 2) urban landscape design; 3) non-point source water quality, and 4) climate change, resiliency, and nonstationarity. It also considers what science, technology, and engineering practice may be needed in the coming decades to sustain water supplies and ecosystems in the face of increasing stresses from a growing demand for water. Dealing with these four water resource issues in the highly uncertain future would will demand predictive models that are rooted in real-world data. In a non-stationary world, continuity of observations is crucial. All watersheds are influenced by human actions through changes in land use, water use, and climate. The focus of water planning and management between today and 2050 will depend more than ever on collection and analysis of long-term data to learn about the evolving state of the system, understanding ecosystem processes in the water and on the landscape, and finding innovative ways to manage water as a shared resource. This includes sharing water with our neighbors on the landscape, sharing with the other species that depend on water, and sharing with future generations.

Hirsch, Robert M.

2012-01-01

290

Landsat - What is operational in water resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applications of Landsat data in hydrology and water quality measurement were examined to determine which applications are operational. In hydrology, the principal applications have been surface water inventory, and land cover analysis for (1) runoff modeling and (2) abatement planning for non-point pollution and erosion. In water quality measurement, the principal applications have been: (1) trophic state assessment, and (2) measurement of turbidity and suspended sediment. The following applications were found to be operational: mapping of surface water, snow cover, and land cover (USGS Level 1) for watershed applications; measurement of turbidity, Secchi disk depth, suspended sediment concentration, and water depth.

Middleton, E. M.; Munday, J. C., Jr.

1981-01-01

291

Dangerous climate change and water resources in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resources in Australia are sensitive to changes in rainfall. Ongoing droughts in south-west and south-east Australia\\u000a are stressing water resources in the major cities and in agricultural regions. Climate change scenarios for Australia include\\u000a reasonable prospects of long-term drying, which would exacerbate these issues. The dryer scenarios would entail major readjustments\\u000a and costs on natural and human systems.

James S. Risbey

2011-01-01

292

Water resources and the urban environment--98  

SciTech Connect

This report contains all the papers presented at the meeting. There are 25 sessions and one poster session in the document. The Sessions are: (1) Landfill gas/groundwater interactions; (2) Urban solids management; (3) Local issues; (4) Surface water quality studies 1; (5) Reductive treatment of hazardous wastes with zero-valent iron; (6) Water reuse 1; (7) Biosolids management; (8) GIS information systems 1; (9) Drinking water distribution; (10) Anaerobic treatment; (11) Water reuse 2; (12) Municipal wastewater treatment technology; (13) GIS information systems 2; (14) Drinking water treatment 1; (15) Risk-based site remediation; (16) Small urban watersheds; (17) Disinfection; (18) Air pollution control and risk assessment; (19) Drinking water treatment 2; (20) Biological wastewater treatment; (21) Wastewater treatment; (22) Decentralized small-scale alternative wastewater management systems; (23) General environmental issues; (24) Drinking water treatment 3; and (25) Groundwater remediation. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

Wilson, T.E. [ed.

1998-07-01

293

Georgia's Ground-Water Resources and Monitoring Network, 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water is an abundant resource in Georgia, providing 1.45 billion gallons per day, or 22 percent, of the total freshwater used (including thermoelectric) in the State (Fanning, 2003). Contrasting geologic features and landforms of the physiographic provinces of Georgia affect the quantity and quality of ground water throughout the State. Most ground-water withdrawals are in the Coastal Plain in the southern one-half of the State, where aquifers are highly productive. For a more complete discussion of the State's ground-water resources, see Leeth and others (2005).

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2008-01-01

294

Water Use Patterns in Cyprus and Demand Management: Towards Water Resources Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The demand-side of the island’s water resources and pattern of water use by each sector, both current and into the future\\u000a are presented. More specifically, the water allocation and use by different economic sectors and geographical areas, with\\u000a special emphasis on the main water user in the island: the agricultural sector is described. The time profile of the population-water\\u000a resources

Iacovos Iacovides

295

Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides an assessment of the effects of climate change on U.S. agriculture, land resources, water resources, and biodiversity. It is one of a series of 21 Synthesis and Assessment Products (SAP) that are being produced under the auspices of t...

A. Janetos D. Schimel P. Backlund

2008-01-01

296

Historical review of the international water-resources program of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1940-70  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The review describes the history of the U.S. Geological Survey 's (USGS) activities in international water-resources investigations and institutional development as well as exchange in scientific and applied hydrology during 1940-70. The bulk of these activities has been carried out under the auspices of the U.S. Department of State, U.S. Agency for International Development and its predecessors, the United Nations and its specialized agencies, and the regional intergovernmental agencies. The central objectives of the USGS ' international water-resources activities have been to strengthen the administrative, staff, and operational functions of counterpart governmental hydrological and water-resources agencies; to improve the skills and capabilities of host-country scientific, engineering, and technical personnel; to exchange research specialists and publications in the sharing of advances in hydrological knowledge and methodology; and to participate in mutually beneficial international organizations, symposia, conferences, seminars, and special programs dedicated to various aspects of scientific and applied hydrology. Between 1940 and 1970, USGS hydrogeologists, water chemists, engineers, and hydrologists completed 340 short- and long-term project-oriented international assignments in some 80 host countries. During the same time more than 428 water scientists, engineers, and technicians from 60 countries have received academic and in-service training through USGS water-resources facilities in the United States. Also in this period some 336 reports of a technical and scientific nature have resulted from water-resources projects in the U.S bilateral program. (Woodard-USGS)

Taylor, George C., Jr.

1976-01-01

297

Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2001, Volume 3A. Southwest Florida Surface Water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2001 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 406 streams, periodic discharge for 12 streams, continuous daily stage for 142 streams, periodic stage for 12 streams, peak stage and discharge for 37 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 11 lakes, periodic elevations for 30 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 424 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,426 wells, and quality-of-water data for 80 surface-water sites and 245 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3A contains continuous or daily discharge for 83 streams, periodic discharge for 10 streams, continuous or daily stage for 43 streams, peak stage and discharge for 8 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 2 lakes, periodic elevations for 26 lakes, and quality-of-water data for 37 surface-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

Stoker, Y. E.; Kane, R. L.; Fletcher, W. L.

2002-01-01

298

Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2003, Volume 3A: Southwest Florida Surface Water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2003 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 385 streams, periodic discharge for 13 streams, continuous daily stage for 255 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage for 36 streams and peak discharge for 36 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 13 lakes, periodic elevations for 46 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 441 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,227 wells, and quality-of-water data for 133 surface-water sites and 308 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3A contains continuous or daily discharge for 103 streams, periodic discharge for 7 streams, continuous or daily stage for 67 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage and discharge for 8 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 2 lakes, periodic elevations for 26 lakes, and quality-of-water data for 62 surface-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

Kane, R. L.; Fletcher, W. L.

2004-01-01

299

Water resources data, Florida, water year 2005. Volume 3A: Southwest Florida surface water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2005 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 429 streams, periodic discharge for 9 streams, continuous or daily stage for 218 streams, periodic stage for 5 streams, peak stage for 28 streams and peak discharge for 28 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 15 lakes, periodic elevations for 23 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 401 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,098 wells, and quality-of-water data for 211 surface-water sites and 208 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3A contains records for continuous or daily discharge for 113 streams, periodic discharge for 4 streams, continuous or daily stage for 80 streams, periodic stage for 2 stream, peak stage and discharge for 8 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 3 lakes, continous or daily elevations for 3 lakes, and quality of water for 75 surface water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

Kane, Richard L.; Dickman, Mark

2005-01-01

300

Water resources data, Florida, water year 2004, volume 3A: southwest Florida surface water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2004 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 405 streams, periodic discharge for 12 streams, continuous daily stage for 159 streams, periodic stage for 19 streams, peak stage for 30 streams and peak discharge for 30 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 14 lakes, periodic elevations for 23 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 408 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,188 wells, and quality-of-water data for 140 surface-water sites and 240 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3A contains continuous or daily discharge for 104 streams, periodic discharge for 6 streams, continuous or daily stage for 36 streams, periodic stage for 14 streams, peak stage and discharge for 8 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 2 lakes, periodic elevations for 3 lakes, and quality-of-water data for 58 surface-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

Kane, Richard L.

2004-01-01

301

Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2002, Volume 3A. Southwest Florida Surface Water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2002 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 392 streams, periodic discharge for 15 streams, continuous daily stage for 191 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage for 33 streams and peak discharge for 33 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 14 lakes, periodic elevations for 49 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 418 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,287 wells, and quality-of-water data for 116 surface-water sites and 291 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3A contains continuous or daily discharge for 99 streams, periodic discharge for 11 streams, continuous or daily stage for 63 streams, peak stage and discharge for 7 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 2 lakes, periodic elevations for 26 lakes, and quality-of-water data for 59 surface-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

Kane, R. L.; Fletcher, W. L.

2003-01-01

302

Water on Mars - Volatile history and resource availability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt is made to define the available deposits of water in the near-surface region of Mars which will be available to human exploration missions. The Martian seasonal water cycle is reviewed, and geochemical and geological constraints on the availability of water are examined. It is concluded that the only sure source of water in amounts significant as a resource are in the polar ice deposits.

Jakosky, Bruce M.

1990-01-01

303

Bringing ecosystem services into integrated water resources management.  

PubMed

In this paper we propose an ecosystem service framework to support integrated water resource management and apply it to the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia. Water resources in the Murray-Darling Basin have been over-allocated for irrigation use with the consequent degradation of freshwater ecosystems. In line with integrated water resource management principles, Australian Government reforms are reducing the amount of water diverted for irrigation to improve ecosystem health. However, limited understanding of the broader benefits and trade-offs associated with reducing irrigation diversions has hampered the planning process supporting this reform. Ecosystem services offer an integrative framework to identify the broader benefits associated with integrated water resource management in the Murray-Darling Basin, thereby providing support for the Government to reform decision-making. We conducted a multi-criteria decision analysis for ranking regional potentials to provide ecosystem services at river basin scale. We surveyed the wider public about their understanding of, and priorities for, managing ecosystem services and then integrated the results with spatially explicit indicators of ecosystem service provision. The preliminary results of this work identified the sub-catchments with the greatest potential synergies and trade-offs of ecosystem service provision under the integrated water resources management reform process. With future development, our framework could be used as a decision support tool by those grappling with the challenge of the sustainable allocation of water between irrigation and the environment. PMID:23900082

Liu, Shuang; Crossman, Neville D; Nolan, Martin; Ghirmay, Hiyoba

2013-11-15

304

Integrating water data, models and forecasts - the Australian Water Resources Information System (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the Commonwealth Water Act 2007 the Bureau of Meteorology was given a new national role in water information, encompassing standards, water accounts and assessments, hydrological forecasting, and collecting, enhancing and making freely available Australia's water information. The Australian Water Resources Information System (AWRIS) is being developed to fulfil part of this role, by providing foundational data, information and model

R. Argent; P. Sheahan; N. Plummer

2010-01-01

305

Coal Mine Subsided Water Quality Assessment and Subsided Water Resource Comprehensive Utilization Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to provide the theoretical basis for comprehensive utilization of coal mine subsided water resource in Huainan coal mine, 39 water sampling points in two typical subsided water areas of Panyi coal mine are chosen to monitor the water quality by sampling, the heavy metal elements of water body are analyzed and the fuzzy synthetic evaluation technique is used

Liangji Xu; Yongmei Gao

2009-01-01

306

Water resources of Fremont County, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Average annual runoff (inches per year) ranged from 0.90 to 22 in the Mountainous Region of Fremont County and from 0.06 to 0.72 in the Plains Region. The Wind River Formation of Tertiary age has the most well development. Quaternary alluvium and colluvium is the second-most developed. Some wells and springs discharge more than 300 gallons per minute from older selected geologic units. Geologic units are recharged by infiltration of precipi- tation, surface water, or irrigation water, or by leakage from another unit. The general direction of ground-water movement in the two major basins in the county is toward the Sweetwater and Wind Rivers. Ground water is discharged by wells, springs and seeps, evapotranspiration, and discharge to streams, lakes, drains, and other geologic units. Ground- water levels near Riverton's municipal supply were typically deepest in August when ground water was the sole supply. After 1981, ground water only supplemented the supply and water levels appeared to recover. Surface water supplies about 99 percent of total offstream use in Fremont County; irrigation is the largest use. The largest use of ground water is public supply. Twenty-five samples were collected from the Sweetwater River and tributaries in September 1991. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 39 to 271 milligrams per liter, increasing downstream. All six water samples collected from the Cody Shale (Cretaceous age) exceeded 500 milligrams per liter dissolved solids-all samples from Miocene rocks and the White River Formation (Oligocene age) had dissolved solids less than 500 milligrams per liter.

Plafcan, Maria; Eddy-Miller, C. A.; Ritz, G. F.; Holland, J. P. R., II; Stockdale, R. G.

1995-01-01

307

The Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources availability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme weather events, such as longer dry periods or strong rainfall, have impact on water resources. When the impact is reflected as a deteoration of groundwater quality or decrease of available groundwater quantity, it can be a critical issue for society and economy. The extent of climate change and its impact on water resources was studied on two test sites, Ljubljana field's and Mura valley's aquifers. These two aquifers differentiate by geometry, yield, land use and response to climate change. The first one lies beneath urbanised and agricultural areas and on the second one the agricultural land use prevails. To estimate the future water resource availability in the first step the temperature and precipitation daily data sets were modelled with three RCM models, based on EOBS data base for two periods: 2021-250 and 2071-2100. In the next step the future discharges of rivers Sava, Mura and Ledava were calculated. The water resources availability was calculated by GROWA-SI model which takes into account climate, soil type, land use, surface inclination and hydrogeological attributes of aquifers. The results were surface runoff, groundwater flow and real evapotranspiration for periods 1971-2000, 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. Water balance and groundwater modelling of worst case scenarios (maximum values for T, P and minimum values for river discharge) have shown decrease in future groundwater recharge in Mura valley, as well as in Ljubljana field. In the period 2021-2050 the groundwater recharge will decrease up to 10% and in the period 2071-2100 up to 15%. Projections of climate change and water resource availability for the future are significant for managing drinking water resources. Current water management practices are likely to be inadequate to reduce impacts of climate change on water supply reliability. There is a need for water supply management adaptation measures, which will be able to manage the risks associated with future climate change impacts.

Bracic Zeleznik, B.; Cencur Curk, B.; Zajc Benda, T.; Souvent, P.

2012-04-01

308

NASA'S Water Resources Element Within the Applied Sciences Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Applied Sciences Program works within NASA Earth sciences to leverage investment of satellite and information systems to increase the benefits to society through the widest practical use of NASA research results. Such observations provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as land cover type, vegetation type and health, precipitation, snow, soil moisture, and water levels and radiation. Observations of this type combined with models and analysis enable satellite-based assessment of numerous water resources management activities. The primary goal of the Earth Science Applied Science Program is to improve future and current operational systems by infusing them with scientific knowledge of the Earth system gained through space-based observation, model results, and development and deployment of enabling technologies, systems, and capabilities. Water resources is one of eight elements in the Applied Sciences Program and it addresses concerns and decision making related to water quantity and water quality. With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands requires using existing resources more efficiently. The potential crises and conflicts arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. but also in many parts of the world. In addition to water availability issues, water quality related problems are seriously affecting human health and our environment. The NASA Water Resources Program Element works to use NASA products to address these critical issues.

Toll, David; Doorn, Bradley; Engman, Edwin

2010-01-01

309

Water resources and hydrology of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The surface of Mars has been extensively modified by a large variety of water erosional and depositional processes. Although liquid water is presently unstable on the planet's surface, in its cold, hyperarid climate, there is abundant geomorphological evidence of past fluvial valley development multiple episodes of catastrophic flooding, periglacial landforms, ice-related permafrost, lake deposits, eroded impact craters and possible glacial landforms throughout much of Mars' geological history. The amount of water required to form such features is estimated to be equivalent to a planet-wide layer approximately 50 meters deep. Some of this water undoubtedly was removed from the planet by atmospheric escape processes, but much probably remains in the subsurface of Mars. Jakosky summarized the present partitioning of water on Mars, expressed as an average global depth, as follows: in the polar caps, 30 meters; in the megaregolith, 500 to 1000 meters; structurally bound in clays, 10 meters; and in high latitude regolith, a few meters. However, most of this water is probably in the form of ice, except in anomalous areas of possible near surface liquid water, and in regions where hydrothermal systems are still active. The best locations for prospecting are those areas where water or ice is sufficiently concentrated at shallow enough depths to make it feasible to pump out or mine.

Baker, V. R.; Gulick, V. C.; Kargel, J. S.; Strom, R. G.

1991-01-01

310

``Virtual water'': An unfolding concept in integrated water resources management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In its broadest sense, virtual water refers to the water required for the production of food commodities. Issues relating to virtual water have drawn much attention in scientific communities and the political sphere since the mid 1990s. This paper provides a critical review of major research issues and results in the virtual water literature and pinpoints the remaining questions and

Hong Yang; Alexander Zehnder

2007-01-01

311

Water resources data for Montana, water year 1993. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1992-30 September 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resources data for the water year 1993 for Montana consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reserviors; and water levels in wells. The report contains discharge records and 222 gaging stations; stage\\/contents for 9 lakes and reserviors; water quality for 95 stations and 3 lake stations; and

R. R. Shields; M. K. White; T. M. Brosten; C. L. Chambers

1994-01-01

312

Water resources data for Washington, water year 1994. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1993-30 September 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resources data for the 1994 water year for Washington consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water qualtiy of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels of wells. It includes: Water discharge for 226 gaging stations on streams, canals and drains; Stage only records for 4 sites; Discharge data for 87 partial-record or

W. D. Wiggins; G. P. Ruppert; R. R. Smith; L. L. Reed; L. E. Hubbard

1995-01-01

313

Water resources data for Utah, water year 1994. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1993-30 September 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resources data for the 1994 water year for Utah consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water quality of ground water. This report contains discharge records for 184 gaging stations; stage and contents for 23 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality for 17 hydrologic stations and 165

M. D. ReMillard; G. A. Birdwell; T. K. Lockner; L. R. Herbert; D. V. Allen

1995-01-01

314

Water resources data for Utah, water year 1993. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1992-30 September 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resources data for the 1993 water year for Utah consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water quality of ground water. The report contains discharge records for 187 gaging stations; stage and contents for 23 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality for 23 hydrologic stations and 185

M. D. ReMillard; L. R. Herbert; G. A. Birdwell; T. K. Lockner

1994-01-01

315

Water resources data for Utah, water year 1992. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1991-30 September 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resources data for the 1992 water year for Utah consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water quality of ground water. The report contains discharge records for 193 gaging stations; stage and contents for 23 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality for 24 hydrologic stations and 215

M. D. ReMillard; L. R. Herbert; G. A. Birdwell; T. K. Lockner

1993-01-01

316

Water resources data for Utah, water year 1995. Water-data report (Annual), October 1994September 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resources data for the 1995 water year for Utah consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water quality of ground water. The report contains discharge records for 174 gaging stations; stage and contents for 22 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality for 14 hydrologic stations and 186

M. D. ReMillard; G. A. Birdwell; T. K. Lockner; L. R. Herbert; D. V. Allen

1996-01-01

317

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Water Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise posits a hypothetical situation: you would like to purchase land that will provide your family with opportunities to fish and swim in a stream on your property. Additionally, you would like the land to afford some privacy. In order to find such a place, you need to locate land for sale that has a stream running through it and you want to confirm that the stream water is clean. The following activity illustrates how one can locate land with particular characteristics and also assess surface water quality for local bodies of water. The data you will use might pertain to any location where streams flow through residential areas.

Cranganu, Constantin

318

Water-resource facilities and management strategy for Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catastrophic floods and prolonged periods of drought are the main ‘water’ challenges facing Oman. So the inhabitants have had to resort to ingenious ways of utilising the available-water resources, such as through building falaj systems and the optimal selection of suitable crops, but nevertheless when exposed to extremely-dry weather conditions, temporary and even permanent migration is still the only option

H. Al-Ismaily; D. Probert

1998-01-01

319

WATER RESOURCE RISK ANALYSIS MODELING IN THE SANTA CRUZ AMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the unique hydrology of the Upper Santa Cruz watershed and regional groundwater development pressures, the Arizona Legislature created the Santa Cruz Active Management Area in 1994. The Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) has been tasked with managing the AMAs duel goals, which include maintaining safe yield conditions and preventing long-term declines in local water levels. Towards that

Keith Nelson

320

Scenario workshops: A useful method for participatory water resources planning?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a scenario workshop (SW) for water resources management at the island of Naxos, Greece. The workshop was part of a European research project studying the advantages and limitations of different participatory methods in the context of the Water Framework Directive. It involved policy makers, scientists, business representatives, and citizens from different parts of the island. On

Dionyssia Hatzilacou; Giorgos Kallis; Alexandra Mexa; Harris Coccosis; Eleni Svoronou

2007-01-01

321

Colorado Water Resources Research Institute Activities Report, FY 1981 - 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An overview is provided of activities of the Colorado Water Resources Research Institute during FY1981-1984. The report provides a summary of Institute programs for FY1981-84. Selected examples of completed research include: integrated basinwide water man...

1985-01-01

322

A Public Education Program in Water Resources Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a program designed to improve public awareness/understanding of major factors in managing water resources. Use is made of an interactive computer simulator to place lay people and teachers in decision-making situations involving real variables and alternatives and to project for them the probable consequences of their water management…

Amend, John R.; Armold, Anita A.

1983-01-01

323

The new regime for managing US---Mexican water resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

United States-Mexican transboundary water resources management is presently experiencing significant reform resulting from long-term demographic processes in the border region and greater economic integration. The recently concluded North American Free Trade Agreement and supplementary environmental accord modify existing agreements and provide old institution with new mandates. Particularly affected is the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC), long the lead agency

Stephen P. Mumme

1995-01-01

324

Advances in water resources monitoring from space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nimbus-5 observations indicate that over the oceans the total precipitable water in a column of atmosphere can be estimated to within + or - 10%, the liquid water content of clouds can be estimated to within + or - 25%, areas of precipitation can be delineated, and broad estimates of the precipitation rate obtained. ERTS-1 observations permit the measurement of snow covered area to within a few percent of drainage basin area and snowline altitudes can be estimated to within 60 meters. Surface water areas as small as 1 hectare can be inventoried over large regions such as playa lakes region of West Texas and Eastern New Mexico. In addition, changes in land use on water-sheds occurring as a result of forest fires, urban development, clear cutting, or strip mining can be rapidly obtained.

Salomonson, V. V.

1974-01-01

325

Modeling Multisource Multiuser Water Resources Allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water shortage emerges and restricts the urban construction and the socio-economy development due to the rapid expansion of\\u000a the cities throughout the world. Recently treated wastewater reuse, including rainwater collection and utilization, and seawater\\u000a desalination, etc., has been put in practice in some cities. This paper presents the characteristics of urban multisource\\u000a water and multiuser and a multi-objective optimization model

Yan Han; Shi-guo Xu; Xiang-zhou Xu

2008-01-01

326

Water resources of southeastern Oahu, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Southeastern Oahu comprises the eastern end of the Koolau Range and is divided into two roughly equal parts by the crest of the range. The northside of the crest is commonly called the windward side and the southside, the leeward. Precipitous cliffs aproned by a gently sloping landscape are the main topographic features on the windward side. The leeward side is a gentle lava-flow slope incised by steep narrow valleys. The main Koolau fissure zone, including the caldera, lies on the windward side. The leeward side includes minor rift zones that are perpendicular to and intersect the main fissure zone. Dikes in the main fissure zone strike from nearly east-west in the eastern end to about N. 55? W. in the western part. Dikes in the minor rift zones strike from north-south to slightly northeasterly. Water use is about 18 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) of which only 4 Mgal/d is obtained locally from ground-water sources. About a third of the 14 Mgal/d deficit is imported from sources northwest of the study area on the windward side and the remainder from sources in the Honolulu and Pearl Harbor areas on the leeward side. The 4 Mgal/d being developed represents only about 3 percent of the area's rainfall compared to a development-rainfall ratio of 20 percent for the rest of the island. Streams are short and flashy. Perennial streamflow to the sea occurs only in Maunawili Valley and in the Waimanalo area. Mean annual discharge is estimated at 20 Mgal/d in the windward side and at 15 Mgal/d on the leeward side. Low flow, expressed as the flow that is equaled or exceeded 90 percent of the time, is 5 Mgal/d windward of the crest and zero leeward of it. Most fresh ground water occurs in lava flows of the Koolau Volcanics. It is impounded by dikes in the rift zones and floats on saline ground water as lenses outside the rift zones. Small but important bodies of freshwater are perched in volcanic rocks of the Honolulu Group in Maunawili Valley. Fresh ground water occurs in near-shore calcareous sands that overlie a clay horizon in the Waimanalo area. Deeply buried talus and alluvium also carry fresh ground water in the Waimanalo area. Wells tapping saline ground water in fresh lava flows of the Honolulu Group provide water for a sea-life park in the Makapuu area. The same aquifer is tapped by wells for disposal of the saline waste water. The current development scheme in the windward side that utilizes only the free-flow equilibrium discharge of dike-impounded water is inefficient and does not cope with the annual weather cycle. The flow available for development under this scheme is greatest in the rainy winter months when demand is the lowest and least in the summer months when demand is the highest. A more optimal scheme would be to change this natural flow pattern by depleting storage by pumping to increase flow in the high-demand summer months and allowing the depleted storage to recover naturally in the low-demand winter months. Depleting storage would lower water levels which would provide more room for infiltration and provide less opportunity for evapotranspiration. The basal-water reservoir in the leeward side is isolated hydrologically from abutting reservoirs outside the area and can and should be fully exploited. The existing development of the basal-water reservoir is small compared to the natural ground-water flow and that part not being developed is wasting to the sea. Because the area is hydrologically isolated, development will not be detrimental to or reduce the ground-water supply outside the area.

Takasaki, K. J.; Mink, John F.

1982-01-01

327

Engine exhaust apparatus for water-jet propulsion boat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A propulsion apparatus is described for a water jet propulsion boat having a hull, a water jet pump casing with the hull, and an impeller in the pump casing driven by an engine in the hull, the propulsion apparatus comprising: means in the pump casing defining a converging passage for increasing water flow velocity and having a smaller diameter section

1986-01-01

328

Water Resources Data North Dakota Water Year 2002 Volume 1. Surface Water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for North Dakota consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality for streams; contents, stage, and water quality for lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality for ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records of water discharge for 106 streamflow-gaging stations; stage only for 22 river-stage stations; contents and/or stage for 14 lake or reservoir stations; annual maximum discharge for 35 crest-stage stations; and water-quality for 96 streamflow-gaging stations, 3 river-stage stations, 11 lake or reservoir stations, 8 miscellaneous sample sites on rivers, and 63 miscellaneous sample sites on lakes and wetlands. Data are included for 7 water-quality monitor sites on streams and 2 precipitation-chemistry stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in North Dakota.

Harkness, R. E.; Lundgren, R. F.; Norbeck, S. W.; Robinson, S. M.; Sether, B. A.

2003-01-01

329

Water Resources Data North Dakota Water Year 2001, Volume 1. Surface Water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for North Dakota consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality for streams; contents, stage, and water quality for lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality for ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records of water discharge for 103 streamflow-gaging stations; stage only for 20 river-stage stations; contents and/or stage for 13 lake or reservoir stations; annual maximum discharge for 35 crest-stage stations; and water-quality for 94 streamflow-gaging stations, 2 river-stage stations, 9 lake or reservoir stations, 7 miscellaneous sample sites on rivers, and 58 miscellaneous sample sites on lakes and wetlands. Data are included for 9 water-quality monitor sites on streams and 2 precipitation-chemistry stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in North Dakota.

Harkness, R. E.; Berkas, W. R.; Norbeck, S. W.; Robinson, S. M.

2002-01-01

330

Water resources data--North Dakota, water year 2004, volume 1. Surface water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for North Dakota consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality for streams; contents, stage, and water quality for lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality for ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records of water discharge for 106 streamflow-gaging stations; stage only for 23 river-stage stations; contents and/or stage for 14 lake or reservoir stations; annual maximum discharge for 31 crest-stage stations; and water-quality for 92 streamflow-gaging stations, 6 river-stage stations, 15 lake or reservoir stations, 22 miscellaneous sample sites on rivers, and 67 miscellaneous sample sites on lakes and wetlands. Data are included for 5 water-quality monitor sites on streams and 2 precipitation-chemistry stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in North Dakota.

Robinson, S. M.; Lundgren, R. F.; Sether, B. A.; Norbeck, S. W.; Lambrecht, J. M.

2005-01-01

331

Water Resources Data North Dakota Water Year 2003, Volume 1. Surface Water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for North Dakota consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality for streams; contents, stage, and water quality for lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality for ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records of water discharge for 108 streamflow-gaging stations; stage only for 24 river-stage stations; contents and/or stage for 14 lake or reservoir stations; annual maximum discharge for 32 crest-stage stations; and water-quality for 99 streamflow-gaging stations, 5 river-stage stations, 11 lake or reservoir stations, 8 miscellaneous sample sites on rivers, and 63 miscellaneous sample sites on lakes and wetlands. Data are included for 7 water-quality monitor sites on streams and 2 precipitation-chemistry stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in North Dakota.

Robinson, S. M.; Lundgren, R. F.; Sether, B. A.; Norbeck, S. W.; Lambrecht, J. M.

2004-01-01

332

Georgia's Surface-Water Resources and Streamflow Monitoring Network, 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Surface water provides 5 billion gallons per day, or 78 percent, of the total freshwater used (including thermoelectric) in Georgia (Fanning, 2003). Climate, geology, and landforms control the natural distribution of Georgia's water resources. Georgia is a 'headwaters' State, with most of the rivers beginning in northern Georgia and increasing in size downstream (see map at right for major watersheds). Surface water is the primary source of water in the northern one-half of the State, including the Atlanta metropolitan area, where limited ground-water resources are difficult to obtain. In Georgia, periodic droughts exacerbate competition for surface-water supplies. Many areas of Georgia also face a threat of flooding because of spring frontal thunderstorms and the potential for hurricanes from both the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. As the population of Georgia increases, these flood risks will increase with development in flood-risk zones, particularly in the coastal region.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2008-01-01

333

Continuous real-time water information: an important Kansas resource  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Continuous real-time information on streams, lakes, and groundwater is an important Kansas resource that can safeguard lives and property, and ensure adequate water resources for a healthy State economy. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates approximately 230 water-monitoring stations at Kansas streams, lakes, and groundwater sites. Most of these stations are funded cooperatively in partnerships with local, tribal, State, or other Federal agencies. The USGS real-time water-monitoring network provides long-term, accurate, and objective information that meets the needs of many customers. Whether the customer is a water-management or water-quality agency, an emergency planner, a power or navigational official, a farmer, a canoeist, or a fisherman, all can benefit from the continuous real-time water information gathered by the USGS.

Loving, Brian L.; Putnam, James E.; Turk, Donita M.

2014-01-01

334

Sustainability in water resources management: changes in meaning and perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

The meaning of sustainability in water resources management has changed through the time. Initially, meeting water demand\\u000a was the dominant concern. While later quality issues became more important followed by wider water reuse, today sustainability\\u000a must include a whole range of aspects (e.g., energy, pollution, persistent chemicals) on various spatial and time scales.\\u000a New approaches to define sustainability metrics are

Slawomir W. Hermanowicz

2008-01-01

335

ACID MINE WATER TREATMENT USING ENGINEERED WETLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two decades, the United States mining industry has greatly increased the amount it spends on pollution control. The application of biotechnology to mine water can reduce the industry's water treatment c osts (estimated at over a million dollars a day) and improve water quality in streams and rivers adversely affected by acidic mine water draining from abandoned

Robert L. P. Kleinmann

2006-01-01

336

Applications of remote sensing to water resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analyses were made of selected long-term (1985 and beyond) objectives, with the intent of determining if significant data-related problems would be encountered and to develop alternative solutions to any potential problems. One long-term objective selected for analysis was Water Availability Forecasting. A brief overview was scheduled in FY-77 of the objective -- primarily a fact-finding study to allow Data Management personnel to gain adequate background information to perform subsequent data system analyses. This report, includes discussions on some of the larger problems currently encountered in water measurement, the potential users of water availability forecasts, projected demands of users, current sensing accuracies, required parameter monitoring, status of forecasting modeling, and some measurement accuracies likely to be achievable by 1980 and 1990.

1977-01-01

337

Water resources planning under climate change with uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change in water resources planning is an important issue around the world. Even the impacts of climate change on water resources still exit lots of uncertainties, including predictions, downscaling, parameters and hydrological models. These uncertainties should be classified and qualified, and applied in water resources systems. In this study, the outputs of the nearest grids among GCMs and downscaling methods are discussion for a water resources system in Taiwan. The paper provides a procedure to present all uncertainties to decision makers from scenarios, models and parameters. And making the information of uncertainties is useful in water resources management. Interval numbers of stream flow and fuzzy sets of uncertainties are used in this study. The results showed annual stream flow present lower uncertainties under climate change, but stream flow within seasonal showed high uncertainties. The results of single GCM may lead different impacts of climate change from the results of several GCMs' predictions. Changes in uncertainty magnitude may affect decisions made by risk managers.

Hong, N.-M.

2009-04-01

338

Water resources of Windward Oahu, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Windward Oahu lies in a large cavity--an erosional remnant of the Koolau volcanic dome at its greatest stage of growth. Outcrops include volcanic rocks associated with caldera collapse and the main fissure zone which is marked by a dike complex that extends along the main axis of the dome. The fissure zone intersects and underlies the Koolau Range north of Waiahole Valley. South of Waiahole Valley, the crest of the Koolau Range is in the marginal dike zone, an area of scattered dikes. The crest of the range forms the western boundary of windward Oahu. Dikes, mostly vertical and parallel or subparallel to the fissure zone, control movement and discharge of ground water because they are less permeable than the rocks they intrude. Dikes impound or partly impound ground water by preventing or retarding its movement toward discharge points. The top of this water, called high-level water in Hawaii, is at an altitude of about 1,000 feet in the north end of windward Oahu and 400 feet near the south end in Waimanalo Valley. It underlies most of the area and extends near or to the surface in poorly permeable rocks in low-lying areas. Permeability is high in less weathered mountain areas and is highest farthest away from the dike complex. Ground-water storage fluctuates to some degree owing to limited changes in the level of the ground-water reservoir--maximum storage is about 60,000 million gallons. The fluctuations control the rate at which ground water discharges. Even at its lowest recorded level, the reservoir contains a major part of the storage capacity because most of the area is perennially saturated to or near the surface. Tunnels have reduced storage by about 26,000 million gallons--only a fraction of the total storage--by breaching dike controls. Much of the reduction in storage can be restored if the .breached dike controls are replaced by flow-regulating bulkheads. Perennial streams intersect high-level water and collectively form its principal discharge. The larger streams are those that cut deepest into high-level reservoirs. Except near the coast in the northern end of the area, where dikes are absent, total base flow of streams equals total ground-water discharge. Development of high-level water by tunnels and wells diverts ground-water discharge from streams, decreasing the base flow of these streams. Construction of Haiku tunnel decreased the flow of Kahaluu Stream, 2 ? miles away, by about 26 percent. The dependable flow of water is estimated at 118 mgd (million gallons per day), of which 84 mgd is discharged by streams, tunnels, springs, and wells The remaining 34 mgd is underflow, most of it discharging into the sea near the northern end of ,the area. Average flow is estimated at 220 mgd, of which 159 mgd is. inventoried flow and 61 mgd is estimated underflow. Specific capacity of wells tapping lava flows of the Koolau Volcanic Series ranges from less than 1 to 11 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown in the dike-complex zone and from 2 to 100 in the marginal dike zone. A transmissivity of 4,000,000 gallons per day per foot was determined for the basal aquifer. Permeabilities of rocks in high mountainous areas penetrated by water-development tunnels were compared by recession constants determined from free-flow drainage. Evapotranspiration was estimated from regression curves obtained by correlating median annual rainfall and median annual pan evaporation. Evapotranspiration values from these curves compared favorably w4th values obtained from water-budget listings of rainfall and measured ground-water flow. The chemical quality of water in wells and tunnels tapping rocks of the Koolau and Honolulu Volcanic Series is excellent. Except in a few isolated areas near the shore, the chloride content of the water from these sources is generally less than 100 parts per million. Wells tapping calcareous materials are subject to sea-water contamination under heavy pumping.

Takasaki, K. J.; Hirashima, George Tokusuke; Lubke, E. R.

1969-01-01

339

Water: the resource that gets used & used & used for everything!  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water truly Is a resource that gets used and used for everything. The same Water can be utilized many times. This poster depicts 12 water uses which ere labeled in bold red letters, beginning with mining end ending with transportation. Withdrawals (water removed from the river or ground), distribution, and returns (water returned to the river or ground) are depicted by the blue arrows. The poster is folded Into 8 1/2" x 11" panels; front and back panels can easily be photocopied.

Vandas, Stephen; Artwork by Farrar, Frank; Translated into Spanish by Ramos-Ginés, Orlando

1996-01-01

340

The new regime for managing US—Mexican water resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

United States-Mexican transboundary water resources management is presently experiencing significant reform resulting from long-term demographic processes in the border region and greater economic integration. The recently concluded North American Free Trade Agreement and supplementary environmental accord modify existing agreements and provide old institution with new mandates. Particularly affected is the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC), long the lead agency in binational water management. This essay reviews the development of the new water management regime against the two preceding phases of management reform and considers its implications for improved water management in the border region.

Mumme, Stephen P.

1995-11-01

341

Transient performance of fan engine with water ingestion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a continuing investigation on effects of rain-water ingestion into bypass fan engines, it is shown that the performance of axial-flow compressors and fans is fundamentally time-dependent during ingestion of water. A code named WINCOF-I has been developed for establishing the performance of axial-flow turbomachinery operating with air-water vapor-water droplet-water film mixture, Illustrative examples of predictions and effects are provided for the case of the air-compression system of a generic bypass fan engine. Utilizing performance maps so-generated, the effects of water ingestion into the generic engine have been determined under test cell conditions simulating ingestion, flight operation (altitude and flight Mach number), and power-demand setting.

Murthy, S. N. B.

1991-01-01

342

Ground-water resources of Cambodia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cambodia (now the Khmer Republic), in tropical, humid southeast Asia, has an area of 175,630 km and a population of about 5 million. The Mekong River, one of the world's largest rivers, flows through Cambodia. Also, the Tonle Sap (Grand Lac), a highly productive fresh-water lake, functions as a huge off-channel storage reservoir for flood flow of the Mekong River. Surfacewater discharge in streams and rivers of Cambodia is abundant during the wet season, mid-May through mid-November, when 85 percent of the precipitation falls, but is frequently deficient during the remainder of the year. Annual rainfall ranges from 1,370 mm in the central lowlands to more than 5,000 mm in the mountainous highlands. The mean annual temperature for the country is 27.5?C and the evaporation rate is high. During 1960-63, 1,103 holes were drilled in 16 of the 18 khets (provinces), of which 795 or approximately 72 percent, were productive wells at rates ranging from 1.1 to 2,967 l/min. The productive wells ranged in depth from 2 to 209.4 m and were 23.2 m deep on the average. Mr. Rasmussen ' studied the subsurface geology of Cambodia in considerable detail by examining drillers' logs and constructing nine geologic cross sections. The principal aquifer tapped by drilled wells in Cambodia is the Old Alluvium. In many places, however, dug wells and a few shallow drilled wells obtain water from the Young Alluvium. Sandstone of the Indosinias Formation yields moderate to small quantities of water to wells in a number of places. Also, wells tapping water-bearing basalt have a small to moderate yield. The quality of water is recorded in only a few analyses. The dissolved solids concentrations appear to be generally low so that the water is usable for most purposes without treatment. Some well waters, however, are high in iron and would have to be aerated and filtered before use. In this report, well records are tabulated, and the geology and hydrology is discussed by khets. The bulk of the available information is on the central lowlands and contiguous low plateaus, as the mountainous areas on the west and the high plateaus on the east are relatively unexplored with respect to their ground-water availability. No persistent artesian aquifer has been identified nor have any large potential ground-water sources been found .although much of the country yet remains to be explored by test drilling. Well irrigation for garden produce is feasible on a modest scale in many localities throughout Cambodia. It does not seem likely, however, that large-scale irrigation from wells will come about in the future. Ground water may be regarded as a widely available supplemental source to surface water for domestic, small-scale industrial, and irrigation use.

Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

1977-01-01

343

Ecology of Running Waters - Bio-Engineering Safeguarding Measures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The seminars serve the cooperation between the Institute for Water Quality and Aquatic Landscape Engineering of the Vienna Technical University and the Austrian Society for the Protection of Nature and Environment. Large circles of the population are to b...

1982-01-01

344

The Sparta Aquifer: A Sustainable Water Resource?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction The Sparta aquifer is an aquifer of regional importance within the Mississippi embayment aquifer system. It consists of varying amounts of unconsolidated sand, inter-stratified with silt and clay lenses within the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group. It extends from south Texas, north into Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee, and eastward into Mississippi and Alabama (fig. 1). On both the west and east sides of the Mississippi embayment, the Sparta aquifer is exposed at the surface (outcrops) and is locally unconfined; it becomes confined as it dips toward the axis of the embayment, (generally corresponding with the Mississippi River) and southward toward the Gulf of Mexico where it is deeply buried in the subsurface (Hosman, 1968). Generalized ground-water flow in the Sparta aquifer is from the outcrop areas to the axis (center) of the embayment (fig. 2). In Arkansas, the Sparta aquifer outcrops parallel to the Fall Line at the western extreme of the Mississippi embayment (the Fall Line is a line dividing the mountainous highlands of Arkansas from the lowland area); and the formation dips from its outcrop area to the southeast. The Sparta aquifer supplies water for municipalities, industries such as paper production, and to a lesser degree, irrigation of agricultural crops (fig. 3). This report highlights hydrologic conditions of the aquifer in Arkansas County as an example of how water use is affecting water levels.

McKee, Paul W.; Hays, Phillip D.

2002-01-01

345

Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations Reports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USGS site describes field and analytical methods used in surface and groundwater hydrology. The site includes 9 books which cover the collection of water data, collection of environmental data, applications of hydraulics, hydrologic analysis and interpretation, laboratory analysis, modeling techniques and more. The text and figures are included as both html and pdf files.

Usgs

346

California2100: Assessing California's Future Water Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a preliminary step in providing high resolution estimates of California's water budget out to the year 2100 (Cal21), several different climate change scenarios were analyzed based on results obtained with the widely used regional model MM5. The results of the primary experiment, in which all present day irrigated and urban areas are replaced by scrub land, indicate that the

Bryan C. Weare

347

Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade.  

PubMed

China's water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability-with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north-increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content to build China's domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China's domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China's soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km(3)/y irrigation water savings, 41 km(3)/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements. PMID:24958864

Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

2014-07-01

348

Some aspects of integrated water resources management in central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two main tasks are to be implemented for elaboration of the governmental water distribution criteria in Central Asia: 1 -development of the common methodological basis for the intergovernmental water distribution; and 2 - to reopen and continue both theoretical and experimental researches of various aspects of the wastewater reuse. The prospects of socio economic development of all Central Asian countries are substantially defined by the water resources availability. The water resources of Central Asia belong, mainly, watersheds of the Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers. The basic flow of Amu Darya is formed in territory of Tajikistan. Then the Amu Darya river proceeds along border of Afghanistan with Uzbekistan, crosses Turkmenistan and again comes back to Uzbekistan and then runs into the Aral Sea. The Syr-Darya is second river on the water discharge and is first river on length in Central Asia. The basic flow of Syr Darya is formed in territory of Kyrgyzstan. Then the Syr-Darya river crosses of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and runs into the Aral Sea in territory of Kazakhstan. During the Soviet Union the water resources of two river watersheds were divided among the Central Asian republics on the basis of the general plans developed by the center in Moscow. In the beginning of 90s years, after taking of sovereignty by the former Soviet republics, the unified control system of water resources management was abolished and the various approaches to its transformation caused by features of the national economy developing, elected models of transition from command to market mechanisms of economic activity, and also specificity of political and social processes in each of the states of region were planned. The distinctions of modern priorities of economic development of the states of region have generated the contradiction of interests in the intergovernmental water distribution that can in the long term become complicated even more in connection with the increasing of water requirement in Afghanistan. (In particular, there is a conflict of interests concerning the functioning of the Toktogul reservoir: Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan are interested in the irrigation regime of operations of reservoir; Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan are interested in the energy conditions of its functioning.) In the national diagnostic reports the numerical parameters of the water resources use dynamics for previous years, and also estimation of water resources do not coincide, that complicates development of principles and criteria of the intergovernmental water distribution. It also indirectly influences the solution of the water cost problem. Discrepancy of the specified settlement data is explained, basically, differences of techniques and algorithms of accounts. In the principal theses of national water strategy of all Central Asian states developed in the end of 90s years, it was marked the necessity of development of the uniform methodical approaches for the strong water consumption rates. The perspective water requirements should be estimated proceeding from the national economic programs of each state. In this connection the coordination by all interested states of region both the uniform approach for estimations of the future water consumption and the uniform settlement base for the improving of models and procedures of the intergovernmental water distribution is admitted as an urgent need. One of the corner-stone tasks in the framework of the common methodological basis for the intergovernmental water distribution is development of the unified method for estimation of irrigation water requirements, because one of the main consumers of water resources in the Central Asian states is irrigation. Last years authors were conducting investigations on development of new modification of the Heat and Water Balances Model (HWBM) and its adaptation to estimation of irrigation water requirements in arid an semi-arid regions in the framework of the INCO-COPERNICUS project "Adaptation of Efficient Water Use Criteria in Marginal Regions of Europe and Middle

Khaydarova, V.; Penkova, N.; Pak, E.; Poberejsky, L.; Beltrao, J.

2003-04-01

349

Water Resources Data for Oklahoma, Water Year 1976. Volume 1. Arkansas River Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water resources data for the 1976 water year for Oklahoma consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage contents, and water quality of lakes or reservoirs. Volumes 1 and 2 of this report contain discharge records for 122 gagi...

1977-01-01

350

Are sustainable water resources possible in northwestern India?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable water resources can have many definitions with the simplest as a supply-demand problem, with climate dictating the supply of water and human water use the demand. One sign of a system that is not sustainable would be falling groundwater tables, as is the case in northwest India. This region serves as the country's breadbasket, and irrigated agriculture is ubiquitous. The state of Punjab alone produces 22% of the country's wheat and 13% of all the country's grains while only accounting for 1.5% of the country's area. Although the region receives an average precipitation of 600mm per year, it is dominated by monsoonal rainfall with streamflow augmented by upstream snowmelt and glacial melt in spring and summer that is released from a large dam into canals. Large agricultural water demands occur both during the rainy season as well as during the drier winter season. Water and food security are inextricably linked here, and when considering how to manage water sustainably, the consequences on agriculture must also be considered. In this study, we evaluate what a sustainable water resources system would look like in this region, accounting for current climate, crop water demands, and available reservoir storage. The effects of multiple water-saving scenarios are considered, such as crop choice, cropped area, and the use of forecasts in irrigation scheduling. We find that the current system is untenable and hard decisions will have to be made by policymakers in order to halt the depletion of groundwater and manage the region's water resources in a sustainable, effective manner. This work serves as a prototype for evaluating water resources in other regions with high seasonal variability in rainfall and streamflow and large irrigation demands.

Troy, T. J.; Devineni, N.; Perveen, S.; Robertson, A. W.; Lall, U.

2012-12-01

351

The Evaluation of Water and Related Land Resource Projects: A Procedural Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Water Resources Council has developed a set of procedures to be used in the evaluation of water and related land resource projects. These procedures, presented in 1969, represent a major substantive change in the concept of resource development evalua...

G. W. Reid W. R. Southard

1969-01-01

352

Biotechnology for a renewable resources chemicals and fuels industry, biochemical engineering R and D  

SciTech Connect

To establish an effective biotechnology of biomass processing for the production of fuels and chemicals, an integration of research in biochemical engineering, microbial genetics, and biochemistry is required. Reduction of the costs of producing chemicals and fuels from renewable resources will hinge on extensive research in biochemical engineering.

Villet, R.H.

1980-04-01

353

Development and Evaluation of WWW Resources to Support Research Methods and Electronic Engineering: a comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development and evaluation of two WWW based resources developed under a single funding programme during 1997 at The Robert Gordon University: 1) ReMOTE: a resource of collected materials for teaching and learning Research Methods skills; 2) Personal and Mobile Communications: a module of a postgraduate course offered by the School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering. The

Robert Newton; Iain Middleton; Rita Marcella; Robert Gordon

354

Near real time water resources data for river basin management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Twenty Data Collection Platforms (DCP) are being field installed on USGS water resources stations in the Delaware River Basin. DCP's have been successfully installed and are operating well on five stream gaging stations, three observation wells, and one water quality monitor in the basin. DCP's have been installed at nine additional water quality monitors, and work is progressing on interfacing the platforms to the monitors. ERTS-related water resources data from the platforms are being provided in near real time, by the Goddard Space Flight Center to the Pennsylvania district, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. On a daily basis, the data are computer processed by the Survey and provided to the Delaware River Basin Commission. Each daily summary contains data that were relayed during 4 or 5 of the 15 orbits made by ERTS-1 during the previous day. Water resources parameters relays by the platforms include dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature, pH, specific conductance, well level, and stream gage height, which is used to compute stream flow for the daily summary.

Paulson, R. W. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

355

Current and future water resources of the Congo River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water resources of the Congo Basin are under enormous pressure due to decreases in the Oubangui River discharge for the last three decades and the shrinking of Lake Chad. We report on a systematic analysis of the hydrology and water resources of the entire Congo Basin, and that part of the basin within the geographical boundaries of each of the countries across which it flows. We used hydrological models, data from global data bases, and future climate scenarios. We address both historical and future state of water resources management (availability, flood and drought occurrence, dams/reservoirs, and water infrastructure) using the on-going development of a basin scale climate change impact assessment within the Wageningen Universiy -Congo Basin project frame work. Detailed analysis of potential impacts of climate change on the basin's water availability are assessed using two hydrological and water resources models (VIC, Variable Infiltration Capacity and LPJ, Lund-Potsdam-Jena). We use EU-WATCH historical data, three global climate models with two emissions scenarios downscaled and bias corrected using the statistical bias correction procedure described in EU-WATCH project.

Sonessa, M.; Beyene, T.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.; Fulco, L.; Franssen, W.

2011-12-01

356

Collection, storage, retrieval, and publication of water-resources data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This publication represents a series of papers devoted to the subject of collection, storage, retrieval, and publication of hydrologic data. The papers were presented by members of the U.S. Geological Survey at the International Seminar on Organization and Operation of Hydrologic Services, Ottawa, Canada, July 15-16, 1976, sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization. The first paper, ' Standardization of Hydrologic Measurements, ' by George F. Smoot discusses the need for standardization of the methods and instruments used in measuring hydrologic data. The second paper, ' Use of Earth Satellites for Automation of Hydrologic Data Collection, ' by Richard W. Paulson discusses the use of inexpensive battery-operated radios to transmit realtime hydrologic data to earth satellites and back to ground receiving stations for computer processing. The third paper, ' Operation Hydrometeorological Data-Collection System for the Columbia River, ' by Nicholas A. Kallio discusses the operation of a complex water-management system for a large river basin utilizing the latest automatic telemetry and processing devices. The fourth paper, ' Storage and Retrieval of Water-Resources Data, ' by Charles R. Showen discusses the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) and its use in processing water resources data. The final paper, ' Publication of Water Resources Data, ' by S. M. Lang and C. B. Ham discusses the requirement for publication of water-resources data to meet the needs of a widespread audience and for archival purposes. (See W78-09324 thru W78-09328) (Woodard-USGS)

Compiled by Showen, C. R.

1978-01-01

357

Water resources of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore, northern Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Apostle Islands National Lakeshore consists of 21 islands, part of the Bayfield Peninsula, and the adjacent waters of Lake Superior. Selected water resources of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore were assessed to aid the National Park Service in developing and managing the Lakeshore and to provide a data base against which future changes can be compared. This summary of water resources data, collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1979-84, provides a qualitative description of the following selected hydrologic components of the Lakeshore: streamflow, chemical concentrations, sediment load, runoff, acidity, evaporation, water quality (coliforms, phosphorus, organic carbon, mercury, pesticides, bacteria), water pollution effects, and groundwater use. (Lantz-PTT)

Rose, W. J.

1988-01-01

358

NASA Data for Water Resources Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water Management Applications is one of twelve elements in the Earth Science Enterprise National Applications Program. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is supporting the Applications Program through partnering with other organizations to use NASA project results, such as from satellite instruments and Earth system models to enhance the organizations critical needs. The focus thus far has been: 1) estimating water storage including snowpack and soil moisture, 2) modeling and predicting water fluxes such as evapotranspiration (ET), precipitation and river runoff, and 3) remote sensing of water quality, including both point source (e.g., turbidity and productivity) and non-point source (e.g., land cover conversion such as forest to agriculture yielding higher nutrient runoff). The objectives of the partnering cover three steps of: 1) Evaluation, 2) Verification and Validation, and 3) Benchmark Report. We are working with the U.S. federal agencies including the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA). We are using several of their Decision Support Systems (DSS) tools. This includes the DSS support tools BASINS used by EPA, Riverware and AWARDS ET ToolBox by USBR and SWAT by USDA and EPA. Regional application sites using NASA data across the US. are currently being eliminated for the DSS tools. The current NASA data emphasized thus far are from the Land Data Assimilation Systems WAS) and MODIS satellite products. We are currently in the first two steps of evaluation and verification validation. Water Management Applications is one of twelve elements in the Earth Science Enterprise s National Applications Program. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is supporting the Applications Program through partnering with other organizations to use NASA project results, such as from satellite instruments and Earth system models to enhance the organizations critical needs. The focus thus far has been: 1) estimating water storage including snowpack and soil moisture, 2) modeling and predicting water fluxes such as evapotranspiration (ET), precipitation and river runoff, and 3) remote sensing of water quality, including both point source (e.g., turbidity and productivity) and non-point source (e.g., land cover conversion such as forest to agriculture yielding higher nutrient runoff). The objectives of the partnering cover three steps of 1) Evaluation, 2) Verification and Validation, and 3) Benchmark Report. We are working with the U.S. federal agencies the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA). We are using several of their Decision Support Systems (DSS) tools. T us includes the DSS support tools BASINS used by EPA, Riverware and AWARDS ET ToolBox by USBR and SWAT by USDA and EPA. Regional application sites using NASA data across the US. are currently being evaluated for the DSS tools. The current NASA data emphasized thus far are from the Land Data Assimilation Systems (LDAS) and MODIS satellite products. We are currently in the first two steps of evaluation and verification and validation.

Toll, David; Houser, Paul; Arsenault, Kristi; Entin, Jared

2004-01-01

359

Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of NASA's goals is to enable longterm human presence in space, without the need for continuous replenishment of consumables from Earth. In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is the use of extraterrestrial resources to support activities such as human life-support, material fabrication and repair, and radiation shielding. Potential sources of ISRU resources include lunar and Martian regolith, and Martian atmosphere. Water and byproducts (including hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids) can be produced from lunar regolith via a high-temperature hydrogen reduction reaction and passing the produced gas through a condenser. center dot Due to the high solubility of HCI and HF in water, these byproducts are expected to be present in the product stream (up to 20,000 ppm) and must be removed (less than 10 ppm) prior to water consumption or electrolysis.

Anthony, Stephen M.; Jolley, Scott T.; Captain, James G.

2013-01-01

360

Pre-Management Water Resources Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper puts the accent on field measurements of the terms of the hydrological cycle, i.e., precipitation, evapotranspiration, run-off and infiltration, in order to evaluate the available water storage in surface reservoirs, in soils, in aquifers for short and long term planning.Methodological and technological improvements illustrate in this paper not only the difficulties in obtaining reliable field hydrological data but

L. W. De Backer

1984-01-01

361

Water resources review: Ocoee reservoirs, 1990  

SciTech Connect

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is preparing a series of reports to make technical information on individual TVA reservoirs readily accessible. These reports provide a summary of reservoir purpose and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and watershed; water quality conditions; aquatic biological conditions; and designated, actual and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those use. This reservoir status report addressed the three Ocoee Reservoirs in Polk County, Tennessee.

Cox, J.P.

1990-08-01

362

Water resources data for Washington, water year 1993. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1992-30 September 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resources data for the 1993 water year for Washington consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels of wells. This report contains discharge records for 220 gaging stations; stage only records for 4 gaging stations; stage and (or) contents for 32 lakes and reservoirs;

M. B. Miles; W. D. Wiggins; G. P. Ruppert; R. R. Smith; L. L. Reed

1994-01-01

363

Water resources data for Washington, water year 1995. Water data report (Annual), 1 October 1994-30 September 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resources data for the 1995 water year for Washington consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels of wells. It includes: Water discharge for 223 gaging stations on streams, canals and drains; Stage only records for 3 sites; Discharge data for 31 partial-record or miscellaneous sites;

W. D. Wiggins; G. P. Ruppert; R. R. Smith; L. L. Reed; L. E. Hubbard

1996-01-01

364

Water Resources Data, Montana, Water Year 2005. Volume 2: Yellowstone and Upper Columbia River Basins and Ground-Water Levels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water resources data for Montana for the 2005 water year, volumes 1 and 2, consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels in wells. This volume contains di...

F. A. Bailey K. A. Dodge M. K. White P. B. Ladd W. R. Berkas

2006-01-01

365

Acid mine water treatment using engineered wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two decades, the United States mining industry has greatly increased the amount it spends on pollution control.\\u000a The application of biotechnology to mine water can reduce the industry's water treatment costs (estimated at over a million\\u000a dollars a day) and improve water quality in streams and rivers adversely affected by acidic mine water draining from abandoned\\u000a mines.

Robert L. P. Kleinmann

1990-01-01

366

Using NASA Products of the Water Cycle for Improved Water Resources Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA Water Resources works within the Earth sciences and GEO community to leverage investments of space-based observation and modeling results including components of the hydrologic cycle into water resources management decision support tools for the goal towards the sustainable use of water. These Earth science hydrologic related observations and modeling products provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years. Observations of this type enable assessment of numerous water resources management issues including water scarcity, extreme events of drought and floods, and water quality. Examples of water cycle estimates make towards the contributions to the water management community include snow cover and snowpack, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, precipitation, streamflow and ground water. The availability of water is also contingent on the quality of water and hence water quality is an important part of NASA Water Resources. Water quality activities include both nonpoint source (agriculture land use, ecosystem disturbances, impervious surfaces, etc.) and direct remote sensing ( i.e., turbidity, algae, aquatic vegetation, temperature, etc.). . The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its projects under five functional themes: 1) stream-flow and flood forecasting; 2) water consumptive use and irrigation (includes evapotranspiration); 3) drought; 4) water quality; and 5) climate impacts on water resources. Currently NASA Water Resources is supporting 21 funded projects with 11 additional projects being concluded. To maximize the use of NASA water cycle measurements end to projects are supported with strong links with decision support systems. The NASA Water Resources Program works closely with other government agencies NOAA, USDA-FAS, USGS, AFWA, USAID, universities, and non-profit, international, and private sector organizations. International water cycle applications include: 1) Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWSNET) being expanded for famine relief to many developing nations of the world using a NASA Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS); 2) Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) global hydrology mapping program that extends their global hydrology to much finer resolutions through use of an optimized LDAS; 3) 'SERVIR' a visualization and monitoring center of Earth science information in Central America and East Africa with plans for additional locations in developing countries of the world; 4) installing NASA Water Information System Platforms (WISPs) strategically located throughout the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) in partnerships with USAID and the World Bank; and 5) Latin American capacity building efforts within GEO.

Toll, D. L.; Doorn, B.; Engman, E. T.; Lawford, R. G.

2010-12-01

367

Operating Water Resources Systems Under Climate Change Scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Population and industrial growth has resulted in intense demands on the quantity and quality of water resources worldwide. Moreover, climate change/variability is making a growing percentage of the earth's population vulnerable to extreme weather events (drought and flood). The 1996 Saguenay flood, 1997 Red River flood, the 1998 ice storm, and recent droughts in prairies are few examples of extreme weather events in Canada. Rising economic prosperity, growth in urban population, aging infrastructure, and a changing climate are increasing the vulnerability of Canadians to even more serious impacts. This growing threat can seriously undermine the social and economic viability of the country. Our ability to understand the impacts of climate change/variability on water quantity, quality, and its distribution in time and space can prepare us for sustainable management of this precious resource. The sustainability of water resources, over the medium to long-term, is critically dependent on the ability to manage (plan and operate) water resource systems under a more variable and perhaps warmer future climate. Studying the impacts of climate change/variability on water resources is complex and challenging. It is further complicated by the fact that impacts vary with time and are different at different locations. This study deals with the impacts of climate change/variability on water resources in a portion of the Red River Basin in Canada, both in terms of change in quantity and spatial-temporal distribution. A System Dynamics model is developed to describe the operation of the Shellmouth Reservoir located on the Red River in Canada. The climate data from Canadian Global Coupled Model, CGCM1 is used. The spatial system dynamics approach, based on distributed parameter control theory, is used to model the impacts of climate change/variability on water resources in time and space. A decision support system is developed to help reservoir operators and decision makers in sustainable management of water resources. The decision support system helps in analyzing the impacts of different reservoir operation scenarios, under changing climate conditions, by exploring multiple- what-if- scenarios. Canadian study areas and data sets are used for the research. However, the proposed approach provides a general framework that can be used in other parts of the world.

Ahmad, S.

2002-12-01

368

Roadmap for sustainable water resources in southwestern North America  

PubMed Central

The management of water resources in arid and semiarid areas has long been a challenge, from ancient Mesopotamia to the modern southwestern United States. As our understanding of the hydrological and climatological cycles has improved, and our ability to manipulate the hydrologic cycle has increased, so too have the challenges associated with managing a limited natural resource for a growing population. Modern civilization has made remarkable progress in water management in the past few centuries. Burgeoning cities now survive in desert regions, relying on a mix of simple and complex technologies and management systems to bring adequate water and remove wastewater. These systems have permitted agricultural production and urban concentrations to expand in regions previously thought to have inadequate moisture. However, evidence is also mounting that our current management and use of water is unsustainable. Physical, economic, and ecological limits constrain the development of new supplies and additional water withdrawals, even in regions not previously thought vulnerable to water constraints. New kinds of limits are forcing water managers and policy makers to rethink previous assumptions about population, technology, regional planning, and forms of development. In addition, new threats, especially the challenges posed by climatic changes, are now apparent. Sustainably managing and using water in arid and semiarid regions such as the southwestern United States will require new thinking about water in an interdisciplinary and integrated way. The good news is that a wide range of options suggest a roadmap for sustainable water management and use in the coming decades.

Gleick, Peter H.

2010-01-01

369

Roadmap for sustainable water resources in southwestern North America.  

PubMed

The management of water resources in arid and semiarid areas has long been a challenge, from ancient Mesopotamia to the modern southwestern United States. As our understanding of the hydrological and climatological cycles has improved, and our ability to manipulate the hydrologic cycle has increased, so too have the challenges associated with managing a limited natural resource for a growing population. Modern civilization has made remarkable progress in water management in the past few centuries. Burgeoning cities now survive in desert regions, relying on a mix of simple and complex technologies and management systems to bring adequate water and remove wastewater. These systems have permitted agricultural production and urban concentrations to expand in regions previously thought to have inadequate moisture. However, evidence is also mounting that our current management and use of water is unsustainable. Physical, economic, and ecological limits constrain the development of new supplies and additional water withdrawals, even in regions not previously thought vulnerable to water constraints. New kinds of limits are forcing water managers and policy makers to rethink previous assumptions about population, technology, regional planning, and forms of development. In addition, new threats, especially the challenges posed by climatic changes, are now apparent. Sustainably managing and using water in arid and semiarid regions such as the southwestern United States will require new thinking about water in an interdisciplinary and integrated way. The good news is that a wide range of options suggest a roadmap for sustainable water management and use in the coming decades. PMID:21149725

Gleick, Peter H

2010-12-14

370

Water Resources Data: Hawaii and Other Pacific Areas, Water Year 2004. Volume 1. Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Hawaii consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and springs; water levels and quality of water wells; and rainfall totals. * Water discharge for 66 gaging stations on streams, springs, and ditches. * Water-quality data for 4 streams, and 1 well. * Water levels for 42 observation wells. * Rainfall data for 37 rainfall stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and other local agencies in Hawaii.

Shimizu, B. H.; Nishimoto, D. C.; Taogoshi, R. I.; Teeters, P. C.

2005-01-01

371

Water Resources Data: Hawaii and Other Pacific Areas, Water Year 2003. Volume 1. Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Hawaii consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and springs; water levels and quality of water wells; and rainfall totals. * Water discharge for 70 gaging stations on streams, springs, and ditches. * Discharge data for 97 crest-stage partial-record stations. * Water-quality data for 6 streams, and 28 partial-record stations, and 10 wells. * Water levels for 88 observation wells. * Rainfall data for 38 rainfall stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and other local agencies in Hawaii.

Teeters, P. C.; Taogoshi, R. I.; Nishimoto, D. C.; Shimizu, B. H.

2004-01-01

372

Ground Water on Tropical Pacific Islands - Understanding a Vital Resource  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To a casual observer, tropical Pacific islands seem idyllic. Closer scrutiny reveals that their generally small size makes them particularly vulnerable to economic and environmental stresses imposed by rapidly growing populations, increasing economic development, and global climate change. On these islands, freshwater is one of the most precious resources. Ground water is the main source of drinking water on many islands, and for quite a few islands, it is the only reliable source of water throughout the year. Faced with a growing demand for this valuable resource, and the potential negative effects on its availability and quality from changes in global climate, increasingly sophisticated management approaches will be needed to ensure a dependable supply of freshwater for the residents of these islands. Much scientific information has been collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and other organizations about the ground-water resources of tropical Pacific islands. The aim of this Circular is to give members of the public, policymakers, and other stakeholders knowledge that will help ensure that this information can be used to make informed decisions about the management of these life-giving resources. As the demand for freshwater grows, new monitoring and research efforts will be needed to (1) characterize the extent and sustainability of ground-water resources on different tropical Pacific islands, (2) better understand linkages between ground-water discharge and freshwater and nearshore ecosystems, and (3) prepare for the effects of climate change, which will likely include the loss of habitable land and reduced areas for the accumulation of ground water as a result of rising sea levels.

Tribble, Gordon

2008-01-01

373

Integrating policy, disintegrating practice: water resources management in Botswana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Botswana is generally regarded as an African ‘success story’. Nearly four decades of unabated economic growth, multi-party democracy, conservative decision-making and low-levels of corruption have made Botswana the darling of the international donor community. One consequence of rapid and sustained economic development is that water resources use and demands have risen dramatically in a primarily arid/semi-arid environment. Policy makers recognize that supply is limited and that deliberate steps must be taken to manage demand. To this end, and in line with other members of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), Botswana devised a National Water Master Plan (NWMP) and undertook a series of institutional and legal reforms throughout the 1990s so as to make water resources use more equitable, efficient and sustainable. In other words, the stated goal is to work toward Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in both policy and practice. However, policy measures have had limited impact on de facto practice. This paper reflects our efforts to understand the disjuncture between policy and practice. The information presented here combines a review of primary and secondary literatures with key informant interviews. It is our view that a number of constraints-cultural, power political, managerial-combine to hinder efforts toward sustainable forms of water resources use. If IWRM is to be realized in the country, these constraints must be overcome. This, however, is no small task.

Swatuk, Larry A.; Rahm, Dianne

374

Advanced Engineering Materials: Products from Super Stuff. Resources in Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of "smart" or advanced materials such as ceramics, metals, composites, and polymers. Provides a design brief, a student learning activity with outcomes, quiz, and resources. (SK)

Jacobs, James A.

1993-01-01

375

The NLM Gateway: a metasearch engine for disparate resources.  

PubMed

The U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) has created a metasearch engine called the NLM Gateway at the URL "gateway.nlm.nih.gov". The Gateway allows the user to issue one search that takes place on multiple NLM retrieval engines. A composite result set is presented in several categories of information: journal citations; books, serials and audiovisuals; consumer health; meeting abstracts; and other collections. PMID:15360773

Kingsland, Lawrence C; Prettyman, Maureen F; Shooshan, Sonya E

2004-01-01

376

TEPCO's Approach to Power-Engineer Human Resource Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We think 'human resources and technology' is developed only by self-training continuously, keeping higher motivation and practicing repeatedly. Moreover it is indispensable for sustainable development of company. Management vision, top-down message with vertical communication, and bottom-up systematic approaches are necessary for sustainable human resource development, sharing the value with coordination, and in addition, OJT and Off-JT method should be used

Masaki Sato

2006-01-01

377

Fiscal Year 1984 program report: Kentucky Water Resources Research Institute  

SciTech Connect

The Kentucky Water Resources Research Institute Annual Report for Fiscal Year 1984 describes the problems and issues for the Commonwealth as determined by the State Advisory Council. The program goals and priorities of the Institute describe the areas of research the program addressed. A synopsis of each of the seven research projects is included. The seven projects funded by the Institute in Fiscal Year 1984 are: For Identification of Soil-Water Chemical Parameters for the Prediction and Treatment of Suspended Solids in Surface Water Reservoirs of Coal Mine Lands; Modeling of Overland Flow by the Diffusion Wave Approach; A Model for Assessing the Visual Resources of River Basins as an Aid to Making Landuse Planning Decisions; Development of General Guidelines for the Planning of Stormwater Management Facilities; Application to Urban Watersheds in Kentucky; Reductive Dechlorination of Toxic Chlorocarbons; Investigation of Pollution in a Karst Aquifer Utilizing Optical Brightener; and Hydraulic Design Algorithms for Upgrading and Enhancing Water Distribution Systems.

Not Available

1985-09-01

378

Resources  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer - resources Cerebral palsy - resources Celiac disease - resources Child abuse - resources Chronic fatigue syndrome - resources Chronic pain - resources Cleft palate - resources Colon cancer - resources Cystic ...

379

Water-resources optimization model for Santa Barbara, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A simulation-optimization model has been developed for the optimal management of the city of Santa Barbara's water resources during a drought. The model, which links groundwater simulation with linear programming, has a planning horizon of 5 years. The objective is to minimize the cost of water supply subject to: water demand constraints, hydraulic head constraints to control seawater intrusion, and water capacity constraints. The decision variables are montly water deliveries from surface water and groundwater. The state variables are hydraulic heads. The drought of 1947-51 is the city's worst drought on record, and simulated surface-water supplies for this period were used as a basis for testing optimal management of current water resources under drought conditions. The simulation-optimization model was applied using three reservoir operation rules. In addition, the model's sensitivity to demand, carry over [the storage of water in one year for use in the later year(s)], head constraints, and capacity constraints was tested.

Nishikawa, T.

1998-01-01

380

Multi-National Collaborative Modeling of Water Dependent Resources in the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A team of scientists and engineers from the Iraq Ministry of Water Resources, the Iraq Transition Assistance Office of the U.S. Department of State, UNESCO, and Sandia National Laboratories collaborated to build a systems model of Iraqi water resources and related systems, including transboundary water systems, surface water and reservoirs, agriculture, salinity, municipal and industrial uses, and issues related to the restoration and maintenance of the southern Mesopotamian Marshes. The model is intended to assist scientists and planners in the government of Iraq in development of its long-term Strategy for Water and Land Resources. The model is a numerical simulation built in a system dynamics environment, is bounded spatially by the watershed of the Tigris-Euphrates river system, and operates on a monthly timestep from 1930-2047. Model results for the 78-year period from 1930-2007 are calibrated to historic data. The 40-year “scenario period” from 2008-2047 allows users to simulate various and competing future scenarios for water management, and management of related systems, in Iraq. The model shows the potential impact of development of reservoirs and agriculture in upstream countries Turkey, Syria and Iran, and the impact of changes in Iraq to reservoir operations, agricultural practices, municipal and industrial approaches, and marsh restoration efforts. The modeling project is part of Iraq’s long-term planning effort known as Strategy for Water and Land Resources in Iraq. Due to the political sensitivity of water issues in the Tigris and Euphrates River system, data used to drive this model, and specific model results are proprietary to the country of Iraq. As a result, this paper will not include quantitative results, but rather a qualitative description of the model building process, qualitative model results, and lessons learned from this multi-national and multi-cultural collaborative model building effort.

Passell, H.; Roach, J. D.; Reno, M. D.; Klise, G. T.; Tidwell, V. C.

2010-12-01

381

The new regime for managing US—Mexican water resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

United States-Mexican transboundary water resources management is presently experiencing significant reform resulting from\\u000a long-term demographic processes in the border region and greater economic integration. The recently concluded North American\\u000a Free Trade Agreement and supplementary environmental accord modify existing agreements and provide old institution with new\\u000a mandates. Particularly affected is the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC), long the lead agency

Stephen P. Mumme; Fort Collins

1995-01-01

382

76 FR 71070 - Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Integrated Water Resource Management...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Impact Statement for the Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton, Kittitas, Klickitat...Environmental Impact Statement for the Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River...

2011-11-16

383

Interpretation of Thermal Infrared Imagery for Irrigation Water Resource Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water resources play a major role in the character of agricultural development in the arid western United States. This case study shows how thermal infrared imagery, which is sensitive to radiant or heat energy, can be used to interpret crop moisture content and associated stress in irrigated areas. (RM)

Nellis, M. Duane

1985-01-01

384

Bibliography of Water Resources of the Hawaiian Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bibliography is a compilation of approximately 1,000 references on studies of water resources of the Hawaiian Islands; it complements and supplements an earlier compilation with the same title (see W72-00805). An IBM KWIC (Key Word in Context) program...

R. T. Pfund J. W. Wickes

1975-01-01

385

Environmental Research In Practice: Restoration And Protection Of Water Resources  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is tasked to protect human health and the environment. To carry out this task, the EPA makes use of technical expertise within its Office of Research and Development. Restoration and protection of water resources is one area of tec...

386

ERTS-1 Applications in Hydrology and Water Resources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After having been in orbit for less than one year, the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) has shown that it provides very applicable data for more effective monitoring and management of surface water features over the globe. Mapping flooded are...

V. V. Salomonson A. Rango

1973-01-01

387

Scenario Planning of California Water Resources with Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several advances have been made in using climate change projection information in water resources planning in California. Since there is uncertainty about future climate, 12 climate change projections were used to assess impacts on SWP and CVP operations. Average results for the 12 projections are presented in this summary. Current SWP and CVP infrastructure, regulations and operating rules were assumed.

H. Yin; F. I. Chung; J. Anderson

2008-01-01

388

Water Resources Division Training Bulletin, July 1973 Through June 1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin provides information about available training as well as information to assist supervisors and training officers in developing a coordinated, efficient training program in hydrology and other subjects related to water-resources investigations. Most of the training is presented at the Center at Lakewood, Colorado. Information is given…

Abrams, R. O.; Brown, D. W.

389

Small islands water resources development-a holistic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small islands have fragile ecosystems with very limited water and other resources and great care of the environment is required for support of the inhabitants. The nature of small islands with very small catchments area for rainfall, the small and limited surface storage capacity, the limited groundwater storage capacity combined with the fact that aquifers are surrounded by saltwater, the

Nicos X. TSIOURTIS

390

Population momentum and the demand on land and water resources  

PubMed Central

Future world population growth is fuelled by two components: the demographic momentum, which is built into the age composition of current populations, and changes in reproductive behaviour and mortality of generations yet to come. This paper investigates, by major world regions and countries, what we know about population growth, what can be projected with reasonable certainty, and what is pure speculation. The exposition sets a frame for analysing demographic driving forces that are expected to increase human demand and pressures on land and water resources. These have been contrasted with current resource assessments of regional availability and use of land, in particular with estimates of remaining land with cultivation potential. In establishing a balance between availabilty of land resources and projected needs, the paper distinguishes regions with limited land and water resources and high population pressure from areas with abundant resources and low or moderate demographic demand. Overall, it is estimated that two-thirds of the remaining balance of land with rainfed cultivation potential is currently covered by various forest ecosystems and wetlands. The respective percentages by region vary between 23% in Southern Africa to 89% in South-Eastern Asia. For Latin America and Asia the estimated share of the balance of land with cultivation potential under forest and wetland ecosystems is about 70%, in Africa this is about 60%. If these were to be preserved, the remaining balance of land with some potential for rainfed crop cultivation would amount to some 550 million hectares. The regions which will experience the largest difficulties in meeting future demand for land resources and water, or alternatively have to cope with much increased dependency on external supplies, include foremost Western Asia, South-Central Asia, and Northern Africa. A large stress on resources is to be expected also in many countries of Eastern, Western and Southern Africa

Fischer, G.; Heilig, G. K.

1997-01-01

391

Be a Water Watcher: A Resource Guide for Water Conservation, K-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a resource guide (in response to the New York City water emergency) for grades K-12 on the subject of water conservation. Activities are suggested for science, industrial arts, social studies, and communications arts classes. A bibliography on water is also provided. (APM)

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

392

Bilharziasis control in relation to water resources development in Africa and the Middle East  

PubMed Central

As part of its world-wide programme for the control of bilharziasis, the World Health Organization has set up a Bilharziasis Advisory Team, composed of an epidemiologist and an engineer, to investigate in different countries the prevalence of the disease and its relationship to irrigation, agriculture and a variety of factors associated with the development of water resources. This paper is an appraisal of the situation in 15 countries in Africa and the Middle East, based largely on surveys conducted by the Bilharziasis Advisory Team in the period 1958-60. Analyses of data from these 15 countries indicate that about 26 million people, out of a total population of 107 million, have bilharziasis. In spite of considerable expenditure on control measures, the prevalence of the disease is increasing. This trend is closely related to water resources development. On the basis of observations in the field, it is believed that improved water management and agricultural methods, stream and water impoundment control, the proper use of molluscicides and mechanical barriers, and certain aspects of environmental sanitation offer practical solutions to this problem. The complexity of these measures requires the closest co-operation between the various agencies, national and international, concerned with agriculture, water resources and public health.

McMullen, Donald B.; Buzo, Z. J.; Rainey, Marshall B.; Francotte, Jean

1962-01-01

393

Optimization approach for water resources long term planning and management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integration of short-term operation and long-term planning is one of the challenges of development and management of water resources systems. This research is interested in an optimization algorithm consisting of a short-term time step dynamic programming (DP) formulation, coupled with a long-term time step expectation of the future benefit function of flows scenarios. The method takes into account the short-term variability or seasonality of the flow regime as well as long-term uncertainty of flows, which is actuated by either climate change or global climate variability associated with phases of oceanic and atmospheric phenomena. The DP is used to determine an optimum operating policy of flows scenarios for the short-term time step. The use of flows scenarios in optimization problem represents the stochastic aspect of flows, and transition between scenarios is done at long-term time step. This method could be used for water resources planning in the context of future hydrologic regime uncertainties or to evaluate climate change impacts on existing water resources systems. The algorithm was tested for optimum hydropower production of Manicouagan water resources system, Québec, Canada, with two hydropower plants with reservoir and three run-of-river plants, for a period of 90 years, from 2010 to 2099. Future climate weekly time step operating policy was produced with two time steps: annual time step for management of water resources in non-stational climate and a weekly time step for flow seasonality. Annual flows have been used to compute transition probabilities between flow scenarios. Results show that there will be an increase of hydropower production in the future climate thanks to the increase of seasonal and annual flows. However, climate change will reduce the efficiency of the existing hydropower system, with more unproductive spills. The algorithm permitted to evaluate the impact of climate change on water resources without taking any assumptions other than the climate change scenarios and it was able to adapt the operating policy to the climate seasonality and climate change uncertainties in the optimization problem. Key words: water resources, optimization, non-stational climate, flow regime, dynamic programming

Haguma, D.; Leconte, R.; Krau, S.; Côté, P.

2012-04-01

394

Water ingestion into jet engine axial compressors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An axial flow compressor has been tested with water droplet ingestion under a variety of conditions. The results illustrate the manner in which the compressor pressure ratio, efficiency and surging characteristics are affected. A model for estimating the performance of a compressor during water ingestion has been developed and the predictions obtained compare favorably with the test results. It is then shown that with respect to five droplet-associated nonlinearly-interacting processes (namely, droplet-blade interactions, blade performance changes, centrifugal action, heat and mass transfer processes and droplet break-up), the initial water content and centrifugal action play the most dominant roles.

Tsuchiya, T.; Murthy, S. N. B.

1982-01-01

395

Water You Engineering? An Activity to Develop Water-Quality Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water is one of our most precious resources. However, for many in the United States, having fresh, safe drinking water is taken for granted, and due to this perceived lack of relevance, students may not fully appreciate the luxury of having safe running water--in the home. One approach to resolving water-quality issues in the United States may…

Riskowski, Jody; Todd, Carrie Davis

2009-01-01

396

77 FR 42714 - Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Project No. 9690-109] Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources...2012. d. Applicants: Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC; Eagle Creek Land Resources...President-- Operations, Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Water...

2012-07-20

397

Climate Variability vs Trend Effects on Water Resources in the Northeastern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designing effective strategies for provision of water-related services is dependent on the ability to characterize uncertainty and manage the resultant risks to system performance. This work will explore the impact of various uncertainties (i.e. demands, internal variability, and climate change) on water supply reliability in the Northeast United States. A newly developed decision support tool will be used to explore problematic future climate conditions using a stress test, in which the performance of local reservoir systems is tested over a wide range of potential climate and socioeconomic changes. This analysis will be used to develop a generalized understanding of the contributions of these uncertainties to reliability. A diagnosis of the relative risks to water supply in the Northeast US will help water resource engineers plan and adapt to uncertain future conditions.

Whateley, S.; Brown, C. M.

2013-12-01

398

Human Resources Development in the Field of Electrical Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is becoming increasingly clear that the decline in popularity in the field of electrical engineering is undergoing rapidly due to the fact that more young people are moving away from the science. The primary goal of this paper is to recognize the importance of educational new effort and, second, suggest social-provided education support needed to meet this challenge.

Ishigame, Atsushi

399

WATER QUALITY CONTROL STUDY, MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

On February 5, 1964, the Federal Power Commission issued a license to Pacific Northwest Power Company for construction and operation of its proposed High Mountain Sheep Project on the Snake River (170602, 170501). This investigation by the Federal Water Pollution Control Adminis...

400

Evaluation of the state water-resources research institutes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources research institutes, as authorized by the Water Resources Research Act of 1984 (Public Law 98-242), are located in each state and in the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico , and the Virgin Islands. Public Law 98-242 mandated an onsite evaluation of each of these institutes to determine whether ' . . .the quality and relevance of its water resources research and its effectiveness as an institution for planning, conducting, and arranging for research warrant its continued support in the national interest. ' The results of these evaluations, which were conducted between September 1985 and June 1987, are summarized. The evaluation teams found that all 54 institutes are meeting the basic objectives of the authorizing legislation in that they: (1) use the grant funds to support research that addresses water problems of state and regional concern; (2) provide opportunities for training of water scientists through student involvement on research projects; and (3) promote the application of research results through preparation of technical reports and contributions to the technical literature. The differences among institutes relate primarily to degrees of effectiveness, and most often are determined by the financial, political, and geographical contexts in which the institutes function and by the quality of their leadership. (Lantz-PTT)

Ertel, M. O.

1988-01-01

401

Using a Cast Iron Hand-Pump to Teach Students About Water Resources and Resource Allocation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simply turning on the tap brings safe, clean, fresh-tasting water to most Americans. Students never need to consider basic concepts about water supply, including their daily water consumption and the quality of the water required for drinking. In stark contrast, the issues of water quality and quantity play a central role in people’s daily lives in the developing world. It is difficult to convey this reality to our students through lectures alone and hands-on activities are required. In order to develop an active learning based approach, we transported a traditional cast iron hand-pump and aluminum urns from Bangladesh to the United States. The hand-pump is mounted on a cooler, which acts as a water reservoir, and is now functional and easily transportable. Using this powerful demonstration tool, we have developed an active learning module we call “How far will you walk for water?”. The goal of the module is to teach students about water quantity, water quality, and resource allocation with a focus on Arsenic and Bangladesh, but the system could be applied to other areas of concern. First the students are given a quick lecture on Arsenic, its health impacts, and the extent of contamination in Bangladesh. They are then assigned a specific well, complete with a map of their village and picture of their well and a water sample (pre-spiked with arsenic to be above or below the 10 ug/L WHO limit). Next they pump the wellhead, fill an urn, walk down the hall and back, and measure the distance walked. This is compared to the distance from their village home to their private well, to safe wells belonging to neighbors and to a community well. The students then use the Hach Arsenic test kit to test the arsenic levels in their water samples and learn if their well is safe to drink. Finally, given all this information students must determine if they should continue drinking from their well or switch to a new well, even if that means making multiple, long trips each day. This module has introduced the students to important water resource concepts, such as water quality testing, usage and water delivery options. It also provides students the opportunity to consider how much time and effort to should be allocated to obtaining water given known health risks. On follow up tests we use transfer questions that ask students to select the locations for installing community wells based on a data showing contaminated wells in a village. We have utilized this module with High School, Undergraduate, and Graduate students and it excites and engages students while teaching many basic water resource issues.

Mailloux, B. J.; Radloff, K. A.

2010-12-01

402

Radar systems for the water resources mission, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of the art determination was made for radar measurement of: soil moisture, snow, standing and flowing water, lake and river ice, determination of required spacecraft radar parameters, study of synthetic-aperture radar systems to meet these parametric requirements, and study of techniques for on-board processing of the radar data. Significant new concepts developed include the following: scanning synthetic-aperture radar to achieve wide-swath coverage; single-sideband radar; and comb-filter range-sequential, range-offset SAR processing. The state of the art in radar measurement of water resources parameters is outlined. The feasibility for immediate development of a spacecraft water resources SAR was established. Numerous candidates for the on-board processor were examined.

Moore, R. K.; Claassen, J. P.; Erickson, R. L.; Fong, R. K. T.; Hanson, B. C.; Komen, M. J.; Mcmillan, S. B.; Parashar, S. K.

1976-01-01

403

Water balance and water resources of the Aral sea basin and its man-induced changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented natural-climatological characteristics of water resources forming conditions of the Aral sea basin. Analised flow variability correlation of Amy Darya and Syr Darya from the point of their influence on the sea level fluctuation.

A. V. Belyaev

1995-01-01

404

Strip mining: Impacts on water resources. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning strip mine wastes and their effect on water resources. The citations include studies of the hydraulics of mine waste and runoff in general, as well as reporting survey results at selected strip mines. Land reclamation techniques and efforts are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-07-01

405

Transient performance of fan engine with water ingestion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a continuing investigation on developing and applying codes for prediction of performance of a turbine jet engine and its components with water ingestion during flight operation, including power settings, and flight altitudes and speed changes, an attempt was made to establish the effects of water ingestion through simulation of a generic high bypass ratio engine with a generic control. In view of the large effects arising in the air compression system and the prediffuser-combustor unit during water ingestion, attention was focused on those effects and the resulting changes in engine performance. Under all conditions of operation, whether ingestion is steady or not, it became evident that water ingestion causes a fan-compressor unit to operate in a time-dependent fashion with periodic features, particularly with respect to the state of water in the span and the film in the casing clearance space, at the exit of the machine. On the other hand, the aerodynamic performance of the unit may be considered as quasi-steady once the distribution of water has attained an equilibrium state with respect to its distribution and motion. For purposes of engine simulation, the performance maps for the generic fan-compressor unit were generated based on the attainment of a quasi-steady state (meaning steady except for long-period variations in performance) during ingestion and operation over a wide enough range of rotational speeds.

Murthy, S. N. B.; Mullican, A.

1993-01-01

406

Searching for Lunar Water: The Lunar Volatile Resources Analysis Package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ESA Lunar Lander has been conceived to demonstrate an autonomous landing capability. Once safely on the Moon the scientific payload will conduct investigations aimed at preparing the way for human exploration. As part of the provisional payload an instrument known as The Lunar Volatile Resources Analysis Package (L-VRAP) will analyse surface and exospheric volatiles. The presence and abundance of lunar water is an important consideration for ISRU (In Situ Resource Utilisation) since this is likely to be part of a strategy for supporting long-term human exploration of the Moon.

Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Dewar, K. R.; Pillinger, J. M.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I, P.; Gibson, E. K.; Merrifield, J. A.; Howe, C. J.; Waugh, L. J.; Pilinger, C. T.

2012-01-01

407

Water resources data for Wyoming, water year 1996. Water-data report (Annual), October 1995-September 1996  

SciTech Connect

Water resources data for the 1996 water year for Wyoming consists of records of stage, discharge and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains discharge records for 172 gaging stations; stage and contents for 16 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 30 gaging stations and 23 ungaged stations; and water levels for 7 observation wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements.

Smalley, M.L.; Woodruff, R.E.; Clark, M.L.; Sadler, W.J.

1996-05-01

408

An engineer/constructor's view of lunar resource development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A strawman lunar outpost scenario has been postulated as a special focus to guide the papers in this symposium. This scenario describes an evolving facility with basic components, personnel, and activities intended to support lunar missions that lead to a permanent occupation on the lunar surface. The engineer/constructor's view of establishing a lunar outpost is largely concerned with identifying and analyzing the logistics needed to transform the engineering designs on paper into a constructed and operating facility. This means that all aspects of the outpost design will be examined to satisfy constructability requirements and to develop a construction management plan that leads to successful facility startup and routine operations. Whether the facility is to be devoted to materials production, vehicle refueling, or science projects will influence the construction plan in its details, but the construction of all lunar facilities will be mainly governed by the difficult logistics path from Earth to the lunar surface.

Jones, Carleton H.

1992-02-01

409

Water withdrawal and use in Maryland, 1988-89. Water resources investigation  

SciTech Connect

The report summarizes the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Maryland Geological Survey, to estimate amounts of fresh and saline water withdrawn and used in Maryland during 1988-89. Ten water-use categories represent the major demands on the surface-water and ground-water resources of the State during 1988-89: Public supply, domestic, commercial, industrial, mining, thermoelectric power generation, hydroelectric power generation, agriculture (nonirrigation), irrigation, and aquaculture.

Wheeler, J.C.

1993-01-01

410

Genetic materials at the gene engineering division, RIKEN BioResource Center.  

PubMed

Genetic materials are one of the most important and fundamental research resources for studying biological phenomena. Scientific need for genetic materials has been increasing and will never cease. Ever since it was established as RIKEN DNA Bank in 1987, the Gene Engineering Division of RIKEN BioResource Center (BRC) has been engaged in the collection, maintenance, storage, propagation, quality control, and distribution of genetic resources developed mainly by the Japanese research community. When RIKEN BRC was inaugurated in 2001, RIKEN DNA Bank was incorporated as one of its six Divisions, the Gene Engineering Division. The Gene Engineering Division was selected as a core facility for the genetic resources of mammalian and microbe origin by the National BioResource Project (NBRP) of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan in 2002. With support from the scientific community, the Division now holds over 3 million clones of genetic materials for distribution. The genetic resources include cloned DNAs, gene libraries (e.g., cDNA and genomic DNA cloned into phage, cosmid, BAC, phosmid, and YAC), vectors, hosts, recombinant viruses, and ordered library sets derived from animal cells, including human and mouse cells, microorganisms, and viruses. Recently genetic materials produced by a few MEXT national research projects were transferred to the Gene Engineering Division for further dissemination. The Gene Engineering Division performs rigorous quality control of reproducibility, restriction enzyme mapping and nucleotide sequences of clones to ensure the reproducibility of in vivo and in vitro experiments. Users can easily access our genetic materials through the internet and obtain the DNA resources for a minimal fee. Not only the materials, but also information of features and technology related to the materials are provided via the web site of RIKEN BRC. Training courses are also given to transfer the technology for handling viral vectors. RIKEN BRC supports scientists around the world in the use of valuable genetic materials. PMID:20484845

Yokoyama, Kazunari K; Murata, Takehide; Pan, Jianzhi; Nakade, Koji; Kishikawa, Shotaro; Ugai, Hideyo; Kimura, Makoto; Kujime, Yukari; Hirose, Megumi; Masuzaki, Satoko; Yamasaki, Takahito; Kurihara, Chitose; Okubo, Masato; Nakano, Yuri; Kusa, Yuka; Yoshikawa, Akiko; Inabe, Kumiko; Ueno, Kazuko; Obata, Yuichi

2010-01-01

411

Ecosystem engineering at the sediment-water interface: bioturbation and consumer-substrate interaction.  

PubMed

In soft-bottom sediments, consumers may influence ecosystem function more via engineering that alters abiotic resources than through trophic influences. Understanding the influence of bioturbation on physical, chemical, and biological processes of the water-sediment interface requires investigating top-down (consumer) and bottom-up (resource) forces. The objective of the present study was to determine how consumer bioturbation mode and sediment properties interact to dictate the hydrologic function of experimental filtration systems clogged by the deposition of fine sediments. Three fine-grained sediments characterized by different organic matter (OM) and pollutant content were used to assess the influence of resource type: sediment of urban origin highly loaded with OM and pollutants, river sediments rich in OM, and river sediments poor in OM content. The effects of consumer bioturbation (chironomid larvae vs. tubificid worms) on sediment reworking, changes in hydraulic head and hydraulic conductivity, and water fluxes through the water-sediment interface were measured. Invertebrate influences in reducing the clogging process depended not only on the mode of bioturbation (construction of biogenic structures, burrowing and feeding activities, etc.) but also on the interaction between the bioturbation process and the sediments of the clogging layer. We present a conceptual model that highlights the importance of sediment influences on bioturbation and argues for the integration of bottom-up influence on consumer engineering activities. PMID:19462183

Nogaro, Géraldine; Mermillod-Blondin, Florian; Valett, Maurice H; François-Carcaillet, Frédérique; Gaudet, Jean-Paul; Lafont, Michel; Gibert, Janine

2009-08-01

412

The State-of-the-Global Water System: Moving toward an Operational View of World Water Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

With global climate change now dominating international dialogue on the environment, direct threats to the global water system have yet to attain a similar level of scientific, public, and policy concern. Nonetheless, it is the conjunction of climate drivers, water supply, and water use that invokes impacts on water resource availability and, thus, water resource extremes. Integrated data compendia depicting

C. J. Vorosmarty; B. Fekete; P. Green; R. Lammers; A. Prusevich

2008-01-01

413

Infrared photography and imagery in water resources research  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infrared photography has restricted usefulness in general water resources studies but is particularly useful in special problems such as shoreline mapping. Infrared imagery is beginning to be used in water resources studies for the identification of surface and sub surface thermal anomalies as expressed at the surface and the measurement of apparent water surface temperatures. It will attain its maximum usefulness only when interpretation criteria for infrared imagery are fully developed. Several important hydrologic problems to which infrared imagery may be applied are: (1) determination of circulation and cooling of water in power plant cooling ponds, (2) measurement of river temperature and temperature decline downstream from power plants discharging heated water, (3) identification of submarine springs along coasts, and (4) measurement of temperature differences along streams as indicators of effluent seepage of ground water. Although it is possible at this time to identify many features of importance to hydrology by the use of infrared imagery, the task remaining is to develop criteria to show the hydrologic significance of the features.

Robinove, Charles J.

1965-01-01

414

Water resources data, Oklahoma, water year 2004; Volume 2. Red River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volumes 1 and 2 of the water resources data for the 2004 water year for Oklahoma consists of record of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes or reservoirs; and water levels of ground-water wells. This report contains discharge records for 138 gaging stations; stage and contents for 18 lakes or reservoirs and 2 gage height stations; water quality for 55 gaging stations; 38 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations and 4 ground-water sites. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge and water-quality sites. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Oklahoma.

Blazs, R. L.; Walters, D. M.; Coffey, T. E.; Boyle, D. L.; Wellman, J. J.

2004-01-01

415

Water resources data, Oklahoma, water year 2004;Volume 1. Arkansas River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volumes 1 and 2 of the water resources data for the 2004 water year for Oklahoma consists of record of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes or reservoirs; and water levels of ground-water wells. This report contains discharge records for 138 gaging stations; stage and contents for 18 lakes or reservoirs and 2 gage height stations; water quality for 55 gaging stations; 38 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations and 4 ground-water sites. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge and water-quality sites. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Oklahoma.

Blazs, R. L.; Walters, D. M.; Coffey, T. E.; Boyle, D. L.; Wellman, J. J.

2004-01-01

416

Water resources data, Oklahoma, water year 2003; Volume 1. Arkansas River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volumes 1 and 2 of the water resources data for the 2003 water year for Oklahoma consists of record of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes or reservoirs; and water levels of ground-water wells. This report contains discharge records for 139 gaging stations; stage and contents for 17 lakes or reservoirs and 2 gage height stations; water quality for 46 gaging stations; 32 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations and 5 ground-water sites. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge and water-quality sites. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Oklahoma.

Blazs, R. L.; Walters, D. M.; Coffey, T. E.; Boyle, D. L.; Wellman, J. J.

2004-01-01

417

Geotechnical, Rock and Water Digital Library (GROW)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

GROW emphasizes the areas of civil engineering that focus on geotechnical resources and rock and water resources engineering. GROW gathers resources that can be used to support learning in these topic areas. This includes learning units, modules, lectures, demonstrations etc.

418

Hydrogeology and potential water-resource targets in Mauritania, Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hydrogeologic study is conducted in support of mineral-resource assessment activities in Mauritania, Africa. Airborne magnetic depth estimates reveal two primary ground-water basins: the porous Continental Terminal coastal system (fill deposits); and the interior, fractured interior Taoudeni Basin system (carbonate, clastic, metasedimentary, and metavolcanic rocks). In the Continental Terminal basin, there is uniform vertical recharge and localized discharge that is coincident with ground-water pumping at Nouakchott. This pumping center induces eastward flow of ground water from the Atlantic Ocean resulting in a salinity gradient that diminishes quality over 100 km. Ground water also flows southward into the basin from Western Sahara. By contrast, an interbasin exchange occurs as fresh ground-water flows westward from the Taoudeni basin. In the Taoudeni basin, zones of local recharge occur in three areas: northwest at the edge of the Réguibat Shield, at the city of Tidjikdja, and to the south overlying Tillites. Ground water also flows across country boundaries: northward into Western Sahara and westward into Mali. At the southern country boundary, the Sengal River serves as both a source and sink of fresh ground water to these two basins. Using a geographical information system, 13 hydrostratigraphic units are identified based on lateral extent and distinct hydrologic properties for future groundwater model development. Combining this information with drilling productivity, water quality, and geophysical interpretations (fracturing and absence of subsurface dikes) identified 3 potential water-resource development targets: sedimentary rocks of Cambrian-Ordovician age, sedimentary rocks of Neoproterozoic age, and carbonate rocks of middle Mesoproterozoic age.

Horton, J. D.; Friedel, M. J.; Finn, C.

2012-12-01

419

Integrating water resources management in eco-hydrological modelling.  

PubMed

In this paper the integration of water resources management with regard to reservoir management in an eco-hydrological model is described. The model was designed to simulate different reservoir management options, such as optimized hydropower production, irrigation intake from the reservoir or optimized provisioning downstream. The integrated model can be used to investigate the impacts of climate variability/change on discharge or to study possible adaptation strategies in terms of reservoir management. The study area, the Upper Niger Basin located in the West African Sahel, is characterized by a monsoon-type climate. Rainfall and discharge regime are subject to strong seasonality. Measured data from a reservoir are used to show that the reservoir model and the integrated management options can be used to simulate the regulation of this reservoir. The inflow into the reservoir and the discharge downstream of the reservoir are quite distinctive, which points out the importance of the inclusion of water resources management. PMID:23552241

Koch, H; Liersch, S; Hattermann, F F

2013-01-01

420

Managing water resources infrastructure in the face of different values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water resources infrastructure (WRI) plays a key role in water management. It can serve or negatively affect some seven to ten different and sometimes conflicting values. WRI management is therefore not a purely technical issue. Economic analyses can help to some extent, but only for values related to current human use. Multi-criteria analysis can cover all values, but in the end WRI management is not an analytical issue, but a governance issue. Different governance paradigms exist: markets, hierarchies and “third alternatives”, such as common pool resources management and network management. This article presents social learning as the most promising paradigm. Positive experiences with social learning have been described and guidance on putting social learning into practice exists. Nonetheless, there are no magic solutions for managing WRI in the face of different values.

Mostert, Erik

421

Water Losses from Water Engineering Works and Hydraulic Services: Specific Cases in Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundant rainfall is not the only contributor to a rising water table. Water losses from hydraulic engineering works and services also contribute to increases in water table elevations, This article summarizes the impact of this large and complex problem, with reference to some specific cases encountered in Romania, and separately considers losses from reservoirs, irrigation systems, and urban or industrial

Tudor Botzan; Angelica Necula

1995-01-01

422

Assessing the impacts of climatic change on mountain water resources.  

PubMed

As the evidence for human induced climate change becomes clearer, so too does the realization that its effects will have impacts on numerous environmental and socio-economic systems. Mountains are recognized as very sensitive physical environments with populations whose histories and current social positions often strain their capacity to accommodate intense and rapid changes to their resource base. It is thus essential to assess the impacts of a changing climate, focusing on the quantity of water originating in mountain regions, particularly where snow and ice melt represent a large streamflow component as well as a local resource in terms of freshwater supply, hydropower generation, or irrigation. Increasing evidence of glacier retreat, permafrost degradation and reduced mountain snowpack has been observed in many regions, thereby suggesting that climate change may seriously affect streamflow regimes. These changes could in turn threaten the availability of water resources for many environmental and economic systems, and exacerbate a range of natural hazards that would compound these impacts. As a consequence, socio-economic structures of downstream living populations would be also impacted, calling for better preparedness and strategies to avoid conflicts of interest between water-dependent economic actors. This paper is thus an introduction to the Special Issue of this journal dedicated to the European Union Seventh Framework Program (EU-FP7) project ACQWA (Assessing Climate Impacts on the Quantity and Quality of WAter), a major European network of scientists that was coordinated by the University of Geneva from 2008 to 2014. The goal of ACQWA has been to address a number of these issues and propose a range of solutions for adaptation to change and to help improve water governance in regions where quantity, seasonality, and perhaps quality of water may substantially change in coming decades. PMID:24360916

Beniston, Martin; Stoffel, Markus

2014-09-15

423

1993 Fiscal Year Water Resources Division Information Guide  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This Guide briefly describes the Water Resources Division's mission, program, and organizational structure, and where and how to obtain specific types of hydrologic information. The Guide also contains a listing of addresses, telephone numbers, and office hours for Headquarters, Regional, District, and State offices. For some offices, two addresses are given: the mailing address of the office to which correspondence should be sent and the street address of the office. The map shows the location of the offices.

U.S. Geological Survey

1992-01-01

424

Water Resource Assessment for the Zambezi River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Zambezi river drains eight riparian countries: Angola, Namibia, Zambia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Tanzania, and Mozambique. The Zambezi river is, therefore, an international river basin. It drains an area of about 1,800,000 square km (Okavango-Chobe system included). The surface water resources of the Zambezi river have been assessed on the basis of average, typical dry, and wet year flow conditions.

Jonathan I. Matondo; Peter Mortensen

1998-01-01

425

Water resources data for Maryland and Delaware, water year 1993. Volume 1. Surface-water data. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1992-30 September 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resources data for the 1993 water year for Maryland and Delaware consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs. This volume (Volume 1. Surface-Water Data) contains records for water discharge at 104 gaging stations; stage and contents 1 reservoir; and water quality at 29 gaging stations. Also included are

R. W. James; R. H. Simmons; B. F. Strain

1994-01-01

426

Water resources data for Maryland and Delaware, water year 1992. Volume 1. Surface-water data. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1991-30 September 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resources data for the 1992 water year for Maryland and Delaware consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs. The volume (Volume 1. Surface-Water Data) contains records for water discharge at 101 gaging stations; stage and contents 1 reservoir; and water quality at 33 gaging stations. Also included are

R. W. James; R. H. Simmons; B. F. Strain; J. F. Hornlein

1993-01-01

427

Effect on Water Resources from Upstream Water Diversion in the Ganges Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

PROJECT SITE Bangladesh faces at least 30 upstream water diversion constructions Parts of the basins of the Ganges and its Baral and Musa of which Farakka Barrage is the major one. The effects of Farakka Khan distributaries (Fig. 2) were selected for the study. Farak- Barrage on water resources, socioeconomy, and culture have been ka Barrage over the Ganges is

Miah M. Adel

2001-01-01

428

Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources and Water Supply Security through Adaptation  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation is to describe the water resources adaptation program (WRAP) at the U.S.EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory, and to highlight initial research results on hydroclimatic periodicity and changes and on adaptation measures including sustainable water in...

429

POINT-OF-CONTACT/EXPERTISE LIST (WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL's Water Supply and Water Resources Division's (WSWRD's)Expertise/Point-of-Contact page lists research areas in the Division along with the names and telephone numbers for responsible individuals and their expertise. WSWRD conducts research to help prepare the primary and s...

430

Water resources of Bannock Creek basin, southeastern Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The potential for development of water resources in the Bannock Creek Basin is limited by water supply. Bannock Creek Basin covers 475 square miles in southeastern Idaho. Shoshone-Bannock tribal lands on the Fort Hall Indian Reservation occupy the northern part of the basin; the remainder of the basin is privately owned. Only a small amount of information on the hydrologic and water-quality characteristics of Bannock Creek Basin is available, and two previous estimates of water yield from the basin ranged widely from 45,000 to 132,500 acre-feet per year. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribes need an accurate determination of water yield and baseline water-quality characteristics to plan and implement a sustainable level of water use in the basin. Geologic setting, quantities of precipitation, evapotranspiration, surface-water runoff, recharge, and ground-water underflow were used to determine water yield in the basin. Water yield is the annual amount of surface and ground water available in excess of evapotranspiration by crops and native vegetation. Water yield from Bannock Creek Basin was affected by completion of irrigation projects in 1964. Average 1965-89 water yield from five subbasins in Bannock Creek Basin determined from water budgets was 60,600 acre-feet per year. Water yield from the Fort Hall Indian Reservation part of Bannock Creek Basin was estimated to be 37,700 acre-feet per year. Water from wells, springs, and streams is a calcium bicarbonate type. Concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen and fluoride were less than Maximum Contaminant Levels for public drinking-water supplies established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Large concentrations of chloride and nitrogen in water from several wells, springs, and streams likely are due to waste from septic tanks or stock animals. Estimated suspended-sediment load near the mouth of Bannock Creek was 13,300 tons from December 1988 through July 1989. Suspended-sediment discharge was greatest during periods of high streamflow.

Spinazola, Joseph M.; Higgs, B. D.

1997-01-01

431

Building the Agenda for Institutional Research in Water Resource Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper pursues more specifically the recommendations of a recent National Research Council report recommending greater attention to research on institutions in the field of water resource management. The important challenge for the future in institutional research lies in going beyond the observation that institutions are important and in explaining instead how institutions actually affect management options and outcomes. It is possible to illuminate the relationships between institutional features and water management through comparative institutional research. This paper offers recommendations for studying water institutions in a comparative context, including methodological recommendations concerning approaches to comparative institutional research, and topics for comparative institutional research that appear especially fruitful at this time. The example of conjunctive management is used to illustrate the importance of institutional factors in water management, drawing to some extent on the authors' recent experience with a comparative study of conjunctive management institutions.

Blomquist, William; Heikkila, Tanya; Schlager, Edella

2004-08-01

432

Global Water Resources Under Future Changes: Toward an Improved Estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global water resources availability in the 21st century is going to be an important concern. Despite its international recognition, however, until now there are very limited global estimates of water resources, which considered the geographical linkage between water supply and demand, defined by runoff and its passage through river network. The available studies are again insufficient due to reasons like different approaches in defining water scarcity, simply based on annual average figures without considering the inter-annual or seasonal variability, absence of the inclusion of virtual water trading, etc. In this study, global water resources under future climate change associated with several socio-economic factors were estimated varying over both temporal and spatial scale. Global runoff data was derived from several land surface models under the GSWP2 (Global Soil Wetness Project) project, which was further processed through TRIP (Total Runoff Integrated Pathways) river routing model to produce a 0.5x0.5 degree grid based figure. Water abstraction was estimated for the same spatial resolution for three sectors as domestic, industrial and agriculture. GCM outputs from CCSR and MRI were collected to predict the runoff changes. Socio-economic factors like population and GDP growth, affected mostly the demand part. Instead of simply looking at annual figures, monthly figures for both supply and demand was considered. For an average year, such a seasonal variability can affect the crop yield significantly. In other case, inter-annual variability of runoff can cause for an absolute drought condition. To account for vulnerabilities of a region to future changes, both inter-annual and seasonal effects were thus considered. At present, the study assumed the future agricultural water uses to be unchanged under climatic changes. In this connection, EPIC model is underway to use for estimating future agricultural water demand under climatic changes on a monthly basis. From the estimation of present stress level (withdrawal to resource ratio), the months between January to May was found to have the highest number of population above water stress level, while the months between June to August having lower population in stress. The regions suffering from high seasonal variability are those of Asian monsoon zone, south-central Africa and central-east part of South America. Inter-annual variability, on the other hand, is dominant mostly along the Middle-east or Sahara regions and the western part of South America and Latin America. Virtual water trading among countries was estimated on per capita basis. It shows that many Middle east countries are able to compensate their water stress significantly through virtual water trading. The overall effect of climate change on lowering of river runoff mostly affected Europe, southern part of China and Latin America. India or Central Africa have better runoff availability under changing climate, but still subject to a higher water stress because of socio-economic factors like high population growth and expected increase in rate of water uses. Decrease in population as well as saturation level of maximum water uses along most European countries, on the contrary, relaxed the pressure of lowering river runoff, causing no significant change in future stress.

Islam, M.; Agata, Y.; Hanasaki, N.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

2005-05-01

433

Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding project data  

SciTech Connect

Water-resources data for the 1991 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 131 gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and water levels at 431 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio.

Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

1992-03-01

434

Water Resources Data. Ohio - Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Ohio River Basin excluding project data  

SciTech Connect

Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. Volume 1 covers the central and southern parts of Ohio, emphasizing the Ohio River Basin. (See Order Number DE95010451 for Volume 2 covering the northern part of Ohio.)

H.L. Shindel; J.H. Klingler; J.P. Mangus; L.E. Trimble

1993-03-01

435

Project Zoom IN, Citizen Perspectives on Climate and Water Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perspective on climate and water resources can come from the top, scientists sharing invaluable data and findings about how climate dynamics function or quantifications of systems in flux. However, citizens are endowed with an equally as powerful tool for insight: ground zero experience. Project Zoom In is a nascent project undertaken by Global Media Forge to empower youth, educators and scientists with tools to reach the media with locale-specific imagery and perspective of climate dynamics and evidence of anecdotal resource management of liquid gold: fresh water. Zoom In is taking root in Colorado but is designed for national/international scaling. This effort has three limbs: (1) student, scientist and educator workshops teaching invaluable video production skills (2) engaging Colorado school systems to stimulate submission of clips to full video productions to our database, and (3) embedding the findings on a taxonomic GIS interface on-line. The website will be invaluable in classrooms and link network media to individuals with firsthand viewpoints on change.; Climate and Water Resources

Glaser, J. P.

2012-12-01

436

High-performance cyberinfrastructure for water resource planning and management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water resource managers face increasingly difficult challenges as population growth leads to unprecedented demands on our finite supply of fresh water. Resolving water disputes and planning for growth demand increasingly sophisticated simulation tools involving complex spatial data and high-performance models and hardware. In additional to technological complexity, the range of input from social, environmental, and political decision makers required to make appropriate decisions has widened. Unfortunately, running such models is often beyond the capability of water managers and other stakeholders and/or is cost prohibitive to be used on a routine basis. In this presentation, we present a new NSF EPSCoR-funded project featuring four universities from Utah and Wyoming. One of the objectives of this project is the development of cyberinfrastructure for community-based modeling tools hosted on the Cloud and accessed via web-based interfaces. A primary hurdle in developing such tools is that each model is unique and involves a different set of inputs, outputs, and criteria for analysis. Therefore, coding a custom web-application from scratch for each Cloud-based modeling application is not feasible. To address this issue, we are developing a library of low-level GIS-based geoprocessing tools which can be configured via a simple scripting language to build custom workflows involving complex spatial data and high-resolution numerical models. We are also developing a suite of tools for hosting such workflows via a simple, yet powerful web-interface. This library will provide a template for delivering powerful modeling tools and access to spatial information to the hands of the managers and decision makers involved in water resources. We demonstrate this strategy using a web-based simulation environment built for the State of Utah Department of Water Rights. This tool is used to simulate the impact of proposed wells on existing water rights, including water table drawdown and impact to streams and springs.

Jones, N.; Ogden, F. L.; Nelson, J.

2012-12-01

437

Application of Satellite Gravimetry for Water Resource Vulnerability Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The force of Earth's gravity field varies in proportion to the amount of mass near the surface. Spatial and temporal variations in the gravity field can be measured via their effects on the orbits of satellites. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) is the first satellite mission dedicated to monitoring temporal variations in the gravity field. The monthly gravity anomaly maps that have been delivered by GRACE since 2002 are being used to infer changes in terrestrial water storage (the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface waters, and snow and ice), which are the primary source of gravity variability on monthly to decadal timescales after atmospheric and oceanic circulation effects have been removed. Other remote sensing techniques are unable to detect water below the first few centimeters of the land surface. Conventional ground based techniques can be used to monitor terrestrial water storage, but groundwater, soil moisture, and snow observation networks are sparse in most of the world, and the countries that do collect such data rarely are willing to share them. Thus GRACE is unique in its ability to provide global data on variations in the availability of fresh water, which is both vital to life on land and vulnerable to climate variability and mismanagement. This chapter describes the unique and challenging aspects of GRACE terrestrial water storage data, examples of how the data have been used for research and applications related to fresh water vulnerability and change, and prospects for continued contributions of satellite gravimetry to water resources science and policy.

Rodell, Matthew

2012-01-01

438

Inventory of ground-water resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey began working with engineers at the Afghanistan Geological Survey to provide hydrologic training and equipment and to apply these tools to build an inventory of water wells in the Kabul Basin of Afghanistan. An inventory of 148 wells now includes information on well location, depth, and access. Water-level and water-quality measurements have been made at most of these wells. A water-level elevation map has been constructed, and general directions of ground-water flow have been defined. Ground-water flow in the Kabul Basin is primarily through saturated alluvium and other basin-fill sediments. The water-table surface generally mirrors topography, and ground water generally flows in the directions of surface-water discharge. The quality of ground water in the Kabul Basin varies widely. In some areas, ground-water quality is excellent, with low concentrations of dissolved solids and no problematic constituents. In other areas, however, high concentrations of dissolved solids and the presence of some constituents at concentrations deemed harmful to humans and crops render untreated ground water marginal or unsuitable for public supply and/or agricultural use. Of particular concern are elevated concentrations of nitrate, boron, and dissolved solids, and an indication of fecal pollution in some parts of the basin. As Afghanistan emerges from years of conflict, as institutional capacities rejuvenate and grow, and as the need for wise water-management decisions continues, adequate data and a fuller understanding of the ground-water resource in the Kabul Basin will be imperative. The work described in this report represents only a modest beginning in what will be a long-term data-collection and interpretive effort.

Broshears, Robert E.; Akbari, M. Amin; Chornack, Michael P.; Mueller, David K.; Ruddy, Barbara C.

2005-01-01

439

Intensive Survey of Rural and Urban Activities Impacting Water and Coastal Resources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rural and urban activities affecting water and coastal resources in the Dominican Republic are surveyed in the report. Initial sections inventory the country's natural resources (waters, soils, forests, agricultural lands, and rangelands) and coastal reso...

M. Webb U. Locher

1991-01-01

440

Resource management in cardiovascular engineering: is outsourcing the solution?  

PubMed

In recent years, modern medicine has changed considerably. At maximum care centers, in particular, the use of state-of-the-art medical equipment has become an essential part of patient care. HoWever, using such high-tech products also means a considerable burden on the financial resources available, because additional financing is rare. Consequently, there is a need for approaches that allow the use of state-of-the-art equipment without straining the budget unduly. The question now is whether economic strategies that have long since been established in other industries, e.g., the outsourcing of certain services, represent a potential solution for the economic problems of modern clinics. The fundamentals of outsourcing and its pros and cons are outlined and discussed, taking cardiovascular perfusion as an example, a cost-intensive field of heart surgery that is responsible for attending to heart-lung machines, artificial hearts and circulatory support systems. PMID:16231626

Feyrer, Richard; Weyand, Michael; Kunzmann, Udo

2005-09-01

441

Technologies for water resources management: an integrated approach to manage global and regional water resources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent droughts in California have highlighted and refocused attention on the problem of providing reliable sources of water to sustain the State's future economic development. Specific elements of concern include not only the stability and availability o...

W. Tao

1998-01-01

442

Analyzing Enterprise Resource Planning System Implementation Success Factors in the Engineering–Construction Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterprise resource planning ERP systems offer many benefits to the engineering-construction industry. Many construction firms recognize the benefits of ERP system implementation; however, they still hesitate to adopt these systems due to high cost, uncertainties, and risks. This study identifies and analyzes critical factors that need to be considered to ensure successful ERP system implementation in the construction industry. First,

Boo Young Chung; Miros?aw J. Skibniewski; Henry C. Lucas Jr; Young Hoon Kwak

2008-01-01

443

PhDs.Org: Science, Math, and Engineering Career Resources: Current Job Listings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PhDs.Org's Science, Math, and Engineering Career Resources Job Listing section posts academic as well as industrial positions. Starting with the most recent postings, a special feature lets users streamline the list to include only specific fields. Check the Phds.Org searchable home page ( http://www.phds.org) for articles, news, advice, and additional job information links.